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Sample records for restraint physical

  1. The Physical Restraint Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Joseph K.

    2000-01-01

    Professional and government committees are examining use of physical restraints with troubled youth as a result of reports of problems with its use. Examples of what is being done to improve practice standards in area of crisis intervention include limiting how often restrictive procedures can be use; stating the technique must never negatively…

  2. Physical restraint as positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Favell, J E; McGimsey, J F; Jones, M L; Cannon, P R

    1981-01-01

    The reinforcing function of physical restraint was analyzed for three retarded individuals who had a history of restraint and appeared to enjoy it. Using a preference paradigm with one participant and a reversal design with two others, we found that an arbitrary response systematically increased for each participant when followed by brief periods of restraint. No comparable increases occurred in conditions in which responses were not reinforced or were followed by stimuli designed to control for the nonrestraint components of the restraint consequence. Results were discussed in terms of three clinical issues: determining the possible role of restraint in maintaining behavior problems such as self-injury in natural settings, preventing or eliminating the reinforcing function of restraint, and using restraint reinforcement in treating behavior problems when this consequence is the only identifiable reinforcer for an individual.

  3. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  4. Minimizing physical restraints in acute care.

    PubMed

    Struck, Bryan D

    2005-08-01

    The use of restraints to protect patients and insure continuation of care is an accepted fact in today's medical practice. However over the last 20 years a growing body of evidence supports the idea that restraints are harmful and should be used as the last resort. Since 1987, federal law requires long term care facilities to be restraint free. This article describes the use of restraints in the acute care setting, complications of using restraints and efforts to minimize restraint use in order to compliant with national policies.

  5. Psychiatric Nurses’ Perceptions about Physical Restraint; A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fereidooni Moghadam, Malek; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of physical restraint as an intervention in the care of psychiatric patients dates back to the beginning of psychiatry. Although it is a challenging question, it is still one of the common procedures in psychiatry. Considering that very little research has been done in Iran in relation to physical restraint, this qualitative study aimed to investigate the experiences of  nurses working in psychiatric wards regarding physical restraint. Methods: This qualitative study was done on 14 nurses working in the psychiatric hospitals of Ahvaz city, southern Iran, during 2011-2012. The participants were selected by purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, which were continued until data saturation and emergence of themes. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Four categories emerged: (1) Restraint as a multi-purpose procedure, (2) Processing of physical restraint, (3) Restraint as a challenging subject and (4) The effects of restraint on the spectrum. Each category has several different sub-categories. Conclusion: The participants described using physical restraint as one of the main strategies to control psychiatric patients, and despite having negative consequences, it is extensively used. Given the risks and challenges of using physical restraint, nursing education should find alternative methods. PMID:25349842

  6. Physical restraint in a therapeutic setting; a necessary evil?

    PubMed

    Perkins, Elizabeth; Prosser, Helen; Riley, David; Whittington, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Physical restraint of people experiencing mental health problems is a coercive and traumatic procedure which is only legally permitted if it is proportionate to the risk presented. This study sought to examine the decision-making processes used by mental health staff involved in a series of restraint episodes in an acute care setting. Thirty nurses were interviewed either individually or in focus groups to elicit their views on restraint and experience in specific incidents. Four factors which influenced the decision to restrain were identified: contextual demands; lack of alternatives; the escalatory effects of restraint itself; and perceptions of risk. While some of these factors are amenable to change through improvements in practice, training and organisational culture, nurses viewed restraint as a necessary evil, justified on the basis of the unpredictable nature of mental illness and the environment in which they worked. PMID:22178072

  7. The Use of Physical Restraint in Norwegian Adult Psychiatric Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of coercion within the psychiatric services is problematic and raises a range of ethical, legal, and clinical questions. “Physical restraint” is an emergency procedure used in psychiatric hospitals to control patients that pose an imminent physical danger. We wished to review the literature published in scientific peer-reviewed journals describing studies on the use of physical restraint in Norway, in order to identify the current state of knowledge and directions for future research. Design. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for studies relating to physical restraint (including holding) in Norwegian psychiatric hospitals, supplemented with hand searches. Results. 28 studies were included. Most of the studies were on rates of restraint, but there were also some studies on perceptions of patients and staff, case studies, and ethnographic studies. There was only one intervention study. There are differences in use between wards and institutions, which in part may be explained by differences in patient populations. Staff appear to be less negative to the use of restraint than patients. Conclusions. The studies that were identified were primarily concerned with rates of use and with patients' and staff's perspectives. More interventional studies are needed to move the field forward. PMID:26682211

  8. [Medical-legal issues of physical and pharmacological restraint].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Guija, Julio A; Ortega-Monasterio, Leopoldo

    2014-03-01

    The use of physical and pharmacological restraint is controversial but is currently accepted as inevitable. It is indicated for controlling behavioral disorders and psychomotor agitation that put patients and third parties at risk. Its indication should be medical, and we should opt for the least restrictive measure. Restraints represent a possible infringement of patients' fundamental rights and require understanding and strict respect for the medical-legal precepts by physicians and other practitioners involved in its application. This article reviews the current legal framework, as well as the medical-legal premises and aspects of applying restraints, with the objective of ensuring maximum respect for patients' rights and the appropriate legal safety in the activity of practitioners.

  9. [Medical-legal issues of physical and pharmacological restraint].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Guija, Julio A; Ortega-Monasterio, Leopoldo

    2014-03-01

    The use of physical and pharmacological restraint is controversial but is currently accepted as inevitable. It is indicated for controlling behavioral disorders and psychomotor agitation that put patients and third parties at risk. Its indication should be medical, and we should opt for the least restrictive measure. Restraints represent a possible infringement of patients' fundamental rights and require understanding and strict respect for the medical-legal precepts by physicians and other practitioners involved in its application. This article reviews the current legal framework, as well as the medical-legal premises and aspects of applying restraints, with the objective of ensuring maximum respect for patients' rights and the appropriate legal safety in the activity of practitioners. PMID:24913750

  10. Safety and efficacy of physical restraints for the elderly. Review of the evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, C.; Hodgetts, G.; Puxty, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To critically review evidence on the safety and efficacy of physical restraints for the elderly and to provide family physicians with guidelines for rational use of restraints. DATA SOURCES: Articles cited on MEDLINE (from 1989 to November 1994) and Cinahl (from 1982 to 1994) under the MeSH heading "physical restraints." STUDY SELECTION: Articles that specifically dealt with the safety and efficacy of restraints and current patterns of use, including prevalence, risk factors, and indications, were selected. Eight original research articles were identified and critically appraised. DATA EXTRACTION: Data extracted concerned the negative sequelae of restraints and the association between restraint use and fall and injury rates. General data about current patterns of restraint use were related to safety and efficacy findings. DATA SYNTHESIS: No randomized, controlled trials of physical restraint use were found in the literature. A variety of study design, including retrospective chart review, prospective cohort studies, and case reports, found little evidence that restraints prevent injury. Some evidence suggested that restraints might increase risk of falls and injury. Restraint-reduction programs have not been shown to increase fall or injury rates. Numerous case reports document injuries or deaths resulting from restraint use or misuse. CONCLUSIONS: Although current evidence does not support the belief that restraints prevent falls and injuries and questions their safety, further prospective and controlled studies are needed to clarify these issues. Information from review and research articles was synthesized in this paper to produce guidelines for the safe and rational use of restraints. PMID:8969858

  11. Public Policy on Physical Restraint of Children with Disabilities in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, James K.; Schwilk, Christopher; Mitruski, Megan

    2006-01-01

    The US Constitution, federal and state legislatures, courts, and regulations permit physical restraint for both therapeutic (i.e., behavior change) and risk prevention purposes. Although most venues limit restraint as punishment, no government entity prohibits use of physical restraint as a response to imminent danger. This paper provides a…

  12. Racial disparities in the use of physical restraints in U.s. nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Cassie, Kimberly M; Cassie, William

    2013-11-01

    The use of physical restraints in nursing homes among black and white residents was examined on the basis of data from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey to determine if black residents were more susceptible to the use of physical restraints. Odds ratios acquired through logistic regression are provided with 95 percent confidence intervals. Findings revealed that black residents are more likely than white residents to be restrained with bed rails, side rails, and trunk restraints. Findings suggest that racial disparities exist in the use of physical restraints. Implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed. PMID:24432487

  13. Suppression of Pica by Overcorrection and Physical Restraint: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Bakker, Leon W.

    1984-01-01

    Each occurrence of pica (ingestion of inedible objects) in two profoundly retarded adults was followed by either overcorrection or physical restraint. Although both procedures reduced the occurrence of pica and had a similar effect on collateral behaviors, physical restraint was clinically more effective in terms of immediate response reduction.…

  14. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT ON THE LIMITS OF THERMOREGULATION IN TELEMETERED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical restraint of rodents is often needed for nose-only exposure to airborne toxicants and is also used as a means of psychological stress. It is generally assumed that thermoregulation is impaired during restraint, leading to hyperthermia. A hyperthermic response should be r...

  15. Review of the use of physical restraints and lap belts with wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Eliana S; Cooper, Rory A; Collins, Diane M; Karmarkar, Amol; Cooper, Rosemarie

    2007-01-01

    Wheelchair-related physical restraints, lap belts, and other alternatives are intended to provide safe and adequate seating and mobility for individuals using wheelchairs. Physical restraints and lap belts are also helpful for positioning people in their wheelchairs to reduce the risk of injury during wheelchair tips and falls. However, when used improperly or in ways other than intended, injury or even death can result. Although widely prescribed, little evidence is available to direct professionals on the appropriate use of these restraints and lap belts and for whom these restraints are indicated. The purpose of this study was to conduct a review of available literature from 1966-2006 to identify the risks and benefits associated with lap belts while seated in wheelchairs. Twenty-five studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Nine studies reported the frequency of asphyxial deaths caused by physical restraints, nine studies reported the long-term complication and indirect adverse effects of physical restraints and lap-belt use, and seven studies reported the benefits of physical restraints and lap belts with individuals using wheelchairs. Despite the weak evidence, the results suggest a considerable number of deaths from asphyxia caused by the use of physical restraints occurred each year in the U.S. The majority of the deaths occurred in nursing homes, followed by hospitals, and then the home of the person. Most deaths occurred while persons were restrained in wheelchairs or beds. Based on that, caution needs to be exercised when using restraints or positioning belts. In addition, other seating and environment alternatives should be explored prior to using restraints or positioning belts, such as power wheelchair seating options. Positioning belts may reduce risk of falls from wheelchairs and should be given careful consideration, but caution should be exercised if the individual cannot open the latch independently. Also, the duration of use of the

  16. [Physical and pharmacological restraints in geriatric and gerontology services and centers].

    PubMed

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; López Trigo, José Antonio; Maíllo Pedraz, Herminio; Paz Rubio, José María

    2015-01-01

    Physical and pharmacological restraints are a controversial issue in the context of geriatric care due to their moral, ethical, social and legal repercussions and, despite this fact, no specific legislation exists at a national level. The use of restraints is being questioned with growing frequency, as there are studies that demonstrate that restraints do not reduce the number of falls or their consequences, but rather can increase them, cause complications, injuries and potentially fatal accidents. Restraints are not always used rationally, despite compromising a fundamental human right, that is, freedom, protected in the Constitution, as well as values and principles, such as dignity and personal self-esteem. There are centers where restraints are applied to more than 50% of patients, and in some cases without the consent of their legal representatives. On some occasions, restraints are used for attaining organizational or environmental objectives, such as complying with tight schedules, and for reducing or avoiding the supervision of patients who walk erratically and, at times, are used indefinitely. Even greater confusion exists with respect to the emerging concept of chemical or pharmacological restraints, since no conceptual framework exists based on scientific evidence, and with sufficient consensus for guiding healthcare workers. In this context, the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG--Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society), aware of the significance and transcendence of the issue, and in an attempt to preserve and guarantee maximum freedom, dignity and self-esteem, on the one hand, and to ensure the maximum integrity and legal certainty of the persons cared for in geriatric and gerontology services and centers, on the other, decided to create an "Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraints" made up by members from different disciplines and members of SEGG Working Groups or Committees, external health care workers, groups

  17. [Physical and pharmacological restraints in geriatric and gerontology services and centers].

    PubMed

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; López Trigo, José Antonio; Maíllo Pedraz, Herminio; Paz Rubio, José María

    2015-01-01

    Physical and pharmacological restraints are a controversial issue in the context of geriatric care due to their moral, ethical, social and legal repercussions and, despite this fact, no specific legislation exists at a national level. The use of restraints is being questioned with growing frequency, as there are studies that demonstrate that restraints do not reduce the number of falls or their consequences, but rather can increase them, cause complications, injuries and potentially fatal accidents. Restraints are not always used rationally, despite compromising a fundamental human right, that is, freedom, protected in the Constitution, as well as values and principles, such as dignity and personal self-esteem. There are centers where restraints are applied to more than 50% of patients, and in some cases without the consent of their legal representatives. On some occasions, restraints are used for attaining organizational or environmental objectives, such as complying with tight schedules, and for reducing or avoiding the supervision of patients who walk erratically and, at times, are used indefinitely. Even greater confusion exists with respect to the emerging concept of chemical or pharmacological restraints, since no conceptual framework exists based on scientific evidence, and with sufficient consensus for guiding healthcare workers. In this context, the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG--Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society), aware of the significance and transcendence of the issue, and in an attempt to preserve and guarantee maximum freedom, dignity and self-esteem, on the one hand, and to ensure the maximum integrity and legal certainty of the persons cared for in geriatric and gerontology services and centers, on the other, decided to create an "Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraints" made up by members from different disciplines and members of SEGG Working Groups or Committees, external health care workers, groups

  18. The use of physical restraint in the treatment of self-injury and as positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Favell, J E; McGimsey, J F; Jones, M L

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of a treatment package on the self-injurious behavior of three profoundly retarded persons who appeared to enjoy the physical restraints used to prevent their self-injury. The treatment package included physically restraining subjects contingent on increasing periods of time during which no self-injury occurred, and providing them with toys and attention during intervals between restraints. A reversal and multiple-baseline analysis documented that the rapid and complete reduction in self-injury by all subjects was due to this treatment package. Because these results suggested that physical restraint might function as a positive reinforcer, in a third experiment physical restraint was applied contingent on a marble placement response with one subject. A reversal design demonstrated that toy play systematically increased when each response resulted in restraint. The experiments have implications for the nonaversive remediation of self-injury in individuals who are restrained, as well as for the development and maintenance of self-injury in natural settings.

  19. The use of physical restraint in the treatment of self-injury and as positive reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Favell, J E; McGimsey, J F; Jones, M L

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of a treatment package on the self-injurious behavior of three profoundly retarded persons who appeared to enjoy the physical restraints used to prevent their self-injury. The treatment package included physically restraining subjects contingent on increasing periods of time during which no self-injury occurred, and providing them with toys and attention during intervals between restraints. A reversal and multiple-baseline analysis documented that the rapid and complete reduction in self-injury by all subjects was due to this treatment package. Because these results suggested that physical restraint might function as a positive reinforcer, in a third experiment physical restraint was applied contingent on a marble placement response with one subject. A reversal design demonstrated that toy play systematically increased when each response resulted in restraint. The experiments have implications for the nonaversive remediation of self-injury in individuals who are restrained, as well as for the development and maintenance of self-injury in natural settings. PMID:670112

  20. The effect of physical restraints on fall rates in older adults who are institutionalized.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K S

    2001-10-01

    Since the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1987, there has been a significant reduction in the use of physical restraints to prevent falls in older adults who are institutionalized because of the developing awareness of the physical and psychological problems associated with them. The purpose of this ex post facto descriptive study was to determine if there is a difference in falls when physical restraints are allowed or prohibited in one older adult population. Data from incident reports from a purposive sample of 97 older adults in one long-term care facility were analyzed before and after the implementation of a restraint-free policy. The results indicated no significant difference in the number of falls before and after the policy change. However, there was a significantly lower number of falls with injuries and a significantly higher number of falls without injuries. These findings suggest older adults will continue to fall with or without the use of physical restraints because of changes associated with the aging process and risk factors. Removing physical barriers from older adults and allowing freedom of movement may decrease the severity of injury sustained in a fall.

  1. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT ON THE LIMITS OF THERMOREGULATION IN TELEMETERED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical restraint of rodents is needed for nose-only exposure to airborne toxicants and is also used as a means ofpsychological stress. Hyperthermia is often observed in restrained rats, presumably as a result of impairments in heat dissipation. However, such a hyperthermic resp...

  2. Review of State Policies Concerning the Use of Physical Restraint Procedures in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Robbins, Katherine; Peterson, Reece; Rozalski, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recent injuries and fatalities among students due to the use of physical restraint procedures in schools, and the resulting media attention and litigation have started to place pressure on many state and local education agencies to develop policies or guidelines concerning their use in schools. The authors investigated existing state policies and…

  3. Physical restraint and the protection of the human rights of immigration detainees in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Hilary; Norton, Emma; Ginn, Emma; Schleicher, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Immigration detainees, like prisoners, are entitled to the same standard of healthcare as non-detained patients. When hospital attendance or admission is required, the priority for custodial staff (who for purposes of this article we refer to as 'escorts') is to prevent absconding. For that reason, they may wish to use physical restraints, such as handcuffs, and remain with the detainee at all times. This can be degrading for the patient and breach their human rights. Clinicians have professional obligations to all their patients and must object to any restraint methods that risk damaging the patient's right to confidentiality, treatment, health or the therapeutic relationship itself. The starting presumption is that restraints ought not to be used during treatment and only in the most exceptional cases ought escorts to be present during clinical examination or treatment.

  4. The Eileen Skellern Lecture 2014: physical restraint: in defence of the indefensible?

    PubMed

    Duxbury, J A

    2015-03-01

    Aggression is reported to be prevalent in psychiatric inpatient care and its frequency towards healthcare professionals is well documented. While aggression may not be entirely avoidable, its incidence can be reduced through prevention and the minimization of restrictive practices such as physical restraint. The study aims to explore three common 'defences' to account for the use of physical restraint; to challenge each defence with regard to the evidence base; and to identify how services are responding to the challenge of reducing the use of restrictive interventions. Following a number of investigations to highlight serious problems with the use of physical restraint, it seems timely to examine its efficacy in light of the evidence base. In order to do this, three key defences for its use will be challenged using the literature. A combination of interventions to minimize the use of restraint including advance planning tools, and recognition of potential trauma is necessary at an organizational and individual level. Patients can be severely traumatized by the use of restrictive practices and there is a drive to examine, and reduce the use and impact of using these models that incorporate trauma informed care (TIC) and person centredness. PMID:25720312

  5. Effect of physical restraint on the limits of thermoregulation in telemetered rats.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cenk; Grace, Curtis E; Gordon, Christopher J

    2011-11-01

    Physical restraint of rodents is needed for nose-only exposure to airborne toxicants and is also used as a means of psychological stress. Hyperthermia is often observed in restrained rats, presumably as a result of impairments in heat dissipation. However, such a hyperthermic response should be dependent on the prevailing ambient conditions. To understand how ambient temperature (T(a)) affects the thermoregulatory response to restraint, core temperature (T(c)) and heart rate (HR) were monitored by telemetry in rats subjected to 1 h of physical restraint while T(a) was maintained at 14-30 °C in 2 °C increments. The T(c) of unrestrained rats was unaffected by T(a). During restraint, T(c) was elevated at ambient temperatures with the exception of 14 °C, at which the rats became mildly hypothermic. There was an inverse relationship between T(a) and HR in both unrestrained and restrained rats; however, HR was significantly elevated in restrained rats at all ambient temperatures except 22 and 24 °C. Heat loss from the tail, estimated from T(c) and tail skin temperature, was markedly reduced at all but the highest ambient temperatures in restrained rats. The data suggest that the T(a) limits of normothermia are narrowed in the restrained rat. That is, between 16 and 20 °C, the rat maintains a relatively stable T(c) that is slightly elevated above that of the unrestrained rat. At ambient temperatures above or below this range, the rat shows signs of hyperthermia and hypothermia, respectively. In contrast, the limits of normothermia for unrestrained rats range from 14 (or lower) to 30 °C. Overall, the ideal T(a) for restrained rats appears to be 20 °C and no higher than 22 °C for the thermoregulatory system to maintain a regulated T(c) in rats well adapted to physical restraint. PMID:21890524

  6. [Effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce physical restraints in nursing home residents with dementia].

    PubMed

    Koczy, P; Klie, T; Kron, M; Bredthauer, D; Rissmann, U; Branitzki, S; Guerra, V; Klein, A; Pfundstein, T; Nikolaus, Th; Sander, S; Becker, C

    2005-02-01

    At present, observational studies and expert opinion are the best evidence for the use of physical restraints. Large regional and national disparities are described in acute and long-term care. Epidemiological data demonstrate a prevalence of 3-5% body-fixed or near body restraint devices. The hip fracture rate in Germany are approximately 50 per 1000 resident years. Between 40-50% of the residents in nursing homes are treated with psycho-tropic medication potentially limiting their physical mobility. The presented study protocol was designed to test the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce physical restraints in long-term care (LTC) residents particularly with cognitive impairment. The intervention consists of an educational and an organizational part to empower staff members to improve their skills and practice in using restraints. Technical devices to reduce fall related injuries are additionally offered to the LTC facilities. The study population includes 200 LTC residents in 54 facilities in three states in Germany. The sample size calculation was based upon a 5% prevalence rate in the control group and an expected reduction of 50% in the intervention group. The protocol is a waiting-list control design. All waiting facilities will be offered to participate after their waiting period. Primary endpoints are the number of restrained residents and resident time (hours) of being restrained. The use of psychotropics, falls, fall-related injuries and the incidence of residents newly being restrained is being monitored. The study starts with a baseline documentation of all facilities followed by randomization and a three month intervention. Change agents will be responsible for the intervention. Technical devices will include a newly developed soft hip protector and sensor mats which notice the intent of leaving the bed. The aim of the study is to develop an evidence-based model for a knowledge transfer project to implement minimum restraint

  7. Pasung: Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill in the community

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry; Diatri, Hervita

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical restraint and confinement (pasung) by families of people with mental illness is known to occur in many parts of the world but has attracted limited investigation. This preliminary observational study was carried out on Samosir Island in Sumatra, Indonesia, to investigate the nature of such restraint and confinement, the clinical characteristics of people restrained, and the reasons given by families and communities for applying such restraint. Methods The research method was cross-sectional observational research in a natural setting, carried out during a six-month period of working as the only psychiatrist in a remote district. Results Fifteen cases of pasung, approximately even numbers of males and females and almost all with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. Duration of restraint ranged from two to 21 years. Discussion and Conclusion The provision of basic community mental health services, where there were none before, enabled the majority of the people who had been restrained to receive psychiatric treatment and to be released from pasung. PMID:18554420

  8. Predictors of Physical Restraint Use in Hospitalized Veterans at End of Life: An Analysis of Data from the BEACON Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dionne-Odom, J. Nicholas; Redden, David T.; Bailey, F. Amos; Bakitas, Marie; Goode, Patricia S.; Williams, Beverly R.; Haddock, Kathlyn Sue; Burgio, Kathryn L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The use of physical restraints in dying patients may be a source of suffering and loss of dignity. Little is known about the prevalence or predictors for restraint use at end of life in the hospital setting. Objective: The objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical restraint use at the time of death in hospitalized adults. Methods: Secondary analysis was performed on data from the “Best Practices for End-of-Life Care for Our Nation's Veterans” (BEACON) trial conducted between 2005 and 2011. Medical record data were abstracted from six Veterans Administration Medical Centers (VAMCs). Data on processes of care in the last seven days of life were abstracted from the medical records of 5476 who died in the six VAMCs. We prospectively identified potential risk factors for restraint use at the time of death from among the variables measured in the parent trial, including location of death, medications administered, nasogastric tube, intravenous (IV) fluids, family presence, and receipt of a palliative care consultation. Results: Physical restraint use at time of death was documented in 890 decedents (16.3%). Restraint use varied by location of death, with patients in intensive settings being at higher risk. Restraint use was significantly more likely in patients with a nasogastric tube and those receiving IV fluids, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics. Conclusions: This is the first study to document that one in six hospitalized veterans were restrained at the time of death and to identify predictors of restraint use. Further research is needed to identify intervention opportunities. PMID:25927909

  9. Effects of physical restraint and electrical stunning on plasma corticosterone, postmortem metabolism, and quality of broiler breast muscle.

    PubMed

    Huang, J C; Huang, M; Wang, P; Zhao, L; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H; Sun, J X

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physical restraint and electrical stunning on plasma corticosterone, postmortem metabolism, and quality of broiler breast muscle. Before slaughter, a total of 160 Arbor Acres broilers were randomly categorized into 2 replicate pens (80 broilers per pen) and every pen was randomly divided into 4 groups (free struggle, physical restraint, free struggle and electrical stunning, and physical restraint and electrical stunning; n=20 per group). Glucose, lactate, and corticosterone were determined on blood plasma samples. Pectoralis major were removed after evisceration and used for determination of meat quality, energy metabolism, and calpain activity. In this study, reducing free struggle by physical restraint combined with electrical stunning improved (P<0.05) meat water holding capacity. Free struggle preslaughter and during bleeding increased (P<0.05) breast muscle redness, energy metabolism, and autolysis of μ/m-calpain and decreased (P<0.05) meat shear values. Physical restraint and electrical stunning decreased (P<0.05) plasma corticosterone level. PMID:25367525

  10. Effects of physical restraint and electrical stunning on plasma corticosterone, postmortem metabolism, and quality of broiler breast muscle.

    PubMed

    Huang, J C; Huang, M; Wang, P; Zhao, L; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H; Sun, J X

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physical restraint and electrical stunning on plasma corticosterone, postmortem metabolism, and quality of broiler breast muscle. Before slaughter, a total of 160 Arbor Acres broilers were randomly categorized into 2 replicate pens (80 broilers per pen) and every pen was randomly divided into 4 groups (free struggle, physical restraint, free struggle and electrical stunning, and physical restraint and electrical stunning; n=20 per group). Glucose, lactate, and corticosterone were determined on blood plasma samples. Pectoralis major were removed after evisceration and used for determination of meat quality, energy metabolism, and calpain activity. In this study, reducing free struggle by physical restraint combined with electrical stunning improved (P<0.05) meat water holding capacity. Free struggle preslaughter and during bleeding increased (P<0.05) breast muscle redness, energy metabolism, and autolysis of μ/m-calpain and decreased (P<0.05) meat shear values. Physical restraint and electrical stunning decreased (P<0.05) plasma corticosterone level.

  11. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Participant Rights § 460.114 Restraints. (a) The PACE organization must limit use of restraints to the least... team determines that a restraint is needed to ensure the participant's physical safety or the safety...

  12. Developing School Policies and Procedures for Physical Restraint and Seclusion in Nebraska Schools. A Technical Assistance Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Reece L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information and guidance for Nebraska School districts in creating new, or revising existing policies and procedures related to the use of physical restraint and seclusion in school settings. The goal is to create policies that are informed by national policy directions, research, good practice and…

  13. Comparison of biochemical stress indicators in juvenile captive estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) following physical restraint or chemical restraint by midazolam injection.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Annabelle; Phalen, David

    2013-07-01

    Using a prospective, randomized study design we demonstrate that midazolam sedation minimizes acidosis compared with physical restraint in captive juvenile estuarine crocodiles during handling or noninvasive procedures at preferred body temperature. A dose of midazolam (5.0 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly into the forelimb of 20 male estuarine crocodiles weighing 2-3.5 kg. Their heart and respiratory rate and degree of sedation were monitored until recovery and then daily for 7 subsequent days. Blood samples were taken at 30, 60, 90, 180, and 360 min. We recorded lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), hematocrit, glucose, and blood pH. A second group (1.9-2.6 kg) was physically restrained for 5 min and the same parameters recorded. Physically restrained animals demonstrated elevated heart rate, respiratory rate, glucose, lactate, and anion gap compared with the midazolam-treated group. Physically restrained animals had lower pH, bicarbonate, and partial pressure of CO2 compared with the midazolam-treated group. Behavior in the physically restrained group in the days following the study was disrupted, with reluctance to feed and bask, compared with midazolam-treated animals whose behavior was normal. We conclude that midazolam administered in the forelimb of captive estuarine crocodiles of 2-3.5 kg provides predictable onset and duration of sedation enabling physical examination, sample collection, and translocation of the animals with minimal disturbance to lactate, pH, and CO2. Behavior following recovery appears normal.

  14. Influence of physical activity and dietary restraint on resting energy expenditure in young nonobese females.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, E T; Viers, H F; Detzer, M

    1991-03-01

    An understanding of the physiological and behavioral determinants of resting energy requirements is important to nutritional considerations in females. We examined the influence of endurance training and self-reported dietary restraint on resting metabolic rate and fasting plasma hormones in 44 nonobese females characterized for body composition, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max), and daily energy intake. To examine the association of metabolic rate and dietary restraint with hormonal status, fasting plasma levels of insulin, glucose, and thyroid hormones (total and free fractions of thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were determined. In univariate analysis, resting metabolic rate (kcal.min-1) was positively related to VO2 max (L.min-1) (r = 0.54; p less than 0.01). This relationship, however, was partially dependent on body size, since fat-free mass was also related to resting metabolic rate (r = 0.42; p less than 0.01) and VO2 max (L.min-1) (r = 0.75; p less than 0.01). After controlling for fat-free weight using partial correlation analysis, the relation between RMR and VO2 max was weaker but controlling for fat-free weight using partial correlation analysis, the relation between RMR and VO2 max was weaker but still significant (partial r = 0.38; p less than 0.05). On the other hand, high levels of dietary restraint were associated with higher levels of body fat (r = 0.31; p less than 0.05) and a lower resting metabolic rate (r = -0.29; p = 0.07). These associations persisted after control for differences in fat-free mass. Total energy intake as well as total and free levels of triiodothyronine were not related to resting metabolic rate or level of dietary restraint.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2059897

  15. Positive effects of resistance training in frail elderly patients with dementia after long-term physical restraint.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Moneo, Ana B Bays; Mensat, Marta Martinez; Muñoz, Andrea Rozas; Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of a multicomponent exercise intervention on muscle strength, incidence of falls and functional outcomes in frail elderly patients with dementia after long-term physical restraint, followed by 24 weeks of training cessation. Eighteen frail elderly patients with mild dementia (88.1 ± 5.1 years) performed a multicomponent exercise program, which consisted of 4 weeks of walking, balance and cognitive exercises, followed by 4 weeks of resistance exercise performed twice weekly [8-12 repetitions at 20-50 % of the one-repetition maximum (1RM)], combined with walking, balance and cognitive exercises. Before and after training, as well as after 24 weeks of training cessation, strength outcomes, Barthel Index, balance, gait ability, rise from a chair ability, dual task performance, incidence of falls and Mini-Mental State Examination were assessed. After the first 4 weeks of training, there was a significant improvement only in the balance test, whereas no additional changes were observed. However, after the second part of the training, the participants required significantly less time for the time-up-and-go test (P < 0.05), and improved the isometric hand grip, hip flexion and knee extension strength, as well as the leg press 1RM (P < 0.01). A significant reduction was also observed in the incidence of falls (P < 0.01). After 24 weeks of training cessation, abrupt decreases were observed in nearly all of the physical outcomes (P < 0.05). The exercise intervention improved strength, balance and gait ability in frail elderly patients with dementia after long-term physical restraint, and these benefits were lost after training cessation. PMID:24243397

  16. Physical exercise and acute restraint stress differentially modulate hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts and epigenetic mechanisms in mice.

    PubMed

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Musazzi, Laura; Popoli, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Physical exercise and stressful experiences have been shown to exert opposite effects on behavioral functions and brain plasticity, partly by involving the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Although epigenetic modifications are known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of the different BDNF transcripts, it is poorly understood whether epigenetic mechanisms are also implied in the BDNF modulation induced by physical exercise and stress. Here, we show that total BDNF mRNA levels and BDNF transcripts 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 were reduced immediately after acute restraint stress (RS) in the hippocampus of mice, and returned to control levels 24 h after the stress session. On the contrary, exercise increased BDNF mRNA expression and counteracted the stress-induced decrease of BDNF transcripts. Physical exercise-induced up-regulation of BDNF transcripts was accounted for by increase in histone H3 acetylated levels at specific BDNF promoters, whereas the histone H3 trimethylated lysine 27 and dimethylated lysine 9 levels were unaffected. Acute RS did not change the levels of acetylated and methylated histone H3 at the BDNF promoters. Furthermore, we found that physical exercise and RS were able to differentially modulate the histone deacetylases mRNA levels. Finally, we report that a single treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors, prior to acute stress exposure, prevented the down-regulation of total BDNF and BDNF transcripts 1, 2, 3, and 6, partially reproducing the effect of physical exercise. Overall, these results suggest that physical exercise and stress are able to differentially modulate the expression of BDNF transcripts by possible different epigenetic mechanisms.

  17. Physical exercise affects the epigenetic programming of rat brain and modulates the adaptive response evoked by repeated restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Kashimoto, R K; Toffoli, L V; Manfredo, M H F; Volpini, V L; Martins-Pinge, M C; Pelosi, G G; Gomes, M V

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics has recently been linked to molecular adaptive responses evoked by physical exercise and stress. Herein we evaluated the effects of physical exercise on global DNA methylation and expression of the Dnmt1 gene in the rat brain and also verified its potential to modulate responses evoked by repeated restraint stress (RRS). Wistar rats were classified into the following experimental groups: (1) physically active (EX): animals submitted to swimming during postnatal days 53-78 (PND); (2) stress (ST): animals submitted to RRS during 75-79PND; (3) exercise-stress (EX-ST): animals submitted to swimming during 53-78PND and to RRS during 75-79PND, and (4) control (CTL): animals that were not submitted to intervention. Samples from the hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus were obtained at 79PND. The global DNA methylation profile was assessed using an ELISA-based method and the expression of Dnmt1 was evaluated by real-time PCR. Significantly increased methylation was observed in the hypothalamus of animals from the EX group in comparison to CTL. Comparative analysis involving the EX-ST and ST groups revealed increased global DNA methylation in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus of EX-ST, indicating the potential of physical exercise in modulating the responses evoked by RRS. Furthermore, decreased expression of the Dnmt1 gene was observed in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of animals from the EX-ST group. In summary, our data indicate that physical exercise affects DNA methylation of the hypothalamus and might modulate epigenetic responses evoked by RRS in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus.

  18. Physical restraint for psychiatric patients and its associations with clinical characteristics and the National Mental Health Law in China.

    PubMed

    An, Feng-Rong; Sha, Sha; Zhang, Qing-E; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Ping-Ping; Jin, Xin; Zhou, Jian-Song; Tang, Yi-Lang; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-07-30

    Physical restraint (PR) for patients is an ongoing controversial topic in psychiatry. This study examined the percentage of PR and its associations with clinical characteristics and the implementation of the National Mental Health Law (NMHL) in China. The study consecutively assessed a sample of 1364 psychiatric inpatients. Socio-demographic and clinical data including use of PR were collected from the medical records using a form designed for this study and confirmed via interview. Psychopathology and insight were measured using standardized instruments. The percentage of PR was 27.2% in the whole sample with 30.7% and 22.4% occurring respectively before and after the NMHL implementation (p=0.001). In multiple logistic regression analysis PR was positively associated with unemployment, lower income, aggression in the past month, being admitted before the NMHL implementation and poorer insight. The percentage of PR in Chinese psychiatric patients is associated with various clinical factors and appeared to decrease after the implementation of the NMHL. Focused and individualized care for patients who are unemployed, have low income, recent aggression and poor insight would be necessary at early stages of admission.

  19. Consumption of molecular hydrogen prevents the stress-induced impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks during chronic physical restraint in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Kazufumi; Nakashima-Kamimura, Naomi; Mikami, Toshio; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohta, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    We have reported that hydrogen (H(2)) acts as an efficient antioxidant by gaseous rapid diffusion. When water saturated with hydrogen (hydrogen water) was placed into the stomach of a rat, hydrogen was detected at several microM level in blood. Because hydrogen gas is unsuitable for continuous consumption, we investigated using mice whether drinking hydrogen water ad libitum, instead of inhaling hydrogen gas, prevents cognitive impairment by reducing oxidative stress. Chronic physical restraint stress to mice enhanced levels of oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, in the brain, and impaired learning and memory, as judged by three different methods: passive avoidance learning, object recognition task, and the Morris water maze. Consumption of hydrogen water ad libitum throughout the whole period suppressed the increase in the oxidative stress markers and prevented cognitive impairment, as judged by all three methods, whereas hydrogen water did not improve cognitive ability when no stress was provided. Neural proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was suppressed by restraint stress, as observed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and Ki-67 immunostaining, proliferation markers. The consumption of hydrogen water ameliorated the reduced proliferation although the mechanistic link between the hydrogen-dependent changes in neurogenesis and cognitive impairments remains unclear. Thus, continuous consumption of hydrogen water reduces oxidative stress in the brain, and prevents the stress-induced decline in learning and memory caused by chronic physical restraint. Hydrogen water may be applicable for preventive use in cognitive or other neuronal disorders. PMID:18563058

  20. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  1. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  2. Focus groups: nursing staff's experiences using restraints.

    PubMed

    Janelli, L M; Dickerson, S S; Ventura, M R

    1995-11-01

    A phenomenological approach was used to examine nursing staff's experiences using physical restraints. A total of 12 nurses from a tertiary hospital participated in one of three focus groups. Exploring the attitudes of nurses can contribute to a better understanding of how decisions are made concerning restraints. An analysis of the focus group data resulted in a description of the lived experiences of nurses using restraints. Seven themes emerged from the data, one of which reflected that the nurses felt ambiguous about restraints, yet they made judgments and justified their decisions after assessing patient characteristics, environmental safety, and unit traditions. Nurse clinicians could use the focus group method to sensitize themselves to the staff's needs and to allow staff the opportunity to share ideas and to dispel misconceptions about restraints. PMID:7580947

  3. Full body restraint system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Susan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A body restraint system (30) allows the user's body (10) to be in the zero gravity neutral posture. The system (30) includes a waist restraint (32) in the form of a curved, padded unit (34) containing a retractable belt (36) coiled on a spring loaded capstan (38) with a buckle (40) extending from front (42) of the unit (34). A second belt (44) is fastened around the user's waist (16). A clasp (46) is configured to engage the buckle (40). The waist restraint (32) is positioned near foot restraints (52). The foot restraints (52) have foot platforms (59) with pads (60) of a suitable two part attaching material, such as the fasteners available from Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company under the trademark Scotchmate Duallock. A mating pad (62) of the material is provided on soles (64) of cotton net shoes (66).

  4. An Analysis of the Restraint Event and Its Behavioral Effects on Clients and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert J.; Timbers, Gary D.

    2002-01-01

    Programs serving troubled youth continuously struggle with the issue of using physical restraints and other coercive interventions. This paper revisits the issues and motivations surrounding restraint use. It offers an analytic perspective on the physical restraint cycle and the factors that tend to support its recurrence. (JDM)

  5. Seat belt restraint system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garavaglia, A.; Matsuhiro, D.

    1972-01-01

    Shoulder-harness and lap-belt restraint system was designed to be worn by individuals of widely different sizes and to permit normal body motion except under sudden deceleration. System is divided into two basic assemblies, lap belt and torso or shoulder harness. Inertia-activated reels immediately lock when seat experiences sudden deceleration.

  6. Restraint-free care for acutely ill patients in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Marx, E M; Strumpf, N E

    1996-11-01

    A growing body of empirical evidence documenting the negative effects and the limited effectiveness of physical restraints continues to shape policy and professional standards. In addition to occurrences of serious harm from restraint devices, ethical concerns about care with dignity have supported reevaluation of restraints in all settings for all patients. Lessons from considerable research conducted in nursing homes and clinical experience with restraint reduction in long-term care facilities are applicable to acute care settings, where restraint-free care can and should be embraced.

  7. Reducing restraints: where to start.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, T L; Terpstra, T L; Van Doren, E

    1998-01-01

    To begin a restraint reduction program at a large neuropsychiatric Veterans Affairs medical center, nursing educators examined perceptions of and knowledge about restraint use among 113 nursing staff members employed on one acute, two intermediate, and five long-term care units. Strumpf and Evans' (1988) Perceptions of Restraint Use Questionnaire, a knowledge test, and questions about personal characteristics were used. Top reasons for restraint use identified were to prevent pulling on an intravenous line, to prevent breaking open sutures, and to protect from a fall. Although knowledge scores were high, they did not correlate significantly with ability to suggest alternatives. Respondents viewed restraint use as a somewhat important intervention. Statistically significant differences were found between level of practice and number of alternatives listed, knowledge score, and personal perception score. Implications for nursing educators embarking on a restraint reduction program are discussed including myths and quality-of-life issues.

  8. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint

  9. Psychiatric Patients Experiences with Mechanical Restraints: An Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Lanthén, Klas; Rask, Mikael; Sunnqvist, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine psychiatric patients' experience of mechanical restraints and to describe the care the patients received. Background. All around the world, threats and violence perpetrated by patients in psychiatric emergency inpatient units are quite common and are a prevalent factor concerning the application of mechanical restraints, although psychiatric patients' experiences of mechanical restraints are still moderately unknown. Method. A qualitative design with an inductive approach were used, based on interviews with patients who once been in restraints. Results. This study resulted in an overbridging theme: Physical Presence, Instruction and Composed Behaviour Can Reduce Discontent and Trauma, including five categories. These findings implicated the following: information must be given in a calm and sensitive way, staff must be physically present during the whole procedure, and debriefing after the incident must be conducted. Conclusions. When mechanical restraints were unavoidable, the presence of committed staff during mechanical restraint was important, demonstrating the significance of training acute psychiatric nurses correctly so that their presence is meaningful. Nurses in acute psychiatric settings should be required to be genuinely committed, aware of their actions, and fully present in coercive situations where patients are vulnerable. PMID:26199931

  10. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vehicle whether on or off the installations. (d) Infant/child restraint devices (car seats) are required... vehicle is responsible for ensuring the use of seat belts, shoulder restraints, and child restraining... § 636.34 Restraint systems. (a) Restraint systems (seat belts) will be worn by all operators...

  11. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the installations. (d) Infant/child restraint devices (car seats) are required in private owned... ensuring the use of seat belts, shoulder restraints, and child restraining systems when applicable and may... Restraint systems. (a) Restraint systems (seat belts) will be worn by all operators and passengers of...

  12. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the installations. (d) Infant/child restraint devices (car seats) are required in private owned... ensuring the use of seat belts, shoulder restraints, and child restraining systems when applicable and may... Restraint systems. (a) Restraint systems (seat belts) will be worn by all operators and passengers of...

  13. Understanding Mental Health Service User Experiences of Restraint Through Debriefing: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Sara; Cleverley, Kristin; Perivolaris, Athina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine debriefing data to understand experiences before, during, and after a restraint (seclusion, chemical, and physical) event from the perspective of inpatients at a large urban mental health and addiction hospital. Method: Audits were conducted on a purposeful sample of inpatient charts containing post-restraint event inpatient debrief forms (n = 55). Qualitative data from the forms were analyzed thematically. Results: Loss of autonomy and related anger, conflict with staff and other inpatients, and unmet needs were the most common factors precipitating restraint events. Inpatients often reported that increased communication with staff could have prevented restraint. Inpatients described having had various negative emotional states and responses during restraint events, including fear and rejection. Post-restraint, inpatients often desired to leave the unit for fresh air or to engage in leisure activities. Conclusions: To our knowledge, our study is the first to use debriefing form data to explore mental health inpatients’ experiences of restraint. Inpatients view restraint negatively and do not experience it as a therapeutic intervention. Debriefing, guided by a form, is useful for understanding the inpatient’s experience of restraint, and should be used to re-establish the therapeutic relationship and to inform plans of care. In addition, individual and collective inpatient perspectives should inform alternatives to restraint. PMID:26454726

  14. 28 CFR 552.24 - Use of four-point restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... beyond eight hours requires the supervision of qualified health personnel. Mental health and qualified...-point restraints, qualified health personnel shall initially assess the inmate to ensure appropriate breathing and response (physical or verbal). Staff shall also ensure that the restraints have not...

  15. 28 CFR 552.24 - Use of four-point restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... beyond eight hours requires the supervision of qualified health personnel. Mental health and qualified...-point restraints, qualified health personnel shall initially assess the inmate to ensure appropriate breathing and response (physical or verbal). Staff shall also ensure that the restraints have not...

  16. Surgical Instrument Restraint in Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Dawson, David L.; Melton, Shannon; Hooker, Dona; Cantu, Hilda

    2000-01-01

    Performing a surgical procedure during spaceflight will become more likely with longer duration missions in the near future. Minimal surgical capability has been present on previous missions as the definitive medical care time was short and the likelihood of surgical events too low to justify surgical hardware availability. Early demonstrations of surgical procedures in the weightlessness of parabolic flight indicated the need for careful logistical planning and restraint of surgical hardware. The consideration of human ergonomics also has more impact in weightlessness than in the conventionall-g environment. Three methods of surgical instrument restraint - a Minor Surgical Kit (MSK), a Surgical Restraint Scrub Suit (SRSS), and a Surgical Tray (ST) were evaluated in parabolic flight surgical procedures. The Minor Surgical Kit was easily stored, easily deployed, and demonstrated the best ability to facilitate a surgical procedure in weightlessness. Important factors in this surgical restraint system include excellent organization of supplies, ability to maintain sterility, accessibility while providing secure restraint, ability to dispose of sharp items and biological trash, and ergonomical efficiency.

  17. An introduction to stereochemical restraints

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Philip R.

