Science.gov

Sample records for restraint physical

  1. The Physical Restraint Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Joseph K.

    2000-01-01

    Professional and government committees are examining use of physical restraints with troubled youth as a result of reports of problems with its use. Examples of what is being done to improve practice standards in area of crisis intervention include limiting how often restrictive procedures can be use; stating the technique must never negatively…

  2. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  3. Physical restraint usage at a teaching hospital: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barton-Gooden, Antoinette; Dawkins, Pauline E; Bennett, Joanna

    2015-02-01

    This mixed method study examines the prevalence of restraint usage; perception of nurses and doctors about the practice and whether they were trained to apply physical restraints. The physical restraint prevalence tools were used to observe 172 adult patients and conduct 47 chart audits in the medical-surgical wards and a psychiatric unit in November 2011. Focus group discussions with nurses and doctors were conducted. Quantitative data were analyzed using the SPSS and focus group discussions thematically analyzed. The prevalence of physical restraints between the medical-surgical wards was 75%. Nurses and medical doctors were not formally trained to apply restraint, and had learnt from peer observation. They expressed sadness, guilt, and fear when restraints are used and identified that inadequate institutional support existed. Restraint usage was high, and nurses and doctors experienced moral dilemma when they perceived that lack of formal training and inadequate institutional support may contribute to patient injury.

  4. Physical restraints practice in adult intensive care units in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Nahed Attia; Attia, Amal Kadry

    2013-03-01

    Physical restraints are commonly used in intensive care units to reduce the risk of injury and ensure patient safety. However, there is still controversy regarding the practice of physical restraints in such units. The purpose of this study was to investigate the practices of physical restraints among critical care nurses in El-Mansoura City, Egypt. The study involved a convenience sample of 275 critically ill adult patients, and 153 nurses. Data were collected from 11 intensive care units using a "physical restraint observation form" and a "structured questionnaire." The results revealed that physical restraint was commonly used to ensure patient safety. Assessment of physical restraint was mainly restricted to peripheral circulation. The most commonly reported physically restrained site complications included: redness, bruising, swelling, and edema. The results illustrated a lack of documentation on physical restraint and a lack of education of patients and their families about the rationale of physical restraint usage. The study shed light on the need for standard guidelines and policies for physical restraint practices in Egyptian intensive care units.

  5. Physical Restraint of People with Intellectual Disability: A Review of Implementation Reduction and Elimination Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This review describes procedures to reduce and eliminate physical restraint of people with intellectual disability. One approach is to assess antecedent conditions associated with restraint and change them so that they no longer produce restraint-provoking behaviour. A second approach is to decrease the duration of restraint by…

  6. The Use of Physical Restraint in Norwegian Adult Psychiatric Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of coercion within the psychiatric services is problematic and raises a range of ethical, legal, and clinical questions. “Physical restraint” is an emergency procedure used in psychiatric hospitals to control patients that pose an imminent physical danger. We wished to review the literature published in scientific peer-reviewed journals describing studies on the use of physical restraint in Norway, in order to identify the current state of knowledge and directions for future research. Design. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for studies relating to physical restraint (including holding) in Norwegian psychiatric hospitals, supplemented with hand searches. Results. 28 studies were included. Most of the studies were on rates of restraint, but there were also some studies on perceptions of patients and staff, case studies, and ethnographic studies. There was only one intervention study. There are differences in use between wards and institutions, which in part may be explained by differences in patient populations. Staff appear to be less negative to the use of restraint than patients. Conclusions. The studies that were identified were primarily concerned with rates of use and with patients' and staff's perspectives. More interventional studies are needed to move the field forward. PMID:26682211

  7. [Medical-legal issues of physical and pharmacological restraint].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Guija, Julio A; Ortega-Monasterio, Leopoldo

    2014-03-01

    The use of physical and pharmacological restraint is controversial but is currently accepted as inevitable. It is indicated for controlling behavioral disorders and psychomotor agitation that put patients and third parties at risk. Its indication should be medical, and we should opt for the least restrictive measure. Restraints represent a possible infringement of patients' fundamental rights and require understanding and strict respect for the medical-legal precepts by physicians and other practitioners involved in its application. This article reviews the current legal framework, as well as the medical-legal premises and aspects of applying restraints, with the objective of ensuring maximum respect for patients' rights and the appropriate legal safety in the activity of practitioners.

  8. Predictors of physical restraint in a psychiatric emergency setting

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Termeh; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the negative consequences of using physical restraints, we conducted this study to identify patients who are more frequently restrained in a psychiatric emergency ward as an initial step to limit the use of restraint to the minimum possible. Methods: This was a retrospective case control study conducted in Iran Psychiatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran. We reviewed the files of 607 patients who were admitted during a one year period using convenience sampling; of them, 186 were in the restrained group and 421 in the unrestrained group. Results: Surprisingly, no significant difference was found between the restrained and unrestrained groups in demographic characteristics. The patients who were referred because of violence were diagnosed as having methamphetamine induced psychotic disorder or bipolar I disorder in manic 1episode and had a higher odds of being restrained (OR=2.51, OR=1.61, and OR=1.57 respectively). Being restrained was also associated with a longer duration of hospitalization and duration of staying in the emergency ward. Moreover, patients in their first admission were more frequently restrained. Conclusion: Medical and nursing staff should consider special measures for the patients who are at a higher risk for being restrained. More frequent visits and education for both patients and staff may be effective in reducing the number of physical restraints for these groups of patients. PMID:26913259

  9. Physical restraint use in intensive care units across Europe: the PRICE study.

    PubMed

    Benbenbishty, Julie; Adam, Sheila; Endacott, Ruth

    2010-10-01

    The use of physical restraint has been linked to delirium in ICU patients and a range of physical and psychological outcomes in non-ICU patients. However, the extent of restraint practice in ICUs is largely unknown. This study was designed to examine physical restraint practices across European ICUs. A prospective point prevalence survey was conducted in adult ICUs across European countries to examine: physical and chemical restraint use during the weekend and weekdays, reasons for physical restraint use, timing of restraint use, type of restraint used and availability of restraint policies. Thirty-four general (adult) ICUs in nine countries participated in the study providing information on 669 patients with details of physical and chemical restraint use in 566 patients. Prevalence of physical restraint use in individual units ranged from 0 to 100% of patients. Thirty-three per cent of patients were physically restrained; those that were restrained were more likely to be ventilated (χ(2)=87.56, p<0.001), sedated (χ(2)34.66, p<0.001), managed in a larger unit (χ(2)=10.741, p=.005) and managed in a unit with a lower daytime nurse:patient ratio (χ(2)=17.17, p=0.001). Larger units were more likely to use commercial wrist restraints and smaller units were more likely to have a restraint policy, although these results did not reach significance. As an initial exploration, this study provides evidence of the range of restraint practice across Units in Europe. Variation in the number of units per country limits generalization of findings. However, further examination is needed to determine whether there is a causal element to these relationships. Attention should be paid to developing evidence based guidelines to underpin restraint practices.

  10. The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior.

    PubMed

    Magee, S K; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Functional analyses produced inconclusive results regarding variables that maintained problem behavior for 2 students with developmental disabilities. Procedures were modified to include a contingent physical restraint condition based on in-class observations. Results indicated that tinder conditions in which physical restraint (i.e., basket-hold timeout) was applied contingent on problem behavior, rates of these behaviors increased across sessions for both subjects. Implications for the use of physical restraint in the classroom are discussed.

  11. The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Magee, S K; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Functional analyses produced inconclusive results regarding variables that maintained problem behavior for 2 students with developmental disabilities. Procedures were modified to include a contingent physical restraint condition based on in-class observations. Results indicated that tinder conditions in which physical restraint (i.e., basket-hold timeout) was applied contingent on problem behavior, rates of these behaviors increased across sessions for both subjects. Implications for the use of physical restraint in the classroom are discussed. PMID:11800190

  12. Staffing levels and the use of physical restraints in nursing homes: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Heeren, Pieter; Van de Water, Geert; De Paepe, Leen; Boonen, Steven; Vleugels, Arthur; Milisen, Koen

    2014-12-01

    There is an unclear relation between staffing levels and the use of physical restraints in nursing homes (NHs). A survey design was used in 570 older adults (median age = 86; 77.2% women), living on 23 wards within seven NHs. Restraint use was high (50% of residents, of which 80% were restrained on a daily basis). Multivariate analysis was conducted at the level of the individual wards. Neither staff intensity nor staff mix was a determinant of restraint use. Bathing dependency, transfer difficulties, risk for falls, frequent restlessness/agitation, and depression were independent predictors of restraint use. Patient characteristics have significant greater impact on physical restraint use than staffing levels. Therefore, improving knowledge and skills of NH staff to better deal with restlessness/agitation, mobility problems, and risk for falls is encouraged to decrease the use of physical restraints in NH residents.

  13. CCBD's Position Summary on Physical Restraint & Seclusion Procedures in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Reece; Albrecht, Susan; Johns, Bev

    2009-01-01

    This document is a summary of policy recommendations from two longer and more detailed documents available from the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) regarding the use of physical restraint and seclusion procedures in schools. These recommendations include: (1) CCBD believes that physical restraint or seclusion procedures…

  14. Suppression of Pica by Overcorrection and Physical Restraint: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Bakker, Leon W.

    1984-01-01

    Each occurrence of pica (ingestion of inedible objects) in two profoundly retarded adults was followed by either overcorrection or physical restraint. Although both procedures reduced the occurrence of pica and had a similar effect on collateral behaviors, physical restraint was clinically more effective in terms of immediate response reduction.…

  15. CCBD's Position Summary on the Use of Physical Restraint Procedures in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Reece; Albrecht, Susan; Johns, Bev

    2009-01-01

    This document provides policy recommendations of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders regarding the use of physical restraint procedures in schools. It includes (a) an introduction, (b) a declaration of principles, and (c) recommendations regarding the use of physical restraint in school settings. Explanation or elaboration of…

  16. Beyond emergencies: the use of physical restraints in medical and psychiatric settings.

    PubMed

    Glezer, Anna; Brendel, Rebecca Weintraub

    2010-01-01

    Physical restraints, such as locked-door seclusion and two- or four-point leather restraints, are frequently used in both the medical and psychiatric settings. Efforts are currently under way to reduce the use of physical restraints in psychiatric settings; various institutional, state, and federal policies are place. However, using these same restraints in the context of providing medical care for psychiatric patients is more complicated, as it is uncertain which principles and regulations apply in a particular setting. For example, is the restraint governed by the policies that regulate the psychiatric application of restraints, by those that regulate the medical application of restraints, or by both? This article reviews the principles and regulations governing the use of restraints on psychiatric patients, with specific attention to the use of restraints in providing medical treatment to that patient population. Also addressed are general principles of risk management to help avoid negative outcomes and to reduce the risk of litigation for unauthorized or unlawful restraint. A case example is used to illustrate these concepts.

  17. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT ON THE LIMITS OF THERMOREGULATION IN TELEMETERED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical restraint of rodents is often needed for nose-only exposure to airborne toxicants and is also used as a means of psychological stress. It is generally assumed that thermoregulation is impaired during restraint, leading to hyperthermia. A hyperthermic response should be r...

  18. Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.

    PubMed

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümüş, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application.

  19. The cardiopulmonary effects of physical restraint in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Carolyn; Taslaq, Samer; Kon, Onn Min; Henry, John

    2005-06-01

    Police officers commonly encounter violent individuals in their line of duty, with the use of physical restraint sometimes being necessary. A major criticism of previous studies of the effect of restraint on cardiac and pulmonary function has been that they have only recruited young healthy adults. This study aims to assess the cardiopulmonary effects of restraint positioning in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Eight patients with stable COPD were recruited. Subjects were randomly allocated to the following five positions: Wrist restraint behind the body whilst seated; wrist restraint in front of the body whilst seated; lying prone with wrists restrained behind back; lying prone with arms free; lying supine with wrists restrained in front. The outcomes measures studied were pulmonary function at 10 min. There was no significant difference in FEV1 or FVC between groups, (one way ANOVA p=0.94 and 0.99, respectively). The difference in FEV1 between the seated position and seated position with wrists restrained behind the back were also compared (p=0.8) as was the effect of wrist restraint in the prone position compared to no restraint prone (p=0.69). However, three subjects could not tolerate the prone position due to a clinical deterioration in symptoms. The response to the prone position with or without wrist restraint appears highly individual, with some individuals tolerating the prone position with no measurable clinical effects and others suffering a clinical deterioration in symptoms. The reasons for this individual variation remain unclear.

  20. [Physical and pharmacological restraints in geriatric and gerontology services and centers].

    PubMed

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; López Trigo, José Antonio; Maíllo Pedraz, Herminio; Paz Rubio, José María

    2015-01-01

    Physical and pharmacological restraints are a controversial issue in the context of geriatric care due to their moral, ethical, social and legal repercussions and, despite this fact, no specific legislation exists at a national level. The use of restraints is being questioned with growing frequency, as there are studies that demonstrate that restraints do not reduce the number of falls or their consequences, but rather can increase them, cause complications, injuries and potentially fatal accidents. Restraints are not always used rationally, despite compromising a fundamental human right, that is, freedom, protected in the Constitution, as well as values and principles, such as dignity and personal self-esteem. There are centers where restraints are applied to more than 50% of patients, and in some cases without the consent of their legal representatives. On some occasions, restraints are used for attaining organizational or environmental objectives, such as complying with tight schedules, and for reducing or avoiding the supervision of patients who walk erratically and, at times, are used indefinitely. Even greater confusion exists with respect to the emerging concept of chemical or pharmacological restraints, since no conceptual framework exists based on scientific evidence, and with sufficient consensus for guiding healthcare workers. In this context, the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG--Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society), aware of the significance and transcendence of the issue, and in an attempt to preserve and guarantee maximum freedom, dignity and self-esteem, on the one hand, and to ensure the maximum integrity and legal certainty of the persons cared for in geriatric and gerontology services and centers, on the other, decided to create an "Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraints" made up by members from different disciplines and members of SEGG Working Groups or Committees, external health care workers, groups

  1. Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods

    PubMed Central

    Laurin, Danielle; Voyer, Philippe; Verreault, René; Durand, Pierre J

    2004-01-01

    Background In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a) reported by nursing staff and b) reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation. Methods We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills. Results Compared to direct observation (gold standard), reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84). When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54). Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints. Conclusions The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing staff is a more reliable

  2. Investigating the Impact of School Administrator's on the Frequency of Physical Restraint in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, Richard; Larwin, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of a physical restraint is to control the behavior of a student. It can involve physically holding a person immobile against his or her will to using chemical or mechanical devices to control a person. This study was designed to contribute to the paucity of existing research literature in regards to a school administrator's impact on…

  3. Mindful Staff Can Reduce the Use of Physical Restraints when Providing Care to Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Adkins, Angela D.; Singh, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Background: The use of physical restraints has generated immense controversy in the delivery of services to individuals with intellectual disabilities. The current "zeitgeist" is that effective positive approaches obviate the need for using physical restraints. In a multiple baseline design, we sought to assess how training staff members in…

  4. [Effectiveness of training interventions aimed at reducing physical restraints in institutionalised older people: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Briones-Peralta, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz

    There is some controversy about the use of physical restraints in institutionalised elderly people. The aim of this review is to analyse studies that evaluated the effectiveness of training interventions targeting interdisciplinary teams aimed at preventing, reducing or eliminating the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. A systematic search was performed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science to find clinical trials, published in English or in Spanish, that examined training sessions for interdisciplinary teams aimed at preventing, minimising or eliminating the use of physical restrains in institutionalised people over 65 years. Ten papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The findings show conflicting results on the effectiveness of training sessions. Furthermore, they lack sufficient empirical evidence to be able to assert that training sessions brought about a reduction in the use of physical restraints. More studies are needed that analyse the effectiveness of these interventions to prevent or eliminate the use of physical restraints in these institutions.

  5. Service Users' Views of Physical Restraint Procedures in Secure Settings for People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

    2007-01-01

    The appropriateness and justification of physical restraint procedures in secure learning disability settings is an emotive issue. This paper examines the views of service users (n = 10) from secure residential facilities who are restrained frequently. Using a semi-structured interview schedule, Service users were interviewed about their restraint…

  6. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT ON THE LIMITS OF THERMOREGULATION IN TELEMETERED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical restraint of rodents is needed for nose-only exposure to airborne toxicants and is also used as a means ofpsychological stress. Hyperthermia is often observed in restrained rats, presumably as a result of impairments in heat dissipation. However, such a hyperthermic resp...

  7. Physical restraint and the protection of the human rights of immigration detainees in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Hilary; Norton, Emma; Ginn, Emma; Schleicher, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Immigration detainees, like prisoners, are entitled to the same standard of healthcare as non-detained patients. When hospital attendance or admission is required, the priority for custodial staff (who for purposes of this article we refer to as 'escorts') is to prevent absconding. For that reason, they may wish to use physical restraints, such as handcuffs, and remain with the detainee at all times. This can be degrading for the patient and breach their human rights. Clinicians have professional obligations to all their patients and must object to any restraint methods that risk damaging the patient's right to confidentiality, treatment, health or the therapeutic relationship itself. The starting presumption is that restraints ought not to be used during treatment and only in the most exceptional cases ought escorts to be present during clinical examination or treatment.

  8. Protective Therapies for Monomethylhydrazine: Comparison of Pyridoxine and Physical Restraint in the Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    convulsive doses of 1 , 1 - dimethylhydrazine on somatic evoked responses in the cat. Exp. Neurol 27:213-226. 8. Goff, W. R., Allison, T., Matsumiya, Y...Sterman, M. B. and Fairchild, M. D. September 1967, Effects of 1 ., 1 - dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) on evoked cerebral neuroelectric responses, AMRL-TR-67...AMRL-TR-79- 1 0 PROTECTIVE THERAPIES FOR MONOMETHYLHYDRAZINE: COMPARISON OF PYRIDOXINE AND PHYSICAL RESTRAINT IN THE MONKEY M. B. STERMAN, Ph.D. S. J

  9. A review of the scientific literature related to the adverse impact of physical restraint: gaining a clearer understanding of the physiological factors involved in cases of restraint-related death.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Richard; Stirling, Chris; Pandyan, Anand D

    2012-07-01

    Deaths occurring during and/or in close proximity to physical restraint have been attributed to positional asphyxia, a conclusion primarily based on opinion and reviews of case studies. This review sought to identify the current scientific evidence available in regard to the aetiology of adverse events or death occurring during or in close proximity to physical restraint. A systematic search of electronic databases (SPORTDiscus, AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO) for papers published in English, between 1980 and 2011, using keywords that related to restraint, restraint position and cardiovascular function resulted in 11 experimental papers being found for review. The term positional asphyxia as a mechanism for sudden death is poorly understood. The literature shows that restraint position has the ability to impede life-maintaining physiological functions, but that the imposed impediment is not uniform across all restraint positions/techniques. Further research is required to ascertain the risks posed by struggling during restraint for more prolonged periods of time and in different positions using varied techniques of restraint. This research should seek to and rank known or future risk factors of adverse events occurring during restraint, seeking to understand the interactions and if present the cumulative effect of these risk factors. Finally, future research should focus on populations other than apparently healthy male adults.

  10. Nurses using physical restraints: Are the accused also the victims? – A study using focus group interviews

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Claudia KY

    2007-01-01

    Background To date, the literature has provided an abundance of evidence on the adverse outcomes of restraint use on patients. Reportedly, nurses are often the personnel who initiate restraint use and attribute its use to ensuring the safety of the restrained and the others. A clinical trial using staff education and administrative input as the key components of a restraint reduction program was conducted in a rehabilitation setting to examine whether there were any significant differences in the prevalence of restraint use pre- and post-intervention. Subsequent to the implementation of the intervention program, focus group interviews were conducted to determine the perspective of the nursing staff on the use of restraints and their opinions of appropriate means to reduce their use. Method Registered nurses working in units involved in the study were invited to participate in focus group interviews on a voluntary basis. Twenty-two registered nurses (three males [13.6%] and nineteen females [86.4%]) attended the four sessions. All interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Other than the author, another member of the project team validated the findings from the data analysis. Results Four themes were identified. Participants experienced internal conflicts when applying physical restraints and were ambivalent about their use, but they would use restraints nonetheless, mainly to prevent falls and injuries to patients. They felt that nurse staffing was inadequate and that they were doing the best they could. They experienced pressure from the management level and would have liked better support. Communication among the various stakeholders was a problem. Each party may have a different notion about what constitutes a restraint and how it can be safely used, adding further weight to the burden shouldered by staff. Conclusion Studies about restraints and restraint use have mostly focused on nurses' inadequate and often inaccurate knowledge about the use of

  11. Effects of physical restraint and electrical stunning on plasma corticosterone, postmortem metabolism, and quality of broiler breast muscle.

    PubMed

    Huang, J C; Huang, M; Wang, P; Zhao, L; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H; Sun, J X

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physical restraint and electrical stunning on plasma corticosterone, postmortem metabolism, and quality of broiler breast muscle. Before slaughter, a total of 160 Arbor Acres broilers were randomly categorized into 2 replicate pens (80 broilers per pen) and every pen was randomly divided into 4 groups (free struggle, physical restraint, free struggle and electrical stunning, and physical restraint and electrical stunning; n=20 per group). Glucose, lactate, and corticosterone were determined on blood plasma samples. Pectoralis major were removed after evisceration and used for determination of meat quality, energy metabolism, and calpain activity. In this study, reducing free struggle by physical restraint combined with electrical stunning improved (P<0.05) meat water holding capacity. Free struggle preslaughter and during bleeding increased (P<0.05) breast muscle redness, energy metabolism, and autolysis of μ/m-calpain and decreased (P<0.05) meat shear values. Physical restraint and electrical stunning decreased (P<0.05) plasma corticosterone level.

  12. Developing School Policies and Procedures for Physical Restraint and Seclusion in Nebraska Schools. A Technical Assistance Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Reece L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information and guidance for Nebraska School districts in creating new, or revising existing policies and procedures related to the use of physical restraint and seclusion in school settings. The goal is to create policies that are informed by national policy directions, research, good practice and…

  13. Comparison of biochemical stress indicators in juvenile captive estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) following physical restraint or chemical restraint by midazolam injection.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Annabelle; Phalen, David

    2013-07-01

    Using a prospective, randomized study design we demonstrate that midazolam sedation minimizes acidosis compared with physical restraint in captive juvenile estuarine crocodiles during handling or noninvasive procedures at preferred body temperature. A dose of midazolam (5.0 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly into the forelimb of 20 male estuarine crocodiles weighing 2-3.5 kg. Their heart and respiratory rate and degree of sedation were monitored until recovery and then daily for 7 subsequent days. Blood samples were taken at 30, 60, 90, 180, and 360 min. We recorded lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), hematocrit, glucose, and blood pH. A second group (1.9-2.6 kg) was physically restrained for 5 min and the same parameters recorded. Physically restrained animals demonstrated elevated heart rate, respiratory rate, glucose, lactate, and anion gap compared with the midazolam-treated group. Physically restrained animals had lower pH, bicarbonate, and partial pressure of CO2 compared with the midazolam-treated group. Behavior in the physically restrained group in the days following the study was disrupted, with reluctance to feed and bask, compared with midazolam-treated animals whose behavior was normal. We conclude that midazolam administered in the forelimb of captive estuarine crocodiles of 2-3.5 kg provides predictable onset and duration of sedation enabling physical examination, sample collection, and translocation of the animals with minimal disturbance to lactate, pH, and CO2. Behavior following recovery appears normal.

  14. Ethics and praxis: alternative strategies to physical restraint and seclusion in a psychiatric setting.

    PubMed

    Taxis, J Carole

    2002-03-01

    This descriptive article highlights a 42-month project in which a comprehensive program revision was implemented in a psychiatric hospital that included numerous alternative strategies to the use of patient restraint and seclusion. The results of this project include a 94% reduction in the rate of restraint and seclusion, development of extensive staff and patient education programs, and comprehensive programmatic alterations consistent with a paradigm shift emphasizing collaboration, empowerment, and ethical clinical practice.

  15. Positive effects of resistance training in frail elderly patients with dementia after long-term physical restraint.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Moneo, Ana B Bays; Mensat, Marta Martinez; Muñoz, Andrea Rozas; Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of a multicomponent exercise intervention on muscle strength, incidence of falls and functional outcomes in frail elderly patients with dementia after long-term physical restraint, followed by 24 weeks of training cessation. Eighteen frail elderly patients with mild dementia (88.1 ± 5.1 years) performed a multicomponent exercise program, which consisted of 4 weeks of walking, balance and cognitive exercises, followed by 4 weeks of resistance exercise performed twice weekly [8-12 repetitions at 20-50 % of the one-repetition maximum (1RM)], combined with walking, balance and cognitive exercises. Before and after training, as well as after 24 weeks of training cessation, strength outcomes, Barthel Index, balance, gait ability, rise from a chair ability, dual task performance, incidence of falls and Mini-Mental State Examination were assessed. After the first 4 weeks of training, there was a significant improvement only in the balance test, whereas no additional changes were observed. However, after the second part of the training, the participants required significantly less time for the time-up-and-go test (P < 0.05), and improved the isometric hand grip, hip flexion and knee extension strength, as well as the leg press 1RM (P < 0.01). A significant reduction was also observed in the incidence of falls (P < 0.01). After 24 weeks of training cessation, abrupt decreases were observed in nearly all of the physical outcomes (P < 0.05). The exercise intervention improved strength, balance and gait ability in frail elderly patients with dementia after long-term physical restraint, and these benefits were lost after training cessation.

  16. Physical exercise and acute restraint stress differentially modulate hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts and epigenetic mechanisms in mice.

    PubMed

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Musazzi, Laura; Popoli, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Physical exercise and stressful experiences have been shown to exert opposite effects on behavioral functions and brain plasticity, partly by involving the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Although epigenetic modifications are known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of the different BDNF transcripts, it is poorly understood whether epigenetic mechanisms are also implied in the BDNF modulation induced by physical exercise and stress. Here, we show that total BDNF mRNA levels and BDNF transcripts 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 were reduced immediately after acute restraint stress (RS) in the hippocampus of mice, and returned to control levels 24 h after the stress session. On the contrary, exercise increased BDNF mRNA expression and counteracted the stress-induced decrease of BDNF transcripts. Physical exercise-induced up-regulation of BDNF transcripts was accounted for by increase in histone H3 acetylated levels at specific BDNF promoters, whereas the histone H3 trimethylated lysine 27 and dimethylated lysine 9 levels were unaffected. Acute RS did not change the levels of acetylated and methylated histone H3 at the BDNF promoters. Furthermore, we found that physical exercise and RS were able to differentially modulate the histone deacetylases mRNA levels. Finally, we report that a single treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors, prior to acute stress exposure, prevented the down-regulation of total BDNF and BDNF transcripts 1, 2, 3, and 6, partially reproducing the effect of physical exercise. Overall, these results suggest that physical exercise and stress are able to differentially modulate the expression of BDNF transcripts by possible different epigenetic mechanisms.

  17. Consumption of molecular hydrogen prevents the stress-induced impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks during chronic physical restraint in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Kazufumi; Nakashima-Kamimura, Naomi; Mikami, Toshio; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohta, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    We have reported that hydrogen (H(2)) acts as an efficient antioxidant by gaseous rapid diffusion. When water saturated with hydrogen (hydrogen water) was placed into the stomach of a rat, hydrogen was detected at several microM level in blood. Because hydrogen gas is unsuitable for continuous consumption, we investigated using mice whether drinking hydrogen water ad libitum, instead of inhaling hydrogen gas, prevents cognitive impairment by reducing oxidative stress. Chronic physical restraint stress to mice enhanced levels of oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, in the brain, and impaired learning and memory, as judged by three different methods: passive avoidance learning, object recognition task, and the Morris water maze. Consumption of hydrogen water ad libitum throughout the whole period suppressed the increase in the oxidative stress markers and prevented cognitive impairment, as judged by all three methods, whereas hydrogen water did not improve cognitive ability when no stress was provided. Neural proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was suppressed by restraint stress, as observed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and Ki-67 immunostaining, proliferation markers. The consumption of hydrogen water ameliorated the reduced proliferation although the mechanistic link between the hydrogen-dependent changes in neurogenesis and cognitive impairments remains unclear. Thus, continuous consumption of hydrogen water reduces oxidative stress in the brain, and prevents the stress-induced decline in learning and memory caused by chronic physical restraint. Hydrogen water may be applicable for preventive use in cognitive or other neuronal disorders.

  18. Mental Illness and the Use of Restraints in Nursing Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lynda C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used data from 441 new nursing home residents to examine physical restraint use in high and low restraint use homes. Predictors of restraint use during first month and first year were inability to transfer and combination of severe activities of daily living impairment and cognitive impairment. Other predictors: wandering, inability to dress,…

  19. Impact of a Videoconference Educational Intervention on Physical Restraint and Antipsychotic Use in Nursing Homes: Results From the ECHO-AGE Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Stephen E.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Monti, Sara M.; Mattison, Melissa L.P.; Catic, Angela G.; Thomas, Cindy P.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives US nursing homes care for increasing numbers of residents with dementia and associated behavioral problems. They often lack access to specialized clinical expertise relevant to managing these problems. Project ECHO-AGE provides this expertise through videoconference sessions between frontline nursing home staff and clinical experts at an academic medical center. We hypothesized that ECHO-AGE would result in less use of physical and chemical restraints and other quality improvements in participating facilities. Design A 2:1 matched-cohort study comparing quality of care outcomes between ECHO-AGE facilities and matched controls for the period July 2012 to December 2013. Setting Eleven nursing homes in Massachusetts and Maine. Participants Nursing home staff and a hospital-based team of geriatrician, geropsychiatrist, and neurologist discussed anonymized residents with dementia. Intervention Biweekly online video case discussions and brief didactic sessions focused on the management of dementia and behavior disorders. Measurements The primary outcome variables were percentage of residents receiving antipsychotic medications and the percentage of residents who were physically restrained. Secondary outcomes included 9 other quality of care metrics from MDS 3.0. Results Residents in ECHO-AGE facilities were 75% less likely to be physically restrained compared with residents in control facilities over the 18-month intervention period (OR = 0.25, P = .05). Residents in ECHO-AGE facilities were 17% less likely to be prescribed antipsychotic medication compared with residents in control facilities (OR = 0.83, P = .07). Other outcomes were not significantly different. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that participation in Project ECHO-AGE reduces rates of physical restraint use and may reduce rates of antipsychotic use among long-term nursing home residents. PMID:27161317

  20. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  1. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  2. Full body restraint system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Susan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A body restraint system (30) allows the user's body (10) to be in the zero gravity neutral posture. The system (30) includes a waist restraint (32) in the form of a curved, padded unit (34) containing a retractable belt (36) coiled on a spring loaded capstan (38) with a buckle (40) extending from front (42) of the unit (34). A second belt (44) is fastened around the user's waist (16). A clasp (46) is configured to engage the buckle (40). The waist restraint (32) is positioned near foot restraints (52). The foot restraints (52) have foot platforms (59) with pads (60) of a suitable two part attaching material, such as the fasteners available from Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company under the trademark Scotchmate Duallock. A mating pad (62) of the material is provided on soles (64) of cotton net shoes (66).

  3. [Restraint in paediatric care].

    PubMed

    Estrade, Marie; Tessier-Levêque, Mélanie; Wanquet-Thibault, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Restraint in general, and particularly when giving paediatric care, is a sensitive subject. This practice continues to appear often as a solution when children are disorientated or struggle during care. However, it is generally traumatic for the different care agents: the child, the parent and the care-giver. Reflection on this subject has been carried out after exchanges with professionals about the use of restraint with children aged 2-4 during paediatric emergency care.

  4. Rapid Assessment of the Effects of Restraint on Self-Injury and Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michele D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Zhou, Liming; Goff, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of restraint on occurrences of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and adaptive responses exhibited by two individuals with profound mental retardation across eight response-effort conditions with varying degrees of physical restraint. Analysis identified a restraint level for each individual that reduced SIB but did not…

  5. Occupant restraint use in Canada.

    PubMed

    Boase, Paul; Jonah, Brian A; Dawson, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Legislation regarding seat belt use in Canada is a provincial/territorial responsibility. Each of the 13 jurisdictions has enacted legislation and set the penalties regarding non-use of seat belts and appropriate child restraint systems. The federal government regulates occupant restraint systems and child restraints. In addition, Transport Canada (TC) gathers annual survey data on the use of seat belts and child restraints on Canadian roads and provides research support. National coordination toward the Canadian Road Safety Vision 2010 goal of a 40% reduction in fatalities and serious injuries related to non-belt/child restraint use and a 95% restraint usage rate is provided by the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators' (CCMTA) National Occupant Restraint Program (NORP). The paper examines the history of legislation, provincial/territorial penalties, NORP, and TC involvement in promoting the use of occupant restraints.

  6. Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

  7. Component restraint system

    DOEpatents

    Blake, John C.

    1983-05-24

    An object restraint system is provided with a collar for gripping the object and a plurality of struts attached to the collar and to anchor means by universal-type joints, the struts being arranged in tangential relation about the collar.

  8. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint

  9. Phenomenology of Self-Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Murphy, Glynis; Hall, Scott; Arron, Kate; Leggett, Janice

    2003-01-01

    A study of 88 British individuals with developmental disabilities and self-injurious behavior found self-restraint was more prevalent in the group not wearing protective devices than in those wearing protective devices. Individuals not wearing protective devices showed a greater number of topographies of self-restraint than those who did wear…

  10. Psychiatric Patients Experiences with Mechanical Restraints: An Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Lanthén, Klas; Rask, Mikael; Sunnqvist, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine psychiatric patients' experience of mechanical restraints and to describe the care the patients received. Background. All around the world, threats and violence perpetrated by patients in psychiatric emergency inpatient units are quite common and are a prevalent factor concerning the application of mechanical restraints, although psychiatric patients' experiences of mechanical restraints are still moderately unknown. Method. A qualitative design with an inductive approach were used, based on interviews with patients who once been in restraints. Results. This study resulted in an overbridging theme: Physical Presence, Instruction and Composed Behaviour Can Reduce Discontent and Trauma, including five categories. These findings implicated the following: information must be given in a calm and sensitive way, staff must be physically present during the whole procedure, and debriefing after the incident must be conducted. Conclusions. When mechanical restraints were unavoidable, the presence of committed staff during mechanical restraint was important, demonstrating the significance of training acute psychiatric nurses correctly so that their presence is meaningful. Nurses in acute psychiatric settings should be required to be genuinely committed, aware of their actions, and fully present in coercive situations where patients are vulnerable. PMID:26199931

  11. Restraint Theory: The Search for a Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Michael R.

    A review of research indicates that cognitive restraint is insufficient in accounting for the relationship between restraint and negative affect eating. To explore what mechanism may be responsible for restraint effects, college students in two samples (Total N=378) completed the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TEQ), a restraint scale…

  12. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Restraint systems. (a) Restraint systems (seat belts) will be worn by all operators and passengers of U.S... ensuring the use of seat belts, shoulder restraints, and child restraining systems when applicable and may... for ensuring that their seat belts/shoulder restraints are used when applicable and may be cited...

  13. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 636.34 Restraint systems. (a) Restraint systems (seat belts) will be worn by all operators and... vehicle is responsible for ensuring the use of seat belts, shoulder restraints, and child restraining... age of 16) are responsible for ensuring that their seat belts/shoulder restraints are used...