    2007-01-01

    At the resolution available from most macromolecular crystals, the X-ray data alone are insufficient to lead to a chemically reasonable structure, so stereochemical restraints are essential. These usually restrain bond lengths, bond angles, planes and chiral volumes. The definition of these restraints and where the values come from are described. A dictionary entry contains information about the atom types, their connectivity and all the appropriate restraints. Torsion angles are not usually restrained, but they do have optimum values. In the special case of flexible five- and six-membered rings, including pentose and hexose sugars, the ring pucker is defined by combinations of torsion angles and the pucker affects the position of substituents. PMID:17164527

  18. Children, automobile restraints and injuries

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrew William

    2000-01-01

    Injuries are the most common cause of death for Canadians aged one to 18 years, and 50% of injury deaths in this age group involve an automobile. Evidence suggests that 71% reduction in deaths and a 67% reduction in injuries can be achieved when child safety seats are used properly. This article reviews the recommended restraints for children by weight group and describes the proper position for children. Detailed case examples of car crashes are described to illustrate the dangers of incorrectly used or no restraint. PMID:20107592

  19. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  20. Decreasing Aggression Using Four-Point Restraints and Symbol Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Michael A.

    Physical aggression among institutionalized mentally retarded persons arouses great social concern. To examine the effectiveness of four-point mechanical restraints and a positive adaptive symbol program in the reduction of high frequency, high intensity aggression, three institutionalized severely mentally retarded adolescents (2 females, 1 male)…

  1. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../Hunter Army Airfield installations. (c) Restraint systems will be worn by all soldiers and Reserve... the installations. (d) Infant/child restraint devices (car seats) are required in private owned vehicles for children 4 years old or under and not exceeding 45 pounds in weight. (e) Restraint systems...

  2. Enhanced rigid-bond restraints

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, Andrea; Dittrich, Birger; Sheldrick, George M.

    2012-07-01

    An extension is proposed to the rigid-bond description of atomic thermal motion in crystals. The rigid-bond model [Hirshfeld (1976 ▶). Acta Cryst. A32, 239–244] states that the mean-square displacements of two atoms are equal in the direction of the bond joining them. This criterion is widely used for verification (as intended by Hirshfeld) and also as a restraint in structure refinement as suggested by Rollett [Crystallographic Computing (1970 ▶), edited by F. R. Ahmed et al., pp. 167–181. Copenhagen: Munksgaard]. By reformulating this condition, so that the relative motion of the two atoms is required to be perpendicular to the bond, the number of restraints that can be applied per anisotropic atom is increased from about one to about three. Application of this condition to 1,3-distances in addition to the 1,2-distances means that on average just over six restraints can be applied to the six anisotropic displacement parameters of each atom. This concept is tested against very high resolution data of a small peptide and employed as a restraint for protein refinement at more modest resolution (e.g. 1.7 Å)

  3. Use of restraints in air medical transport: a survey.

    PubMed

    Brauer, K I; Hutton, K C

    1997-01-01

    Although the practice of restraining combative patients is commonplace, restraint has been neither uniform nor scrutinized in the air medical transport environment. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the use of physical and chemical restraining methods in air medical and critical care transport settings. A retrospective study was performed through faxed questionnaires to 92 medical directors who were members of the Air Medical Physician Association (AMFA). Neither program size nor program type correlated with the use of a particular restraint method. Cloth, including gauze, was the most common physical restraint (73%); both benzodiazepines and paralytics were the most common chemical restraints (53%). Injury to crew members was not widespread. This study of air transport services reported a lower incidence of injury to personnel (17%) than is reported in studies from emergency departments (EDs) (60%). This study also indicated that air transport services possess protocols governing actions toward violent patients (65%) more often than has been reported in studies on EDs (50%). Protocols varied in nature and extent. Consensus protocols should be established and implemented with the aid of detailed data acquisition to standardize personnel education in managing violent patients.

  4. The Use of Mechanical Restraint and Response Incompatibility to Modify Self-Injurious Behavior: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Charles D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical restraint and a contingent "stand-up" procedures were used to treat self-injurious behaviors (SIB) of a profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized adult. Treatment consisted of gradually increasing time out of restraint, providing reinforcement for not engaging in SIB, and a brief time-out/physical hold procedure contingent upon the…

  5. 77 FR 11625 - Child Restraint Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... anthropomorphic test devices. This rulemaking establishes performance and other requirements for child restraint.... Agency Decisions a. Extend the Applicability of FMVSS No. 213 b. Weight Ranges c. Performance and Other... restraint. \\1\\ 44 FR 72131, December 13, 1979. \\2\\ 60 FR 35126, July 6, 1995. \\3\\ 68 FR 37620, June 24,...

  6. The Effects of an Action Plan, Staff Training, Management Support and Monitoring on Restraint Use and Costs of Work-Related Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dignity and respect are at the foundation of good care and effective treatment planning and are guiding service principles. The use of physical restraints is contrary to treatment with dignity and respect. Because of the numerous risks to clients and employees associated with the use of physical restraints, an innovative plan was…

  7. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  8. Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Seluga, Kristopher J; Ojalvo, Irving U; Obert, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold and hip restraint designs may improve passenger safety. Accordingly, this paper examines minimum size requirements for hip restraints to prevent passenger ejection during sharp turns and evaluates the effectiveness of a handhold mounted at the center of the bench seat. In this study, a simulation of a turning cart supplies the dynamic input to a biomechanical model of an adult male seated in a golf cart. Various restraint combinations are considered, both with and without the central handhold, to determine the likelihood of passenger ejection. It is shown that only the largest restraint geometries prevent passenger ejection. Adequate hip restraints should be much larger than current designs and a central handhold should be provided. In this way, golf cart and LSV manufacturers could reduce passenger ejections and improve fleet safety by incorporating recommendations provided herein. PMID:15893288

  9. Restraint reduction: a new philosophy for a new millennium.

    PubMed

    Jensen, B; Hess-Zak, A; Johnston, S K; Otto, D C; Tebbe, L; Russell, C L; Waller, A S

    1998-01-01

    With the use of restraints to manage difficult patients becoming routine, one hospital initiated strategies to reduce restraint use. The authors describe the development and implementation of a restraint reduction program, educational strategies, and the evaluation program. The program is successfully reducing the prevalence of restraint use.

  10. Succeeding in Sustained Reduction in the use of Restraint using the Improvement Model

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Alyssa; Gallacher, Neil

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Scottish Patient Safety Programme – Mental Health one of the main drivers was the reduction of harm to patients caused by restraint. The aim of this project was to reduce the number of restraints on our Acute Admissions ward. Through use the of the Improvement Model (PDSA), frontline staff were empowered to implement small tests of change at a grassroots level. This approach has led to frontline staff having ownership of driving the changes on a daily basis within the Clinical area. The use of a restraint data collection tool has been adapted and developed with frontline staff to ensure that the staff have ownership of data collected and is used to facilitate improvement. This data is used to inform the development of our Physical Interventions training. Most recently, following analysis, were able to introduce changes to promote the increased use of de-escalation and a shift from prone restraint to the safer seated restraint position. Patient involvement has been paramount with their inclusion in the debrief process. The information gleaned from the patients is used for staff and patient reflection. This has created a learning environment not only for staff but also patients and carers. Everyone involved is able to identify reasons and triggers and generate ideas to reduce the possibility of another restraint. The use of staff and patient safety climate surveys has ensured that we are constantly monitoring improvements in the feeling of safety amongst staff and patients. Our approach has resulted in a change in the culture of restraint resulting in a sustained reduction of 50% in restraint. PMID:27335641

  11. Coercive Restraint Therapies: A Dangerous Alternative Mental Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Physicians caring for adopted or foster children should be aware of the use of coercive restraint therapy (CRT) practices by parents and mental health practitioners. CRT is defined as a mental health intervention involving physical restraint and is used in adoptive or foster families with the intention of increasing emotional attachment to parents. Coercive restraint therapy parenting (CRTP) is a set of child care practices adjuvant to CRT. CRT and CRTP have been associated with child deaths and poor growth. Examination of the CRT literature shows a conflict with accepted practice, an unusual theoretic basis, and an absence of empirical support. Nevertheless, CRT appears to be increasing in popularity. This article discusses possible reasons for the increase, and offers suggestions for professional responses to the CRT problem. Introduction The term coercive restraint therapy (CRT) describes a category of alternative mental health interventions that are generally directed at adopted or foster children, that are claimed to cause alterations in emotional attachment, and that employ physically intrusive techniques. Other names for such treatments are attachment therapy, corrective attachment therapy, dyadic synchronous bonding, holding therapy, rage reduction therapy, and Z-therapy. CRT may be carried out by practitioners trained in extracurricular workshops, or such practitioners may instruct parents who perform all or part of the treatment. CRT practices involve the use of restraint as a tool of treatment rather than simply as a safety device. While restraining the child, CRT practitioners may also exert physical pressure in the form of tickling or intense prodding of the torso, grab the child's face, and command the child to kick the legs rhythmically. Some CRT practitioners lie prone with their body weight on the child, a practice they call compression therapy. Most practitioners restrain the child in a supine position, but some

  12. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  13. Restraint Safety: An Analysis of Injuries Related to Restraint of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is little research on the safety of the various types of restraint commonly used with individuals with intellectual disabilities who exhibit severely aggressive or self-injurious behaviour. Method: This study analysed the use of restraint with 209 individuals with intellectual disabilities over a 12-month period. Results: Planned…

  14. Does Brief Bradycardia at the Onset of Arm-Restraint Predict Infants' Emotional Reactivity during Restraint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christin L.; Jones, Blake L.

    2011-01-01

    Using electrocardiogram data with 78 six-month-old infants, this study examined the presence or absence of brief orienting bradycardia during the onset of maternal arm-restraint and subsequent differences between infants on behavioral organization during restraint. Results showed that 45 of the infants exhibited brief episodes of bradycardia at…

  15. Regimented and Lifestyle Restraint in Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study tested the psychometric properties of two commonly used measures of dietary restraint, the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Method Restraint data from 512 overweight/obese participants with binge eating disorder (BED) were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results Factor analyses of the restraint variables indicated a two-factor solution, interpreted as “Regimented” and “Lifestyle” restraint. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that Regimented restraint was more predictive of eating pathology, whereas Lifestyle restraint appeared to be protective of eating problems. Neither type of restraint was related to binge eating. Cluster analysis of the restraint dimensions yielded three distinct subgroups of patients who differed significantly on several important eating- and weight-related features. Discussion Future research is needed to test the significance of these restraint constructs over time in both the development of obesity and binge eating problems as well as their treatment. PMID:19107829

  16. Special Purpose Crew Restraints for Teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina; Norris, Lena

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and long duration space missions being planned for the moon and Mars, humans will be living and working in microgravity over increasingly long periods of time. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility, and access to the activity area. These challenges can result in prolonged periods of unnatural postures for the crew, ultimately causing pain, injury, and loss of productivity. Determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment is crucial to mission success. While a number of general purpose restraints have been used on ISS (handrails, foot loops), experience has shown that these general purpose restraints may not be optimal, or even acceptable for some tasks that have unique requirements. For example, some onboard activities require extreme stability (e.g., glovebox microsurgery), and others involve the use of arm, torso and foot movements in order to perform the task (e-g. robotic teleoperation); standard restraint systems will not work in these situations. The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (WAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center began evaluations of crew restraints for these special situations by looking at NASAs Robonaut. Developed by the Robot Systems Technology Branch, Robonaut is a humanoid robot that can be remotely operated through a tetepresence control system by an operator. It was designed to perform work in hazardous environments (e.g., Extra Vehicular Activities). A Robonaut restraint was designed, modeled for the population, and ultimately tested onboard the KC-135 microgravity aircraft. While in microgravity, participants were asked to get in and out of the restraint from different locations, perform maximum reach exercises, and finally to teleoperate Robonaut while in the restraint. The sessions were videotaped

  17. Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

  18. Reduction of Restraint of People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Don E.; Grossett, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    We used an organizational behavior management (OBM) approach to increase behavior intervention plans and decrease the use of mechanical restraint. First, recipients were tracked as a member of the priority group if they engaged in frequent self-injurious behavior or physical aggression toward others and/or if they had been placed in mechanical…

  19. Restraint Procedures and Challenging Behaviours in Intellectual Disability: An Analysis of Causative Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disability often evince challenging behaviours. Efforts have been underway for some time to develop prosocial or positive skill acquisition treatments to address challenging behaviours. However, physical/mechanical and chemical restraint is still commonly used in many clinical and community settings. Such…

  20. The Relationship between Seclusion and Restraint Use and Childhood Abuse among Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Joseph H.; Springer, Justin; Beck, Niels C.; Menditto, Anthony; Coleman, James

    2011-01-01

    Seclusion and restraint (S/R) is a controversial topic in the field of psychiatry, due in part to the high rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse found among psychiatric inpatients. The trauma-informed care perspective suggests that the use of S/R with previously abused inpatients may result in retraumatization due to mental associations…

  1. Review of the medical and legal literature on restraint chairs.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Edward M; Coyne, Christopher J; Chan, Theodore C; Hall, Christine A; Vilke, Gary M

    2015-07-01

    Use of restraint chairs by law enforcement for violent individuals has generated controversy and a source of litigation because of reported injuries and deaths of restrained subjects. The purpose of this study is to review the available medical and legal literature and to allow the development of evidence-based, best practice recommendations to inform the further development of restraint chair policies. This is a structured literature review of four databases, two medical and two legal. The medical review focus was on the restraint chair with additional review of materials regarding other restraint methods and options. The legal review focused on litigation cases involving the restraint chair. The review of the medical literature revealed 21 peer-reviewed studies investigating the physiological or psychological effects of using a restraint chair on humans or primates. Of these studies, 20 were performed on primates. The single human study revealed no clinically significant effects from the restraint chair on test subjects. The legal literature review revealed very few cases where the restraint chair was either a major or minor focus. The overall issues relating to the restraint chair cases involved deviations from set protocols and rarely involved issues with the chair itself. The available medical literature reveals that the restraint chair poses little to no medical risk. Additionally, when used appropriately, the restraint chair alone carries little legal liability. With proper monitoring and adherence to set protocols, the restraint chair is a safe and appropriate device for use in restraining violent individuals.

  2. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  3. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  4. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  5. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  6. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  7. Restraint fading and the development of alternative behaviour in the treatment of self-restraint and self-injury.

    PubMed

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A; Smith, R G; Vollmer, T R

    1994-04-01

    Restraint fading and differential reinforcement were used to reduce the self-injurious behaviour (SIB) and self-restraint of a profoundly retarded man. The variables maintaining both behaviours could not be identified via pre-treatment functional analysis; however, self-restraint exerted at least some stimulus control over SIB. In Phase 1, the subject's topography of self-restraint (wrapping arms in shirt) was replaced with another topography (wrapping wrists in towel) that could be more easily faded to a headband. However, the subject's restraints could not be completely faded, and any movement was accompanied by SIB; thus, in Phase 2, a compliance training procedure was implemented to reduce his SIB while increasing time out of restraint. In Phase 3, the subject was taught to mand for edibles during training sessions. Results indicated that restraint fading combined with the development of alternative behaviour could be an effective treatment procedure for those who engage in both self-restraint and SIB.

  8. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. PMID:26835591

  9. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples.

  10. Seclusion and Restraint Practices under Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    It's a call every principal dreads: A student loses control and is endangering himself or herself, other students, teachers, and staff. Responding quickly--and appropriately--requires clear thinking, comprehensive training, and knowledge of sound policies and techniques. Even then, seclusion and restraint practices can be controversial. A recent…

  11. Evaluation of the Tennessee Child Restraint Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    This paper reports on a study of the effects of a Tennessee law aimed at increasing the protection of children in cars. The law, which came into force January 1, 1978, requires parents to use child restraints properly when transporting their children who are less than 4 years old. Alternatively, the law permits children to be held in arms, a…

  12. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  13. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  14. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  15. Feasibility of an anticipatory noncontact precrash restraint actuation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The problem of providing an electronic warning of an impending crash to a precrash restraint system a fraction of a second before physical contact differs from more widely explored problems, such as providing several seconds of crash warning to a driver. One approach to precrash restraint sensing is to apply anticipatory system theory. This consists of nested simplified models of the system to be controlled and of the system`s environment. It requires sensory information to describe the ``current state`` of the system and the environment. The models use the sensory data to make a faster-than-real-time prediction about the near future. Anticipation theory is well founded but rarely used. A major problem is to extract real-time current-state information from inexpensive sensors. Providing current-state information to the nested models is the weakest element of the system. Therefore, sensors and real-time processing of sensor signals command the most attention in an assessment of system feasibility. This paper describes problem definition, potential ``showstoppers,`` and ways to overcome them. It includes experiments showing that inexpensive radar is a practical sensing element. It considers fast and inexpensive algorithms to extract information from sensor data.

  16. Toward development of effective custom child restraint systems in motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen; Rigby, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Traveling safely in motor vehicles can be challenging for many families who have young children with physical disabilities. Harnesses, simple adaptations, and special child restraint systems are available, but sometimes these devices do not adequately meet the unique postural support requirements of children with complex seating needs. Faced with no alternative, parents may choose to use the custom seating system from a wheeled mobility device to support their children in the family car. Transporting children in this way can increase the risk of motor vehicle-related injury because custom seating systems are not designed to meet the requirements of federal motor vehicle safety regulations. We studied whether assistive technology suppliers could build custom child restraint systems that met the crashworthiness requirements of a safety standard for production child restraint systems. We provided technical instructions to 10 suppliers from different parts of North America so they could each build a custom restraint system using a transit frame that we designed. This approach allowed suppliers to make custom seats that could be attached to the transit frame using special connection hardware. We crash tested the 10 custom child restraint systems to evaluate the effectiveness of our transit frame design and fabrication instructions. Six custom restraint systems met the dynamic performance requirements of the stringent Canada Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213.3. The remaining four systems did not meet the compliance criteria due to the failure of postural belt assemblies or seat securement hardware. We recommend that future research include similar effectiveness studies to support the introduction of technical requirements for adaptive seating systems that improve occupant safety and are practical for wheelchair users, their families, and assistive technology professionals to implement. PMID:18335712

  17. Cognitive dietary restraint is associated with eating behaviors, lifestyle practices, personality characteristics and menstrual irregularity in college women.

    PubMed

    McLean, Judy A; Barr, Susan I

    2003-04-01

    This study characterized associations of restraint with selected physical, lifestyle, personality and menstrual cycle characteristics in female university students. The survey instrument, distributed to 1350 women, included standardized questionnaires (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale), and assessed weight and dieting history, exercise, lifestyle characteristics, menstrual cycle characteristics and whether participants were following vegetarian diets. Among the 596 respondents included in the analysis (44%), women with high (n=145), medium (n=262) or low (n=189) restraint had similar ages, heights and weights. Despite this, compared to women with low scores, those with high scores exercised more (4.6+/-5.3 vs. 3.2+/-3.5 h/wk), were more likely to be vegetarian (14.5 vs. 3.7%), have a history of eating disorders (13.7 vs. 1.2%), be currently trying to lose weight (80.3 vs. 15.3%), report irregular menstrual cycles (34.7 vs. 17.0%), and have scores reflecting lower self-esteem and higher perceived stress. Menstrual irregularity was an independent predictor of restraint score, and restraint score was the only variable to differentiate women with regular and irregular menstrual cycles. We conclude that women with high restraint may use a combination of behavioral strategies for weight control, and differ from women with low restraint scores in personality characteristics and weight history. Some of these behaviors or characteristics may influence menstrual function.

  18. Nurses' experiences of restraint and seclusion use in short-stay acute old age psychiatry inpatient units: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Muir-Cochrane, E C; Baird, J; McCann, T V

    2015-03-01

    Restraint and seclusion are often ineffective and can affect patients adversely. In this study, we explored nurses' experiences of restraint and seclusion in short-stay acute old age psychiatry inpatient units and how these experiences underpin resistance to eliminating these practices. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nurses in three old age psychiatry units in Melbourne, Australia. The results provide one overarching theme, lack of accessible alternatives to restraint and seclusion, indicating that nurses believe there are no effective, accessible alternatives to these practices. Three related themes contribute to this perception. First, an adverse interpersonal environment contributes to restraint and seclusion, which relates to undesirable consequences of poor staff-to-patient relationships. Second, an unfavourable physical environment contributes to aggression and restraint and seclusion use. Third, the practice environment influences the adoption of restraint and seclusion. The findings contribute to the limited evidence about nurses' experiences of these practices in short-stay old age psychiatry, and how account needs to be taken of these experiences and contextual influences when introducing measures to address these practices. Policies addressing these measures need to be accompanied by wide-ranging initiatives to deal with aggression, including providing appropriate education and support and addressing ethical and workplace cultural issues surrounding these practices.

  19. Weight control and restraint of laboratory rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Van Breda Kolff, K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of restrained and confined rats in some procedures used in combustion toxicology introduces the problems of obtaining rats of the appropriate size for the apparatus, and of identifying any artifacts resulting from the use of restraint alone. Feeding studies indicate that controlled feeding of fast-growing strains such as the Sprague-Dawley can hold rat size essentially constant for significant periods of time. The undesirable aspects are the need to cage the animals individually, with resultant psychological as well as metabolic effects. Restraint studies of slow-growing strains such as the Fischer 344 indicate that denying access to food and water for periods of several hours at a time interrupts normal gain only temporarily.

  20. Initiatives to reduce the use of seclusion and restraints on people with developmental disabilities: a systematic review and quantitative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; McVilly, Keith R; McGillivray, Jane A

    2013-11-01

    Contrary to the expectations articulated in public policy, restrictive interventions are commonly used in support services for people with developmental disabilities. This systematic review and quantitative synthesis was undertaken to investigate whether the use of seclusion and restraints on people with developmental disabilities can be reduced. Searches of the Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO electronic databases returned 7226 records, of which 11 met the inclusion criteria for this review. A further 3 papers were obtained through scanning the reference lists of those articles included from the initial literature search. All 14 studies were single-subject designs focusing on initiatives to reduce physical or mechanical restraint. Between the baseline and intervention phases, there were mean reductions in the frequency and duration of restraint use of 79% (SD=21%, n=13 subjects from 7 studies) and 45% (SD=58%, n=10 subjects from 6 studies), respectively. For studies in which restraint use to manage agitation and aggression was targeted, there was a 79% (SD=21%, n=13 subjects from 7 studies) decrease in the frequency and a 28% (SD=67%, n=6 subjects from 3 studies) reduction in the duration of restraint. With respect to studies in which restraint use to prevent self-harm was targeted, there was a 71% (SD=34%, n=4 subjects from 3 studies) reduction in restraint use. Effect sizes were calculable, using non-overlap approaches, for 9 of the 14 studies. The magnitudes of the effect sizes suggest that, on average, the interventions were effective in reducing the use of restraints. The effects generated in studies where restraint use for self-harm was targeted were typically more pronounced than those in which restraint use for agitation and aggression was addressed. There were broad variations, however, in the percentage reductions in restraint use and in the magnitudes of the effect sizes. Although the findings of this review are encouraging, more

  1. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  2. Dietary restraint and heightened reactivity to food.

    PubMed

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Yates, Heather M; Witcomb, Gemma L

    2004-03-01

    Previously, studies have explored the relationship between dietary behavior and salivary reactivity to food. Despite this, it remains unclear which behaviors are associated with enhanced reactivity. One problem is that measures of behavior have not been compared directly. In particular, it is unclear whether elevated reactivity is associated with measures of dietary restraint or with measures of failed dietary control and a tendency to overeat. To address this problem, we compared the association between salivary reactivity and scores on the subscales of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (restraint, disinhibition, and hunger). Estimates of reactivity were derived from the difference between a baseline saliva measure and a similar measure taken in close proximity to hot pizza. Our second aim was to explore how salivary reactivity changes after a meal. Female participants (N=40) were tested before and after a lunch (cheese sandwiches). All tended to show reactivity to pizza before but not after lunch. No significant differences were associated with the disinhibition or hunger subscales. However, prelunch reactivity was significantly greater in those participants with high scores on the restraint scale. This does not appear to be related to reported levels of hunger before lunch. Rather, it may reveal an intrinsic difference between the reaction of restrained and unrestrained eaters to food.

  3. Evaluation of response to restraint stress by salivary corticosterone levels in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    NOHARA, Masakatsu; TOHEI, Atsushi; SATO, Takumi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva—collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents—we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (P<0.001). Monitoring the results of individual mice showed that restraint stress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (P<0.001) than in the others (P<0.05). These results suggest that the corticosterone levels in saliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments. PMID:26852731

  4. Can self-reported dieting and dietary restraint identify underreporters of energy intake in dietary surveys?

    PubMed

    Rennie, Kirsten L; Siervo, Mario; Jebb, Susan A

    2006-10-01

    Underreporting is endemic in most dietary studies and ways to reliably identify individuals who may underreport energy intake are needed. Whether questions on self-reported dieting and dietary restraint, in addition to weight status, would identify individuals who may underreport energy intakes was examined in a United Kingdom representative survey. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the 7-day dietary record of 668 men and 826 women. Reported physical activity was used to assign each subject's activity level and to calculate estimated energy requirements from published equations. Underreporting was calculated as estimated energy requirements minus energy intake with adjustment for daily variation. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire assessed dietary restraint. Underreporting was higher in men and women reporting current dieting than nondieters (P<0.001) and higher in high-restrained (P<0.001) than low-restrained. When stratified by body mass index category, in men these associations were only significant in the overweight (P<0.001). Dieting was associated with greater underreporting in both lean (P<0.01) and overweight women (P<0.001). Underreporting was higher in lean high-restrained women than low-restrained (P=0.02), but similar in overweight women regardless of restraint score. Questions to assess dietary restraint and current dieting may be useful tools to identify and evaluate underreporting at an individual level in dietary surveys.

  5. An assessment of injury to European badgers (meles meles) due to capture in stopped restraints.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Denise; O'Keeffe, James J; Martin, S Wayne; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A L

    2009-04-01

    As part of ongoing culling operations, European badgers (Meles meles) were captured using stopped restraints in winter (October to December 2005) and summer (May to June 2006) in the Republic of Ireland. A subset of these badgers, those caught during four consecutive nights, was examined postmortem to determine the frequency and severity of physical injuries resulting from capture in the restraints. The skin and the tissues underlying the restraint of 343 badgers were assessed for injury by visual examination. There was an absence of skin damage or only minor skin abrasions in 88% of badgers; an absence of subcutaneous tissue injury or only localized subcutaneous tissue injury in 69%; and an absence of muscle injury or only slight muscle bruising in 99% of badgers. Only 2% of badgers had cuts to the skin and 5.5% had extensive subcutaneous edema, whereas 1.2% had areas of hemorrhage and tearing of the underlying muscle. Our results show that the majority of badgers examined sustained minimal injuries attributable to capture in stopped restraints.

  6. The use of mechanical and chemical restraints in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Covert, A B; Rodrigues, T; Solomon, K

    1977-02-01

    The use of mechanical and chemical restraints in nursing homes is a common practice, fraught with potential abuse. The patient's freedom of movement and right to an adequate medical and psychiatric evaluation are of the utmost importance. Restraints should be used only as a last resort and should not be a substitute for inadequate staffing or incomplete medical appraisal. Guidelines are offered that maximize the patients' freedom, maintain medical responsibility, and assure safety. Alternatives to the use of restraints are discussed.

  7. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  8. Measuring Dietary Restraint Status: Comparisons between the Dietary Intent Scale and the Restraint Scale

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Jessica A.; Gleaves, David H.; Kuijer, Roeline G.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of young women’s self-reported dietary restraint status is complex. Compared to Herman and Polivy’s commonly utilized Restraint Scale (RS), Stice’s Dietary Intent Scale (DIS) is less understood. Because the DIS is becoming a popular research tool, it is important to understand how this scale compares to more traditional measures of restraint. We conducted two correlational studies (Study 1 N = 110; Study 2 N = 216) to ascertain the similarities and the differences between the DIS and – as a comparison measure – the well-researched RS. We explored how the two scales were related to several body image variables (e.g., thin-ideal internalization); with a range of self-regulatory variables (e.g., dispositional self-control); with observed food intake during a taste test; and with 18-month weight change (Study 2 only). Participants were female University students and were not selected for dieting or disordered eating. Unlike RS scores, DIS scores were not significantly correlated with the majority of variables tapping into unsuccessful self-regulation. However, our data also highlighted similarities between the two restraint scales (e.g., association with 18-month weight-loss) and demonstrated that not only were participants’ DIS scores un-related to unsuccessful self-regulatory variables, neither were they related to the variables tapping into successful self-regulation. PMID:25988136

  9. Restraint system design and evaluation for military specific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwaczynski, Sebastian

    This research focuses on designing an optimal restraint system for usage in a military vehicle applications. The designed restraint system must accommodate a wide range of DHM's and ATD's with and without PPE such as: helmet, boots, and body armor. The evaluation of the restraint systems were conducted in a simulated vehicle environment, which was utilized to downselect the ideal restraint system for this program. In December of 2011 the OCP TECD program was formulated to increase occupant protection. To do this, 3D computer models were created to accommodate the entire Soldier population in the Army. These models included the entire PPE, which were later utilized for space claim activities and for designing new seats and restraints, which would accommodate them. Additionally, guidelines to increase protection levels while providing optimal comfort to the Soldier were created. The current and emerging threats were evaluated and focused on at the time of the program inception. Throughout this program various activities were conducted for restraint downselection including Soldier evaluations of various restraint system configurations. The Soldiers were given an opportunity to evaluate each system in a representative seat, which allowed them to position themselves in a manner consistent with the mission requirements. Systems ranged from fully automated to manual adjustment type systems. An evaluation of each particular system was conducted and analyzed against the other systems. It was discovered that the restraint systems, which utilize retractors allowed for automatic webbing stowage and allowed for easier access and repeatability when donning and doffing the restraint. It was also found that when an aid was introduced to help the Soldier don the restraint, it was more likely that such system would be utilized. Restraints were evaluated in drop tower experiments in addition to actual blast tests. An evaluation with this amount of detail had not been attempted

  10. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted. PMID:26627094

  11. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  12. High School Students' Publication Rights and Prior Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, John L.; Trauth, Denise M.

    1981-01-01

    Federal court decisions on high school students' publication rights in the Second, Fourth, Fifth, and Seventh Circuits reveal substantial disagreement about school officials' power of prior restraint over student publications. The courts' opinions range from approval of broad powers of prior restraint to denial of any power. (Author/RW)

  13. 28 CFR 570.44 - Supervision and restraint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... all times. Restraints may be applied to an inmate going on an escorted trip, after considering the purpose of the escorted trip and the degree of supervision required by the inmate. Except for escorted... PROGRAMS AND RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.44 Supervision and restraint...

  14. 28 CFR 570.44 - Supervision and restraint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... all times. Restraints may be applied to an inmate going on an escorted trip, after considering the purpose of the escorted trip and the degree of supervision required by the inmate. Except for escorted... PROGRAMS AND RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.44 Supervision and restraint...

  15. 28 CFR 570.44 - Supervision and restraint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... all times. Restraints may be applied to an inmate going on an escorted trip, after considering the purpose of the escorted trip and the degree of supervision required by the inmate. Except for escorted... PROGRAMS AND RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.44 Supervision and restraint...

  16. 28 CFR 570.44 - Supervision and restraint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... all times. Restraints may be applied to an inmate going on an escorted trip, after considering the purpose of the escorted trip and the degree of supervision required by the inmate. Except for escorted... PROGRAMS AND RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.44 Supervision and restraint...

  17. 28 CFR 570.44 - Supervision and restraint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... all times. Restraints may be applied to an inmate going on an escorted trip, after considering the purpose of the escorted trip and the degree of supervision required by the inmate. Except for escorted... PROGRAMS AND RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.44 Supervision and restraint...

  18. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gage restraint measurement systems. 213.110... measurement systems. (a) A track owner may elect to implement a Gage Restraint Measurement System (GRMS... correlation between measurements made on the ground and those recorded by the instrumentation with respect...

  19. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.11 Child Restraint Systems....

  20. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.11 Child Restraint Systems....

  1. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.11 Child Restraint Systems....

  2. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.11 Child Restraint Systems....

  3. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.11 Child Restraint Systems....

  4. Is Restraint a Model of Binge Eating and Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Michael R.; And Others

    Restraint theory assumes that restrained eating is functionally equivalent to dieting and that "restraint" accounts for the eating behavior of overweight individuals. This study evaluated both of these assumptions. In the first part of the study, normal weight women were divided into groups of unrestrained nondieters, restrained nondieters, and…

  5. Developing a restraint use policy for acute care.

    PubMed

    Stolley, J M; King, J; Clarke, M; Joers, A M; Hague, D; Allen, D

    1993-12-01

    Restraint use has been a recent focus of attention in long-term care facilities. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities, and the Food and Drug Administration have devoted attention to the prudent use of restraints. The authors address efforts of an acute care facility to comply with these regulations.

  6. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for...

  7. Restraint Use in Residential Programs: Why Are Best Practices Ignored?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Janice; Huckshorn, Kevin Ann; Caldwell, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Several states and providers have embarked on initiatives to reduce using restraint and seclusion in residential programs. Restraint and seclusion are associated with harm to youth and staff, significant costs, reduced quality of care, and less engagement of youth and families. Successful reduction/prevention strategies have been identified,…

  8. Mechanical and pharmacological restraints in acute psychiatric wards--why and how are they used?

    PubMed

    Knutzen, Maria; Bjørkly, Stål; Eidhammer, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Steinar; Helen Mjøsund, Nina; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Sandvik, Leiv; Friis, Svein

    2013-08-30

    Restraint use has been reported to be common in acute psychiatry, but empirical research is scarce concerning why and how restraints are used. This study analysed data from patients' first episodes of restraint in three acute psychiatric wards during a 2-year study period. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors for type and duration of restraint. The distribution of restraint categories for the 371 restrained patients was as follows: mechanical restraint, 47.2%; mechanical and pharmacological restraint together, 35.3%; and pharmacological restraint, 17.5%. The most commonly reported reason for restraint was assault (occurred or imminent). It increased the likelihood of resulting in concomitant pharmacological restraint. Female patients had shorter duration of mechanical restraint than men. Age above 49 and female gender increased the likelihood of pharmacological versus mechanical restraint, whereas being restrained due to assault weakened this association. Episodes with mechanical restraint and coinciding pharmacological restraint lasted longer than mechanical restraint used separately, and were less common among patients with a personality disorder. Diagnoses, age and reason for restraint independently increased the likelihood for being subjected to specific types of restraint. Female gender predicted type of restraint and duration of episodes.

  9. Effects of restraint on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzabata, Hassina; Multon, Stephane; Sellier, Alain; Houari, Hacene

    2012-07-15

    Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) is a chemical reaction that causes expansion in civil engineering structures. The safety level of such damaged structures has to be reassessed. To do this, the mechanical conditions acting on DEF expansions have to be analysed and, in particular, the variation of strength with expansion and the effect of restraint on the DEF expansion. This paper highlights several points: DEF expansion is isotropic in stress-free conditions, compressive stresses decrease DEF expansion in the direction subjected to restraint and lead to cracks parallel to the restraint, and expansion measured in the stress-free direction of restrained specimens is not modified. Thus restraint causes a decrease of the volumetric expansion and DEF expansion under restraint is anisotropic. Moreover, the paper examines the correlation between DEF expansion and concrete damage, providing data that can be used for the quantification of the effect of stresses on DEF induced expansion.

  10. Plane Strain Testing with Passive Restraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhnenko, Roman; Labuz, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    A plane strain condition for testing rock is developed through passive restraint in the form of a thick-walled cylinder. The so-called biaxial frame generates the intermediate principal stress that imposes a triaxial state of stress on a prismatic specimen. Major and minor principal stresses and corresponding strains are accurately measured, providing data to calculate the elastic (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio), inelastic (dilatancy angle), and strength (friction angle and cohesion) parameters of the rock. Results of experiments conducted on Indiana limestone in plane strain compression are compared with the results of axisymmetric compression and extension. With proper system calibration, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are consistent among the tests. The plane strain apparatus enforces in-plane deformation with the three principal stresses at failure being different, and it allows one to determine the Paul-Mohr-Coulomb failure surface, which includes an intermediate stress effect.

  11. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction.

  12. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction.

  13. Lateral facet syndrome of the patella. Lateral restraint analysis and use of lateral resection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R P

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-eight knees in 34 patients with an average age of 22 years were diagnosed as having lateral facet syndrome (LFS), a painful compressive arthropathy of the lateral facet of the patella. This diagnosis was based on the physical findings of tenderness at the lateral patellofemoral joint line, tenderness over the vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO) tendon just above the patella, a positive medial apprehension test, and marked resistance to medial patellar displacement with the knee flexed 30 degrees. The most common complaints were patellar pain with activity, pain with prolonged knee flexion, intermittent knee swelling, and giving way. At surgery, the VLO, the lateral retinaculum (LR), and the anterior fibers of the iliotibial tract (ITT) were sequentially divided from the lateral border of the patella. Each was temporarily reattached to a cuff of soft tissue left on the patella using surgical clamps to determine its contribution to lateral restraint. The VLO was found to be the primary restraint in one-half of the knees. In one-third of the knees, all three of the structures contributed equally. In six knees, the primary restraint was the anterior fibers of the ITT, whereas the LR was the primary restraint in only two. The distal ends of these three structures were then resected to prevent rescarring and retethering. At a minimum follow-up period of two years, 87% had satisfactory relief of their patellar pain, had returned to normal activities, and had no or minimal physical findings of LFS. The procedure is recommended for patients who have failed other procedures and in those whose symptoms cannot be controlled by activity modification, exercises, bracing, or medication. PMID:2910595

  14. 14 CFR 135.128 - Use of safety belts and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child restraints... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of safety belts and child restraint... Flight Operations § 135.128 Use of safety belts and child restraint systems. (a) Except as provided...

  15. 14 CFR 135.128 - Use of safety belts and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child restraints... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of safety belts and child restraint... Flight Operations § 135.128 Use of safety belts and child restraint systems. (a) Except as provided...

  16. 14 CFR 135.128 - Use of safety belts and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child restraints... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of safety belts and child restraint... Flight Operations § 135.128 Use of safety belts and child restraint systems. (a) Except as provided...

  17. 14 CFR 135.128 - Use of safety belts and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child restraints... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of safety belts and child restraint... Flight Operations § 135.128 Use of safety belts and child restraint systems. (a) Except as provided...

  18. 14 CFR 135.128 - Use of safety belts and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child restraints... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of safety belts and child restraint... Flight Operations § 135.128 Use of safety belts and child restraint systems. (a) Except as provided...

  19. Characteristics of psychiatric hospitalizations with multiple mechanical restraint episodes versus hospitalization with a single mechanical restraint episode.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Parra, Jose; Guzik, Justyna; Garcia-Sanchez, Juan A; Pino-Benitez, Isabel; Aguilera-Serrano, Carlos; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermin

    2016-10-30

    We investigated the characteristics of multiple episodes of mechanical restraint versus a single episode in a psychiatric ward of a public general hospital. The following characteristics were associated with multiple restraints: young age, length of hospital stay, not being readmitted within 30 days from previous discharge, and admission in the previous year before the implementation of an intervention program to reduce mechanical restraint. The study suggests that both organizational factors and patients' disturbed behaviour are associated with the risk of being mechanically restrained several times.

  20. Characteristics of psychiatric hospitalizations with multiple mechanical restraint episodes versus hospitalization with a single mechanical restraint episode.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Parra, Jose; Guzik, Justyna; Garcia-Sanchez, Juan A; Pino-Benitez, Isabel; Aguilera-Serrano, Carlos; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermin

    2016-10-30

    We investigated the characteristics of multiple episodes of mechanical restraint versus a single episode in a psychiatric ward of a public general hospital. The following characteristics were associated with multiple restraints: young age, length of hospital stay, not being readmitted within 30 days from previous discharge, and admission in the previous year before the implementation of an intervention program to reduce mechanical restraint. The study suggests that both organizational factors and patients' disturbed behaviour are associated with the risk of being mechanically restrained several times. PMID:27497291

  1. Effects of two types of restraint stress on the spontaneous behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Trnecková, Lenka; Sída, Pavel; Hynie, Sixtus; Krejcí, Ivan; Hlinák, Zdenek; Klenerová, Vera

    2004-01-01

    Our previous findings suggested the existence of stressor-specific behavioural and cognitive responses in rats. In the present study, restraint stressor (immobilization, IMO) and restraint stressor combined with partial immersion of rats into water (IMO+C) were applied for 1 hour to Wistar male rats and their spontaneous behaviour was examined in the open field test. The classic behavioural parameters were recorded: crossing, rearing, and resting. When tested 1 and 4 hours after IMO+C, animals exhibited strong suppression of locomotor and exploratory activity (crossing and rearing); partial inhibition of both behavioural variables was found after IMO. Thus, substantial differences were observed in dependence on the length of period between the end of stressor application and the start of testing. In testing performed one week later, the locomotor and exploratory activity levels of both IMO and IMO+C animals corresponded to the control ones. These data suggest a differential behavioural response to both used stressors that may result from their different proportion of psychical and physical components. In conclusion, our results provide other data for the support of differential effects of two types of restraint stressors on spontaneous behaviour of animals exposed to a novel environment.

  2. 76 FR 10637 - Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ..., in many cases, accommodated by the vehicle. \\9\\ 67 FR 67448, Docket NHTSA-2001-10053. \\10\\ 73 FR 6261... child restraints to be equipped with attachments that mate with vehicles' lower anchors. The...

  3. Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups

    DOE PAGES

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they canmore » be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.« less

  4. Pilot Overmyer completes hygiene activities / demostrates IVA foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Overmyer, drying his face with a towel from forward single tray personal item stowage locker, completes personal hygiene activities (shaving) and demostrates use of intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraint on floor.

  5. Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they can be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.

  6. Self-restraint as positive reinforcement for self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed

    Smith, R G; Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A

    1996-01-01

    Many individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) also exhibit self-restraint. We compared rates of SIB exhibited by a 32-year-old woman diagnosed with profound retardation across conditions in which access to restraint was (a) continuously available, (b) presented as a consequence for SIB, or (c) unavailable. Rates of SIB increased when access to restraint was contingent upon SIB and decreased when restraint was unavailable, suggesting that self-restraint functioned as positive reinforcement for SIB.

  7. Wheelchair integrated occupant restraints: feasibility in frontal impact.

    PubMed

    VanRoosmalen, L; Bertocci, G E; Ha, D; Karg, P

    2001-12-01

    Individuals often use their wheelchair as a motor vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles. The current use of fixed vehicle-mounted wheelchair occupant restraint systems (FWORSs) often results in poor belt fit and discomfort. Additionally, satisfaction, usability and usage rate of FWORSs during transit use are often low. The automotive industry has shown improved occupant restraint usage, belt fit and injury protection when integrating the upper torso and pelvic restraint in a motor vehicle seat. This study compared occupant injury measures of a FWORS to a concept wheelchair integrated restraint system (WIRS) using a 20g frontal sled impact test with a 30 mph change in velocity. Neck loads, neck moments, head, pelvis and chest acceleration, sternum compression and knee and head excursion data were recorded from the wheelchair seated 50th percentile male hybrid III anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD). The WIRS resulted in a lower head injury criteria (HIC) value, lower sternum compression and a lower upper-torso restraint load than the FWORS. Compared with the FWORS, increased head, knee and wheelchair excursions and higher neck loads and moments were measured in the WIRS test. Both restraint scenario injury parameters were complied with occupant injury criteria based on General Motors Injury Assessment Reference Values (GM-IARVs) and occupant kinematic requirements defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) voluntary standard, J2249. A higher motion criteria index was calculated for the WIRS scenario and a comparable combined injury criteria index was calculated for both restraint scenarios. The sled impact test showed WIRS concept feasibility, facilitating further development by industrial manufacturers who might further want to pursue this restraint principle to increase wheelchair occupant safety and comfort during transport in motor vehicles.

  8. Ergonomic Evaluation of the Foot Restraint Equipment Device (FRED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cindy; Qazi, A. S.; Mount, Francis

    1999-01-01

    Within the scope of the Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluation project, funded by the NASA Headquarters Life Sciences Division, evaluations were proposed to be conducted in ground, KC-135, and/or Shuttle environments to investigate the human factors engineering (HFE) issues concerning confined/unique workstations, including crew restraint requirements. As part of these evaluations, KC-135 flights were conducted to investigate user/ workstation/ restraint integration for microgravity use of the FRED with the RMS workstation. This evaluation was a pre-cursor to Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) - 904 on STS-88. On that mission, a small-statured astronaut will be using the FRED restraint while working at the Aft RMS workstation. The DSO will collect video for later posture analyses, as well as subjective data in the form of an electronic questionnaire. This report describes the current FRED KC-135 evaluations. The primary objectives were to evaluate the usability of the FRED and to verify the DSO in-flight setup. The restraint interface evaluation consisted of four basic areas of restraint use: 1) adjustability; 2) general usability and comfort; 3) usability at the RMS workstation; and 4) assembly and disassembly.

  9. Factors influencing decisions on seclusion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Larue, C; Dumais, A; Ahern, E; Bernheim, E; Mailhot, M-P

    2009-06-01

    Seclusion with or without restraint is a measure for managing aggressive or agitated clients and promoting site security, particularly in an emergency psychiatric setting. The decision to control a potentially dangerous person's behaviour by removal or seclusion seems ethically justifiable in such a setting. However, although the decisions on these restrictive measures are based on rational needs, they are also influenced by the healthcare team's perceptions of the client and by the characteristics of the team and the environment. The purpose of this paper is to set out and categorize the factors in play in aggression- and agitation-management situations as perceived by the healthcare teams, particularly the nurses. The first part of the paper deals briefly with the settings in which control measures are applied in a province in eastern Canada and the effect of such measures on patients and healthcare teams. The second part identifies the factors involved in the management of agitation and aggression behaviour. The final part discusses the current spin-offs from this knowledge as well as promising paths for further research on the factors involved. The ultimate objective is to reduce recourse to coercive measures and enhance professional practices.

  10. Factors influencing decisions on seclusion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Larue, C; Dumais, A; Ahern, E; Bernheim, E; Mailhot, M-P

    2009-06-01

    Seclusion with or without restraint is a measure for managing aggressive or agitated clients and promoting site security, particularly in an emergency psychiatric setting. The decision to control a potentially dangerous person's behaviour by removal or seclusion seems ethically justifiable in such a setting. However, although the decisions on these restrictive measures are based on rational needs, they are also influenced by the healthcare team's perceptions of the client and by the characteristics of the team and the environment. The purpose of this paper is to set out and categorize the factors in play in aggression- and agitation-management situations as perceived by the healthcare teams, particularly the nurses. The first part of the paper deals briefly with the settings in which control measures are applied in a province in eastern Canada and the effect of such measures on patients and healthcare teams. The second part identifies the factors involved in the management of agitation and aggression behaviour. The final part discusses the current spin-offs from this knowledge as well as promising paths for further research on the factors involved. The ultimate objective is to reduce recourse to coercive measures and enhance professional practices. PMID:19538600

  11. On the relationship between self-injurious behavior and self-restraint.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R G; Iwata, B A; Vollmer, T R; Pace, G M

    1992-01-01

    Many individuals who exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB) also exhibit self-restraint. Three hypotheses about the determinants of self-restraint have been suggested: (a) Self-restraint is maintained by escape from or avoidance of aversive aspects of SIB, (b) self-restraint and SIB are members of the same functional class, and (c) self-restraint and SIB are functionally independent. This study examined a method by which the relationship between self-restraint and SIB may be investigated using functional analysis. Data were collected on the self-restraint and SIB exhibited by 5 mentally retarded males, while conditions suspected to maintain SIB were manipulated. Results suggested that self-restraint, like SIB, may be maintained by idiosyncratic contingencies. Implications of an understanding of self-restraint for the analysis and treatment of SIB are discussed, as are some general possibilities for future research. PMID:1634431

  12. Restraint stress delays endometrial adaptive remodeling during mouse embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanhui; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2015-01-01

    In mice, previously, we showed that restraint stress reduces the number of embryo implantation sites in the endometrium. Here, we hypothesized that the uterine microenvironment is altered by restraint stress and consequently is suboptimal for embryo implantation. On embryonic day 1 (E1), 60 of 154 pregnant CD1 mice underwent restraint stress (4 h), repeated daily to E3, E5 or E7 (n = 10 mice per group). Restraint stress decreased food intake and suppressed body weight gain on E3, E5 and E7. Restraint stress decreased the actual and relative weight (percent body weight) of uterus and ovary on E5 (by 14.9%, p = 0.03; 16.1%, p = 0.004) and E7 (by 16.8%, p = 0.03; 20.0%, p = 0.01). Morphologically, restraint stress decreased relative endometrial area (by 8.94-18.8%, p = 0.003-0.021) and uterine gland area (by 30.6%, p < 0.01 on E3 and 44.5%, p < 0.01 on E5). Immunohistochemistry showed that restraint stress decreased microvessel density (by 12.9-70.5%, p < 0.01) and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (by 14.6-45.9%, p = 0.007-0.02). Restraint stress decreased by 32.4-39.8% (p = 0.002-0.01) the mean optical density ratio for proliferating cell nuclear antigen/terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay showed a dose-dependent decrease in proliferative activity of endometrial stromal cells (from 52 of 154 pregnant E5 control mice) incubated with H2O2 (100-1000 μM) in vitro. These findings supported the hypothesis that restraint stress negatively influences endometrial adaptive remodeling via an oxidative stress pathway, which resulted in fewer implantation sites.

  13. Vehicle Interior Interactions and Kinematics of Rear Facing Child Restraints in Frontal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, C. P.; Gopalan, S.; Abdelilah, Y.; Marshall, R. J.; Crandall, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rear facing child restraints in frontal crashes can be determined by controlling a) the child’s kinematics and b) interactions with vehicle structures. Twelve sled tests were performed to analyze the effect of the location and structural properties of vehicle interior components. The role of restraint kinematics was studied by developing computational models which underwent idealized motions. Stiff structures originally offset from the restraint, but which contact the restraint late in the test, cause increased injury values. Attachment methods which reduce child restraint rotation and more rigidly couple the restraint to the vehicle result in the best safety performance. PMID:16179150

  14. The Performance of Various Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems in a Frontal Crash

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, C. P.; Abdelilah, Y.; Crandall, J. R.; Stevens, S. L.; Saggese, J. M.; Eichelberger, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Current forward facing (FF) child restraint designs use LATCH and ISOFIX systems to couple the restraint to the vehicle. Rear facing (RF) child restraints, however, have multiple coupling methods that vary by manufacturer and country of origin. Sled tests were performed with the CRABI 12 month dummy in six different RF attachment conditions. The performance of the rear facing child restraints (restraint kinematics, head accelerations, and neck loads) was highly dependent on the coupling method used. The results were also compared to a FF LATCH restraint. PMID:15319132

  15. Exhaustive enumeration of protein conformations using experimental restraints.

    PubMed Central

    DeWitte, R. S.; Michnick, S. W.; Shakhnovich, E. I.

    1995-01-01

    We present an efficient new algorithm that enumerates all possible conformations of a protein that satisfy a given set of distance restraints. Rapid growth of all possible self-avoiding conformations on the diamond lattice provides construction of alpha-carbon representations of a protein fold. We investigated the dependence of the number of conformations on pairwise distance restraints for the proteins crambin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, and ubiquitin. Knowledge of between one and two contacts per monomer is shown to be sufficient to restrict the number of candidate structures to approximately 1,000 conformations. Pairwise RMS deviations of atomic position comparisons between pairs of these 1,000 structures revealed that these conformations can be grouped into about 25 families of structures. These results suggest a new approach to assessing alternative protein folds given a very limited number of distance restraints. Such restraints are available from several experimental techniques such as NMR, NOESY, energy transfer fluorescence spectroscopy, and crosslinking experiments. This work focuses on exhaustive enumeration of protein structures with emphasis on the possible use of NOESY-determined distance restraints. PMID:8528076

  16. Factors Leading to Crash Fatalities to Children in Child Restraints

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Christopher P.; Ferguson, Susan A.; Crandall, Jeff R.

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to improve child restraint designs would benefit from more detailed information on how child occupants are dying in crashes. Detailed reports involving 92 children (ages 5 and younger) in child restraints who died in crashes in 2000 were obtained from police departments. Cases were reviewed to obtain basic crash information and determine the factor most responsible for the fatality. Half of the crashes were considered unsurvivable for the child, and 12 percent of fatalities were judged to result from gross misuse of the child restraint. Forty percent of all of the crashes were side impacts, and in all fatal side impact crashes there was intrusion at the child’s seating position. PMID:12941235

  17. Mental health: use and abuse of control and restraint.

    PubMed

    Tarbuck, P

    The recent report of the inquiry into complaints at Ashworth Hospital (1) recommended that control and restraint techniques, used to contain violent conduct, should be used as a last resort, 'and should be subject to careful scrutiny to determine system failures'. This article, which points out that nurses in many areas are victims of increased levels of violence, defines control and restraint techniques, who should use them and in which situations their use may be sanctioned. The author concludes that although preservation of the patient's rights and dignity is paramount, nurses who have undergone control and restraint training are more confident practitioners when they are confronted with violent situations. In a second article next month, Tarbuck will look at issues of ethics and the human rights of patients.

  18. Age-related responses to mild restraint in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; Michael, S D; Altland, P D

    1983-11-01

    Immature, postpubertal, young adult, and middle-aged rats were lightly restrained for 4 h. Relative to untreated controls, restraint uniformly reduced body weight and plasma luteinizing hormone concentration and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration in all age groups. However, restraint increased activities of plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, and fructose-diphosphate aldolase in only immature and middle-aged animals. This age-related release of tissue enzymes is hypothesized to reflect enhanced responsiveness to catecholamines in immature rats, and possible ischemia related to diminished vasodilatory activity in middle-aged rats. On the basis of these changes, tolerance to restraint in postpubertal and young adults appears to be slightly greater than that of immature and middle-aged rats.

  19. Role of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ and NOP Receptors in the Response to Acute and Repeated Restraint Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, G; Dawe, K L; Hogan, R; Hunjan, T; Roper, J; Hazell, G; Lolait, S J; Fulford, A J

    2012-01-01

    Central nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-expressing neurones are abundantly expressed in the hypothalamus and limbic system and are implicated in the regulation of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and stress responses. We investigated the role of the endogenous N/OFQ receptor (NOP) system using the nonpeptidic NOP antagonist, JTC-801 [N-(4-amino-2-methylquinolin-6-yl)-2-(4-ethylphenoxy-methyl)benzamide monohydrochloride], during the HPA axis response to acute physical/psychological stress (60 min of restraint). Although i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) had no significant effect on restraint-induced plasma corticosterone release at 30 or 60 min post-injection, i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) in quiescent rats significantly increased basal plasma corticosterone at the 30-min time-point compared to i.v. vehicle (1% dimethysulphoxide in sterile saline). Central injection of JTC-801 i.c.v. was associated with increased Fos expression in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus 90 min after infusion compared to vehicle control. These findings contrast to the effects of i.c.v. UFP-101, a NOP antagonist that we have previously shown to have no effect on HPA activity in quiescent rats. To determine whether restraint stress was associated with compensatory changes in N/OFQ precursor (ppN/OFQ) or NOP receptor mRNAs, in a separate study, we undertook reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation analysis of ppN/OFQ and NOP transcripts in the brains of male Sprague–Dawley rats. In support of an endogenous role for central N/OFQ in psychological stress, we found that acute restraint significantly decreased preproN/OFQ transcript expression in the hippocampus 2 h after stress compared to unstressed controls. PpN/OFQ mRNA was also reduced in the mediodorsal forebrain 4 h after stress. NOP mRNA was reduced in the hypothalamus 2 h after restraint and at 4 h in mediodorsal forebrain and hippocampus. In situ hybridisation

  20. Effect of habituation on the susceptibility of the rat to restraint ulcers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1980-01-01

    The frequency and gravity of restraint ulcers were found to significantly diminish in rats previously exposed to brief periods of immobilization. The rats' becoming habituated to restraint conditions probably explains this phenomenon.

  1. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  2. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  3. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  4. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  5. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  6. Restriction on Restraints in the Care for People with Intellectual Disabilities in the Netherlands: Lessons Learned from Australia, UK, and United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romijn, Anita; Frederiks, Brenda J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, physical/mechanical restraints in the care provided to people with intellectual disabilities are still in use, with the case of "Brandon" being a recent and illustrative example. The public debate that this case triggered raised questions concerning the policy proposal in the Care and Coercion Bill ("Wetsvoorstel Zorg en…

  7. Role of Ligand Reorganization and Conformational Restraints on the Binding Free Energies of DAPY Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors to HIV Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Gallicchio, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    The results of computer simulations of the binding of etravirine (TMC125) and rilpivirine (TMC278) to HIV reverse transcriptase are reported. It is confirmed that consistent binding free energy estimates are obtained with or without the application of torsional restraints when the free energies of imposing the restraints are taken into account. The restraints have a smaller influence on the thermodynamics and apparent kinetics of binding of TMC125 compared to the more flexible TMC278 inhibitor. The concept of the reorganization free energy of binding is useful to understand and categorize these effects. Contrary to expectations, the use of conformational restraints did not consistently enhance convergence of binding free energy estimates due to suppression of binding/unbinding pathways and due to the influence of rotational degrees of freedom not directly controlled by the restraints. Physical insights concerning the thermodynamic driving forces for binding and the role of “jiggling” and “wiggling” motion of the ligands are discussed. Based on these insights we conclude that an ideal inhibitor, if chemically realizable, would possess the electrostatic charge distribution of TMC125, so as to form strong interactions with the receptor, and the larger and more flexible substituents of TMC278, so as to minimize reorganization free energy penalties and the effects of resistance mutations, suitably modified, as in TMC125, so as to disfavor the formation of non-binding competent extended conformations when free in solution. PMID:22708073

  8. A Theoretical Analysis of Potential Extinction Properties of Behavior-Specific Manual Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio; Thomas, Melvin; Martin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper will examine possible extinction properties of behavior-specific manual restraint. It will analyze the possibility of extinction being produced via restraint with respect to the target behavior's possible environmental functions. The theoretical analysis will involve the analysis of behavioral properties of restraint during two temporal…

  9. Restraint Use Legislation: Its Prospects for Increasing the Protection of Children in Cars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    Young children and infants are especially vulnerable to serious injury in auto collisions because so few of them are protected by restraints or because legally required restraint devices are improperly used. Seat belt use laws tend to exclude children and child restraint legislation which exists includes gaps and shortcomings that limit its…

  10. Fly-away restraint pin mechanism for the Army's PATRIOT missile system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the longitudinal restraint mechanism for the PATRIOT missile system is reviewed. Two approaches for the restraint pin design are discussed: an initial ordnance mechanism, and a passive fly-away mechanism. Because of reliability problems and a desire to reduce cost the fly-away restraint mechanism was chosen.

  11. Fly-away restraint pin mechanism for the Army's PATRIOT missile system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the longitudinal restraint mechanism for the Army's Patriot missile system is reviewed. The initial design was an ordnance pin puller with a shear plane. Because of reliability problems and a desire to reduce cost, a fly-away restraint mechanism was chosen. After being manually unlocked, the restraint pin disengages the missile during launch by missile motion.

  12. The Effects of Non-Contingent Self-Restraint on Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerth, Denise Marzullo; Progar, Patrick R.; Morales, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Self-restraint is a pervasive phenomenon among individuals who engage in self-injurious behaviour (SIB). Materials and Methods: The present study examined the use of clothing as a socially acceptable alternative to self-restraint to reduce SIB and other topographies of self-restraint in an adolescent diagnosed with autism. Two separate…

  13. Functional Analysis of Self-Injurious Behavior and Its Relation to Self-Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooker, Griffin W.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Some individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) also exhibit self-restraint. In the present study, a series of three functional analyses were conducted to determine the variables that maintained a participant's SIB, one without restraint items available, one with a preferred and effective form of self-restraint (an airplane pillow)…

  14. 75 FR 67233 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Head Restraints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... the Federal Register (69 FR 74848) a final rule \\1\\ upgrading the agency's head restraint standard in... Register (72 FR 25484) a final rule; response to petitions for reconsideration \\2\\ which completed the... with damage to muscles, ligaments and vertebrae, but in many cases lesions are not evident. The...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling,...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling,...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling,...

  18. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling,...

  19. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling,...

  20. Reward Improves Cancellation and Restraint Inhibition Across Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sinopoli, Katia J.; Schachar, Russell; Dennis, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitory control allows for the regulation of thought and action, and interacts with motivational variables, such as reward, to modify behavior adaptively as environments change. We examined the effects of reward on two distinct forms of inhibitory control, cancellation and restraint. Typically developing children and adolescents completed two versions of the stop signal task (cancellation and restraint) under three reward conditions (neutral, low reward, and high reward), where rewards were earned for successful inhibitory control. Rewards improved both cancellation and restraint inhibition, with similar effects of reward on each form of inhibitory control. Rewards did not alter the speed of response execution in either task, suggesting that rewards specifically altered inhibition processes without influencing processes related to response execution. Adolescents were faster and less variable than children when executing and inhibiting their responses. There were similar developmental effects of reward on the speed of inhibitory control, but group differences were found in terms of accuracy of inhibition in the restraint task. These results clarify how reward modulates two different forms of regulatory behavior in children and adolescents. PMID:21744952

  1. Dietary restraint and self-regulation in eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Johnson, F; Pratt, M; Wardle, J

    2012-05-01

    Self-control is generally viewed as highly desirable. In the eating behavior domain, however, the dominance of restraint theory has made the proposition that individuals should attempt to control their eating more controversial. This review discusses evidence from the dietary restraint literature and from studies of self-regulation processes to examine how far self-imposed control around food can be seen as beneficial for effective weight management. Epidemiological and field study evidence provides little support for the proposition that restrained eating causes disinhibited eating patterns. Restraint is often initiated as a response to weight gain, and the co-occurrence of disinhibited and restrained eating patterns on an individual level might better be explained by restraint acting as a marker for overeating tendencies. A sustained effort to monitor and control food intake characterizes successful long-term weight maintenance, suggesting that self-regulation in the eating domain is essential for those with a tendency to gain weight. Evidence from the literature on cognitive self-regulation suggests that there may be potential for people to learn to self-regulate better, both through training and controlled exposure techniques. Integration of the disparate theories of self-regulation is needed to identify the best ways of promoting self-regulation in order to support effective weight control, both in clinical and community settings.

  2. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material failure, vertical loads of at least 200,000 pounds (90,718.5 kg) applied in upward and downward directions in combination with buff loads of 2,000 pounds (907.2 kg), when coupled to cars which may or may... this section shall be achieved by verification testing of the coupler vertical restraint system...

  3. Reward Improves Cancellation and Restraint Inhibition across Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinopoli, Katia J.; Schachar, Russell; Dennis, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitory control allows for the regulation of thought and action and interacts with motivational variables, such as reward, to modify behavior adaptively as environments change. The authors examined the effects of reward on two distinct forms of inhibitory control, cancellation and restraint. Typically developing children and adolescents…

  4. The Cost of Prior Restraint: "U. S. v. The Progressive."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloski, John; Dyer, Carolyn Stewart

    Increased litigation and rising litigation costs threaten the future of newspapers and magazines. A case study was conducted to determine the costs and effects of "United States v. 'The Progressive,'" a prior restraint case over the publication in 1979 of an article on the hydrogen bomb. "The Progressive," which operates at a deficit, spent almost…

  5. The Influence of Restraint Systems on Panel Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    When a panel is tested in uniaxial compression in a test machine, the boundary conditions are not quite the same as they would be if it were part of a complete structure. A restraint system may be used to simulate conditions found in a complete vehicle. Quantifying the quality of the restraint with only point-measurement devices can leave an inadequate characterization of the out-of-plane behavior. However, today s full-field displacement monitoring techniques allow for much more accurate views of the global panel deformation and strain, and therefore allow for a better understanding of panel behavior. In the current study, the behavior of a hat-stiffened and two rod-stiffened carbon-epoxy panels is considered. Panels were approximately 2 meters tall and 0.76 to 1.06 m wide. Unloaded edges were supported by knife edges and stiffeners were attached to a support structure at selected locations to restrain out-of-plane motion. A comparison is made between test results based on full-field measurements and analyses based on assumptions of boundary conditions of a completely rigid edge restraint and the absence of any edge restraint. Results indicate that motion at the restrained edges must be considered to obtain accurate test-analysis correlation.

  6. Successful implementation of cooperative handling eliminates the need for restraint in a complex nonhuman primate disease model

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Melanie L; Rieke, Eric F; Mutch, Lucas A; Zolondek, Elizabeth K; Faig, Aaron W; DuFour, Theresa A; Munson, James W; Kittredge, Jessica A; Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Streptozotocin-induced diabetic nonhuman primates are used to study efficacy and safety of innovative immunosuppression after islet transplantation. We implemented a training program for medical management of a chronic disease state. Methods Cooperation with hand feeding and drinking; shifting; and limb presentation were trained utilizing predominately positive but also negative reinforcement in 52 animals compared with 28 macaques subjected to conventional physical and/or chemical restraint. The success of and timing of behavior acquisition was evaluated in a representative subset of 14 animals. Results Over 90% of animals were successful in behavior acquisition. Programmatically this resulted in complete elimination of chair restraint and negligible requirement for sedation. About half of trained animals had no to moderate thymic involution, indicative of a substantial reduction in stress. Conclusion Cooperative handling enhances animal well-being. This contributes to validity of scientific results and eliminates model-induced confounding that can obstruct interpretation of safety and efficacy data. PMID:22150842

  7. The Effect of Obesity on the Restraint of Automobile Occupants

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola

    2009-01-01

    As obesity rates increase, the protection of obese occupants will become increasingly important in vehicle and restraint design. As a first step in this effort, this study seeks to compare the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of obese post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to (approximately) 50th percentile adult male PMHS in frontal impact sled tests with a force-limiting, pre-tensioning restraint system. Forty-eight km/h, frontal impact sled tests were performed with a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant compartment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. The restraint system consisted of a 3-point belt with a pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter at the retractor. The test subjects were either obese PMHS or approximately 50th percentile adult male PMHS. Instrumentation included accelerometer packages on the spine. Deformation of the subjects' chests were measured using chestbands placed nominally at the superior-inferior locations of the 4th and 8th ribs. Tension in the restraint system was measured at the upper shoulder belt, lower shoulder belt, and the lap belt. Motion of the head, shoulder, pelvis, and knee were recorded using high-speed video. Two obese PMHS (average mass 137 kg, average stature 186 cm) and three approximately mid-sized male PMHS (average mass 68 kg, average stature 176 cm) were tested. The obese PMHS exhibited significantly greater forward motion of the head and the pelvis compared to the mid-sized PMHS. The obese PMHS also exhibited backwards torso rotation at the time of maximum forward excursion, whereas the mid-sized PMHS did not. The obese PMHS exhibited average maximum chest compressions of approximately 44% (± 9% standard deviation) of their initial chest depths, and exhibited 26 g (± 2 g) average 3 ms clip maximum chest resultant acceleration. In comparison, the mid-sized PMHS exhibited averages of 29% (± 9%) maximum chest compression and 35 g (± 4 g) maximum 3 ms clip chest acceleration. The obese PMHS exhibited 7 and 2 rib

  8. Impact of eLearning course on nurses' professional competence in seclusion and restraint practices: a randomized controlled study (ISRCTN32869544).

    PubMed

    Kontio, R; Lahti, M; Pitkänen, A; Joffe, G; Putkonen, H; Hätönen, H; Katajisto, J; Välimäki, M

    2011-11-01

    Education on the care of aggressive and disturbed patients is fragmentary. eLearning could ensure the quality of such education, but data on its impact on professional competence in psychiatry are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ePsychNurse.Net, an eLearning course, on psychiatric nurses' professional competence in seclusion and restraint and on their job satisfaction and general self-efficacy. In a randomized controlled study, 12 wards were randomly assigned to ePsychNurse.Net (intervention) or education as usual (control). Baseline and 3-month follow-up data on nurses' knowledge of coercion-related legislation, physical restraint and seclusion, their attitudes towards physical restraint and seclusion, job satisfaction and general self-efficacy were analysed for 158 completers. Knowledge (primary outcome) of coercion-related legislation improved in the intervention group, while knowledge of physical restraint improved and knowledge of seclusion remained unchanged in both groups. General self-efficacy improved in the intervention group also attitude to seclusion in the control group. In between-group comparison, attitudes to seclusion (one of secondary outcomes) favoured the control group. Although the ePsychNurse.Net demonstrated only slight advantages over conventional learning, it may be worth further development with, e.g. flexible time schedule and individualized content. PMID:21985684

  9. Choosing Staff Members Reduces Time in Mechanical Restraint Due to Self-Injurious Behaviour and Requesting Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Craig C.; Lydersen, Tore; Johnson, Paul R.; Weiss, Shannon R.; Marconi, Michael R.; Cleave, Mary L.; Weber, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Using mechanical restraints to protect a person who engaged in dangerous self-injury was decreased by manipulation of an establishing operation involving the client choosing the staff person who would work with her. Materials and Methods: The client was a 28-year-old woman diagnosed with autism, bipolar disorder, static cerebral…

  10. Self-restraint as positive reinforcement for self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R G; Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A

    1996-01-01

    Many individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) also exhibit self-restraint. We compared rates of SIB exhibited by a 32-year-old woman diagnosed with profound retardation across conditions in which access to restraint was (a) continuously available, (b) presented as a consequence for SIB, or (c) unavailable. Rates of SIB increased when access to restraint was contingent upon SIB and decreased when restraint was unavailable, suggesting that self-restraint functioned as positive reinforcement for SIB. PMID:8881348

  11. JLigand: a graphical tool for the CCP4 template-restraint library

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Andrey A.; Young, Paul; Isupov, Michail N.; Moroz, Olga V.; Vagin, Alexey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.

    2012-04-01

    The CCP4 template-restraint library defines restraints for biopolymers, their modifications and ligands that are used in macromolecular structure refinement. JLigand is a graphical editor for generating descriptions of new ligands and covalent linkages. Biological macromolecules are polymers and therefore the restraints for macromolecular refinement can be subdivided into two sets: restraints that are applied to atoms that all belong to the same monomer and restraints that are associated with the covalent bonds between monomers. The CCP4 template-restraint library contains three types of data entries defining template restraints: descriptions of monomers and their modifications, both used for intramonomer restraints, and descriptions of links for intermonomer restraints. The library provides generic descriptions of modifications and links for protein, DNA and RNA chains, and for some post-translational modifications including glycosylation. Structure-specific template restraints can be defined in a user’s additional restraint library. Here, JLigand, a new CCP4 graphical interface to LibCheck and REFMAC that has been developed to manage the user’s library and generate new monomer entries is described, as well as new entries for links and associated modifications.

  12. Improving patient care through implementation of nurse-driven restraint protocols.

    PubMed

    Winston, P A; Morelli, P; Bramble, J; Friday, A; Sanders, J B

    1999-08-01

    Nationally, much attention has been placed on the indiscriminate application and abuse of restraint usage. This was the impetus for health care institutions across the country to relook at the policy, practices, and procedures regarding restraints. Our health care system made changes to our restraint policy, practice guidelines, and procedures in an effort to assure protection of the patients' health and safety while preserving their dignity, rights, and well-being. The mission was to pursue a restraint-appropriate environment by restraining only those patients who were assessed as being at risk of harming self and to protect the patient or others from injury. Our overall goal was to reduce restraint usage. This article describes the current policies, practice guidelines, and procedures for identifying clinically appropriate and adequately justified situations for restraint usage. The focus is on implementation of nurse-driven restraint protocols to improve patient care. All efforts directed at improvements in restraint usage and management of a patient in restraints has reduced our overall numbers of patients in restraints as well as significantly reduced risk of incidence for patients in restraints. PMID:10476623

  13. Investigation of crew restraint system biomechanics. Report for May 79-Mar 81

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.S.; Thomson, R.A.; Fiscus, I.B.

    1982-05-01

    Experimental data were collected and analyses were performed to study the influence of the dynamic mechanical properties of restraint system components on human response to impact and restraint system haulback. Tests were accomplished to isolate the characteristics of the restraint system and the human body. Three restraint webbing materials were studied at varied strain rates. A pyrotechnically powered inertia reel was tested, but could not be analytically modeled successfully. Analytical models of the human and restraint system were used to study the influence of restraint material properties changes on human response parameters. An analytical model of a rhesus monkey was also used to study the efficacy of animal tests and scaling techniques to evaluate restraint systems for human use applications.

  14. Sequence and priming in 15 month-olds' reactions to brief arm restraint: evidence for a hierarchy of anger responses.

    PubMed

    Potegal, Michael; Robison, Sarah; Anderson, Fiona; Jordan, Catherine; Shapiro, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    Brief, gentle arm restraint is widely used in experimental studies of children's anger, but the pattern of responses generated by such restraint has been incompletely described. We now describe a hierarchy of responses within trials as well as an escalation across trials that have both methodological and theoretical significance. Mothers of 87 15-month olds prevented them from playing with a toy by restraining their arms on two consecutive 30 sec trials. Physical struggling was the first and most frequent response; children who struggled were significantly more likely to vocalize, and those who vocalized were significantly more likely to show facial expressions of anger. The children's responses became more probable, rapid, and intense during Trial 2 restraint. Overall, the hierarchy was orderly enough to meet criteria for Guttman scalability. The particular sequence observed suggests situational, as opposed to bio-energetic, ordering of responses. Methodologically, the two trial paradigm is a simple, ecologically valid model for studying anger escalation that parallels the "attack priming" of aggression in other species. The magnitude and persistence of anger priming may provide novel measures of anger regulation. Theoretically, the existence of an orderly response hierarchy is consistent with previous observations suggesting that, within a situational context, the sequential appearance of specific behaviors may indicate progressive increases in anger intensity. PMID:17918278

  15. Contribution of Social Isolation, Restraint, and Hindlimb Unloading to Changes in Hemodynamic Parameters and Motion Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsvirkun, Darya; Bourreau, Jennifer; Mieuset, Aurélie; Garo, Florian; Vinogradova, Olga; Larina, Irina; Navasiolava, Nastassia; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The most accepted animal model for simulation of the physiological and morphological consequences of microgravity on the cardiovascular system is one of head-down hindlimb unloading. Experimental conditions surrounding this model include not only head-down tilting of rats, but also social and restraint stresses that have their own influences on cardiovascular system function. Here, we studied levels of spontaneous locomotor activity, blood pressure, and heart rate during 14 days under the following experimental conditions: cage control, social isolation in standard rat housing, social isolation in special cages for hindlimb unloading, horizontal attachment (restraint), and head-down hindlimb unloading. General activity and hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored in conscious rats by telemetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were both evaluated during treadmill running to reveal cardiovascular deconditioning development as a result of unloading. The main findings of our work are that: social isolation and restraint induced persistent physical inactivity, while unloading in rats resulted in initial inactivity followed by normalization and increased locomotion after one week. Moreover, 14 days of hindlimb unloading showed significant elevation of blood pressure and slight elevation of heart rate. Hemodynamic changes in isolated and restrained rats largely reproduced the trends observed during unloading. Finally, we detected no augmentation of tachycardia during moderate exercise in rats after 14 days of unloading. Thus, we concluded that both social isolation and restraint, as an integral part of the model conditions, contribute essentially to cardiovascular reactions during head-down hindlimb unloading, compared to the little changes in the hydrostatic gradient. PMID:22768322

  16. Dangerous Use of Seclusion and Restraints in Schools Remains Widespread and Difficult to Remedy: A Review of Ten Cases. United States Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. Majority Committee Staff Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate (NJ1), 2014

    2014-01-01

    There is no evidence that physically restraining or putting children in unsupervised seclusion in the K-12 school system provides any educational or therapeutic benefit to a child. In fact, use of either seclusion or restraints in non-emergency situations poses significant physical and psychological danger to students. Yet the first round of data…

  17. Effects of edge restraint on slab behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guice, L.K.

    1986-02-01

    This study was performed in conjunction with a Federal Emergency Management Agency program to plan, design, and construct keyworker blast shelters which would be used in high-risk areas of the country during and after a nuclear attack. The shelters considered in this study were box-type structures in which damage is much more likely to occur in the roof slab than in the walls or floor. In this part of the program, the effect of edge restraint on slab behavior was investigated. The primary objective was to determine the effects of partial rotational restraint on slab strength, ductility, and mechanism of failure. Sixteen one-way, reinforced concrete plate elements were tested in a reaction structure under uniform static water pressure.

  18. Effects of child restraint system features on installation errors.

    PubMed

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Ebert, Sheila M; Malik, Laura A; Green, Paul A; Reed, Matthew P

    2014-03-01

    This study examined how child restraint system (CRS) features contribute to CRS installation errors. Sixteen convertible CRS, selected to include a wide range of features, were used in volunteer testing with 32 subjects. Subjects were recruited based on their education level (high or low) and experience with installing CRS (none or experienced). Each subject was asked to perform four child restraint installations in the right-rear passenger seat of a 2006 Pontiac G6 sedan using a crash dummy as a child surrogate. Each subject installed two CRS forward-facing (FF), one with LATCH and one with the vehicle seatbelt, and two CRS rear-facing (RF), one with LATCH and one with the seatbelt. After each installation, the experimenter evaluated 42 factors for each installation, such as choice of belt routing path, tightness of installation, and harness snugness. Analyses used linear mixed models to identify CRS installation outcomes associated with CRS features. LATCH connector type, LATCH strap adjustor type, and the presence of belt lockoffs were associated with the tightness of the CRS installation. The type of harness shoulder height adjuster was associated with the rate of achieving a snug harness. Correct tether use was associated with the tether storage method. In general, subject assessments of the ease-of-use of CRS features were not highly correlated with the quality of their installation, suggesting a need for feedback with incorrect installations. The data from this study provide quantitative assessments of some CRS features that were associated with reductions in CRS installation errors. These results provide child restraint designers with design guidelines for developing easier-to-use products. Research on providing effective feedback during the child restraint installation process is recommended. PMID:23731627

  19. Development of restraint material and tucked fabric joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmullen, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate and select a suitable restraint material for the exterior of space suits pressurized to 4.0 PSID for normal operations, and to develop and improve tucked fabric joints for motions associated with the human shoulder, elbow, knee, waist, hip, ankle, and wrist. The many attributes of the end items are summarized to include structural integrity, simplicity, low maintenance, lightweight, high durability, low elongation, full range mobility, long life, and resistance to degradation in the operational environment.

  20. Effects of child restraint system features on installation errors.

    PubMed

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Ebert, Sheila M; Malik, Laura A; Green, Paul A; Reed, Matthew P

    2014-03-01

    This study examined how child restraint system (CRS) features contribute to CRS installation errors. Sixteen convertible CRS, selected to include a wide range of features, were used in volunteer testing with 32 subjects. Subjects were recruited based on their education level (high or low) and experience with installing CRS (none or experienced). Each subject was asked to perform four child restraint installations in the right-rear passenger seat of a 2006 Pontiac G6 sedan using a crash dummy as a child surrogate. Each subject installed two CRS forward-facing (FF), one with LATCH and one with the vehicle seatbelt, and two CRS rear-facing (RF), one with LATCH and one with the seatbelt. After each installation, the experimenter evaluated 42 factors for each installation, such as choice of belt routing path, tightness of installation, and harness snugness. Analyses used linear mixed models to identify CRS installation outcomes associated with CRS features. LATCH connector type, LATCH strap adjustor type, and the presence of belt lockoffs were associated with the tightness of the CRS installation. The type of harness shoulder height adjuster was associated with the rate of achieving a snug harness. Correct tether use was associated with the tether storage method. In general, subject assessments of the ease-of-use of CRS features were not highly correlated with the quality of their installation, suggesting a need for feedback with incorrect installations. The data from this study provide quantitative assessments of some CRS features that were associated with reductions in CRS installation errors. These results provide child restraint designers with design guidelines for developing easier-to-use products. Research on providing effective feedback during the child restraint installation process is recommended.

  1. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System (PERS) Single-Strap and H-Strap are shown behind astronaut James S. Voss (left) and cosmonaut Yury V. Usachev in the U.S. Laboratory. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro, and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  2. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System (PERS) H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. laboratory's hatch. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro, and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate. Cosmonauts Yury V. Usachev (left), Expedition Two commander and Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition One flight engineer, are shown inside the U.S. Laboratory in this photograph.

  3. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. Laboratory hatch and behind Astronaut James D. Weatherbee, mission specialist. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  4. The evolution of reproductive restraint through social communication.

    PubMed

    Werfel, Justin; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2004-07-27

    The evolution of altruistic behavior through group selection is generally viewed as possible in theory but unlikely in reality, because individual selection favoring selfish strategies should act more rapidly than group selection favoring cooperation. Here we demonstrate the evolution of altruism, in the form of conditional reproductive restraint based on an explicitly social mechanism, modulated by intrapopulation communication comprising signal and evolved response, in a spatially distributed predatory/parasitic/pathogenic model system. The predatory species consistently comes to exploit a signal implying overcrowding, individuals constraining their reproduction in response, with a corresponding increase in equilibrium reproduction rate in the absence of signal. This signaled restraint arises in a robust way for a range of model spatial systems; it outcompetes non-signal-based restraint and is not vulnerable to subversion by noncooperating variants. In these systems, communication is used to evaluate population density and regulate reproduction accordingly, consistent with central ideas of Wynne-Edwards [Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior (Hafner, New York)], whose claims about the evolutionary importance of group selection helped ignite decades of controversy. This quantitative simulation model shows how the key evolutionary transition from solitary living to sociality can occur. The process described here of cooperation evolving through communication may also help to explain other major evolutionary transitions such as intercellular communication leading to multicellular organisms.

  5. Controlled impact demonstration seat/cabin restraint systems: FAA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The FAA restraint system experiments consisted of 24 standard and modified seats, 2 standard galleys and 2 standard overhead compartments. Under the controlled impact demonstration (CID) program, the experimental objective was to demonstrate the effectiveness of individual restraint system designs when exposed to a survivable air-to-ground impact condition. What researchers were looking for was the performance exhibited by standard and modified designs, performance differences resulting from their installed cabin location, and interrelating performance demonstrated by test article and attaching floor and/or fuselage structure. The other restraint system experiment consisted of 2 standard overhead stowage compartments and 2 galley modules. Again, researchers were concerned with the retention of stowed equipment and carry-on articles. The overhead compartments were loaded with test weights up to their maximum capacity, and each of the galleys was filled with test articles: aft with normal galley equipment, forward with hazardous material test packages. A breakdown of instrumentation and distribution is given beginning with 11 instrumented type anthropomorphic dummies and 185 sensors which provided for acceleration and load measurements at the various experiment and associated structure locations. The onboard cameras provided additional coverage of these experiments, including the areas of cabin which were not instrumented. Test results showing the window-side leg forces versus pulse duration are given.

  6. Unexpected death related to restraint for excited delirium: a retrospective study of deaths in police custody and in the community

    PubMed Central

    Pollanen, M S; Chiasson, D A; Cairns, J T; Young, J G

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some people in states of excited delirium die while in police custody. Emerging evidence suggests that physical restraint in certain positions may contribute to such deaths. In this study the authors determined the frequency of physical restraint among people in a state of excited delirium who died unexpectedly. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of 21 cases of unexpected death in people with excited delirium, which were investigated by the Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario between 1988 and 1995. Eyewitness testimony, findings during postmortem examinations, clinical history, toxicological data and other official documents describing the events surrounding the deaths were analyzed. Specific reference was made to documented eyewitness testimony of restraint method, body position and use of capsicum oleoresin (pepper) spray. Because cocaine was detected in the blood of some of these people during the postmortem examination, the role of cocaine in excited delirium was examined by comparing the cocaine levels in these cases with levels in 2 control groups: 19 people who died from acute cocaine intoxication and 21 people who had used cocaine shortly before they died but who had died from other causes. RESULTS: In all 21 cases of unexpected death associated with excited delirium, the deaths were associated with restraint (for violent agitation and hyperactivity), with the person either in a prone position (18 people [86%]) or subjected to pressure on the neck (3 [14%]). All of those who died had suddenly lapsed into tranquillity shortly after being restrained. The excited delirium was caused by a psychiatric disorder in 12 people (57%) and by cocaine-induced psychosis in 8 (38%). Eighteen people (86%) were in police custody when they died. Four (19%) had been sprayed with capsicum oleoresin, and heart disease was found in another 4 at autopsy. The blood level of cocaine in those whose excited delirium was cocaine induced was similar to levels

  7. Risk Factors for Seclusion and Restraint in a Pediatric Psychiatry Day Hospital.

    PubMed

    Timbo, Wuroh; Sriram, Aishwarya; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; DeBoard-Lucas, Renee; Specht, Matthew; Howell, Carolyn; McSweeney, Colleen; Grados, Marco A

    2016-10-01

    The use of seclusion and restraints (SR) in acute hospital settings remains a controversial practice. Despite the focus on SR in the psychiatric services literature, data on SR use in pediatric day hospital settings is lacking. A case-control retrospective analysis for children admitted into a pediatric psychiatry day hospital in a 2-year span examined predictors of SR use. Demographic and clinical descriptors were examined in relation to SR events using univariate and multivariate regression models. Significant univariate risk factors for SR use were psychiatric morbidity, history of physical abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, having any anxiety disorder, and younger age. Knowledge of risk factors for SR use in pediatric psychiatric day hospitals can avert use of SR and lead to improved safety in a trauma-informed care model.

  8. a Dosimetry Assessment for the Core Restraint of AN Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, D. A.; Allen, D. A.; Tyrrell, R. J.; Meese, T. C.; Huggon, A. P.; Whiley, G. S.; Mossop, J. R.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes calculations of neutron damage rates within the core restraint structures of Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGRs). Using advanced features of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCBEND, and neutron source data from core follow calculations performed with the reactor physics code PANTHER, a detailed model of the reactor cores of two of British Energy's AGR power plants has been developed for this purpose. Because there are no relevant neutron fluence measurements directly supporting this assessment, results of benchmark comparisons and successful validation of MCBEND for Magnox reactors have been used to estimate systematic and random uncertainties on the predictions. In particular, it has been necessary to address the known under-prediction of lower energy fast neutron responses associated with the penetration of large thicknesses of graphite.

  9. Stimulus fading and transfer in the treatment of self-restraint and self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, G M; Iwata, B A; Edwards, G L; McCosh, K C

    1986-01-01

    We conducted several manipulations of mechanical restraint properties during the course of treatment for two profoundly retarded adolescents who exhibited both self-restraint and self-injurious behavior. In study 1, a combination of prompting, differential reinforcement, and stimulus fading reduced one subject's self-restraint, which consisted of holding rigid tubes on his arms. Subsequently, stimulus control of both self-restraint and self-injurious behavior was transferred to tennis wrist bands. In study 2, a second subject's self-restraint--placing his hands in his pants--was immediately eliminated by the use of air splints. Additionally, differential reinforcement and air-pressure fading resulted in the complete mobility of his arms and a substantial increase in appropriate behaviors. Results of this investigation suggest that stimulus fading and transfer may be valuable components in the elimination of self-restraint. PMID:3804871

  10. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior.

  11. Effect of restraint stress on nociceptive responses in rats: role of the histaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Ibironke, G F; Mordi, N E

    2011-12-20

    Stress induced analgesia (SIA) is well known, but the reverse phenomenon, hyperalgesia is poorly documented. This study investigated the role of the histaminergic system in restraint stress hyperalgesia in rats, using thermal stimulation method (hot plate and tail flick tests). Paw licking and tail withdrawal latencies were taken before and after restraint for about one hour. Significant decreases (p<0.05) were obtained in these latencies after the restraint in both tests. Administration of H1 and H2 receptor blockers, chlorpheniramine and cimetidine respectively 30 mins before the restraint still resulted in significant reductions (p<0.05) in these latencies, connoting the persistence of hyperalgesia, showing that histamine H1 and H2 receptors did not participate in the mechanism of restraint stress hyperalgesia. We therefore suggest a histaminergic independent mechanism for restraint stress induced hyperalgesia.

  12. Occupant restraint in the rear seat: ATD responses to standard and pre-tensioning, force-limiting belt restraints.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal impact sled tests at two speeds (48 km/h and 29 km/h DeltaV) with a buck representing the interior of the reat seat occupant compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. Four different dummies were tested: the Hybrid III six year old (in a booster seat, H3 6YO), the Hybrid III 5(th) percentile female (H3 AF05), the Hybrid III 50(th) percentile male (H3 AM50), and the THOR-NT. The restraints consisted of either a standard three point belt, or a 3-point belt with a retractor pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter (FL+PT). Each test condition was repeated in triplicate. The FL+PT restraints (compared to the standard restraints) resulted in a significant (p < or = 0.05) decrease in peak internal chest deflection for each of the Hybrid III dummies at both test speeds (48 km/h: 29% decrease for H3 6YO, 38% decrease for H3 AF05, 30% decrease for H3 AM50), and for the THOR-NT at a DeltaV of 29 km/h. At 48 km/h, the FL+PT restraint qualitatively decreased the average peak internal chest deflection of the THOR-NT, however this decrease was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Furthermore, the FL+PT system allowed little or no increase in forward head excursion, and improved whole-body kinematics for all dummies by restricting pelvic excursion and slightly increasing torso pitch. The results suggest that the FL+PT system studied here may provide injury-reducing benefit to rear seat occupants in moderate to high severity frontal crashes, although more study is needed to evaluate

  13. Occupant restraint in the rear seat: ATD responses to standard and pre-tensioning, force-limiting belt restraints.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal impact sled tests at two speeds (48 km/h and 29 km/h DeltaV) with a buck representing the interior of the reat seat occupant compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. Four different dummies were tested: the Hybrid III six year old (in a booster seat, H3 6YO), the Hybrid III 5(th) percentile female (H3 AF05), the Hybrid III 50(th) percentile male (H3 AM50), and the THOR-NT. The restraints consisted of either a standard three point belt, or a 3-point belt with a retractor pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter (FL+PT). Each test condition was repeated in triplicate. The FL+PT restraints (compared to the standard restraints) resulted in a significant (p < or = 0.05) decrease in peak internal chest deflection for each of the Hybrid III dummies at both test speeds (48 km/h: 29% decrease for H3 6YO, 38% decrease for H3 AF05, 30% decrease for H3 AM50), and for the THOR-NT at a DeltaV of 29 km/h. At 48 km/h, the FL+PT restraint qualitatively decreased the average peak internal chest deflection of the THOR-NT, however this decrease was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Furthermore, the FL+PT system allowed little or no increase in forward head excursion, and improved whole-body kinematics for all dummies by restricting pelvic excursion and slightly increasing torso pitch. The results suggest that the FL+PT system studied here may provide injury-reducing benefit to rear seat occupants in moderate to high severity frontal crashes, although more study is needed to evaluate

  14. Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors reduce Cannabis and restraint stress induced increase in rat brain serotonin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Bhattacharya, D

    1983-01-01

    Cannabis resin (CI) produced a dose-related increase in rat brain serotonin concentrations, whereas restraint stress produced maximal rise of the neurotransmitter concentrations at 1 h, followed by a tendency to normalise by 4 h. The prostaglandin (PG) synthesis inhibitors, diclofenac and paracetamol, antagonized CI and restraint stress induced rise in serotonin concentrations. The findings lend credence to earlier reports that PG synthesis inhibitors antagonize serotonin-mediated neuropharmacological actions of CI and restraint stress in rats.

  15. 42 CFR 483.362 - Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARE FACILITIES Condition of Participation for the Use of Restraint or Seclusion in Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 §...