  14. Surgical Instrument Restraint in Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Dawson, David L.; Melton, Shannon; Hooker, Dona; Cantu, Hilda

    2000-01-01

    Performing a surgical procedure during spaceflight will become more likely with longer duration missions in the near future. Minimal surgical capability has been present on previous missions as the definitive medical care time was short and the likelihood of surgical events too low to justify surgical hardware availability. Early demonstrations of surgical procedures in the weightlessness of parabolic flight indicated the need for careful logistical planning and restraint of surgical hardware. The consideration of human ergonomics also has more impact in weightlessness than in the conventionall-g environment. Three methods of surgical instrument restraint - a Minor Surgical Kit (MSK), a Surgical Restraint Scrub Suit (SRSS), and a Surgical Tray (ST) were evaluated in parabolic flight surgical procedures. The Minor Surgical Kit was easily stored, easily deployed, and demonstrated the best ability to facilitate a surgical procedure in weightlessness. Important factors in this surgical restraint system include excellent organization of supplies, ability to maintain sterility, accessibility while providing secure restraint, ability to dispose of sharp items and biological trash, and ergonomical efficiency.

  15. Reduction of restraint of people with intellectual disabilities: an organizational behavior management (OBM) approach.

    PubMed

    Williams, Don E; Grossett, Deborah L

    2011-01-01

    We used an organizational behavior management (OBM) approach to increase behavior intervention plans and decrease the use of mechanical restraint. First, recipients were tracked as a member of the priority group if they engaged in frequent self-injurious behavior or physical aggression toward others and/or if they had been placed in mechanical restraint as a result of the problem behaviors. Second, a behavior data monitoring and feedback system was put in place. Third, organizational contingencies for the use of mechanical restraint or the occurrence of frequent self-injurious behavior or physical aggression toward others were initiated. Over the course of 17 months, behavior intervention plans were more than doubled to 124 and mechanical restraints decreased by almost 80%. This study represents the first to use an organizational behavior management (OBM) to reduce restraint with people who have intellectual disabilities.

  16. 77 FR 11625 - Child Restraint Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 571 and 572 Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year.... SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for child restraint systems to... systems heretofore not regulated by a safety standard, i.e., child restraints manufactured for...

  17. [Deaths due to mechanical restraint in institutions for care].

    PubMed

    Mohsenian, C; Verhoff, M A; Risse, M; Heinemann, A; Püschel, K

    2003-08-01

    The state of confusion in patients with severe disorientation and brain damage symptoms presents particular problems in gerontologic psychiatry. Six fatalities at different institutions due to improperly employed physical restraint and deficient surveillance are described. The causes of death involved strangulation which was accidentally caused by patients who become stuck between bedrails and mattress or who were fixed in an abdominal restraint belt or in a special protective blanket (mostly used for serious pre-conditions). The reconstruction of the scene of death was based in almost all the cases on the autopsy findings. We assume a considerable number of unreported emergency or fatal cases. The legal, psychiatric and nursing-related issues are discussed in this paper. Furthermore the precise documentation of the on-site appearance of the situation at discovery of death is called for. The indication for physical restraint should be limited as far as possible. Further studies in nursing homes and hospitals should focus on structural conditions with respect to the frequency of physical restraint in order to optimize the protection by quality standards.

  18. Restraint stress and social defeat: What they have in common.

    PubMed

    Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.

  19. A national abhorrence of physical restraint.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Dawne

    2008-07-24

    Publications such as those from the RCN and the CSCI, together with media scrutiny and the increased involvement of the legal system, are highlighting what has been a long-standing issue for many health and social care staff. The difficulties still facing staff are that every situation is unique and staff members are themselves individuals.

  20. Sullivan and Ride Show Sleep Restraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Kathryn D. Sullivan, left, and Sally K. Ride display a 'bag of worms.' The 'bag' is a sleep restraint and the majority of the 'worms' are springs and clips used with the sleep restraint in its normal application. Clamps, a bungee cord and velcro strips are other recognizable items in the 'bag.'

  1. The Effects of an Action Plan, Staff Training, Management Support and Monitoring on Restraint Use and Costs of Work-Related Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dignity and respect are at the foundation of good care and effective treatment planning and are guiding service principles. The use of physical restraints is contrary to treatment with dignity and respect. Because of the numerous risks to clients and employees associated with the use of physical restraints, an innovative plan was…

  2. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  3. Dietary restraint and cognitive performance in children.

    PubMed

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Davison, Claire J; Mitchell, Gemma L

    2005-12-01

    Adults who attempt to restrict their dietary intake also tend to perform worse on a range of cognitive tasks. However, the extent to which this finding generalises to children has remained unclear. Following studies involving adults, we asked 44 girls (mean age = 10.1 years) to complete a simple reaction-time task and the Tower of London task. This group was selected from a local community school in the East Midlands (UK). Dietary restraint was measured using a version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire that had been adapted for use by children. Our results indicate that children with high restraint scores have longer reaction times and they also tend to perform worse on the TOL task. Other aspects of our data also suggest the dietary restraint may be correlated negatively with a measure of academic ability. We discuss reasons why restraint and performance might be related causally and we conclude that this issue warrants further scrutiny.

  4. Coercive Restraint Therapies: A Dangerous Alternative Mental Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Physicians caring for adopted or foster children should be aware of the use of coercive restraint therapy (CRT) practices by parents and mental health practitioners. CRT is defined as a mental health intervention involving physical restraint and is used in adoptive or foster families with the intention of increasing emotional attachment to parents. Coercive restraint therapy parenting (CRTP) is a set of child care practices adjuvant to CRT. CRT and CRTP have been associated with child deaths and poor growth. Examination of the CRT literature shows a conflict with accepted practice, an unusual theoretic basis, and an absence of empirical support. Nevertheless, CRT appears to be increasing in popularity. This article discusses possible reasons for the increase, and offers suggestions for professional responses to the CRT problem. Introduction The term coercive restraint therapy (CRT) describes a category of alternative mental health interventions that are generally directed at adopted or foster children, that are claimed to cause alterations in emotional attachment, and that employ physically intrusive techniques. Other names for such treatments are attachment therapy, corrective attachment therapy, dyadic synchronous bonding, holding therapy, rage reduction therapy, and Z-therapy. CRT may be carried out by practitioners trained in extracurricular workshops, or such practitioners may instruct parents who perform all or part of the treatment. CRT practices involve the use of restraint as a tool of treatment rather than simply as a safety device. While restraining the child, CRT practitioners may also exert physical pressure in the form of tickling or intense prodding of the torso, grab the child's face, and command the child to kick the legs rhythmically. Some CRT practitioners lie prone with their body weight on the child, a practice they call compression therapy. Most practitioners restrain the child in a supine position, but some

  5. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  6. Does Brief Bradycardia at the Onset of Arm-Restraint Predict Infants' Emotional Reactivity during Restraint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christin L.; Jones, Blake L.

    2011-01-01

    Using electrocardiogram data with 78 six-month-old infants, this study examined the presence or absence of brief orienting bradycardia during the onset of maternal arm-restraint and subsequent differences between infants on behavioral organization during restraint. Results showed that 45 of the infants exhibited brief episodes of bradycardia at…

  7. Special Purpose Crew Restraints for Teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina; Norris, Lena

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and long duration space missions being planned for the moon and Mars, humans will be living and working in microgravity over increasingly long periods of time. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility, and access to the activity area. These challenges can result in prolonged periods of unnatural postures for the crew, ultimately causing pain, injury, and loss of productivity. Determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment is crucial to mission success. While a number of general purpose restraints have been used on ISS (handrails, foot loops), experience has shown that these general purpose restraints may not be optimal, or even acceptable for some tasks that have unique requirements. For example, some onboard activities require extreme stability (e.g., glovebox microsurgery), and others involve the use of arm, torso and foot movements in order to perform the task (e-g. robotic teleoperation); standard restraint systems will not work in these situations. The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (WAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center began evaluations of crew restraints for these special situations by looking at NASAs Robonaut. Developed by the Robot Systems Technology Branch, Robonaut is a humanoid robot that can be remotely operated through a tetepresence control system by an operator. It was designed to perform work in hazardous environments (e.g., Extra Vehicular Activities). A Robonaut restraint was designed, modeled for the population, and ultimately tested onboard the KC-135 microgravity aircraft. While in microgravity, participants were asked to get in and out of the restraint from different locations, perform maximum reach exercises, and finally to teleoperate Robonaut while in the restraint. The sessions were videotaped

  8. Restraint Procedures and Challenging Behaviours in Intellectual Disability: An Analysis of Causative Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disability often evince challenging behaviours. Efforts have been underway for some time to develop prosocial or positive skill acquisition treatments to address challenging behaviours. However, physical/mechanical and chemical restraint is still commonly used in many clinical and community settings. Such…

  9. Reduction of Restraint of People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Don E.; Grossett, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    We used an organizational behavior management (OBM) approach to increase behavior intervention plans and decrease the use of mechanical restraint. First, recipients were tracked as a member of the priority group if they engaged in frequent self-injurious behavior or physical aggression toward others and/or if they had been placed in mechanical…

  10. The Relationship between Seclusion and Restraint Use and Childhood Abuse among Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Joseph H.; Springer, Justin; Beck, Niels C.; Menditto, Anthony; Coleman, James

    2011-01-01

    Seclusion and restraint (S/R) is a controversial topic in the field of psychiatry, due in part to the high rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse found among psychiatric inpatients. The trauma-informed care perspective suggests that the use of S/R with previously abused inpatients may result in retraumatization due to mental associations…

  11. Retrain, Don't Restrain: The Educational Intervention of the National Nursing Home Restraint Removal Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Joan M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an educational program that contributed to a 90% reduction in the use of physical restraints in nursing homes over a two-year period. Program consists of a workshop, telephone and on-site consultations, regional meetings, and other support materials. Surveys suggest that the project can be easily adapted by care providers. (RJM)

  12. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal... Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice'' and (2) a draft companion document entitled, ``NIJ...

  13. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  14. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  15. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  16. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  17. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  18. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples.

  19. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  20. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  1. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  2. Evaluation of the Tennessee Child Restraint Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    This paper reports on a study of the effects of a Tennessee law aimed at increasing the protection of children in cars. The law, which came into force January 1, 1978, requires parents to use child restraints properly when transporting their children who are less than 4 years old. Alternatively, the law permits children to be held in arms, a…

  3. 21 CFR 880.6760 - Protective restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protective restraint. 880.6760 Section 880.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6760 - Protective restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protective restraint. 880.6760 Section 880.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use...

  5. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF... medication used to control behavior or to restrict the participant's freedom of movement and is not...

  6. Restraint collars. Part I: Elizabethan collars and other types of restraint collars.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cyndi

    2006-02-01

    Restraint collars can provide an investigator with a noninvasive means to prevent certain undesirable behaviors and provide a clinician with a nonpharmaceutical method to prevent an animal from inflicting self-injury; without proper use and monitoring, however, these collars can do more harm than good. This first part of our look at restraint collars introduces collar types and proper use. Next month's installment will review specific issues associated with the use of different types of collars for different species.

  7. PDBStat: a universal restraint converter and restraint analysis software package for protein NMR.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Roberto; Snyder, David; Mao, Binchen; Aramini, James M; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2013-08-01

    The heterogeneous array of software tools used in the process of protein NMR structure determination presents organizational challenges in the structure determination and validation processes, and creates a learning curve that limits the broader use of protein NMR in biology. These challenges, including accurate use of data in different data formats required by software carrying out similar tasks, continue to confound the efforts of novices and experts alike. These important issues need to be addressed robustly in order to standardize protein NMR structure determination and validation. PDBStat is a C/C++ computer program originally developed as a universal coordinate and protein NMR restraint converter. Its primary function is to provide a user-friendly tool for interconverting between protein coordinate and protein NMR restraint data formats. It also provides an integrated set of computational methods for protein NMR restraint analysis and structure quality assessment, relabeling of prochiral atoms with correct IUPAC names, as well as multiple methods for analysis of the consistency of atomic positions indicated by their convergence across a protein NMR ensemble. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the PDBStat software, and highlight some of its valuable computational capabilities. As an example, we demonstrate the use of the PDBStat restraint converter for restrained CS-Rosetta structure generation calculations, and compare the resulting protein NMR structure models with those generated from the same NMR restraint data using more traditional structure determination methods. These results demonstrate the value of a universal restraint converter in allowing the use of multiple structure generation methods with the same restraint data for consensus analysis of protein NMR structures and the underlying restraint data.

  8. Practice parameter for the prevention and management of aggressive behavior in child and adolescent psychiatric institutions, with special reference to seclusion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Masters, Kim J; Bellonci, Christopher; Bernet, William; Arnold, Valerie; Beitchman, Joseph; Benson, R Scott; Bukstein, Oscar; Kinlan, Joan; McClellan, Jon; Rue, David; Shaw, Jon A; Stock, Saundra

    2002-02-01

    This parameter reviews the current state of the prevention and management of child and adolescent aggressive behavior in psychiatric institutions, with particular reference to the indications and use of seclusion and restraint. It also presents guidelines that have been developed in response to professional, regulatory, and public concern about the use of restrictive interventions with aggressive patients with regard to personal safety and patient rights. The literature on the use of seclusion, physical restraint, mechanical restraint, and chemical restraint is reviewed, and procedures for carrying out each of these interventions are described. Clinical and regulatory agency perspectives on these interventions are presented. Effectiveness, indications, contraindications, complications, and adverse effects of seclusion and restraint procedures are addressed. Interventions are presented to provide more opportunities to promote patient independence and satisfaction with treatment while diminishing the necessity of using restrictive procedures.

  9. Summary of the practice parameter for the prevention and management of aggressive behavior in child and adolescent psychiatric institutions with special reference to seclusion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Masters, K J; Bellonci, C; Bernet, W; Arnold, V; Beitchman, J; Benson, S; Bukstein, O; Kinlan, J; McClellan, J; Rue, D; Shaw, J A; Stock, S; Kroeger, K

    2001-11-01

    This parameter reviews the current state of the prevention and management of child and adolescent aggressive behavior in psychiatric institutions, with particular reference to the indications and use of seclusion and restraint. It also presents guidelines that have been developed in response to professional, regulatory, and public concern about the use of restrictive interventions with aggressive patients with regard to personal safety and patient rights. The literature on the use of seclusion, physical restraint, mechanical restraint, and chemical restraint is reviewed, and procedures for carrying out each of these interventions are described. Clinical and regulatory agency perspectives on these interventions are presented. Effectiveness, indications, contraindications, complications, and adverse effects of seclusion and restraint procedures are addressed. Interventions are presented to provide more opportunities to promote patient independence and satisfaction with treatment while diminishing the necessity of using restrictive procedures.

  10. Reenactment of circumstances in deaths related to restraint.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Ronald L

    2004-09-01

    Reenactment of the circumstances in deaths associated with restraint, utilizing participants and witnesses while memories are fresh, may help death investigators more accurately determine the cause of death. Two recent deaths in Ventura County that occurred during restraint are discussed. Within a day of the autopsies the restrainers agreed to participate in reenactments of the restraint process, utilizing live volunteers as subjects. They allowed videotaping. Deaths associated with restraint often have nonspecific autopsy findings. Timely reenactment of the circumstances of deaths associated with restraint can help death investigators more accurately determine the probable cause of death in these difficult cases.

  11. Feasibility of an anticipatory noncontact precrash restraint actuation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The problem of providing an electronic warning of an impending crash to a precrash restraint system a fraction of a second before physical contact differs from more widely explored problems, such as providing several seconds of crash warning to a driver. One approach to precrash restraint sensing is to apply anticipatory system theory. This consists of nested simplified models of the system to be controlled and of the system`s environment. It requires sensory information to describe the ``current state`` of the system and the environment. The models use the sensory data to make a faster-than-real-time prediction about the near future. Anticipation theory is well founded but rarely used. A major problem is to extract real-time current-state information from inexpensive sensors. Providing current-state information to the nested models is the weakest element of the system. Therefore, sensors and real-time processing of sensor signals command the most attention in an assessment of system feasibility. This paper describes problem definition, potential ``showstoppers,`` and ways to overcome them. It includes experiments showing that inexpensive radar is a practical sensing element. It considers fast and inexpensive algorithms to extract information from sensor data.

  12. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nahata, M; Saegusa, Y; Sadakane, C; Yamada, C; Nakagawa, K; Okubo, N; Ohnishi, S; Hattori, T; Sakamoto, N; Takeda, H

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical or psychological stress causes functional disorders in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to elucidate the ameliorating effect of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine which acts as a ghrelin enhancer, on gastric dysfunction during acute restraint stress in mice. Methods Fasted and postprandial motor function of the gastric antrum was wirelessly measured using a strain gauge force transducer and solid gastric emptying was detected in mice exposed to restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone and ghrelin levels were also measured. To clarify the role of ghrelin on gastrointestinal dysfunction in mice exposed to stress, exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito was administered, then the mice were subjected to restraint stress. Key Results Mice exposed to restraint stress for 60 min exhibited delayed gastric emptying and increased plasma corticosterone levels. Gastric motility was decreased in mice exposed to restraint stress in both fasting and postprandial states. Restraint stress did not cause any change in plasma acylated ghrelin levels, but it significantly increased the plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels. Administration of acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito improved the restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying and decreased antral motility. Ameliorating effects of rikkunshito on stress-induced gastric dysfunction were abolished by simultaneous administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Conclusions & Inferences Plasma acylated/des-acyl ghrelin imbalance was observed in acute restraint stress. Supplementation of exogenous acylated ghrelin or enhancement of endogenous ghrelin signaling may be useful in the treatment of decreased gastric function caused by stress. PMID:24684160

  13. Toward development of effective custom child restraint systems in motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen; Rigby, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Traveling safely in motor vehicles can be challenging for many families who have young children with physical disabilities. Harnesses, simple adaptations, and special child restraint systems are available, but sometimes these devices do not adequately meet the unique postural support requirements of children with complex seating needs. Faced with no alternative, parents may choose to use the custom seating system from a wheeled mobility device to support their children in the family car. Transporting children in this way can increase the risk of motor vehicle-related injury because custom seating systems are not designed to meet the requirements of federal motor vehicle safety regulations. We studied whether assistive technology suppliers could build custom child restraint systems that met the crashworthiness requirements of a safety standard for production child restraint systems. We provided technical instructions to 10 suppliers from different parts of North America so they could each build a custom restraint system using a transit frame that we designed. This approach allowed suppliers to make custom seats that could be attached to the transit frame using special connection hardware. We crash tested the 10 custom child restraint systems to evaluate the effectiveness of our transit frame design and fabrication instructions. Six custom restraint systems met the dynamic performance requirements of the stringent Canada Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213.3. The remaining four systems did not meet the compliance criteria due to the failure of postural belt assemblies or seat securement hardware. We recommend that future research include similar effectiveness studies to support the introduction of technical requirements for adaptive seating systems that improve occupant safety and are practical for wheelchair users, their families, and assistive technology professionals to implement.

  14. Restraint stress in biobehavioral research: Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Buynitsky, Tatyana; Mostofsky, David I

    2009-07-01

    In the 15 years since the publication of two previous reviews on restraint stress much advancement has been made in the field. However, while previous reviews have focused mainly on drug effects, recent research has focused on broader implications in the health fields. This research has placed an increased emphasis on stress effects in physiological, immunological, endocrine and developmental processes as well as the impact of stress on numerous disorders. A major problem with our review was the inability to identify a large number of articles focusing on restraint and immobilization, since those keywords were often omitted from the title or not referred to within the body of the article. It seems likely that additional reviews with extended literature research of this field are required.

  15. Weight control and restraint of laboratory rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Van Breda Kolff, K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of restrained and confined rats in some procedures used in combustion toxicology introduces the problems of obtaining rats of the appropriate size for the apparatus, and of identifying any artifacts resulting from the use of restraint alone. Feeding studies indicate that controlled feeding of fast-growing strains such as the Sprague-Dawley can hold rat size essentially constant for significant periods of time. The undesirable aspects are the need to cage the animals individually, with resultant psychological as well as metabolic effects. Restraint studies of slow-growing strains such as the Fischer 344 indicate that denying access to food and water for periods of several hours at a time interrupts normal gain only temporarily.

  16. Investigation of Crew Restraint System Biomechanics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    46FAMRL-TR-81 -103 SINVESTIGATION OF CREW RESTRAINT SYSTEM BIOMECHANICS NORMWAN S. PHILLIPS ROBERT A. THOMSON IRA B. FISCUS UNIVERSITY OF DA YTON RESEARCH...Escape System Biomechanics 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and identify by block number) .Experimental data were collected and...properties and harness characteristics were included in the model. The analytical model was also used with biomechanical data for the rhesus monkey

  17. Measurement of Dietary Restraint: Validity Tests of Four Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Martin, Corby K.; York-Crowe, Emily; Anton, Stephen D.; Redman, Leanne M.; Han, Hongmei; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the validity of four measures of dietary restraint: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Inventory (EI), Revised Restraint Scale (RS), and the Current Dieting Questionnaire. Dietary restraint has been implicated as a determinant of overeating and binge eating. Conflicting findings have been attributed to different methods for measuring dietary restraint. The validity of four self-report measures of dietary restraint and dieting behavior was tested using: 1) factor analysis, 2) changes in dietary restraint in a randomized controlled trial of different methods to achieve calorie restriction, and 3) correlation of changes in dietary restraint with an objective measure of energy balance, calculated from the changes in fat mass and fat-free mass over a six-month dietary intervention. Scores from all four questionnaires, measured at baseline, formed a dietary restraint factor, but the RS also loaded on a binge eating factor. Based on change scores, the EI Restraint scale was the only measure that correlated significantly with energy balance expressed as a percentage of energy require d for weight maintenance. These findings suggest that that, of the four questionnaires tested, the EI Restraint scale was the most valid measure of the intent to diet and actual caloric restriction. PMID:17101191

  18. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  19. End effector with astronaut foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The combination of a foot restraint platform designed primarily for use by an astronaut being rigidly and permanently attached to an end effector which is suitable for attachment to the manipulator arm of a remote manipulating system is described. The foot restraint platform is attached by a brace to the end effector at a location away from the grappling interface of the end effector. The platform comprises a support plate provided with a pair of stirrups for receiving the toe portion of an astronaut's boots when standing on the platform and a pair of heel retainers in the form of raised members which are fixed to the surface of the platform and located to provide abutment surfaces for abutting engagement with the heels of the astronaut's boots when his toes are in the stirrups. The heel retainers preclude a backward sliding movement of the feet on the platform and instead require a lifting of the heels in order to extract the feet. The brace for attaching the foot restraint platform to the end effector may include a pivot or swivel joint to permit various orientations of the platform with respect to the end effector.

  20. Chronic Restraint Stress Upregulates Erythropoiesis through Glucocorticoid Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Voorhees, Jeffrey L.; Powell, Nicole D.; Moldovan, Leni; Mo, Xiaokui; Eubank, Timothy D.; Marsh, Clay B.

    2013-01-01

    In response to elevated glucocorticoid levels, erythroid progenitors rapidly expand to produce large numbers of young erythrocytes. Previous work demonstrates hematopoietic changes in rodents exposed to various physical and psychological stressors, however, the effects of chronic psychological stress on erythropoiesis has not be delineated. We employed laboratory, clinical and genomic analyses of a murine model of chronic restraint stress (RST) to examine the influence of psychological stress on erythropoiesis. Mice exposed to RST demonstrated markers of early erythroid expansion involving the glucocorticoid receptor. In addition, these RST-exposed mice had increased numbers of circulating reticulocytes and increased erythropoiesis in primary and secondary erythroid tissues. Mice also showed increases in erythroid progenitor populations and elevated expression of the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 in these cells. Together this work reports some of the first evidence of psychological stress affecting erythroid homeostasis through glucocorticoid stimulation. PMID:24205034

  1. An assessment of injury to European badgers (meles meles) due to capture in stopped restraints.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Denise; O'Keeffe, James J; Martin, S Wayne; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A L

    2009-04-01

    As part of ongoing culling operations, European badgers (Meles meles) were captured using stopped restraints in winter (October to December 2005) and summer (May to June 2006) in the Republic of Ireland. A subset of these badgers, those caught during four consecutive nights, was examined postmortem to determine the frequency and severity of physical injuries resulting from capture in the restraints. The skin and the tissues underlying the restraint of 343 badgers were assessed for injury by visual examination. There was an absence of skin damage or only minor skin abrasions in 88% of badgers; an absence of subcutaneous tissue injury or only localized subcutaneous tissue injury in 69%; and an absence of muscle injury or only slight muscle bruising in 99% of badgers. Only 2% of badgers had cuts to the skin and 5.5% had extensive subcutaneous edema, whereas 1.2% had areas of hemorrhage and tearing of the underlying muscle. Our results show that the majority of badgers examined sustained minimal injuries attributable to capture in stopped restraints.

  2. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  3. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  4. Measuring Dietary Restraint Status: Comparisons between the Dietary Intent Scale and the Restraint Scale

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Jessica A.; Gleaves, David H.; Kuijer, Roeline G.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of young women’s self-reported dietary restraint status is complex. Compared to Herman and Polivy’s commonly utilized Restraint Scale (RS), Stice’s Dietary Intent Scale (DIS) is less understood. Because the DIS is becoming a popular research tool, it is important to understand how this scale compares to more traditional measures of restraint. We conducted two correlational studies (Study 1 N = 110; Study 2 N = 216) to ascertain the similarities and the differences between the DIS and – as a comparison measure – the well-researched RS. We explored how the two scales were related to several body image variables (e.g., thin-ideal internalization); with a range of self-regulatory variables (e.g., dispositional self-control); with observed food intake during a taste test; and with 18-month weight change (Study 2 only). Participants were female University students and were not selected for dieting or disordered eating. Unlike RS scores, DIS scores were not significantly correlated with the majority of variables tapping into unsuccessful self-regulation. However, our data also highlighted similarities between the two restraint scales (e.g., association with 18-month weight-loss) and demonstrated that not only were participants’ DIS scores un-related to unsuccessful self-regulatory variables, neither were they related to the variables tapping into successful self-regulation. PMID:25988136

  5. Restraint system design and evaluation for military specific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwaczynski, Sebastian

    This research focuses on designing an optimal restraint system for usage in a military vehicle applications. The designed restraint system must accommodate a wide range of DHM's and ATD's with and without PPE such as: helmet, boots, and body armor. The evaluation of the restraint systems were conducted in a simulated vehicle environment, which was utilized to downselect the ideal restraint system for this program. In December of 2011 the OCP TECD program was formulated to increase occupant protection. To do this, 3D computer models were created to accommodate the entire Soldier population in the Army. These models included the entire PPE, which were later utilized for space claim activities and for designing new seats and restraints, which would accommodate them. Additionally, guidelines to increase protection levels while providing optimal comfort to the Soldier were created. The current and emerging threats were evaluated and focused on at the time of the program inception. Throughout this program various activities were conducted for restraint downselection including Soldier evaluations of various restraint system configurations. The Soldiers were given an opportunity to evaluate each system in a representative seat, which allowed them to position themselves in a manner consistent with the mission requirements. Systems ranged from fully automated to manual adjustment type systems. An evaluation of each particular system was conducted and analyzed against the other systems. It was discovered that the restraint systems, which utilize retractors allowed for automatic webbing stowage and allowed for easier access and repeatability when donning and doffing the restraint. It was also found that when an aid was introduced to help the Soldier don the restraint, it was more likely that such system would be utilized. Restraints were evaluated in drop tower experiments in addition to actual blast tests. An evaluation with this amount of detail had not been attempted

  6. Restraint, Detainment, and Seclusion of Students in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Deidra Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how the courts have addressed the restraint, detainment, and seclusion of students in public schools. The study includes an analysis of 100 court cases on the topic of restraint, detainment, and seclusion of students in public schools, which occurred in state and federal jurisdictions, from 1977 to 2012. Cases were examined…

  7. 76 FR 10637 - Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT... restraint system (``child safety seat'') that fits their vehicle. Under the program, NHTSA will make... safety seats, technically referred to as child restraint systems (CRS) by Federal Motor Vehicle...

  8. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gage restraint measurement systems. 213.110... measurement systems. (a) A track owner may elect to implement a Gage Restraint Measurement System (GRMS... correlation between measurements made on the ground and those recorded by the instrumentation with respect...

  9. Is Restraint a Model of Binge Eating and Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Michael R.; And Others

    Restraint theory assumes that restrained eating is functionally equivalent to dieting and that "restraint" accounts for the eating behavior of overweight individuals. This study evaluated both of these assumptions. In the first part of the study, normal weight women were divided into groups of unrestrained nondieters, restrained…

  10. Dietary restraint moderates genetic risk for binge eating.

    PubMed

    Racine, Sarah E; Burt, S Alexandra; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Klump, Kelly L

    2011-02-01

    Dietary restraint is a prospective risk factor for the development of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Although many women engage in dietary restraint, relatively few develop binge eating. Dietary restraint may increase susceptibility for binge eating only in individuals who are at genetic risk. Specifically, dietary restraint may be a behavioral exposure factor that activates genetic predispositions for binge eating. We investigated this possibility in 1,678 young adolescent and adult same-sex female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study and the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Twin moderation models were used to examine whether levels of dietary restraint moderate genetic and environmental influences on binge eating. Results indicated that genetic and nonshared environmental factors for binge eating increased at higher levels of dietary restraint. These effects were present after controlling for age, body mass index, and genetic and environmental overlap among dietary restraint and binge eating. Results suggest that dietary restraint may be most important for individuals at genetic risk for binge eating and that the combination of these factors could enhance individual differences in risk for binge eating.

  11. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gage restraint measurement systems. 213.110... measurement systems. (a) A track owner may elect to implement a Gage Restraint Measurement System (GRMS... correlation between measurements made on the ground and those recorded by the instrumentation with respect...

  12. Restraint Use in Residential Programs: Why Are Best Practices Ignored?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Janice; Huckshorn, Kevin Ann; Caldwell, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Several states and providers have embarked on initiatives to reduce using restraint and seclusion in residential programs. Restraint and seclusion are associated with harm to youth and staff, significant costs, reduced quality of care, and less engagement of youth and families. Successful reduction/prevention strategies have been identified,…

  13. Astronauts Sullivan and Ride show sleep restraint equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Kathryn D. Sullivan, left, and Sally K. Ride display a 'bag of worms'. The 'bag' is a sleep restraint and the majority of the 'worms' are springs and clips used with the sleep restraint in its normal application. Clamps, a bungee cord and velcro strips are other recognizable items in the 'bag'.

  14. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section shall be achieved by verification testing of the coupler vertical restraint system in accordance... be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except as... section; (2) The testing apparatus shall simulate the vertical coupler performance at the mating...

  15. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section shall be achieved by verification testing of the coupler vertical restraint system in accordance... be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except as... section; (2) The testing apparatus shall simulate the vertical coupler performance at the mating...

  16. Mechanical and pharmacological restraints in acute psychiatric wards--why and how are they used?

    PubMed

    Knutzen, Maria; Bjørkly, Stål; Eidhammer, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Steinar; Helen Mjøsund, Nina; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Sandvik, Leiv; Friis, Svein

    2013-08-30

    Restraint use has been reported to be common in acute psychiatry, but empirical research is scarce concerning why and how restraints are used. This study analysed data from patients' first episodes of restraint in three acute psychiatric wards during a 2-year study period. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors for type and duration of restraint. The distribution of restraint categories for the 371 restrained patients was as follows: mechanical restraint, 47.2%; mechanical and pharmacological restraint together, 35.3%; and pharmacological restraint, 17.5%. The most commonly reported reason for restraint was assault (occurred or imminent). It increased the likelihood of resulting in concomitant pharmacological restraint. Female patients had shorter duration of mechanical restraint than men. Age above 49 and female gender increased the likelihood of pharmacological versus mechanical restraint, whereas being restrained due to assault weakened this association. Episodes with mechanical restraint and coinciding pharmacological restraint lasted longer than mechanical restraint used separately, and were less common among patients with a personality disorder. Diagnoses, age and reason for restraint independently increased the likelihood for being subjected to specific types of restraint. Female gender predicted type of restraint and duration of episodes.

  17. Effects of restraint on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzabata, Hassina; Multon, Stephane; Sellier, Alain; Houari, Hacene

    2012-07-15

    Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) is a chemical reaction that causes expansion in civil engineering structures. The safety level of such damaged structures has to be reassessed. To do this, the mechanical conditions acting on DEF expansions have to be analysed and, in particular, the variation of strength with expansion and the effect of restraint on the DEF expansion. This paper highlights several points: DEF expansion is isotropic in stress-free conditions, compressive stresses decrease DEF expansion in the direction subjected to restraint and lead to cracks parallel to the restraint, and expansion measured in the stress-free direction of restrained specimens is not modified. Thus restraint causes a decrease of the volumetric expansion and DEF expansion under restraint is anisotropic. Moreover, the paper examines the correlation between DEF expansion and concrete damage, providing data that can be used for the quantification of the effect of stresses on DEF induced expansion.

  18. Acute restraint stress produces behavioral despair in weanling rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Morales, Blandina; Contreras, Carlos M; Cueto-Escobedo, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Stressful experiences in the rat during early life increase the vulnerability to later signs of behavioral despair in adulthood, reflected in increased immobility in the forced swim test (FST). However, the possible immediate effects of stress in weanling rats have only been partially described. The present study tested whether a single session of mild restraint stress modifies immobility in the FST in 21-day-old Wistar rats. After evaluating any possible changes in locomotion using the open field test (OFT), the latency and total duration of immobility were assessed in a single FST session. Regardless of gender, mild restraint stress significantly reduced crossings in the OFT, shortened the latency to the first period of immobility, and increased immobility in the FST compared with a control group devoid of stress. We conclude that a single mild physical stress session, as early as postnatal day 21, produces signs of behavioral despair.

  19. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction.

  20. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction.

  1. An editor for the generation and customization of geometry restraints

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Adams, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical restraints for use in macromolecular structure refinement are produced by a variety of methods, including a number of programs that use chemical information to generate the required bond, angle, dihedral, chiral and planar restraints. These programs help to automate the process and therefore minimize the errors that could otherwise occur if it were performed manually. Furthermore, restraint-dictionary generation programs can incorporate chemical and other prior knowledge to provide reasonable choices of types and values. However, the use of restraints to define the geometry of a molecule is an approximation introduced with efficiency in mind. The representation of a bond as a parabolic function is a convenience and does not reflect the true variability in even the simplest of molecules. Another complicating factor is the interplay of the molecule with other parts of the macromolecular model. Finally, difficult situations arise from molecules with rare or unusual moieties that may not have their conformational space fully explored. These factors give rise to the need for an interactive editor for WYSIWYG interactions with the restraints and molecule. Restraints Editor, Especially Ligands (REEL) is a graphical user interface for simple and error-free editing along with additional features to provide greater control of the restraint dictionaries in macromolecular refinement. PMID:28177308

  2. On the Function of Self-Restraint and Its Relationship to Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the functional relationship between self-injurious behavior (SIB) and self-restraint in people with severe disabilities considers SIB and self-restraint as members of the same functional response class, SIB and self-restraint as functionally independent responses, access to self-restraint as positive reinforcement of SIB, termination…

  3. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Domènec J; Bellés, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L; Gómez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, José L

    2006-12-07

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited.

  4. Characteristics of psychiatric hospitalizations with multiple mechanical restraint episodes versus hospitalization with a single mechanical restraint episode.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Parra, Jose; Guzik, Justyna; Garcia-Sanchez, Juan A; Pino-Benitez, Isabel; Aguilera-Serrano, Carlos; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermin

    2016-10-30

    We investigated the characteristics of multiple episodes of mechanical restraint versus a single episode in a psychiatric ward of a public general hospital. The following characteristics were associated with multiple restraints: young age, length of hospital stay, not being readmitted within 30 days from previous discharge, and admission in the previous year before the implementation of an intervention program to reduce mechanical restraint. The study suggests that both organizational factors and patients' disturbed behaviour are associated with the risk of being mechanically restrained several times.