  16. An alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sen Lin; Yang, Shu Hui; Li, Bing; Xu, Yan Chun; Ma, Jian Hua; Xu, Jian Feng; Zhang, Xian Guang

    2011-01-01

    Flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. Currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. Surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. Non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stiffness. We observed microstructure of primary feathers of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and found that the width of barbs is a determinative factor influencing vane stiffness and geometric parameters. We hypothesized that partial longitudinal excision of barbs on the ventral surface of the primary feathers would reduce the stiffness of the vane and render the feathers unable to support the crane's body weight during flight. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this modification of barbs would also change the aerodynamic performance of feathers such that they could not generate sufficient lift and thrust during flapping to enable the bird to fly. We tested this hypothesis on a red-crowned crane that had normal flight capability by excising the ventral margin of barbs on all 10 primaries on the left wing. The bird was unable to take off until the modified feathers were replaced by new ones. Removal of barbs proved to be a simple, non-invasive, low-cost and reversible method for flight restraint. It is potentially applicable to other large birds with similar structural characteristics of primary feathers. PMID:21538502

  17. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2006-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  18. The use of restraints or seclusion in the school setting.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    It is the position of National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is an essential advocate for the health and well-being of all students. Promoting a safe and secure environment is vital to the educational success and emotional development of children. The use of restraints or seclusion can potentially cause injury or death and therefore should be used only as a brief intervention where there is the risk of imminent danger to the child, staff, or classmates (Mohr, LeBel, O’Halloran, & Preustch, 2010; United States Department of Education [USDE], 2012). PMID:25816445

  19. An unexpected increase in restraint duration alters the expression of stress response habituation

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Rachael R.; Spencer, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    While habituation develops to a repeated psychological stressor, manipulating certain parameters of the stress challenge experience may lead to dishabituation of the stress response. In this experiment, we investigated whether the behavioral, endocrine, and neural responses (c-fos mRNA immediate early gene expression) to a psychological stressor (restraint) differ when the duration of the stressor given on the test day violates expectations based on prior stress experience. Rats experienced 10 min of daily restraint on Days 1-4 followed by challenge with either the same duration (10 min) or a longer duration (30 min) of restraint on Day 5. Rats’ behavior was video recorded during the Day 5 restraint episode, and trunk blood and brain tissue were collected 30 min following restraint onset. Struggling behavior was manually scored as active attempts to escape the restraint device. Rats who experienced the same duration of repeated restraint showed a significant decrease of plasma corticosterone (CORT) compared to the 10 min acute restraint group (habituation). In addition, these rats showed decreased active struggling over repeated restraint trials. Conversely, the rats showed an increased CORT response (dishabituation) when they experienced a longer duration of restraint on Day 5 than they had previously. These rats showed a habituated behavioral response during the first 10 min of restraint, however struggling behavior increased once the duration of restraint exceeded the expected duration (with a peak at 12 min). This peak in struggling behavior did not occur during 30 min acute restraint, indicating that the effect was related to memory of previous restraint experience and not due to a longer duration of restraint. In contrast, these animals showed habituated c-fos mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), lateral septum (LS), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to the increased stressor duration. Thus, there was dissociation between c

  20. Anxiolytic-like effects of restraint during the dark cycle in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yuki; Ago, Yukio; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Hasebe, Shigeru; Toratani, Yui; Onaka, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2015-05-01

    Stress during developmental stage may cause psychological morbidities, and then the studies on stress are important in adolescent rodents. Restraint is used as a common stressor in rodents and the effects of restraint during the light cycle have been studied, but those of restraint during the dark cycle have not. The present study examined the effects of restraint during the light and dark cycles on anxiety behaviors in adolescent mice. Restraint for 3h during either the light or dark cycle impaired memory function in the fear conditioning test, but did not affect locomotor activity. In the elevated plus-maze test, restraint during the dark cycle reduced anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Repeated exposure to a 3-h period dark cycle restraint for 2 weeks had a similar anxiolytic-like effect. In contrast, restraint for 3h during the light cycle produced anxiety behavior in adolescent, but not adult, mice. The light cycle stress increased plasma corticosterone levels, and elevated c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, basolateral amygdala and dentate gyrus, and enhanced serotonin turnover in the hippocampus and striatum, while the dark cycle stress did not. There was no difference in the stress-mediated reduction in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time between dark and light cycle restraint. These findings suggest that the anxiolytic effect of dark cycle restraint is mediated by corticosterone, serotonin or γ-aminobutyric acid-independent mechanisms, although the anxiogenic effect of light cycle restraint is associated with changes in plasma corticosterone levels and serotonin turnover in specific brain regions. PMID:25687845

  1. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-05-15

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements.

  2. Different subtypes of impulsivity differentiate uncontrolled eating and dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Margaret A; Morgan, Michael J; Yeomans, Martin R

    2013-10-01

    The current study explored the relationship between three subtypes of impulsivity (Reflection Impulsivity, Impulsive Choice, and Impulsive Action) and measures of uncontrolled eating (TFEQ-D) and restraint (TFEQ-R). Eighty women classified as scoring higher or lower on TFEQ-D and TFEQ-R completed the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT20), Delay Discounting Task (DDT), a Go No Go task, Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), and the Barrett Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS-11). To test whether these relationships were affected by enforced controls overeating, half of the participants fasted the night before and ate breakfast in the laboratory before testing and half had no such control. Women scoring higher on the TFEQ-D were significantly more impulsive on the MFFT20 and BIS-11 overall but not on DDT, Go No Go or BART. Women scoring higher on TFEQ-R were significantly less impulsive on the Go No Go task but did not differ on other measures. The eating manipulation modulated responses on the BART and BIS-11 non-planning scale depending on TFEQ-D classification. These results confirm recent data that high scores on TFEQ-D are related to impulsivity, but imply this relates more to Reflection Impulsivity rather than Impulsive Choice or Action. In contrast restrained eating was associated with better inhibitory control. Taken together, these results suggest that subtypes of impulsivity further differentiate uncontrolled eating and restraint, and suggest that a poor ability to reflect on decisions may underlie some aspects of overeating.

  3. Automated Design of Restraint Layer of an Inflatable Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spexarth, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A Mathcad computer program largely automates the design and analysis of the restraint layer (the primary load-bearing layer) of an inflatable vessel that consists of one or more sections having cylindrical, toroidal, and/or spherical shape(s). A restraint layer typically comprises webbing in the form of multiple straps. The design task includes choosing indexing locations along the straps, computing the load at every location in each strap, computing the resulting stretch at each location, and computing the amount of undersizing required of each strap so that, once the vessel is inflated and the straps thus stretched, the vessel can be expected to assume the desired shape. Prior to the development of this program, the design task was performed by use of a difficult-to-use spreadsheet program that required manual addition of rows and columns depending on the numbers of strap rows and columns of a given design. In contrast, this program is completely parametric and includes logic that automatically adds or deletes rows and columns as needed. With minimal input from the user, this program automatically computes indexing locations, strap lengths, undersizing requirements, and all design data required to produce detailed drawings and assembly procedures. It also generates textual comments that help the user understand the calculations.

  4. Usability issues concerning child restraint system harness design.

    PubMed

    Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Kumagai, Jason K; Angel, Harry A; Iwasa-Madge, Kim M; Noy, Y Ian

    2003-05-01

    A study was conducted to assess usability issues relating to child restraint system (CRS) harness design. Four convertible child restraint systems representing a wide variety of design features were used. Forty-two participants installed two child test dummies in both forward- and rear-facing configurations either inside or outside a test vehicle. Observer-scored checklists determined the degree to which each harness was installed correctly. Participant-scored questionnaires evaluated the 'ease-of-use' of various design features. While the percentage of correct installations exceeded 83% for all designs when installed in the forward-facing configuration, in the rear-facing position (that intended for children under 9-10 kg), there was a significant (between 65 and 89%) percentage of incorrect installations for all models. This finding is of particular interest and may be indicative of a more generalized problem with 'convertible' CRS designs when they are used in the rear-facing configuration. Furthermore, while certain design features were perceived by users as providing significantly better protection in the event of a collision, these also tended to be the features that were misused most often. The benefits and costs of various design features are discussed, and a method to test harness design usability is presented. PMID:12643951

  5. Non-invasive primate head restraint using thermoplastic masks

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Carlson, Monica L.; Toda, Koji; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of many neuroscientific studies depends upon adequate head fixation of awake, behaving animals. Typically, this is achieved by surgically affixing a head-restraint prosthesis to the skull. New Method Here we report the use of thermoplastic masks to non-invasively restrain monkeys’ heads. Mesh thermoplastic sheets become pliable when heated and can then be molded to an individual monkey’s head. After cooling, the custom mask retains this shape indefinitely for day-to-day use. Results We successfully trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to perform cognitive tasks while wearing thermoplastic masks. Using these masks, we achieved a level of head stability sufficient for high-resolution eye-tracking and intracranial electrophysiology. Comparison with Existing Method Compared with traditional head-posts, we find that thermoplastic masks perform at least as well during infrared eye-tracking and single-neuron recordings, allow for clearer magnetic resonance image acquisition, enable freer placement of a transcranial magnetic stimulation coil, and impose lower financial and time costs on the lab. Conclusions We conclude that thermoplastic masks are a viable non-invasive form of primate head restraint that enable a wide range of neuroscientific experiments. PMID:26112334

  6. Selection for restraint in competitive ability in spatial competition systems.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Craig R; Seinen, Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    The absence of 'super competitors' in nature is usually attributed to organisms facing trade-offs in resource allocation. Here we identify another mechanism, dependent on indirect interactions among species and non-random spatial organization, in which selection favours restraint in competitive ability. In simple spatial models of a three-species intransitive network, indirect interactions favour slower growth and selection limits the difference in growth rate among species. The mechanism involves a trade-off between selection at the individual level, which selects for increased growth rate, and at the community level, which acts to limit growth rate to less than the maximum possible. If the difference in growth rates among species becomes too large, then the community becomes unstable and collapses to a monoculture of the slowest growing species. The mechanism requires both the intransitive network structure and self-organized spatial structure in the system. Similar behaviours arise in more complex systems of more than three species, and where there are reversals in interaction outcomes between species pairs. The work suggests that spatial self-structuring, indirect interactions and selection acting on community properties can be important in evolution. It provides a partial explanation of the high level of species coexistence and apparent restraint in interspecific interactions evident in some assemblages of sessile marine colonial organisms. PMID:11934355

  7. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  8. 42 CFR 483.358 - Orders for the use of restraint or seclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... seclusion and trained in the use of emergency safety interventions. Federal regulations at 42 CFR 441.151... with staff. (d) If the order for restraint or seclusion is verbal, the verbal order must be received by... restraint or seclusion must verify the verbal order in a signed written form in the resident's record....

  9. Factors Associated with the Use of Restraints in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Xiao, Feiya; Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    The improper use of reported restraints has been associated with serious injury and death in both mental health and school settings. However, there is currently no federal legislation that regulates the use of reported restraints in the schools in contrast to health care facilities (e.g., Children's Health Act of 2000). As children with…

  10. 28 CFR 97.17 - Mandatory restraints to be used while transporting violent prisoners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mandatory restraints to be used while transporting violent prisoners. 97.17 Section 97.17 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR PRIVATE ENTITIES PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.17 Mandatory restraints to be used while transporting...

  11. 28 CFR 97.17 - Mandatory restraints to be used while transporting violent prisoners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mandatory restraints to be used while transporting violent prisoners. 97.17 Section 97.17 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR PRIVATE ENTITIES PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.17 Mandatory restraints to be used while transporting...

  12. Prior Restraint in High School: Does It Violate Students' First Amendment Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trager, Robert E.

    The Supreme Court of the United States has issued three significant rulings on the question of prior restraint by government officials of material to be published in print media. Each time it ruled that only in exceptional circumstances will prior restraint be permitted. Lower federal courst have not taken the same view regarding prior restraint…

  13. The Association for Behavior Analysis International Position Statement on Restraint and Seclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Bailey, Jon S.; Dorsey, Michael F.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Lennox, David; Riordan, Mary M.; Spreat, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A task force authorized by the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) generated the statement below concerning the techniques called "restraint" and "seclusion." Members of the task force independently reviewed the scientific literature concerning restraint and seclusion and agreed unanimously to the…

  14. Use of a pitch adjustable foot restraint system: Operator strength capability and load requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmington, Robert P.; Poliner, Jeffrey; Klute, Glenn K.

    1994-01-01

    The zero-gravity environment creates a need for a proper human body restraint system to maintain a comfortable posture with less fatigue and to maximize productivity. In addition, restraint systems must be able to meet the loading demands of maintenance and assembly tasks performed on orbit. The shuttle's primary intravehicular astronaut restraint system is currently a foot loop design that attaches to flat surfaces on the shuttle, allowing for varying mounting locations and easy egress and ingress. However, this design does not allow for elevation, pitch, or foot loop length adjustment. Several prototype foot restraint systems are being evaluated for use aboard the space station and the space shuttle. The JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory initiated this study to quantify the maximum axial forces and moments that would be induced on a foot loop type of restraint while operators performed a torque wrench task, also allowing for angling the restraint pitch angle to study yet another effect. Results indicate that the greatest forces into the torque wrench and into the foot restraint system occur while the operator performs an upward effort. This study did not see any significant difference in the operators' force due to pitch orientation. Thus, in a work environment in which hand holds are available, no significant influence of the pitch angle on forces imparted to the restraint system existed.

  15. Recent Changes in State Policies and Legislation Regarding Restraint or Seclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Sugai, George

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe and evaluate the extent to which recent changes to state-level policy are related to seclusion and restraint in schools and detail what components of comprehensive restraint and seclusion policy are indicated. We examined state policy documents and coded them for the presence of specific characteristics related to…

  16. 76 FR 16472 - Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... published in the Federal Register of February 25, 2011 (76 FR 10637), a request for comments notice... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems... Car Assessment Program, to help caregivers find a child restraint system (``child safety seat'')...

  17. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  18. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  19. Stimulus Fading and Transfer in the Treatment of Self-Restraint and Self-Injurious Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Gary M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Manipulation of mechanical restraint properties were conducted in separate studies with two profoundly retarded adolescents who exhibited both self-restraint and self-injurious behavior. Techniques included prompting, differential reinforcement, and stimulus fading. Results suggested that stimulus fading and transfer may be valuable components in…

  20. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... restraint system conforming to the requirements of Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213) instead of one of the... CFR Part 555, must have a child restraint anchorage system installed at a front passenger designated... passenger designated seating positions pursuant to a temporary exemption granted by NHTSA under 49 CFR...

  1. Dieting, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating Disorder among Overweight Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…

  2. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  3. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  4. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  5. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  6. Predatory Functional Morphology in Raptors: Interdigital Variation in Talon Size Is Related to Prey Restraint and Immobilisation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Denver W.; Freedman, Elizabeth A.; Scannella, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of raptors in terrestrial ecosystems, many aspects of their predatory behaviour remain poorly understood. Surprisingly little is known about the morphology of raptor talons and how they are employed during feeding behaviour. Talon size variation among digits can be used to distinguish families of raptors and is related to different techniques of prey restraint and immobilisation. The hypertrophied talons on digits (D) I and II in Accipitridae have evolved primarily to restrain large struggling prey while they are immobilised by dismemberment. Falconidae have only modest talons on each digit and only slightly enlarged D-I and II. For immobilisation, Falconini rely more strongly on strike impact and breaking the necks of their prey, having evolved a ‘tooth’ on the beak to aid in doing so. Pandionidae have enlarged, highly recurved talons on each digit, an adaptation for piscivory, convergently seen to a lesser extent in fishing eagles. Strigiformes bear enlarged talons with comparatively low curvature on each digit, part of a suite of adaptations to increase constriction efficiency by maximising grip strength, indicative of specialisation on small prey. Restraint and immobilisation strategy change as prey increase in size. Small prey are restrained by containment within the foot and immobilised by constriction and beak attacks. Large prey are restrained by pinning under the bodyweight of the raptor, maintaining grip with the talons, and immobilised by dismemberment (Accipitridae), or severing the spinal cord (Falconini). Within all raptors, physical attributes of the feet trade off against each other to attain great strength, but it is the variable means by which this is achieved that distinguishes them ecologically. Our findings show that interdigital talon morphology varies consistently among raptor families, and that this is directly correlative with variation in their typical prey capture and restraint strategy. PMID:19946365

  7. Impact of eLearning course on nurses' professional competence in seclusion and restraint practices: 9-month follow-up results of a randomized controlled study (ISRCTN32869544).

    PubMed

    Kontio, R; Hätönen, H; Joffe, G; Pitkänen, A; Lahti, M; Välimäki, M

    2013-04-01

    eLearning may facilitate continuing vocational education, but data on the long-term effects of an eLearning course are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the long-term impact of an eLearning course entitled ePsychNurse.Net on psychiatric nurses' professional competence in practicing seclusion and restraint and on their job satisfaction and general self-efficacy at 9-month follow-up. In a randomized controlled study, 12 wards were randomly assigned to the ePsychNurse.Net (intervention) or training as usual (control). Baseline and 9-month follow-up data on nurses' knowledge of coercion-related legislation, physical restraint and seclusion, their attitudes towards physical restraint and seclusion, job satisfaction and general self-efficacy were analysed for 137 completers (those who participated in the 9-month follow-up assessment). No between-group differences were found on any variable, with the exception of a change in attitude to seclusion in favour of the control group. The findings of the long-term effects did not differ from the immediate outcomes (3-month follow-up) and the improved level of knowledge acquired and further consolidation of that knowledge did not take place in the 6-month period after the 3-month ePsychNurse.Net course. The ePsychNurse.Net should be further developed and its future modifications will require additional studies, probably with some new outcome measures. PMID:22672441

  8. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the geometry of a wide range of restraints (child restraints, booster seats and rear seats) used by children, and how these match their anthropometry, and to determine limitations to restraint size for the population of children using them. The study is motivated by the widespread premature graduation from one restraint type to another, which parents often attribute to children outgrowing their previous restraint. Currently, recommended transitions are based on a small sample of vehicles and children. Outboard rear seat and seat belt geometry (anchorage locations, sash belt angles) from 50 current model vehicles were measured using a custom-developed measuring jig. For 17 child restraints, a 3-dimensional measuring arm was used to measure the geometry of the restraint including interior size and strap slot locations (where relevant). These measurements were compared to anthropometric measurements, to determine the suitability of a given restraint for children of particular ages. The results for the rear seat geometry indicate that all seat cushions were too deep for a child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile until approximately 11.5 years, and half of vehicle seat cushions were too deep for a 15 year old child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile. Sash belt geometry was more variable, with approximately a third of vehicles accommodating 6-8 year olds who approximate the shoulder geometry measurements at the 50th percentile. Dedicated child restraints accommodated most children within recommended age groups, with two exceptions. Several high back booster seats were not tall enough for a child whose seated height is at the 50th percentile for 8 year olds (who is still too short for an adult belt according to current guidelines and the results from the rear seat geometry study), and a small number of forward facing restraints and high back boosters were too narrow for children at the upper end of

  9. Restraint effectiveness, occupant ejection from cars, and fatality reductions.

    PubMed

    Evans, L

    1990-04-01

    The effectiveness of air cushion restraint systems, or airbags, in preventing fatalities is estimated by assuming that they do not affect ejection probability, and protect only in frontal, or near frontal, crashes with impact-reducing effectiveness equal to that of lap/shoulder belts. In order to compute airbag effectiveness, lap/shoulder belt effectiveness and the fraction of fatalities preventable by eliminating ejection are estimated using Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) data. Ejection prevention is found to account for almost half of the effectiveness of lap/shoulder belts (essentially all for lap belts only). Airbag effectiveness is estimated as (18 +/- 4)% in preventing fatalities to drivers and (13 +/- 4)% to right front passengers. Drivers switching from lap/shoulder belt to airbag-only protection increase their fatality risk by 41%. PMID:2331291

  10. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress.

  11. Lepidium peruvianum chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress.

    PubMed

    López-Fando, A; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Lock, O; Upamayta, U P; Carretero, M E

    2004-06-01

    Lepidium peruvianum root has been traditionally utilized by native Peruvians, since before the time of the Incas, for both nutritional and putative medicinal purposes as an adaptogen and also to enhance fertility in humans and animals. The present research was conducted to evaluate the anti-stress activity of the methanolic extract of Lepidium peruvianum. The drug is capable of attenuating or even eliminating variations in homeostasis produced by stress since it reduces or abolishes stress-induced ulcers, elevated corticosterone levels, the reduction of glucose and the increase in the weight of adrenal glands produced by stress. It also eliminates the decrease in free fatty-acids (FFA) in plasma produced by stress and we obtain a positive result in the forced-swimming test. Thus, it did not appear to affect restraint stress-induced immunosuppression.

  12. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. PMID:26232073

  13. Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Norman Robert

    2013-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. The Propositions of Science: 1. The subject matter of science; 2. The nature of laws; 3. The nature of laws (contd); 4. The discovery and proof of laws; 5. The explanation of laws; 6. Theories; 7. Chance and probability; 8. The meaning of science; 9. Science and philosophy; Part II. Measurement: 10. Fundamental measurement; 11. Physical number; 12. Fractional and negative magnitudes; 13. Numerical laws and derived magnitudes; 14. Units and dimensions; 15. The uses of dimensions; 16. Errors of measurement; methodical errors; 17. Errors of measurement; errors of consistency and the adjustment of observations; 18. Mathematical physics; Appendix; Index.

  14. Sympathetic restraint of muscle blood flow during hypoxic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stickland, Michael K.; Smith, Curtis A.; Soriano, Benjamin J.; Dempsey, Jerome A.

    2009-01-01

    Control of exercising muscle blood flow is a balance between local vasodilatory factors and the increase in global sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow. Hypoxia has been shown to potentiate the muscle sympathetic nerve response to exercise, potentially limiting the increase in muscle blood flow. Accordingly, we investigated sympathetic restraint to exercising muscle during whole body exercise in hypoxia. Six dogs chronically instrumented with ascending aortic and hindlimb flow probes and a terminal aortic catheter were studied at rest and mild [2.5 miles/h (mph), 5% grade] and moderate (4.0 mph, 10% grade) exercise while breathing room air or hypoxia (PaO2 ∼45 mmHg) in the intact control condition and following systemic α-adrenergic blockade (phentolamine). Hypoxia caused an increase in cardiac output (CO), hindlimb flow (FlowL), and blood pressure (BP), while total (CondT) and hindlimb conductance (CondL) were unchanged at rest and mild exercise but increased with moderate exercise. During both mild and moderate exercise, α-blockade in normoxia resulted in significant vasodilation as evidenced by increases in CO (10%), FlowL (17%), CondT (33%), CondL (43%), and a decrease in BP (−18%), with the increase in CondL greater than the increase in CondT during mild exercise. Compared with the normoxic response, α-blockade in hypoxia during exercise resulted in a significantly greater increase in CondT (59%) and CondL (74%) and a correspondingly greater decrease in BP (−34%) from baseline. These findings indicate that there is considerable hypoxia-induced sympathetic restraint of muscle blood flow during both mild and moderate exercise, which helps to maintain arterial blood pressure in hypoxia. PMID:19297541

  15. Different subtypes of impulsivity differentiate uncontrolled eating and dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Margaret A; Morgan, Michael J; Yeomans, Martin R

    2013-10-01

    The current study explored the relationship between three subtypes of impulsivity (Reflection Impulsivity, Impulsive Choice, and Impulsive Action) and measures of uncontrolled eating (TFEQ-D) and restraint (TFEQ-R). Eighty women classified as scoring higher or lower on TFEQ-D and TFEQ-R completed the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT20), Delay Discounting Task (DDT), a Go No Go task, Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), and the Barrett Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS-11). To test whether these relationships were affected by enforced controls overeating, half of the participants fasted the night before and ate breakfast in the laboratory before testing and half had no such control. Women scoring higher on the TFEQ-D were significantly more impulsive on the MFFT20 and BIS-11 overall but not on DDT, Go No Go or BART. Women scoring higher on TFEQ-R were significantly less impulsive on the Go No Go task but did not differ on other measures. The eating manipulation modulated responses on the BART and BIS-11 non-planning scale depending on TFEQ-D classification. These results confirm recent data that high scores on TFEQ-D are related to impulsivity, but imply this relates more to Reflection Impulsivity rather than Impulsive Choice or Action. In contrast restrained eating was associated with better inhibitory control. Taken together, these results suggest that subtypes of impulsivity further differentiate uncontrolled eating and restraint, and suggest that a poor ability to reflect on decisions may underlie some aspects of overeating. PMID:23702263

  16. A daily diary study of perceived social isolation, dietary restraint, and negative affect in binge eating.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J

    2016-02-01

    Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research.

  17. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  18. The effects of modeling dietary restraint on food consumption: do restrained models promote restrained eating?

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Ken J; Carte, Laura; Speirs, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-nine female undergraduates completed the restraint scale, a dieting checklist, and the Eating Attribution Style Questionnaire (EASQ). The participants were exposed either to no model, a peer model who behaviorally demonstrated dietary restraint, or a peer model who behaviorally and verbally demonstrated dietary restraint. The participants had an opportunity to consume food as part of a taste test. The findings revealed that attribution style, but not restraint or current dieting status, moderated the effects of exposure to the peer models. Females who had an internal attribution style for indulgent food consumption decreased their consumption of food as a function of the dietary restraint of the models, whereas females who had an external attribution style for indulgent food consumption increased their consumption of food as a function of the dietary restraint of the models. The latter disinhibitory effect was attributed to negative social comparison and learned helplessness. The results supported the conclusion that the effectiveness of modeling dietary restraint is dependent on the attribution style of the observers. PMID:15567113

  19. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders.

  20. Exogenous agmatine has neuroprotective effects against restraint-induced structural changes in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Cai, Zheng-Wei; Regunathan, Soundar; Ordway, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of arginine catalysed by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is considered a novel neuromodulator and possesses neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system. The present study examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint stress-induced morphological changes in rat medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 h of restraint stress daily for 21 days. Immunohistochemical staining with β-tubulin III showed that repeated restraint stress caused marked morphological alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Stress-induced alterations were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Interestingly, endogenous agmatine levels, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as well as in the striatum and hypothalamus of repeated restraint rats were significantly reduced as compared with the controls. Reduced endogenous agmatine levels in repeated restraint animals were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. Moreover, administration of exogenous agmatine to restrained rats abolished increases of arginine decarboxylase protein levels. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exogenously administered agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint-induced structural changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. These findings indicate that stress-induced reductions in endogenous agmatine levels in the rat brain may play a permissive role in neuronal pathology induced by repeated restraint stress. PMID:18364017

  1. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  2. Effect of restraint stress on lead-induced male reproductive toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Priya, P Hari; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2012-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether chronic immobilization stress interferes with lead-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Early pubertal male Wistar rats were subjected to either restraint stress (5 hr/day) or maintained on lead (0.15%) containing water or both for 60 days. Restraint stress or lead treatment significantly decreased the weight of the testes and epididymis. The daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm viability were also decreased after exposure to lead or subjected to restraint stress. The levels of serum testosterone and also activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased with a significant increase in the serum follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone levels in rats exposed to lead or restraint stress indicating decreased steroidogenesis. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels and decrease in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity levels were observed in the testes of rats subjected to restraint stress or exposed to lead indicating increased oxidative stress. Extensive histopathological malformations were observed in the testis of the treated rats. From the findings, the study suggests that restraint stress or exposure to lead affects male reproduction in rats by inducing oxidative stress followed by decreasing steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. A significant decrease in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis was also observed in rats subjected to both restraint stress and lead treatment as compared to lead alone treated rats indicating immobilization stress augments lead-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats. PMID:22753343

  3. Effect of restraint stress on lead-induced male reproductive toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Priya, P Hari; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2012-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether chronic immobilization stress interferes with lead-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Early pubertal male Wistar rats were subjected to either restraint stress (5 hr/day) or maintained on lead (0.15%) containing water or both for 60 days. Restraint stress or lead treatment significantly decreased the weight of the testes and epididymis. The daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm viability were also decreased after exposure to lead or subjected to restraint stress. The levels of serum testosterone and also activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased with a significant increase in the serum follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone levels in rats exposed to lead or restraint stress indicating decreased steroidogenesis. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels and decrease in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity levels were observed in the testes of rats subjected to restraint stress or exposed to lead indicating increased oxidative stress. Extensive histopathological malformations were observed in the testis of the treated rats. From the findings, the study suggests that restraint stress or exposure to lead affects male reproduction in rats by inducing oxidative stress followed by decreasing steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. A significant decrease in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis was also observed in rats subjected to both restraint stress and lead treatment as compared to lead alone treated rats indicating immobilization stress augments lead-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats.

  4. Adrenocortical response in rats subjected to a stress of restraint by immobilization whether accompanied by hypothermia or not

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Prioux-Guyonneau, M.; Libian, L.

    1980-01-01

    The restraint associated with hypothermia which increases the adrenal activity in rats was investigated. In rats with nomothermia or light hypothermia, the plasma and adrenal corticosterone levels increase at least threefold whatever the duration of restraint. Their return to normal values depends on the duration of the restraint. Exposure to cold produces in free rats a light hypothermia with an increase of the plasma and adrenal corticosterone levels, and in restraint animals an important hypothermia which does not potentiate the stimulation of adrenocortical activity induced by the restraint alone.

  5. Restraint use in home care: a qualitative study from a nursing perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the growing demand for home care and preliminary evidence suggesting that the use of restraint is common practice in home care, research about restraint use in this setting is scarce. Methods To gain insight into the use of restraints in home care from the perspective of nurses, we conducted a qualitative explorative study. We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews of 14 nurses from Wit-Gele Kruis, a home-care organization in Flanders, Belgium. Interview transcripts were analyzed using the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. Results Our findings revealed a lack of clarity among nurses about the concept of restraint in home care. Nurses reported that cognitively impaired older persons, who sometimes lived alone, were restrained or locked up without continuous follow-up. The interviews indicated that the patient’s family played a dominant role in the decision to use restraints. Reasons for using restraints included “providing relief to the family” and “keeping the patient at home as long as possible to avoid admission to a nursing home.” The nurses stated that general practitioners had no clear role in deciding whether to use restraints. Conclusions These findings suggest that the issue of restraint use in home care is even more complex than in long-term residential care settings and acute hospital settings. They raise questions about the ethical and legal responsibilities of home-care providers, nurses, and general practitioners. There is an urgent need for further research to carefully document the use of restraints in home care and to better understand it so that appropriate guidance can be provided to healthcare workers. PMID:24498859

  6. Analysis of the cold-water restraint procedure in gastric ulceration and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2004-10-15

    Gastric mucosal injury induced by body restraint can be enhanced when combined with cold-water immersion. Based on this fact, the present study had two main purposes: (i) to examine the contribution of each of these two forms of stress on the development of gastric ulceration and regulation of body temperature and (ii) to investigate the importance of the animal's consciousness on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint. Independent groups of animals were exposed for 3 h to one of the following stressful treatments: body restraint plus cold-water (20+1 degrees C) immersion, body restraint alone or cold-water immersion alone. Control animals were not exposed to any form of stress. Half of the animals submitted to each of the four treatments were anesthetized with thionembutal (35 mg/kg), whereas the other half was injected with saline. Results indicated that body restraint alone was not sufficient to induce gastric ulceration or changes in body temperature. On the other hand, cold-water exposure, either alone or in conjunction with body restraint, induced the same amount of stomach erosions and hypothermia. Therefore, it appears that body restraint does not play an important role on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint procedure. Present results also indicated that conscious and anesthetized animals immersed in cold water presented robust gastric ulceration and a marked drop in body temperature. However, conscious animals developed more severe gastric damage in comparison to anesthetized animals although both groups presented the same degree of hypothermia. These findings suggest that hypothermia resulting from cold-water exposure has a deleterious effect on gastric ulceration but the animal's conscious activity during the cold-water immersion increases the severity of gastric mucosal damage. It is concluded that cold-water restraint is a useful procedure for the study of the underlying mechanisms involved in stress

  7. Existing Child Restraint Use Data – Does It Define the Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Betty; Pedder, Jocelyn; Pasco, Douglas

    1998-01-01

    In 1983, the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia became involved in advocating the use of child restraints. A study was undertaken in 1997, using existing insurance claim data, to better define the problem of child restraint use. Data was collected on a total of 188 injured child passengers aged 0–10 years. The majority of the children were restrained at the time of the crash. Over 90% of the children aged three years or older were restrained by the adult seat belt only. Greater emphasis needs to be given to the simple message to restrain the child using the appropriate restraint system.

  8. Plasma native and peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin responses to restraint stress in rats. Adaptation to repeated restraint.

    PubMed Central

    Pierzchala, K; Van Loon, G R

    1990-01-01

    Met-enkephalin and related proenkephalin A-derived peptides circulate in plasma at picomolar concentration as free, native pentapeptide and at nanomolar concentration in cryptic forms. We have optimized conditions for measurement of immunoreactive Met-enkephalin in plasma and for generation by trypsin and carboxypeptidase B of much greater amounts of total peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin in plasma of rats, dogs, and humans. Free Met-enkephalin (11 pM) is constituted by native pentapeptide and its sulfoxide. Characterization of plasma total Met-enkephalin derived by peptidic hydrolysis revealed a small amount (38 pM) of Met-enkephalin associated with peptides of molecular mass less than 30,000 D, and probably derived from proenkephalin A, but much larger amounts of Met-enkephalin associated with albumin (1.2 nM) and with a globulin-sized protein (2.8 nM). Thus, plasma protein precursors for peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin differ structurally and chemically from proenkephalin A. Met-enkephalin generated from plasma by peptidic hydrolysis showed naloxone-reversible bioactivity comparable to synthetic Met-enkephalin. Prolonged exposure of adult, male rats to restraint stress produced biphasic plasma responses, with peaks occurring at 30 s and 30 min in both free native and total peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin. Repeated daily exposure to this 30-min stress resulted in adaptive loss of responses of both forms to acute restraint. Initial plasma responses of Met-enkephalin paralleled those of epinephrine and norepinephrine, but subsequently showed divergence of response. In conclusion, Met-enkephalin circulates in several forms, some of which may be derived from proteins other than proenkephalin A, and plasma levels of both free native, and peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin are modulated physiologically. PMID:2312729

  9. Qualification Testing of Solid Rocket Booster Diagonal Strut Restraint Cable Assembly Part Number 10176-0031-102/103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. W.

    2006-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum presents qualification test results for solid rocket booster diagonal strut restraint cable part number 101276-00313-102/103. During flight this assembly is exposed to a range of temperatures. MIL-W-83420 shows the breaking strength of the cable as 798 kg (1,760 lb) at room temperature but does not define cable strength at the maximum temperature to which the cable is exposed during the first 2 min of flight; 669 C (1,236 F). The cable, which can be built from different corrosion resistant steel alloys, may also vary in its chemical, physical, and mechanical properties at temperature. Negative margins of safety were produced by analysis of the cable at temperature using standard knockdown factors. However, MSFC-HDBK-5 allows the use of a less conservative safety factor of 1.4 and knockdown factors verified by testing. Test results allowed a calculated knockdown factor of 0.1892 to be determined for the restraint cables, which provides a minimum breaking strength of 151 kg (333 lb) at 677 C (1,250 F) when combined with the minimum breaking strength of 0.317-cm (0.125- or 1/8-in) diameter, type 1 composition rope.

  10. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint

    PubMed Central

    Coffino, Jaime A.; Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333) or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173) and completed the “restrained eating” subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the “impulse control difficulties” subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but not with dietary restraint. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors. PMID:27757092

  11. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  12. Corrupted cultures in mental health inpatient settings. Is restraint reduction the answer?

    PubMed

    Paterson, B; McIntosh, I; Wilkinson, D; McComish, S; Smith, I

    2013-04-01

    The early years of the 21st century have seen successful efforts in a number of countries to reduce the use of restraint in services for people with mental health problems. An underlying emphasis on 'cultural change' is characteristic of such initiatives reflecting, it appears, the re-emergence of interest in the therapeutic milieu. Such efforts have though lacked a comprehensive explanation of how organizational culture plays a role in the development of the excessive use of restraint, which seems to respond to such initiatives. This paper seeks to address that deficit and draws in particular on the concepts of corrupted culture, institutional violence, trauma, parallel processing and contemporary research on restraint and seclusion reduction. In doing so it examines whether restraint reduction initiatives represent part of the solution to the problem of corruption, which is intrinsically associated with the legitimatization of coercion.

  13. Least restrictive or least understood? Waist restraints, provider practices, and risk of harm.

    PubMed

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L; Won, Regina M; Wagner, Laura M; Lawson, William T

    2008-01-01

    Since implementation of The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, restraint use in American nursing homes has reduced dramatically. The reduction in vest restraints has resulted in an increase in "least restrictive" devices such as waist restraints. Although this analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting Data Files found that waist devices pose the same potential risk for asphyxial death as vest restraints, few health professionals and consumers are aware of this outcome. Post-marketing device reporting needs better data quality and surveillance, which can certainly benefit the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in their efforts to regulate and enforce standards of care that reduce deaths and injuries to vulnerable nursing home residents.

  14. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap... berth, provided that the person being held has not reached his or her second birthday and does...

  15. National roadside survey of child restraint system use in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Roynard; Peter, Silverans; Yvan, Casteels; Philippe, Lesire

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011 the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI) conducted its first roadside survey of child restraint system (CRS) use and misuse. The aim of this study was to obtain population-bases estimates of the prevalence of use and misuse of CRS and to identify predictors of misuse on the basis of observations in real traffic conditions. The survey was conducted on randomly selected sites across the country, stratified across various types of journeys. The principal parameters analysed were: the characteristics of the children and the car drivers, type of journey, types of CRS and types of misuse. The sample consisted of 1461 children (under 135cm) for whom the conditions of restraint were observed in detail and the driver was interviewed. At least 50% of the children were not correctly restrained and 10% were not restrained at all. The most significant factors associated with CRS use were the use of a seatbelt by the driver (31% of unrestrained children for unbelted drivers, compared to 7% for belted drivers - only 32% of correctly restrained children for unbelted drivers compared to 54% for belted drivers), whether the CRS was bought in a specialized shop (only 27% of misuse compared to 45% of misuse for CRS both in supermarkets) and the age of the children. The proportion of correctly restrained children (appropriate without misuse, the bottom category in the figure) has a roughly curvilinear relation with age; decreasing from 75% at age 0 to 24% at age 8 and going back up to 63% at age 10. Although the sample of ISOFIX users was small (n=76), it appears that the ISOFIX system reduced misuse significantly. Most of the drivers were ignorant of their own errors concerning the inappropriateness and/or misuse of the CRS or they were remiss and underestimated the risk. The three main reasons given by the drivers to explain or justify the misuse noticed were: low attention level to safety (inattention, time pressure, and short distance), the child's resistance to

  16. [The objectives of the reform of hospitalisation under restraint in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The law of July 5th, 2011 reforms legislation dating from June 27th, 1990. It adds elements identified as missing from the original text over the course of the years following its application. The systematic intervention of a liberties and detention judge could counterbalance the measures simplifying hospitalisation under restraint. Stricter monitoring of "unwieldy" patients is also included in measures which enable treatment under restraint to be given through outpatient care.

  17. DEFINING SECLUSION AND RESTRAINT: LEGAL AND POLICY DEFINITIONS VERSUS CONSUMER AND CARER PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Roper, Cath; McSherry, Bernadette; Brophy, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    The practices of seclusion and restraint may be used in a variety of health settings to control behaviour. Laws and policies that seek to regulate these practices define seclusion and restraint in various ways and there are gaps as to which practices are regulated and in what circumstances. This column provides an overview of consumer and carer perspectives as to what is meant by these practices.

  18. Implementing a comprehensive child restraint program in a pediatric hospital: an effective model.

    PubMed

    Talty, J; Sheese, J; Gunn, S; Stone, J; Chappelow, M; Wyatt, K; Cox, M; Bull, M

    2000-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of death and injury to young children. Appropriate child safety seats and child safety restraints can provide life-saving protection to children riding in motor vehicles. Many children, however, travel unrestrained or improperly restrained. Consideration of appropriate child safety restraint systems for children is an important aspect of discharge planning and can provide families with the means to prevent unintentional injuries and deaths resulting from motor vehicle crashes.

  19. Computational modeling of RNA 3D structures, with the aid of experimental restraints

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, Marcin; Matelska, Dorota; Łach, Grzegorz; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Boniecki, Michal J; Purta, Elzbieta; Dawson, Wayne; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2014-01-01

    In addition to mRNAs whose primary function is transmission of genetic information from DNA to proteins, numerous other classes of RNA molecules exist, which are involved in a variety of functions, such as catalyzing biochemical reactions or performing regulatory roles. In analogy to proteins, the function of RNAs depends on their structure and dynamics, which are largely determined by the ribonucleotide sequence. Experimental determination of high-resolution RNA structures is both laborious and difficult, and therefore, the majority of known RNAs remain structurally uncharacterized. To address this problem, computational structure prediction methods were developed that simulate either the physical process of RNA structure formation (“Greek science” approach) or utilize information derived from known structures of other RNA molecules (“Babylonian science” approach). All computational methods suffer from various limitations that make them generally unreliable for structure prediction of long RNA sequences. However, in many cases, the limitations of computational and experimental methods can be overcome by combining these two complementary approaches with each other. In this work, we review computational approaches for RNA structure prediction, with emphasis on implementations (particular programs) that can utilize restraints derived from experimental analyses. We also list experimental approaches, whose results can be relatively easily used by computational methods. Finally, we describe case studies where computational and experimental analyses were successfully combined to determine RNA structures that would remain out of reach for each of these approaches applied separately. PMID:24785264

  20. Physics.

    PubMed

    Bromley, D A

    1980-07-01

    From massive quarks deep in the hearts of atomic nuclei to the catastrophic collapse of giant stars in the farthest reaches of the universe, from the partial realization of Einstein's dream of a unified theory of the forces of nature to the most practical applications in technology, medicine, and throughout contemporary society, physics continues to have a profound impact on man's view of the universe and on the quality of life. The author argues that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, new insight-and the new questions-have been among the most productive in the history of the field and puts into context his selection of some of the most important new developments in this fundamental science.

  1. A bitter sweet asynchrony. The relation between eating attitudes, dietary restraint on smell and taste function.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Tucker, Megan; Gerstner, Nora

    2013-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that individuals with eating disorders have an impaired sense of smell and taste, though the influence of eating attitudes, dietary restraint and gender in a non-clinical sample is unknown. In two studies (study 1: 32 females, 28 males; study 2: 29 females) participants completed questionnaires relating to Eating Attitudes (EAT) and dietary restraint (DEBQ) followed by an odour (study 1: isoamyl acetate, study 2: chocolate) threshold and taste test. In study 2 we also measured the number of fungiform papillae taste buds. Study one revealed that increases in pathological eating attitudes predicted poorer olfactory sensitivity (males/females) and lower bitterness ratings for the bitter tastant (females only), suggestive of poorer taste acuity. In study two we found that both eating attitudes and restraint predicted poorer sensitivity to an odour associated to a forbidden food (chocolate) and that increasing eating attitudes predicted higher sweetness ratings for the bitter tastant. Interestingly increases in restraint were associated with an increased number of fungiform papillae which was not related to bitter or sweet intensity. These findings demonstrate that in a young healthy sample that subtle differences in eating pathology and dietary restraint predict impaired olfactory function to food related odours. Further that perception of bitter tastants is poorer with changes in eating pathology but not dietary restraint. PMID:23811349

  2. Effect of restraint stress on cannabis-induced catalepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Ghosh, P

    1982-01-01

    The effect of restraint stress (1, 2 and 4 hr) on cannabis-induced catalepsy, was investigated in rats. Restraint stress produced a time-related-potentiation of the cataleptic effect of a sub-cataleptic dose of cannabis. Stress (4 hr)-induced potentiation of cannabis catalepsy was attenuated after pretreatment of the animals with drugs known to decrease central 5-HT and prostaglandin activity, but was unaffected by metyrapone, an inhibitor of endogenous corticoid synthesis. The results suggest the involvement of 5-HT and prostaglandins in restraint stress-cannabis interaction. The results have been discussed in the light of earlier investigations, from this laboratory, indicating increased rat brain 5-HT and prostaglandin activity, following restraint stress, and possible 5-HT mediation in central effects of prostaglandins. It is suggested that restraint stress first enhances rat brain prostaglandins, which in its proposed role as the first mediator' of stress, activates the serotonergic system in this species. This prostaglandin 5-HT link, thus mediates the observed potentiating effect of restraint stress on cannabis catalepsy.

  3. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most.

  4. Thinness expectancies and restraint in Black and White college women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika M K; Fischer, Sarah

    2013-08-01

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, women of diverse racial backgrounds, including Black women, experience disordered eating symptoms. While there has been an increase in research comparing disordered eating symptoms across ethnic groups, there remains a dearth of research on the mechanisms of action underlying the development of these symptoms in non-White populations. Thinness expectancies prospectively predict disordered eating symptoms in adolescent girls, but the majority of research on expectancies has been conducted with White samples. Restraint, or self-initiated attempts to restrict food intake, may be precipitated by cognitive factors such as thinness expectancies. In the current study, we followed a sample of Black and White women over one semester of college to assess the influence of thinness expectancies and ethnic identity on restraint. Our sample consisted of 193 college women (93 Black women). We found that White women experienced restraint at higher levels than Black women, but both Black and White women experienced an increase in restraint across the first semester in college. The endorsement of thinness expectancies added significant incremental variance to the prediction of restraint over time, when baseline restraint was included in the model. These effects were not moderated by ethnicity nor ethnic identity. This study adds to the scarce literature on phenomenology of disordered eating in Black women. PMID:23910764

  5. Restraint stress exacerbates alcohol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Priya, P Hari; Girish, B P; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2014-12-01

    Cumulative exposure to multiple stresses may lead to aggravating the toxicity of each stress, qualitatively or quantitatively altering biological responses because of toxicological interaction. In this study, we intended to determine the possible effects of restraint stress on reproductive toxicity due to ethanol usage in male rats. Early pubertal male Wistar rats were subjected to either restraint stress (5 h/day) or alcohol intoxication (2 mg/kg body weight) or both for 60 days. Body weights of control and experimental rats were similar during the 60 days of this study. Testes were harvested, weighed, and prepared for enzyme assays, and cauda epididymides were isolated for the determination of density, motility, and viability of stored spermatozoa. Restraint stress or alcohol treatment significantly reduced testis weight and caused significant reductions in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. Mean density, motility, and viability of stored spermatozoa were reduced in experimental rats. Plasma testosterone concentrations in rats subjected to restraint stress or alcohol were decreased compared with those of controls, concomitant with increased concentrations of LH and FSH in experimental rats. These data suggest that sub-chronic exposure to restraint stress or alcohol contribute to reduce testicular and epididymal function in exposed rats. The study also suggests that restraint stress exacerbates alcohol-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.

  6. Thinness expectancies and restraint in Black and White college women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika M K; Fischer, Sarah

    2013-08-01

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, women of diverse racial backgrounds, including Black women, experience disordered eating symptoms. While there has been an increase in research comparing disordered eating symptoms across ethnic groups, there remains a dearth of research on the mechanisms of action underlying the development of these symptoms in non-White populations. Thinness expectancies prospectively predict disordered eating symptoms in adolescent girls, but the majority of research on expectancies has been conducted with White samples. Restraint, or self-initiated attempts to restrict food intake, may be precipitated by cognitive factors such as thinness expectancies. In the current study, we followed a sample of Black and White women over one semester of college to assess the influence of thinness expectancies and ethnic identity on restraint. Our sample consisted of 193 college women (93 Black women). We found that White women experienced restraint at higher levels than Black women, but both Black and White women experienced an increase in restraint across the first semester in college. The endorsement of thinness expectancies added significant incremental variance to the prediction of restraint over time, when baseline restraint was included in the model. These effects were not moderated by ethnicity nor ethnic identity. This study adds to the scarce literature on phenomenology of disordered eating in Black women.

  7. A bitter sweet asynchrony. The relation between eating attitudes, dietary restraint on smell and taste function.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Tucker, Megan; Gerstner, Nora

    2013-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that individuals with eating disorders have an impaired sense of smell and taste, though the influence of eating attitudes, dietary restraint and gender in a non-clinical sample is unknown. In two studies (study 1: 32 females, 28 males; study 2: 29 females) participants completed questionnaires relating to Eating Attitudes (EAT) and dietary restraint (DEBQ) followed by an odour (study 1: isoamyl acetate, study 2: chocolate) threshold and taste test. In study 2 we also measured the number of fungiform papillae taste buds. Study one revealed that increases in pathological eating attitudes predicted poorer olfactory sensitivity (males/females) and lower bitterness ratings for the bitter tastant (females only), suggestive of poorer taste acuity. In study two we found that both eating attitudes and restraint predicted poorer sensitivity to an odour associated to a forbidden food (chocolate) and that increasing eating attitudes predicted higher sweetness ratings for the bitter tastant. Interestingly increases in restraint were associated with an increased number of fungiform papillae which was not related to bitter or sweet intensity. These findings demonstrate that in a young healthy sample that subtle differences in eating pathology and dietary restraint predict impaired olfactory function to food related odours. Further that perception of bitter tastants is poorer with changes in eating pathology but not dietary restraint.

  8. Children in crashes: mechanisms of injury and restraint systems

    PubMed Central

    Lapner, Peter C.; McKay, Morag; Howard, Andrew; Gardner, Bill; German, Alan; Letts, Mervyn

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To explore the levels of protection offered to children involved in motor vehicle collisions. Design A joint study by the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) and Transport Canada, Ottawa, conducted in 2 phases: retrospective from 1990 to 1997 and prospective from 1998 to 2000. Setting CHEO, a university affiliated tertiary care centre. Patients Children admitted to CHEO between 1990 and 2000 with spinal trauma due to motor vehical crashes (MVCs). Phase 1 of the study involved analysis, in a series of 45 children after MVAs, by location of spinal injury versus belt type. Phase 2 was a prospective study of 22 children injured in 15 MVAs. Interventions A biomechanical assessment of the vehicle and its influence on the injuries sustained. Main outcome measures The nature and extent of the injuries sustained, and the vehicle dynamics and associated occupant kinematics. Results The odds ratio of sustaining a spinal injury while wearing a 2-point belt versus a 3-point belt was 24 (95% confidence interval 2.0–2.45, p < 0.1), indicating a much higher incidence with a lap belt than a shoulder strap. Conclusions Proper seat-belt restraint reduces the morbidity in children involved in MVCs. Children under the age of 12 years should not be front-seat passengers until the sensitivity of air bags has been improved. Three-point pediatric seat belts should be available for family automobiles to reduce childhood trauma in MVCs. PMID:11764879

  9. Electroencephalographic examination of epileptic dogs under propofol restraint.

    PubMed

    Akos, Pákozdy; Thalhammer, Johann G; Leschnik, Michael; Halász, Péter

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify interictal epileptiform discharges in a group of dogs with seizures of known aetiology (symptomatic epilepsy, SE) and in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE). Propofol was used for chemical restraint in all dogs. We found electroencephalographic (EEG) changes that could be considered epileptiform discharges (EDs) in 5 out of 40 dogs (12.5%). The EEG changes identified were spikes in four cases and periodic epileptiform discharges in one case. All EDs were seen in the SE group. We conclude that the interictal electroencephalographic examinations of propofolanaesthetised dogs suffering from IE and SE rarely show epileptic discharges and that the diagnostic value of such EEGs in the work-up for epilepsy seems to be low as epileptic discharges were unlikely to be detected. However, positive findings are more likely to be connected with SE. We found frequent, transient EEG phenomena (spindles, K-complexes, vertex waves, positive occipital sharp transients of sleep, cyclic alternating patterns), which are non-epileptic but their differentiation from epileptic phenomena is challenging.

  10. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Soren; Gildberg, Frederik A.

    2016-01-01

    Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitutes the perhaps most extensive exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR seriously collide with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented. This article presents an in-principle Danish Psychiatric Complaint Board decision concerning MR use initiated by untrained staff. The case illustrates that, judicially, weight must be put on the patient perspective on course of happenings and especially when health professional documentation is scant, patients’ rights call for taking notice of patient evaluations. Consequently, if it comes out that psychiatric staff failed to pay appropriate consideration for the patient’s mental state, perspective, and expressions, patient response deviations are to be judicially interpreted in this light potentially rendering MR use illegitimated. While specification of law criteria might possibly improve law use and promote patients’ rights, education of psychiatry professionals must address the need for, as far as possible, paying due regard to meeting patient perspectives and participation principles as well as formal law and documentation requirements. PMID:27123152

  11. Anticipatory precrash restraint sensor feasibility study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This report explores feasibility of an anticipatory precrash restraint sensor. The foundation principle is the anticipation mechanism found at a primitive level of biological intelligence and originally formalized by the mathematical biologist Robert Rosen. A system based on formal anticipatory principles should significantly outperform conventional technologies. It offers the prospect of high payoff in prevention of death and injury. Sensors and processes are available to provide a good, fast, and inexpensive description of the present dynamical state of the vehicle to the embedded system model in the anticipation engine. The experimental part of this study found that inexpensive radar in a real-world setting does return useful data on target dynamics. The data produced by a radar system can be converted to target dynamical information by good, fast and inexpensive signal-processing techniques. Not only is the anticipatory sensor feasible, but further development under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is necessary and desirable. There are a number of possible lines of follow-on investigation. The level of effort and expected benefits of various alternatives are discussed.

  12. Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

  13. Child restraint system use and misuse in six states.

    PubMed

    Decina, Lawrence E; Lococo, Kathy H

    2005-05-01

    This project addressed use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) in the nation. CRS use and critical misuse observations were collected in the Fall of 2002 for 5527 children less than 36 kg (80 pounds) in 4126 vehicles in six states: Arizona, Florida, Mississippi, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Washington. Results showed that 62.3% of these children were restrained in a CRS; 25.9% were restrained in a safety belt (SB); and 11.8% were unrestrained. By weight class, CRS use was 97.1% for children less than 9 kg (20 pounds); 86.4% for children between 9 and 18 kg (20 and 40 pounds); 41.7% for children between 18 and 27 kg (40 and 60 pounds); and 10.9% for children between 27 and 36 kg (60 and 80 pounds). Overall critical CRS misuse was 72.6%. Most common critical misuses were loose harness straps and loose vehicle SB attachment to the CRS. Other types of CRS misuses were also observed and recorded in the study. Recommendations are provided for field observation techniques, periodic monitoring, and research for education and enforcement strategies.

  14. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients' Legal Rights.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Soren; Gildberg, Frederik A

    2016-01-01

    Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitutes the perhaps most extensive exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR seriously collide with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients' legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented. This article presents an in-principle Danish Psychiatric Complaint Board decision concerning MR use initiated by untrained staff. The case illustrates that, judicially, weight must be put on the patient perspective on course of happenings and especially when health professional documentation is scant, patients' rights call for taking notice of patient evaluations. Consequently, if it comes out that psychiatric staff failed to pay appropriate consideration for the patient's mental state, perspective, and expressions, patient response deviations are to be judicially interpreted in this light potentially rendering MR use illegitimated. While specification of law criteria might possibly improve law use and promote patients' rights, education of psychiatry professionals must address the need for, as far as possible, paying due regard to meeting patient perspectives and participation principles as well as formal law and documentation requirements. PMID:27123152

  15. Extraction of distance restraints from pure shift NOE experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltschnee, Lukas; Knoll, Kevin; Schmidts, Volker; Adams, Ralph W.; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A.; Thiele, Christina M.

    2016-10-01

    NMR techniques incorporating pure shift methods to improve signal resolution have recently attracted much attention, owing to their potential use in studies of increasingly complex molecular systems. Extraction of frequencies from these simplified spectra enables easier structure determination, but only a few of the methods presented provide structural parameters derived from signal integral measurements. In particular, for quantification of the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) it is highly desirable to utilize pure shift techniques where signal overlap normally prevents accurate signal integration, to enable measurement of a larger number of interatomic distances. However, robust methods for the measurement of interatomic distances using the recently developed pure shift techniques have not been reported to date. In this work we discuss some of the factors determining the accuracy of measurements of signal integrals in interferogram-based Zangger-Sterk (ZS) pure shift NMR experiments. The ZS broadband homodecoupling technique is used in different experiments designed for quantitative NOE determination from pure shift spectra. It is shown that the techniques studied can be used for quantitative extraction of NOE-derived distance restraints, as exemplified for the test case of strychnine.

  16. Developing countries use music videos to promote teen sexual restraint.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, M

    1991-12-15

    The Center for Communications Programs of the Johns Hopkins University has successfully produced and aired songs and music videos promoting teenage sexual restraint in developing countries. Entertaining music videos convey accurate messages to target audiences more effectively than teachers and doctors are able. In addition to successes in the Philippines and Nigeria, overwhelming success has been met with Wait, a video with Latin American pop start Tatiana and Johnny. A hit in 11 Latin American countries reaching 1 in Mexico, the video received 1 million hour s free air time. Passionate, powerful, and persuasive, these videos have prompted increased contraceptive use in countries where they have been aired. The Center's videos and songs have proved popular and profitable in a competitive market of ideas, earning 3-4 times their production costs. Accordingly, health experts from Johns Hopkins University recognize the potential role of these productions in preventing AIDS and unwanted pregnancies in other settings. Where Baltimore leads the U.S. in teen pregnancies, the Center would like to air soap opera on sexual responsibility. Production costs in the U.S. are, however, 10 times higher than in developing countries. With the collaboration of media executives, significant financial and social rewards could result from such a production.

  17. Allometric scaling for chemical restraint in greater Rheas (Rhea americana) with Tiletamine and Zolazepam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. In such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously known doses for domestic animals and the target animal’s body mass. The objective was to compare chemical restraint responses in the greater rhea (Rhea americana) with conventional doses of tiletamine/zolazepam, found in the literature for the species, and with doses calculated through interspecific allometric scaling extrapolation. From the Federal University of Piauí, six adult greater rheas (Rhea americana), three males and three females, were randomly selected to be subjects in this research. All six animals were submitted to two chemical restraint protocols with tiletamine and zolazepam, per intramuscular injection in the hind limb. The first protocol was composed of doses found on the literature for the species, while the second protocol used doses calculated by interspecific allometric scaling, with the domestic dog as model animal. Heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, eyelid reflex, digital pinch and metatarsal reflex were registered along with latency and ambulation times. Results The use of interspecific allometric scaling for chemical restraint with the combination tiletamine and zolazepam showed satisfying results, with great similarity to results obtained with conventional doses in Greater rheas. Conclusions Literature on chemical restraint and use of tiletamine and zolazepam in rheas is scarce. Chemical restraint is of extreme importance on these animals, due to their aggressive nature and low level of domesticity. This research may further establish the interspecific allometric scaling method as a viable tool for the veterinary physician in formulating anesthetic and chemical restraint protocols for wildlife animals. PMID:24625103

  18. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  19. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  20. Restraint stress alters immune parameters and induces oxidative stress in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanhui; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2014-12-01

    The influence of stress on embryo implantation is not well understood. Prior studies have focused on later gestational stages and the long-term impact of stress on immune function. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of restraint stress on the immune parameters and the oxidative states of the uterus during implantation. In this study, pregnant CD1 mice were subjected to restraint stress (4 h/d) on embryonic day 1 (E1) and sacrificed on E3, E5, and E7. Maternal plasma corticosterone (CORT) secretion and implantation sites in the uterus were examined. The uterine (excluding embryos) homogenate and uterine lymphocytes were collected to examine oxidative stress states and associated immune parameters. The results demonstrated that restraint stress increased maternal plasma CORT secretion and reduced the number of implantation sites by 15.3% on E5 and by 26.1% on E7. Moreover, restraint stress decreased the density of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the endometrium by 22.1-47.9% and increased the density of mast cells in the myometrium by 55.6-76.9%. Restraint stress remarkably decreased the CD3(+)CD4(+) T/CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell ratio (by 26.2-28.9%) and attenuated uterine lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of cytokines. In addition, restraint stress threatened the intracellular equilibrium between oxidants and antioxidants, resulting in decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) (32.2% and 45.7%), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (15.5% and 26.1%), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (18.4% and 18.2%) activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) (34.4% and 43.0%) contents on E5 and E7. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that restraint stress causes abnormal implantation and negatively impacts immune parameters in association with oxidative stress in mice.

  1. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Women, sex and marriage. Restraint as a feminine strategy.

    PubMed

    Kishwar, M

    1997-01-01

    The expression of sexuality varies in different cultures, and most societies attempt to control sexuality through the institution of marriage. In the West, the availability of cheap, effective contraceptives separated sex from reproduction and promoted the sexual liberation of women. Today, while divorce is common, sexually liberated people nevertheless engage in a form of serial monogamy. Sexual liberation in the West causes women to be exploited by men and creates instability in nuclear families. In India, feminism is tempered by a belief that familial rights have precedence over individual rights. India women practice sexual self-denial after being widowed to protect their children and to gain power and respect in the community. The power of chastity was illustrated by Mahatma Gandhi who marshalled his spiritual forces to fight for independence. The stories of many individual women illustrate how they attain status and prestige through chastity. Other women maintain absolute marital faithfulness as a marital strategy to control wayward husbands. These women deemphasize their roles as wives and emphasize their roles as mothers. The children of such women often recognize their sacrifices and become their strongest allies. On the other hand, examples of women who have chosen sexual freedom show that such a choice places them at the mercy of men, makes them social outcasts, and causes other women to distrust them as competitors for their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women can not win if they try to mimic men's capacity for irresponsible sex. Sexual freedom can only work for women in matrilineal communities that shun marriage in favor of strong ties within a woman's natal family. Indian women rooted in the extended family enjoy the resilience and flexibility attendant upon playing a larger role than simply pleasing men. Opting for sexual restraint can be an effective though costly strategy to achieve the sympathy and support of an extended family when a man is

  3. Body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint influence binge eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Ana; Saldaña, Carmina

    2014-11-01

    As binge eating is a common behavior throughout the general population, we hypothesized that body dissatisfaction would produce binge eating via its prediction of dieting. Six hundred eight individuals were nonrandomly recruited from the community. The mean age and body mass index of participants were 34.76 years (SD, 14.41) and 27.82 kg/m(2) (SD, 9.54), respectively. Participants were asked to complete several self-report questionnaires, which included measures of dieting status, binge eating behavior, body dissatisfaction, overvaluation of weight and shape, and self-esteem. The results showed that dieting was a common behavior; 38.1% of participants reported dieting during the past year. Binge eating during the previous 6 months was reported by 9.9% of the sample and was associated with a higher body mass index as well as more frequent dieting. A model including dieting status, overvaluation of weight and shape, shape satisfaction, and self-esteem showed the best fit for the prediction of binge eating behavior. Moreover, those who dieted and overvalued their weight and shape were 2.01 and 2.31 times more likely, respectively, to binge eat. Structural equation modeling revealed that body dissatisfaction caused dietary restraint, thus triggering binge eating. Both dieting and overvaluation of weight and shape are important risk factors for the development of binge eating disorders. Dieting and binge eating are common behaviors that represent a risk for the development of both excess weight and eating disorders. The structural model proposed in this study could be beneficial in understanding this causal relationship. PMID:25270998

  4. PREDITOR: a web server for predicting protein torsion angle restraints

    PubMed Central

    Berjanskii, Mark V.; Neal, Stephen; Wishart, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Every year between 500 and 1000 peptide and protein structures are determined by NMR and deposited into the Protein Data Bank. However, the process of NMR structure determination continues to be a manually intensive and time-consuming task. One of the most tedious and error-prone aspects of this process involves the determination of torsion angle restraints including phi, psi, omega and chi angles. Most methods require many days of additional experiments, painstaking measurements or complex calculations. Here we wish to describe a web server, called PREDITOR, which greatly accelerates and simplifies this task. PREDITOR accepts sequence and/or chemical shift data as input and generates torsion angle predictions (with predicted errors) for phi, psi, omega and chi-1 angles. PREDITOR combines sequence alignment methods with advanced chemical shift analysis techniques to generate its torsion angle predictions. The method is fast (<40 s per protein) and accurate, with 88% of phi/psi predictions being within 30° of the correct values, 84% of chi-1 predictions being correct and 99.97% of omega angles being correct. PREDITOR is 35 times faster and up to 20% more accurate than any existing method. PREDITOR also provides accurate assessments of the torsion angle errors so that the torsion angle constraints can be readily fed into standard structure refinement programs, such as CNS, XPLOR, AMBER and CYANA. Other unique features to PREDITOR include dihedral angle prediction via PDB structure mapping, automated chemical shift re-referencing (to improve accuracy), prediction of proline cis/trans states and a simple user interface. The PREDITOR website is located at: . PMID:16845087

  5. Restraint Stress Intensifies Interstitial K+ Accumulation during Severe Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Christian; Janc, Oliwia A.; Kempkes, Belinda; Callis, Carolina Araya; Flügge, Gabriele; Hülsmann, Swen; Müller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for 3 weeks (6 h/day). In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance, and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain. PMID:22470344

  6. Women, sex and marriage. Restraint as a feminine strategy.

    PubMed

    Kishwar, M

    1997-01-01

    The expression of sexuality varies in different cultures, and most societies attempt to control sexuality through the institution of marriage. In the West, the availability of cheap, effective contraceptives separated sex from reproduction and promoted the sexual liberation of women. Today, while divorce is common, sexually liberated people nevertheless engage in a form of serial monogamy. Sexual liberation in the West causes women to be exploited by men and creates instability in nuclear families. In India, feminism is tempered by a belief that familial rights have precedence over individual rights. India women practice sexual self-denial after being widowed to protect their children and to gain power and respect in the community. The power of chastity was illustrated by Mahatma Gandhi who marshalled his spiritual forces to fight for independence. The stories of many individual women illustrate how they attain status and prestige through chastity. Other women maintain absolute marital faithfulness as a marital strategy to control wayward husbands. These women deemphasize their roles as wives and emphasize their roles as mothers. The children of such women often recognize their sacrifices and become their strongest allies. On the other hand, examples of women who have chosen sexual freedom show that such a choice places them at the mercy of men, makes them social outcasts, and causes other women to distrust them as competitors for their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women can not win if they try to mimic men's capacity for irresponsible sex. Sexual freedom can only work for women in matrilineal communities that shun marriage in favor of strong ties within a woman's natal family. Indian women rooted in the extended family enjoy the resilience and flexibility attendant upon playing a larger role than simply pleasing men. Opting for sexual restraint can be an effective though costly strategy to achieve the sympathy and support of an extended family when a man is

  7. Optimising product advice based on age when design criteria are based on weight: child restraints in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2009-03-01

    The motivation for this paper is the high rate of inappropriate child restraint selection in cars that is apparent in published surveys of child restraint use and how the public health messages promoting child restraints might respond. Advice has increasingly been given solely according to the child's weight, while many parents do not know the weight of their children. A common objection to promoting restraint use based on the age of the child is the imprecision of such advice, given the variation in the size of children, but the magnitude of the misclassification such advice would produce has never been estimated. This paper presents a method for estimating the misclassification of children by weight, when advice is posed in terms of age, and applies it to detailed child growth data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In Australia, guidelines instructing all parents to promote their children from an infant restraint to a forward-facing child seat at 6 months, and then to a belt-positioning booster at 4 years, would mean that 5% of all children under the age of 6 years would be using a restraint not suited to their weight. Coordination of aged-based advice and the weight ranges chosen for the Australian Standard on child restraints could reduce this level of misclassification to less than 1%. The general method developed may also be applied to other aspects of restraint design that are more directly relevant to good restraint fit.

  8. The capsular ligaments provide more hip rotational restraint than the acetabular labrum and the ligamentum teres

    PubMed Central

    van Arkel, R. J.; Amis, A. A.; Cobb, J. P.; Jeffers, J. R. T.

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments and the ligamentum teres to rotational restraint was determined by resecting a ligament and measuring the reduced torque required to achieve the same angular position as before resection. The contribution from the acetabular labrum was also measured. Each of the capsular ligaments acted as the primary hip rotation restraint somewhere within the complete ROM, and the ligamentum teres acted as a secondary restraint in high flexion, adduction and external rotation. The iliofemoral lateral arm and the ischiofemoral ligaments were primary restraints in two-thirds of the positions tested. Appreciation of the importance of these structures in preventing excessive hip rotation and subsequent impingement/instability may be relevant for surgeons undertaking both hip joint preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:484–91. PMID:25820886

  9. Motivating drivers to correctly adjust head restraints: assessing effectiveness of three different interventions.

    PubMed

    Fockler, S K; Vavrik, J; Kristiansen, L

    1998-11-01

    Three types of driver educational strategies were tested to determine the most effective approach for motivating drivers to adjust their head restraints to the correct vertical position: (1) a human interactive personal contact with a member of an ICBC-trained head restraint adjustment team, (2) a passive video presentation of the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment, and (3) an interactive three-dimensional kinetic model showing the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. A different educational treatment was used in each of three lanes of a vehicle emissions testing facility, with a fourth lane with no intervention serving as a control group. Observational and self-reported data were obtained from a total of 1,974 vehicles entering and exiting the facility. The human intervention led to significantly more drivers actually adjusting their head restraints immediately after the intervention than the passive video or interactive kinetic model approaches, which were both no different from the control group. The human intervention was recommended as the most effective and was implemented successfully on a limited basis during 3 months of 1995 and again during 3 months of 1996.

  10. Energy landscapes of a hairpin peptide including NMR chemical shift restraints.

    PubMed

    Carr, Joanne M; Whittleston, Chris S; Wade, David C; Wales, David J

    2015-08-21

    Methods recently introduced to improve the efficiency of protein structure prediction simulations by adding a restraint potential to a molecular mechanics force field introduce additional input parameters that can affect the performance. Here we investigate the changes in the energy landscape as the relative weight of the two contributions, force field and restraint potential, is systematically altered, for restraint functions constructed from calculated nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts. Benchmarking calculations were performed on a 12-residue peptide, tryptophan zipper 1, which features both secondary structure (a β-hairpin) and specific packing of tryptophan sidechains. Basin-hopping global optimization was performed to assess the efficiency with which lowest-energy structures are located, and the discrete path sampling approach was employed to survey the energy landscapes between unfolded and folded structures. We find that inclusion of the chemical shift restraints improves the efficiency of structure prediction because the energy landscape becomes more funnelled and the proportion of local minima classified as native increases. However, the funnelling nature of the landscape is reduced as the relative contribution of the chemical shift restraint potential is increased past an optimal value. PMID:26186565

  11. Behavioral response and cost comparison of manual versus pharmacologic restraint protocols in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Barletta, Michele; Raffe, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Although sedatives are routinely administered to dogs for diagnostic and minimally invasive procedures, manual restraint is often used. The study compared intra-procedural behavioral response, scored on a 100-point, visual analog scale, and cost of restraint in healthy dogs given 1 of 5 treatments: manual restraint, dexmedetomidine at 125 μg/m(2) (Dex 125) or 375 μg/m(2) (Dex 375), Dex 125 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 125 + Bu), or Dex 375 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 375 + Bu). Mean behavioral response scores in dogs declined from baseline in the manual restraint group and improved in a linear fashion in the group order Dex 125, Dex 375, Dex 125 + Bu, and Dex 375 + Bu. Dexmedetomidine at 375 μg/m(2) or at 125 μg/m(2) or at 375 μg/m(2) in combination with butorphanol produced the best intra-procedural behavioral response. The cost of sedative drugs was offset by the opportunity cost of diverting personnel from revenue-generating activity to manual restraint. PMID:26933261

  12. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence.

  13. Chronic restraint or variable stresses differently affect the behavior, corticosterone secretion and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Marin, Marcelo T; Cruz, Fabio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2007-01-30

    Organisms are constantly subjected to stressful stimuli that affect numerous physiological processes and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing the release of glucocorticoids. Exposure to chronic stress is known to alter basic mechanisms of the stress response. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of two different stress paradigms (chronic restraint or variable stress) on behavioral and corticosterone release to a subsequent exposure to stressors. Considering that the HPA axis might respond differently when it is challenged with a novel or a familiar stressor we investigated the changes in the corticosterone levels following the exposure to two stressors: restraint (familiar stress) or forced novelty (novel stress). The changes in the behavioral response were evaluated by measuring the locomotor response to a novel environment. In addition, we examined changes in body, adrenals, and thymus weights in response to the chronic paradigms. Our results showed that exposure to chronic variable stress increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and that both, chronic restraint and variable stresses, promote higher corticosterone levels in response to a novel environment, but not to a challenge restraint stress, as compared to the control (non-stressed) group. Exposure to chronic restraint leads to increased novelty-induced locomotor activity. Furthermore, only the exposure to variable stress reduced body weights. In conclusion, the present results provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects the organism physiology and point to the importance of the chronic paradigm and challenge stress on the behavioral and hormonal adaptations induced by chronic stress.

  14. Depressed Affect and Dietary Restraint in Adolescent Boys’ and Girls’ Eating in the Absence of Hunger

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Nichole R.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Grygorenko, Mariya V.; Radin, Rachel M.; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M.; Brady, Sheila M.; Courville, Amber B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls’ propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. PMID:25936291

  15. Success importance and urge magnitude as determinants of cardiovascular response to a behavioral restraint challenge.

    PubMed

    Agtarap, Stephanie D; Wright, Rex A; Mlynski, Christopher; Hammad, Rawan; Blackledge, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Decades of research have investigated a conceptual analysis concerned with determinants and cardiovascular correlates of effort in people confronted with performance challenges, that is, opportunities to alter some course of events by acting. One suggestion is that effort and associated cardiovascular responses should be determined jointly by the difficulty of meeting a challenge and the importance of doing so. The present experiment tested this in a context involving behavioral restraint, that is, effortful resistance against a behavioral impulse or urge. Participants were presented a mildly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty low) or a strongly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty high) with instructions to refrain from showing any facial response. Success was made more or less important through coordinated manipulations of outcome expectancy, ego-involvement and social evaluation. As expected, SBP responses assessed during the work period were proportional to clip evocativeness - i.e., the difficulty of the restraint challenge - when importance was high, but low regardless of clip evocativeness when importance was low. Findings conceptually replicate previous cardiovascular results and support extension of the guiding analysis to the behavioral restraint realm. PMID:26968495

  16. Behavioral response and cost comparison of manual versus pharmacologic restraint protocols in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Michele; Raffe, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Although sedatives are routinely administered to dogs for diagnostic and minimally invasive procedures, manual restraint is often used. The study compared intra-procedural behavioral response, scored on a 100-point, visual analog scale, and cost of restraint in healthy dogs given 1 of 5 treatments: manual restraint, dexmedetomidine at 125 μg/m2 (Dex 125) or 375 μg/m2 (Dex 375), Dex 125 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 125 + Bu), or Dex 375 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 375 + Bu). Mean behavioral response scores in dogs declined from baseline in the manual restraint group and improved in a linear fashion in the group order Dex 125, Dex 375, Dex 125 + Bu, and Dex 375 + Bu. Dexmedetomidine at 375 μg/m2 or at 125 μg/m2 or at 375 μg/m2 in combination with butorphanol produced the best intra-procedural behavioral response. The cost of sedative drugs was offset by the opportunity cost of diverting personnel from revenue-generating activity to manual restraint. PMID:26933261

  17. The validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural model of eating disorders in predicting dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The study examined the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. The aim was to determine if the maintaining mechanisms of clinical perfectionism, core low self esteem, mood intolerance and interpersonal difficulties have a direct impact on dietary restraint or an indirect impact via eating, shape and weight concerns. The model was tested in a community sample of 224 females recruited via the internet. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data. The relationship between maintaining mechanisms and dietary restraint was due to maintaining mechanisms impacting indirectly on dietary restraint via eating disorder psychopathology. The results lend support for the validity of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders as the maintaining mechanisms lead to restraint via the core psychopathology of eating concerns, weight concerns and shape concerns. The findings suggest the four maintaining mechanisms alone are not enough to lead to dietary restraint, the core psychopathology of eating disorders needs to be present, which supports the predictions of the theory. These results help establish the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders.

  18. Conformation-dependent restraints for polynucleotides: I. Clustering of the geometry of the phosphodiester group.

    PubMed

    Kowiel, Marcin; Brzezinski, Dariusz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2016-09-30

    The refinement of macromolecular structures is usually aided by prior stereochemical knowledge in the form of geometrical restraints. Such restraints are also used for the flexible sugar-phosphate backbones of nucleic acids. However, recent highly accurate structural studies of DNA suggest that the phosphate bond angles may have inadequate description in the existing stereochemical dictionaries. In this paper, we analyze the bonding deformations of the phosphodiester groups in the Cambridge Structural Database, cluster the studied fragments into six conformation-related categories and propose a revised set of restraints for the O-P-O bond angles and distances. The proposed restraints have been positively validated against data from the Nucleic Acid Database and an ultrahigh-resolution Z-DNA structure in the Protein Data Bank. Additionally, the manual classification of PO4 geometry is compared with geometrical clusters automatically discovered by machine learning methods. The machine learning cluster analysis provides useful insights and a practical example for general applications of clustering algorithms for automatic discovery of hidden patterns of molecular geometry. Finally, we describe the implementation and application of a public-domain web server for automatic generation of the proposed restraints.

  19. Conformation-dependent restraints for polynucleotides: I. Clustering of the geometry of the phosphodiester group

    PubMed Central

    Kowiel, Marcin; Brzezinski, Dariusz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The refinement of macromolecular structures is usually aided by prior stereochemical knowledge in the form of geometrical restraints. Such restraints are also used for the flexible sugar-phosphate backbones of nucleic acids. However, recent highly accurate structural studies of DNA suggest that the phosphate bond angles may have inadequate description in the existing stereochemical dictionaries. In this paper, we analyze the bonding deformations of the phosphodiester groups in the Cambridge Structural Database, cluster the studied fragments into six conformation-related categories and propose a revised set of restraints for the O-P-O bond angles and distances. The proposed restraints have been positively validated against data from the Nucleic Acid Database and an ultrahigh-resolution Z-DNA structure in the Protein Data Bank. Additionally, the manual classification of PO4 geometry is compared with geometrical clusters automatically discovered by machine learning methods. The machine learning cluster analysis provides useful insights and a practical example for general applications of clustering algorithms for automatic discovery of hidden patterns of molecular geometry. Finally, we describe the implementation and application of a public-domain web server for automatic generation of the proposed restraints. PMID:27521371

  20. Conformation-dependent restraints for polynucleotides: I. Clustering of the geometry of the phosphodiester group.

    PubMed

    Kowiel, Marcin; Brzezinski, Dariusz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2016-09-30

    The refinement of macromolecular structures is usually aided by prior stereochemical knowledge in the form of geometrical restraints. Such restraints are also used for the flexible sugar-phosphate backbones of nucleic acids. However, recent highly accurate structural studies of DNA suggest that the phosphate bond angles may have inadequate description in the existing stereochemical dictionaries. In this paper, we analyze the bonding deformations of the phosphodiester groups in the Cambridge Structural Database, cluster the studied fragments into six conformation-related categories and propose a revised set of restraints for the O-P-O bond angles and distances. The proposed restraints have been positively validated against data from the Nucleic Acid Database and an ultrahigh-resolution Z-DNA structure in the Protein Data Bank. Additionally, the manual classification of PO4 geometry is compared with geometrical clusters automatically discovered by machine learning methods. The machine learning cluster analysis provides useful insights and a practical example for general applications of clustering algorithms for automatic discovery of hidden patterns of molecular geometry. Finally, we describe the implementation and application of a public-domain web server for automatic generation of the proposed restraints. PMID:27521371

  1. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. PMID:25936291

  2. M.E.366-J embodiment design project: Portable foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Randall; Meyer, Eikar; Schmidt, Davey; Enders, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    During space shuttle operations, astronauts require support to carry out tasks in the weightless environment. In the past, portable foot restraints (PFR) with orientations adjustable in pitch, roll, and yaw provided this support for payload bay operations. These foot restraints, however, were designed for specific tasks with a load limit of 111.2 Newtons. Since the original design, new applications for foot restraints have been identified. New designs for the foot restraints have been created to boost the operational work load to 444.8 Newtons and decrease setup times. What remains to be designed is an interface between the restraint system and the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots. NASA provided a proposed locking device involving a spring-loaded mechanism. This locking mechanism must withstand loads of 1334.4 Newtons in any direction and weigh less than 222.4 Newtons. This paper develops an embodiment design for the interface between the PFR and the EMU boots. This involves design of the locking mechanism and a removable cleat that allows the boot to interface with this mechanism. The design team used the Paul Beitz engineering methodology to present the systematic development, structural analysis, and production considerations of the embodiment design. This methodology provides a basis for understanding the justification behind the decisions made in the design.

  3. Improved Tactile Shear Feedback: Tactor Design and an Aperture-Based Restraint.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, B T; Stewart, C A; Provancher, W R

    2011-01-01

    Tactile feedback could replace or augment visual and auditory communication in a range of important applications. This paper advances the field of tactile communication by presenting performance data on a variety of tactors and a finger restraint that is suitable for use in portable devices. Tactors, the contact elements between the device and the skin, and finger restraints were evaluated using a tangential skin displacement direction identification task. We tested tactors of three sizes and two different textures. Rough textured tactors improved communication accuracy compared to smooth tactors, but tactor size did not have a statistically significant effect. Aperture-based restraints of three sizes were evaluated on both the index finger and the thumb. The aperture-based restraint was effective when used on both the index finger and the thumb, with performances on par with our previously tested thimble-based restraint. Participants performed better with larger apertures than with smaller apertures, but there was no interaction between aperture size and finger size, meaning that the same aperture could be used with a range of finger sizes. Subjects' perceptual acuity varied with stimulus direction. We discuss the effects of contact force, finger size, and differences in perceptual acuity between the index finger and thumb. PMID:26963654

  4. [Mechanical restraints in the elderly: technical proposals and recommendations for use in the social environment].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Delgado, Joan

    2013-01-01

    There is some confusion in the national gerontological literature in the use of terms that refer to mechanical restraints. There is a lack of dialogue as regards ethical conflicts that suggest their use, as well as a significant generalization of the claims against, and the absence of positive references despite its high prevalence as shown by some authors. This paper presents some technical proposals on the definition, the use of terms, and the use of mechanical restraints in the social environment, such as putting the ethical dialogue to arguments based on the prevalence, define them in terms of their intent, agree on a classification of the different restraint methods, identify the types and levels of risk, and intervene specifically in accordance with these proposals. Finally, recommendations are added with regards to risks, the decision process, prescription and the withdrawal process.

  5. [Mechanical restraints in the elderly: technical proposals and recommendations for use in the social environment].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Delgado, Joan

    2013-01-01

    There is some confusion in the national gerontological literature in the use of terms that refer to mechanical restraints. There is a lack of dialogue as regards ethical conflicts that suggest their use, as well as a significant generalization of the claims against, and the absence of positive references despite its high prevalence as shown by some authors. This paper presents some technical proposals on the definition, the use of terms, and the use of mechanical restraints in the social environment, such as putting the ethical dialogue to arguments based on the prevalence, define them in terms of their intent, agree on a classification of the different restraint methods, identify the types and levels of risk, and intervene specifically in accordance with these proposals. Finally, recommendations are added with regards to risks, the decision process, prescription and the withdrawal process. PMID:23743357

  6. An Examination of the U.S. Regional Airline Policies Regarding Child Restraint Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carstenson, Larry; Sluti, Donald; Luedtke, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    A prior study examined the policies of U.S. air carriers with regard to the use of infant restraint systems on board commercial aircraft. This study expands on that earlier study by examining the policies of commuter air carriers in the United States regarding the use of infant restraint systems. The management policy of the commuter air carriers has been investigated and officials of the commuter air carriers were surveyed to determine how the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft varied among commuter airlines. The topics investigated included seat space for infants, restraint systems for infants, and amenities for infant passengers. The results of this study have been analyzed to ascertain if any recommendations can be made to the commuter airlines regarding the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft.

  7. Cellular resolution functional imaging in behaving rats using voluntary head restraint

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Benjamin B.; Brody, Carlos D.; Tank, David W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY High-throughput operant conditioning systems for rodents provide efficient training on sophisticated behavioral tasks. Combining these systems with technologies for cellular resolution functional imaging would provide a powerful approach to study neural dynamics during behavior. Here we describe an integrated two-photon microscope and behavioral apparatus that allows cellular resolution functional imaging of cortical regions during epochs of voluntary head restraint. Rats were trained to initiate periods of restraint up to 8 seconds in duration, which provided the mechanical stability necessary for in vivo imaging while allowing free movement between behavioral trials. A mechanical registration system repositioned the head to within a few microns, allowing the same neuronal populations to be imaged on each trial. In proof-of-principle experiments, calcium dependent fluorescence transients were recorded from GCaMP-labeled cortical neurons. In contrast to previous methods for head restraint, this system can also be incorporated into high-throughput operant conditioning systems. PMID:24055015

  8. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  9. The Possible Influence of Impulsivity and Dietary Restraint on Associations between Serotonin Genes and Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Sarah E.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Larson, Christine L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2009-01-01

    Although serotonin (5-HT) genes are thought to be involved in the etiology of bulimia nervosa and binge eating, findings from molecular genetic studies are inconclusive. This may be due to limitations of past research, such as a failure to consider the influence of quantitative traits and gene-environment interactions. The current study investigated these issues by examining whether quantitative traits (i.e., impulsivity) and environmental exposure factors (i.e., dietary restraint) moderate 5-HT gene/binge eating associations in a sample of young women (N = 344). Binge eating was assessed using the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). Impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Version 11. Dietary restraint was measured with a factor score derived from common restraint scales. Saliva samples were genotyped for the 5-HT2a receptor T102C polymorphism and 5-HT transporter promoter polymorphism. As expected, impulsivity and dietary restraint were associated with binge eating. Although the T allele of the 5-HT2a receptor gene and the s allele of the 5-HTT gene were associated with higher levels of impulsivity, there were no main effects of 5-HT genotypes on any binge eating measure, and interactions between genotypes, impulsivity, and dietary restraint were non-significant. In conclusion, we found no evidence to suggest that dietary restraint or impulsivity moderate associations between binge eating and these 5-HT genes. Future research should continue to explore interaction effects by examining larger samples, assessing dietary intake directly, and investigating other genes, traits, and environmental factors that may be related to binge eating and bulimia nervosa. PMID:19493540

  10. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered Insulin Signalling in Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Morakinyo, Ayodele O; Ajiboye, Kolawole I; Oludare, Gabriel O; Samuel, Titilola A

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were exposed to one of the four different restraint stressors; 1 h, twice daily for a period of 7 days (S7D), 14 days (S14D) and 28 days (S28D). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were evaluated following the final stress exposure. ELISA were performed to assess the level of insulin and adiponectin as well as expression of INSR and GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle. Plasma corticosterone level was also determined as a marker of stress exposure. Restraint stress for 7 days caused transient glucose intolerance, while S14D rats demonstrated increased glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. However, restraint stress for 28 days had no effect on glucose tolerance, but did cause an increase in glucose response to insulin challenge. The serum level of adiponectin was significantly (p< 0.05) lower compared with the control value while insulin remained unchanged except at in S28D rats that had a significant (p<0.05) increase. The expression of INSR and GLUT4 receptors were significantly (p< 0.05) decreased in the skeletal muscle of restraint stress exposed rats. There was a significant (p< 0.05) increase in the plasma corticosterone level of the stress rats compared with their control counterparts. Restraint stress caused glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which becomes accommodated with prolonged exposure and was likely related to the blunted insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. PMID:27574760

  11. Bags, buckles, and belts: the debate over mandatory passive restraints in automobiles.

    PubMed

    Warner, K E

    1983-01-01

    Seatbelt-wearing occupants of motor vehicles experience a death rate that is half that of nonbelted occupants, yet fewer than 10 percent of the population regularly wear their seatbelts. The potential of effective passenger-restraint systems to substantially reduce mortality and disability has led the federal government to consider requiring all new vehicles to come equipped with restraint systems that take effect without active participation from the passenger--airbags or automatic seatbelts. Since 1969, the government has issued several rulemakings to that effect, but each has been delayed or rescinded, the result of an ongoing debate about the policy's wisdom. Political and economic interests are at stake, as are matters of principle; and disputes over basic facts remain unresolved. Both advocates and opponents of a mandatory passive-restraint requirement agree that restraints can prevent deaths and disabilities, though there are differences of opinion as to the degree of protection afforded. Opponents of the requirement concentrate their substantive concerns on the propensity of the public to disconnect passive belts and the reluctance of prospective car buyers to pay the additional cost that airbags would entail. Cost-benefit analyses of a passive-restraint requirement find the requirement socially desirable; but they fail to take distributional issues into account, and several of their assumptions have been challenged by the automobile industry, the only major organized opposition to the requirement. This paper examines the central issues and evidence in the debate, including a consideration of alternative means of achieving effective, efficient passenger restraint. PMID:6863874

  12. Misuse of Child Restraint Systems in Crash Situations - Danger and Possible Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Lesire, Philippe; Cuny, Sophie; Alonzo, François; Cataldi, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Based on real-world crash data and recent field studies, an ad-hoc group was set up in order to have a better comprehension of the effects of misuse of Child Restraint Systems (CRS) on child protection. A testing programme of 60 single misuse situations was conducted. Test results confirmed that, in frontal impact, children have higher risk of being injured on a number of different body regions when CRS’s are misused. This work provides material for educational and training purposes to help parents understand that child restraints need to be correctly fitted in order to provide the level of protection they are designed for. PMID:18184494

  13. Brief report: effect of dietary restraint on fruit and vegetable intake following implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2013-07-01

    This study explored whether the effects of implementation intentions on increasing fruit and vegetable intake were moderated by dietary restraint. In total, 208 participants were randomly allocated to control or implementation intention conditions where they were asked to write down when, where and how they would increase their fruit and vegetable intake. Implementation intentions increased fruit and vegetable intake but only in participants scoring low (not high) on rigid dietary restraint. Motives underlying fruit and vegetable consumption may be different for restrained and unrestrained eaters. Efforts to increase their intake may need to be tailored, for example, through motivational rather than situational cues.

  14. Compatibility or restraint? The effects of sexual timing on marriage relationships.

    PubMed

    Busby, Dean M; Carroll, Jason S; Willoughby, Brian J

    2010-12-01

    Very little is known about the influence of sexual timing on relationship outcomes. Is it better to test sexual compatibility as early as possible or show sexual restraint so that other areas of the relationship can develop? In this study, we explore this question with a sample of 2035 married individuals by examining how soon they became sexually involved as a couple and how this timing is related to their current sexual quality, relationship communication, and relationship satisfaction and perceived stability. Both structural equation and group comparison analyses demonstrated that sexual restraint was associated with better relationship outcomes, even when controlling for education, the number of sexual partners, religiosity, and relationship length.

  15. The ESA astronaut sleep restraint--its development and use onboard Spacelab and MIR.

    PubMed

    Ockels, W; Stoewer, H

    1990-02-01

    The development of the ESA portable sleep restraint system is described. The system was developed to simulate certain earthbound sleep conditions in microgravity. The restraint is a bag made of two sheets of Nomex(R) cloth stretched over a tubular tension device and provides the astronaut with feedback pressure similar to bedding on Earth. The final prototype of the bag was tested on the German Spacelab-D1 mission and during a six-month mission aboard MIR. Positive feedback from astronauts suggests the need for further evaluation during space flight. PMID:11540491

  16. The ESA astronaut sleep restraint--its development and use onboard Spacelab and MIR.

    PubMed

    Ockels, W; Stoewer, H

    1990-02-01

    The development of the ESA portable sleep restraint system is described. The system was developed to simulate certain earthbound sleep conditions in microgravity. The restraint is a bag made of two sheets of Nomex(R) cloth stretched over a tubular tension device and provides the astronaut with feedback pressure similar to bedding on Earth. The final prototype of the bag was tested on the German Spacelab-D1 mission and during a six-month mission aboard MIR. Positive feedback from astronauts suggests the need for further evaluation during space flight.

  17. Solution NMR Structure Determination of Polytopic α-Helical Membrane Proteins: A Guide to Spin Label Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement Restraints.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Linda; Kroncke, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Solution nuclear magnetic resonance structures of polytopic α-helical membrane proteins require additional restraints beyond the traditional Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) restraints. Several methods have been developed and this review focuses on paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE). Important aspects of spin labeling, PRE measurements, structure calculations, and structural quality are discussed.