  5. Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups

    DOE PAGES

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; ...

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they canmore » be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.« less

  6. Pilot Overmyer completes hygiene activities / demostrates IVA foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Overmyer, drying his face with a towel from forward single tray personal item stowage locker, completes personal hygiene activities (shaving) and demostrates use of intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraint on floor.

  7. Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they can be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.

  8. Pilot Hartsfield in sleep restraint tethered to forward middeck lockers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Hartsfield demonstrates the sleeping accomodations onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The sleep restraint is located in the middeck area of the spacecraft and is tethered to forward middeck lockers.

  9. Justifying a presumption of restraint in animal biotechnology research.

    PubMed

    Fiester, Autumn

    2008-06-01

    Articulating the public's widespread unease about animal biotechnology has not been easy, and the first attempts have not been able to provide an effective tool for navigating the moral permissibility of this research. Because these moral intuitions have been difficult to cash out, they have been belittled as representing nothing more than fear or confusion. But there are sound philosophical reasons supporting the public's opposition to animal biotechnology and these arguments justify a default position of resistance I call the Presumption of Restraint. The Presumption of Restraint constitutes a justificatory process that sets out the criteria for permitting or rejecting individual biotechnology projects. This Presumption of Restraint can be overridden by compelling arguments that speak to a project's moral and scientific merit. This strategy creates a middle-of-the-road stance that can embrace particular projects, while rejecting others. The Presumption of Restraint can also serve as a model for assessing moral permissibility in other areas of technological innovation.

  10. Self-restraint as positive reinforcement for self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed

    Smith, R G; Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A

    1996-01-01

    Many individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) also exhibit self-restraint. We compared rates of SIB exhibited by a 32-year-old woman diagnosed with profound retardation across conditions in which access to restraint was (a) continuously available, (b) presented as a consequence for SIB, or (c) unavailable. Rates of SIB increased when access to restraint was contingent upon SIB and decreased when restraint was unavailable, suggesting that self-restraint functioned as positive reinforcement for SIB.

  11. ACES (Advanced Concept Ejection Seat) II Negative Gz Restraint Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    used to establish the safety of the selected test conditions. Details of the testing process , and results and analysis are described in Chapters V...simplify the data reduction process , an attempt was made to deal primarily with a relatively small number of discrete measurements made during each test For...After the three inversions the restraint configuration was changed (by the subject), and the process repeated. The final restraint system was tested

  12. Airbags & children: making correct choices in child passenger restraints.

    PubMed

    Kamerling, Susan Nudelman

    2002-01-01

    Countless numbers of young lives are lost each year due to motor vehicle crashes. One of the most effective means of reducing the number of children killed and injured as occupants in motor vehicles is through the use of child passenger restraints. Seat belts and child safety seats save lives and reduce the severity of injuries sustained by occupants in motor vehicle crashes. Nurses are in a unique position to educate and influence families on the proper way to safely transport all motor vehicle passengers. Therefore, nurses working with infants, children, and families have a moral and professional obligation to understand the basics of child passenger safety. At the very least, nurses should be able to direct families appropriately for specifics related to child passenger restraints. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of child passenger safety through a historical, theoretical, and clinical approach. Proper child restraint use is reviewed based on current recommendations for age and size. The potential hazards of child restraint misuse, with an in-depth discussion on airbags, is presented. The discussion on airbags serves to dispel any misconceptions that may be held about airbags. The article includes two case studies that illustrate the injury potential of relatively common misuse patterns. The clinical implications for maternal-child nurses include the recognition that child passenger deaths are primarily due to child restraint nonuse and misuse and the realization of nursing's role in the promotion of proper child passenger restraint.

  13. Ergonomic Evaluation of the Foot Restraint Equipment Device (FRED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cindy; Qazi, A. S.; Mount, Francis

    1999-01-01

    Within the scope of the Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluation project, funded by the NASA Headquarters Life Sciences Division, evaluations were proposed to be conducted in ground, KC-135, and/or Shuttle environments to investigate the human factors engineering (HFE) issues concerning confined/unique workstations, including crew restraint requirements. As part of these evaluations, KC-135 flights were conducted to investigate user/ workstation/ restraint integration for microgravity use of the FRED with the RMS workstation. This evaluation was a pre-cursor to Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) - 904 on STS-88. On that mission, a small-statured astronaut will be using the FRED restraint while working at the Aft RMS workstation. The DSO will collect video for later posture analyses, as well as subjective data in the form of an electronic questionnaire. This report describes the current FRED KC-135 evaluations. The primary objectives were to evaluate the usability of the FRED and to verify the DSO in-flight setup. The restraint interface evaluation consisted of four basic areas of restraint use: 1) adjustability; 2) general usability and comfort; 3) usability at the RMS workstation; and 4) assembly and disassembly.

  14. Restraints and occupant kinematics in vehicular rollovers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Steven E; Herbst, Brian; Forrest, Stephen; Syson, Stephen R; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

    2002-01-01

    Occupant kinematics and the potential for injury in vehicular rollover crashes are dramatically affected by various restraint system characteristics. This study reviews previous research that utilized various methodologies and test fixtures to evaluate restrained occupant motions, primarily in the vertical direction, during both inverted and quasi-static simulated rollover environments. Additional laboratory tests were conducted in order to understand the static and dynamic excursion of restrained humans and surrogates in typical production motor vehicles under inverted circumstances. These tests indicated that volunteer occupants restrained within a complete vehicle by typical production 3 point seat belts will move vertically towards the vehicle roof structure by approximately 50-150 mm in production vehicles, depending on occupant size and belt configuration, when inverted and subjected to a static 1 g acceleration. Dynamic inverted vehicle drop testing in 3-point belt production vehicles, resulting in 4 to 11 g impacts, resulted in surrogates moving only about an additional 23 to 55 mm beyond the static inverted 1 g excursions.

  15. Restraint stress delays endometrial adaptive remodeling during mouse embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanhui; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2015-01-01

    In mice, previously, we showed that restraint stress reduces the number of embryo implantation sites in the endometrium. Here, we hypothesized that the uterine microenvironment is altered by restraint stress and consequently is suboptimal for embryo implantation. On embryonic day 1 (E1), 60 of 154 pregnant CD1 mice underwent restraint stress (4 h), repeated daily to E3, E5 or E7 (n = 10 mice per group). Restraint stress decreased food intake and suppressed body weight gain on E3, E5 and E7. Restraint stress decreased the actual and relative weight (percent body weight) of uterus and ovary on E5 (by 14.9%, p = 0.03; 16.1%, p = 0.004) and E7 (by 16.8%, p = 0.03; 20.0%, p = 0.01). Morphologically, restraint stress decreased relative endometrial area (by 8.94-18.8%, p = 0.003-0.021) and uterine gland area (by 30.6%, p < 0.01 on E3 and 44.5%, p < 0.01 on E5). Immunohistochemistry showed that restraint stress decreased microvessel density (by 12.9-70.5%, p < 0.01) and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (by 14.6-45.9%, p = 0.007-0.02). Restraint stress decreased by 32.4-39.8% (p = 0.002-0.01) the mean optical density ratio for proliferating cell nuclear antigen/terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay showed a dose-dependent decrease in proliferative activity of endometrial stromal cells (from 52 of 154 pregnant E5 control mice) incubated with H2O2 (100-1000 μM) in vitro. These findings supported the hypothesis that restraint stress negatively influences endometrial adaptive remodeling via an oxidative stress pathway, which resulted in fewer implantation sites.

  16. Exhaustive enumeration of protein conformations using experimental restraints.

    PubMed Central

    DeWitte, R. S.; Michnick, S. W.; Shakhnovich, E. I.

    1995-01-01

    We present an efficient new algorithm that enumerates all possible conformations of a protein that satisfy a given set of distance restraints. Rapid growth of all possible self-avoiding conformations on the diamond lattice provides construction of alpha-carbon representations of a protein fold. We investigated the dependence of the number of conformations on pairwise distance restraints for the proteins crambin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, and ubiquitin. Knowledge of between one and two contacts per monomer is shown to be sufficient to restrict the number of candidate structures to approximately 1,000 conformations. Pairwise RMS deviations of atomic position comparisons between pairs of these 1,000 structures revealed that these conformations can be grouped into about 25 families of structures. These results suggest a new approach to assessing alternative protein folds given a very limited number of distance restraints. Such restraints are available from several experimental techniques such as NMR, NOESY, energy transfer fluorescence spectroscopy, and crosslinking experiments. This work focuses on exhaustive enumeration of protein structures with emphasis on the possible use of NOESY-determined distance restraints. PMID:8528076

  17. Mental health: use and abuse of control and restraint.

    PubMed

    Tarbuck, P

    The recent report of the inquiry into complaints at Ashworth Hospital (1) recommended that control and restraint techniques, used to contain violent conduct, should be used as a last resort, 'and should be subject to careful scrutiny to determine system failures'. This article, which points out that nurses in many areas are victims of increased levels of violence, defines control and restraint techniques, who should use them and in which situations their use may be sanctioned. The author concludes that although preservation of the patient's rights and dignity is paramount, nurses who have undergone control and restraint training are more confident practitioners when they are confronted with violent situations. In a second article next month, Tarbuck will look at issues of ethics and the human rights of patients.

  18. Restriction on Restraints in the Care for People with Intellectual Disabilities in the Netherlands: Lessons Learned from Australia, UK, and United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romijn, Anita; Frederiks, Brenda J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, physical/mechanical restraints in the care provided to people with intellectual disabilities are still in use, with the case of "Brandon" being a recent and illustrative example. The public debate that this case triggered raised questions concerning the policy proposal in the Care and Coercion Bill ("Wetsvoorstel…

  19. Dynamics of column stability with partial end restraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Peyton B.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of columns with partial end restraints and loads consisting of a dead load and a pulsating load are investigated. The differential equation is solved using a lumped impulse recurrence formula relative to time coupled with a finite difference discretization along the member length. A computer program is written from which the first critical frequencies are found as a function of end stiffness. The case of a pinned ended column compares very well with the exact solution. Also, the natural frequency and buckling load formulas are derived for equal and unequal end restraints.

  20. Analgesia and chemical restraint for the emergent veterinary patient.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Doris H

    2008-11-01

    Frequently, analgesics are withheld in the emergent patient based on common misconceptions. Concerns expressed are that analgesics "mask" physiologic indicators of patient deterioration or that potential toxicity and adverse reactions associated with drug administration outweigh the benefits gained. Appropriate selection of drugs and doses as described in this article allow the veterinarian to achieve analgesia, in addition to sedation or restraint when needed, without unwarranted fears. Guidelines are provided for typical situations encountered in trauma patients to provide a safe starting point for providing analgesia. Caution required in these cases is also discussed, with emphasis on individualization of the approach to analgesia and chemical restraint.

  1. Commentary: seclusion and restraint in corrections a time for change.

    PubMed

    Champion, Michael K

    2007-01-01

    Seclusion and restraint are essential interventions in the acute psychiatric care of patients in correctional environments. When administered and monitored properly, they are safe and effective in reducing the risk of harm. However, correctional systems have not developed uniform practices that are consistent with current community standards. There has been no clear national standard of care for the use of seclusion and restraint in correctional mental health care. The need for a national standard of care is discussed, and sources for developing a standard of care are reviewed. The Resource Document produced by the American Psychiatric Association is presented as a significant step toward establishing a national standard of care.

  2. Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, S.L.; Trenchard, R.G.

    1990-02-01

    Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effect of habituation on the susceptibility of the rat to restraint ulcers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1980-01-01

    The frequency and gravity of restraint ulcers were found to significantly diminish in rats previously exposed to brief periods of immobilization. The rats' becoming habituated to restraint conditions probably explains this phenomenon.

  4. Functional Analysis of Self-Injurious Behavior and Its Relation to Self-Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooker, Griffin W.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Some individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) also exhibit self-restraint. In the present study, a series of three functional analyses were conducted to determine the variables that maintained a participant's SIB, one without restraint items available, one with a preferred and effective form of self-restraint (an airplane pillow)…

  5. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. S1. Scope. This...) The statement: “This child restraint system conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems....

  6. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. S1. Scope. This...) The statement: “This child restraint system conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems....

  7. The Effects of Non-Contingent Self-Restraint on Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerth, Denise Marzullo; Progar, Patrick R.; Morales, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Self-restraint is a pervasive phenomenon among individuals who engage in self-injurious behaviour (SIB). Materials and Methods: The present study examined the use of clothing as a socially acceptable alternative to self-restraint to reduce SIB and other topographies of self-restraint in an adolescent diagnosed with autism. Two separate…

  8. Restraint Use Legislation: Its Prospects for Increasing the Protection of Children in Cars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    Young children and infants are especially vulnerable to serious injury in auto collisions because so few of them are protected by restraints or because legally required restraint devices are improperly used. Seat belt use laws tend to exclude children and child restraint legislation which exists includes gaps and shortcomings that limit its…

  9. A Theoretical Analysis of Potential Extinction Properties of Behavior-Specific Manual Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio; Thomas, Melvin; Martin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper will examine possible extinction properties of behavior-specific manual restraint. It will analyze the possibility of extinction being produced via restraint with respect to the target behavior's possible environmental functions. The theoretical analysis will involve the analysis of behavioral properties of restraint during two temporal…

  10. 76 FR 16472 - Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems... Car Assessment Program, to help caregivers find a child restraint system (``child safety seat'') that... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues related to the Vehicle-Child Restraint System (CRS)...

  11. Effects of prenatal exposure to WIFI Signal (2.45GHz) on postnatal development and behavior in rat: Influence of maternal restraint.

    PubMed

    Othman, Haifa; Ammari, Mohamed; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2017-03-10

    The present study was carried out to investigate the potential combined influence of maternal restraint stress (and 2.45GHz WiFi signal exposure on postnatal development and behavior in the offspring of exposed rats. 24 pregnant albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Control, WiFi-exposed, restrained and both WiFi-exposed and restrained groups. Each of WiFi exposure and restraint occurred 2h/day along gestation till parturition. The pups were evaluated for physical development and neuromotor maturation. Moreover, elevated plus maze test, open field activity and stationary beam test were also determined on postnatal days 28, 30 and 31, respectively. After behavioral tests, the rats were anesthetized and their brains were removed for biochemical analysis. Our main findings showed no detrimental effects on gestation progress and outcomes at delivery in all groups. Subsequently, WiFi and restraint, per se and mainly in concert altered physical development of pups with slight differences between genders. Behaviorally, the gestational WiFi irradiation, restraint and especially the associated treatment affected the neuromotor maturation mainly in male progeny. At adult age, we noticed anxiety, motor deficit and exploratory behavior impairment in male offspring co-exposed to WiFi radiation and restraint, and in female progeny subjected to three treatments. The biochemical investigation showed that, all three treatments produced global oxidative stress in brain of both sexes. As for serum biochemistry, phosphorus, magnesium, glucose, triglycerides and calcium levels were disrupted. Taken together, prenatal WiFi radiation and restraint, alone and combined, provoked several behavioral and biochemical impairments at both juvenile and adult age of the offspring.

  12. The Influence of Restraint Systems on Panel Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    When a panel is tested in uniaxial compression in a test machine, the boundary conditions are not quite the same as they would be if it were part of a complete structure. A restraint system may be used to simulate conditions found in a complete vehicle. Quantifying the quality of the restraint with only point-measurement devices can leave an inadequate characterization of the out-of-plane behavior. However, today s full-field displacement monitoring techniques allow for much more accurate views of the global panel deformation and strain, and therefore allow for a better understanding of panel behavior. In the current study, the behavior of a hat-stiffened and two rod-stiffened carbon-epoxy panels is considered. Panels were approximately 2 meters tall and 0.76 to 1.06 m wide. Unloaded edges were supported by knife edges and stiffeners were attached to a support structure at selected locations to restrain out-of-plane motion. A comparison is made between test results based on full-field measurements and analyses based on assumptions of boundary conditions of a completely rigid edge restraint and the absence of any edge restraint. Results indicate that motion at the restrained edges must be considered to obtain accurate test-analysis correlation.

  13. The Cost of Prior Restraint: "U. S. v. The Progressive."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloski, John; Dyer, Carolyn Stewart

    Increased litigation and rising litigation costs threaten the future of newspapers and magazines. A case study was conducted to determine the costs and effects of "United States v. 'The Progressive,'" a prior restraint case over the publication in 1979 of an article on the hydrogen bomb. "The Progressive," which operates at a…

  14. 75 FR 67233 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Head Restraints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK39 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Crashworthiness Standards, Light Duty Vehicle Division, NVS-112, (Phone: 202-366-1740). For legal issues, you may... Positions b. Leadtime for Small Vehicle Manufacturers c. Static Lockout of Active Head Restraints...

  15. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  16. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  17. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  18. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  19. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  20. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coupler vertical restraint system. 179.14 Section 179.14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  1. Impact of eLearning course on nurses' professional competence in seclusion and restraint practices: a randomized controlled study (ISRCTN32869544).

    PubMed

    Kontio, R; Lahti, M; Pitkänen, A; Joffe, G; Putkonen, H; Hätönen, H; Katajisto, J; Välimäki, M

    2011-11-01

    Education on the care of aggressive and disturbed patients is fragmentary. eLearning could ensure the quality of such education, but data on its impact on professional competence in psychiatry are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ePsychNurse.Net, an eLearning course, on psychiatric nurses' professional competence in seclusion and restraint and on their job satisfaction and general self-efficacy. In a randomized controlled study, 12 wards were randomly assigned to ePsychNurse.Net (intervention) or education as usual (control). Baseline and 3-month follow-up data on nurses' knowledge of coercion-related legislation, physical restraint and seclusion, their attitudes towards physical restraint and seclusion, job satisfaction and general self-efficacy were analysed for 158 completers. Knowledge (primary outcome) of coercion-related legislation improved in the intervention group, while knowledge of physical restraint improved and knowledge of seclusion remained unchanged in both groups. General self-efficacy improved in the intervention group also attitude to seclusion in the control group. In between-group comparison, attitudes to seclusion (one of secondary outcomes) favoured the control group. Although the ePsychNurse.Net demonstrated only slight advantages over conventional learning, it may be worth further development with, e.g. flexible time schedule and individualized content.

  2. The effect of obesity on the restraint of automobile occupants.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola

    2009-10-01

    As obesity rates increase, the protection of obese occupants will become increasingly important in vehicle and restraint design. As a first step in this effort, this study seeks to compare the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of obese post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to (approximately) 50(th) percentile adult male PMHS in frontal impact sled tests with a force-limiting, pre-tensioning restraint system. Forty-eight km/h, frontal impact sled tests were performed with a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant compartment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. The restraint system consisted of a 3-point belt with a pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter at the retractor. The test subjects were either obese PMHS or approximately 50(th) percentile adult male PMHS. Instrumentation included accelerometer packages on the spine. Deformation of the subjects' chests were measured using chestbands placed nominally at the superior-inferior locations of the 4(th) and 8(th) ribs. Tension in the restraint system was measured at the upper shoulder belt, lower shoulder belt, and the lap belt. Motion of the head, shoulder, pelvis, and knee were recorded using high-speed video. Two obese PMHS (average mass 137 kg, average stature 186 cm) and three approximately mid-sized male PMHS (average mass 68 kg, average stature 176 cm) were tested. The obese PMHS exhibited significantly greater forward motion of the head and the pelvis compared to the mid-sized PMHS. The obese PMHS also exhibited backwards torso rotation at the time of maximum forward excursion, whereas the mid-sized PMHS did not. The obese PMHS exhibited average maximum chest compressions of approximately 44% (+/- 9% standard deviation) of their initial chest depths, and exhibited 26 g (+/- 2 g) average 3 ms clip maximum chest resultant acceleration. In comparison, the mid-sized PMHS exhibited averages of 29% (+/- 9%) maximum chest compression and 35 g (+/- 4 g) maximum 3 ms clip chest acceleration. The obese PMHS exhibited

  3. The Effect of Obesity on the Restraint of Automobile Occupants

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola

    2009-01-01

    As obesity rates increase, the protection of obese occupants will become increasingly important in vehicle and restraint design. As a first step in this effort, this study seeks to compare the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of obese post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to (approximately) 50th percentile adult male PMHS in frontal impact sled tests with a force-limiting, pre-tensioning restraint system. Forty-eight km/h, frontal impact sled tests were performed with a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant compartment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. The restraint system consisted of a 3-point belt with a pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter at the retractor. The test subjects were either obese PMHS or approximately 50th percentile adult male PMHS. Instrumentation included accelerometer packages on the spine. Deformation of the subjects' chests were measured using chestbands placed nominally at the superior-inferior locations of the 4th and 8th ribs. Tension in the restraint system was measured at the upper shoulder belt, lower shoulder belt, and the lap belt. Motion of the head, shoulder, pelvis, and knee were recorded using high-speed video. Two obese PMHS (average mass 137 kg, average stature 186 cm) and three approximately mid-sized male PMHS (average mass 68 kg, average stature 176 cm) were tested. The obese PMHS exhibited significantly greater forward motion of the head and the pelvis compared to the mid-sized PMHS. The obese PMHS also exhibited backwards torso rotation at the time of maximum forward excursion, whereas the mid-sized PMHS did not. The obese PMHS exhibited average maximum chest compressions of approximately 44% (± 9% standard deviation) of their initial chest depths, and exhibited 26 g (± 2 g) average 3 ms clip maximum chest resultant acceleration. In comparison, the mid-sized PMHS exhibited averages of 29% (± 9%) maximum chest compression and 35 g (± 4 g) maximum 3 ms clip chest acceleration. The obese PMHS exhibited 7 and 2 rib

  4. Assessment of self-restraint using a functional analysis of self-injury.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Mindy; O'Connor, Julia; Toby, Lauryn M

    2015-12-01

    When self-restraint and self-injurious behavior (SIB) co-occur, self-restraint might be maintained by negative reinforcement through the removal of SIB. The current study evaluated this possibility with an individual who exhibited hand-to-head SIB. Three functional analyses of SIB were conducted: (a) no consequences for self-restraint, (b) self-restraint blocked, and (c) hypothesized aversive effects of SIB blocked. The outcomes of the 3 analyses suggested that self-restraint was maintained by negative reinforcement.

  5. Choosing Staff Members Reduces Time in Mechanical Restraint Due to Self-Injurious Behaviour and Requesting Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Craig C.; Lydersen, Tore; Johnson, Paul R.; Weiss, Shannon R.; Marconi, Michael R.; Cleave, Mary L.; Weber, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Using mechanical restraints to protect a person who engaged in dangerous self-injury was decreased by manipulation of an establishing operation involving the client choosing the staff person who would work with her. Materials and Methods: The client was a 28-year-old woman diagnosed with autism, bipolar disorder, static cerebral…

  6. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E.; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3) baseline levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in PVN and AG; and 4) 5-HT-like immunoreactivity (5-HT-LI) in AG and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein in PVN and AG. On day 15, animals were subdivided into Treatment and No treatment groups. Treatment animals received an i.p. injection of vehicle or SB-656104; No Treatment animals received no injection. Sixty min later, Treatment animals were either decapitated with no further stress (0 min) or submitted to acute restraint (10, 30, 60 or 120 min); hormone serum levels were measured. No Treatment animals were employed for the rest of measurements. CRS decreased body weight gain and increased adrenal weight. In CTRL animals, acute restraint increased ACTH and CORT secretion in a time of restraint-dependent manner; both responses were inhibited by SB-656104. Exposure to CRS abolished ACTH but magnified CORT responses to restraint as compared to CTRL conditions; SB-656104 had no effect on ACTH levels but significantly inhibited sensitized CORT responses. In CTRL animals, 5-HT7-LI was detected in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of PVN and sparsely in adrenal cortex. Exposure to CRS decreased 5-HT7-LI and protein in the PVN, but increased 5-HT7-LI in the adrenal cortex and protein in whole AG. Higher 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were detected in PVN and AG from CRS animals but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased in AG only. Finally, whereas 5-HT-LI was sparsely observed in the adrenal cortex

  7. JLigand: a graphical tool for the CCP4 template-restraint library

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Andrey A.; Young, Paul; Isupov, Michail N.; Moroz, Olga V.; Vagin, Alexey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.

    2012-04-01

    The CCP4 template-restraint library defines restraints for biopolymers, their modifications and ligands that are used in macromolecular structure refinement. JLigand is a graphical editor for generating descriptions of new ligands and covalent linkages. Biological macromolecules are polymers and therefore the restraints for macromolecular refinement can be subdivided into two sets: restraints that are applied to atoms that all belong to the same monomer and restraints that are associated with the covalent bonds between monomers. The CCP4 template-restraint library contains three types of data entries defining template restraints: descriptions of monomers and their modifications, both used for intramonomer restraints, and descriptions of links for intermonomer restraints. The library provides generic descriptions of modifications and links for protein, DNA and RNA chains, and for some post-translational modifications including glycosylation. Structure-specific template restraints can be defined in a user’s additional restraint library. Here, JLigand, a new CCP4 graphical interface to LibCheck and REFMAC that has been developed to manage the user’s library and generate new monomer entries is described, as well as new entries for links and associated modifications.

  8. Effects of dietary restraint and body mass index on the relative reinforcing value of snack food.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S; Lumb, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the independent and interactive association between dietary restraint, body mass index (BMI) and the relative reinforcing value of food. Four hundred and three introductory psychology students completed questionnaires assessing age, gender, BMI, hunger, smoking status, nicotine dependence, dietary restraint, hedonic ratings for snack food and fruits and vegetables and the relative reinforcing value of snack food and fruits and vegetables. In the overall sample, results indicated a dietary restraint x BMI interaction after controlling for age, hunger, nicotine dependence, and hedonics. However, when regression models were separated by gender, the BMI x restraint interaction emerged only for females and not for males. Findings suggest that BMI moderates the relationship between dietary restraint and snack food reinforcement in females only, such that restraint and snack food reinforcement are inversely correlated in females with lower BMI, but restraint is positively correlated with snack food reinforcement in females with higher BMI. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. 49 CFR 571.202a - Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... male occupant and the head restraint, as measured by the head restraint measurement device. Head... occupant's torso. Head restraint measurement device (HRMD) means the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE.... Whenever a range of measurements is specified, the head restraint must meet the requirement at any...

  10. Dangerous Use of Seclusion and Restraints in Schools Remains Widespread and Difficult to Remedy: A Review of Ten Cases. United States Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. Majority Committee Staff Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate (NJ1), 2014

    2014-01-01

    There is no evidence that physically restraining or putting children in unsupervised seclusion in the K-12 school system provides any educational or therapeutic benefit to a child. In fact, use of either seclusion or restraints in non-emergency situations poses significant physical and psychological danger to students. Yet the first round of data…

  11. Effects of edge restraint on slab behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guice, L.K.

    1986-02-01

    This study was performed in conjunction with a Federal Emergency Management Agency program to plan, design, and construct keyworker blast shelters which would be used in high-risk areas of the country during and after a nuclear attack. The shelters considered in this study were box-type structures in which damage is much more likely to occur in the roof slab than in the walls or floor. In this part of the program, the effect of edge restraint on slab behavior was investigated. The primary objective was to determine the effects of partial rotational restraint on slab strength, ductility, and mechanism of failure. Sixteen one-way, reinforced concrete plate elements were tested in a reaction structure under uniform static water pressure.

  12. Restraint stress alters neutrophil and macrophage phenotypes during wound healing.

    PubMed

    Tymen, Stéphanie D; Rojas, Isolde G; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Fang, Zong Juan; Zhao, Yan; Marucha, Phillip T

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies reported that stress delays wound healing, impairs bacterial clearance, and elevates the risk for opportunistic infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are responsible for the removal of bacteria present at the wound site. The appropriate recruitment and functions of these cells are necessary for efficient bacterial clearance. In our current study we found that restraint stress induced an excessive recruitment of neutrophils extending the inflammatory phase of healing, and the gene expression of neutrophil attracting chemokines MIP-2 and KC. However, restraint stress did not affect macrophage infiltration. Stress decreased the phagocytic abilities of phagocytic cells ex vivo, yet it did not affect superoxide production. The cell surface expression of adhesion molecules CD11b and TLR4 were decreased in peripheral blood monocytes in stressed mice. The phenotype of macrophages present at the wound site was also altered. Gene expression of markers of pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages, CXCL10 and CCL5, were down-regulated; as were markers associated with wound healing macrophages, CCL22, IGF-1, RELMα; and the regulatory macrophage marker, chemokine CCL1. Restraint stress also induced up-regulation of IL10 gene expression. In summary, our study has shown that restraint stress suppresses the phenotype shift of the macrophage population, as compared to the changes observed during normal wound healing, while the number of macrophages remains constant. We also observed a general suppression of chemokine gene expression. Modulation of the macrophage phenotype could provide a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of wounds under stress conditions in the clinical setting.

  13. Effects of child restraint system features on installation errors.

    PubMed

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Ebert, Sheila M; Malik, Laura A; Green, Paul A; Reed, Matthew P

    2014-03-01

    This study examined how child restraint system (CRS) features contribute to CRS installation errors. Sixteen convertible CRS, selected to include a wide range of features, were used in volunteer testing with 32 subjects. Subjects were recruited based on their education level (high or low) and experience with installing CRS (none or experienced). Each subject was asked to perform four child restraint installations in the right-rear passenger seat of a 2006 Pontiac G6 sedan using a crash dummy as a child surrogate. Each subject installed two CRS forward-facing (FF), one with LATCH and one with the vehicle seatbelt, and two CRS rear-facing (RF), one with LATCH and one with the seatbelt. After each installation, the experimenter evaluated 42 factors for each installation, such as choice of belt routing path, tightness of installation, and harness snugness. Analyses used linear mixed models to identify CRS installation outcomes associated with CRS features. LATCH connector type, LATCH strap adjustor type, and the presence of belt lockoffs were associated with the tightness of the CRS installation. The type of harness shoulder height adjuster was associated with the rate of achieving a snug harness. Correct tether use was associated with the tether storage method. In general, subject assessments of the ease-of-use of CRS features were not highly correlated with the quality of their installation, suggesting a need for feedback with incorrect installations. The data from this study provide quantitative assessments of some CRS features that were associated with reductions in CRS installation errors. These results provide child restraint designers with design guidelines for developing easier-to-use products. Research on providing effective feedback during the child restraint installation process is recommended.

  14. Development of restraint material and tucked fabric joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmullen, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate and select a suitable restraint material for the exterior of space suits pressurized to 4.0 PSID for normal operations, and to develop and improve tucked fabric joints for motions associated with the human shoulder, elbow, knee, waist, hip, ankle, and wrist. The many attributes of the end items are summarized to include structural integrity, simplicity, low maintenance, lightweight, high durability, low elongation, full range mobility, long life, and resistance to degradation in the operational environment.

  15. Validity of dietary restraint among 5- to 9-year old girls.

    PubMed

    Shunk, Jennifer A; Birch, Leann L

    2004-06-01

    Dietary restraint is defined as the cognitive tendency to restrict intake and is often accompanied by the breakdown of restraint, referred to as disinhibition, leading to overeating and overweight in adults. Given recent evidence suggesting that dietary restraint and disinhibition are emerging as early as middle childhood, this study examined the validity of the restraint construct as measured in girls between the ages of 5 and 9. Dietary restraint was assessed longitudinally by questionnaire and validity was established by correlating restraint with measures previously reported to be related to restraint including weight concerns, body esteem, self-reported dieting, and measures of dietary intake when girls were ages 5, 7, and 9. Participants were 153 girls from predominately middle class, and exclusively non-Hispanic white families living in central Pennsylvania. Correlational data were used to assess relationships between dietary restraint and weight concerns, body esteem, dietary intake, and dieting. Results from this study indicate that there is evidence for the validity of the dietary restraint construct among girls by age 9. Specifically, dietary restraint was highly and positively associated with body mass index, weight concerns and body dissatisfaction and negatively correlated with dietary intake, findings similar to those reported in the adult literature.

  16. Drinking motives, drinking restraint and drinking behaviour among young adults.

    PubMed

    Lyvers, Michael; Hasking, Penelope; Hani, Riana; Rhodes, Madolyn; Trew, Emily

    2010-02-01

    Motives to drink alcohol are widely thought to be the proximal cognitive factors involved in the decision to consume alcohol beverages. However it has also been argued that the ability to restrain drinking may be a more proximal predictor of drinking behaviour. The current study aimed to examine the relationships between drinking motives, drinking restraint and both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in a sample of young adults. A sample of 221 young adults (aged 17-34 years) completed self-report measures assessing drinking behaviour, motives for drinking and drinking restraint. Multiple regression analyses revealed that coping, enhancement and social motives were related to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, while Cognitive and Emotional Preoccupation with drinking was related to all criterion variables. Further, the relationship between coping motives and drinking behaviour was mediated by preoccupation with drinking. The results are discussed in light of the roles of drinking motives and drinking restraint in risky drinking among young people, and implications for prevention and early intervention are presented.

  17. Exploring RNA conformational space under sparse distance restraints

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, William R.; Hamilton, Russell S.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the application of a small number of restraints predicted by coevolution analysis can provide a powerful restriction on the conformational freedom of an RNA molecule. The greatest degree of restriction occurs when a contact is predicted between the distal ends of a pair of adjacent stemloops but even with this location additional flexibilities in the molecule can mask the contribution. Multiple cross-links, especially those including a pseudoknot provided the strongest restraint on conformational freedom with the effect being most apparent in topologically simple folds and less so if the fold is more topologically entwined. Little was expected for large structures (over 300 bases) and although a few strong localised restrictions were observed, they contributed little to the restraint of the overall fold. Although contacts predicted using a correlated mutation analysis can provide some powerful restrictions on the conformational freedom of RNA molecules, they are too erratic in their occurrence and distribution to provide a general approach to the problem of RNA 3D structure prediction from sequence. PMID:28281575

  18. Effects of maternal restraint stress and sodium arsenate in mice.

    PubMed

    Rasco, J F; Hood, R D

    1994-01-01

    Either maternal restraint stress or sodium arsenate treatment during pregnancy can cause adverse effects on the mouse conceptus. The current study assessed the effects of both factors administered concurrently. Five treatment groups were used initially: (1) vehicle (H2O) control [C], (2) feed/water deprived [FWD], (3) sodium arsenate [SA], (4) restraint only [R], and (5) sodium arsenate plus restraint [SA+R]. A sixth group, arsenate plus feed/water deprived [SA+FWD], was added later, along with (7) a concurrent arsenate-only control [SAC]. Mated female CD-1 mice in Groups 3, 5, 6, and 7 were injected ip with sodium arsenate (20 mg/kg) on gestation day (GD) 9 (plug = day 1). Group 5 mice were restrained for 12 h beginning immediately after dosing. Groups 4 and 5 were restrained in the supine position from 9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. on GD 9; FWD mice were deprived during that time. All females were killed on GD 18 and subjected to teratologic examination. Significantly increased exencephaly and decreased fetal weight were seen in SA+R Group fetuses. The incidence of supernumerary ribs was significantly higher in the SA+R Group than in the SA Group but did not differ from the R Group. These results add to the evidence that maternal stress combined with a chemical teratogen may have a greater effect on the conceptus than would exposure to either agent alone.

  19. The evolution of reproductive restraint through social communication.

    PubMed

    Werfel, Justin; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2004-07-27

    The evolution of altruistic behavior through group selection is generally viewed as possible in theory but unlikely in reality, because individual selection favoring selfish strategies should act more rapidly than group selection favoring cooperation. Here we demonstrate the evolution of altruism, in the form of conditional reproductive restraint based on an explicitly social mechanism, modulated by intrapopulation communication comprising signal and evolved response, in a spatially distributed predatory/parasitic/pathogenic model system. The predatory species consistently comes to exploit a signal implying overcrowding, individuals constraining their reproduction in response, with a corresponding increase in equilibrium reproduction rate in the absence of signal. This signaled restraint arises in a robust way for a range of model spatial systems; it outcompetes non-signal-based restraint and is not vulnerable to subversion by noncooperating variants. In these systems, communication is used to evaluate population density and regulate reproduction accordingly, consistent with central ideas of Wynne-Edwards [Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior (Hafner, New York)], whose claims about the evolutionary importance of group selection helped ignite decades of controversy. This quantitative simulation model shows how the key evolutionary transition from solitary living to sociality can occur. The process described here of cooperation evolving through communication may also help to explain other major evolutionary transitions such as intercellular communication leading to multicellular organisms.

  20. Exploring RNA conformational space under sparse distance restraints.

    PubMed

    Taylor, William R; Hamilton, Russell S

    2017-03-10

    We show that the application of a small number of restraints predicted by coevolution analysis can provide a powerful restriction on the conformational freedom of an RNA molecule. The greatest degree of restriction occurs when a contact is predicted between the distal ends of a pair of adjacent stemloops but even with this location additional flexibilities in the molecule can mask the contribution. Multiple cross-links, especially those including a pseudoknot provided the strongest restraint on conformational freedom with the effect being most apparent in topologically simple folds and less so if the fold is more topologically entwined. Little was expected for large structures (over 300 bases) and although a few strong localised restrictions were observed, they contributed little to the restraint of the overall fold. Although contacts predicted using a correlated mutation analysis can provide some powerful restrictions on the conformational freedom of RNA molecules, they are too erratic in their occurrence and distribution to provide a general approach to the problem of RNA 3D structure prediction from sequence.

  1. Controlled impact demonstration seat/cabin restraint systems: FAA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The FAA restraint system experiments consisted of 24 standard and modified seats, 2 standard galleys and 2 standard overhead compartments. Under the controlled impact demonstration (CID) program, the experimental objective was to demonstrate the effectiveness of individual restraint system designs when exposed to a survivable air-to-ground impact condition. What researchers were looking for was the performance exhibited by standard and modified designs, performance differences resulting from their installed cabin location, and interrelating performance demonstrated by test article and attaching floor and/or fuselage structure. The other restraint system experiment consisted of 2 standard overhead stowage compartments and 2 galley modules. Again, researchers were concerned with the retention of stowed equipment and carry-on articles. The overhead compartments were loaded with test weights up to their maximum capacity, and each of the galleys was filled with test articles: aft with normal galley equipment, forward with hazardous material test packages. A breakdown of instrumentation and distribution is given beginning with 11 instrumented type anthropomorphic dummies and 185 sensors which provided for acceleration and load measurements at the various experiment and associated structure locations. The onboard cameras provided additional coverage of these experiments, including the areas of cabin which were not instrumented. Test results showing the window-side leg forces versus pulse duration are given.

  2. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. Laboratory hatch and behind Astronaut James D. Weatherbee, mission specialist. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  3. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System (PERS) Single-Strap and H-Strap are shown behind astronaut James S. Voss (left) and cosmonaut Yury V. Usachev in the U.S. Laboratory. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro, and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  4. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System (PERS) H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. laboratory's hatch. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro, and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate. Cosmonauts Yury V. Usachev (left), Expedition Two commander and Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition One flight engineer, are shown inside the U.S. Laboratory in this photograph.

  5. Exercising restraint: clinical, legal and ethical considerations for the patient with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    McBrien, Barry

    2007-04-01

    The number of older people using emergency care is increasing steadily and older people account for over half of all emergency admissions. In the emergency setting, nurses caring for older people with Alzheimer's disease can be faced with many complex ethical and legal challenges. Moreover, challenges such as the use of physical restraint can precipitate conflict when the nurse is placed in the precarious position of doing good, respecting autonomy and avoiding paternalism. Although, there is no complete set of "rules" that can provide nurses with an answer to each dilemma, it is of significant value for nurses to have sound knowledge of ethical and legal positions in order to analyse the many complex situations that they may encounter.

  6. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior.

  7. Effect of restraint stress on nociceptive responses in rats: role of the histaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Ibironke, G F; Mordi, N E

    2011-12-20

    Stress induced analgesia (SIA) is well known, but the reverse phenomenon, hyperalgesia is poorly documented. This study investigated the role of the histaminergic system in restraint stress hyperalgesia in rats, using thermal stimulation method (hot plate and tail flick tests). Paw licking and tail withdrawal latencies were taken before and after restraint for about one hour. Significant decreases (p<0.05) were obtained in these latencies after the restraint in both tests. Administration of H1 and H2 receptor blockers, chlorpheniramine and cimetidine respectively 30 mins before the restraint still resulted in significant reductions (p<0.05) in these latencies, connoting the persistence of hyperalgesia, showing that histamine H1 and H2 receptors did not participate in the mechanism of restraint stress hyperalgesia. We therefore suggest a histaminergic independent mechanism for restraint stress induced hyperalgesia.

  8. Ensemble models of proteins and protein domains based on distance distribution restraints.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    Conformational ensembles of intrinsically disordered peptide chains are not fully determined by experimental observations. Uncertainty due to lack of experimental restraints and due to intrinsic disorder can be distinguished if distance distributions restraints are available. Such restraints can be obtained from pulsed dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy applied to pairs of spin labels. Here, we introduce a Monte Carlo approach for generating conformational ensembles that are consistent with a set of distance distribution restraints, backbone dihedral angle statistics in known protein structures, and optionally, secondary structure propensities or membrane immersion depths. The approach is tested with simulated restraints for a terminal and an internal loop and for a protein with 69 residues by using sets of sparse restraints for underlying well-defined conformations and for published ensembles of a premolten globule-like and a coil-like intrinsically disordered protein.

  9. Keep it together: restraints in crystallographic refinement of macromolecule–ligand complexes

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Roberto A.; Tucker, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    A short introduction is provided to the concept of restraints in macromolecular crystallographic refinement. A typical ligand restraint-generation process is then described, covering types of input, the methodology and the mechanics behind the software in general terms, how this has evolved over recent years and what to look for in the output. Finally, the currently available restraint-generation software is compared, concluding with some thoughts for the future. PMID:28177305

  10. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Accounting for pairwise distance restraints in FFT-based protein-protein docking.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bing; Vajda, Sandor; Kozakov, Dima

    2016-11-01

    ClusPro is a heavily used protein-protein docking server based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) correlation approach. While FFT enables global docking, accounting for pairwise distance restraints using penalty terms in the scoring function is computationally expensive. We use a different approach and directly select low energy solutions that also satisfy the given restraints. As expected, accounting for restraints generally improves the rank of near native predictions, while retaining or even improving the numerical efficiency of FFT based docking.

  12. Occupant restraint in the rear seat: ATD responses to standard and pre-tensioning, force-limiting belt restraints.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal impact sled tests at two speeds (48 km/h and 29 km/h DeltaV) with a buck representing the interior of the reat seat occupant compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. Four different dummies were tested: the Hybrid III six year old (in a booster seat, H3 6YO), the Hybrid III 5(th) percentile female (H3 AF05), the Hybrid III 50(th) percentile male (H3 AM50), and the THOR-NT. The restraints consisted of either a standard three point belt, or a 3-point belt with a retractor pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter (FL+PT). Each test condition was repeated in triplicate. The FL+PT restraints (compared to the standard restraints) resulted in a significant (p < or = 0.05) decrease in peak internal chest deflection for each of the Hybrid III dummies at both test speeds (48 km/h: 29% decrease for H3 6YO, 38% decrease for H3 AF05, 30% decrease for H3 AM50), and for the THOR-NT at a DeltaV of 29 km/h. At 48 km/h, the FL+PT restraint qualitatively decreased the average peak internal chest deflection of the THOR-NT, however this decrease was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Furthermore, the FL+PT system allowed little or no increase in forward head excursion, and improved whole-body kinematics for all dummies by restricting pelvic excursion and slightly increasing torso pitch. The results suggest that the FL+PT system studied here may provide injury-reducing benefit to rear seat occupants in moderate to high severity frontal crashes, although more study is needed to evaluate

  13. Occupant Restraint in the Rear Seat: ATD Responses to Standard and Pre-tensioning, Force-Limiting Belt Restraints

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal impact sled tests at two speeds (48 km/h and 29 km/h ΔV) with a buck representing the interior of the reat seat occupant compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. Four different dummies were tested: the Hybrid III six year old (in a booster seat, H3 6YO), the Hybrid III 5th percentile female (H3 AF05), the Hybrid III 50th percentile male (H3 AM50), and the THOR-NT. The restraints consisted of either a standard three point belt, or a 3-point belt with a retractor pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter (FL+PT). Each test condition was repeated in triplicate. The FL+PT restraints (compared to the standard restraints) resulted in a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in peak internal chest deflection for each of the Hybrid III dummies at both test speeds (48 km/h: 29% decrease for H3 6YO, 38% decrease for H3 AF05, 30% decrease for H3 AM50), and for the THOR-NT at a ΔV of 29 km/h. At 48 km/h, the FL+PT restraint qualitatively decreased the average peak internal chest deflection of the THOR-NT, however this decrease was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Furthermore, the FL+PT system allowed little or no increase in forward head excursion, and improved whole-body kinematics for all dummies by restricting pelvic excursion and slightly increasing torso pitch. The results suggest that the FL+PT system studied here may provide injury-reducing benefit to rear seat occupants in moderate to high severity frontal crashes, although more study is needed to evaluate these restraints

  14. Quantifying the Relationship Between Vehicle Interior Geometry and Child Restraint Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, C. P.; Abdelilah, Y.; Crandall, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The prevention of interactions of children or child restraints with other vehicle structures is critical to child passenger safety. Fifteen current vehicles and seven rear and forward facing child restraint systems were measured in an attempt to quantify the available distance between child restraints and these vehicle structures. Rear facing child restraints exhibited such small amounts of clearance that contact would be expected in the majority of frontal crashes. Upper tethers are critical in the prevention of head contact, while head contact is likely when the upper tether is not used. PMID:16968649

  15. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  16. Biomechanical analysis of pediatric injuries and child restraint system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sri; Harcourt, John; Herbst, Brian; Strickland, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Airbag related injuries to infants in rear facing child seats are common in frontal crashes. Several vehicular modifications such as deactivated passenger airbags, manual cut-off switches, depowered airbags and smart airbags have been advanced to mitigate the effect of airbag deployment on child seats. However, there is limited research effort to address the biomechanics of airbag injuries due to modification in child restraint systems. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the biomechanical effects of a protective barrier between the rear facing child restraint and the frontal passenger airbag of the vehicle. An experimental study was conducted using an Anthropometric Test Dummy (ATD) in a vehicular partial structure (buck). The rear facing child seat was placed in the right front passenger seat of the vehicle. The child seat was restrained using the three-point restraint in the vehicle. The six-month-old instrumented ATD was restrained in the child seat. The ATD was instrumented with the head tri-axial and two uni-axial linear accelerometers. The uni-axial linear acceleration was used to calculate the angular acceleration. Two different rear facing child seats, the standard rear facing infant seat and the rear facing infant seat inside the protective barrier structure were tested. In each test, the Head Injury Criteria (HIC) and angular head acceleration were measured. Results show that the HIC was reduced by 95% and the angular head acceleration was reduced by 85% by the protective barrier. The head injury values were well below the tolerance limit for the child with the barrier. The protective barrier deflected the airbag away from the ATD’s head and also acted as a shield to minimize airbag force on the child seat. In the typical infant seat, the airbag contacted the ATD’s head and exerted significant force on the child seat which rotated the seat rearward. These kinematic responses may explain the clinical observation of severe head injuries by

  17. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2006-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  18. Repeated restraint stress produces acute and chronic changes in hemodynamic parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Mariusz; Konopelski, Piotr; Pham, Kinga; Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Ufnal, Marcin

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive hemodynamic measurements in rats require placing animals in restrainers. To minimize restraint stress-induced artifacts several habituation protocols have been proposed, however, the results are inconclusive. Here, we evaluated if a four-week habituation is superior to a shorter habituation, or no habituation. This is the first study comparing different habituation protocols with the use of four-week continuous telemetry measurements. We did the experiments on male, 16-week old, Sprague-Dawley rats. Continuous recordings of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) were made before and during habituation protocols. Rats were subjected either to control (four weeks of restraint-free recordings, n = 5) or two-week (seven restraints, n = 6) or four-week (14 restraints, n = 6) restraint sessions. The restraint protocols included placement of rats in the middle of the dark phase into plastic restrainers as used for tail-cuff measurements. Restraint lasted for 60 min, and was repeated every second day. Each restraint significantly increased MABP (by 15-25 mmHg) and HR (by 40-120 beats/min). Exposure to the restraint protocols decreased diurnal variation in MABP. There was no hemodynamic adaptation to repeated restraint, and no significant difference in hemodynamic response to restraint among controls, the two-week and the four-week groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that measurements in restrained rats are not likely being made without stress-induced changes in MABP. Moreover, in hemodynamic studies in repeatedly restrained rats longer habituation is not superior to shorter habituation.

  19. Anxiolytic-like effects of restraint during the dark cycle in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yuki; Ago, Yukio; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Hasebe, Shigeru; Toratani, Yui; Onaka, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2015-05-01

    Stress during developmental stage may cause psychological morbidities, and then the studies on stress are important in adolescent rodents. Restraint is used as a common stressor in rodents and the effects of restraint during the light cycle have been studied, but those of restraint during the dark cycle have not. The present study examined the effects of restraint during the light and dark cycles on anxiety behaviors in adolescent mice. Restraint for 3h during either the light or dark cycle impaired memory function in the fear conditioning test, but did not affect locomotor activity. In the elevated plus-maze test, restraint during the dark cycle reduced anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Repeated exposure to a 3-h period dark cycle restraint for 2 weeks had a similar anxiolytic-like effect. In contrast, restraint for 3h during the light cycle produced anxiety behavior in adolescent, but not adult, mice. The light cycle stress increased plasma corticosterone levels, and elevated c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, basolateral amygdala and dentate gyrus, and enhanced serotonin turnover in the hippocampus and striatum, while the dark cycle stress did not. There was no difference in the stress-mediated reduction in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time between dark and light cycle restraint. These findings suggest that the anxiolytic effect of dark cycle restraint is mediated by corticosterone, serotonin or γ-aminobutyric acid-independent mechanisms, although the anxiogenic effect of light cycle restraint is associated with changes in plasma corticosterone levels and serotonin turnover in specific brain regions.

  20. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-05-15

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements.

  1. Automated Design of Restraint Layer of an Inflatable Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spexarth, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A Mathcad computer program largely automates the design and analysis of the restraint layer (the primary load-bearing layer) of an inflatable vessel that consists of one or more sections having cylindrical, toroidal, and/or spherical shape(s). A restraint layer typically comprises webbing in the form of multiple straps. The design task includes choosing indexing locations along the straps, computing the load at every location in each strap, computing the resulting stretch at each location, and computing the amount of undersizing required of each strap so that, once the vessel is inflated and the straps thus stretched, the vessel can be expected to assume the desired shape. Prior to the development of this program, the design task was performed by use of a difficult-to-use spreadsheet program that required manual addition of rows and columns depending on the numbers of strap rows and columns of a given design. In contrast, this program is completely parametric and includes logic that automatically adds or deletes rows and columns as needed. With minimal input from the user, this program automatically computes indexing locations, strap lengths, undersizing requirements, and all design data required to produce detailed drawings and assembly procedures. It also generates textual comments that help the user understand the calculations.

  2. Comparative protein modelling by satisfaction of spatial restraints.

    PubMed

    Sali, A; Blundell, T L

    1993-12-05

    We describe a comparative protein modelling method designed to find the most probable structure for a sequence given its alignment with related structures. The three-dimensional (3D) model is obtained by optimally satisfying spatial restraints derived from the alignment and expressed as probability density functions (pdfs) for the features restrained. For example, the probabilities for main-chain conformations of a modelled residue may be restrained by its residue type, main-chain conformation of an equivalent residue in a related protein, and the local similarity between the two sequences. Several such pdfs are obtained from the correlations between structural features in 17 families of homologous proteins which have been aligned on the basis of their 3D structures. The pdfs restrain C alpha-C alpha distances, main-chain N-O distances, main-chain and side-chain dihedral angles. A smoothing procedure is used in the derivation of these relationships to minimize the problem of a sparse database. The 3D model of a protein is obtained by optimization of the molecular pdf such that the model violates the input restraints as little as possible. The molecular pdf is derived as a combination of pdfs restraining individual spatial features of the whole molecule. The optimization procedure is a variable target function method that applies the conjugate gradients algorithm to positions of all non-hydrogen atoms. The method is automated and is illustrated by the modelling of trypsin from two other serine proteinases.

  3. Different subtypes of impulsivity differentiate uncontrolled eating and dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Margaret A; Morgan, Michael J; Yeomans, Martin R

    2013-10-01

    The current study explored the relationship between three subtypes of impulsivity (Reflection Impulsivity, Impulsive Choice, and Impulsive Action) and measures of uncontrolled eating (TFEQ-D) and restraint (TFEQ-R). Eighty women classified as scoring higher or lower on TFEQ-D and TFEQ-R completed the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT20), Delay Discounting Task (DDT), a Go No Go task, Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), and the Barrett Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS-11). To test whether these relationships were affected by enforced controls overeating, half of the participants fasted the night before and ate breakfast in the laboratory before testing and half had no such control. Women scoring higher on the TFEQ-D were significantly more impulsive on the MFFT20 and BIS-11 overall but not on DDT, Go No Go or BART. Women scoring higher on TFEQ-R were significantly less impulsive on the Go No Go task but did not differ on other measures. The eating manipulation modulated responses on the BART and BIS-11 non-planning scale depending on TFEQ-D classification. These results confirm recent data that high scores on TFEQ-D are related to impulsivity, but imply this relates more to Reflection Impulsivity rather than Impulsive Choice or Action. In contrast restrained eating was associated with better inhibitory control. Taken together, these results suggest that subtypes of impulsivity further differentiate uncontrolled eating and restraint, and suggest that a poor ability to reflect on decisions may underlie some aspects of overeating.

  4. Non-invasive primate head restraint using thermoplastic masks

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Carlson, Monica L.; Toda, Koji; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of many neuroscientific studies depends upon adequate head fixation of awake, behaving animals. Typically, this is achieved by surgically affixing a head-restraint prosthesis to the skull. New Method Here we report the use of thermoplastic masks to non-invasively restrain monkeys’ heads. Mesh thermoplastic sheets become pliable when heated and can then be molded to an individual monkey’s head. After cooling, the custom mask retains this shape indefinitely for day-to-day use. Results We successfully trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to perform cognitive tasks while wearing thermoplastic masks. Using these masks, we achieved a level of head stability sufficient for high-resolution eye-tracking and intracranial electrophysiology. Comparison with Existing Method Compared with traditional head-posts, we find that thermoplastic masks perform at least as well during infrared eye-tracking and single-neuron recordings, allow for clearer magnetic resonance image acquisition, enable freer placement of a transcranial magnetic stimulation coil, and impose lower financial and time costs on the lab. Conclusions We conclude that thermoplastic masks are a viable non-invasive form of primate head restraint that enable a wide range of neuroscientific experiments. PMID:26112334

  5. Robustness Improvement of ARA Kevlar Holddown Restraint Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongers, E.; Koning, J.; Konink, T.

    2013-09-01

    Dutch Space has developed a Hold Down and Release System based on Kevlar Restraint cables and Thermal Knife release in the early nineties of the previous century. The system has been qualified for application in the company's solar array families ARA and FRED for GEO, LEO, MEO and scientific deep space missions comprising solar panel stacks ranging from 2 to 6 panels. Beside solar arrays, derivatives of the HDRS have been used for antenna, cooler and experiment cover hold down and release. Over 500 HDRS units have performed with 100% success in space.Today's missions do not differ much in nominal conditions but more extreme failure modes are specified resulting in more extreme temperatures. The restraint cables, which are exposed directly to these limits of the thermal environment, have been upgraded to cope with the new requirements. An extended life time acceleration test program has been defined and executed to demonstrate their robustness.The qualified upper temperature of the system, the most critical one concerning loads, has been increased from 105°C to 125°C.The paper will describe problems experienced at high temperatures, the new design, supporting engineering tests, the measurement of tension distribution in the cables with Raman spectroscopy, and the accelerated test program and its results.Kevlar cables according to this new design are now baseline for solar arrays of the ESA programs Sentinel- 1, Sentinel-2, Galileo FOC, EarthCARE and Aeolus.

  6. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  7. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. Link to an amendment... the manufacturer with respect to the system by the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, as...) The statement: “This child restraint system conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle...

  8. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. Link to an amendment... the manufacturer with respect to the system by the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, as...) The statement: “This child restraint system conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle...

  9. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. S1. Scope. This... the manufacturer with respect to the system by the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, as... restraint system conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards.” (f) One of...

  10. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  11. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  12. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principles governing the use of force and... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22 Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints. (a) Staff ordinarily shall first...

  13. As time goes by: reasons and characteristics of prolonged episodes of mechanical restraint in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Fristed, Peter; Makransky, Guido; Moeller, Elsebeth H; Nielsen, Lea D; Bradley, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests the prevalence and duration of mechanical restraint are particularly high among forensic psychiatric inpatients. However, only sparse knowledge exists regarding the reasons for, and characteristics of, prolonged use of mechanical restraint in forensic psychiatry. This study therefore aimed to investigate prolonged episodes of mechanical restraint on forensic psychiatric inpatients. Documentary data from medical records were thematically analyzed. Results show that the reasons for prolonged episodes of mechanical restraint on forensic psychiatric inpatients can be characterized by multiple factors: "confounding" (behaviors associated with psychiatric conditions, substance abuse, medical noncompliance, etc.), "risk" (behaviors posing a risk for violence), and "alliance parameters" (qualities of the staff-patient alliance and the patients' openness to alliance with staff), altogether woven into a mechanical restraint spiral that in itself becomes a reason for prolonged mechanical restraint. The study also shows lack of consistent clinical assessment during periods of restraint. Further investigation is indicated to develop an assessment tool with the capability to reduce time spent in mechanical restraint.

  14. Use of a pitch adjustable foot restraint system: Operator strength capability and load requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmington, Robert P.; Poliner, Jeffrey; Klute, Glenn K.

    1994-01-01

    The zero-gravity environment creates a need for a proper human body restraint system to maintain a comfortable posture with less fatigue and to maximize productivity. In addition, restraint systems must be able to meet the loading demands of maintenance and assembly tasks performed on orbit. The shuttle's primary intravehicular astronaut restraint system is currently a foot loop design that attaches to flat surfaces on the shuttle, allowing for varying mounting locations and easy egress and ingress. However, this design does not allow for elevation, pitch, or foot loop length adjustment. Several prototype foot restraint systems are being evaluated for use aboard the space station and the space shuttle. The JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory initiated this study to quantify the maximum axial forces and moments that would be induced on a foot loop type of restraint while operators performed a torque wrench task, also allowing for angling the restraint pitch angle to study yet another effect. Results indicate that the greatest forces into the torque wrench and into the foot restraint system occur while the operator performs an upward effort. This study did not see any significant difference in the operators' force due to pitch orientation. Thus, in a work environment in which hand holds are available, no significant influence of the pitch angle on forces imparted to the restraint system existed.

  15. 75 FR 44284 - Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... of Justice Programs Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide... of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide. SUMMARY: In an effort to..., National Institute of Justice (NIJ) will make available to the general public the draft ``NIJ...

  16. Prior Restraint in High School: Does It Violate Students' First Amendment Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trager, Robert E.

    The Supreme Court of the United States has issued three significant rulings on the question of prior restraint by government officials of material to be published in print media. Each time it ruled that only in exceptional circumstances will prior restraint be permitted. Lower federal courst have not taken the same view regarding prior restraint…

  17. Treatment of Self-Restraint Associated with the Application of Protective Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Katherine V.; Roane, Henry S.; Kelley, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The current investigation assessed the effectiveness of protective equipment, specifically arm splints, in reducing the occurrence of severe self-injurious behavior (SIB). Although the protective equipment reduced rates of SIB to near-zero levels, self-restraint subsequently emerged. In an attempt to reduce self-restraint while maintaining…

  18. 32 CFR 884.3 - Placing member under restraint pending delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Placing member under restraint pending delivery. 884.3 Section 884.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.3 Placing member under restraint pending...

  19. 78 FR 55629 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Inflatable Three-Point Restraint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... on the comments we receive. Background On September 9, 2008, Cirrus applied for a Type Certificate... attached to the lap belt. The inflatable portion of the restraint system will rely on sensors to activate... special conditions. The inflatable restraint system relies on sensors to activate the...

  20. 49 CFR 579.25 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... component of the child restraint system that allegedly contributed to the incident, coded as follows: 51 buckle and restraint harness, 52 seat shell, 53 handle, 54 base, 98 where a system or component not covered by categories 51 through 54 is specified in the claim or notice, and 99 where no system...

  1. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... van-type vehicles, vehicles manufactured to be sold exclusively to the U.S. Postal Service, shuttle..., other than Type I or Type II seat belts, that is involved in transferring loads generated by a child restraint system to the vehicle structure. Child restraint anchorage system means a vehicle system that...

  2. Recent Changes in State Policies and Legislation Regarding Restraint or Seclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Sugai, George

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe and evaluate the extent to which recent changes to state-level policy are related to seclusion and restraint in schools and detail what components of comprehensive restraint and seclusion policy are indicated. We examined state policy documents and coded them for the presence of specific characteristics related to…

  3. The Association for Behavior Analysis International Position Statement on Restraint and Seclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Bailey, Jon S.; Dorsey, Michael F.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Lennox, David; Riordan, Mary M.; Spreat, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A task force authorized by the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) generated the statement below concerning the techniques called "restraint" and "seclusion." Members of the task force independently reviewed the scientific literature concerning restraint and seclusion and agreed unanimously to the…

  4. Factors Associated with the Use of Restraints in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Xiao, Feiya; Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    The improper use of reported restraints has been associated with serious injury and death in both mental health and school settings. However, there is currently no federal legislation that regulates the use of reported restraints in the schools in contrast to health care facilities (e.g., Children's Health Act of 2000). As children with…

  5. Dieting, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating Disorder among Overweight Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…

  6. Analysis of Seating and Restraint Limitations Restricting Total Body Weight for Aircrew and Passengers on U.S. Army Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    largest available flight suit (size 48L), SRU-21/P survival vest, and webbing restraints accommodate a 47-inch waist circumference . Aviation Life Support Equipment, Restraint, Aircrew, Helicopters, Aircraft seats, Survival vest

  7. Exploring the use of seclusion and restraint with deaf psychiatric patients: comparisons with hearing patients.

    PubMed

    Diaz, David R; Landsberger, Sarah A

    2010-12-01

    Archival data of seclusion and restraint events in a group of deaf adults (n = 30) was compared with a random sample of hearing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) (n = 30) and a random sample of hearing adults without ID (n = 51) admitted to a state hospital from 1998 to 2008. Only 12% of the hearing non-ID group experienced a seclusion or restraint versus 43% of the deaf group. The ID group also showed significantly higher rates of seclusion and restraint than the hearing non-ID group (30 vs. 12%). Patients in the deaf and ID group were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with impulse control disorders (23 and 23%, respectively), which may have contributed to the higher utilization of seclusion and restraint procedures in these groups. Deafness-related cultural and linguistic variables that impact the use of seclusion and restraint are reviewed.

  8. Evaluation of restraint system concepts for the Japanese Experiment Module flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.; Backemeyer, Lynn A.

    1995-01-01

    The current International Space Station configuration includes a Japanese Experiment Module which relies on a large manipulator and a smaller dexterous manipulator to operate outside the pressurized environment of the experiment module. The module's flight demonstration is a payload that will be mounted in the aft flight deck on STS-87 to evaluate a prototype of the dexterous manipulator. Since the payload operations entail two 8-hour scenarios on consecutive days, adequate operator restraint at the workstation will be critical to the perceived success or failure of the payload. Simulations in reduced gravity environment on the KC-135A were the only way to evaluate the restraint systems and workstation configuration. Two astronaut and two non-astronaut operators evaluated the Advanced Lower Body Extremities Restraint Test and a foot loop restraint system by performing representative tasks at the workstation in each of the two restraint systems; at the end of each flight they gave their impressions of each system and the workstation. Results indicated that access to the workstation switch panels was difficult and manipulation of the hand controllers forced operators too low for optimal viewing of the aft flight deck monitors. The workstation panel should be angled for better visibility, and infrequently used switches should be on the aft flight deck panel. Pitch angle and placement of the hand controllers should optimize the operator's eye position with respect to the monitors. The lower body restraint was preferred over the foot loops because it allowed operators to maintain a more relaxed posture during long-duration tasks, its height adjustability allowed better viewing of aft flight deck monitors, and it provided better restraint for reacting forces imparted on the operator at the workstation. The foot loops provide adequate restraint for the flight demonstration tasks identified. Since results will impact the design of the workstation, both restraints should be

  9. Predatory functional morphology in raptors: interdigital variation in talon size is related to prey restraint and immobilisation technique.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Denver W; Freedman, Elizabeth A; Scannella, John B

    2009-11-25

    Despite the ubiquity of raptors in terrestrial ecosystems, many aspects of their predatory behaviour remain poorly understood. Surprisingly little is known about the morphology of raptor talons and how they are employed during feeding behaviour. Talon size variation among digits can be used to distinguish families of raptors and is related to different techniques of prey restraint and immobilisation. The hypertrophied talons on digits (D) I and II in Accipitridae have evolved primarily to restrain large struggling prey while they are immobilised by dismemberment. Falconidae have only modest talons on each digit and only slightly enlarged D-I and II. For immobilisation, Falconini rely more strongly on strike impact and breaking the necks of their prey, having evolved a 'tooth' on the beak to aid in doing so. Pandionidae have enlarged, highly recurved talons on each digit, an adaptation for piscivory, convergently seen to a lesser extent in fishing eagles. Strigiformes bear enlarged talons with comparatively low curvature on each digit, part of a suite of adaptations to increase constriction efficiency by maximising grip strength, indicative of specialisation on small prey. Restraint and immobilisation strategy change as prey increase in size. Small prey are restrained by containment within the foot and immobilised by constriction and beak attacks. Large prey are restrained by pinning under the bodyweight of the raptor, maintaining grip with the talons, and immobilised by dismemberment (Accipitridae), or severing the spinal cord (Falconini). Within all raptors, physical attributes of the feet trade off against each other to attain great strength, but it is the variable means by which this is achieved that distinguishes them ecologically. Our findings show that interdigital talon morphology varies consistently among raptor families, and that this is directly correlative with variation in their typical prey capture and restraint strategy.

  10. Impact of eLearning course on nurses' professional competence in seclusion and restraint practices: 9-month follow-up results of a randomized controlled study (ISRCTN32869544).

    PubMed

    Kontio, R; Hätönen, H; Joffe, G; Pitkänen, A; Lahti, M; Välimäki, M

    2013-04-01

    eLearning may facilitate continuing vocational education, but data on the long-term effects of an eLearning course are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the long-term impact of an eLearning course entitled ePsychNurse.Net on psychiatric nurses' professional competence in practicing seclusion and restraint and on their job satisfaction and general self-efficacy at 9-month follow-up. In a randomized controlled study, 12 wards were randomly assigned to the ePsychNurse.Net (intervention) or training as usual (control). Baseline and 9-month follow-up data on nurses' knowledge of coercion-related legislation, physical restraint and seclusion, their attitudes towards physical restraint and seclusion, job satisfaction and general self-efficacy were analysed for 137 completers (those who participated in the 9-month follow-up assessment). No between-group differences were found on any variable, with the exception of a change in attitude to seclusion in favour of the control group. The findings of the long-term effects did not differ from the immediate outcomes (3-month follow-up) and the improved level of knowledge acquired and further consolidation of that knowledge did not take place in the 6-month period after the 3-month ePsychNurse.Net course. The ePsychNurse.Net should be further developed and its future modifications will require additional studies, probably with some new outcome measures.

  11. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the geometry of a wide range of restraints (child restraints, booster seats and rear seats) used by children, and how these match their anthropometry, and to determine limitations to restraint size for the population of children using them. The study is motivated by the widespread premature graduation from one restraint type to another, which parents often attribute to children outgrowing their previous restraint. Currently, recommended transitions are based on a small sample of vehicles and children. Outboard rear seat and seat belt geometry (anchorage locations, sash belt angles) from 50 current model vehicles were measured using a custom-developed measuring jig. For 17 child restraints, a 3-dimensional measuring arm was used to measure the geometry of the restraint including interior size and strap slot locations (where relevant). These measurements were compared to anthropometric measurements, to determine the suitability of a given restraint for children of particular ages. The results for the rear seat geometry indicate that all seat cushions were too deep for a child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile until approximately 11.5 years, and half of vehicle seat cushions were too deep for a 15 year old child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile. Sash belt geometry was more variable, with approximately a third of vehicles accommodating 6-8 year olds who approximate the shoulder geometry measurements at the 50th percentile. Dedicated child restraints accommodated most children within recommended age groups, with two exceptions. Several high back booster seats were not tall enough for a child whose seated height is at the 50th percentile for 8 year olds (who is still too short for an adult belt according to current guidelines and the results from the rear seat geometry study), and a small number of forward facing restraints and high back boosters were too narrow for children at the upper end of

  12. Ligamentous and capsular restraints to experimental posterior elbow joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Søren R; Olsen, Bo S; Jensen, Steen L; Tyrdal, Stein; Sneppen, Otto

    2003-10-01

    Pathological external forearm rotation (PEFR) relates to posterolateral elbow joint instability, and is considered a possible requisite step in a simple posterior elbow joint dislocation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsuloligamentous restraint to PEFR. In all, 18 elbow joint specimens were examined in a joint analysis system developed for experimental elbow dislocation. Sequential cutting of capsule and ligaments followed by stability testing provided specific data relating to each capsuloligamentous structure. The primary stabilizers against PEFR in the extended elbow were the anterior capsule and the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC), whereas in the flexed elbow the anterior capsule did not have a stabilizing effect. In flexed joint positions, the LCLC seems to be the only immediate stabilizer against PEFR, and thereby against posterolateral instability and possibly against posterior dislocation. The medial collateral ligament did not have any immediate stabilizing effect, but it prevented the final step of the posterior dislocation.

  13. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  14. A daily diary study of perceived social isolation, dietary restraint, and negative affect in binge eating.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J

    2016-02-01

    Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research.

  15. Report investigating the importance of head restraint positioning in reducing neck injury in rear impact.

    PubMed

    Maher, J

    2000-03-01

    Neck injury resulting from rear impact (often known as whiplash) is a serious cause of road trauma. It is often underestimated or overlooked because such injuries are minor on traditional injury scales but can result in long term pain and disability. The paper begins with a brief review of research into head restraints and whiplash done so far. A review of international head restraint regulations revealed the absence of any horizontal offset requirements. A review of seat strength requirements and testing procedures showed that a regulation that required a collapsible seat would involve significant compliance testing. This paper concludes a preliminary project conducted by the Federal Office of Road Safety (FORS) where the head restraints for twenty Australian market vehicles were assessed using known performance criteria. A key finding of the report was that most of the vehicles allowed for vertical adjustment of the head restraint. Also important was that none of the vehicles measured allowed horizontal adjustment and on some of the head restraints the horizontal displacement increased as the vertical height increased. As the understanding of neck injury mechanisms in rear impact develops, there may be some scope for FORS to facilitate the improvement of these standards. Further research into neck injury mechanisms may reveal yielding seat backs or new 'active' head restraint technology as a more effective countermeasure. In the meantime, educating occupants to correctly adjust their head restraints seems to be an effective way to reduce injuries in existing vehicles.