  18. Analysis of Heart Rate and Self-Injury with and without Restraint in an Individual with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennett, Heather; Hagopian, Louis P.; Beaulieu, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    The relation between self-injury and heart rate was analyzed for an individual who appeared anxious while engaging in self-injury. The analysis involved manipulating the presence or absence of restraint while simultaneously measuring heart rate. The following findings were obtained and replicated: (a) when some form of restraint was applied, heart…

  19. Preventing the Use of Restraint and Seclusion with Young Children: "The Role of Effective, Positive Practices". Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Ostryn, Cheryl; Fox, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major concerns expressed regarding the use of restraint and seclusion to control the behavior of children with disabilities and/or challenging behavior. In May of 2009, for example, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) released findings regarding a number of cases in which seclusion and restraint were…

  20. Loan a Seat for Safety: How to Establish and Operate an Infant and Child Restraint Loan Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Office of Highway Safety Planning, Lansing.

    This manual presents guidelines for starting and running a child restraint rental program to provide car seats and safety belts. Briefly discussed are reasons for starting a child restraint loan program, how such a program works, and information on similar programs. Issues of staffing, space needs, supplies, and equipment are addressed and…

  1. Variation Found in Rates of Restraint and Seclusion among Students with a Disability. Paper 206. National Issue Brief No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Douglas J.; Mattingly, Marybeth; Connelly, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    The restraint and seclusion of individuals--practices usually associated with highly restrictive environments--are extreme responses to student behavior used in some public schools. In this brief, authors Douglas Gagnon, Marybeth Mattingly, and Vincent Connelly report that restraint and seclusion are used much more frequently on students with a…

  2. Frontal Sled Tests Comparing Rear and Forward Facing Child Restraints with 1–3 Year Old Dummies

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, C. P.; Crandall, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads. PMID:18184491

  3. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.

  4. SASSIE: A program to study intrinsically disordered biological molecules and macromolecular ensembles using experimental scattering restraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Joseph E.; Raghunandan, Sindhu; Nanda, Hirsh; Krueger, Susan

    2012-02-01

    A program to construct ensembles of biomolecular structures that are consistent with experimental scattering data are described. Specifically, we generate an ensemble of biomolecular structures by varying sets of backbone dihedral angles that are then filtered using experimentally determined restraints to rapidly determine structures that have scattering profiles that are consistent with scattering data. We discuss an application of these tools to predict a set of structures for the HIV-1 Gag protein, an intrinsically disordered protein, that are consistent with small-angle neutron scattering experimental data. We have assembled these algorithms into a program called SASSIE for structure generation, visualization, and analysis of intrinsically disordered proteins and other macromolecular ensembles using neutron and X-ray scattering restraints. Program summaryProgram title: SASSIE Catalogue identifier: AEKL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 991 624 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 826 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python, C/C++, Fortran Computer: PC/Mac Operating system: 32- and 64-bit Linux (Ubuntu 10.04, Centos 5.6) and Mac OS X (10.6.6) RAM: 1 GB Classification: 3 External routines: Python 2.6.5, numpy 1.4.0, swig 1.3.40, scipy 0.8.0, Gnuplot-py-1.8, Tcl 8.5, Tk 8.5, Mac installation requires aquaterm 1.0 (or X window system) and Xcode 3 development tools. Nature of problem: Open source software to generate structures of disordered biological molecules that subsequently allow for the comparison of computational and experimental results is limiting the use of scattering resources. Solution method: Starting with an all atom model of a protein, for example, users can input

  5. Behavioral effects and CRF expression in brain structures of high- and low-anxiety rats after chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Wisłowska-Stanek, Aleksandra; Lehner, Małgorzata; Skórzewska, Anna; Krząścik, Paweł; Płaźnik, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of chronic restraint stress (5 weeks, 3h/day) on behavior and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression in rats selected for high (HR) and low anxiety (LR). The conditioned freezing response was used as a discriminating variable. Moreover, we assessed the influence of acute restraint on CRF expression in the brain in HR and LR rats. We found that chronic restraint induced symptoms of anhedonia (decreased consumption of 1% sucrose solution) in HR rats. In addition, HR restraint rats showed an increased learned helplessness behavior (immobility time in the Porsolt test) as well as neophobia in the open field test vs. LR restraint and HR control rats. These behavioral changes were accompanied by a decreased expression of CRF in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (pPVN) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) compared to the HR control and LR restraint rat groups, respectively. The acute restraint condition increased the expression of CRF in the pPVN of HR rats compared to the HR control group, and enhanced the expression of CRF in the CA1 area and DG of LR restraint animals compared to the HR restraint and LR control rats, respectively. The present results indicate that chronic restraint stress in high anxiety rats attenuated CRF expression in the pPVN and DG, which was probably due to detrimental actions on the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland feedback mechanism, thus modulating the stress response and inducing anhedonia and depressive-like symptoms. PMID:27150225

  6. Restraint of Liquid Jets by Surface Tension in Microgravity Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Tension in Microgravity Modeled Microgravity poses many challenges to the designer of spacecraft tanks. Chief among these are the lack of phase separation and the need to supply vapor-free liquid or liquidfree vapor to the spacecraft processes that require fluid. One of the principal problems of phase separation is the creation of liquid jets. A jet can be created by liquid filling, settling of the fluid to one end of the tank, or even closing a valve to stop the liquid flow. Anyone who has seen a fountain knows that jets occur in normal gravity also. However, in normal gravity, the gravity controls and restricts the jet flow. In microgravity, with gravity largely absent, jets must be contained by surface tension forces. Recent NASA experiments in microgravity (Tank Pressure Control Experiment, TPCE, and Vented Tank Pressure Experiment, VTRE) resulted in a wealth of data about jet behavior in microgravity. VTRE was surprising in that, although it contained a complex geometry of baffles and vanes, the limit on liquid inflow was the emergence of a liquid jet from the top of the vane structure. Clearly understanding the restraint of liquid jets by surface tension is key to managing fluids in low gravity. To model this phenomenon, we need a numerical method that can track the fluid motion and the surface tension forces. The fluid motion is modeled with the Navier-Stokes equation formulated for low-speed incompressible flows. The quantities of velocity and pressure are placed on a staggered grid, with velocity being tracked at cell faces and pressure at cell centers. The free surface is tracked via the introduction of a color function that tracks liquid as 1/2 and gas as -1/2. A phase model developed by Jacqmin is used. This model converts the discrete surface tension force into a barrier function that peaks at the free surface and decays rapidly. Previous attempts at this formulation have been criticized for smearing the interface. However, by sharpening the phase

  7. Sex-specific impairment and recovery of spatial learning following the end of chronic unpredictable restraint stress: potential relevance of limbic GAD.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J Bryce; Taylor, Sara B; Hoffman, Ann N; Campbell, Alyssa N; Lucas, Louis R; Conrad, Cheryl D

    2015-04-01

    Chronic restraint stress alters hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a sex-dependent manner, impairing spatial performance in male rats and leaving intact or facilitating performance in female rats. Moreover, these stress-induced spatial memory deficits improve following post-stress recovery in males. The current study examined whether restraint administered in an unpredictable manner would eliminate these sex differences and impact a post-stress period on spatial ability and limbic glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) expression. Male (n=30) and female (n=30) adult Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to non-stressed control (Con), chronic stress (Str-Imm), or chronic stress given a post-stress recovery period (Str-Rec). Stressed rats were unpredictably restrained for 21 days using daily non-repeated combinations of physical context, duration, and time of day. Then, all rats were tested on the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for 2 days and given one retention trial on the third day, with brains removed 30min later to assess GAD65 mRNA. In Str-Imm males, deficits occurred on day 1 of RAWM acquisition, an impairment that was not evident in the Str-Rec group. In contrast, females did not show significant outcomes following chronic stress or post-stress recovery. In males, amygdalar GAD65 expression negatively correlated with RAWM performance on day 1. In females, hippocampal CA1 GAD65 positively correlated with RAWM performance on day 1. These results demonstrate that GABAergic function may contribute to the sex differences observed following chronic stress. Furthermore, unpredictable restraint and a recovery period failed to eliminate the sex differences on spatial learning and memory.

  8. Effects of voluntary exercise on apoptosis and cortisol after chronic restraint stress in mice

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyobin; Park, Chun-Hyung; Choi, Seokrip; Kim, Woocheol; Jeon, Byung-Duk; Ryu, Seungpil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether voluntary exercise (wheel running) has the potential of relieving stress. [Methods] In this study, restraint stress with or without voluntary wheel running was performed for mice housed in individual cages. A total of 21 ICR male mice were assigned into control (CON), restraint stress with voluntary exercise (RSVE), or restraint stress (RS) without voluntary exercise groups (n = 7 each). [Results] No significant difference in body weight increase was found among the three groups, although CON and RS groups had a tendency of having smaller body weight increase compared to the RSVE group. No significant difference in the expression level of liver heat shock protein 70, Bcl-2, or p53 was found among the three groups. However, caspase-3 protein level in RS group was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. Blood cortisol concentration in RS was higher (p < 0.05) than that in RSVE or CON group. It was the lowest (p < 0.05) in the RSVE group. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that apoptosis caused by chronic restraint stress might be suppressed by voluntary exercise in mice. PMID:27757383

  9. Crisis Intervention & Non-Violent Restraint: What's Your Action-Step?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torem, Chris

    This article is a written version of a workshop on crisis intervention and non-violent restraint. It is geared towards staff responding to crisis calls, and the supervision of crisis intervention in public schools. Reaction to death threats, bomb scares, and weapons are discussed. The NOVA and NEAT principles are briefly integrated into this…

  10. A Ban on Prior Restraint in High Schools: The Aftermath of the "Fujishima" Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trager, Robert; Dickerson, Donna L.

    After a unique court decision forbidding prior restraint in public high school publications in three states, a study was devised based on the responses to individual questionnaires sent to principals, faculty advisers, and student editors in each of the schools in the judicial district involved in the decision. Respondents answered questions…

  11. Judicial Restraints on the Press. Freedom of Information Foundation Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Donald M.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current status of freedom of the press with regard to past and present judicial rulings. A section devoted to "The Background of Prior Restraint" examines the historical basis for current legal decisions. In "Threatening Progeny," court decisions unfriendly to the press such as the Reardon Report, the…

  12. The Effect of Eliminating Time Restraints on a Standardized Test with American Indian Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerman, Michael A.

    To investigate the effect of time restraints on the diagnostic test scores of Native American students entering Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, two groups of students at Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, were given the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test, (Blue Level), 1977 edition. The test scores…

  13. Factors influencing premature graduation from the use of child restraints in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Kazuko; Mori, Kenji; Mitsui, Tatsuro

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the association of child passenger restraint use by younger and older children taking into account situational factors and driver/child passenger characteristics. The Japanese national traffic accident data pertaining to children injured in rear-end collisions where the drivers were not-at-fault was analyzed, while applying the quasi-induced exposure method. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the adjusted effects of predictors for proper restraint use by 0-5, 6-9, and 10-12-year-old children. Unbelted drivers, child's seating position, the number of total occupants, and the child's age were significantly associated with restraint use by both younger and older children. Riding in the rear seats was strongly associated with older SB-age children not being properly restrained, suggesting a link between the lack of booster seat-use requirements and the generally low restraint use rate in rear seats as well as the premature graduation from CRS use in general. The results were discussed in light of other international findings in this field.

  14. Relation of dietary restraint scores to cognitive biases and reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Amy L; Field, Matt; Yokum, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2010-08-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that dietary restraint scores are associated with greater reward sensitivity and cognitive bias for food-related cues, which might result in chronic overeating and efforts to curb this tendency through dietary restriction. Participants (N=63) with high versus low scores on the DEBQ-R did not differ on attentional bias for pictorial food-related cues on a visual probe task, or approach tendencies elicited by food cues, as assessed with a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task. Restraint was also unrelated to performance on an operant task that assessed how hard participants would work for snacks, or responding during a taste habituation paradigm. Dietary restraint scores were correlated with self-reported appetitive response to food, sensitivity to reward, and sensitivity to punishment. Results provide limited support for the hypothesis that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores show greater reward sensitivity and cognitive bias for food stimuli, though it is possible that the null findings on the behavioral task resulted because of an approach-avoidance conflict to food cues in which heightened appetitive responses to food are inhibited by food-related anxiety.

  15. Changing the Definition of Education. On Kant's Educational Paradox between Freedom and Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffar, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Ever since Kant asked: "How am I to develop the sense of freedom in spite of the restraint?" in his lecture on education, the tension between necessary educational influence and unacceptable restriction of the child's individual development and freedom has been considered an educational paradox. Many have suggested solutions to the…

  16. A Descriptive Study of the Use of Restraint and Seclusion in a Special Education School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villani, V. Susan; Parsons, Aaron E.; Church, Robin P.; Beetar, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The literature regarding the use of restraint and seclusion in schools is scant, perhaps due to the controversial nature of the topic. With few exceptions, schools have not published policies or data regarding these procedures even when doing so would further the discussion about standards for staff training, student safety, and…

  17. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  18. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  19. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  20. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring.

  1. 75 FR 44284 - Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application...

  2. Vibrations of rectangular plates with arbitrary non-uniform elastic edge restraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Li, Wen L.

    2009-09-01

    Arbitrary non-uniform elastic edge restraints represent the most general class of boundary conditions for plate problems, and are encountered in many real-world applications. The vibrations of plates with this kind of boundary conditions, however, are rarely studied in the literature perhaps because there is a lack of suitable analytical or numerical techniques. In this investigation, a general analytical method is derived for the vibration analysis of rectangular plates with elastic edge restraints of varying stiffness. Both rotational and translational restraints can be arbitrarily applied to an edge, and their stiffness distributions are generally described in terms of a set of invariants, cosine functions. The displacement solution is sought simply as a linear combination of several one- and two-dimensional Fourier cosine series expansions. All the unknown Fourier coefficients are treated equally as a set of independent generalized coordinates and solved directly from the Rayleigh-Ritz formulation. Unlike the existing techniques, the current method does not require any special procedures or schemes to deal with different boundary conditions. A few "classical" problems involving non-uniform rotational restraints are first solved and used to check the current solution against some of the existing techniques. The modal results are also presented for plates with more complicated boundary conditions in which an edge is no longer completely restrained in the translational direction. The accuracy and reliability of the current method are repeatedly demonstrated through all these examples.

  3. Client Factors as Predictors of Restraint and Seclusion in People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirs, Jan G. M.; Blok, Jan B.; Tolhoek, Myrte A.; El Aouat, Fadoua; Glimmerveen, Johanna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To gain more insight into the antecedent factors of restraint in institutionalised people with intellectual disability (ID), the role played by several demographic and psychological client variables was investigated. Methods: The data of 475 people (age range 12-95 years) who were residents in a Dutch institution for people with ID…

  4. Reducing Seclusion Timeout and Restraint Procedures with At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Peterson, Reece; Tetreault, George; Hagen, Emily Vander

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to review the effects of professional staff training in crisis management and de-escalation techniques on the use of seclusion timeout and restraint procedures with at-risk students in a K-12 special day school. An exploratory pre-post study was conducted over a two-year period, comparing the use of these…

  5. The Validity of Dietary Restraint Scales: Comment on Stice et al. (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; van Staveren, Wija; Herman, C. Peter

    2006-01-01

    In 4 empirical studies, E. Stice, M. Fisher, and M. R. Lowe (see record 2004-11653-006) calculated the correlations between some widely used dietary restraint scales and food intake. Failing to find substantial negative correlations, they concluded that these scales were invalid. The current article challenges this conclusion. For one thing, there…

  6. Learning from Tragedy: A Survey of Child and Adolescent Restraint Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunno, Michael A.; Holden, Martha J.; Tollar, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This descriptive study examines 45 child and adolescent fatalities related to restraints in residential (institutional) placements in the United States from 1993 to 2003. Method: The study team used common Internet search engines as its primary case discovery strategy to determine the frequency and the nature of the fatalities, as well…

  7. Body image and cognitive restraint are risk factors for obesity in French adolescents.

    PubMed

    Megalakaki, Olga; Mouveaux, Marie; Hubin-Gayte, Mylène; Wypych, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The present study explored the links between cognitive restraint and body image in obese adolescents when compared with normal-weight adolescents according to sex. Body image was measured on the Body Esteem Scale and cognitive restraint by means of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 18-item version (TFEQ-R18). Although the results did not reveal any significant correlation between overall scores on these two measures, subscale scores showed that the obese adolescents used cognitive restraint more than the normal-weight adolescents did as a strategy for regulating their diet and were less satisfied with their body image. The normal-weight adolescents' use of cognitive restraint was correlated with body-weight dissatisfaction. Despite these differences, the two populations shared several characteristics. All the adolescents were dissatisfied with the way they thought that others saw them. The loss of control was one of their major concerns, although in the obese adolescents, it went hand in hand with major emotional investment. The results suggest that these are the variables responsible for adolescents' eating habits, regardless of their weight. The most discriminating variable when crossed with weight was sex, with girls being less satisfied with their body image, especially when they were obese. PMID:23807773

  8. Acute restraint stress induces rapid and prolonged changes in erythrocyte and hippocampal redox status.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou; Bradley, Adrian J; Anderson, Stephen T; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2013-11-01

    The onset and consequential changes in reduction-oxidation (redox) status that take place in response to short-term stress have not been well defined. This study utilized erythrocytes and neural tissue from male Wistar rats to demonstrate the rapid redox alterations that occur following an acute restraining stress. Serial blood samples collected from catheterized animals were used to measure prolactin, corticosterone, glucose, general oxidative status, and glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratios. Restraint increased prolactin concentration by approximately 300% at 30 min and rapidly returned to baseline values by 120 min of stress. Baseline blood glucose and corticosterone increased during stress exposure by approximately 25% and 150% respectively. Over the experimental period, the erythrocytic oxidative status of restrained animals increased by approximately 10% per hour which persisted after stress exposure, while changes in the glutathione redox couple were not observed until 120 min following the onset of stress. Application of restraint stress increased hippocampal oxidative status by approximately 17% while no change was observed in the amygdala. It was concluded that while endocrine and metabolic markers of stress rapidly increase and habituate to stress exposure, redox status continues to change following stress in both peripheral and neural tissue. Studies with longer post-restraint times and the inclusion of several brain regions should further elucidate the consequential redox changes induced by acute restraint stress.

  9. Effects of intracisternal administration of cannabidiol on the cardiovascular and behavioral responses to acute restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Granjeiro, Erica M; Gomes, Felipe V; Guimarães, Francisco S; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Resstel, Leonardo B M

    2011-10-01

    Systemic administration of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, attenuates the cardiovascular and behavioral responses to restraint stress. Although the brain structures related to CBD effects are not entirely known, they could involve brainstem structures responsible for cardiovascular control. Therefore, to investigate this possibility the present study verified the effects of CBD (15, 30 and 60 nmol) injected into the cisterna magna on the autonomic and behavioral changes induced by acute restraint stress. During exposure to restraint stress (1h) there was a significant increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Also, 24h later the animals showed a decreased percentage of entries onto the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. These effects were attenuated by CBD (30 nmol). The drug had no effect on MAP and HR baseline values. These results indicate that intracisternal administration of CBD can attenuate autonomic responses to stress. However, since CBD decreased the anxiogenic consequences of restraint stress, it is possible that the drug is also acting on forebrain structures. PMID:21771609

  10. Influence of ambient temperatures on the production of restraint ulcers in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Gallaire, D.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the influence of ambient temperature on the production of restraint ulcers in the rat is described. It concludes that the production of restrain ulcers, is favored by the reduction of the environmental temperature, whether the rat has been subjected to a fast or not.

  11. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. PMID:26289766

  12. 75 FR 68664 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Child Restraint Systems; Booster Seat Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . Please send two paper copies... Systems; Booster Seat Effectiveness Estimates Based on CDS and State Data AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... Standard 213, Child Restraint Systems. The report's title is: Booster Seat ] Effectiveness Estimates...

  13. Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the influence of passive restraint on postural activity and motion sickness in individuals who actively controlled a potentially nauseogenic visual motion stimulus (a driving video game). Twenty-four adults (20.09 ± 1.56 years; 167.80 ± 7.94 cm; 59.02 ± 9.18 kg) were recruited as participants. Using elastic bands, standing participants were passively restrained at the head, shoulders, hips, and knees. During restraint, participants played (i.e., controlled) a driving video game (a motorcycle race), for 50 min. During game play, we recorded the movement of the head and torso, using a magnetic tracking system. Following game play, participants answered a forced choice, yes/no question about whether they were motion sick, and were assigned to sick and well groups on this basis. In addition, before and after game play, participants completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, which provided numerical ratings of the severity of individual symptoms. Five of 24 participants (20.83 %) reported motion sickness. Participants moved despite being passively restrained. Both the magnitude and the temporal dynamics of movement differed between the sick and well groups. The results show that passive restraint of the body can reduce motion sickness when the nauseogenic visual stimulus is under participants' active control and confirm that motion sickness is preceded by distinct patterns of postural activity even during passive restraint.

  14. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Temple; Shivley, Chelsey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary A common animal welfare question is: how stressful is handling and restraining farm animals for veterinary procedures even when no surgical or invasive procedures are done? It depends on how a particular animal perceives it. For one animal, restraint for an injection may be a positive experience associated with food treats and a different animal may be highly fearful and actively resist being restrained. The animal’s response is highly dependent on both its previous experiences and inherited traits such as temperament. Abstract An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship. PMID:26633523

  15. Maternal exercise during pregnancy ameliorates the postnatal neuronal impairments induced by prenatal restraint stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Carlos; Henríquez, Ricardo; Medina, Felipe; Reinoso, Carmen; Vargas, Ronald; Pascual, Rodrigo

    2013-06-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress (PS) induces neuronal and behavioral disturbances in the offspring. In the present study, we determined whether maternal voluntary wheel running (VWR) during pregnancy could reverse the putative deleterious effects of PS on the neurodevelopment and behavior of the offspring. Pregnant CF-1 mice were randomly assigned to control, restraint stressed or restraint stressed+VWR groups. Dams of the stressed group were subjected to restraint stress between gestational days 14 and delivery, while control pregnant dams remained undisturbed in their home cages. Dams of the restraint stressed+VWR group were subjected to exercise between gestational days 1 and 17. On postnatal day 23 (P23), male pups were assigned to one of the following experimental groups: mice born from control dams, stressed dams or stressed+VWR dams. Locomotor behavior and pyramidal neuronal morphology were evaluated at P23. Animals were then sacrificed, and Golgi-impregnated pyramidal neurons of the parietal cortex were morphometrically analyzed. Here, we present two major findings: first, PS produced significantly diminished dendritic growth of parietal neurons without altered locomotor behavior of the offspring; and second, maternal VWR significantly offset morphological impairments.

  16. Using child age or weight in selecting type of in-vehicle restraint: implications for promotion and design.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert W G; Hutchinson, T Paul; Edwards, Sally A

    2007-01-01

    A survey of motor vehicle child restraint use found around 28% of children under the age of six using weight-inappropriate restraints. Many parents did not know when a child was likely to outgrow a booster seat nor the weight of their child, but they did know the child's age. Anthropometric data show that, if advice on restraint transition, given solely in terms of age (6 months, 4 years, 8 years) were followed in Australia, incorrect restraint selection would occur in 5% of children under the age of six. Further analysis suggests how rewriting the Standard could reduce this number. We present an argument for placing age-based transitions at the heart of the strategy to improve child restraint compliance. This may be superior to one based on the child's weight or other anthropometric measurement. Our argument may be summarized as follows: 1 Age-based rules for selecting child restraints are simple, require less information to be retained, and might be more natural criteria for parents. They might have a greater chance of being adopted as norms, and of encouraging good peer cues. Anthropometric rules, on the other hand, assume that parents know the current dimensions of their children and have the tools at their disposal to measure these dimensions. 2 The consequences of age-based promotion for the proportion of children in a restraint suitable for their weight can be estimated for alternative regulatory frameworks. We will report such Calculations below and show that this rate can potentially be very high. The rate would be even higher if child restraint design standards were drafted with age-based transitions in mind. Age-based transitions imply restraint specifications (weight and height limits) that can be determined from anthropometric survey data. 3 Such standards would necessarily imply overlapping anthropometric ranges for the different types of restraint. However, we emphasize that these overlaps would exist to facilitate age-based transitions, not to

  17. Protecting children: a survey of caregivers’ knowledge of Georgia’s child restraint laws

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Sheryl; Whorton, Laurie; Walpole, Amanda J; Beddington, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The leading cause of injury and death among children in the United States is motor vehicle crashes. Even though restraint laws are in place and public awareness campaigns and educational interventions have increased, many children are still improperly restrained or not restrained at all. When correctly used, child restraints significantly reduce risk of injury or death. Methods The purpose of the study was to elicit caregiver baseline knowledge of car seat installation and regulation before receiving car seat education from certified technicians at Inspection Station events. Inspection Station is a program whereby staff assists parents in correctly positioning car seats in participants’ vehicles. Over an 8-week period, Safe Kids Cobb County Car Seat Technicians distributed a 16-item survey, with 10 knowledge-based questions and six demographic questions to Inspection Station participants. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted to assess relationships between participant age, ethnicity, and gender with overall knowledge scores. Regression analysis was run to determine the association between participant education level and total child restraint knowledge. Results One hundred sixty-nine surveys were completed. Participant knowledge of vehicular child restraint ranged from 0% to 90% on all items. Only 29.6% of caregivers understood the proper tightness of the harness system. Less than half of the caregivers (43.8%) were aware of the Georgia law requiring children aged 6 years and younger to be in some type of child restraint. Only 43.2% of caregivers surveyed knew that children need to ride in a rear-facing child restraint until 1 year of age and 20 pounds. No significant correlations between participant knowledge and age were found. Statistically significant associations were found between total knowledge scores and education level, ethnicity, and gender. Discussion The results from this study describe baseline knowledge among a sample of

  18. Postprandial peptide YY is lower in young college-aged women with high dietary cognitive restraint.

    PubMed

    Scheid, J L; Birch, L L; Williams, N I; Rolls, B J; De Souza, M J

    2013-08-15

    Acylated ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY3-36) are involved in appetite-regulation and energy homeostasis. These gastrointestinal hormones provide peripheral signals to the central nervous system to regulate appetite and short term food intake, and interact with leptin and insulin to regulate energy balance. Dietary restraint is an eating behavior phenotype that manifests as a conscious cognitive control of food intake in order to achieve or sustain a desired body weight. The purpose of the current study was to determine if college-aged women (18 to 25 years) with different eating behavior phenotypes, i.e., high vs normal dietary restraint, differ with respect to circulating concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones during and following a test meal. We hypothesized that women with high dietary cognitive restraint [High CR (score ≥ 13, n=13)] would have elevated active ghrelin and PYY3-36 concentrations after a test meal compared to women with normal dietary cognitive restraint [Normal CR (score < 13, n=30)]. Gastrointestinal hormones were assessed before (-15 and 0 min) and after (10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min) the consumption of a mixed composition meal (5.0 kcal per kg/body weight). In contrast to our hypothesis, mean PYY3-36 concentrations (p=0.042), peak PYY3-36 concentrations (p=0.047), and PYY3-36 area under the curve (p=0.035) were lower in the High CR group compared to the Normal CR group after controlling for body mass index. No group differences were observed with respect to acylated ghrelin before or after the meal. In conclusion, PYY3-36 concentrations were suppressed in the women with High CR compared to the women with Normal CR. While the current study is cross-sectional and cause/effect of high dietary restraint and suppressed PYY3-36 concentrations cannot be determined, we speculate that these women with high cognitive restraint may be prone to weight gain or weight re-gain related to the suppressed circulating PYY after a meal. Further

  19. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M

    2010-02-01

    Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale was investigated on anoxia stress tolerance test in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) to gauge the anti-stress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the anti-stress activity of Z. officinale in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4 degrees for 2 h) for 10 days. Stimulation of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in stressful condition alters plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, BUN and corticosterone levels. There is also alteration in the blood cell counts. Pretreatment with the extract significantly ameliorated the stress-induced variations in these biochemical levels and blood cell counts in both acute and chronic stress models. The extract treated animals showed increase in swimming endurance time and increase in anoxia tolerance time in physical and anoxia stress models, respectively. Treatment groups also reverted back increase in liver, adrenal gland weights and atrophy of spleen caused by cold chronic stress and swimming endurance stress models. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. officinale has significant adaptogenic activity against a variety of biochemical and physiological perturbations in different stress models. PMID:19909780

  20. Black Boxing Restraints: The Need for Full Disclosure and Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Wanda K.; Nunno, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the necessity of fully informing patients and their families of what constitutes physical interventions and their attendant risks under the established principles and obligations of informed consent. After a brief review of the elements of informed consent and the nature of the duty to advise patients and their families…

  1. Knowledge and application of correct car seat head restraint usage among chiropractic college interns: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John AM; Burke, Jeanmarie; Gavencak, John; Panwar, Pervinder

    2005-01-01

    Summary of background data Cervical spine injuries sustained in rear-end crashes cost at least $7 billion in insurance claims annually in the United States alone. When positioned correctly, head restraint systems have been proven effective in reducing the risk of whiplash associated disorders. Chiropractors should be knowledgeable about the correct use of head restraint systems to educate their patients and thereby prevent or minimize such injuries. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of correct positioning of car seat head restraints among the interns at our institution. The secondary objective was to determine the same chiropractic interns’ knowledge of the correct positioning of car seat head restraints. It was hypothesized that 100 percent of interns would have their head restraint correctly positioned within an acceptable range and that all interns would possess the knowledge to instruct patients in the correct positioning of head restraints. Study Design Cross-sectional study of a convenient sample of 30 chiropractic interns from one institution. Methods Interns driving into the parking lot of our health center were asked to volunteer to have measurements taken and to complete a survey. Vertical and horizontal positions of the head restraint were measured using a beam compass. A survey was administered to determine knowledge of correct head restraint position. The results were recorded, entered into a spreadsheet, and analyzed. Results 13.3 percent of subjects knew the recommended vertical distance and only 20 percent of subjects knew the recommended horizontal distance. Chi Square analyses substantiated that the majority of subjects were unaware of guidelines set forth by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the correct positioning of the head restraint (χ2vertical = 16.13, χ2horizontal = 10.80, p <.05). Only 6.7 percent of the subjects positioned their head restraint at the vertical

  2. The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

  3. A new default restraint library for the protein backbone in Phenix: a conformation-dependent geometry goes mainstream

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Chemical restraints are a fundamental part of crystallographic protein structure refinement. In response to mounting evidence that conventional restraints have shortcomings, it has previously been documented that using backbone restraints that depend on the protein backbone conformation helps to address these shortcomings and improves the performance of refinements [Moriarty et al. (2014 ▸), FEBS J. 281, 4061–4071]. It is important that these improvements be made available to all in the protein crystallography community. Toward this end, a change in the default geometry library used by Phenix is described here. Tests are presented showing that this change will not generate increased numbers of outliers during validation, or deposition in the Protein Data Bank, during the transition period in which some validation tools still use the conventional restraint libraries. PMID:26894545

  4. The latent structure of dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness: a series of taxometric analyses.

    PubMed

    Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Richey, J Anthony; Joiner, Thomas E

    2010-12-01

    Although the latent structure of various eating disorders has been explored in previous studies, no published studies have examined the latent structure of theoretically relevant variables that have been shown to cut across eating disorder diagnoses. The current study examined 3 such variables (dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness) among undergraduate women using the taxometric method. The 5 items from the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire's Dietary Restraint subscale were used as dietary restraint indicators, whereas items from the Eating Disorders Inventory Body Dissatisfaction and Drive for Thinness subscales were used as indicators of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, respectively. As hypothesized, MAXCOV (maximum covariance) and MAMBAC (mean above minus below a cut) analyses suggested that all 3 variables are dimensional; therefore, individuals with high levels of reported dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness appear to differ in degree, but not in kind, from those with lower levels. Implications for prevention, assessment, classification, and treatment are discussed.

  5. Appearance investment mediates the association between fear of negative evaluation and dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Chang, Felicia M; Jarry, Josée L; Kong, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether appearance investment explains the association between fear of negative evaluation and dietary restraint. Data were collected from 305 undergraduate female participants in an online survey. Mediation analyses were conducted using Preacher and Hayes (2008) Indirect Mediation macro. Results showed that both components of appearance investment that is, holding appearance as central to self-definition and the tendency to engage in appearance management behaviours, mediate the association between fear of negative evaluation and dietary restraint. The Baron and Kenny (1986) method further showed that holding appearance as central to self-definition fully mediates this association but that engagement in appearance management behaviours only partially mediates it. These results suggest that appearance investment could prompt women to diet to try to lose weight to fend off feared negative evaluation from others. PMID:24331830

  6. Relations of dietary restraint and depressive symptomatology to loss of control over eating in overweight youngsters.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the dietary restraint and depression pathway to loss of control over eating among a sample of overweight youngsters based on the assumptions of the extended cognitive behavioural theory for bulimia nervosa. The children's version of the eating disorder examination interview and the children's depression inventory were administered to 350 overweight youngsters (with a mean age of 13.30 years old). Structural equation modelling indicated that the over-evaluation of eating, weight and shape was significantly associated with dietary restraint, which in turn was significantly associated with loss of control over eating. Evidence was also found for a direct pathway between depressive symptoms and loss of control over eating. It can be concluded that in general, the main components to maintain the bulimic cycle in eating disordered patients operate in a similar way to maintain loss of control over eating in overweight youngsters.

  7. Separated topologies—A method for relative binding free energy calculations using orientational restraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocklin, Gabriel J.; Mobley, David L.; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-02-01

    Orientational restraints can improve the efficiency of alchemical free energy calculations, but they are not typically applied in relative binding calculations, which compute the affinity difference been two ligands. Here, we describe a new "separated topologies" method, which computes relative binding free energies using orientational restraints and which has several advantages over existing methods. While standard approaches maintain the initial and final ligand in a shared orientation, the separated topologies approach allows the initial and final ligands to have distinct orientations. This avoids a slowly converging reorientation step in the calculation. The separated topologies approach can also be applied to determine the relative free energies of multiple orientations of the same ligand. We illustrate the approach by calculating the relative binding free energies of two compounds to an engineered site in Cytochrome C Peroxidase.

  8. A delicious fly in the soup. The relationship between disgust, obesity, and restraint.

    PubMed

    Houben, Katrijn; Havermans, Remco C

    2012-06-01

    Disgust is a core emotion that serves to protect one from engaging in activities that promote contamination and contracting disease. Since disgust is intimately connected to ingesting food, disgust sensitivity is probably also associated with dietary habits. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between obesity and disgust and between restraint and disgust. Participants (n=135, all female) were recruited and tested via the Internet. They indicated their desire to eat high-calorie foods and filled out several questionnaires assessing restrained eating and disgust sensitivity. We hypothesized that more restrained eaters would show increased disgust and that women with a higher BMI would show decreased disgust, which is what we found; that is, more restrained eaters showed increased core disgust and contamination disgust, whereas women with a higher BMI showed decreased core disgust and contamination disgust. Hence, feeling disgusted by food may be a strategy to uphold restraint, whereas relatively decreased disgust could encourage overeating.

  9. Evaluation for Additional Resistance by Lightweight Thrust Restraint on Pressure Pipe Bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Yutaka; Kawabata, Toshinori; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Uchida, Kazunori

    Thrust force acts on pipe bend due to internal pressure. In previous study, the lightweight thrust restraint with geogrid and anchor plate has proposed and the effect has been proved by conducting lateral loading model tests. In the present study, a series of model tests for changing depth of cover and length of restraint were carried out, and image analysis for the ground surface in the model tests were carried out to discuss the failure mechanism of proposed method. Furthermore, the failure mechanisms in front of the anchor plate were assumed and the additional resistances due to the proposed method were calculated based on the force equilibrium. In addition, in order to examine the accuracy for the proposed formula, calculated values were compared with experimental values. As the results, additional resistance from calculation was corresponding to experimental value.

  10. Appearance investment mediates the association between fear of negative evaluation and dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Chang, Felicia M; Jarry, Josée L; Kong, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether appearance investment explains the association between fear of negative evaluation and dietary restraint. Data were collected from 305 undergraduate female participants in an online survey. Mediation analyses were conducted using Preacher and Hayes (2008) Indirect Mediation macro. Results showed that both components of appearance investment that is, holding appearance as central to self-definition and the tendency to engage in appearance management behaviours, mediate the association between fear of negative evaluation and dietary restraint. The Baron and Kenny (1986) method further showed that holding appearance as central to self-definition fully mediates this association but that engagement in appearance management behaviours only partially mediates it. These results suggest that appearance investment could prompt women to diet to try to lose weight to fend off feared negative evaluation from others.

  11. Flexible torsion-angle noncrystallographic symmetry restraints for improved macromolecular structure refinement

    PubMed Central

    Headd, Jeffrey J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Gildea, Richard J.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    One of the great challenges in refining macromolecular crystal structures is a low data-to-parameter ratio. Historically, knowledge from chemistry has been used to help to improve this ratio. When a macromolecule crystallizes with more than one copy in the asymmetric unit, the noncrystallographic symmetry relationships can be exploited to provide additional restraints when refining the working model. However, although globally similar, NCS-related chains often have local differences. To allow for local differences between NCS-related molecules, flexible torsion-based NCS restraints have been introduced, coupled with intelligent rotamer handling for protein chains, and are available in phenix.refine for refinement of models at all resolutions. PMID:24816103

  12. Allometric scaling of chemical restraint associated with inhalant anesthesia in giant anteaters.

    PubMed

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Gerardi, Patrícia Molina; Honsho, Daniel Kan

    2009-04-01

    This study describes the use of allometric scaling in five giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) submitted for osteosynthesis, gastrostomy, or treatment of burns. Chemical restraint was performed by allometric scaling using the dog as a reference; acepromazine (0.06 mg/kg), diazepam (0.3 mg/kg), ketamine (8.8 mg/kg), and buprenorphine (5.9 microg/kg) were combined, and the animals were maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, temperature, and anesthetic depth were measured. Postoperative treatment consisted of ketoprofen, buprenorphine, and ceftiofur. Anesthetic induction was obtained in 10-15 min, achieving muscle relaxation and absence of excitement. Physiologic parameters were stable during the procedures, and postoperative treatment was effective. Allometric scaling was effective for chemical restraint and postoperative treatment.

  13. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m2) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30–40, 40–50 and >50 kg/m2, n = 14–15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2, n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9–85 kg/m2, n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = −0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  14. Least restrictive measures: alternatives to four-point restraints and seclusion.

    PubMed

    Morales, E; Duphorne, P L

    1995-10-01

    Following the review and discussion of alternative measures in the use of four-point restraints and seclusion on an acute psychiatric inpatient unit, the staff increased the use of "least restrictive" measures with aggressive patients. This involved increased attention to escalating behavior and using alternatives. Although early recognition did not guarantee success in every situation, patients were included in making choices and being in control of which option to take. When staff became more knowledgeable about the use of alternatives, they were more comfortable offering patients choices and did not wait until restraints and seclusion were necessary. It was beneficial to review the rationale for the use of seclusion and restraints with both patients and staff. Specific approaches for early recognition and intervention focused on verbal control, limit setting, and decreased stimulation. It is important that staff have a clear understanding of their range of treatment strategies from most to "least restrictive" measures during stressful times when patients become confused, angry, or frightened and may lose control. Patients must be made aware of their choices during this cycle and understand the consequences of their behavior. Planning educational inservice programs for staff to address this content and share approaches to specific situations can be effective. Staff debriefing following an incident is crucial to discuss reactions to the use of restraints and seclusion and to plan for the use of alternative measures in the future. All patients need a chance to express themselves. As staff we must take time to stop, look, and listen. We must be aware of our own thoughts and feelings and think of choices. What are the ¿least restrictive¿ measures? We need to work with patients in considering a range of measures without taking unnecessary risks or disregarding issues. We must work with our patients so that we all can learn a valuable lesson. Why not give our

  15. Restraining Loose Equipment Aboard the International Space Station: The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith Kenneth A.; Reynolds, David W.

    2003-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) grows, so do the supplies and equipment needed to support its daily operations. Each day many items must be unstowed and moved to various worksites so that they are readily available to the crew. Due to the lack of gravity, these items ,may become loose and float away if not restrained. The Payload Equipment Restraint System (PERS) was developed to meet the new and unique challenge of restraining loose equipment aboard the ISS.

  16. Asynchronous collision integrators: Explicit treatment of unilateral contact with friction and nodal restraints

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Sebastian; Bucher, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article presents asynchronous collision integrators and a simple asynchronous method treating nodal restraints. Asynchronous discretizations allow individual time step sizes for each spatial region, improving the efficiency of explicit time stepping for finite element meshes with heterogeneous element sizes. The article first introduces asynchronous variational integration being expressed by drift and kick operators. Linear nodal restraint conditions are solved by a simple projection of the forces that is shown to be equivalent to RATTLE. Unilateral contact is solved by an asynchronous variant of decomposition contact response. Therein, velocities are modified avoiding penetrations. Although decomposition contact response is solving a large system of linear equations (being critical for the numerical efficiency of explicit time stepping schemes) and is needing special treatment regarding overconstraint and linear dependency of the contact constraints (for example from double-sided node-to-surface contact or self-contact), the asynchronous strategy handles these situations efficiently and robust. Only a single constraint involving a very small number of degrees of freedom is considered at once leading to a very efficient solution. The treatment of friction is exemplified for the Coulomb model. Special care needs the contact of nodes that are subject to restraints. Together with the aforementioned projection for restraints, a novel efficient solution scheme can be presented. The collision integrator does not influence the critical time step. Hence, the time step can be chosen independently from the underlying time-stepping scheme. The time step may be fixed or time-adaptive. New demands on global collision detection are discussed exemplified by position codes and node-to-segment integration. Numerical examples illustrate convergence and efficiency of the new contact algorithm. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in

  17. Legal restraints on dissemination of instructional materials by educational communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, N. N.

    1972-01-01

    The legal restraints on the use of electronic communications systems for dissemination of instructional materials in the United States are discussed. First the laws are examined relating to public school elementary and secondary education, with primary emphasis on selection of courses of study and instructional materials. The second part contains an examination of the copyright laws, both the copyright law now in effect and the revision thereto currently pending before the Congress of the United States.

  18. Combination of prenatal immune challenge and restraint stress affects prepulse inhibition and dopaminergic/GABAergic markers.

    PubMed

    Deslauriers, Jessica; Larouche, Annie; Sarret, Philippe; Grignon, Sylvain

    2013-08-01

    Gestational immune challenge with the viral-like antigen poly I:C is a well-established neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. However, exposure to inflammation during early life may sensitize the developing brain to secondary insults and enhance the central nervous system vulnerability. To gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we thus developed a two-hit animal model based on prenatal poly I:C immune challenge followed by restraint stress in juvenile mice. C57BL/6 gestational mice were intraperitoneally injected with poly I:C or saline at gestational day 12. Pups were then submitted or not, to restraint stress for 2h, for three consecutive days, from postnatal days 33 to 35. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response is commonly used to assess sensorimotor gating, a neural process severely disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. Our results revealed that the combination of prenatal immune challenge with poly I:C followed by a restraint stress period was able to induce a PPI disruption in 36-day-old pups, as opposed to each insult applied separately. PPI deficits were accompanied by dopaminergic and GABAergic abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Indeed, measurements of cortical and striatal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) mRNA and protein levels revealed that the combination of gestational exposure to poly I:C and postnatal restraint stress induced an increase in D2R protein and mRNA levels. Likewise, the combination of both insults reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of the 67 kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), in those two brain regions. To our knowledge, this two-hit animal model is the first in vivo model reporting PPI deficits at pubertal age. This two-hit animal model may also help in studying innovative therapies dedicated to the treatment of schizophrenia, especially in its early phase.

  19. Has Child Restraint System Use Increased among Parents of Children in Shantou, China?

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Huiqian; Yang, Jingzhen; Liu, Xiangxiang; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to examine parents’ use of child restraint systems (CRS), and determine if parents’ knowledge of, attitude toward, and use behavior of child restraint systems have improved following enactment of child restraint use laws in other cities. Design: Observations and a cross-sectional survey of drivers transporting children 17 years and under were conducted at the gate of the schools and parking lots of hospitals in Shantou. Observers recorded the seating location of child passengers, the type of restraint, and appropriate use of CRS and safety belts based on the observation. Knowledge of and attitudes towards use of CRS were reported by the driver following observation. Results: Approximately 6.6% of passengers aged 0–12 were in CRS; rate of forward-facing CRS in children aged 3–5 (9.9%) was higher than rear-facing CRS for children aged 0–2 (1.1%) and booster seat use among children aged 6–12 (0.1%). Children younger than four years old (OR = 3.395, 95% CI = 2.125–5.424), drivers having a college or higher lever education (OR = 2.908, 95% CI = 1.878–4.500) and drivers wearing seatbelt (OR = 3.194, 95% CI = 1.605–6.356) had greater odds of CRS use. Over half (56.6%) of parents might or would use CRS if they could rent CRSs with fees. Conclusions: The rate of CRS is still low in Shantou. Comprehensive public education programs supported by legislation might be an effective way to improve child passenger safety. Renting CRSs to parents could be a new approach to encourage use. PMID:27690070

  20. Emotional eating and routine restraint scores are associated with activity in brain regions involved in urge and self-control.

    PubMed

    Wood, Samantha M W; Schembre, Susan M; He, Qinghua; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Ames, Susan L; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-10-15

    Researchers have proposed a variety of behavioral traits that may lead to weight gain and obesity; however, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying these weight-related eating behaviors. In this study, we measured activation of reward circuitry during a task requiring response and inhibition to food stimuli. We assessed participants' emotional eating, external eating, and two subscales of dietary restraint-routine restraint and compensatory restraint-using the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire. For routine restraint, we found positive associations with activation in the insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in response to high-calorie versus low-calorie foods. For emotional eating, we found positive associations with insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in response to high-calorie versus low-calorie foods. We also found positive associations between emotional eating and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in response to approach versus inhibition towards high-calorie foods. Thus, our results demonstrate an increase in activation across brain regions related to self-control and urges in response to high-calorie food associated with both emotional eating and routine restraint. Overall, these results support the construct validity of both emotional eating and routine restraint and provide preliminary evidence that these subscales have similar neural correlates. PMID:27575974

  1. Development, implementation and evaluation of a unique African-American faith-based approach to increase automobile restraint use.