  16. Young girls' emerging dietary restraint and disinhibition are related to parental control in child feeding.

    PubMed

    Carper, J L; Orlet Fisher, J; Birch, L L

    2000-10-01

    This research investigated the origins of dietary restraint and disinhibition in young girls by considering how parents' control in child feeding and their daughters' perceptions of these practices relate to girls' dietary restraint and disinhibition. Participants were 197 5-year-old girls (4.6-6.4 years) and their parents. Parental pressure and restriction were measured using the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Girls' perceptions of parental pressure and restriction were measured using the Kid's Child Feeding Questionnaire, and their restraint and emotional and external disinhibition were measured using an age-appropriate version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine associations among parental control in feeding, daughters' perceptions of control, and daughters' dietary restraint and disinhibition. The results indicated that one-third of 5-year-olds reported moderate levels of dietary restraint, about 25% of the sample showed evidence of emotional disinhibition, and nearly 75% reported externally disinhibited eating in the presence of palatable foods. Daughters' dietary restraint and emotional disinhibition were related to their perceptions of parental pressure to eat more, while their external disinhibition was related to their perceptions of having restrictions placed on their eating. This research reveals that pressure in child feeding is associated with the emergence of dietary restraint and disinhibition among young girls, eating styles characterized by a lack of responsiveness to internal hunger and satiety cues.

  17. Adrenocortical response in rats subjected to a stress of restraint by immobilization whether accompanied by hypothermia or not

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Prioux-Guyonneau, M.; Libian, L.

    1980-01-01

    The restraint associated with hypothermia which increases the adrenal activity in rats was investigated. In rats with nomothermia or light hypothermia, the plasma and adrenal corticosterone levels increase at least threefold whatever the duration of restraint. Their return to normal values depends on the duration of the restraint. Exposure to cold produces in free rats a light hypothermia with an increase of the plasma and adrenal corticosterone levels, and in restraint animals an important hypothermia which does not potentiate the stimulation of adrenocortical activity induced by the restraint alone.

  18. The appropriate and inappropriate use of child restraint seats in Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Blair, John; Perdios, Angeliki; Babul, Shelina; Young, Kevin; Beckles, Janice; Pike, Ian; Cripton, Peter; Sasges, Debbie; Mulpuri, Krishore; Desapriya, Ediriweera

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this research was to describe the use and incorrect use of child restraint systems in Manitoba, Canada. In 2004, a team of inspectors made up of Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers and trained car seat technicians from the Manitoba child seat coalition conducted a descriptive survey of types and frequency of child restraint systems' incorrect use. The setting was 10 roadside inspection sites located around the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba. The subjects were parents and primary caregivers of children using child restraint systems. The main outcome measured was the reported appropriate use rate as determined by the compliance to safety standards for correct installation and use of child restraints. A total of 340 child restraint systems were assessed. The overall rate of incorrect use was 70%. The errors present in stage III systems (booster seats) are much lower than the errors present in stage I systems (rear-facing child safety seats) and stage II systems (forward-facing child safety seats). The data presented illustrate that incorrect use of child restraint systems in the province of Manitoba is a large problem and must be dealt with immediately in order to ensure child safety now and in the future. Community-wide information and enhanced enforcement campaigns, consisting of activities such as mass media, information and publicity, child restraint systems displays and special enforcement strategies (check points, dedicated law enforcement officials, alternative penalties) should be used to increase the correct use of child restraint systems. Failure to use child restraint systems properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child.

  19. Analysis of the cold-water restraint procedure in gastric ulceration and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2004-10-15

    Gastric mucosal injury induced by body restraint can be enhanced when combined with cold-water immersion. Based on this fact, the present study had two main purposes: (i) to examine the contribution of each of these two forms of stress on the development of gastric ulceration and regulation of body temperature and (ii) to investigate the importance of the animal's consciousness on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint. Independent groups of animals were exposed for 3 h to one of the following stressful treatments: body restraint plus cold-water (20+1 degrees C) immersion, body restraint alone or cold-water immersion alone. Control animals were not exposed to any form of stress. Half of the animals submitted to each of the four treatments were anesthetized with thionembutal (35 mg/kg), whereas the other half was injected with saline. Results indicated that body restraint alone was not sufficient to induce gastric ulceration or changes in body temperature. On the other hand, cold-water exposure, either alone or in conjunction with body restraint, induced the same amount of stomach erosions and hypothermia. Therefore, it appears that body restraint does not play an important role on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint procedure. Present results also indicated that conscious and anesthetized animals immersed in cold water presented robust gastric ulceration and a marked drop in body temperature. However, conscious animals developed more severe gastric damage in comparison to anesthetized animals although both groups presented the same degree of hypothermia. These findings suggest that hypothermia resulting from cold-water exposure has a deleterious effect on gastric ulceration but the animal's conscious activity during the cold-water immersion increases the severity of gastric mucosal damage. It is concluded that cold-water restraint is a useful procedure for the study of the underlying mechanisms involved in stress

  20. Qualification Testing of Solid Rocket Booster Diagonal Strut Restraint Cable Assembly Part Number 10176-0031-102/103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. W.

    2006-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum presents qualification test results for solid rocket booster diagonal strut restraint cable part number 101276-00313-102/103. During flight this assembly is exposed to a range of temperatures. MIL-W-83420 shows the breaking strength of the cable as 798 kg (1,760 lb) at room temperature but does not define cable strength at the maximum temperature to which the cable is exposed during the first 2 min of flight; 669 C (1,236 F). The cable, which can be built from different corrosion resistant steel alloys, may also vary in its chemical, physical, and mechanical properties at temperature. Negative margins of safety were produced by analysis of the cable at temperature using standard knockdown factors. However, MSFC-HDBK-5 allows the use of a less conservative safety factor of 1.4 and knockdown factors verified by testing. Test results allowed a calculated knockdown factor of 0.1892 to be determined for the restraint cables, which provides a minimum breaking strength of 151 kg (333 lb) at 677 C (1,250 F) when combined with the minimum breaking strength of 0.317-cm (0.125- or 1/8-in) diameter, type 1 composition rope.

  1. Differential effect of restraint procedure on incidence of restraint-stress-induced rib fusion in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Rasco, J F; Hood, R D

    1994-04-01

    In an investigation of the effects of specific maternal stressors on development of the conceptus, pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress on gestation day 9 (plug = day 1). Mated females were either unrestrained (C), unrestrained and food/water deprived (FWD), or restrained with surgical tape in a supine position for 12 h by one of two methods: I. 1-inch wide tape reaching from each shoulder across the body to the opposite thigh, or II. 1-inch wide tape placed over one shoulder, across the thorax, and over the opposite shoulder and similar tape placed over each thigh and across the intervening pelvic area. For both methods, an additional tape was placed across the tail and a 2-inch wide tape secured the upper abdominal area. There were 32 to 62 litters in each treatment group, and all fetuses were examined on day 18 for gross and skeletal defects. With regard to rib fusion, the percentage of affected fetuses and litters was increased (P < or = 0.05) by Method I (3.5% and 27%, respectively) vs. Method II. (0.5% and 4%), C (0.1% and 1%), or FWD (0%). Incidences of supernumerary ribs, however, did not differ between the restrained groups but were higher in both such groups than in the FWD and C groups. These results suggest that different methods of restraint may result in differences in incidence of rib fusion. Such data suggest that development of the offspring of stressed dams may be significantly influenced by what might appear to be minor differences in the stress techniques used.

  2. Plasma native and peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin responses to restraint stress in rats. Adaptation to repeated restraint.

    PubMed Central

    Pierzchala, K; Van Loon, G R

    1990-01-01

    Met-enkephalin and related proenkephalin A-derived peptides circulate in plasma at picomolar concentration as free, native pentapeptide and at nanomolar concentration in cryptic forms. We have optimized conditions for measurement of immunoreactive Met-enkephalin in plasma and for generation by trypsin and carboxypeptidase B of much greater amounts of total peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin in plasma of rats, dogs, and humans. Free Met-enkephalin (11 pM) is constituted by native pentapeptide and its sulfoxide. Characterization of plasma total Met-enkephalin derived by peptidic hydrolysis revealed a small amount (38 pM) of Met-enkephalin associated with peptides of molecular mass less than 30,000 D, and probably derived from proenkephalin A, but much larger amounts of Met-enkephalin associated with albumin (1.2 nM) and with a globulin-sized protein (2.8 nM). Thus, plasma protein precursors for peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin differ structurally and chemically from proenkephalin A. Met-enkephalin generated from plasma by peptidic hydrolysis showed naloxone-reversible bioactivity comparable to synthetic Met-enkephalin. Prolonged exposure of adult, male rats to restraint stress produced biphasic plasma responses, with peaks occurring at 30 s and 30 min in both free native and total peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin. Repeated daily exposure to this 30-min stress resulted in adaptive loss of responses of both forms to acute restraint. Initial plasma responses of Met-enkephalin paralleled those of epinephrine and norepinephrine, but subsequently showed divergence of response. In conclusion, Met-enkephalin circulates in several forms, some of which may be derived from proteins other than proenkephalin A, and plasma levels of both free native, and peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin are modulated physiologically. PMID:2312729

  3. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint

    PubMed Central

    Coffino, Jaime A.; Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333) or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173) and completed the “restrained eating” subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the “impulse control difficulties” subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but not with dietary restraint. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors. PMID:27757092

  4. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  5. 42 CFR 483.362 - Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... time limit of the order for the use of restraint, a registered nurse or other licensed staff, such as a licensed practical nurse, must immediately contact the ordering physician or other licensed...

  6. 42 CFR 483.362 - Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... time limit of the order for the use of restraint, a registered nurse or other licensed staff, such as a licensed practical nurse, must immediately contact the ordering physician or other licensed...

  7. 42 CFR 483.362 - Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... time limit of the order for the use of restraint, a registered nurse or other licensed staff, such as a licensed practical nurse, must immediately contact the ordering physician or other licensed...

  8. 42 CFR 483.362 - Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... time limit of the order for the use of restraint, a registered nurse or other licensed staff, such as a licensed practical nurse, must immediately contact the ordering physician or other licensed...

  9. 42 CFR 483.362 - Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... time limit of the order for the use of restraint, a registered nurse or other licensed staff, such as a licensed practical nurse, must immediately contact the ordering physician or other licensed...

  10. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to gain the inmate's voluntary cooperation before using force. (b) Force may not be used to punish an...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  11. Physiological restraint of Bak by Bcl-xL is essential for cell survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, Erinna F; Grabow, Stephanie; Chappaz, Stephane; Dewson, Grant; Hockings, Colin; Kluck, Ruth M; Debrincat, Marlyse A; Gray, Daniel H; Witkowski, Matthew T; Evangelista, Marco; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Bouillet, Philippe; Lane, Rachael M; Czabotar, Peter E; Colman, Peter M; Smith, Brian J; Kile, Benjamin T; Fairlie, W Douglas

    2016-05-15

    Due to the myriad interactions between prosurvival and proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, establishing the mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway has proven challenging. Mechanistic insights have primarily been gleaned from in vitro studies because genetic approaches in mammals that produce unambiguous data are difficult to design. Here we describe a mutation in mouse and human Bak that specifically disrupts its interaction with the prosurvival protein Bcl-xL Substitution of Glu75 in mBak (hBAK Q77) for leucine does not affect the three-dimensional structure of Bak or killing activity but reduces its affinity for Bcl-xL via loss of a single hydrogen bond. Using this mutant, we investigated the requirement for physical restraint of Bak by Bcl-xL in apoptotic regulation. In vitro, Bak(Q75L) cells were significantly more sensitive to various apoptotic stimuli. In vivo, loss of Bcl-xL binding to Bak led to significant defects in T-cell and blood platelet survival. Thus, we provide the first definitive in vivo evidence that prosurvival proteins maintain cellular viability by interacting with and inhibiting Bak.

  12. Physiological restraint of Bak by Bcl-xL is essential for cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Erinna F.; Grabow, Stephanie; Chappaz, Stephane; Dewson, Grant; Hockings, Colin; Kluck, Ruth M.; Debrincat, Marlyse A.; Gray, Daniel H.; Witkowski, Matthew T.; Evangelista, Marco; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Bouillet, Philippe; Lane, Rachael M.; Czabotar, Peter E.; Colman, Peter M.; Smith, Brian J.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Fairlie, W. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Due to the myriad interactions between prosurvival and proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, establishing the mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway has proven challenging. Mechanistic insights have primarily been gleaned from in vitro studies because genetic approaches in mammals that produce unambiguous data are difficult to design. Here we describe a mutation in mouse and human Bak that specifically disrupts its interaction with the prosurvival protein Bcl-xL. Substitution of Glu75 in mBak (hBAK Q77) for leucine does not affect the three-dimensional structure of Bak or killing activity but reduces its affinity for Bcl-xL via loss of a single hydrogen bond. Using this mutant, we investigated the requirement for physical restraint of Bak by Bcl-xL in apoptotic regulation. In vitro, BakQ75L cells were significantly more sensitive to various apoptotic stimuli. In vivo, loss of Bcl-xL binding to Bak led to significant defects in T-cell and blood platelet survival. Thus, we provide the first definitive in vivo evidence that prosurvival proteins maintain cellular viability by interacting with and inhibiting Bak. PMID:27198225

  13. Hypothalamic Astrocytes Respond to Gastric Mucosal Damage Induced by Restraint Water-Immersion Stress in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haiji; Li, Ruisheng; Xu, Shiguo; Liu, Zhen; Ma, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS), a compound stress model, includes both psychological and physical stimulation. Studies have shown that neurons in the hypothalamus are involved in RWIS, but the role of astrocytes and the interactions between astrocytes and neurons in RWIS are not clear. Here, we tested our hypothesis that hypothalamus astrocytes are involved in RWIS and interact with neurons to regulate gastric mucosal damage induced by RWIS. The expression of Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and c-Fos in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) significantly increased following the RWIS. GFAP and c-Fos expression are similar in the temporal pattern, peaked at 1 h after the RWIS, then reduced gradually, and reached a maximal level again at 5 h which show “double-peak” characteristics. Intracerebroventricular administration of astroglial toxin L-a-aminoadipate (L-AA) and c-Fos antisense oligodeoxy nucleotides (ASO) both decreased RWIS-induced gastric mucosal damage. Results of immunohistochemistry assay revealed that both L-AA and ASO decreased the activation of astrocytes and neurons in the hypothalamus by RWIS. These results showed that hypothalamus neuron-astrocyte “network” involved in gastric mucosal damage induced by RWIS. This study may offer theoretical basis for some novel therapeutic strategies for RWIS-induced gastric ulcers. PMID:27847472

  14. Cognitive dietary restraint: impact on bone, menstrual and metabolic status in young women.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, Jason D; Scheid, Jennifer L; Hontscharuk, Rayisa; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2008-09-03

    We compared bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), menstrual and metabolic status between physically active women with 1) high cognitive dietary restraint (High-CDR) (score > or = 9, n=38) and Normal-CDR (score<9, n=46) and 2) across quartiles of CDR scores. Eighty-four physically active (500+/-35 min wk(-1)) premenopausal women participated and were categorized according to their CDR score. Primary outcomes included, BMD, BMC, menstrual status, estrone-3-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) area under the curve (AUC). Secondary outcomes included resting energy expenditure (REE), total triiodothyronine, and ghrelin. Measures of body mass (59.2+/-1.1 vs. 58.5+/-1.0 kg) and percent body fat (24.7+/-1.2 vs. 23.7+/-0.7%) were similar between women with Normal-CDR and High-CDR, however the High-CDR group had lower total body (1.140+/-0.011 vs. 1.179+/-0.010 g cm(-2); p=0.015) and lumbar spine (1.114+/-0.019 vs. 1.223+/-0.022 g cm(-2); p=0.001) BMD. The prevalence of oligo-amenorrhea was higher in the High-CDR group and became increasingly greater across the CDR quartiles. There were no differences in metabolic characteristics between the High-CDR and Normal-CDR groups, however REE and the ratio of measured to predicted REE were lower in the fourth quartile (CDR scores > or = 13) compared to the second and third quartiles. Our results provide evidence that high CDR scores are associated with reduced lumbar spine and total body BMD in physically active premenopausal women. A greater frequency of menstrual disturbances in women with higher CDR scores likely played a role in the reduced total body and lumbar spine BMD.

  15. Self-restraint: a review of etiology and applications in mentally retarded adults with self-injury.

    PubMed

    Isley, E M; Kartsonis, C; McCurley, C M; Weisz, K E; Roberts, M S

    1991-01-01

    Self-restraint has been noted in studies of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in mentally retarded individuals. These studies have investigated self-restraint in the context of SIB, and as a result it has been difficult to isolate the function of self-restraint within this complex clinical situation. This article summarizes and critically analyzes the literature on self-restraint, particularly its identification, etiology, modification, and relationship to SIB. At present there is some empirical evidence to suggest that self-restraint is negatively reinforced by the termination or avoidance of SIB. Other studies have demonstrated that self-restraint can develop stimulus control properties for the absence of SIB. Finally, it has been suggested that self-restraint may function independently of SIB and be maintained by escape from demands or by conditioned reinforcement. Clinical concerns include the need for a functional analysis of self-restraint, the undesirable effects on SIB of reducing self-restraint, and the necessity of replacing self-restraint topographies with ones which do not interfere with daily activities.

  16. Knowledge and behaviors of physicians and caregivers about appropriate child passenger restraint use.

    PubMed

    Brixey, Suzanne N; Guse, Clare E

    2009-12-01

    The object of this research was to ascertain caregivers' and physicians' knowledge, behaviors, and comfort levels regarding child passenger safety restraint transitions with belt positioning booster seats (BPB). A targeted survey of physicians caring for 4-8 year olds plus convenience sampling surveys of caregivers across an urban community was conducted. Data revealed 42% of physicians and 47% of caregivers did not know that motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in children in this age group. Only 34% of caregivers consistently placed children in booster seats; 48% reported receiving physician information about proper restraint; 67% reported wanting to learn about proper restraint; and 36% wanted such information from physicians. Caregivers who recalled physician questions about restraints were three times more likely than others to use booster seats correctly. 70% of physicians reported asking about child restraint in vehicles in this age group. However, only 48% were very comfortable with knowing when to recommend booster seats, 43% reported having received no training in child passenger safety, and only 37% knew where to refer caregivers for more information. Physicians need more information about appropriate child passenger safety restraints as children grow and ways to deliver and reinforce the message so that it is retained to improve community health. Caregivers indicate willingness to learn, but providers miss many opportunities to teach.

  17. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most.

  18. Restraint stress exacerbates alcohol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Priya, P Hari; Girish, B P; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2014-12-01

    Cumulative exposure to multiple stresses may lead to aggravating the toxicity of each stress, qualitatively or quantitatively altering biological responses because of toxicological interaction. In this study, we intended to determine the possible effects of restraint stress on reproductive toxicity due to ethanol usage in male rats. Early pubertal male Wistar rats were subjected to either restraint stress (5 h/day) or alcohol intoxication (2 mg/kg body weight) or both for 60 days. Body weights of control and experimental rats were similar during the 60 days of this study. Testes were harvested, weighed, and prepared for enzyme assays, and cauda epididymides were isolated for the determination of density, motility, and viability of stored spermatozoa. Restraint stress or alcohol treatment significantly reduced testis weight and caused significant reductions in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. Mean density, motility, and viability of stored spermatozoa were reduced in experimental rats. Plasma testosterone concentrations in rats subjected to restraint stress or alcohol were decreased compared with those of controls, concomitant with increased concentrations of LH and FSH in experimental rats. These data suggest that sub-chronic exposure to restraint stress or alcohol contribute to reduce testicular and epididymal function in exposed rats. The study also suggests that restraint stress exacerbates alcohol-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.

  19. A bitter sweet asynchrony. The relation between eating attitudes, dietary restraint on smell and taste function.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Tucker, Megan; Gerstner, Nora

    2013-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that individuals with eating disorders have an impaired sense of smell and taste, though the influence of eating attitudes, dietary restraint and gender in a non-clinical sample is unknown. In two studies (study 1: 32 females, 28 males; study 2: 29 females) participants completed questionnaires relating to Eating Attitudes (EAT) and dietary restraint (DEBQ) followed by an odour (study 1: isoamyl acetate, study 2: chocolate) threshold and taste test. In study 2 we also measured the number of fungiform papillae taste buds. Study one revealed that increases in pathological eating attitudes predicted poorer olfactory sensitivity (males/females) and lower bitterness ratings for the bitter tastant (females only), suggestive of poorer taste acuity. In study two we found that both eating attitudes and restraint predicted poorer sensitivity to an odour associated to a forbidden food (chocolate) and that increasing eating attitudes predicted higher sweetness ratings for the bitter tastant. Interestingly increases in restraint were associated with an increased number of fungiform papillae which was not related to bitter or sweet intensity. These findings demonstrate that in a young healthy sample that subtle differences in eating pathology and dietary restraint predict impaired olfactory function to food related odours. Further that perception of bitter tastants is poorer with changes in eating pathology but not dietary restraint.

  20. Use of automobile seat restraints by children in two Canadian cities.

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, R.; Stulginskas, J.; Keyl, P.; Read, J.; Pless, I. B.

    1982-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted in Montreal and Calgary to determine the extent to which parents use safety restraints for their children in cars, the types of restraints used and the factors associated with such use. Of the combined sample 39% reported that their child regularly used a restraint, and 47% of the children in Montreal and 55% of those in Calgary wore an age-appropriate safety device. Birth order and the child's and the respondent's ages were significantly related to the use of restraints. However, the respondent's use of seatbelts was the factor most likely to affect the rate of use of restraints for children. Although a large proportion of the parents with younger children owned a carseat, one in four did not use it regularly. Parents who did not use carseats believed they were useless or dangerous; many preferred to hold the child in their laps or arms. The seatbelt law in Quebec and the existence of a carseat rental program in Calgary appear to have had some influence on the rate of the use of restraints for children. PMID:7074437

  1. Effect of restraint stress on cannabis-induced catalepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Ghosh, P

    1982-01-01

    The effect of restraint stress (1, 2 and 4 hr) on cannabis-induced catalepsy, was investigated in rats. Restraint stress produced a time-related-potentiation of the cataleptic effect of a sub-cataleptic dose of cannabis. Stress (4 hr)-induced potentiation of cannabis catalepsy was attenuated after pretreatment of the animals with drugs known to decrease central 5-HT and prostaglandin activity, but was unaffected by metyrapone, an inhibitor of endogenous corticoid synthesis. The results suggest the involvement of 5-HT and prostaglandins in restraint stress-cannabis interaction. The results have been discussed in the light of earlier investigations, from this laboratory, indicating increased rat brain 5-HT and prostaglandin activity, following restraint stress, and possible 5-HT mediation in central effects of prostaglandins. It is suggested that restraint stress first enhances rat brain prostaglandins, which in its proposed role as the first mediator' of stress, activates the serotonergic system in this species. This prostaglandin 5-HT link, thus mediates the observed potentiating effect of restraint stress on cannabis catalepsy.

  2. Thinness expectancies and restraint in Black and White college women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika M K; Fischer, Sarah

    2013-08-01

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, women of diverse racial backgrounds, including Black women, experience disordered eating symptoms. While there has been an increase in research comparing disordered eating symptoms across ethnic groups, there remains a dearth of research on the mechanisms of action underlying the development of these symptoms in non-White populations. Thinness expectancies prospectively predict disordered eating symptoms in adolescent girls, but the majority of research on expectancies has been conducted with White samples. Restraint, or self-initiated attempts to restrict food intake, may be precipitated by cognitive factors such as thinness expectancies. In the current study, we followed a sample of Black and White women over one semester of college to assess the influence of thinness expectancies and ethnic identity on restraint. Our sample consisted of 193 college women (93 Black women). We found that White women experienced restraint at higher levels than Black women, but both Black and White women experienced an increase in restraint across the first semester in college. The endorsement of thinness expectancies added significant incremental variance to the prediction of restraint over time, when baseline restraint was included in the model. These effects were not moderated by ethnicity nor ethnic identity. This study adds to the scarce literature on phenomenology of disordered eating in Black women.

  3. Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

  4. Anticipatory precrash restraint sensor feasibility study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This report explores feasibility of an anticipatory precrash restraint sensor. The foundation principle is the anticipation mechanism found at a primitive level of biological intelligence and originally formalized by the mathematical biologist Robert Rosen. A system based on formal anticipatory principles should significantly outperform conventional technologies. It offers the prospect of high payoff in prevention of death and injury. Sensors and processes are available to provide a good, fast, and inexpensive description of the present dynamical state of the vehicle to the embedded system model in the anticipation engine. The experimental part of this study found that inexpensive radar in a real-world setting does return useful data on target dynamics. The data produced by a radar system can be converted to target dynamical information by good, fast and inexpensive signal-processing techniques. Not only is the anticipatory sensor feasible, but further development under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is necessary and desirable. There are a number of possible lines of follow-on investigation. The level of effort and expected benefits of various alternatives are discussed.

  5. Restraint stress augments antibody production in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Karp, J D; Smith, J; Hawk, K

    2000-01-01

    These studies evaluated the effects of a psychological stressor (restraint, RST) on antibody production in male BALB/cByJ mice. In Experiment 1, mice were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH, 100 microg i.p.) 8 h prior to 15 h of RST or food and water deprivation (FWD). RST mice exhibited higher serum anti-KLH IgM and IgG antibodies than FWD mice. In Experiment 2, mice were given either cyclophosphamide (CY, 15 mg/kg) or saline (SAL) prior to immunization with KLH and RST or FWD. ANOVA revealed serum anti-KLH IgG antibody titers in CY+RST animals to be significantly higher than in CY+FWD, SAL+FWD, and SAL+RST mice. Anti-KLH IgM titers of CY+RST mice were higher than those of other groups before and after a second immunization with KLH. In Experiment 3, we show that these changes in antibody production are not likely to be mediated via CY-induced alterations in the reactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to RST. Together, these results indicate two potentially immunomodulatory parameters (RST and CY) can interact to alter a humoral immune response. In addition, these data support the hypothesis that humoral immune response of mice can be more reactive to stress when the mice are given a low dose of an immunomodulatory drug prior to stressor exposure.

  6. Gestational restraint stress and the developing dopaminergic system: an overview.

    PubMed

    Baier, Carlos J; Katunar, María R; Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, María Eugenia; Antonelli, Marta C

    2012-07-01

    Prenatal stress exerts a strong impact on fetal brain development in rats impairing adaptation to stressful conditions, subsequent vulnerability to anxiety, altered sexual function, and enhanced propensity to self-administer drugs. Most of these alterations have been attributed to changes in the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). In humans; dysfunction of dopaminergic system is associated with development of several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson disease, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and depression. Evidences provided by animal research, as well as retrospective studies in humans, pointed out that exposure to adverse events in early life can alter adult behaviors and neurochemical indicators of midbrain DA activity, suggesting that the development of the DA system is sensitive to disruption by exposure to early stressors. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of published studies and our own study related to the effect of prenatal insults on the development of DA metabolism and biology, focusing mainly in articles involving prenatal-restraint stress protocols in rats. We will also attempt to make a correlation between theses alterations and DA-related pathological processes in humans.

  7. Adolescent brain activation: dependence on sex, dietary satiation, and restraint.

    PubMed

    Varley-Campbell, Joanna L; Fulford, Jonathan; Moore, Melanie S; Williams, Craig A

    2017-03-30

    The study aimed to explore how both sex and dietary restraint impacts brain activation in response to visual food stimuli in young adolescents (12-13 years) under fed and fasted conditions. Food and non-food images were viewed by 15 boys and 14 girls, while functional magnetic resonance images were acquired. The adolescents were either fasted or in a satiated (fed) state following a randomized crossover study design. When satiation state was not considered, girls showed significantly greater brain activity than boys in regions associated with executive function and decision making, working memory, and self-awareness. In contrast, when either fasted or fed states were considered separately, boys showed significantly increased brain activity in regions linked to executive function, self-awareness, and decision making than the girls. When fasted, compared to unrestrained eaters, restrained individuals showed heightened activation in regions connected to executive function and decision making, with areas associated with self-assessment showing increased activity for unrestrained eaters relative to restrained under fed conditions. These findings highlight important differences in adolescent brain activity and support further investigations to gain greater insight into how these differences might evolve with age.

  8. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Soren; Gildberg, Frederik A.

    2016-01-01

    Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitutes the perhaps most extensive exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR seriously collide with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented. This article presents an in-principle Danish Psychiatric Complaint Board decision concerning MR use initiated by untrained staff. The case illustrates that, judicially, weight must be put on the patient perspective on course of happenings and especially when health professional documentation is scant, patients’ rights call for taking notice of patient evaluations. Consequently, if it comes out that psychiatric staff failed to pay appropriate consideration for the patient’s mental state, perspective, and expressions, patient response deviations are to be judicially interpreted in this light potentially rendering MR use illegitimated. While specification of law criteria might possibly improve law use and promote patients’ rights, education of psychiatry professionals must address the need for, as far as possible, paying due regard to meeting patient perspectives and participation principles as well as formal law and documentation requirements. PMID:27123152

  9. Developing countries use music videos to promote teen sexual restraint.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, M

    1991-12-15

    The Center for Communications Programs of the Johns Hopkins University has successfully produced and aired songs and music videos promoting teenage sexual restraint in developing countries. Entertaining music videos convey accurate messages to target audiences more effectively than teachers and doctors are able. In addition to successes in the Philippines and Nigeria, overwhelming success has been met with Wait, a video with Latin American pop start Tatiana and Johnny. A hit in 11 Latin American countries reaching 1 in Mexico, the video received 1 million hour s free air time. Passionate, powerful, and persuasive, these videos have prompted increased contraceptive use in countries where they have been aired. The Center's videos and songs have proved popular and profitable in a competitive market of ideas, earning 3-4 times their production costs. Accordingly, health experts from Johns Hopkins University recognize the potential role of these productions in preventing AIDS and unwanted pregnancies in other settings. Where Baltimore leads the U.S. in teen pregnancies, the Center would like to air soap opera on sexual responsibility. Production costs in the U.S. are, however, 10 times higher than in developing countries. With the collaboration of media executives, significant financial and social rewards could result from such a production.

  10. Extraction of distance restraints from pure shift NOE experiments.

    PubMed

    Kaltschnee, Lukas; Knoll, Kevin; Schmidts, Volker; Adams, Ralph W; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A; Thiele, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    NMR techniques incorporating pure shift methods to improve signal resolution have recently attracted much attention, owing to their potential use in studies of increasingly complex molecular systems. Extraction of frequencies from these simplified spectra enables easier structure determination, but only a few of the methods presented provide structural parameters derived from signal integral measurements. In particular, for quantification of the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) it is highly desirable to utilize pure shift techniques where signal overlap normally prevents accurate signal integration, to enable measurement of a larger number of interatomic distances. However, robust methods for the measurement of interatomic distances using the recently developed pure shift techniques have not been reported to date. In this work we discuss some of the factors determining the accuracy of measurements of signal integrals in interferogram-based Zangger-Sterk (ZS) pure shift NMR experiments. The ZS broadband homodecoupling technique is used in different experiments designed for quantitative NOE determination from pure shift spectra. It is shown that the techniques studied can be used for quantitative extraction of NOE-derived distance restraints, as exemplified for the test case of strychnine.

  11. Extraction of distance restraints from pure shift NOE experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltschnee, Lukas; Knoll, Kevin; Schmidts, Volker; Adams, Ralph W.; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A.; Thiele, Christina M.

    2016-10-01

    NMR techniques incorporating pure shift methods to improve signal resolution have recently attracted much attention, owing to their potential use in studies of increasingly complex molecular systems. Extraction of frequencies from these simplified spectra enables easier structure determination, but only a few of the methods presented provide structural parameters derived from signal integral measurements. In particular, for quantification of the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) it is highly desirable to utilize pure shift techniques where signal overlap normally prevents accurate signal integration, to enable measurement of a larger number of interatomic distances. However, robust methods for the measurement of interatomic distances using the recently developed pure shift techniques have not been reported to date. In this work we discuss some of the factors determining the accuracy of measurements of signal integrals in interferogram-based Zangger-Sterk (ZS) pure shift NMR experiments. The ZS broadband homodecoupling technique is used in different experiments designed for quantitative NOE determination from pure shift spectra. It is shown that the techniques studied can be used for quantitative extraction of NOE-derived distance restraints, as exemplified for the test case of strychnine.

  12. Sustained delayed gastric emptying during repeated restraint stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Babygirija, R; Zheng, J; Bülbül, M; Cerjak, D; Ludwig, K; Takahashi, T

    2010-11-01

    We have recently shown that impaired gastric motility observed in acute restraint stress was restored following repeated restraint stress in mice. Repeated restraint stress up-regulates oxytocin mRNA expression and down-regulates corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression at the hypothalamus. Oxytocin knockout mice (OXT-KO) have been widely used to study the central oxytocin signalling pathways in response to various stressors. We studied the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on solid gastric emptying and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild-type (WT) and OXT-KO mice. Heterozygous (HZ) parents (B6; 129S-Oxt(tm1Wsy)/J mice) were bred in our animal facility. Male OXT-KO, WT and HZ littermates were used for the study. Solid gastric emptying was measured following acute restraint stress (for 90 min) or repeated restraint stress (for five consecutive days). Expression of CRF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences of gastric emptying in WT (68.4 ± 4.1%, n = 6), HZ (71.8 ± 3.1%, n = 6) and OXT-KO (70.6 ± 3.1%, n = 6) mice in nonstressed conditions. Acute stress significantly delayed gastric emptying in OXT-KO mice (33.10 ± 2.5%, n = 6) WT (39.1 ± 1.1%, n = 6) and HZ mice (35.8 ± 1.2%, n = 6). Following repeated restraint stress loading, gastric emptying was significantly restored in WT (68.3 ± 4.5%, n = 6) and HZ mice (63.1 ± 2.6%, n = 6). By contrast, gastric emptying was still delayed in OXT-KO mice (34.7 ± 1.3%, n = 6) following repeated restraint stress. The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the PVN was much pronounced in OXT-KO mice compared to WT or HZ mice following repeated restraint stress. These findings suggest that central oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following repeated restraint stress in mice.

  13. Restraint stress exacerbates cardiac and adipose tissue pathology via β-adrenergic signaling in rats with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Natsumi; Nagasawa, Kai; Minagawa, Yuji; Ito, Shogo; Sano, Yusuke; Yamada, Yuichiro; Hattori, Takuya; Watanabe, Shogo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2015-05-15

    Restraint stress stimulates sympathetic nerve activity and can affect adiposity and metabolism. However, the effects of restraint stress on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in metabolic syndrome (MetS) have remained unclear. We investigated the effects of chronic restraint stress and β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blockade on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology and metabolic disorders in a rat model of MetS. DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats. Rats were exposed to restraint stress (restraint cage, 2 h/day) for 4 wk from 9 wk of age with or without daily subcutaneous administration of the β-AR blocker propranolol (2 mg/kg). Age-matched homozygous lean littermates of DS/obese rats (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+) rats) served as control animals. Chronic restraint stress exacerbated hypertension as well as left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, and oxidative stress in a manner sensitive to propranolol treatment. Restraint stress attenuated body weight gain in DS/obese rats, and this effect tended to be reversed by propranolol (P = 0.0682). Restraint stress or propranolol did not affect visceral or subcutaneous fat mass. However, restraint stress potentiated cardiac and visceral adipose tissue inflammation in DS/obese rats, and these effects were ameliorated by propranolol. Restraint stress also exacerbated glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and abnormal lipid metabolism in a manner sensitive to propranolol. In addition, restraint stress increased urinary norepinephrine excretion, and propranolol attenuated this effect. Our results thus implicate β-ARs in the exacerbation of cardiac and adipose tissue pathology and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism induced by restraint stress in this model of MetS.