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Richard A.; Brentley, Anita L.; Ricketts, Crystal D.; Allen, Sheryl E.; Garcia, Victor F.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite generalized intervention programs, restraint use among African Americans remains below national levels, especially among children. This study describes the development and implementation of a community participatory faith-based youth injury prevention program. METHODS: Through a partnership with the African-American faith-based community and our injury prevention group, a unique multigenerational intervention program was developed targeting motor vehicle restraint use. Once developed, the program was initially evaluated by comparing outcomes between control and intervention churches. The main objective was to observe adult and pediatric restraint use before and after program implementation. RESULTS: Overall, there was excellent recognition and participation in the program. Following program implementation, significant improvements were observed in restraint use compared to control churches. In particular, there was a 72% reduction in unrestrained children, a 25% increase in children being secured in the rear-seat position and a nearly 20% increase in driver restraint use. CONCLUSIONS: The development and implementation of a culturally sensitive intervention program can significantly improve restraint use in a minority population. Partnering with the community in all phases of the program is essential to its success. PMID:16916133

  2. Compression-Loaded Composite Panels With Elastic Edge Restraints and Initial Prestress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Riddick, Jaret C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    A parametric study of the effects of test-fixture-induced initial prestress and elastic edge restraints on the prebuckling and buckling responses of a compression-loaded, quasi-isotropic curved panel is presented. The numerical results were obtained by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code with high-fidelity models. The results presented show that a wide range of prebuckling and buckling behavior can be obtained by varying parameters that represent circumferential loaded-edge restraint and rotational unloaded-edge restraint provided by a test fixture and that represent the mismatch in specimen and test-fixture radii of curvature. For a certain range of parameters, the panels exhibit substantial nonlinear prebuckling deformations that yield buckling loads nearly twice the corresponding buckling load predicted by a traditional linear bifurcation buckling analysis for shallow curved panels. In contrast, the results show another range of parameters exist for which the nonlinear prebuckling deformations either do not exist or are relatively benign, and the panels exhibit buckling loads that are nearly equal to the corresponding linear bifurcation buckling load. Overall, the results should be of particular interest to scientists, engineers, and designers involved in simulating flight-hardware boundary conditions in structural verification and certification tests, involved in validating structural analysis tools, and interested in tailoring buckling performance.

  3. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated signaling dampens the HPA axis response to restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Evanson, Nathan K; Herman, James P

    2015-10-15

    Glutamate is an important neurotransmitter in the regulation of the neural portion of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and signals through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. In the current studies we investigated the role of hypothalamic paraventricular group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of the HPA axis response to restraint stress in rats. Direct injection of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) into the PVN prior to restraint leads to blunting of the HPA axis response in awake animals. Consistent with this result, infusion of the group I receptor antagonist hexyl-homoibotenic acid (HIBO) potentiates the HPA axis response to restraint. The excitatory effect of blocking paraventricular group I metabotropic glutamate signaling is blocked by co-administration of dexamethasone into the PVN. However, the inhibitory effect of DHPG is not affected by co-administration of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM-251 into the PVN. Together, these results suggest that paraventricular group I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling acts to dampen HPA axis reactivity. This effect appears to be similar to the rapid inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids at the PVN, but is not mediated by endocannabinoid signaling.

  4. The Anti-apoptotic Effect of Ghrelin on Restraint Stress-Induced Thymus Atrophy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jie Wan; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Thymic atrophy is a complication that results from exposure to many environmental stressors, disease treatments, and microbial challenges. Such acute stress-associated thymic loss can have a dramatic impact on the host's ability to replenish the necessary naïve T cell output to reconstitute the peripheral T cell numbers and repertoire to respond to new antigenic challenges. We have previously reported that treatment with the orexigenic hormone ghrelin results in an increase in the number and proliferation of thymocytes after dexamethasone challenge, suggesting a role for ghrelin in restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis and its potential use as a thymostimulatory agent. In an effort to understand how ghrelin suppresses thymic T cell apoptosis, we have examined the various signaling pathways induced by receptor-specific ghrelin stimulation using a restraint stress mouse model. In this model, stress-induced apoptosis in thymocytes was effectively blocked by ghrelin. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ghrelin prevents the cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bim, Caspase-3, and PARP. In addition, ghrelin stimulation activates the Akt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways in a time/dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of the FoxO3a pathway in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Together, these findings suggest that ghrelin inhibits apoptosis by modulating the stress-induced apoptotic signal pathway in the restraint-induced thymic apoptosis. PMID:27574503

  5. Improving Loop Modeling of the Antibody Complementarity-Determining Region 3 Using Knowledge-Based Restraints.

    PubMed

    Finn, Jessica A; Koehler Leman, Julia; Willis, Jordan R; Cisneros, Alberto; Crowe, James E; Meiler, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Structural restrictions are present even in the most sequence diverse portions of antibodies, the complementary determining region (CDR) loops. Previous studies identified robust rules that define canonical structures for five of the six CDR loops, however the heavy chain CDR 3 (HCDR3) defies standard classification attempts. The HCDR3 loop can be subdivided into two domains referred to as the "torso" and the "head" domains and two major families of canonical torso structures have been identified; the more prevalent "bulged" and less frequent "non-bulged" torsos. In the present study, we found that Rosetta loop modeling of 28 benchmark bulged HCDR3 loops is improved with knowledge-based structural restraints developed from available antibody crystal structures in the PDB. These restraints restrict the sampling space Rosetta searches in the torso domain, limiting the φ and ψ angles of these residues to conformations that have been experimentally observed. The application of these restraints in Rosetta result in more native-like structure sampling and improved score-based differentiation of native-like HCDR3 models, significantly improving our ability to model antibody HCDR3 loops. PMID:27182833

  6. Restraint and seclusion in psychiatric treatment settings: regulation, case law, and risk management.

    PubMed

    Recupero, Patricia R; Price, Marilyn; Garvey, Keelin A; Daly, Brian; Xavier, Sarah L

    2011-01-01

    Changing federal regulations, civil rights and malpractice cases, and new treatment methods have influenced the use of restraint and seclusion (R&S) in inpatient psychiatric treatment settings, such that restraint and seclusion today are among the most highly regulated practices in psychiatry. Despite increased pressure from regulatory bodies and litigation, the use of R&S remains controversial and risky. These procedures can compromise safety if performed incorrectly or monitored inadequately, but intervention by restraint or seclusion may be necessary to maintain safety on the treatment unit, especially during emergencies. Case law and medical research have demonstrated the importance of a patient-focused, treatment-oriented approach toward risk management. Analysis of specific clinical scenarios can help to develop risk mitigation strategies that are therapeutically conceptualized rather than driven by regulation. Insights drawn from clinical cases that have resulted in litigation can offer an opportunity to develop an approach oriented to patient care from a clinical or risk management perspective. In this article, we seek to provide a foundation for evaluation of current protocols, an analysis of adverse R&S events, and strategies to minimize risk. PMID:22159974

  7. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  8. It was(n't) me: Exercising restraint when choices appear self-diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Touré-Tillery, Maferima; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-12-01

    This research tests the hypothesis that individuals exercise restraint for actions that reflect on their self-concept (i.e., self-diagnostic actions). Experiments 1 and 2 show an action framed as occurring at the beginning or end (vs. middle) of a constructed sequence is seen as more self-diagnostic. Accordingly, Experiment 3 finds more restraint in snack choices at the framed beginning or end (vs. middle). Furthermore, the degree of importance of a goal-which reflects its centrality to the self-concept-determines responses to self-diagnosticity cues such as framed positions. Specifically, participants committed to financial goals (Experiment 4) and health goals (Experiment 5) were more likely to make decisions consistent with these goals at the beginning or end, but indulged and splurged in the middle. Experiment 6 shows similar patterns for judgments of magazine subscriptions, but only when individuals are faced with a decision that poses a self-control conflict for them. These results highlight the role of the self in self-control by demonstrating that people exercise restraint when decision contexts seem more telling of the self.

  9. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE PAGES

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)more » of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.« less

  10. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  11. Vibration control of cables with damped flexible end restraint: Theoretical model and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Yong

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the theoretical formulation and associated numerical and experimental studies on a novel passive control approach to reducing cable vibrations. In this approach, a damped flexible restraint consisting of a viscous damper and an elastic spring is attached to the end of cable in the horizontal direction to suppress its transverse vibrations. The dynamic equations of the cable-restraint system are established by D'Alembert's principle and then transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations through Garlerkin method. These equations are subsequently solved using the Runge-Kutta method. Parametric studies on a prototype cable are performed to investigate the influence of various parameters, particularly the damper coefficient and the spring stiffness, on the suppression of the cable vibrations. A series of laboratory experiments have also been carried out on a 9.5 m scaled cable with the installation of a damped flexible end restraint. The effectiveness of the approach has been verified from the experiments in that a system damping ratio of order of 2% was obtained. The experimental observations are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  12. Impact of restraint and disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Robertson, M D; Morgan, L M

    2010-10-01

    The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was energy load dependent. 33 participants (12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained and low/high in disinhibition based on Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint/disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and feelings of appetite was measured, after a 500kcal and 1000kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint did not impact on either fasting or postprandial PYY plasma levels, but participants with high disinhibition had a tendency towards a blunted postprandial PYY response. Moreover, restrained eaters reported lower ratings of prospective food consumption postprandially, and a tendency towards higher fullness/lower hunger. In conclusion, circulating PYY is unaffected by restrained eating behaviour, despite being associated with increased fullness and reduced hunger in the fed state. High levels of disinhibition tend to be associated with a blunted PYY response and this may contribute towards the susceptibility to overconsumption and increased risk of weight gain characteristic of this trait.

  13. Changes of testicular phosphorylated proteins in response to restraint stress in male rats*

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Uabundit, Nongnut; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate male reproductive parameters via changes of potential testicular protein markers in restraint-stress rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (non-immobilized control and restraint-immobilized/stress groups, n=8 each group). The stress animals were immobilized (12 h/d) by a restraint cage for 7 consecutive days. All reproductive parameters, morphology and histology were observed and compared between groups. In addition, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and phosphotyrosine proteins (previously localized in Sertoli and late spermatid cells) in testicular lysate was assayed by immuno-Western blotting. Results: Testosterone level, sperm concentration and sperm head normality of stress rats were significantly decreased while the corticosterone level was increased as compared with the control (P<0.05). Histologically, stress rats showed low sperm mass in epididymal lumen and some atrophy of seminiferous tubules. Although the expression of testicular StAR protein was not significantly different between groups, changed patterns of the 131, 95, and 75 kDa testicular phosphorylated proteins were observed in the stress group compared with the control group. The intensity of a testicular 95-kDa phosphorylated protein was significantly decreased in stress rats. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the alteration of testicular phosphorylated protein patterns, associated with adverse male reproductive parameters in stress rats. It could be an explanation of some infertility in stress males. PMID:26739523

  14. Myricetin Attenuates Depressant-Like Behavior in Mice Subjected to Repeated Restraint Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zegang; Wang, Guilin; Cui, Lin; Wang, Qimin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that oxidative stress may be implicated in chronic stress-induced depression. Several flavonoids with anti-oxidative effects have been proved to be anti-depressive. Myricetin is a well-defined flavonoid with the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin on depressant-like behaviors in mice subjected to repeated restraint (4 h/day) for 21 days. Our results showed that myricetin administration specifically reduced the immobility time in mice exposed to chronic stress, as tested in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Myricetin treatment improved activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in the hippocampus of stressed mice. In addition, myricetin treatment decreased plasma corticosterone levels of those mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. The effects of myricetin on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in hippocampus were also investigated. The results revealed that myricetin normalized the decreased BDNF levels in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. These findings provided more evidence that chronic administration of myricetin improves helpless behaviors. The protective effects of myricetin might be partially mediated by an influence on BDNF levels and might be attributed to myricetin-mediated anti-oxidative stress in the hippocampus. PMID:26633366

  15. Expression of neurogranin in hippocampus of rat offspring exposed to restraint stress and pulsed magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghong; Cheng, Daxin; Chen, Rui; Cai, Qing; Jia, Ning; Su, Qian; Zhang, Huiping; Zhu, Zhongliang; Zeng, Junan; Li, Hui

    2014-06-27

    Stressor acting upon the organism during pregnancy can produce distinct and long lasting effects on the offspring. However, the essential mechanism remains unclear. Neurogranin (Ng) is a postsynaptic brain-specific protein involved in the regulation of calcium signaling and neuronal plasticity. Our purpose was to investigate whether Ng plays a regulating role in the effects of prenatal restraint stress (PS) and prenatal pulsed magnetic fields (PMFs) on the hippocampus of rat offspring. Sprague Dawley female rats at gestational days 14-20 were given restraint stress or pulsed magnetic fields. The male and female offspring rats were sacrificed at the age of 1 month. The expression of Ng in the offspring hippocampus was determined using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The results showed that PS induces a significantly inhibitory effect on the expression of Ng, especially in female offspring. The 0.11 T of prenatal PMFs could increase the expression of Ng in offspring hippocampus. There was no significant difference between female and male offspring in PMFs group. The prenatal restraint stress-induced decrease in Ng expression in offspring hippocampus might be associated with the deficit in spatial learning and memory reported previously. The 0.11 T of prenatal PMFs induced a significant stimulatory effect on protein expression of Ng. It was believed that PMFs stress might enhance the synaptic growth and remodeling.

  16. Maternal profiling of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 deficient mice in association with restraint stress

    PubMed Central

    D’Anna, Kimberly L.; Stevenson, Sharon A.; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Mice deficient in corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 (CRF2) (C57BL/6J:129Sv background) exhibit impaired maternal defense (protection of offspring) and are more reactive to stressors than wild-type mice. To further understand CRF2’s role in maternal behavior, we crossed the knockout mice with a line bred for high maternal defense that also has elevated maternal care relative to inbred lines. Maternal care was normal in knockout mice (relative to wild-type). Maternal defense was impaired as previously observed. Exposure to a mild stressor (15 min restraint) did not trigger deficits in maternal defense in either genotype as determined by a two-way repeated measures ANOVA analysis. However, when examining difference scores between unrestrained and restrained conditions, knockout mice exhibited significant decreases in maternal defense with stress, suggesting knockouts are more susceptible to a mild stressor’s effects. To gain possible insights into brain activity differences between WT and KO mice, we examined c-Fos expression in association with stress. Unrestrained KO mice exhibited significantly lower c-Fos levels relative to unrestrained WT mice in 9 regions, including lateral septum and periaqueductal gray. For WT mice, restraint stress triggered c-Fos activity increases in 3 regions while for KO mice, restraint stress triggered c-Fos increases in 16 regions. Taken together, our results suggest both altered behavioral and c-Fos responses to stress in lactating CRF2 KO mice. PMID:18817761

  17. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; McNair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. We hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. Design and Methods This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs <5% weight loss, and linear regression was used to identify predictors of percent weight loss. Results 27 subjects (37 ± 4.5 yrs, 93.8 ± 12.1 kg, BMI 33.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2) completed the study, with mean weight loss of -5.4 ± 3.3 kg (-5.7 ± 3.2%). Subjects with ≥5% weight loss had higher baseline pre-breakfast hunger (p=0.017), desire to eat (p=0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006), and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p=0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (p=0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p<0.001) were found to be predictors of weight loss. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals reporting greater hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. PMID:26584649

  18. Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo--role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Stämpfli, Simon F; Camici, Giovanni G; Keller, Stephan; Rozenberg, Izabela; Arras, Margarete; Schuler, Beat; Gassmann, Max; Garcia, Irene; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C

    2014-01-01

    Stress is known to correlate with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are not known. This study was designed to assess the effect of experimental stress on arterial thrombus formation, the key event in acute myocardial infarction. Mice exposed to 20 h of restraint stress displayed an increased arterial prothrombotic potential as assessed by photochemical injury-induced time to thrombotic occlusion. This increase was prevented by chemical sympathectomy performed through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Blood-born tissue factor (TF) activity was enhanced by stress and this increase could be prevented by 6-OHDA treatment. Vessel wall TF, platelet count, platelet aggregation, coagulation times (PT, aPTT), fibrinolytic system (t-PA and PAI-1) and tail bleeding time remained unaltered. Telemetric analysis revealed only minor hemodynamic changes throughout the stress protocol. Plasma catecholamines remained unaffected after restraint stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels were unchanged and inhibition of TNF-α had no effect on stress-enhanced thrombosis. These results indicate that restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis via the sympathetic nervous system. Blood-borne TF contributes, at least in part, to the observed effect whereas vessel wall TF, platelets, circulating coagulation factors, fibrinolysis and inflammation do not appear to play a role. These findings shed new light on the understanding of stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  19. Vervet monkeys solve a multiplayer "forbidden circle game" by queuing to learn restraint.

    PubMed

    Fruteau, Cécile; van Damme, Eric; Noë, Ronald

    2013-04-22

    In social dilemmas, the ability of individuals to coordinate their actions is crucial to reach group optima. Unless exacted by power or force, coordination in humans relies on a common understanding of the problem, which is greatly facilitated by communication. The lack of means of consultation about the nature of the problem and how to solve it may explain why multiagent coordination in nonhuman vertebrates has commonly been observed only when multiple individuals react instantaneously to a single stimulus, either natural or experimentally simulated, for example a predator, a prey, or a neighboring group. Here we report how vervet monkeys solved an experimentally induced coordination problem. In each of three groups, we trained a low-ranking female, the "provider," to open a container holding a large amount of food, which the providers only opened when all individuals dominant to them ("dominants") stayed outside an imaginary "forbidden circle" around it. Without any human guidance, the dominants learned restraint one by one, in hierarchical order from high to low. Once all dominants showed restraint immediately at the start of the trial, the providers opened the container almost instantly, saving all individuals opportunity costs due to lost foraging time. Solving this game required trial-and-error learning based on individual feedback from the provider to each dominant, and all dominants being patient enough to wait outside the circle while others learned restraint. Communication, social learning, and policing by high-ranking animals played no perceptible role.

  20. The effect of restraint stress on paradoxical sleep is influenced by the circadian cycle.

    PubMed

    Koehl, M; Bouyer, J J; Darnaudéry, M; Le Moal, M; Mayo, W

    2002-05-24

    It is well known that the physiological impact imposed by events or behaviors displayed during the waking period determines the way organisms sleep. Among the situations known to affect sleep both in its duration and quality, stress has been widely studied and it is now admitted that its effects on sleep architecture depend on several factors specific to the stressor or the individual itself. Although numerous reports have highlighted the prominent role of the circadian cycle in the physiological, endocrine and behavioral consequences of restraint stress, a possible circadian influence in the effects of stress on the sleep-wake cycle has never been studied. Thus the present study was designed to compare the effects on sleep of a 1 h-lasting restraint stress applied at light onset to those observed after the same stressor was applied at light offset. We report that in both conditions stress induced a marked paradoxical sleep increase, whereas wakefulness displayed a moderate decrease and slow wave sleep a moderate augmentation. Although the effects of stress at lights on were of similar magnitude than those of stress at lights off, important differences in the sleep rebound latencies were observed: whatever the time of day the stress was applied, its effects on sleep always occurred during the dark period. This result thus shows that restraint stress could be efficiently used to study the interaction between the circadian and homeostatic components of sleep regulation. PMID:12020861

  1. The Anti-apoptotic Effect of Ghrelin on Restraint Stress-Induced Thymus Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jie Wan; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyuk Soon

    2016-01-01

    Thymic atrophy is a complication that results from exposure to many environmental stressors, disease treatments, and microbial challenges. Such acute stress-associated thymic loss can have a dramatic impact on the host's ability to replenish the necessary naïve T cell output to reconstitute the peripheral T cell numbers and repertoire to respond to new antigenic challenges. We have previously reported that treatment with the orexigenic hormone ghrelin results in an increase in the number and proliferation of thymocytes after dexamethasone challenge, suggesting a role for ghrelin in restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis and its potential use as a thymostimulatory agent. In an effort to understand how ghrelin suppresses thymic T cell apoptosis, we have examined the various signaling pathways induced by receptor-specific ghrelin stimulation using a restraint stress mouse model. In this model, stress-induced apoptosis in thymocytes was effectively blocked by ghrelin. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ghrelin prevents the cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bim, Caspase-3, and PARP. In addition, ghrelin stimulation activates the Akt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways in a time/dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of the FoxO3a pathway in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Together, these findings suggest that ghrelin inhibits apoptosis by modulating the stress-induced apoptotic signal pathway in the restraint-induced thymic apoptosis. PMID:27574503

  2. A graphical method for analyzing distance restraints using residual dipolar couplings for structure determination of symmetric protein homo-oligomers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey W; Yan, Anthony K; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce R

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution structure determination of homo-oligomeric protein complexes remains a daunting task for NMR spectroscopists. Although isotope-filtered experiments allow separation of intermolecular NOEs from intramolecular NOEs and determination of the structure of each subunit within the oligomeric state, degenerate chemical shifts of equivalent nuclei from different subunits make it difficult to assign intermolecular NOEs to nuclei from specific pairs of subunits with certainty, hindering structural analysis of the oligomeric state. Here, we introduce a graphical method, DISCO, for the analysis of intermolecular distance restraints and structure determination of symmetric homo-oligomers using residual dipolar couplings. Based on knowledge that the symmetry axis of an oligomeric complex must be parallel to an eigenvector of the alignment tensor of residual dipolar couplings, we can represent distance restraints as annuli in a plane encoding the parameters of the symmetry axis. Oligomeric protein structures with the best restraint satisfaction correspond to regions of this plane with the greatest number of overlapping annuli. This graphical analysis yields a technique to characterize the complete set of oligomeric structures satisfying the distance restraints and to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of each distance restraint. We demonstrate our method for the trimeric E. coli diacylglycerol kinase, addressing the challenges in obtaining subunit assignments for distance restraints. We also demonstrate our method on a dimeric mutant of the immunoglobulin-binding domain B1 of streptococcal protein G to show the resilience of our method to ambiguous atom assignments. In both studies, DISCO computed oligomer structures with high accuracy despite using ambiguously assigned distance restraints.

  3. Psycho-markers of weight loss. The roles of TFEQ Disinhibition and Restraint in exercise-induced weight management.

    PubMed

    Bryant, E J; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M E; King, N A; Blundell, J E

    2012-02-01

    Eating behaviour traits, namely Disinhibition and Restraint, have the potential to exert an effect on food intake and energy balance. The effectiveness of exercise as a method of weight management could be influenced by these traits. Fifty eight overweight and obese participants completed 12-weeks of supervised exercise. Each participant was prescribed supervised exercise based on an expenditure of 500 kcal/session, 5d/week for 12-weeks. Following 12-weeks of exercise there was a significant reduction in mean body weight (-3.26±3.63 kg), fat mass (FM: -3.26±2.64 kg), BMI (-1.16±1.17 kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC: -5.0±3.23 cm). Regression analyses revealed a higher baseline Disinhibition score was associated with a greater reduction in BMI and WC, while Internal Disinhibition was associated with a larger decrease in weight, %FM and WC. Neither baseline Restraint or Hunger were associated with any of the anthropometric markers at baseline or after 12-weeks. Furthermore, after 12-weeks of exercise, a decrease in Disinhibition and increase in Restraint were associated with a greater reduction in WC, whereas only Restraint was associated with a decrease in weight. Post-hoc analysis of the sub-factors revealed a decrease in External Disinhibition and increase in Flexible Restraint were associated with weight loss. However, an increase in Rigid Restraint was associated with a reduction in %FM and WC. These findings suggest that exercise-induced weight loss is more marked in individuals with a high level of Disinhibition. These data demonstrate the important roles that Disinhibition and Restraint play in the relationship between exercise and energy balance.

  4. As the Last Resort: Reducing the Use of Restrictive Physical Interventions Using Organisational Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveau, Roy; McDonnell, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The development of restrictive physical interventions (RPI) to manage challenging behaviours based upon control and restraint during the 1980s and 1990s led to widespread professional disquiet and campaigning to improve the policies, training and application of physical techniques. This included the promotion of a value base within which physical…

  5. Evaluation of an Education, Restraint Distribution, and Fitting Program to Promote Correct Use of Age-Appropriate Child Restraints for Children Aged 3 to 5 Years: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Kate; Brown, Julie; Simpson, Judy M.; Bilston, Lynne E.; Elliott, Maureen; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated an education, distribution, and fitting program for increasing age-appropriate and correct child restraint use. Methods. We performed a cluster randomized trial involving 28 early childhood education centers in low socioeconomic status areas in Sydney, Australia. The main outcome was optimal restraint use defined as age-appropriate restraints, installed into the vehicle correctly and used correctly. Results. One service withdrew after randomization, so data are presented for 689 child passengers, aged 3 to 5 years, from 27 centers. More children attending intervention centers were optimally restrained (43% vs 31%; P = .01; allowing for clustering). More 3-year-olds were using forward-facing seats rather than booster seats, more 4- to 5-year-olds were using booster seats instead of seat belts alone, and there were fewer errors in use at intervention centers. Among non–English-speaking families, more children attending intervention centers were optimally restrained (43% vs 17%; P = .002; allowing for clustering). Conclusions. The program increased use of age-appropriate restraints and correct use of restraints, which translates to improved crash injury protection. Multifaceted education, seat distribution, and fitting enhanced legislation effects, and the effect size was larger in non–English-speaking families. PMID:23078492

  6. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Pitcher, Mark H; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-08-01

    With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the "nociceptive" central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli.

  7. Association of Cognitive Restraint with Ghrelin, Leptin, and Insulin Levels in Subjects Who Are Not Weight-Reduced

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Ellen A.; Cummings, David E.; Callahan, Holly S.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite widespread efforts at weight loss, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise. Restrained eating is a pattern of attempted weight control characterized by cognitive restriction of food intake that has paradoxically been linked with overeating and/or weight gain. It is not known whether restrained eating is associated with abnormalities in appetite-regulating hormones, independent of its effects on body weight. To address this question, we assessed cognitive restraint using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire and obtained fasting measurements of ghrelin, leptin and insulin from 24 healthy, nonobese (body mass index (BMI) 19.7 to 29.6 kg/m2) adult subjects who were at a stable, lifetime maximum weight. We chose to study subjects at stable maximum weight to avoid the secondary effects of weight reduction on body weight-regulating hormones. Subjects were classified by cognitive restraint scale score into Low, Indeterminate, and High Restraint groups. Higher ghrelin levels were significantly associated with restraint in an unadjusted model (P = 0.004) and after adjustment for BMI (P = 0.007). No relationships were found between restraint scores and either leptin (P = 0.75) or insulin (P = 0.36). These findings show an orexigenic hormonal profile in restrained eaters, independent of changes in body weight. PMID:18164043

  8. Participation of NMDA receptors in the lateral hypothalamus in gastric erosion induced by cold-water restraint.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated whether neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) play a role in the occurrence of gastric ulcerations induced by cold-water restraint. The first experiment indicated that bilateral N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) lesions of the LH (20μg/1μl per side) reduced the amount of gastric ulceration induced by cold-water restraint. In the second experiment, the NMDA antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV; 2.5μg/0.5μl per side) or its vehicle was microinjected bilaterally into the LH prior to the cold-water restraint procedure. APV did not induce gastric ulcerations but reduced the amount of ulceration induced by cold-water restraint. These results indicate that NMDA receptors in the LH play an important role in the occurrence of gastric ulceration induced by cold-water restraint. The participation of the LH and possible neuronal circuitry involved in stress-induced ulceration are discussed.

  9. Sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Mans, Christoph; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Lahner, Lesanna L; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Sladky, Kurt K

    2012-09-01

    Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Adult parrots (n=9) were administered either midazolam (2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution intranasally before a 15-minute manual restraint in a complete crossover study. Respiratory rate and sedation scores were recorded before and during capture and during and after 15 minutes of manual restraint. Heart rate and cloacal temperature were recorded during manual restraint. After restraint, the parrots received intranasal flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution, and the recovery time was recorded. In those birds that received midazolam, sedation was observed within 3 minutes of administration, and vocalization, flight, and defense responses were significantly reduced during capture. During manual restraint, the mean rate of cloacal temperature increase was significantly slower and remained significantly lower in birds that received midazolam compared with controls. Mean respiratory rates were significantly lower for up to 12 minutes in parrots that received midazolam compared with those receiving saline solution. Flumazenil antagonized the effects of midazolam within 10 minutes. No overt clinical adverse effects to intranasal midazolam and flumazenil administration were observed. Further studies on the safety of intranasal midazolam and flumazenil in this species are warranted.

  10. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lucie A.; Bauer, Lucy C.; Pitcher, Mark H.; Bushnell, M. Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the “nociceptive” central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli. PMID:27058679

  11. Effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) treatment on restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A stressful stimulus is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Antidepressants are used to manage stress and their related effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) in restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. Methods Animals were immobilized for a period of 6 hr. St. John's Wort (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered 30 minutes before the animals were subjecting to acute immobilized stress. Various behavioral tests parameters for anxiety, locomotor activity and nociceptive threshold were assessed followed by biochemical assessments (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein) subsequently. Results 6-hr acute restraint stress caused severe anxiety like behavior, antinociception and impaired locomotor activity as compared to unstressed animals. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in malondialdehyde, nitrites concentration, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity as compared to unstressed animal brain. Five days St. John's Wort treatment in a dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral (improved locomotor activity, reduced tail flick latency and antianxiety like effect) and oxidative damage as compared to control (restraint stress). Conclusion Present study highlights the modest activity of St. John's Wort against acute restraint stress induced modification. PMID:20459658

  12. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Dietary Restriction? Additional Objective Behavioral and Biological Data Suggest Not

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Sysko, Robyn; Roberto, Christina A.; Allison, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    Prospective studies find that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for bulimic symptom onset, yet experiments find that assignment to energy-deficit diet interventions reduce bulimic symptoms. One explanation for the conflicting findings is that the dietary restraint scales used in the former studies do not actually identify individuals who are restraining their caloric intake. Thus, we tested whether dietary restraint scales showed inverse relations to objectively measured caloric intake in three studies. Four dietary restraint scales did not correlate with doubly labeled water estimates of caloric intake over a 2-week period (M r = .01). One scale showed a significant inverse correlation with objectively measured caloric intake during a regular meal ordered from an ecologically valid menu (M r = −.30), but a significant positive relation that was qualified by a significant quadratic effect, to objectively measured caloric intake during multiple eating episodes in the lab (M r = .32). In balance, results suggest that dietary restraint scales are not valid measures of dietary restriction, replicating findings from prior studies that examined objective measures of caloric intake. PMID:20006662

  13. Restraint stress delays reentrainment in male and female diurnal and nocturnal rodents.

    PubMed

    Mohawk, Jennifer A; Lee, Theresa M

    2005-06-01

    A temporary loss of normal circadian entrainment, such as that associated with shift work and transmeridian travel, can result in an array of detrimental symptoms, making rapid reentrainment of rhythmicity essential. While there is a wealth of literature examining the effects of stress on the entrained circadian system, less is known about the influence of stress on circadian function following a phase shift of the light: dark (LD) cycle. The authors find that recovery of locomotor activity synchronization is altered by restraint stress in the diurnal rodent Octodon degus (degu) and the nocturnal rat. In the first experiment, degus were subjected to a 6-h phase advance of the LD cycle. Sixty minutes after the new lights-on, animals underwent 60 min of restraint stress. The number of days it took each animal to reentrain its activity rhythms to the new LD cycle was recorded and compared to the number of days it took the animal to reentrain under control conditions. When subjected to restraint stress, degus took 30% longer to reentrain their activity rhythms (p < 0.01). In a second experiment, rats underwent a similar experimental paradigm. As with the degus, stress significantly delayed the reentrainment of rats' activity rhythms (p < 0.01). There was no interaction between sex and stress on the rate of reentrainment for either rats or degus. Furthermore, there was no effect of stress on the free-running activity rhythm of degus, suggesting that the effect of stress on reentrainment rate is not secondary to alterations of period length. Together, these data point to a detrimental effect of stress on recovery of entrainment of circadian rhythms, which is independent of activity niche and sex. PMID:15851531

  14. Behavioral and neurochemical profile of m-CPP following exposure to single restraint stress in rat.

    PubMed

    Samad, Noreen; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2009-03-01

    The present study was designed to monitor the responsiveness of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin)-2C receptors following the exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were restrained for 2 hours. 24-h after the termination of the restraint period, 1-(m-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (m-CPP; a 5-HT-2C agonist) at the doses of 1.5 mg/kg or 3.0 mg/kg and saline (1 ml/kg), was injected to unrestrained and restrained animals. Hypolocomotive effects (home cage activity, open field activity and motor coordination) and anxiogenic-like effects (light-dark activity and plus maze activity) were successively monitored in each animal after the drug or saline administration. Rats were decapitated 1-h post-injection to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation by HPLC-EC. Our results show that differences in the hypolocomotive and anxiogenic-like effects of m-CPP between restrained and unrestrained animals could not be demonstrated in the present experimental paradigm. This was due to the fact that the behavioral effects were already marked after restraint leaving little room for an additional m-CPP effect. The effects of m-CPP on increasing 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and decreasing dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) levels were more pronounced (p < 0.01) in restrained than unrestrained animals. The results suggest that behavioral responses to m-CPP and stress are similar The attenuation of m-CPP changes in 5-HIAA and DOPAC levels may be due to a decreased responsiveness of 5-HT-2C receptors in restrained animals. PMID:19402569

  15. Effects of two types of restraint stress on the learned behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Sída, Pavel; Koupilová, Marie; Hynie, Sixtus; Klenerová, Vera

    2003-01-01

    To study the effects of stress on cognitive functions, Wistar and Lewis rats were exposed to restraint (immobilization stressor) (IMO) or restraint combined with partial immersion into water (IMO+C). Learned discriminatory avoidance response in Y-maze, with foot-shock as an unconditioned stimulus, was used as a memory test. The latency to enter the correct arm and number of wrong entries were daily recorded during the training period (20 days) until the criterion was reached, which was set at 90% avoidances (choosing the correct arm). After exposure of rats to one of the stressors for 60 min, the rats were returned to the home cage; the latency to enter the safe arm was recorded in 6 daily trials that started 1 h after application of stressor. Both stressors significantly prolonged the avoidance latencies for 2 or 3 days in Wistar and Lewis rats, respectively; then the latencies returned to the values obtained before the stress exposure. In Lewis rats, the latencies more increased after IMO+C than after IMO stressor, and the maximal increase in latencies was higher in Lewis rats than in Wistar rats. The latency did not reach the time limit for foot-shock delivery, and the number of correct choices remained unchanged in both strains. The results indicate that the used restraint stressors did not affect the long-term memory; rather a transient impairment of retrieval can be considered. Further, differences in response of Lewis and Wistar rats may be interpreted by different activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in used strains.

  16. Age-specific breeding success in a wild mammalian population: selection, constraint, restraint and senescence.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Hannah L; Pope, Lisa C; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

    2011-08-01

    The Selection, Constraint, Restraint and Senescence Hypotheses predict how breeding success should vary with age. The Selection Hypothesis predicts between-individual variation arising from quality differences; the other hypotheses predict within-individual variation due to differing skills or physiological condition (Constraint), residual reproductive lifespan (Restraint), or somatic and reproductive investment (Senescence). Studies tend to focus on either the initial increase in breeding success or later decrease; however, both require consideration when unravelling the underlying evolutionary processes. Additionally, few studies present genetic fitness measures and rarely for both sexes. We therefore test these four hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive, in a high-density population of European badgers Meles meles. Using an 18-year data set (including 22 microsatellite loci), we show an initial improvement in breeding success with age, followed by a later and steeper rate of reproductive senescence in male than in female badgers. Breeding success was skewed within age-classes, indicating the influence of factors other than age-class. This was partly attributable to selective appearance and disappearance of badgers (Selection Hypothesis). Individuals with a late age of last breeding showed a concave-down relationship between breeding success and experience (Constraint Hypothesis). There was no evidence of abrupt terminal effects; rather, individuals showed a concave-down relationship between breeding success and residual reproductive lifespan (Restraint Hypothesis), with an interaction with age of first breeding only in female badgers. Our results demonstrate the importance of investigating a comprehensive suite of factors in age-specific breeding success analyses, in both sexes, to fully understand evolutionary and population dynamics. PMID:21714821

  17. Effectiveness of hands-on education for correct child restraint use by parents.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Karen

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluates whether a hands-on educational intervention makes a significant difference in the proper use of a child passenger restraint by a parent. The clinical trial design included a sample of 111 parents who were at least seven months pregnant and who were randomly assigned to one of two groups (56 intervention and 55 control). All participants received a free car seat and a standardized education session on the safety and use of child passenger restraints. The experimental group received an additional component consisting of a hands-on demonstration and return demonstration of correct installation and use in their own vehicle. Follow-up observation for correctness of use was done after birth using a standardized tool. A total of 24 (22%) parents correctly used the car seat; of these, 18 (32%) were in the intervention group and 6 (11%) were in the control group. The intervention group was four times more likely to have correct use than the control group (odds ratio 4.3, p-value=0.0074). The range for the number of errors per person was 0-7, with the majority (70%) having 0-2. The rate of errors was 33% less in the intervention group (ratio of 0.67). There were few serious errors in either group. No secondary variable (age, education, income, or help from others) had a significant effect on the outcome. The hands-on educational intervention made a significant difference in the proper use of a child passenger restraint by a parent. This study demonstrates the value of hands-on teaching for learning how to install and use a child car seat. PMID:20441811

  18. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Heather M; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9-12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  19. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  20. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money.

    PubMed

    Arfer, Kodi B; Bixter, Michael T; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard.

  1. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money

    PubMed Central

    Arfer, Kodi B.; Bixter, Michael T.; Luhmann, Christian C.

    2015-01-01

    People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard. PMID:26157402

  2. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF BURIED BEND WITH THRUST RESTRAINT IN LIQUEFYING GROUND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Toshinori; Sawada, Yutaka; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Ling, Hoe I.

    In this study, a shaking table test was carried out in order to discuss the dynamic behavior for the bend of pressure pipeline with a concrete block and thrust restraints using geogrids or gravels in liquefying ground. As a result, it was revealed that the concrete block was largely moved and the relative displacement between the bend and the adjacent pipe became large. On the other hand, it was proved that geogrids and gravels were very effective for the lateral resistance in liquefying ground. In addition, the relative displacement was small because of the same difference between the bend and the adjacent pipe.

  3. Pregnant Women and the Use of Corrections Restraints and Substance Use Commitment.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan C H; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Jain, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    Recent evolving trends in the United States legal system regarding how policies and laws are applied to pregnant women include concerns over the use of restraints or shackles in pregnant inmates and forced treatment or commitment of pregnant women for substance abuse. These topics raise many questions, such as: how violent are women, particularly pregnant women; what are the informed consent and treatment implications; and who is at risk of harm? In addition, questions have been raised regarding maternal versus fetal rights, especially when the mother uses substances during a pregnancy. We review legal decisions and organizational position statements and highlight ethics-related concerns. PMID:26438814

  4. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money.

    PubMed

    Arfer, Kodi B; Bixter, Michael T; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard. PMID:26157402

  5. Restraint chair with rowing-like movement for exposing exercising nonhuman primates to microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Knepton, J.; Ezell, C.; de Lorge, J.

    1983-04-20

    Design and construction of a Styrofoam exercise restraint chair is described for use with rhesus monkeys exposed to microwaves. Monkeys usually learn the rowing-like motion of the device within five 1-hour conditioning sessions. Radiation intensity measure of the chair and an example animal experiment demonstrated the chair's suitability for bioelectromagnetic studies. Results of a series of base-line behavioral sessions demonstrated concomitant exercise work load effects on colonic temperature, heart rate, correct response rate, and post-reinforcement pause time. With additional instrumentation, detection of minute disturbances of integrated psychological and physiological mechanisms by unusual environmental factors may be possible.

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Differential Restraint: The Devil is in the Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The Differential Restraint, a mechanism used on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover to maintain symmetry of the mobility system during the launch, cruise, and entry descent and landing phases of the MSL mission, completed nearly three full design cycles before a finalized successful design was achieved. This paper address the lessons learned through these design cycles, including three major design elements that can easily be overlooked during the design process, including, tolerance stack contribution to load path, the possibility of Martian dirt as a failure mode, and the effects of material properties at temperature extremes.

  7. Reducing use of restraints and seclusion to create a culture of safety.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Genevieve E

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure that empowered staff of a locked community hospital unit to reduce the use of restraints and seclusion to create a culture of safety. Themes garnered from interviews with and observations of key informants fit into the categories of a structural empowerment model, with leadership creating opportunities available for staff to develop new knowledge, information on trauma-informed care, support for feedback, and resources for the unit; thus, relationships with patients flourished. In turn, staff engaged in relationships with patients to provide opportunities to develop new knowledge and offer information, support, and resources.

  8. Effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on endocannabinoid content in the amygdala, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex in mice.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, David J; Meier, Sarah E; Shi, Leyu; Ho, W-S Vanessa; Jarrahian, Abbas; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2008-01-01

    Endocannabinoid signaling has been implicated in habituation to repeated stress. The hypothesis that repeated exposures to stress alters endocannabinoid signaling in the limbic circuit was tested by restraining male mice for 30 min/day for 1, 7, or 10 days and measuring brain endocannabinoid content. Amygdalar N-arachidonylethanolamine was decreased after 1, 7, and 10 restraint episodes; 2-arachidonylglycerol was increased after the 10th restraint. A similar pattern occurred in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC): N-arachidonylethanolamine was decreased after the 7th and 10th restraints and 2-arachidonylglycerol was increased after the 10th restraint. In the ventral striatum, the pattern reversed: N-arachidonylethanolamine was increased after the 10th restraint and 2-arachidonylglycerol was decreased after the 7th restraint. Palmitoylethanolamide contents changed in parallel with N-arachidonylethanolamine in the amygdala and ventral striatum. A single restraint episode did not affect the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in any of the brain regions examined. After the 10th restraint, both V(max) and K(m) for N-arachidonylethanolamine were increased in the mPFC; while only the V(max) was increased in the amygdala. On the other hand, the V(max) of FAAH was decreased in ventral striatum after the 10th restraint. After the 10th restraint, the maximum velocity for 2-oleoylglycerol hydrolysis was increased in mPFC; no other changes in 2-oleoylglycerol hydrolysis occurred. Repeated exposure to restraint produced no changes in CB(1) receptor density in any of the areas examined. These studies are consistent with the hypothesis that stress exposure alters endocannabinoid signaling in the brain and that alterations in endocannabinoid signaling occur during habituation to stress.

  9. Buckle up safely: a cluster randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a pre-school based program to increase appropriate use of child restraints

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Road traffic crashes for car occupants are a leading cause of death and serious injury in children from high and middle income countries globally. Correct use of appropriate child restraints can significantly reduce death and serious injury but there is a need for well powered trials to examine effectiveness of programs to increase optimal child restraint practices. The aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention to increase the use of appropriate child restraints, and decrease incorrect use of child restraints in pre-school aged children traveling in cars. Methods and Design A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted, involving 28 pre-school or childcare centres in low income areas of Sydney, Australia, over one calendar year. The intervention is an educational program involving an in-service for centre staff, distribution of educational materials to parents, a parent workshop demonstrating restraint use, subsidised restraints for parents in need, and vouchers for a free restraint checking service. Blinded assessors will observe restraint use at all centres at the end of the calendar year. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; the primary analysis will compare the proportion of each of the two outcome measures (use of appropriate restraints, and incorrect use of restraints) at each centre between intervention and control groups. Detailed process evaluation will be conducted, including examination of implementation and utilisation of various elements of the program by both centres and families. Discussion This assessor blinded cluster randomised trial is powered to provide credible evidence about the efficacy of an education and distribution program in a pre-school setting to increase appropriate use, and decrease incorrect use of child restraints. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000612213. PMID:21211053

  10. Restraint feeds stress: The relationship between eating disorder symptoms, stress generation, and the interpersonal theory of suicide.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Dorian; Smith, April; Bodell, Lindsay

    2014-12-01

    Integrating research on stress generation and the interpersonal theory of suicide we examined whether eating disorder symptoms are related to stress generation and whether negative life events (stressors) contribute to feelings of burdensomeness and low belongingness. At two time points (approximately 1month apart), participants (n=186; 75% female) completed questionnaires measuring eating disorder symptoms, negative life events, burdensomeness, and belongingness. Regression analyses indicated that while controlling for depression, anxiety, and baseline frequency of negative events, dietary restraint significantly predicted negative events at follow-up. Dietary restraint indirectly influenced higher levels of perceived burdensomeness and low belongingness through its influence on negative events. Thus, dietary restraint may contribute to stress generation, and in turn exacerbate feelings of burdensomeness and low belongingness, two important constructs of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Greater understanding of these factors could lead to more effective and targeted suicide interventions for individuals who restrict food intake.