  14. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  15. Dietary restraint and disinhibition do not affect accuracy of 24-hour recall in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Desmond, Renee Ann; Allison, David B; Conway, Joan Marie

    2006-03-01

    Some psychological predictors of eating behaviors have been shown to affect usefulness of methods for dietary assessment. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association of dietary restraint and disinhibition with dietary recall accuracy for total energy, fat, carbohydrate, and protein. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 79 male and 71 female non-Hispanic whites and African-American volunteers. Participants selected and consumed all foods for a 1-day period under observation and actual intake was determined. The following day, each participant completed a telephone 24-hour recall using the US Department of Agriculture Multiple-Pass method to obtain recalled intake. The Eating Inventory, which measures dietary restraint and disinhibition, was administered prior to eating any food in the study. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to determine if dietary restraint or disinhibition were independent predictors of recall accuracy. The mean (+/-standard deviation) age and body mass index of the participants was 43+/-12 years and 29+/-5.5 (calculated as kg/m2), respectively. On average, men overreported intake of energy by 265 kcal and women by 250 kcal; both groups also overreported intake of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. When controlling for body mass index, sex, and race, restraint was a significant independent predictor of energy intake (P=0.004) and negatively correlated with energy intake (r=-0.23, P<0.001). Unlike intake of carbohydrate or protein, fat intake was significantly and negatively associated with dietary restraint (P<0.001; r=-0.3). Dietary restraint did not affect accuracy of recall of intake of energy, fat, carbohydrate, or protein, but was significantly associated with intake of energy and fat. Disinhibition was not related to intake or accuracy. Dietetics professionals should consider dietary restraint a possible reason for a lower than expected estimate of energy intake when using 24-hour recalls.

  16. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Restraint stress alters immune parameters and induces oxidative stress in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanhui; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2014-12-01

    The influence of stress on embryo implantation is not well understood. Prior studies have focused on later gestational stages and the long-term impact of stress on immune function. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of restraint stress on the immune parameters and the oxidative states of the uterus during implantation. In this study, pregnant CD1 mice were subjected to restraint stress (4 h/d) on embryonic day 1 (E1) and sacrificed on E3, E5, and E7. Maternal plasma corticosterone (CORT) secretion and implantation sites in the uterus were examined. The uterine (excluding embryos) homogenate and uterine lymphocytes were collected to examine oxidative stress states and associated immune parameters. The results demonstrated that restraint stress increased maternal plasma CORT secretion and reduced the number of implantation sites by 15.3% on E5 and by 26.1% on E7. Moreover, restraint stress decreased the density of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the endometrium by 22.1-47.9% and increased the density of mast cells in the myometrium by 55.6-76.9%. Restraint stress remarkably decreased the CD3(+)CD4(+) T/CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell ratio (by 26.2-28.9%) and attenuated uterine lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of cytokines. In addition, restraint stress threatened the intracellular equilibrium between oxidants and antioxidants, resulting in decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) (32.2% and 45.7%), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (15.5% and 26.1%), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (18.4% and 18.2%) activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) (34.4% and 43.0%) contents on E5 and E7. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that restraint stress causes abnormal implantation and negatively impacts immune parameters in association with oxidative stress in mice.

  18. Interactions between brief restraint, novelty and footshock stress on subsequent sleep and EEG power in rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangdong; Yang, Linghui; Sanford, Larry D

    2007-04-20

    Stress produces significant alterations in sleep that appear to vary with the type, intensity and duration of the stressor. Brief manual restraint may be stressful in rodents but is often required for experimental procedures. We examined the effects of brief manual restraint on sleep and its possible influence on sleep induced after footshock and after the opportunity to explore a neutral enclosure. Sleep was recorded during non-interrupted baseline and during 8-h light and 12-h dark periods after three sessions of 5-min manual restraint (M1-3), after 30 min in neutral enclosure alone (NE) or with previous manual restraint (mNE) and after 20 footshocks presented over the course of 30 min alone (FS) or with previous manual restraint (mFS). Compared to baseline, M1-3 increased total sleep and NREM during both light and dark periods and significantly increased dark period REM. Both NE and mNE increased dark period total sleep, NREM and REM; however, mNE also increased light period total sleep and NREM, but not REM. FS and mFS increased total sleep, NREM and REM during the dark period and total sleep and NREM during light period. FS also significantly decreased light period REM whereas mFS did not. M1, mNE and mFS significantly increased EEG delta power during NREM, but M2-3, NE and FS alone did not. The results revealed that manual restraint can increase sleep and EEG delta power and that increases in sleep may persist across repeated sessions whereas the magnitude of EEG delta power may vary across sessions. In addition, prior manual restraint may significantly alter the changes in sleep and EEG induced by footshock and by the opportunity to explore a neutral enclosure. The results suggest that mild stressors may interact in their effects on sleep.

  19. Acute restraint differently alters defensive responses and fos immunoreactivity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, J S; Abrão, R O; Céspedes, I C; Garcia, M C; Nascimento, J O G; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C; Melo, L L; da Silva, R C B; Viana, M B

    2012-06-15

    Results from a previous study show that rats exposed to acute restraint display anxiogenic-like behavior, evidenced by facilitation of avoidance responses in the elevated T-maze (ETM) model of anxiety. In contrast, escape responses were unaltered by stress exposure. Since ETM avoidance and escape tasks seem to activate distinct sets of brain structures, it is possible that the differences observed with acute restraint are due to particularities in the neurobiological mechanisms which modulate these responses. In the present study, analysis of fos protein immunoreactivity (fos-ir) was used to map areas activated by exposure of male Wistar rats to restraint stress (30 min) previously (30 min) to the ETM. Corticosterone levels were also measured in stressed and non-stressed animals. Confirming previous observations restraint facilitated avoidance performance, an anxiogenic result, while leaving escape unaltered. Performance of the avoidance task increased fos-ir in the frontal cortex, intermediate lateral septum, basolateral amygdala, basomedial amygdala, lateral amygdala, anterior hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus. In contrast, performance of escape increased fos-ir in the ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. Both behavioral tasks also increased fos-ir in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Restraint significantly raised corticosterone levels. Additionally after restraint, fos-ir was predominantly seen in the basolateral amygdala and dorsal raphe of animals submitted to the avoidance task. This data confirms that different sets of brain structures are activated by ETM avoidance and escape tasks and suggests that acute restraint differently alters ETM behavior and the pattern of fos activation in the brain.

  20. Allometric scaling for chemical restraint in greater Rheas (Rhea americana) with Tiletamine and Zolazepam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. In such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously known doses for domestic animals and the target animal’s body mass. The objective was to compare chemical restraint responses in the greater rhea (Rhea americana) with conventional doses of tiletamine/zolazepam, found in the literature for the species, and with doses calculated through interspecific allometric scaling extrapolation. From the Federal University of Piauí, six adult greater rheas (Rhea americana), three males and three females, were randomly selected to be subjects in this research. All six animals were submitted to two chemical restraint protocols with tiletamine and zolazepam, per intramuscular injection in the hind limb. The first protocol was composed of doses found on the literature for the species, while the second protocol used doses calculated by interspecific allometric scaling, with the domestic dog as model animal. Heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, eyelid reflex, digital pinch and metatarsal reflex were registered along with latency and ambulation times. Results The use of interspecific allometric scaling for chemical restraint with the combination tiletamine and zolazepam showed satisfying results, with great similarity to results obtained with conventional doses in Greater rheas. Conclusions Literature on chemical restraint and use of tiletamine and zolazepam in rheas is scarce. Chemical restraint is of extreme importance on these animals, due to their aggressive nature and low level of domesticity. This research may further establish the interspecific allometric scaling method as a viable tool for the veterinary physician in formulating anesthetic and chemical restraint protocols for wildlife animals. PMID:24625103

  1. Body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint influence binge eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Ana; Saldaña, Carmina

    2014-11-01

    As binge eating is a common behavior throughout the general population, we hypothesized that body dissatisfaction would produce binge eating via its prediction of dieting. Six hundred eight individuals were nonrandomly recruited from the community. The mean age and body mass index of participants were 34.76 years (SD, 14.41) and 27.82 kg/m(2) (SD, 9.54), respectively. Participants were asked to complete several self-report questionnaires, which included measures of dieting status, binge eating behavior, body dissatisfaction, overvaluation of weight and shape, and self-esteem. The results showed that dieting was a common behavior; 38.1% of participants reported dieting during the past year. Binge eating during the previous 6 months was reported by 9.9% of the sample and was associated with a higher body mass index as well as more frequent dieting. A model including dieting status, overvaluation of weight and shape, shape satisfaction, and self-esteem showed the best fit for the prediction of binge eating behavior. Moreover, those who dieted and overvalued their weight and shape were 2.01 and 2.31 times more likely, respectively, to binge eat. Structural equation modeling revealed that body dissatisfaction caused dietary restraint, thus triggering binge eating. Both dieting and overvaluation of weight and shape are important risk factors for the development of binge eating disorders. Dieting and binge eating are common behaviors that represent a risk for the development of both excess weight and eating disorders. The structural model proposed in this study could be beneficial in understanding this causal relationship.

  2. Restraint Stress Intensifies Interstitial K+ Accumulation during Severe Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Christian; Janc, Oliwia A.; Kempkes, Belinda; Callis, Carolina Araya; Flügge, Gabriele; Hülsmann, Swen; Müller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for 3 weeks (6 h/day). In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance, and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain. PMID:22470344

  3. Women, sex and marriage. Restraint as a feminine strategy.

    PubMed

    Kishwar, M

    1997-01-01

    The expression of sexuality varies in different cultures, and most societies attempt to control sexuality through the institution of marriage. In the West, the availability of cheap, effective contraceptives separated sex from reproduction and promoted the sexual liberation of women. Today, while divorce is common, sexually liberated people nevertheless engage in a form of serial monogamy. Sexual liberation in the West causes women to be exploited by men and creates instability in nuclear families. In India, feminism is tempered by a belief that familial rights have precedence over individual rights. India women practice sexual self-denial after being widowed to protect their children and to gain power and respect in the community. The power of chastity was illustrated by Mahatma Gandhi who marshalled his spiritual forces to fight for independence. The stories of many individual women illustrate how they attain status and prestige through chastity. Other women maintain absolute marital faithfulness as a marital strategy to control wayward husbands. These women deemphasize their roles as wives and emphasize their roles as mothers. The children of such women often recognize their sacrifices and become their strongest allies. On the other hand, examples of women who have chosen sexual freedom show that such a choice places them at the mercy of men, makes them social outcasts, and causes other women to distrust them as competitors for their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women can not win if they try to mimic men's capacity for irresponsible sex. Sexual freedom can only work for women in matrilineal communities that shun marriage in favor of strong ties within a woman's natal family. Indian women rooted in the extended family enjoy the resilience and flexibility attendant upon playing a larger role than simply pleasing men. Opting for sexual restraint can be an effective though costly strategy to achieve the sympathy and support of an extended family when a man is

  4. Prenatal exposure to restraint or predator stresses attenuates field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ahmadzadeh, Ramin; Roshan-Milani, Shiva

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to stress is known to change synaptic plasticity and results in long-term depression; further, this stress precipitates seizures. In the study described here, the prenatal restraint and predator stress models were used to test the hypothesis that indirect prenatal stresses influence hippocampal synaptic potentiation and may affect seizures susceptibility in infant rats. Pregnant female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control, restraint-stressed, and predator-stressed groups. Both stressed groups were exposed to the stressor on gestation days 15, 16, and 17. The restraint stress involved 1-h sessions twice daily in a Plexiglas tube and the predator stress involved 2-h sessions once daily in a cage placed within the visual range of a caged cat. Blood corticosterone (COS) levels were measured in different time points. Hippocampal slices were prepared and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were studied on postnatal day 15. Pilocarpine was administered on postnatal day 25 and mortality rates were measured after 2 and 24h. Restraint and predator stresses resulted in significantly elevated COS blood levels in dams and pups. Both the amplitude and slope of fEPSP in the CA1 area decreased significantly in the stressed groups as compared to the control. Prenatal restraint and predator stresses significantly increased the fatal effect of pilocarpine at 24h after injection. Exposure to prenatal stresses and COS blood levels elevation reduce hippocampal synaptic potentiation and increase mortality rate of seizure in infant rats and may affect on later seizure susceptibility and prognosis.

  5. M.E.366-J embodiment design project: Portable foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Randall; Meyer, Eikar; Schmidt, Davey; Enders, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    During space shuttle operations, astronauts require support to carry out tasks in the weightless environment. In the past, portable foot restraints (PFR) with orientations adjustable in pitch, roll, and yaw provided this support for payload bay operations. These foot restraints, however, were designed for specific tasks with a load limit of 111.2 Newtons. Since the original design, new applications for foot restraints have been identified. New designs for the foot restraints have been created to boost the operational work load to 444.8 Newtons and decrease setup times. What remains to be designed is an interface between the restraint system and the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots. NASA provided a proposed locking device involving a spring-loaded mechanism. This locking mechanism must withstand loads of 1334.4 Newtons in any direction and weigh less than 222.4 Newtons. This paper develops an embodiment design for the interface between the PFR and the EMU boots. This involves design of the locking mechanism and a removable cleat that allows the boot to interface with this mechanism. The design team used the Paul Beitz engineering methodology to present the systematic development, structural analysis, and production considerations of the embodiment design. This methodology provides a basis for understanding the justification behind the decisions made in the design.

  6. Energy landscapes of a hairpin peptide including NMR chemical shift restraints.

    PubMed

    Carr, Joanne M; Whittleston, Chris S; Wade, David C; Wales, David J

    2015-08-21

    Methods recently introduced to improve the efficiency of protein structure prediction simulations by adding a restraint potential to a molecular mechanics force field introduce additional input parameters that can affect the performance. Here we investigate the changes in the energy landscape as the relative weight of the two contributions, force field and restraint potential, is systematically altered, for restraint functions constructed from calculated nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts. Benchmarking calculations were performed on a 12-residue peptide, tryptophan zipper 1, which features both secondary structure (a β-hairpin) and specific packing of tryptophan sidechains. Basin-hopping global optimization was performed to assess the efficiency with which lowest-energy structures are located, and the discrete path sampling approach was employed to survey the energy landscapes between unfolded and folded structures. We find that inclusion of the chemical shift restraints improves the efficiency of structure prediction because the energy landscape becomes more funnelled and the proportion of local minima classified as native increases. However, the funnelling nature of the landscape is reduced as the relative contribution of the chemical shift restraint potential is increased past an optimal value.

  7. Depressed Affect and Dietary Restraint in Adolescent Boys’ and Girls’ Eating in the Absence of Hunger

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Nichole R.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Grygorenko, Mariya V.; Radin, Rachel M.; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M.; Brady, Sheila M.; Courville, Amber B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls’ propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. PMID:25936291

  8. Conformation-dependent restraints for polynucleotides: I. Clustering of the geometry of the phosphodiester group

    PubMed Central

    Kowiel, Marcin; Brzezinski, Dariusz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The refinement of macromolecular structures is usually aided by prior stereochemical knowledge in the form of geometrical restraints. Such restraints are also used for the flexible sugar-phosphate backbones of nucleic acids. However, recent highly accurate structural studies of DNA suggest that the phosphate bond angles may have inadequate description in the existing stereochemical dictionaries. In this paper, we analyze the bonding deformations of the phosphodiester groups in the Cambridge Structural Database, cluster the studied fragments into six conformation-related categories and propose a revised set of restraints for the O-P-O bond angles and distances. The proposed restraints have been positively validated against data from the Nucleic Acid Database and an ultrahigh-resolution Z-DNA structure in the Protein Data Bank. Additionally, the manual classification of PO4 geometry is compared with geometrical clusters automatically discovered by machine learning methods. The machine learning cluster analysis provides useful insights and a practical example for general applications of clustering algorithms for automatic discovery of hidden patterns of molecular geometry. Finally, we describe the implementation and application of a public-domain web server for automatic generation of the proposed restraints. PMID:27521371

  9. Behavioral response and cost comparison of manual versus pharmacologic restraint protocols in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Michele; Raffe, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Although sedatives are routinely administered to dogs for diagnostic and minimally invasive procedures, manual restraint is often used. The study compared intra-procedural behavioral response, scored on a 100-point, visual analog scale, and cost of restraint in healthy dogs given 1 of 5 treatments: manual restraint, dexmedetomidine at 125 μg/m2 (Dex 125) or 375 μg/m2 (Dex 375), Dex 125 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 125 + Bu), or Dex 375 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 375 + Bu). Mean behavioral response scores in dogs declined from baseline in the manual restraint group and improved in a linear fashion in the group order Dex 125, Dex 375, Dex 125 + Bu, and Dex 375 + Bu. Dexmedetomidine at 375 μg/m2 or at 125 μg/m2 or at 375 μg/m2 in combination with butorphanol produced the best intra-procedural behavioral response. The cost of sedative drugs was offset by the opportunity cost of diverting personnel from revenue-generating activity to manual restraint. PMID:26933261

  10. Myelophil ameliorates brain oxidative stress in mice subjected to restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jong-Suk; Son, Seung-Wan; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2012-12-03

    We evaluated the pharmacological effects of Myelophil, a 30% ethanol extract of a mix of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, on oxidative stress-induced brain damage in mice caused by restraint stress. C57BL/6 male mice (eight weeks old) underwent daily oral administration of distilled water, Myelophil (25, 50, or 100mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) 1h before induction of restraint stress, which involved 3h of immobilization per day for 21days. Nitric oxide levels, lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione redox system enzymes), and concentrations of adrenaline, corticosterone, and interferon-γ, were measured in brain tissues and/or sera. Restraint stress-induced increases in nitric oxide levels (serum and brain tissues) and lipid peroxidation (brain tissues) were significantly attenuated by Myelophil treatment. Restraint stress moderately lowered total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, glutathione content, and the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase; all these responses were reversed by Myelophil. Myelophil significantly attenuated the elevated serum concentrations of adrenaline and corticosterone and restored serum and brain interferon-γ levels. Moreover, Myelophil normalized expression of the genes encoding monoamine oxidase A, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, which was up-regulated by restraint stress in brain tissues. These results suggest that Myelophil has pharmacological properties protects brain tissues against stress-associated oxidative stress damage, perhaps in part through regulation of stress hormones.

  11. Motivating drivers to correctly adjust head restraints: assessing effectiveness of three different interventions.

    PubMed

    Fockler, S K; Vavrik, J; Kristiansen, L

    1998-11-01

    Three types of driver educational strategies were tested to determine the most effective approach for motivating drivers to adjust their head restraints to the correct vertical position: (1) a human interactive personal contact with a member of an ICBC-trained head restraint adjustment team, (2) a passive video presentation of the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment, and (3) an interactive three-dimensional kinetic model showing the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. A different educational treatment was used in each of three lanes of a vehicle emissions testing facility, with a fourth lane with no intervention serving as a control group. Observational and self-reported data were obtained from a total of 1,974 vehicles entering and exiting the facility. The human intervention led to significantly more drivers actually adjusting their head restraints immediately after the intervention than the passive video or interactive kinetic model approaches, which were both no different from the control group. The human intervention was recommended as the most effective and was implemented successfully on a limited basis during 3 months of 1995 and again during 3 months of 1996.

  12. Success importance and urge magnitude as determinants of cardiovascular response to a behavioral restraint challenge.

    PubMed

    Agtarap, Stephanie D; Wright, Rex A; Mlynski, Christopher; Hammad, Rawan; Blackledge, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Decades of research have investigated a conceptual analysis concerned with determinants and cardiovascular correlates of effort in people confronted with performance challenges, that is, opportunities to alter some course of events by acting. One suggestion is that effort and associated cardiovascular responses should be determined jointly by the difficulty of meeting a challenge and the importance of doing so. The present experiment tested this in a context involving behavioral restraint, that is, effortful resistance against a behavioral impulse or urge. Participants were presented a mildly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty low) or a strongly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty high) with instructions to refrain from showing any facial response. Success was made more or less important through coordinated manipulations of outcome expectancy, ego-involvement and social evaluation. As expected, SBP responses assessed during the work period were proportional to clip evocativeness - i.e., the difficulty of the restraint challenge - when importance was high, but low regardless of clip evocativeness when importance was low. Findings conceptually replicate previous cardiovascular results and support extension of the guiding analysis to the behavioral restraint realm.

  13. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence.

  14. The capsular ligaments provide more hip rotational restraint than the acetabular labrum and the ligamentum teres

    PubMed Central

    van Arkel, R. J.; Amis, A. A.; Cobb, J. P.; Jeffers, J. R. T.

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments and the ligamentum teres to rotational restraint was determined by resecting a ligament and measuring the reduced torque required to achieve the same angular position as before resection. The contribution from the acetabular labrum was also measured. Each of the capsular ligaments acted as the primary hip rotation restraint somewhere within the complete ROM, and the ligamentum teres acted as a secondary restraint in high flexion, adduction and external rotation. The iliofemoral lateral arm and the ischiofemoral ligaments were primary restraints in two-thirds of the positions tested. Appreciation of the importance of these structures in preventing excessive hip rotation and subsequent impingement/instability may be relevant for surgeons undertaking both hip joint preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:484–91. PMID:25820886

  15. The validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural model of eating disorders in predicting dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The study examined the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. The aim was to determine if the maintaining mechanisms of clinical perfectionism, core low self esteem, mood intolerance and interpersonal difficulties have a direct impact on dietary restraint or an indirect impact via eating, shape and weight concerns. The model was tested in a community sample of 224 females recruited via the internet. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data. The relationship between maintaining mechanisms and dietary restraint was due to maintaining mechanisms impacting indirectly on dietary restraint via eating disorder psychopathology. The results lend support for the validity of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders as the maintaining mechanisms lead to restraint via the core psychopathology of eating concerns, weight concerns and shape concerns. The findings suggest the four maintaining mechanisms alone are not enough to lead to dietary restraint, the core psychopathology of eating disorders needs to be present, which supports the predictions of the theory. These results help establish the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders.

  16. Protein structure prediction using global optimization by basin-hopping with NMR shift restraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Falk; Strodel, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Computational methods that utilize chemical shifts to produce protein structures at atomic resolution have recently been introduced. In the current work, we exploit chemical shifts by combining the basin-hopping approach to global optimization with chemical shift restraints using a penalty function. For three peptides, we demonstrate that this approach allows us to find near-native structures from fully extended structures within 10 000 basin-hopping steps. The effect of adding chemical shift restraints is that the α and β secondary structure elements form within 1000 basin-hopping steps, after which the orientation of the secondary structure elements, which produces the tertiary contacts, is driven by the underlying protein force field. We further show that our chemical shift-restraint BH approach also works for incomplete chemical shift assignments, where the information from only one chemical shift type is considered. For the proper implementation of chemical shift restraints in the basin-hopping approach, we determined the optimal weight of the chemical shift penalty energy with respect to the CHARMM force field in conjunction with the FACTS solvation model employed in this study. In order to speed up the local energy minimization procedure, we developed a function, which continuously decreases the width of the chemical shift penalty function as the minimization progresses. We conclude that the basin-hopping approach with chemical shift restraints is a promising method for protein structure prediction.

  17. The design of child restraint system (CRS) labels and warnings affects overall CRS usability.

    PubMed

    Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Greenley, Mike P; Barone, Andrea; Armstrong, Joe; Salway, Alice F; Norris, Beverley J

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted that assessed the effectiveness of different child restraint system (CRS) label/warning designs on users' installation performance. Forty-eight paid participants installed a convertible CRS in a vehicle, and two child test dummies in a CRS, using one of four label conditions. The label conditions were: (1) no labels, (2) the manufacturer's labels that were already affixed to the CRS ("Current"), (3) labels that were designed according to a combination of the current U.S. regulations concerning CRS labels and recently proposed changes to these regulations ("Proposed"), and (4) labels that were designed according to human factors principles and guidelines, and that were based on a hierarchical behavioral task analysis ("Optimal"). Results demonstrated that, overall, the Optimal labels resulted in higher usability ratings and better task performance. This indicates that labels designed using human factors and task analyses that identify critical task information requirements for label features will result in increased user compliance with instructions, higher usability, and improved task performance. Surprisingly, having no labels on the CRS resulted in better installation performance than when either the Current or the Proposed label conditions were used. This indicates that label design can decrease task performance; the actual physical design of a CRS may be just as critical as label content in the installation choices provided to the user. Collectively, results suggest that implementation of the proposed changes to the U.S. regulations concerning CRS labeling would likely not result in increased performance or usability compared to existing manufacturer labels that follow the current guidelines. In order to achieve significantly better ease-of-use and task performance, it would be necessary to implement features of the Optimal label condition.

  18. Protein Loop Closure Using Orientational Restraints from NMR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Chittaranjan; Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    Protein loops often play important roles in biological functions such as binding, recognition, catalytic activities and allosteric regulation. Modeling loops that are biophysically sensible is crucial to determining the functional specificity of a protein. A variety of algorithms ranging from robotics-inspired inverse kinematics methods to fragmentbased homology modeling techniques have been developed to predict protein loops. However, determining the 3D structures of loops using global orientational restraints on internuclear vectors, such as those obtained from residual dipolar coupling (RDC) data in solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, has not been well studied. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm that determines the protein loop conformations using a minimal amount of RDC data. Our algorithm exploits the interplay between the sphero-conics derived from RDCs and the protein kinematics, and formulates the loop structure determination problem as a system of low-degree polynomial equations that can be solved exactly and in closed form. The roots of these polynomial equations, which encode the candidate conformations, are searched systematically, using efficient and provable pruning strategies that triage the vast majority of conformations, to enumerate or prune all possible loop conformations consistent with the data. Our algorithm guarantees completeness by ensuring that a possible loop conformation consistent with the data is never missed. This data-driven algorithm provides a way to assess the structural quality from experimental data with minimal modeling assumptions. We applied our algorithm to compute the loops of human ubiquitin, the FF Domain 2 of human transcription elongation factor CA150 (FF2), the DNA damage inducible protein I (DinI) and the third IgG-binding domain of Protein G (GB3) from experimental RDC data. A comparison of our results versus those obtained by using traditional structure determination protocols on the

  19. Impact of a mandatory behavioral consultation on seclusion/restraint utilization in a psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Donat, D C

    1998-03-01

    Despite demonstrations of the utility and cost effectiveness of behavioral methods for improving care for people with psychiatric impairments, they are seldom employed effectively in inpatient settings. This study evaluated the impact of an administrative procedure to effect a behavioral consultation for cases of high seclusion/restraint utilization. Seclusion/restraint use for the 53 cases was reviewed for a time period of 6 months before and 6 months after development of a behavioral treatment plan resulting from this procedure. The data revealed a 62% reduction in seclusion/restraint use after development of an approved plan. There was also a reversal in serial trend from increasing use during the months prior to plan development to decreasing use during months after plan development. The procedure is described and implications of the results for clinicians and administrators of psychiatric inpatient programs are discussed.

  20. Cellular resolution functional imaging in behaving rats using voluntary head restraint

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Benjamin B.; Brody, Carlos D.; Tank, David W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY High-throughput operant conditioning systems for rodents provide efficient training on sophisticated behavioral tasks. Combining these systems with technologies for cellular resolution functional imaging would provide a powerful approach to study neural dynamics during behavior. Here we describe an integrated two-photon microscope and behavioral apparatus that allows cellular resolution functional imaging of cortical regions during epochs of voluntary head restraint. Rats were trained to initiate periods of restraint up to 8 seconds in duration, which provided the mechanical stability necessary for in vivo imaging while allowing free movement between behavioral trials. A mechanical registration system repositioned the head to within a few microns, allowing the same neuronal populations to be imaged on each trial. In proof-of-principle experiments, calcium dependent fluorescence transients were recorded from GCaMP-labeled cortical neurons. In contrast to previous methods for head restraint, this system can also be incorporated into high-throughput operant conditioning systems. PMID:24055015

  1. Effects of head restraint and seat redesign on neck injury risk in rear-end crashes.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Charles M; Wells, Joann K; Lund, Adrian K

    2003-06-01

    Automobile insurance claims were examined to determine the rates of neck injuries in rear-end crashes for vehicles with and without redesigned head restraints, redesigned seats, or both. Results indicate that the improved geometric fit of head restraints observed in many newer vehicle models are reducing the risk of whiplash injury substantially among female drivers (about 37% in the Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable), but have very little effect among male drivers. New seat designs, such as active head restraints that move upward and closer to drivers' heads during a rear impact, give added benefit, producing about a 43% reduction in whiplash injury claims (55% reduction among female drivers). Estimated effects of Volvo's Whiplash Injury Prevention System and Toyota's Whiplash Injury Lessening design were based on smaller samples and were not statistically significant.

  2. Infants' responses to arm restraint at 2 and 6 months: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Moscardino, Ughetta; Axia, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the continuity, stability, and change of infants' responses to a frustrating event (i.e., arm restraint) between 2 and 6 months in terms of both negative reactivity and its regulation. Fifty-two healthy, full-term infants and their mothers participated in an arm restraint procedure. Infant behaviors were observed and coded at 3-s intervals. The results showed that infants' reactivity to frustration and their ability to regulate such reactivity significantly changed in level over time. Individual differences in frustration reactivity were stable across the two ages; two regulatory behaviors (i.e., orientation to mother and avoidance) could be observed in the same percentage of babies at both 2 and 6 months. At 6 months, several significant associations between frustration reactivity and infant regulatory behaviors emerged. These findings suggest that the arm restraint procedure may be usefully employed to study individual differences in infants as young as 2 months of age.

  3. [Mechanical restraints in the elderly: technical proposals and recommendations for use in the social environment].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Delgado, Joan

    2013-01-01

    There is some confusion in the national gerontological literature in the use of terms that refer to mechanical restraints. There is a lack of dialogue as regards ethical conflicts that suggest their use, as well as a significant generalization of the claims against, and the absence of positive references despite its high prevalence as shown by some authors. This paper presents some technical proposals on the definition, the use of terms, and the use of mechanical restraints in the social environment, such as putting the ethical dialogue to arguments based on the prevalence, define them in terms of their intent, agree on a classification of the different restraint methods, identify the types and levels of risk, and intervene specifically in accordance with these proposals. Finally, recommendations are added with regards to risks, the decision process, prescription and the withdrawal process.

  4. "Conditional Restraints": Restraining the Free Atoms in ARP/wARP.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Wijnand T M; Cohen, Serge X; Joosten, Krista; Murshudov, Garib N; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2009-02-13

    The automated building of a protein model into an electron density map remains a challenging problem. In the ARP/wARP approach, model building is facilitated by initially interpreting a density map with free atoms of unknown chemical identity; all structural information for such chemically unassigned atoms is discarded. Here, this is remedied by applying restraints between free atoms, and between free atoms and a partial protein model. These are based on geometric considerations of protein structure and tentative (conditional) assignments for the free atoms. Restraints are applied in the REFMAC5 refinement program and are generated on an ad hoc basis, allowing them to fluctuate from step to step. A large set of experimentally phased and molecular replacement structures showcases individual structures where automated building is improved drastically by the conditional restraints. The concept and implementation we present can also find application in restraining geometries, such as hydrogen bonds, in low-resolution refinement.

  5. An Examination of the U.S. Regional Airline Policies Regarding Child Restraint Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carstenson, Larry; Sluti, Donald; Luedtke, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    A prior study examined the policies of U.S. air carriers with regard to the use of infant restraint systems on board commercial aircraft. This study expands on that earlier study by examining the policies of commuter air carriers in the United States regarding the use of infant restraint systems. The management policy of the commuter air carriers has been investigated and officials of the commuter air carriers were surveyed to determine how the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft varied among commuter airlines. The topics investigated included seat space for infants, restraint systems for infants, and amenities for infant passengers. The results of this study have been analyzed to ascertain if any recommendations can be made to the commuter airlines regarding the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft.

  6. A problematic counter-regulation experiment: implications for the link between dietary restraint and overeating.

    PubMed

    Dritschel, B; Cooper, P J; Charnock, D

    1993-04-01

    The current study failed to find any evidence of laboratory counter-regulation amongst restrained eaters given a preload, regardless of the measures of dietary restraint used to classify subjects, including dieting status on the day of the study. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that high restrainers characteristically overeat or experience a sense of loss of control over eating in naturalistic settings. These findings indicate that the link between dietary restraint and overeating or bulimic episodes is, at most, a weak one. Future investigations must incorporate more detailed and sensitive measures of both restraint and overeating if analogue studies are to be useful for understanding the process involved in clinically significant episodes of overeating or binge eating.

  7. Brief report: effect of dietary restraint on fruit and vegetable intake following implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2013-07-01

    This study explored whether the effects of implementation intentions on increasing fruit and vegetable intake were moderated by dietary restraint. In total, 208 participants were randomly allocated to control or implementation intention conditions where they were asked to write down when, where and how they would increase their fruit and vegetable intake. Implementation intentions increased fruit and vegetable intake but only in participants scoring low (not high) on rigid dietary restraint. Motives underlying fruit and vegetable consumption may be different for restrained and unrestrained eaters. Efforts to increase their intake may need to be tailored, for example, through motivational rather than situational cues.

  8. The ESA astronaut sleep restraint--its development and use onboard Spacelab and MIR.

    PubMed

    Ockels, W; Stoewer, H

    1990-02-01

    The development of the ESA portable sleep restraint system is described. The system was developed to simulate certain earthbound sleep conditions in microgravity. The restraint is a bag made of two sheets of Nomex(R) cloth stretched over a tubular tension device and provides the astronaut with feedback pressure similar to bedding on Earth. The final prototype of the bag was tested on the German Spacelab-D1 mission and during a six-month mission aboard MIR. Positive feedback from astronauts suggests the need for further evaluation during space flight.

  9. Misuse of Child Restraint Systems in Crash Situations - Danger and Possible Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Lesire, Philippe; Cuny, Sophie; Alonzo, François; Cataldi, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Based on real-world crash data and recent field studies, an ad-hoc group was set up in order to have a better comprehension of the effects of misuse of Child Restraint Systems (CRS) on child protection. A testing programme of 60 single misuse situations was conducted. Test results confirmed that, in frontal impact, children have higher risk of being injured on a number of different body regions when CRS’s are misused. This work provides material for educational and training purposes to help parents understand that child restraints need to be correctly fitted in order to provide the level of protection they are designed for. PMID:18184494

  10. Restraint, body image and food attitudes in children from 12 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Wardle, J; Beales, S

    1986-09-01

    Body image, dietary restraint, attitudes to food and food intake pattern were assessed in a survey of 348 London schoolchildren from three age groups. The data revealed striking sex differences in body image, restraint and food attitudes, even in the youngest age group (12 to 13 years). The majority of girls felt too fat, attempted to restrict their food intake, and expressed guilt about eating. The boys expressed much less concern in all these areas. No differences were found across the age groups. The results suggested that normal English girls experience significant levels of distress over eating and weight.

  11. Analysis of Heart Rate and Self-Injury with and without Restraint in an Individual with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennett, Heather; Hagopian, Louis P.; Beaulieu, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    The relation between self-injury and heart rate was analyzed for an individual who appeared anxious while engaging in self-injury. The analysis involved manipulating the presence or absence of restraint while simultaneously measuring heart rate. The following findings were obtained and replicated: (a) when some form of restraint was applied, heart…

  12. Reducing and Eliminating Restraint of People with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Behavior Disorders: An Overview of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Don E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the most recent research (1999-2009) on restraint reduction and elimination efforts in the literature and also examines the characteristics of restraint along with the risks and benefits. Some earlier papers were included in this review because of their importance to the topic. The results of this literature…

  13. 75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Identifier No. (RIN) 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10... to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, Child Restraint Systems, regarding a... child safety seats to be able to be installed in a vehicle by both a vehicle's LATCH system, and...

  14. Forensic mental health clinician's experiences with and assessment of alliance regarding the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical restraint.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lea Deichmann; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bech, Per; Lange Dalgaard, Jane; Munksgaard, Gitte; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2016-12-16

    One of the main reasons for prolonged duration of mechanical restraint is patient behaviour in relation to the clinician-patient alliance. This article reports on the forensic mental health clinicians experiences of the clinician-patient alliance during mechanical restraint, and their assessment of parameters of alliance regarding the patient's readiness to be released from restraint. We used a qualitative, descriptive approach and conducted focus group interviews with nurses, nurse assistants and social and healthcare assistants. The results show that a pre-established personal clinician-patient alliance formed the basis for entering into, and weighing the quality of, the alliance during mechanical restraint. In consideration of the patient's psychiatric condition, the clinicians observed and assessed two quality parameters for the alliance: 'the patient's insight into or understanding of present situation' (e.g. the reasons for mechanical restraint and the behaviour required of the patient to discontinue restraint) and 'the patient's ability to have good and stable contact and cooperation with and across clinicians. These assessments were included, as a total picture of the quality of the alliance with the patient', in the overall team assessment of the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical restraint. The results contribute to inform the development of a short-term risk assessment instrument, with the aim of reducing the duration of mechanical restraint.

  15. Variation Found in Rates of Restraint and Seclusion among Students with a Disability. Paper 206. National Issue Brief No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Douglas J.; Mattingly, Marybeth; Connelly, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    The restraint and seclusion of individuals--practices usually associated with highly restrictive environments--are extreme responses to student behavior used in some public schools. In this brief, authors Douglas Gagnon, Marybeth Mattingly, and Vincent Connelly report that restraint and seclusion are used much more frequently on students with a…

  16. "A Very Fine Line": Parents' Experiences of Using Restraint with Their Adult Son/Daughter with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elford, Helen; Beail, Nigel; Clarke, Zara

    2010-01-01

    Background: Restraint is sometimes used on people with intellectual disabilities who display challenging behaviours, and may be justifiable as a last resort to prevent harm. A substantial proportion of such people are cared for within the family home. The aim of this paper is to explore parents' experiences of using restraint with their…

  17. 49 CFR 571.202a - Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... component attached to or adjacent to a seat back, that has a height equal to or greater than 700 mm, in any... restraint position is independent of the seat back inclination position, the head restraint must not be adjusted such that backset is more than 55 mm when the seat back inclination is positioned closer...

  18. Preventing the Use of Restraint and Seclusion with Young Children: "The Role of Effective, Positive Practices". Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Ostryn, Cheryl; Fox, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major concerns expressed regarding the use of restraint and seclusion to control the behavior of children with disabilities and/or challenging behavior. In May of 2009, for example, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) released findings regarding a number of cases in which seclusion and restraint were…

  19. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.

  20. SASSIE: A program to study intrinsically disordered biological molecules and macromolecular ensembles using experimental scattering restraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Joseph E.; Raghunandan, Sindhu; Nanda, Hirsh; Krueger, Susan

    2012-02-01

    A program to construct ensembles of biomolecular structures that are consistent with experimental scattering data are described. Specifically, we generate an ensemble of biomolecular structures by varying sets of backbone dihedral angles that are then filtered using experimentally determined restraints to rapidly determine structures that have scattering profiles that are consistent with scattering data. We discuss an application of these tools to predict a set of structures for the HIV-1 Gag protein, an intrinsically disordered protein, that are consistent with small-angle neutron scattering experimental data. We have assembled these algorithms into a program called SASSIE for structure generation, visualization, and analysis of intrinsically disordered proteins and other macromolecular ensembles using neutron and X-ray scattering restraints. Program summaryProgram title: SASSIE Catalogue identifier: AEKL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 991 624 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 826 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python, C/C++, Fortran Computer: PC/Mac Operating system: 32- and 64-bit Linux (Ubuntu 10.04, Centos 5.6) and Mac OS X (10.6.6) RAM: 1 GB Classification: 3 External routines: Python 2.6.5, numpy 1.4.0, swig 1.3.40, scipy 0.8.0, Gnuplot-py-1.8, Tcl 8.5, Tk 8.5, Mac installation requires aquaterm 1.0 (or X window system) and Xcode 3 development tools. Nature of problem: Open source software to generate structures of disordered biological molecules that subsequently allow for the comparison of computational and experimental results is limiting the use of scattering resources. Solution method: Starting with an all atom model of a protein, for example, users can input

  1. Restraint of Liquid Jets by Surface Tension in Microgravity Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Tension in Microgravity Modeled Microgravity poses many challenges to the designer of spacecraft tanks. Chief among these are the lack of phase separation and the need to supply vapor-free liquid or liquidfree vapor to the spacecraft processes that require fluid. One of the principal problems of phase separation is the creation of liquid jets. A jet can be created by liquid filling, settling of the fluid to one end of the tank, or even closing a valve to stop the liquid flow. Anyone who has seen a fountain knows that jets occur in normal gravity also. However, in normal gravity, the gravity controls and restricts the jet flow. In microgravity, with gravity largely absent, jets must be contained by surface tension forces. Recent NASA experiments in microgravity (Tank Pressure Control Experiment, TPCE, and Vented Tank Pressure Experiment, VTRE) resulted in a wealth of data about jet behavior in microgravity. VTRE was surprising in that, although it contained a complex geometry of baffles and vanes, the limit on liquid inflow was the emergence of a liquid jet from the top of the vane structure. Clearly understanding the restraint of liquid jets by surface tension is key to managing fluids in low gravity. To model this phenomenon, we need a numerical method that can track the fluid motion and the surface tension forces. The fluid motion is modeled with the Navier-Stokes equation formulated for low-speed incompressible flows. The quantities of velocity and pressure are placed on a staggered grid, with velocity being tracked at cell faces and pressure at cell centers. The free surface is tracked via the introduction of a color function that tracks liquid as 1/2 and gas as -1/2. A phase model developed by Jacqmin is used. This model converts the discrete surface tension force into a barrier function that peaks at the free surface and decays rapidly. Previous attempts at this formulation have been criticized for smearing the interface. However, by sharpening the phase

  2. Sex-specific impairment and recovery of spatial learning following the end of chronic unpredictable restraint stress: potential relevance of limbic GAD.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J Bryce; Taylor, Sara B; Hoffman, Ann N; Campbell, Alyssa N; Lucas, Louis R; Conrad, Cheryl D

    2015-04-01

    Chronic restraint stress alters hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a sex-dependent manner, impairing spatial performance in male rats and leaving intact or facilitating performance in female rats. Moreover, these stress-induced spatial memory deficits improve following post-stress recovery in males. The current study examined whether restraint administered in an unpredictable manner would eliminate these sex differences and impact a post-stress period on spatial ability and limbic glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) expression. Male (n=30) and female (n=30) adult Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to non-stressed control (Con), chronic stress (Str-Imm), or chronic stress given a post-stress recovery period (Str-Rec). Stressed rats were unpredictably restrained for 21 days using daily non-repeated combinations of physical context, duration, and time of day. Then, all rats were tested on the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for 2 days and given one retention trial on the third day, with brains removed 30min later to assess GAD65 mRNA. In Str-Imm males, deficits occurred on day 1 of RAWM acquisition, an impairment that was not evident in the Str-Rec group. In contrast, females did not show significant outcomes following chronic stress or post-stress recovery. In males, amygdalar GAD65 expression negatively correlated with RAWM performance on day 1. In females, hippocampal CA1 GAD65 positively correlated with RAWM performance on day 1. These results demonstrate that GABAergic function may contribute to the sex differences observed following chronic stress. Furthermore, unpredictable restraint and a recovery period failed to eliminate the sex differences on spatial learning and memory.

  3. Maternal restraint stress negatively influences growth capacity of preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Burkuš, Ján; Cikoš, Stefan; Fabian, Dušan; Kubandová, Janka; Czikková, Soňa; Koppel, Juraj

    2013-03-01

    In our study we investigated the effect of maternal restraint stress on preimplantation embryo development using a mouse model. We exposed hormonally stimulated (superovulated) and unstimulated (i.e. spontaneously ovulating) mouse females to restraint stress for 30 min three times a day during the preimplantation period. The stress exposure caused significant increase in blood plasma corticosterone concentration. Microscopical evaluation of embryos isolated from spontaneously ovulating females showed that maternal stress significantly increased the proportion of embryos with lower cell numbers (≤32 cells) and decreased the proportion of embryos with higher cell numbers (65-96 cells and 97-128 cells). Moreover maternal restraint stress decreased the cell counts per embryo and per blastocyst. After an additional 24 h in vitro culture we did not find any difference in the embryo distribution or in the cell counts per embryo/blastocyst between embryos isolated from stressed and control mothers. The exposure to restraint stress did not affect the incidence of apoptosis in blastocysts isolated from spontaneously ovulated dams. In gonadotropin stimulated dams, the hormonal treatment itself notably changed embryo distribution (increasing the proportion of degenerated embryos) and increased the occurrence of apoptotic cells. Our results indicate that psychical stress exposure in very early pregnancy can significantly influence the developmental capacity of preimplantation embryos.

  4. The Minimum Data Set Prevalence of Restraint Quality Indicator: Does It Reflect Differences in Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnelle, John F.; Bates-Jensen, Barbara M.; Levy-Storms, Lene; Grbic, Valena; Yoshii, June; Cadogan, Mary; Simmons, Sandra F.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether the use of restraining devices and related measures of care quality are different in nursing homes that score in the upper and lower quartiles on the Minimum Data Set (MDS) "prevalence of restraint" quality indicator, which assesses daily use of restraining devices when residents are out of bed. Design and…

  5. Examination of a Model of Multiple Sociocultural Influences on Adolescent Girls' Body Dissatisfaction and Dietary Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkley, Tracy L.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Paxton, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the perceived role of sociocultural agents (peers, parents, and media) in influencing body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint in adolescent girls. While current body size strongly predicted ideal body size and dissatisfaction, perceived influence of sociocultural agents also had a direct relationship with body ideal and…

  6. Children's Emerging Regulation of Conduct: Restraint, Compliance, and Internalization from Infancy to the Second Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Tjebkes, Terri L.; Forman, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Assessed, at 8-10 months, children's restraint and attention, and at 13-15 months, compliance to mother, internalization of her prohibition, and quality of motivation of the mother-child teaching context. Found support for view of compliance and noncompliance as heterogenous: committed compliance was higher to maternal "don'ts" than…

  7. Self-Injurious Behavior, Self-Restraint, and Compulsive Behaviors in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Philippa; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires completed by caregivers of 77 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome in the United Kingdom found a significant association between self-injurious behaviors and self-restraint, and those displaying both behaviors displayed significantly more compulsions than did those not exhibiting them. Findings extend the…

  8. 76 FR 13620 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Compartment Seating and Restraints to Proposed Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), CDC, HHS, in collaboration with the National Truck Equipment... Impact System-Level Ambulance Patient Compartment, published May 2010, and SAE J2956 Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice, Occupant Restraint and Equipment Mounting Integrity--Side Impact System-Level...

  9. Launch vehicle system requirements and restraints for the ERTS-A spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The technical requirements and restraints imposed by the ERTS spacecraft upon the Delta launch vehicle, shroud system, associated launch complex, and range are presented for technical coordination among various agencies involved in the launch vehicle and launch operations. The payload and spacecraft systems are described, and the mission, design, test, and launch base data are outlined.

  10. Behavioral Skills Training to Improve Installation and Use of Child Passenger Safety Restraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Wright, Kalon A.

    2014-01-01

    The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install…

  11. Maternal restraint stress-enhanced teratogenicity of all-trans-retinoic acid in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Rasco, J F; Hood, R D

    1995-02-01

    The present study combined maternal restraint stress with a teratogenic agent, all-trans-retinoic acid (tRA). Five treatment groups were used initially: (1) vehicle (corn oil) control [C], (2) food/water-deprived [FWD], (3) tRA only [tRA], (4) restraint only [R], and (5) tRA plus restraint [tRA+R]. Mated CD-1 mice in groups 3 and 5 were given 20 mg/kg tRA po. Mice in groups 4 and 5 were restrained in the supine position for 12 hr (9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m.), and the FWD group mice were deprived during the same time period. The tRA+R mice were dosed immediately prior to the 12-hr restraint period. All treatments were administered on gestation day (GD) 9 (copulation plug = day 1). On GD 18, all females were killed and subjected to teratological examination. The incidences of resorptions, short tails, bent tails, fused ribs, and fused vertebrae were significantly increased in the tRA+R group, in comparison with all other groups. Spina bifida was observed only in the tRA+R group. The current results, combined with those of earlier studies with other agents, support the likelihood that maternal stress can exacerbate adverse effects of chemical teratogens on mouse development.

  12. Effects of the chronic restraint stress induced depression on reward-related learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pan; Wang, Kezhu; Lu, Cong; Dong, Liming; Chen, Yixi; Wang, Qiong; Shi, Zhe; Yang, Yanyan; Chen, Shanguang; Liu, Xinmin

    2017-03-15

    Chronic mild or unpredictability stress produces a persistent depressive-like state. The main symptoms of depression include weight loss, despair, anhedonia, diminished motivation and mild cognition impairment, which could influence the ability of reward-related learning. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic restraint stress on the performance of reward-related learning of rats. We used the exposure of repeated restraint stress (6h/day, for 28days) to induce depression-like behavior in rats. Then designed tasks including Pavlovian conditioning (magazine head entries), acquisition and maintenance of instrumental conditioning (lever pressing) and goal directed learning (higher fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement) to study the effects of chronic restraint stress. The results indicated that chronic restraint stress influenced rats in those aspects including the acquisition of a Pavlovian stimulus-outcome (S-O) association, the formation and maintenance of action-outcome (A-O) causal relation and the ability of learning in higher fixed ratio schedule. In conclusion, depression could influence the performances in reward-related learning obviously and the series of instrumental learning tasks may have potential as a method to evaluate cognitive changes in depression.

  13. Program Fidelity Measures Associated With an Effective Child Restraint Program: Buckle-Up Safely

    PubMed Central

    Keay, Lisa; Simpson, Judy M.; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E.; Fegan, Maureen; Cosgrove, Louise; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify the program fidelity factors associated with successful implementation of the Buckle-Up Safely program, targeting correct use of age-appropriate child car restraints. Methods. In 2010, we conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of 830 families with children attending preschools and long day care centers in South West Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Families received the Buckle-Up Safely program in the intervention arm of the study (13 services). Independent observers assessed the type of restraint and whether it was used correctly. Results. This detailed process evaluation showed that the multifaceted program was implemented with high fidelity. Program protocols were adhered to and messaging was consistently delivered. Results from multilevel and logistic regression analyses show that age-appropriate restraint use was associated with attendance at a parent information session hosted at the center (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 3.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61, 8.29) and adversely affected by the child being aged 2 to 3 years (AOR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.30) or being from a family with more than 2 children (AOR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.67). Conclusions. Findings highlight the importance of parents receiving hands-on education regarding the proper use of age-appropriate child restraints. PMID:25602901

  14. Maternal exercise during pregnancy ameliorates the postnatal neuronal impairments induced by prenatal restraint stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Carlos; Henríquez, Ricardo; Medina, Felipe; Reinoso, Carmen; Vargas, Ronald; Pascual, Rodrigo

    2013-06-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress (PS) induces neuronal and behavioral disturbances in the offspring. In the present study, we determined whether maternal voluntary wheel running (VWR) during pregnancy could reverse the putative deleterious effects of PS on the neurodevelopment and behavior of the offspring. Pregnant CF-1 mice were randomly assigned to control, restraint stressed or restraint stressed+VWR groups. Dams of the stressed group were subjected to restraint stress between gestational days 14 and delivery, while control pregnant dams remained undisturbed in their home cages. Dams of the restraint stressed+VWR group were subjected to exercise between gestational days 1 and 17. On postnatal day 23 (P23), male pups were assigned to one of the following experimental groups: mice born from control dams, stressed dams or stressed+VWR dams. Locomotor behavior and pyramidal neuronal morphology were evaluated at P23. Animals were then sacrificed, and Golgi-impregnated pyramidal neurons of the parietal cortex were morphometrically analyzed. Here, we present two major findings: first, PS produced significantly diminished dendritic growth of parietal neurons without altered locomotor behavior of the offspring; and second, maternal VWR significantly offset morphological impairments.

  15. The Lack of Motor Vehicle Occupant Restraint Use in Children Arriving at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kathryn D.; Faries, S. Glenn

    2008-01-01

    Background: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of mortality for children aged 4-14 in the United States. Many children are driven daily to school, increasing their exposure to potential injury, especially if they are not appropriately restrained. Observing the level of motor vehicle occupant restraint (MVOR) use upon school arrival could…

  16. The Effect of Eliminating Time Restraints on a Standardized Test with American Indian Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerman, Michael A.

    To investigate the effect of time restraints on the diagnostic test scores of Native American students entering Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, two groups of students at Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, were given the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test, (Blue Level), 1977 edition. The test scores…

  17. A Descriptive Study of the Use of Restraint and Seclusion in a Special Education School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villani, V. Susan; Parsons, Aaron E.; Church, Robin P.; Beetar, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The literature regarding the use of restraint and seclusion in schools is scant, perhaps due to the controversial nature of the topic. With few exceptions, schools have not published policies or data regarding these procedures even when doing so would further the discussion about standards for staff training, student safety, and…

  18. Crisis Intervention & Non-Violent Restraint: What's Your Action-Step?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torem, Chris

    This article is a written version of a workshop on crisis intervention and non-violent restraint. It is geared towards staff responding to crisis calls, and the supervision of crisis intervention in public schools. Reaction to death threats, bomb scares, and weapons are discussed. The NOVA and NEAT principles are briefly integrated into this…

  19. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Temple; Shivley, Chelsey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary A common animal welfare question is: how stressful is handling and restraining farm animals for veterinary procedures even when no surgical or invasive procedures are done? It depends on how a particular animal perceives it. For one animal, restraint for an injection may be a positive experience associated with food treats and a different animal may be highly fearful and actively resist being restrained. The animal’s response is highly dependent on both its previous experiences and inherited traits such as temperament. Abstract An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship. PMID:26633523

  20. Restraint and Cancellation: Multiple Inhibition Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachar, Russell; Logan, Gordon D.; Robaey, Philippe; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Barr, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    We used variations of the stop signal task to study two components of motor response inhibition--the ability to withhold a strong response tendency (restraint) and the ability to cancel an ongoing action (cancellation)--in children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in non-ADHD controls of similar age (ages…

  1. Repeated restraint stress lowers the threshold for response to third ventricle CRF administration.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ruth B S

    2016-12-23

    Rats and mice exposed to repeated stress or a single severe stress exhibit a sustained increase in energetic, endocrine, and behavioral response to subsequent novel mild stress. This study tested whether the hyper-responsiveness was due to a lowered threshold of response to corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) or an exaggerated response to a standard dose of CRF. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3h of restraint on each of 3 consecutive days (RRS) or were non-restrained controls. RRS caused a temporary hypophagia but a sustained reduction in body weight. Eight days after the end of restraint, rats received increasing third ventricle doses of CRF (0-3.0μg). The lowest dose of CRF (0.25μg) increased corticosterone release in RRS, but not control rats. Higher doses caused the same stimulation of corticosterone in the two groups of rats. Fifteen days after the end of restraint, rats were food deprived during the light period and received increasing third ventricle doses of CRF at the start of the dark period. The lowest dose of CRF inhibited food intake during the first hour following infusion in RRS, but not control rats. All other doses of CRF inhibited food intake to the same degree in both RRS and control rats. The lowered threshold of response to central CRF is consistent with the chronic hyper-responsiveness to CRF and mild stress in RRS rats during the post-restraint period.

  2. Child and Adolescent Inpatient Restraint Reduction: A State Initiative to Promote Strength-Based Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Janice; Stromberg, Nan; Duckworth, Ken; Kerzner, Joan; Goldstein, Robert; Weeks, Michael; Harper, Gordon; LaFlair, Lareina; Sudders, Marylou

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the use of restraint and seclusion with children and adolescents in psychiatric inpatient units by promoting a preventive, strength-based model of care. Method: The State Mental Health Authority used data analysis, quality improvement strategies, regulatory oversight, and technical assistance to develop and implement system…

  3. Effects of voluntary exercise on apoptosis and cortisol after chronic restraint stress in mice

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyobin; Park, Chun-Hyung; Choi, Seokrip; Kim, Woocheol; Jeon, Byung-Duk; Ryu, Seungpil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether voluntary exercise (wheel running) has the potential of relieving stress. [Methods] In this study, restraint stress with or without voluntary wheel running was performed for mice housed in individual cages. A total of 21 ICR male mice were assigned into control (CON), restraint stress with voluntary exercise (RSVE), or restraint stress (RS) without voluntary exercise groups (n = 7 each). [Results] No significant difference in body weight increase was found among the three groups, although CON and RS groups had a tendency of having smaller body weight increase compared to the RSVE group. No significant difference in the expression level of liver heat shock protein 70, Bcl-2, or p53 was found among the three groups. However, caspase-3 protein level in RS group was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. Blood cortisol concentration in RS was higher (p < 0.05) than that in RSVE or CON group. It was the lowest (p < 0.05) in the RSVE group. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that apoptosis caused by chronic restraint stress might be suppressed by voluntary exercise in mice. PMID:27757383

  4. Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.

    PubMed

    Brown, A

    2014-05-01

    Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers.

  5. Social and non-social anxiety in adolescent and adult rats after repeated restraint.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2009-06-22

    Adolescence is associated with potentially stressful challenges, and adolescents may differ from adults in their stress responsivity. To investigate possible age-related differences in stress responsiveness, the consequences of repeated restraint stress (90 min/day for 5 days) on anxiety, as indexed using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and modified social interaction (SI) tests, were assessed in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Control groups at each age included non-stressed and socially deprived animals, with plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels also measured in another group of rats on days 1 and 5 of stress (sampled 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following restraint onset). While repeatedly restrained animals exhibited similar anxiety levels compared to non-stressed controls in the EPM, restraint stress increased anxiety at both ages in the SI test (as indexed by reduced social investigation and social preference). Daily weight gain measurements, however, revealed more marked stress-related suppression of body weight in adolescents versus adults. Analysis of stress-induced increases in CORT likewise showed that adolescents demonstrated less habituation than adults, embedded within typical sex differences in CORT magnitude (females greater than males) and age differences in CORT recovery (adolescents slower than adults). Despite no observable age-related differences in the behavioral response to restraint, adolescents were more sensitive to the repeated stressor in terms of physiological indices of attenuated weight gain and habituation of stress-induced CORT.

  6. Validity of Dietary Restraint Scales: Reply to van Strien et al. (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Lowe, Michael R.; Burton, Emily

    2006-01-01

    In T. van Strien, R. C. M. E. Engels, W. van Staveren, and C. P. Herman's (see record 2006-03905-010) comment, they contested the conclusion that dietary restraint scales are invalid measures of acute dietary restriction (E. Stice, M. Fisher, & M. R. Lowe, 2004). The authors respond to their concerns and conclude that researchers should (a) not…

  7. Executive-level reviews of seclusion and restraint promote interdisciplinary collaboration and innovation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Diane E; de Nesnera, Alexander; Souther, Justin W

    2009-08-01

    Elimination of seclusion and restraint requires support at all levels of an organization, especially from leaders who visibly champion and communicate their vision. Nurses, physicians, educators, and administrators at New Hampshire Hospital, an acute psychiatric inpatient facility, have established a standard meeting time and place for an executive-level review of every episode of seclusion and restraint. The standing meeting demonstrates the organization's commitment to caring for both patients and staff. The daily meetings foster a spirit of interdisciplinary collaboration, where direct care staff have the opportunity to tell their stories and share their ideas and concerns in an environment that is caring, supportive, and devoid of criticism or blame. Narrative descriptions of emergency interventions, including what was learned from debriefings with patients and staff involved, provide data about factors that may contribute to the use of seclusion or restraint. This forum provides visible administrative and clinical support that promotes creative thinking, collaborative problem solving, and the exploration of new ideas recommended by those directly involved in providing patient care. It has fostered exploration and development of strategies that have minimized episodes of aggressive behavior as well as seclusion and restraint.

  8. Manual restraint and common compound administration routes in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Machholz, Elton; Mulder, Guy; Ruiz, Casimira; Corning, Brian F; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R

    2012-09-26

    Being able to safely and effectively restrain mice and rats is an important part of conducting research. Working confidently and humanely with mice and rats requires a basic competency in handling and restraint methods. This article will present the basic principles required to safely handle animals. One-handed, two-handed, and restraint with specially designed restraint objects will be illustrated. Often, another part of the research or testing use of animals is the effective administration of compounds to mice and rats. Although there are a large number of possible administration routes (limited only by the size and organs of the animal), most are not used regularly in research. This video will illustrate several of the more common routes, including intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, and oral gavage. The goal of this article is to expose a viewer unfamiliar with these techniques to basic restraint and substance administration routes. This video does not replace required hands-on training at your facility, but is meant to augment and supplement that training.

  9. Changing the Definition of Education. On Kant's Educational Paradox between Freedom and Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffar, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Ever since Kant asked: "How am I to develop the sense of freedom in spite of the restraint?" in his lecture on education, the tension between necessary educational influence and unacceptable restriction of the child's individual development and freedom has been considered an educational paradox. Many have suggested solutions to the…

  10. Influence of ambient temperatures on the production of restraint ulcers in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Gallaire, D.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the influence of ambient temperature on the production of restraint ulcers in the rat is described. It concludes that the production of restrain ulcers, is favored by the reduction of the environmental temperature, whether the rat has been subjected to a fast or not.

  11. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring.

  12. The Validity of Dietary Restraint Scales: Comment on Stice et al. (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; van Staveren, Wija; Herman, C. Peter

    2006-01-01

    In 4 empirical studies, E. Stice, M. Fisher, and M. R. Lowe (see record 2004-11653-006) calculated the correlations between some widely used dietary restraint scales and food intake. Failing to find substantial negative correlations, they concluded that these scales were invalid. The current article challenges this conclusion. For one thing, there…

  13. Black Boxing Restraints: The Need for Full Disclosure and Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Wanda K.; Nunno, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the necessity of fully informing patients and their families of what constitutes physical interventions and their attendant risks under the established principles and obligations of informed consent. After a brief review of the elements of informed consent and the nature of the duty to advise patients and their families…

  14. The latent structure of dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness: a series of taxometric analyses.

    PubMed

    Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Richey, J Anthony; Joiner, Thomas E

    2010-12-01

    Although the latent structure of various eating disorders has been explored in previous studies, no published studies have examined the latent structure of theoretically relevant variables that have been shown to cut across eating disorder diagnoses. The current study examined 3 such variables (dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness) among undergraduate women using the taxometric method. The 5 items from the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire's Dietary Restraint subscale were used as dietary restraint indicators, whereas items from the Eating Disorders Inventory Body Dissatisfaction and Drive for Thinness subscales were used as indicators of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, respectively. As hypothesized, MAXCOV (maximum covariance) and MAMBAC (mean above minus below a cut) analyses suggested that all 3 variables are dimensional; therefore, individuals with high levels of reported dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness appear to differ in degree, but not in kind, from those with lower levels. Implications for prevention, assessment, classification, and treatment are discussed.

  15. Characteristics of plasma plume and effect mechanism of lateral restraint during high power CO2 laser welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue; Cai, Yan; Sun, Dawei; Zhu, Junjie; Wu, Yixiong

    2014-12-01

    A novel lateral restraint method was proposed to suppress plasma plume of high power CO2 laser welding using a pair of copper blocks with cooling water. The plasma plume was observed with a high-speed camera, and its core zone and periphery zone were investigated based on the specific processing algorithm. With the specially designed shifting unit, the spectrum of plasma plume was scanned both in 1-D and 2-D mode. Based on the selected spectral lines, electron temperature and electron number density of plasma plume were calculated. The characteristics of plasma plume, as well as the restraint mechanism, were discussed both in 1-D and 2-D mode. Results showed that the cooling effect, blowing effect and the static pressure were enhanced by the lateral restraint, and the restraint effect of the near-wall low-temperature area limited the expansion of plasma plume greatly.

  16. 77 FR 76071 - The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Eighth Update Special Topic: Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Eighth Update Special Topic: Services' Contribution to Manufacturing AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  17. 75 FR 64351 - The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Seventh Update; Special Topic: Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Seventh Update; Special Topic: Global Supply Chains AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of seventh...

  18. The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

  19. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m2) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30–40, 40–50 and >50 kg/m2, n = 14–15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2, n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9–85 kg/m2, n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = −0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  20. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m(2)), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m(2)) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30-40, 40-50 and >50 kg/m(2), n = 14-15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m(2), n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m(2), n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m(2), n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = -0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.

  1. Allometric scaling of chemical restraint associated with inhalant anesthesia in giant anteaters.

    PubMed

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Gerardi, Patrícia Molina; Honsho, Daniel Kan

    2009-04-01

    This study describes the use of allometric scaling in five giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) submitted for osteosynthesis, gastrostomy, or treatment of burns. Chemical restraint was performed by allometric scaling using the dog as a reference; acepromazine (0.06 mg/kg), diazepam (0.3 mg/kg), ketamine (8.8 mg/kg), and buprenorphine (5.9 microg/kg) were combined, and the animals were maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, temperature, and anesthetic depth were measured. Postoperative treatment consisted of ketoprofen, buprenorphine, and ceftiofur. Anesthetic induction was obtained in 10-15 min, achieving muscle relaxation and absence of excitement. Physiologic parameters were stable during the procedures, and postoperative treatment was effective. Allometric scaling was effective for chemical restraint and postoperative treatment.

  2. Flexible torsion-angle noncrystallographic symmetry restraints for improved macromolecular structure refinement

    PubMed Central

    Headd, Jeffrey J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Gildea, Richard J.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    One of the great challenges in refining macromolecular crystal structures is a low data-to-parameter ratio. Historically, knowledge from chemistry has been used to help to improve this ratio. When a macromolecule crystallizes with more than one copy in the asymmetric unit, the noncrystallographic symmetry relationships can be exploited to provide additional restraints when refining the working model. However, although globally similar, NCS-related chains often have local differences. To allow for local differences between NCS-related molecules, flexible torsion-based NCS restraints have been introduced, coupled with intelligent rotamer handling for protein chains, and are available in phenix.refine for refinement of models at all resolutions. PMID:24816103

  3. Suspension restraint - Induced hypokinesia and antiorthostasis as a simulation of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Deavers, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Muscle, renal, fluid and electrolyte responses were measured in suspended rats; the hind limbs are non-load bearing and the front limbs can be used for feeding and grooming. Hind limb hypokinesia reverses after removal from the suspension harness. This suspension system is adjustable for a head-down tilt to produce antiorthostatic responses which are also reversible. Responses to hypokinesia or antiorthostatic hypokinesia for up to 14 days were measured, e.g., muscle atrophy: soleus greater than gastrocnemius equals plantaris greater than extensor digitorum longus, kaliuresis, and increased excretion of urea, NH3, and 3 methylhistidine. Muscle protein loss, a response to a reduction in RNA, is also reversible. A head-down tilt for 7-14 days results in diuresis and natriuresis. These changes are reversed within 24 hours after removal from the restraint harness. Physiological effects of suspension restraint can be used to simulate and predict responses to microgravity exposure.

  4. [The syndrome of cognitive restraint: from the nutritional standard to eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Le Barzic, M

    2001-09-01

    It has been shown that behavioral and dietary treatments of obesity are ineffective in producing lasting weight loss and that dieting is associated with episodes of overeating. Dietary restraint leads to emotional and cognitive disturbances as well as to problems with eating. Treating dieting and encouraging natural eating may improve self-esteem, depression, eating pathology and life-style, and so far, weight and health risk factors.

  5. Combination of prenatal immune challenge and restraint stress affects prepulse inhibition and dopaminergic/GABAergic markers.

    PubMed

    Deslauriers, Jessica; Larouche, Annie; Sarret, Philippe; Grignon, Sylvain

    2013-08-01

    Gestational immune challenge with the viral-like antigen poly I:C is a well-established neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. However, exposure to inflammation during early life may sensitize the developing brain to secondary insults and enhance the central nervous system vulnerability. To gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we thus developed a two-hit animal model based on prenatal poly I:C immune challenge followed by restraint stress in juvenile mice. C57BL/6 gestational mice were intraperitoneally injected with poly I:C or saline at gestational day 12. Pups were then submitted or not, to restraint stress for 2h, for three consecutive days, from postnatal days 33 to 35. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response is commonly used to assess sensorimotor gating, a neural process severely disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. Our results revealed that the combination of prenatal immune challenge with poly I:C followed by a restraint stress period was able to induce a PPI disruption in 36-day-old pups, as opposed to each insult applied separately. PPI deficits were accompanied by dopaminergic and GABAergic abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Indeed, measurements of cortical and striatal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) mRNA and protein levels revealed that the combination of gestational exposure to poly I:C and postnatal restraint stress induced an increase in D2R protein and mRNA levels. Likewise, the combination of both insults reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of the 67 kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), in those two brain regions. To our knowledge, this two-hit animal model is the first in vivo model reporting PPI deficits at pubertal age. This two-hit animal model may also help in studying innovative therapies dedicated to the treatment of schizophrenia, especially in its early phase.

  6. Has Child Restraint System Use Increased among Parents of Children in Shantou, China?

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Huiqian; Yang, Jingzhen; Liu, Xiangxiang; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to examine parents’ use of child restraint systems (CRS), and determine if parents’ knowledge of, attitude toward, and use behavior of child restraint systems have improved following enactment of child restraint use laws in other cities. Design: Observations and a cross-sectional survey of drivers transporting children 17 years and under were conducted at the gate of the schools and parking lots of hospitals in Shantou. Observers recorded the seating location of child passengers, the type of restraint, and appropriate use of CRS and safety belts based on the observation. Knowledge of and attitudes towards use of CRS were reported by the driver following observation. Results: Approximately 6.6% of passengers aged 0–12 were in CRS; rate of forward-facing CRS in children aged 3–5 (9.9%) was higher than rear-facing CRS for children aged 0–2 (1.1%) and booster seat use among children aged 6–12 (0.1%). Children younger than four years old (OR = 3.395, 95% CI = 2.125–5.424), drivers having a college or higher lever education (OR = 2.908, 95% CI = 1.878–4.500) and drivers wearing seatbelt (OR = 3.194, 95% CI = 1.605–6.356) had greater odds of CRS use. Over half (56.6%) of parents might or would use CRS if they could rent CRSs with fees. Conclusions: The rate of CRS is still low in Shantou. Comprehensive public education programs supported by legislation might be an effective way to improve child passenger safety. Renting CRSs to parents could be a new approach to encourage use. PMID:27690070

  7. Housing in pyramid counteracts neuroendocrine and oxidative stress caused by chronic restraint in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhat, M Surekha; Rao, Guruprasad; Murthy, K Dilip; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2007-03-01

    The space within the great pyramid and its smaller replicas is believed to have an antistress effect. Research has shown that the energy field within the pyramid can protect the hippocampal neurons of mice from stress-induced atrophy and also reduce neuroendocrine stress, oxidative stress and increase antioxidant defence in rats. In this study, we have, for the first time, attempted to study the antistress effects of pyramid exposure on the status of cortisol level, oxidative damage and antioxidant status in rats during chronic restraint stress. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal controls (NC) housed in home cage and left in the laboratory; restrained rats (with three subgroups) subject to chronic restraint stress by placing in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 h per day for 14 days, the restrained controls (RC) having their restrainers kept in the laboratory; restrained pyramid rats (RP) being kept in the pyramid; and restrained square box rats (RS) in the square box during the period of restraint stress everyday. Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly decreased in RC and RS rats as compared to NC. However, these parameters were maintained to near normal levels in RP rats which showed significantly decreased erythrocyte MDA and plasma cortisol and significantly increased erythrocyte GSH levels, erythrocyte GSH-Px and SOD activities when compared with RS rats. The results showed that housing in pyramid counteracts neuroendocrine and oxidative stress caused by chronic restraint in rats.