  11. Effect of calf thymus extract and zinc supplementation on the cellular response of mice exposed to restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Obmińiska-Mrukowicz, B; Szczypka, M

    2005-01-01

    The studies were carried out on Balb/c mice exposed to restraint stress twice for 12 h at 24 h intervals. Prior to stress exposure, the mice were treated with calf thymus extract (TFX - Jelfa) i.p. at a dose of 10 mg/kg, ten times at 24 h intervals. TFX was used per se or with zinc ions interaction, by adding zinc ions (as sulfate salt) to drinking water at a dose of 72 microg/mouse per day. The results obtained show that restraint stress dramatically decreased the total number of thymocytes and splenocytes which is also accompanied by decreasing weight ratio of the thymus and spleen. The decreasing number of thymic and spleen cells corresponded to a diminishing percentage of immature, double-positive CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, mature single-positive CD4+ thymic cells and CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ splenocytes. Changes in the number of thymic cells affect their activity, which is expressed as a decreased proliferative response of thymocytes stimulated in vitro with concanavalin A (Con A) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Besides, exposure to the restraint stress decreased interleukin-1 (IL-1) production by murine intraperitoneal macrophages stimulated in vitro with lipopolisacharide (LPS) from E. coli. Previous treatment with TFX counteracted restraint stress-induced immunosuppression, which is expressed as partial normalisation of the total number of thymic and spleen cells, accelerated regeneration of these two lymphatic organs, shortned suppressive action of restraint stress on the percentage of immature CD4+CD8+ thymocytes and CD4+ splenocytes and in total normalisation of the CD4+ thymocytes and CD8+ splenocytes. TFX administered prior to restraint stress not only counteracted the suppresive effects of stress on the proliferative activity of thymic cells stimulated in vitro with Con A and PHA, but also augmented the proliferative response of these cells to two mitogens. The immunorestorative effect of TFX was augmented by zinc supplementation. PMID:15794467

  12. Flight restraint

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Dein, F.J.; Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Mirande, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Many techniques are available for pre ve n ting escape of captive cranes. These include tenotomy, tenectomy, wing clipping, confinement under nets, amputation, brailing, and vane trimming (Ellis and Dein 1991). The advantages and limitations of each technique are presented.

  13. The importance of spatial heterogeneity and self-restraint on mutualism stability - a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Dunn, Derek W; Luo, Jun; He, Jun-Zhou; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that enable mutualisms to evolve and to subsequently remain stable over time, is essential to fully understand patterns of global biodiversity and for evidence based conservation policy. Theoretically, spatial heterogeneity of mutualists, through increased likelihood of fidelity between cooperative partners in structured populations, and 'self-restraint' of symbionts, due to selection against high levels of virulence leading to short-term host overexploitation, will result in either a positive correlation between the reproductive success of both mutualists prior to the total exploitation of any host resource or no correlation after any host resource has been fully exploited. A quantitative review by meta-analysis on the results of 96 studies from 35 papers, showed no evidence of a significant fitness correlation between mutualists across a range of systems that captured much taxonomic diversity. However, when the data were split according to four categories of host: 1) cnidarian corals, 2) woody plants, 3) herbaceous plants, and 4) insects, a significantly positive effect in corals was revealed. The trends for the remaining three categories did not significantly differ to zero. Our results suggest that stability in mutualisms requires alternative processes, or mechanisms in addition to, spatial heterogeneity of hosts and/or 'self-restraint' of symbionts.

  14. Wheelchair securement and occupant restraint system (WTORS) practices in public transit buses.

    PubMed

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina; Salipur, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) usage in public transit buses based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility device: WhMD) passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video surveillance recordings of WhMD trips on fixed-route, large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs) was performed. Two hundred ninety-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis during the period June 2007-February 2009. Results showed that 73.6% of WhMDs were unsecured during transit. Complete use of all four tiedowns was observed more frequently for manual wheelchairs (14.9%) and power wheelchairs (5.5%), compared to scooters (0.0%), and this difference was significant (p=0.013). Nonuse or misuse (lap belt use only) of the occupant restraint system occurred during 47.5% of WhMD trips. The most frequently observed (52.5%) use of the lap belt consisted of bus operators routing the lap belt around the WhMD seatback in an attempt to secure the WhMD. These findings support the need for development and implementation of WTORS with improved usability and/or WTORS that can be operated independently by WhMD passengers and improved WTORS training for bus operators.

  15. Biomechanics of side impact injuries: evaluation of seat belt restraint system, occupant kinematics and injury potential.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Carlin, Fred; Frieder, Russell; Friedman, Keith; Renfroe, David

    2006-01-01

    Side impact crashes are the second most severe motor vehicle accidents resulting in serious and fatal injuries. One of the occupant restraint systems in the vehicle is the three point lap/shoulder harness. However, the lap/shoulder restraint is not effective in a far-side crash (impact is opposite to the occupant location) since the occupant may slip out of the shoulder harness. The present comprehensive study was designed to delineate the biomechanics of far-side planar crashes. The first part of the study involves a car-to-car crash to study the crash dynamics and occupant kinematics; the second part involves an epidemiological analysis of NASS/CDS 1988-2003 database to study the distribution of serious injury; the third part includes the mathematical MADYMO analysis to study the occupant kinematics in detail; and the fourth part includes an in-depth analysis of a real world far-side accident to delineate the injury mechanism and occupant kinematics. Results indicate that the shoulder harness is ineffective in far-side crashes. The upper torso of the belted driver dummy slips out of the shoulder harness and interacted with the opposite vehicle interior such as the door panel. The unbelted occupants had a similar head injury severity pattern compared to belted occupants. The present study is another step to advance towards better understanding of the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of side impact injuries.

  16. Evolution of restraint in a structured rock–paper–scissors community

    PubMed Central

    Nahum, Joshua R.; Harding, Brittany N.; Kerr, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    It is not immediately clear how costly behavior that benefits others evolves by natural selection. By saving on inherent costs, individuals that do not contribute socially have a selective advantage over altruists if both types receive equal benefits. Restrained consumption of a common resource is a form of altruism. The cost of this kind of prudent behavior is that restrained individuals give up resources to less-restrained individuals. The benefit of restraint is that better resource management may prolong the persistence of the group. One way to dodge the problem of defection is for altruists to interact disproportionately with other altruists. With limited dispersal, restrained individuals persist because of interaction with like types, whereas it is the unrestrained individuals that must face the negative long-term consequences of their rapacity. Here, we study the evolution of restraint in a community of three competitors exhibiting a nontransitive (rock–paper–scissors) relationship. The nontransitivity ensures a form of negative feedback, whereby improvement in growth of one competitor has the counterintuitive consequence of lowering the density of that improved player. This negative feedback generates detrimental long-term consequences for unrestrained growth. Using both computer simulations and evolution experiments with a nontransitive community of Escherichia coli, we find that restrained growth can evolve under conditions of limited dispersal in which negative feedback is present. This research, thus, highlights a set of ecological conditions sufficient for the evolution of one form of altruism. PMID:21690371

  17. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards. PMID:19398366

  18. The importance of spatial heterogeneity and self-restraint on mutualism stability - a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Dunn, Derek W; Luo, Jun; He, Jun-Zhou; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that enable mutualisms to evolve and to subsequently remain stable over time, is essential to fully understand patterns of global biodiversity and for evidence based conservation policy. Theoretically, spatial heterogeneity of mutualists, through increased likelihood of fidelity between cooperative partners in structured populations, and 'self-restraint' of symbionts, due to selection against high levels of virulence leading to short-term host overexploitation, will result in either a positive correlation between the reproductive success of both mutualists prior to the total exploitation of any host resource or no correlation after any host resource has been fully exploited. A quantitative review by meta-analysis on the results of 96 studies from 35 papers, showed no evidence of a significant fitness correlation between mutualists across a range of systems that captured much taxonomic diversity. However, when the data were split according to four categories of host: 1) cnidarian corals, 2) woody plants, 3) herbaceous plants, and 4) insects, a significantly positive effect in corals was revealed. The trends for the remaining three categories did not significantly differ to zero. Our results suggest that stability in mutualisms requires alternative processes, or mechanisms in addition to, spatial heterogeneity of hosts and/or 'self-restraint' of symbionts. PMID:26434680

  19. Obesity susceptibility loci and uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and cognitive restraint behaviors in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Curhan, Gary C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Hu, Frank B.; van Dam, Rob M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many confirmed genetic loci for obesity are expressed in regions of the brain that regulate energy intake and reward-seeking behavior. Whether these loci contribute to the development of specific eating behaviors has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between a genetic susceptibility to obesity and cognitive restraint, uncontrolled and emotional eating. Design and Methods Eating behavior and body mass index (BMI) were determined by questionnaires for 1471 men and 2381 women from two U.S cohorts. Genotypes were extracted from genome-wide scans and a genetic-risk score (GRS) derived from 32 obesity-loci was calculated. Results The GRS was positively associated with emotional and uncontrolled eating(P<0.002). In exploratory analysis, BMI-increasing variants of MTCH2, TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with emotional eating and those of TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with uncontrolled eating. The BMI-increasing variant of FTO was positively and those of LRP1B and TFAP2B were inversely associated with cognitive restraint. These associations for single SNPs were independent of BMI but were not significant after multiple-testing correction. Conclusions An overall genetic susceptibility to obesity may also extend to eating behaviors. The link between specific loci and obesity may be mediated by eating behavior but larger studies are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23929626

  20. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards.

  1. Cold-restraint induced gastric lesions in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Athey, G.R.; Iams, S.G.

    1981-02-23

    Spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to 2 hr of cold-restraint stress at 4-6/sup o/C following a 24 hr fast. WKY rats had a significantly greater incidence and degree of ulceration of the gastric glandular mucosa than did SHR rats. Mean arterial pressure, obtained from a chronic arterial cannula, fell during 2 hr of cold-restraint stress in both SHR and WKY rats. Heart rate was unchanged in WKY but fell significantly in SHR. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E), determined by radioenzymatic assay, increased significantly following stress. Increased levels of NE remained similar for both SHR and WKY rats, while post-stress levels of E for the SHR rats greatly exceeded E levels for WKY rats. A greater degree of hypothermia was also noted in SHR rats. Decreased stress induced ulcerogenesis in the SHR may be due to the well-known altered hemodynamic and autonomic nervous system reactivity in this strain or other factors not yet discovered.

  2. Effect of restraint and copper deficiency on blood pressure and mortality of adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klevay, L.M.; Halas, E.S. )

    1989-02-01

    The etiology of most hypertension is unknown; stress is thought to elevate blood pressure. Male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified diet plus a drinking solution containing 10{mu}g Zn and 2{mu}g Cu/ml (acetate sulfate, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was measured without anesthesia. After being matched by mean weight (280g) and blood pressure into 4 groups of 15, groups 1 and 2 received a drinking solution without copper. After 24 days rats in groups 2 and 4 were restrained for 45 min. daily (A.M.) for 23 days in a small plastic cage (19{times}6{times}6 cm). Final pressures were affected both by stress and dietary Cu: group 1, 119; group 2, 131; group 3, 114; group 4, 123 mm Hg. One rat in each of groups 1, 3, 4 and 10 rats in group 2, died. Among these latter hemorrhage was prominent, blood being found in bladder (2), gut (2), peritoneum (2) and scrotum (1). Copper deficiency decreased cooper in both adrenal gland and liver by 58% and in heart by 29% restraint was without effect. Cardiac sodium was increased 6% only by deficiency. Results confirm the hypertensive effect of copper deficiency in adult rats and reveal that the stress of restraint increases blood pressure. Copper deficiency plus stress is harmful.

  3. Evolution of restraint in a structured rock-paper-scissors community.

    PubMed

    Nahum, Joshua R; Harding, Brittany N; Kerr, Benjamin

    2011-06-28

    It is not immediately clear how costly behavior that benefits others evolves by natural selection. By saving on inherent costs, individuals that do not contribute socially have a selective advantage over altruists if both types receive equal benefits. Restrained consumption of a common resource is a form of altruism. The cost of this kind of prudent behavior is that restrained individuals give up resources to less-restrained individuals. The benefit of restraint is that better resource management may prolong the persistence of the group. One way to dodge the problem of defection is for altruists to interact disproportionately with other altruists. With limited dispersal, restrained individuals persist because of interaction with like types, whereas it is the unrestrained individuals that must face the negative long-term consequences of their rapacity. Here, we study the evolution of restraint in a community of three competitors exhibiting a nontransitive (rock-paper-scissors) relationship. The nontransitivity ensures a form of negative feedback, whereby improvement in growth of one competitor has the counterintuitive consequence of lowering the density of that improved player. This negative feedback generates detrimental long-term consequences for unrestrained growth. Using both computer simulations and evolution experiments with a nontransitive community of Escherichia coli, we find that restrained growth can evolve under conditions of limited dispersal in which negative feedback is present. This research, thus, highlights a set of ecological conditions sufficient for the evolution of one form of altruism.

  4. Variation in Behavioral Reactivity Is Associated with Cooperative Restraint Training Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Training techniques that prepare laboratory animals to participate in testing via cooperation are useful tools that have the potential to benefit animal wellbeing. Understanding how animals systematically vary in their cooperative training trajectories will help trainers to design effective and efficient training programs. In the present report we document an updated method for training rhesus monkeys to cooperatively participate in restraint in a ‘primate chair.’ We trained 14 adult male macaques to raise their head above a yoke and accept yoke closure in an average of 6.36 training days in sessions that lasted an average of 10.52 min. Behavioral observations at 2 time points prior to training (approximately 3 y and 1.3 y prior) were used to quantify behavioral reactivity directed toward humans and toward other macaques. Individual differences in submissive–affiliative reactivity to humans but not reactivity toward other monkeys were related to learning outcomes. Macaques that were more reactive to humans were less willing to participate in training, were less attentive to the trainer, were more reactive during training sessions, and required longer training sessions, longer time to yoke, and more instances of negative reinforcement. These results suggest that rhesus macaques can be trained to cooperate with restraint rapidly and that individual difference data can be used to structure training programs to accommodate variation in animal temperament. PMID:26817979

  5. Variation in Behavioral Reactivity Is Associated with Cooperative Restraint Training Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Training techniques that prepare laboratory animals to participate in testing via cooperation are useful tools that have the potential to benefit animal wellbeing. Understanding how animals systematically vary in their cooperative training trajectories will help trainers to design effective and efficient training programs. In the present report we document an updated method for training rhesus monkeys to cooperatively participate in restraint in a 'primate chair.' We trained 14 adult male macaques to raise their head above a yoke and accept yoke closure in an average of 6.36 training days in sessions that lasted an average of 10.52 min. Behavioral observations at 2 time points prior to training (approximately 3 y and 1.3 y prior) were used to quantify behavioral reactivity directed toward humans and toward other macaques. Individual differences in submissive-affiliative reactivity to humans but not reactivity toward other monkeys were related to learning outcomes. Macaques that were more reactive to humans were less willing to participate in training, were less attentive to the trainer, were more reactive during training sessions, and required longer training sessions, longer time to yoke, and more instances of negative reinforcement. These results suggest that rhesus macaques can be trained to cooperate with restraint rapidly and that individual difference data can be used to structure training programs to accommodate variation in animal temperament. PMID:26817979

  6. A prototype Crew Medical Restraint System (CMRS) for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, S. L.; Eichstadt, F. T.; Billica, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Crew Medical Restrain System (CMRS) is a prototype system designed and developed for use as a universally deployable medical restraint/workstation on Space Station Freedom (SSF), the Shuttle Transportation System (STS), and the Assured Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) for support of an ill or injured crewmember requiring stabilization and transportation to Earth. The CMRS will support all medical capabilities of the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) by providing a restraint/interface system for all equipment (advance life support packs, defibrillator, ventilator, portable oxygen supply, IV pump, transport monitor, transport aspirator, and intervenous fluids delivery system) and personnel (patient and crew medical officers). It must be functional within the STS, ACRV, and all SSF habitable volumes. The CMRS will allow for medical capabilities within CPR, ACLS and ATLS standards of care. This must all be accomplished for a worst case transport time scenario of 24 hours from SSF to a definitive medical care facility on Earth. A presentation of the above design prototype with its subsequent one year SSF/HMF and STS/ACRV high fidelity mock-up ground based simulation testing will be given. Also, parabolic flight and underwater Weightless Test Facility evaluations will be demonstrated for various medical contingencies. The final design configuration to date will be discussed with future space program impact considerations.

  7. Restraint ulcers in the rat. 1: Influence on ulcer frequency of fasting and of environmental temperature associated with immobilization of varying durations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Gallaire, D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the production of experimental ulcers in rats are described. Two experimental conditions were found to regularly provoke the appearance of gastric ulcers in a high percentage of rats: (1) two-and-a-half hour restraint, proceeded by a 24 hour fast; and (2) one-and-a-half hour restraint with lowering of the environmental temperature while fasting.

  8. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  9. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Moderate- to Long-Term Dietary Restriction? Objective Biological and Behavioral Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Cooper, Jamie A.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Tappe, Karyn; Lowe, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Prospective studies indicate that elevated scores on dietary restraint scales predict bulimic symptom onset, but experiments indicate that assignment to dietary restriction interventions reduces bulimic symptoms. One possible explanation for the inconsistent findings is that the dietary restraint scales used in the former studies are not valid…

  10. Physical control of patients on an inpatient setting: forensic vs. civil populations.

    PubMed

    Heilbrun, K; Golloway, G G; Shoukry, V E; Gustafson, D

    1995-01-01

    The current study examines the use of physical control (seclusion and restraint) in a sample of patients hospitalized in a public mental hospital during 1989. A total of 243 patient records involving physical control were examined; of these, 124 had been civilly committed and the remaining 119 were forensic (Incompetent to Stand Trial or Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity). Some 870 physical control events occurred in the sample, a rate that is intermediate when compared with other facilities described in the literature. Seclusion was employed most often (46% of events), with the combination of seclusion and restraint used in 32% of events and the remaining 22% of physical control events being restraint. Seclusion tended to be used more often with civilly committed patients, with restraint more frequently employed with forensic patients. Forensic patients differed from civil subjects in their greater frequency of threats, agitation, and verbal hostility. However, civil patients were more frequently aggressive toward others and destructive of property. These findings are discussed in the context of previous evidence also describing forensic patients as being perceived as more dangerous, but behaving in a fashion no more physically aggressive than civil patients.

  11. Chronic orthostatic and antiorthostatic restraint induce neuroendocrine, immune and neurophysiological disorders in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assenmacher, I.; Mekaouche, M.; Maurel, D.; Barbanel, G.; Givalois, L.; Boissin, J.; Malaval, F.; Ixart, G.

    The tail-cast suspension rat model has been developed in ground laboratories interested in space physiology for extensive study of mechanisms causing the pathophysiological syndrome associated with space flights. We used individually-caged male rats to explore the effects of acute and chronic (7d) orthostatic restraint (OR) and head-down anti-orthostatic restraint (AOR) on a series of physiological variables. The acute restraint study showed that (1) the installation of the OR device induced an acute reaction for 2 days, with a substantial rise in ACTH (x2) and CORT (x6), and that (2) the head-down tilt from OR to AOR induced (i) within 10 min and lasting 60 min a 2-fold rise in the intra-cerebro-ventricular pressure (Picv) monitored with an icv telemetric recording system, which receded to normal between 60 and 120 min; and (ii) within 30 min a short-lived 4-fold rise in plasma ACTH and CORT levels. Chronic OR induced (1) the suppression of the diurnal ACTH/CORT rhythm, with increased mean levels, especially for ACTH, (2) a degraded circadian locomotor activity rhythm manifested by a significant reduction in the spectral power of the 24h periodicity and a concomitant emergence of shorter (ultradian) periodicities, (3) an associated, but less pronounced alteration of the diurnal rhythm in body temperature; and (4) a marked increase in baseline plasma levels of IL-1β and an increased reactivity in cytokine release following an E. coli endotoxin (LPS) challenge. AOR induced (1) a similar obliteration of the circadian ACTH/CORT rhythm, (2) the loss of close correlation between ACTH and CORT, (3) a generalized increase in baseline plasma IL-1β levels and (4) more extensive degradation of the arcadian periodicity for both locomotor activity and, to a lesser extent, body temperature, replaced by dominant spectral powers for ultradian periodicities (3 to 10h). In conclusion, both experimental paradigms — but AOR more than OR — caused a blockade of the arcadian

  12. Melatonin treatment during early life interacts with restraint to alter neuronal morphology and provoke depressive-like responses

    PubMed Central

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    Stressors during early life induce anxiety- and depressive-like responses in adult rodents. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exposed to short days post-weaning also increase adult anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. To test the hypothesis that melatonin and exposure to stressors early in life interact to alter adult affective responses, we administered melatonin either during the perinatal (gestational day 7 to postnatal day 14) or postnatal (day 15–56) periods and also exposed a subset of dams to restraint during gestation (1 h–2×/day for 4 days). During the final week of injections, depressive-like behaviors were assessed using the sucrose anhedonia and forced swim tests. Hamsters exposed to prenatal restraint and treated with melatonin only during the postnatal period increased depressive-like responses in the forced swim test relative to all other groups. Offspring from restrained dams increased the number of fecal boli produced during the forced swim test, an anxiety-like response. In the present study, prenatal restraint reduced CA1 dendritic branching overall and perinatal melatonin protected hamsters from this restraint-induced reduction. These results suggest that the photoperiodic conditions coincident with birth and early life stressors are important in the development of adult affective responses. PMID:24486255

  13. Androgen inhibits, while oestrogen enhances, restraint-induced activation of neuropeptide neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Lund, T D; Munson, D J; Haldy, M E; Handa, R J

    2004-03-01

    The hormonal response to stress is enhanced by oestrogen but inhibited by androgens. To determine underlying changes in activity of neuropeptide neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), we examined the effect of oestrogen and androgen treatment on restraint-induced c-fos mRNA, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) heteronuclear RNA, and arginine vasopressin hnRNA expression in the PVN. Male rats were gonadectomized and injected with oestradiol benzoate (EB) or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP; s.c., daily for 4 days). Rats were stressed by restraint for 10 min or 30 min before killing. Other rats were stressed for 30 min and then returned to their home cage for 20 min before killing. Corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone responses to restraint stress were significantly greater in EB-treated rats and lower in DHTP-treated rats at the 30-min timepoint compared to controls. c-fos mRNA increases following stress were augmented by EB but inhibited by DHTP. CRH hnRNA expression increased significantly in the PVN in response to restraint stress, and this increase was augmented by EB treatment, but decreased by DHTP treatment. Vasopressin hnRNA expression was also increased in response to stress, and this increase was attenuated by DHTP. These findings indicate that gonadal hormones influence the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis to stress.

  14. Nonlifting wing-body combinations with certain geometric restraints having minimum wave drag at low supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Harvard

    1957-01-01

    Several variational problems involving optimum wing and body combinations having minimum wave drag for different kinds of geometrical restraints are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the effect on the wave drag of shortening the fuselage and, for slender axially symmetric bodies, the effect of fixing the fuselage diameter at several points or even of fixing whole portions of its shape.

  15. Developmental Trajectories in Toddlers' Self-Restraint Predict Individual Differences in Executive Functions 14 Years Later: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Naomi P.; Miyake, Akira; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Hewitt, John K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether self-restraint in early childhood predicted individual differences in 3 executive functions (EFs; inhibiting prepotent responses, updating working memory, and shifting task sets) in late adolescence in a sample of approximately 950 twins. At ages 14, 20, 24, and 36 months, the children were shown an attractive toy and told not…

  16. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint.

    PubMed

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P < .01]; RR, -17.5 ± 22.6 breaths/min, [P < .05]). Hooded birds had significantly lower HRs and RRs at 15 minutes of restraint (HR: 232.5 ± 26 bpm, [P < .037]; RR: 33.1 ± 6.7 breaths/min, [P < .05]) compared to birds restrained without a hood (HR: 280 ± 74.1 bpm; RR: 51.5 ± 28.8 breaths/min). Cloacal temperature increased significantly in all manually restrained birds (+2.2 ± 0.7°C, [P < .01]), with a comparable increase in hooded and nonhooded birds. In this study of the effects of manual restraint on red-tailed hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia. PMID:27315379

  17. Melatonin treatment during early life interacts with restraint to alter neuronal morphology and provoke depressive-like responses.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-04-15

    Stressors during early life induce anxiety- and depressive-like responses in adult rodents. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exposed to short days post-weaning also increase adult anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. To test the hypothesis that melatonin and exposure to stressors early in life interact to alter adult affective responses, we administered melatonin either during the perinatal (gestational day 7 to postnatal day 14) or postnatal (day 15-56) periods and also exposed a subset of dams to restraint during gestation (1 h-2×/day for 4 days). During the final week of injections, depressive-like behaviors were assessed using the sucrose anhedonia and forced swim tests. Hamsters exposed to prenatal restraint and treated with melatonin only during the postnatal period increased depressive-like responses in the forced swim test relative to all other groups. Offspring from restrained dams increased the number of fecal boli produced during the forced swim test, an anxiety-like response. In the present study, prenatal restraint reduced CA1 dendritic branching overall and perinatal melatonin protected hamsters from this restraint-induced reduction. These results suggest that the photoperiodic conditions coincident with birth and early life stressors are important in the development of adult affective responses. PMID:24486255

  18. The Contribution of Children's Temperamental Fear and Effortful Control to Restraint and Seclusion during Inpatient Treatment in a Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgett, David J.; Valentino, Kristin; Hayden, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined temperament characteristics as risk factors for restraint and seclusion (R/S) events in psychiatrically hospitalized youth, extending work that has sought to identify R/S risk factors and research examining temperament-behavior problem associations that has largely relied upon community samples. It was anticipated that…

  19. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint.

    PubMed

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P < .01]; RR, -17.5 ± 22.6 breaths/min, [P < .05]). Hooded birds had significantly lower HRs and RRs at 15 minutes of restraint (HR: 232.5 ± 26 bpm, [P < .037]; RR: 33.1 ± 6.7 breaths/min, [P < .05]) compared to birds restrained without a hood (HR: 280 ± 74.1 bpm; RR: 51.5 ± 28.8 breaths/min). Cloacal temperature increased significantly in all manually restrained birds (+2.2 ± 0.7°C, [P < .01]), with a comparable increase in hooded and nonhooded birds. In this study of the effects of manual restraint on red-tailed hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia.

  20. Nerve growth factor stimulates axon outgrowth through negative regulation of growth cone actomyosin restraint of microtubule advance

    PubMed Central

    Turney, Stephen G.; Ahmed, Mostafa; Chandrasekar, Indra; Wysolmerski, Robert B.; Goeckeler, Zoe M.; Rioux, Robert M.; Whitesides, George M.; Bridgman, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes growth, differentiation, and survival of sensory neurons in the mammalian nervous system. Little is known about how NGF elicits faster axon outgrowth or how growth cones integrate and transform signal input to motor output. Using cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that myosin II (MII) is required for NGF to stimulate faster axon outgrowth. From experiments inducing loss or gain of function of MII, specific MII isoforms, and vinculin-dependent adhesion-cytoskeletal coupling, we determined that NGF causes decreased vinculin-dependent actomyosin restraint of microtubule advance. Inhibition of MII blocked NGF stimulation, indicating the central role of restraint in directed outgrowth. The restraint consists of myosin IIB- and IIA-dependent processes: retrograde actin network flow and transverse actin bundling, respectively. The processes differentially contribute on laminin-1 and fibronectin due to selective actin tethering to adhesions. On laminin-1, NGF induced greater vinculin-dependent adhesion–cytoskeletal coupling, which slowed retrograde actin network flow (i.e., it regulated the molecular clutch). On fibronectin, NGF caused inactivation of myosin IIA, which negatively regulated actin bundling. On both substrates, the result was the same: NGF-induced weakening of MII-dependent restraint led to dynamic microtubules entering the actin-rich periphery more frequently, giving rise to faster elongation. PMID:26631553

  1. Use of knowledge-based restraints in phenix.refine to improve macromolecular refinement at low resolution

    PubMed Central

    Headd, Jeffrey J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Chen, Vincent B.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Richardson, David C.; Richardson, Jane S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods for macromolecular refinement often have limited success at low resolution (3.0–3.5 Å or worse), producing models that score poorly on crystallographic and geometric validation criteria. To improve low-resolution refinement, knowledge from macromolecular chemistry and homology was used to add three new coordinate-restraint functions to the refinement program phenix.refine. Firstly, a ‘reference-model’ method uses an identical or homologous higher resolution model to add restraints on torsion angles to the geometric target function. Secondly, automatic restraints for common secondary-structure elements in proteins and nucleic acids were implemented that can help to preserve the secondary-structure geometry, which is often distorted at low resolution. Lastly, we have implemented Ramachandran-based restraints on the backbone torsion angles. In this method, a ϕ,ψ term is added to the geometric target function to minimize a modified Ramachandran landscape that smoothly combines favorable peaks identified from non­redundant high-quality data with unfavorable peaks calculated using a clash-based pseudo-energy function. All three methods show improved MolProbity validation statistics, typically complemented by a lowered R free and a decreased gap between R work and R free. PMID:22505258

  2. The Latent Structure of Dietary Restraint, Body Dissatisfaction, and Drive for Thinness: A Series of Taxometric Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm-Denoma, Jill M.; Richey, J. Anthony; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although the latent structure of various eating disorders has been explored in previous studies, no published studies have examined the latent structure of theoretically relevant variables that have been shown to cut across eating disorder diagnoses. The current study examined 3 such variables (dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive…

  3. Restraint hypothermia in cold-exposed rats at 3 G and 1 G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, C. B.; Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between heat loss, heat production, and hypothermia was investigated in experiments with rats which determined if hypergravity affects heat production by altering oxygen consumption and if restraint modifies the ability of the rats to activate thermogenic mechanisms after cold exposure in a hypergravic field. Restrained and unrestrained rats were exposed for 1 hr periods to 1 G and 3 G at ambient temperatures of 24 C or 10 C, and the rate of oxygen consumption, the core temperatures, and the tail temperatures were measured. Results show that thermoregulatory mechanisms are impaired when rats are exposed to 3 G fields, and at 24 C as well as at 10 C this impairment leads to an inappropriate increase in heat loss.

  4. Seat integrated and conventional restraints: a study of crash injury/fatality rates in rollovers.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Burnett, Roger A

    2008-10-01

    This study used police-reported motor vehicle crash data from eleven states to determine ejection, fatality, and fatal/serious injury risks for belted drivers in vehicles with conventional seatbelts compared to belted drivers in vehicles with seat integrated restraint systems (SIRS). Risks were compared for 11,159 belted drivers involved in single- or multiple-vehicle rollover crashes. Simple driver ejection (partial and complete), fatality, and injury rates were derived, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine relative contribution of factors (including event calendar year, vehicle age, driver age/gender/alcohol use) that significantly influence the likelihood of fatality and fatal/serious injury to belted drivers in rollovers. Results show no statistically significant difference in driver ejection, fatality, or fatal/serious injury rates between vehicles with conventional belts and vehicles with SIRS. PMID:19026243

  5. [Psychiatric medication as restraint: between autonomy and protection, is there place for a legal framework?].

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical restraint has been regulated for the past ten years in Quebec. However, clinical, ethical and legal issues, sometimes contradictory, have not really been considered during the legislative process leading to consolidation in its current form. The author supports that, because of the absence of consent and the effects of medication, a specific legal framework to the use of medication is necessary in a context of unplanned intervention to protect both patients and medical staff. This framework would prescribe good practice, take into account the non-medical aspects of consent to care and formalize the practice as an exception to the rule. In addition, the symbolism of law, through which social solidarity can be expressed, must not be underestimated.

  6. Improper use of child restraint seats as a sleeping environment: Two cases of childhood death.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Ash; Adams, Elysia; Desapriya, Ediriweera

    2012-11-01

    A child restraint seat (CRS) is designed to keep infants safe inside motor vehicles while in motion. However, there have been a growing number of reports of injuries sustained as a result of CRS use outside the vehicle. These injuries commonly result from a fall from an elevated surface or an overturning of the CRS. The incidence of death from these events, however, is not well documented. The present report retrospectively analyzed the British Columbia Coroner Service Database to identify deaths involving CRS use outside the vehicle. Two such fatalities were identified. In both instances, infants had been placed in a CRS overnight and, in both cases, the CRS was found overturned, resulting in asphyxiation. The history and pathological findings of both cases are summarized.

  7. Active sites without restraints: high-resolution analysis of metal cofactors.

    PubMed

    Burger, Eva-Maria; Andrade, Susana L A; Einsle, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    For most three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules, the factual accuracy of atom positions by far exceeds the resolution of the experimental data, although the refinement problem presented by a protein structure is substantially underdetermined. This is achieved through using restraints that precisely define protein geometries and thus reduce the degrees of freedom of the refinement problem. If such information is not available or when unusual geometries or particular ligand states complicate structural analysis, possible pitfalls arise that not only concern the precise definition of spatial arrangements, but also the identification of atom types and bond distances. Prominent examples include CO dehydrogenase, hydrogenase, acetylene hydratase and nitrogenase, all of which employ unique active sites that turned out not to be what they seemed upon first inspection.

  8. Kid in the middle: a discussion of effectiveness of center rear-seat restraint systems.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Mortazavi, Leila

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines effectiveness of rear seat restraint systems in reducing injury in frontal and side impacts. Results indicate effectiveness varies by crash configuration and occupant age, with age being the most important factor influencing odds of fatality/serious injury to belted, rear seated occupants in frontal and side crashes. There is no significant difference between center lap and outboard lap/shoulder belts effectiveness; however, field data shows a high percentage of misuse (wearing belts improperly or using age-inappropriate belts) associated with fatalities and serious injuries. Review of NASS/CDS cases on seriously injured belted children shows belt misuse and injury patterns that might be mitigated by booster seats or proper use of adult belts. PMID:16968639

  9. A preliminary evaluation of child restraints and anchorage systems for an Australian car.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Judith L; Fildes, Brian; Laemmle, Ronald; Smith, Stuart; Douglas, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the performance of three rear-facing and two forward-facing child restraints (CRS) with three anchorage systems: standard seatbelt, LATCH (flexible) and ISOFIX (rigid). Frontal (64 km/h) and side impact (15 km/h) HyGe sled tests were conducted using a sedan buck. Overall, the preliminary findings suggested superior performance of rigid over seatbelt and flexible anchorages, particularly in side impacts. The results also suggest a need for design improvement for CRS with flexible anchorages to increase stability in side impacts. The findings have important implications for the proposed introduction of changes to Australian Standards for CRS to permit both flexible and rigid systems to coexist with conventional seatbelt anchorage systems. PMID:15319118

  10. Tantalus, Restraint Theory, and the Low-Sacrifice Diet: The Art of Reverse Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Blair-West, George W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that clinicians face the unique artistic challenge of taking concrete pieces of data – scientific findings – and abstracting them into effective therapeutic interventions. Moreover, this abstraction has to be modified for different personality types. The process of therapeutic change and how it can be impeded by the traditional medical model are briefly explored. The doctor-patient dyadic treatment relationship, while appropriate and necessary for many medical interventions, can disavow the source of change when it comes to lifestyle conditions such as obesity. Restraint theory and its origins in Greek mythology are briefly reviewed and integrated with Bowlby's attachment theory as precepts in developing a psychologically based dietary approach. By retaining in people's diets foods they have a deep emotional attachment to, the low-sacrifice diet attempts to encourage caloric restriction in a way that does not trigger rebound overeating. PMID:18311368

  11. Design of a mouse restraint for synchrotron-based computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Kenneth B; Caine, Sally; Samadi, Nazanin; Martinson, Mercedes; van der Loop, Melanie; Alcorn, Jane; Chapman, L Dean; Belev, George; Nichol, Helen

    2015-09-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (CT) imaging of a live animal within a lead-lined synchrotron light hutch presents several unique challenges. In order to confirm that the animal is under a stable plane of anaesthesia, several physiological parameters (e.g. heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, core body temperature and respiratory rate) must be remotely monitored from outside the imaging hutch. In addition, to properly scan the thoracic region using CT, the animal needs to be held in a vertical position perpendicular to the fixed angle of the X-ray beam and free to rotate 180°-360°. A new X-ray transparent mouse restraint designed and fabricated using computer-aided design software and three-dimensional rapid prototype printing has been successfully tested at the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy bending-magnet (BMIT-BM) beamline at the Canadian Light Source. PMID:26289283

  12. Seat Integrated and Conventional Restraints: A Study of Crash Injury/Fatality Rates in Rollovers

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Burnett, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    This study used police-reported motor vehicle crash data from eleven states to determine ejection, fatality, and fatal/serious injury risks for belted drivers in vehicles with conventional seatbelts compared to belted drivers in vehicles with seat integrated restraint systems (SIRS). Risks were compared for 11,159 belted drivers involved in single- or multiple-vehicle rollover crashes. Simple driver ejection (partial and complete), fatality, and injury rates were derived, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine relative contribution of factors (including event calendar year, vehicle age, driver age/gender/alcohol use) that significantly influence the likelihood of fatality and fatal/serious injury to belted drivers in rollovers. Results show no statistically significant difference in driver ejection, fatality, or fatal/serious injury rates between vehicles with conventional belts and vehicles with SIRS. PMID:19026243

  13. Possible therapeutic effect of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Sinisan, on chronic restraint stress related disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Tong; Tan, Qing-Rong; Sun, Li-Li; Cao, Jun; Dou, Ke-Feng; Xia, Bing; Wang, Wen

    2009-01-16

    According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the liver is the origin or most associated with stress related disorders such as depression. Sinisan, a TCM prescription, has been used as a hepatic protectant. We examined whether Sinisan exerts therapeutic effects in an experimental animal model: the chronic restraint stress (CRS) model. Sinisan was administered in the animal's drinking water at a concentration of 100mg/kg for 21 days (7 days pre-CRS and 14 days during the CRS). Spatial learning and memory were measured 24h after the CRS procedures using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Aggressive behavior and body weight were determined as well. The Sinisan treatment decreased aggressive behaviors and reversed CRS-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory as well as decreased rate of growth. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sinisan does exert measurable therapeutic effects in an experimental chronic stress model.

  14. Integrative Structure Determination of Protein Assemblies by Satisfaction of Spatial Restraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alber, Frank; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P.; Sali, Andrej

    To understand the cell, we need to determine the structures of macromolecular assemblies, many of which consist of tens to hundreds of components. A great variety of experimental data can be used to characterize the assemblies at several levels of resolution, from atomic structures to component configurations. To maximize completeness, resolution, accuracy, precision and efficiency of the structure determination, a computational approach is needed that can use spatial information from a variety of experimental methods. We propose such an approach, defined by its three main components: a hierarchical representation of the assembly, a scoring function consisting of spatial restraints derived from experimental data, and an optimization method that generates structures consistent with the data. We illustrate the approach by determining the configuration of the 456 proteins in the nuclear pore complex from Baker's yeast.

  15. Large Scale Experiments on Lightweight Thrust Restraint for Buried Bend under Internal Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Toshinori; Sawada, Yutaka; Mohri, Yoshiyuki

    In bends, unbalanced force, which is called thrust force, is generated. Generally a concrete block is installed at the bend to provide the lateral resistance. However, the heavy concrete block is weak point in earthquake. In our previous study, a lightweight thrust restraint using geogrid was suggested and the effect was proved by laboratory small tests. In the present study, the large-scale tests for the new method were carried out in a large pit (8.4m×5.4m×4m), using a pipe bend having a diameter 300mm. As the results the lateral displacement of the bend was reduced by the proposed method. In addition, it was revealed that the effect was depended on the stiffness, length and installation of geogrid.

  16. Effect of mechanical restraint on weldability of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel thick plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serizawa, Hisashi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Manabu; Kawahito, Yousuke; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Katayama, Seiji

    2011-10-01

    As one of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, the weldability of thick F82H plate was experimentally examined using new heat sources in order to minimize the total heat input energy in comparison with TIG welding. A full penetration of 32 mm thick plate could be produced as a combination of a 12 mm deep first layer generated by a 10 kW fiber laser beam and upper layers deposited by a plasma MIG hybrid welding with Ar + 2%O shielding gas. Also, the effect of mechanical restraint on the weldability under EB welding of thick F82H plate was studied by using FEM to select an appropriate specimen size for the basic test. The appropriate and minimum size for the basic test of weldability under EB welding of 90 mm thick plate might be 200 mm in length and 400 mm in width where the welding length should be about 180 mm.

  17. Effects of genetic origin and social environment on behavioral response to manual restraint and monoamine functioning in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, K A; Rodenburg, T B; Van Reenen, C G; Koopmanschap, R E; De Vries Reilingh, G; Engel, B; Buist, W G; Komen, H; Bolhuis, J E

    2011-08-01

    Purebred laying hen lines of White Leghorn (WL) origin have been found to be more flighty and to show more feather pecking than lines of Rhode Island Red (RIR) origin. It has been found, however, that when RIR birds were housed together with WL birds, RIR birds became more flighty and those mixed groups developed more feather damage than pure-line cage-housed groups. It is unknown, however, whether this effect of social environment is accompanied by changes in stress-related behavior and neurophysiological activity, which are assumed to be associated with increased feather damage. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of genetic origin (WL or RIR) and social environment (mixed or pure groups) on behavioral response to manual restraint and monoamine functioning. Monoamine functioning was measured by brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine turnover. Furthermore, correlations between 5-HT turnover in the brain and peripheral measures of 5-HT in the blood were calculated. Experimental birds, housed either with other birds from the same genetic origin (pure groups) or with both RIR and WL birds (mixed groups) from hatching onward, were subjected to a manual restraint test at 47 wk of age. The WL birds struggled less during restraint and had higher dopamine and 5-HT turnover levels after restraint than did RIR birds. The WL birds also showed higher levels of platelet 5-HT uptake than did RIR birds. No effects of social environment were found. Blood and brain 5-HT measures were found to be correlated, with correlations ranging from 0.34 to 0.57, which seems to offer opportunities for less invasive peripheral indicators of 5-HT activity. In conclusion, genetic origin, but not social environment, affected the behavioral response to manual restraint and monoamine functioning in laying hens. PMID:21753196

  18. Restraint Stress Inhibits Mouse Implantation: Temporal Window and the Involvement of HB-EGF, Estrogen and Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hong-Jie; Liang, Bo; Zheng, Liang-Liang; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2013-01-01

    It is known that psychological stress affects reproduction in women, but it is unknown whether the effect is by impairing implantation. Although studies suggest that long periods of auditory or restraint stress may inhibit implantation in rats and mice, the exact stage of pregnancy at which stress impairs implantation is unclear. Furthermore, whether stress impairs implantation by decreasing the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), estrogen and/or progesterone and whether by acting on embryos or on the uterus need further investigations. In this study, a 24-h restraint stress was initiated at 15:30 of day 3 (regimen 1) or at 07:30 (regimen 2) or 15:30 of day 4 (regimen 3) of pregnancy (vaginal plug  =  day 1) to observe effects of restraint stress applied at different peri-implantation stages on implantation. Among the three regimens, whereas regimens 1 and 3 affected neither term pregnancy nor litter size, regimen 2 reduced both. Further observations indicated that regimen 2 of restraint stress also delayed blastocyst hatching and the attachment reaction, decreased serum concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, and down regulated the expression of HB-EGF in both the endometrium and blastocysts. Taken together, the results suggested that restraint stress inhibited mouse implantation in a temporal window-dependent manner and by impairing blastocyst activation and hatching and uterine receptivity via down-regulating HB-EGF, estrogen and progesterone. Thus, the stress applied within the implantation window impaired implantation by acting on both embryos and the uterus. PMID:24244689

  19. The causes of physiological suppression among female meerkats: a role for subordinate restraint due to the threat of infanticide?

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Monfort, Steven L; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-01-01

    In many animal societies, subordinates exhibit down-regulated reproductive endocrine axes relative to those of dominants, but whether this 'physiological suppression' arises from active interference by dominants or subordinate self-restraint is a matter of debate. Here we investigate the roles that these processes play in precipitating physiological suppression among subordinate female meerkats, Suricata suricatta. We show that, while subordinate females are known to suffer stress-related physiological suppression during periodic temporary evictions by the dominant female, their low estrogen levels while within their groups cannot be readily attributed to chronic stress, as their fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels during this time are comparable to those of dominants. The low estrogen levels of subordinate females also cannot be explained simply by self-restraint due to factors that could reduce their payoff from maintaining their fertility regardless of the presence of the dominant female (young age, a lack of unrelated mates, poor body condition and limited breeding experience), as substantial rank-related differences in fecal total-estrogen metabolite levels remain when such factors are controlled. We suggest that this residual difference in estrogen levels may reflect a degree of subordinate restraint due in part to the dominant female's ability to kill their young. Accordingly, subordinate female estrogen levels vary in association with temporal variation in the likelihood of infanticide by the dominant. Attempts to identify the causes of physiological suppression should be cautious if rejecting any role for dominant interference in favor of subordinate restraint, as the dominant's capacity to interfere may often be the reason why subordinates exercise restraint.

  20. Restraint effects on stress-related hormones and blood natural killer cell cytotoxicity in pigs with a mutated ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Ciepielewski, Z M; Stojek, W; Glac, W; Wrona, D

    2013-05-01

    A mutation in the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) of the calcium release channel is responsible for increased stress susceptibility in pigs. In the present study, the relation of a mutation in RYR1 with the neuroendocrine (stress-related hormone) response and the immune defense represented by natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) during a 4-h restraint and recovery phase in 60 male pigs was investigated. Blood samples were collected from pigs previously divided into RYR1 genotypes (nn, Nn, NN), based on PCR amplification and restriction analyses. The blood samples collected during the restraint and recovery phases of the experiment were used to determine NKCC ((51)Cr-release assay), large granular lymphocyte number (hematologic method), and plasma concentrations of prolactin (PRL), GH, ACTH, and cortisol (COR) (by specific RIA). The greatest degree of NKCC response (P < 0.05) to restraint stress relative to controls was observed for the stress-susceptible homozygote group (nn). Measures of stress-related hormones were positively correlated with NKCC during the entire experimental period (P < 0.001 for all investigated hormones) in the nn group. Immunostimulatory effects in the early (0-60 min) phase of restraint were associated with increased hormone responses, especially PRL and GH. In the late (180-240 min) phase of stress and the recovery phase (480 min), a decrease in immune response was accompanied by an elevated COR response in all RYR1 genotypes. Moreover, divergent responses of both PRL (greatest in nn, P < 0.001) and GH (greatest in NN, P < 0.001) to the 4-h restraint were observed. Our results suggest that stress-susceptible RYR1-mutated homozygotes develop a greater level of immune defense, including cytotoxic activity of NK cells, and accompanied by more pronounced stress-induced changes in neuroendocrine response than stress-resistant heterozygous (Nn) and homozygous (NN) pigs.