  8. Least restrictive measures: alternatives to four-point restraints and seclusion.

    PubMed

    Morales, E; Duphorne, P L

    1995-10-01

    Following the review and discussion of alternative measures in the use of four-point restraints and seclusion on an acute psychiatric inpatient unit, the staff increased the use of "least restrictive" measures with aggressive patients. This involved increased attention to escalating behavior and using alternatives. Although early recognition did not guarantee success in every situation, patients were included in making choices and being in control of which option to take. When staff became more knowledgeable about the use of alternatives, they were more comfortable offering patients choices and did not wait until restraints and seclusion were necessary. It was beneficial to review the rationale for the use of seclusion and restraints with both patients and staff. Specific approaches for early recognition and intervention focused on verbal control, limit setting, and decreased stimulation. It is important that staff have a clear understanding of their range of treatment strategies from most to "least restrictive" measures during stressful times when patients become confused, angry, or frightened and may lose control. Patients must be made aware of their choices during this cycle and understand the consequences of their behavior. Planning educational inservice programs for staff to address this content and share approaches to specific situations can be effective. Staff debriefing following an incident is crucial to discuss reactions to the use of restraints and seclusion and to plan for the use of alternative measures in the future. All patients need a chance to express themselves. As staff we must take time to stop, look, and listen. We must be aware of our own thoughts and feelings and think of choices. What are the ¿least restrictive¿ measures? We need to work with patients in considering a range of measures without taking unnecessary risks or disregarding issues. We must work with our patients so that we all can learn a valuable lesson. Why not give our

  9. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marianno, Priscila; Abrahao, Karina Possa

    2017-01-01

    Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE) affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h) or continuous (24 h) EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress) to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase). Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC). In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h). In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h). After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress. PMID:28107511

  10. Response to Interrupted Hyperopia after Restraint of Axial Elongation in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine if early restraint of axial elongation in response to plus lenses increases the subsequent response to interrupted hyperopia. Methods The normal, interrupted hyperopia group (n=5) had normal visual exposure until 24 days of visual experience (VE). Then, from 24 to 45 days of VE, the animals wore binocular −4 D lenses which shifted the refractive state of the eyes in the direction of hyperopia. Interrupted hyperopia was produced by removing the lenses for 2 hours per day. The early restraint, interrupted hyperopia group (n=5) wore binocular +4 D lenses continuously from 11 to 24 days of VE, becoming emmetropic with the lenses in place and hyperopic when they were removed. Then, from 24 to 45 days of VE, the lenses were removed 22 hours per day and replaced for 2 hours per day. This created the same initial regimen of interrupted hyperopia as in the normal, interrupted hyperopia group. A plus-lens control group wore binocular +4 D lenses (n=5) continuously from 11 to 45 Days of VE to assess the stability of the refractive compensation. Results In the normal, interrupted hyperopia animals, 2 hours of relief from the imposed hyperopia was sufficient to prevent myopia development. In the early restraint, interrupted hyperopia animals, 2 hours of relief from the hyperopia did not prevent myopia development; the eyes became myopic while wearing the lens. The control animals compensated for the +4 D lenses and maintained a stable with-the-lens emmetropia through 45 days of VE, demonstrating that the myopic shift in the early-restraint group was due to the interrupted hyperopia. Conclusions Compensation for plus lenses, involving slowed axial elongation, increases the response to subsequent interrupted hyperopia. Similar to previous reports of an eye-size factor in elongated eyes, these data provide evidence for an eye-size mechanism operating, in this case, in eyes that have restrained their axial length. PMID:23314128

  11. Child restraint misuse: a case example and strategies for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Beringer-Brown, Carol; Pearce, Jeanette; Rush, Carole

    2005-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death and serious injury for children. Emergency nurses can play a key role in encouraging parents and caregivers to use child restraints consistently and correctly. This article will discuss a case scenario where a young child is seriously injured in a motor vehicle crash where his child car seat was not used correctly. Injury prevention strategies for emergency nurses will be reviewed.

  12. Corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in emperor and Adelie penguins in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, John F; Potter, Murray A; Barrett, D Paul; Candy, E Jane

    2008-03-01

    Birds respond to capture, handling and restraint with increased secretion of corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone that helps birds adjust to stressful situations. Hoods are reported to calm birds, but possible effects of hoods on corticosterone responses have not been reported for any bird. Corticosterone responses to restraint in Adelie penguins held by their legs with their head covered by a hood were markedly lower than responses of penguins restrained in a mesh bag inside a cardboard box (corticosterone at 30 min 15.69+/-1.72 cf. 28.32+/-2.75 ng/ml). The birds restrained by the two methods were sampled at the same location but in different years, so the differences in corticosterone responses cannot unequivocally be ascribed to an effect of hoods to reduce corticosterone responses. Corticosterone responses have been measured in some penguins, but not in the largest, the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). The relationship between body mass and corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in penguins was examined in emperor penguins captured on sea ice in McMurdo Sound and Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) captured at Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica. Total integrated corticosterone responses were higher in the emperor than the Adelie penguins, but corrected integrated corticosterone responses, which represent the increase in corticosterone from initial concentrations and hence the corticosterone response to restraint, were the same. The results for the emperor and Adelie penguins, together with data from other penguin species, suggest that there is no relationship between the size of corticosterone responses and body mass in penguins.

  13. Legal restraints on dissemination of instructional materials by educational communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, N. N.

    1972-01-01

    The legal restraints on the use of electronic communications systems for dissemination of instructional materials in the United States are discussed. First the laws are examined relating to public school elementary and secondary education, with primary emphasis on selection of courses of study and instructional materials. The second part contains an examination of the copyright laws, both the copyright law now in effect and the revision thereto currently pending before the Congress of the United States.

  14. The Effects of Soldier Gear Encumbrance on Restraints in a Frontal Crash Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-31

    and load anomalies may exist when the restraints are routed improperly – Produces higher chest displacements – Causes the neck to extend as the head ...were taken at the head and knee during their maximum excursion via video analysis. 8UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release...RESULTS: GEAR COMPARISON DISPLACEMENT •The maximum pelvic excursion of the encumbered ATD was 76mm greater than the unencumbered ATD •The maximum head

  15. Asynchronous collision integrators: Explicit treatment of unilateral contact with friction and nodal restraints

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Sebastian; Bucher, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article presents asynchronous collision integrators and a simple asynchronous method treating nodal restraints. Asynchronous discretizations allow individual time step sizes for each spatial region, improving the efficiency of explicit time stepping for finite element meshes with heterogeneous element sizes. The article first introduces asynchronous variational integration being expressed by drift and kick operators. Linear nodal restraint conditions are solved by a simple projection of the forces that is shown to be equivalent to RATTLE. Unilateral contact is solved by an asynchronous variant of decomposition contact response. Therein, velocities are modified avoiding penetrations. Although decomposition contact response is solving a large system of linear equations (being critical for the numerical efficiency of explicit time stepping schemes) and is needing special treatment regarding overconstraint and linear dependency of the contact constraints (for example from double-sided node-to-surface contact or self-contact), the asynchronous strategy handles these situations efficiently and robust. Only a single constraint involving a very small number of degrees of freedom is considered at once leading to a very efficient solution. The treatment of friction is exemplified for the Coulomb model. Special care needs the contact of nodes that are subject to restraints. Together with the aforementioned projection for restraints, a novel efficient solution scheme can be presented. The collision integrator does not influence the critical time step. Hence, the time step can be chosen independently from the underlying time-stepping scheme. The time step may be fixed or time-adaptive. New demands on global collision detection are discussed exemplified by position codes and node-to-segment integration. Numerical examples illustrate convergence and efficiency of the new contact algorithm. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in

  16. Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot.

  17. High Sucrose Intake Ameliorates the Accumulation of Hepatic Triacylglycerol Promoted by Restraint Stress in Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Ida Soto; Cuevas, Estela; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2015-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder. Stress promotes the onset of the NAFLD with a concomitant increment in the activity of the hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1). However, the interaction between the stress and a carbohydrate-enriched diet for the development of NAFLD in young animals is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of chronic stress on the hepatic triacylglycerol level of young rats fed or not with a high sucrose-diet. For doing this, 21-day old male Wistar rats were allocated into 4 groups: control (C), chronic restraint stress (St), high-sucrose diet (S30), and chronic restraint stress plus a 30 % sucrose diet (St + S30). Chronic restraint stress consisted of 1-hour daily session, 5 days per week and for 4 weeks. Rats were fed with a standard chow and tap water (C group) or 30 % sucrose diluted in water (S30 group). The St + S30 groups consumed less solid food but had an elevated visceral fat accumulation in comparison with the St group. The St group showed a high level of serum corticosterone and a high activity of the hepatic 11β-HSD-1 concomitantly to the augmentation of hepatic steatosis signs, a high hepatic triacylglycerol content, and hepatic oxidative stress. Conversely, the high-sucrose intake in stressed rats (St + S30 group) reduced the hepatic 11β-HSD-1 activity, the level of serum corticosterone, and the hepatic triacylglycerol content. Present findings show that a high-sucrose diet ameliorates the triacylglycerol accumulation in liver promoted by the restraint stress in young male rats.

  18. 76 FR 55825 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... child (H2-6C) dummy or the Hybrid III 6-year-old child (HIII-6C) dummy. This final rule amends the... restraints with either the H2-6C dummy or the HIII-6C dummy until further notice. While the HIII-6C is an..., to choose to have NHTSA test the CRSs with either the H2-6C dummy or the HIII-6C dummy when the...

  19. The design, fabrication and delivery of a manipulator foot restraint mockup for space telescope development testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) is a subsystem of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) which plays a major role in servicing the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in orbit. Flight drawings were used to construct the MFR to guarantee that the mockup components were functionally equivalent to the flight MFR. Material surface finishes and tolerances that were compatible to the Neutral Buoyance Simulator (NBS) environment were used. Recommendation for improvements are discussed.

  20. Development, implementation and evaluation of a unique African-American faith-based approach to increase automobile restraint use.

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Richard A.; Brentley, Anita L.; Ricketts, Crystal D.; Allen, Sheryl E.; Garcia, Victor F.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite generalized intervention programs, restraint use among African Americans remains below national levels, especially among children. This study describes the development and implementation of a community participatory faith-based youth injury prevention program. METHODS: Through a partnership with the African-American faith-based community and our injury prevention group, a unique multigenerational intervention program was developed targeting motor vehicle restraint use. Once developed, the program was initially evaluated by comparing outcomes between control and intervention churches. The main objective was to observe adult and pediatric restraint use before and after program implementation. RESULTS: Overall, there was excellent recognition and participation in the program. Following program implementation, significant improvements were observed in restraint use compared to control churches. In particular, there was a 72% reduction in unrestrained children, a 25% increase in children being secured in the rear-seat position and a nearly 20% increase in driver restraint use. CONCLUSIONS: The development and implementation of a culturally sensitive intervention program can significantly improve restraint use in a minority population. Partnering with the community in all phases of the program is essential to its success. PMID:16916133

  1. Shifts in child restraint use according to child weight in the United States from 1999 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Winston, Flaura K; Chen, Irene G; Arbogast, Kristy B; Elliott, Michael R; Durbin, Dennis R

    2003-01-01

    From 1999 to 2002, 32% fewer US children between 9 and 36.4 kg (20-80 lb) were restrained inappropriately in seat belts and the most prevalent form of restraint shifted from seat belts to child restraints with harnesses. There was a significant increase in the use of combination child restraint/booster seats with harnesses by children 9.1-18.1 kg (20-40 lb). Among children weighing 14.1-18.1 kg (31-40 lb), the inappropriate use of seat belts and shield boosters decreased. Among children weighing 18.6-27.2 kg (41-60 lb), the use of belt-positioning booster seats increased while the inappropriate use of seat belts decreased. Of note, by the end of 2002, 27% of children weighing between 18.6 and 22.7 kg (41-50 lb) were restrained in child restraints with harnesses. These children were of weights typically above the manufacturer's recommended limit. Despite progress, substantial inappropriate restraint still remains and continued investment in outreach efforts is necessary. The risk of injury for heavier children in child restraints with harnesses should be monitored.

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated signaling dampens the HPA axis response to restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Evanson, Nathan K; Herman, James P

    2015-10-15

    Glutamate is an important neurotransmitter in the regulation of the neural portion of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and signals through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. In the current studies we investigated the role of hypothalamic paraventricular group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of the HPA axis response to restraint stress in rats. Direct injection of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) into the PVN prior to restraint leads to blunting of the HPA axis response in awake animals. Consistent with this result, infusion of the group I receptor antagonist hexyl-homoibotenic acid (HIBO) potentiates the HPA axis response to restraint. The excitatory effect of blocking paraventricular group I metabotropic glutamate signaling is blocked by co-administration of dexamethasone into the PVN. However, the inhibitory effect of DHPG is not affected by co-administration of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM-251 into the PVN. Together, these results suggest that paraventricular group I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling acts to dampen HPA axis reactivity. This effect appears to be similar to the rapid inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids at the PVN, but is not mediated by endocannabinoid signaling.

  3. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  4. The Anti-apoptotic Effect of Ghrelin on Restraint Stress-Induced Thymus Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jie Wan; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyuk Soon

    2016-01-01

    Thymic atrophy is a complication that results from exposure to many environmental stressors, disease treatments, and microbial challenges. Such acute stress-associated thymic loss can have a dramatic impact on the host's ability to replenish the necessary naïve T cell output to reconstitute the peripheral T cell numbers and repertoire to respond to new antigenic challenges. We have previously reported that treatment with the orexigenic hormone ghrelin results in an increase in the number and proliferation of thymocytes after dexamethasone challenge, suggesting a role for ghrelin in restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis and its potential use as a thymostimulatory agent. In an effort to understand how ghrelin suppresses thymic T cell apoptosis, we have examined the various signaling pathways induced by receptor-specific ghrelin stimulation using a restraint stress mouse model. In this model, stress-induced apoptosis in thymocytes was effectively blocked by ghrelin. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ghrelin prevents the cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bim, Caspase-3, and PARP. In addition, ghrelin stimulation activates the Akt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways in a time/dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of the FoxO3a pathway in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Together, these findings suggest that ghrelin inhibits apoptosis by modulating the stress-induced apoptotic signal pathway in the restraint-induced thymic apoptosis. PMID:27574503

  5. Myricetin Attenuates Depressant-Like Behavior in Mice Subjected to Repeated Restraint Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zegang; Wang, Guilin; Cui, Lin; Wang, Qimin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that oxidative stress may be implicated in chronic stress-induced depression. Several flavonoids with anti-oxidative effects have been proved to be anti-depressive. Myricetin is a well-defined flavonoid with the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin on depressant-like behaviors in mice subjected to repeated restraint (4 h/day) for 21 days. Our results showed that myricetin administration specifically reduced the immobility time in mice exposed to chronic stress, as tested in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Myricetin treatment improved activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in the hippocampus of stressed mice. In addition, myricetin treatment decreased plasma corticosterone levels of those mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. The effects of myricetin on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in hippocampus were also investigated. The results revealed that myricetin normalized the decreased BDNF levels in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. These findings provided more evidence that chronic administration of myricetin improves helpless behaviors. The protective effects of myricetin might be partially mediated by an influence on BDNF levels and might be attributed to myricetin-mediated anti-oxidative stress in the hippocampus. PMID:26633366

  6. The Association for Behavior Analysis International Position Statement on Restraint and Seclusion

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Timothy R; Hagopian, Louis P; Bailey, Jon S; Dorsey, Michael F; Hanley, Gregory P; Lennox, David; Riordan, Mary M; Spreat, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A task force authorized by the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) generated the statement below concerning the techniques called restraint and seclusion. Members of the task force independently reviewed the scientific literature concerning restraint and seclusion and agreed unanimously to the content of the statement. The Executive Council accepted the statement, and it was subsequently approved by a two-thirds majority vote of the general membership. It now constitutes official ABAI policy. The position statement is posted on the ABAI Web site (www.abainternational.org/ABA/statements/RestraintSeclusion.asp). The purpose of the position statement is to provide guidance to behavior analysts and other professionals interested in the position of ABAI on these controversial topics. In extreme cases, abuses of procedures erroneously used in the name of behavior analysis are not defensible. On the other hand, behavior analysts acting ethically and in good faith are provided with guidelines for sound and acceptably safe practice. To the extent that behavior-analytic positions influence public policy and law, this statement can be presented to officials and lawmakers to guide informed decision making. At the conclusion of the document, a bibliography is provided of articles and presentations considered by one or more task force members in developing the position statement. PMID:22532734

  7. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  8. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; McNair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. We hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. Design and Methods This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs <5% weight loss, and linear regression was used to identify predictors of percent weight loss. Results 27 subjects (37 ± 4.5 yrs, 93.8 ± 12.1 kg, BMI 33.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2) completed the study, with mean weight loss of -5.4 ± 3.3 kg (-5.7 ± 3.2%). Subjects with ≥5% weight loss had higher baseline pre-breakfast hunger (p=0.017), desire to eat (p=0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006), and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p=0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (p=0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p<0.001) were found to be predictors of weight loss. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals reporting greater hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. PMID:26584649

  9. Impact of restraint and disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Robertson, M D; Morgan, L M

    2010-10-01

    The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was energy load dependent. 33 participants (12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained and low/high in disinhibition based on Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint/disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and feelings of appetite was measured, after a 500kcal and 1000kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint did not impact on either fasting or postprandial PYY plasma levels, but participants with high disinhibition had a tendency towards a blunted postprandial PYY response. Moreover, restrained eaters reported lower ratings of prospective food consumption postprandially, and a tendency towards higher fullness/lower hunger. In conclusion, circulating PYY is unaffected by restrained eating behaviour, despite being associated with increased fullness and reduced hunger in the fed state. High levels of disinhibition tend to be associated with a blunted PYY response and this may contribute towards the susceptibility to overconsumption and increased risk of weight gain characteristic of this trait.

  10. Contrasting effects of diazepam and repeated restraint stress on latent inhibition in mice.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, Raymond; Marcello, Stefania; Andersen, Jacob Sparre; Pani, Luca

    2007-11-02

    The effects on latent inhibition (LI; a delay in conditioning when a CS has been pre-exposed without consequences) of repeated restraint stress and the anxiolytic drug diazepam were examined in C57BL/6 mice to know whether previous aversive events or anxiolysis are factors determining the expression of LI. The LI model was optimized for this strain particularly sensitive to stress (using both the CER and the conditioned freezing procedures) and characterized with typical (haloperidol) and atypical (clozapine and olanzapine) antipsychotic drugs administered either during the conditioning or the pre-exposure phases. An acute challenge with amphetamine, a dopamine releaser, was done to verify the enhancement of hyperactivity in C57BL/6 mice after the restraint stress sensitization. At all doses tested, diazepam decreased latent inhibition when administered during the pre-exposure phase (similarly to atypical antipsychotic drugs). Repeated restraint stress enhanced LI by blocking the CS-induced freezing in pre-exposed mice. In contrast, pre-treatment with diazepam before pre-exposure allowed the expression of CS-induced freezing in stressed mice pre-exposed to the tone. It is suggested that stress and anxiolytic drugs can have opposite effects on attention or perseveration processes during learning of conflicting contingency responses.

  11. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE PAGES

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; ...

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)more » of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.« less

  12. Factors associated with sudden death of individuals requiring restraint for excited delirium.

    PubMed

    Stratton, S J; Rogers, C; Brickett, K; Gruzinski, G

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify and rank factors associated with sudden death of individuals requiring restraint for excited delirium. Eighteen cases of such deaths witnessed by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel are reported. The 18 cases reported were restrained with the wrists and ankles bound and attached behind the back. This restraint technique was also used for all 196 surviving excited delirium victims encountered during the study period. Unique to these data is a description of the initial cardiopulmonary arrest rhythm in 72% of the sudden death cases. Associated with all sudden death cases was struggle by the victim with forced restraint and cessation of struggling with labored or agonal breathing immediately before cardiopulmonary arrest. Also associated was stimulant drug use (78%), chronic disease (56%), and obesity (56%). The primary cardiac arrest rhythm of ventricular tachycardia was found in 1 of 13 victims with confirmed initial cardiac rhythms, with none found in ventricular fibrillation. Our findings indicate that unexpected sudden death when excited delirium victims are restrained in the out-of-hospital setting is not infrequent and can be associated with multiple predictable but usually uncontrollable factors.

  13. Vervet monkeys solve a multiplayer "forbidden circle game" by queuing to learn restraint.

    PubMed

    Fruteau, Cécile; van Damme, Eric; Noë, Ronald

    2013-04-22

    In social dilemmas, the ability of individuals to coordinate their actions is crucial to reach group optima. Unless exacted by power or force, coordination in humans relies on a common understanding of the problem, which is greatly facilitated by communication. The lack of means of consultation about the nature of the problem and how to solve it may explain why multiagent coordination in nonhuman vertebrates has commonly been observed only when multiple individuals react instantaneously to a single stimulus, either natural or experimentally simulated, for example a predator, a prey, or a neighboring group. Here we report how vervet monkeys solved an experimentally induced coordination problem. In each of three groups, we trained a low-ranking female, the "provider," to open a container holding a large amount of food, which the providers only opened when all individuals dominant to them ("dominants") stayed outside an imaginary "forbidden circle" around it. Without any human guidance, the dominants learned restraint one by one, in hierarchical order from high to low. Once all dominants showed restraint immediately at the start of the trial, the providers opened the container almost instantly, saving all individuals opportunity costs due to lost foraging time. Solving this game required trial-and-error learning based on individual feedback from the provider to each dominant, and all dominants being patient enough to wait outside the circle while others learned restraint. Communication, social learning, and policing by high-ranking animals played no perceptible role.

  14. Compression-Loaded Composite Panels With Elastic Edge Restraints and Initial Prestress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Riddick, Jaret C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    A parametric study of the effects of test-fixture-induced initial prestress and elastic edge restraints on the prebuckling and buckling responses of a compression-loaded, quasi-isotropic curved panel is presented. The numerical results were obtained by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code with high-fidelity models. The results presented show that a wide range of prebuckling and buckling behavior can be obtained by varying parameters that represent circumferential loaded-edge restraint and rotational unloaded-edge restraint provided by a test fixture and that represent the mismatch in specimen and test-fixture radii of curvature. For a certain range of parameters, the panels exhibit substantial nonlinear prebuckling deformations that yield buckling loads nearly twice the corresponding buckling load predicted by a traditional linear bifurcation buckling analysis for shallow curved panels. In contrast, the results show another range of parameters exist for which the nonlinear prebuckling deformations either do not exist or are relatively benign, and the panels exhibit buckling loads that are nearly equal to the corresponding linear bifurcation buckling load. Overall, the results should be of particular interest to scientists, engineers, and designers involved in simulating flight-hardware boundary conditions in structural verification and certification tests, involved in validating structural analysis tools, and interested in tailoring buckling performance.

  15. Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo--role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Stämpfli, Simon F; Camici, Giovanni G; Keller, Stephan; Rozenberg, Izabela; Arras, Margarete; Schuler, Beat; Gassmann, Max; Garcia, Irene; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C

    2014-01-01

    Stress is known to correlate with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are not known. This study was designed to assess the effect of experimental stress on arterial thrombus formation, the key event in acute myocardial infarction. Mice exposed to 20 h of restraint stress displayed an increased arterial prothrombotic potential as assessed by photochemical injury-induced time to thrombotic occlusion. This increase was prevented by chemical sympathectomy performed through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Blood-born tissue factor (TF) activity was enhanced by stress and this increase could be prevented by 6-OHDA treatment. Vessel wall TF, platelet count, platelet aggregation, coagulation times (PT, aPTT), fibrinolytic system (t-PA and PAI-1) and tail bleeding time remained unaltered. Telemetric analysis revealed only minor hemodynamic changes throughout the stress protocol. Plasma catecholamines remained unaffected after restraint stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels were unchanged and inhibition of TNF-α had no effect on stress-enhanced thrombosis. These results indicate that restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis via the sympathetic nervous system. Blood-borne TF contributes, at least in part, to the observed effect whereas vessel wall TF, platelets, circulating coagulation factors, fibrinolysis and inflammation do not appear to play a role. These findings shed new light on the understanding of stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  16. Changes of testicular phosphorylated proteins in response to restraint stress in male rats*

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Uabundit, Nongnut; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate male reproductive parameters via changes of potential testicular protein markers in restraint-stress rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (non-immobilized control and restraint-immobilized/stress groups, n=8 each group). The stress animals were immobilized (12 h/d) by a restraint cage for 7 consecutive days. All reproductive parameters, morphology and histology were observed and compared between groups. In addition, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and phosphotyrosine proteins (previously localized in Sertoli and late spermatid cells) in testicular lysate was assayed by immuno-Western blotting. Results: Testosterone level, sperm concentration and sperm head normality of stress rats were significantly decreased while the corticosterone level was increased as compared with the control (P<0.05). Histologically, stress rats showed low sperm mass in epididymal lumen and some atrophy of seminiferous tubules. Although the expression of testicular StAR protein was not significantly different between groups, changed patterns of the 131, 95, and 75 kDa testicular phosphorylated proteins were observed in the stress group compared with the control group. The intensity of a testicular 95-kDa phosphorylated protein was significantly decreased in stress rats. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the alteration of testicular phosphorylated protein patterns, associated with adverse male reproductive parameters in stress rats. It could be an explanation of some infertility in stress males. PMID:26739523

  17. As the Last Resort: Reducing the Use of Restrictive Physical Interventions Using Organisational Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveau, Roy; McDonnell, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The development of restrictive physical interventions (RPI) to manage challenging behaviours based upon control and restraint during the 1980s and 1990s led to widespread professional disquiet and campaigning to improve the policies, training and application of physical techniques. This included the promotion of a value base within which physical…

  18. Testosterone depletion increases the susceptibility of brain tissue to oxidative damage in a restraint stress mouse model.

    PubMed

    Son, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Dong-Woon; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Among sex hormones, estrogen is particularly well known to act as neuroprotective agent. Unlike estrogen, testosterone has not been well investigated in regard to its effects on the brain, especially under psychological stress. To investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. BALB/c mice were subjected to either an orchiectomy or sham operation. After allowing 15 days for recovery, mice were re-divided into four groups according to exposure of restraint stress: sham, sham plus stress, orchiectomy, and orchiectomy plus stress. Serum testosterone was undetectable in orchiectomized groups and restraint-induced stress significantly reduced testosterone levels in sham plus stress group. The serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably elevated by restraint stress, and these elevated hormones were markedly augmented by orchiectomy. Two oxidative stressors and biomarkers for lipid and protein peroxidation were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by restraint stress, while the reverse pattern was observed in antioxidant enzymes. These results were supported by histopathological findings, with 4-hydroxynonenal staining for oxidative injury and Fluoro-Jade B staining showing the degenerating neurons. The aforementioned patterns of oxidative injury were accelerated by orchiectomy. These findings strongly suggest the conclusion that testosterone exerts a protective effect against oxidative brain damage, especially under stressed conditions. Unlike estrogen, the effects of testosterone on the brain have not been thoroughly investigated. In order to investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. Orchiectomy markedly augmented the restraint stress-induced elevation of serum corticosterone and adrenaline levels as well as oxidative alterations

  19. The relationship between dietary intake and energy availability, eating attitudes and cognitive restraint in students enrolled in undergraduate nutrition degrees.

    PubMed

    Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship of total energy and macronutrient intake, energy balance and energy availability to eating attitudes and cognitive restraint in students enrolled in undergraduate nutrition degrees. Energy and micronutrient intake was assessed in 63 students (n = 50 nutrition, and n = 13 occupation therapy degrees; n = 51 females, n = 12 males) using three 24-h dietary recalls. Energy requirements were calculated based on measured resting metabolic rate, estimated exercise energy expenditure, and dietary induced thermogenesis. Body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were measured using previously validated tools. Eighteen percent of nutrition students were classified as having low energy availability (<30 kcal kgFFM(-1)d(-1)) and 38% were in negative energy balance. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were not associated with total energy or macronutrient intake. However, female nutrition students with high cognitive restraint had greater exercise energy expenditure and thus lower energy availability than those with low cognitive restraint (371 (302) kcal d(-1) compared to 145 (206) kcal d(-1), P < 0.01, and 35 (7) kcal d(-1) compared to 41 (10) kcal d(-1) of fat free mass, P = 0.005). Additionally, in females, disordered eating attitudes and cognitive restraint negatively correlated with energy availability (rs = -0.37, P = 0.02 and rs = -0.51, P < 0.01 respectively). There were no differences in outcomes between nutrition and non-nutrition students. The current study suggests that those students with disordered eating attitudes and cognitive restraint may be controlling their energy balance through exercise, as opposed to restricting food intake.

  20. A graphical method for analyzing distance restraints using residual dipolar couplings for structure determination of symmetric protein homo-oligomers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey W; Yan, Anthony K; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce R

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution structure determination of homo-oligomeric protein complexes remains a daunting task for NMR spectroscopists. Although isotope-filtered experiments allow separation of intermolecular NOEs from intramolecular NOEs and determination of the structure of each subunit within the oligomeric state, degenerate chemical shifts of equivalent nuclei from different subunits make it difficult to assign intermolecular NOEs to nuclei from specific pairs of subunits with certainty, hindering structural analysis of the oligomeric state. Here, we introduce a graphical method, DISCO, for the analysis of intermolecular distance restraints and structure determination of symmetric homo-oligomers using residual dipolar couplings. Based on knowledge that the symmetry axis of an oligomeric complex must be parallel to an eigenvector of the alignment tensor of residual dipolar couplings, we can represent distance restraints as annuli in a plane encoding the parameters of the symmetry axis. Oligomeric protein structures with the best restraint satisfaction correspond to regions of this plane with the greatest number of overlapping annuli. This graphical analysis yields a technique to characterize the complete set of oligomeric structures satisfying the distance restraints and to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of each distance restraint. We demonstrate our method for the trimeric E. coli diacylglycerol kinase, addressing the challenges in obtaining subunit assignments for distance restraints. We also demonstrate our method on a dimeric mutant of the immunoglobulin-binding domain B1 of streptococcal protein G to show the resilience of our method to ambiguous atom assignments. In both studies, DISCO computed oligomer structures with high accuracy despite using ambiguously assigned distance restraints.

  1. Β-adrenoceptors in the medial amygdaloid nucleus modulate the tachycardiac response to restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Fortaleza, E A T; Scopinho, A A; Corrêa, F M A

    2012-12-27

    In the present study, we investigated the involvement of β-adrenoceptors in the medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) in cardiovascular responses evoked in rats submitted to an acute restraint stress. We first pretreated Wistar rats with the nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol microinjected bilaterally into the MeA (10, 15, and 20 nmol/100 nL) 10 min before exposure to acute restraint. The pretreatment with propranolol did not affect the blood pressure (BP) increase evoked by restraint. However, it increased the tachycardiac response caused by acute restraint when animals were pretreated with a dose of 15 nmol, without a significant effect on the BP response. This result indicates that β-adrenoceptors in the MeA have an inhibitory influence on restraint-evoked heart rate (HR) changes. Pretreatment with the selective β(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 (10, 15, and 20 nmol/100 nL) significantly increased the restraint-evoked tachycardiac response after doses of 15 and 20 nmol, an effect that was similar to that observed after the pretreatment with propranolol at a dose of 15 nmol, without a significant effect on the BP response. Pretreatment of the MeA with the selective β(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist CGP 20712 (10, 15, and 20 nmol/100 nL) caused an opposite effect on the HR response, and a significant decrease in the restraint-evoked tachycardia was observed only after the dose of 20 nmol, without a significant effect on the BP response. Because propranolol is an equipotent antagonist of both β(1) and β(2)-adrenoceptors, and opposite effects were observed after the treatment with the higher doses of the selective antagonists ICI 118,551 and CGP 20712, the narrow window in the dose-response to propranolol could be explained by a functional antagonism resulting from the simultaneous inhibition of β(1) and β(2)-adrenoceptors by the treatment with propranolol. The present results suggest that β(2)-adrenoceptors have an inhibitory influence on the

  2. Perseveration Augments the Effects of Cognitive Restraint on ad libitum Food Intake in Adults Seeking Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Alexis L.; Gluck, Marci E.; Votruba, Suzanne B.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Differences in executive function have been associated with eating behaviors. Our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predicted ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. METHODS This cross-sectional study involved 78 obese, otherwise healthy, individuals (40 female /38 male; age 36±10y; BMI 37.8±7.2 kg/m2) enrolled in weight loss studies, but prior to any intervention. Participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task to evaluate decision making, the Stroop Word Color Task to assess attention, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) to measure perseverative errors, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) to measure disinhibition and cognitive restraint. Ad libitum energy intake over 3-days was then collected using a validated vending paradigm. RESULTS Only results from the WCST and the TFEQ correlated with mean daily energy intake. When expressed as a percentage of an individual's calculated weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN; [mean daily energy consumed/WMEN]*100), intake correlated positively with number of perseverative errors (r = 0.24, p = 0.03) and negatively with cognitive restraint (r2 = −0.51, p<0.0001). In a regression model of %WMEN (r2 = 0.59, p<0.0001) including age, sex, race, disinhibition, restraint, and perseverative error T-score, an interaction between perseveration and restraint was observed (p = 0.05). Greater numbers of perseverative errors intensified the effect of restraint such that subjects with both high restraint and high perseveration, per manual-defined cut-offs, ate the least (median (IQR) = 70 (62, 94) % WMEN), while those with low restraint and high perseveration ate the most (130 (102, 153) %WMEN). Subjects with low perseveration and high versus low restraint ate a median of 84 (70, 86) and 112 (98, 133) %WMEN, respectively. CONCLUSION In obese subjects seeking weight loss, the effects of perseveration on food intake are conditional on the level of dietary restraint, and

  3. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lucie A.; Bauer, Lucy C.; Pitcher, Mark H.; Bushnell, M. Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the “nociceptive” central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli. PMID:27058679

  4. Ameliorative potential of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid in restraint stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, Rajneet K; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid in acute stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats subjected to restraint stress. The rats were placed in the restrainer (5.5 cm in diameter and 18 cm in length) for 3.5 h. Restraint stress-induced behavioral alterations were assessed using the hole-board, social interactions and open field tests. Restraint stress resulted in a decrease in the frequency of head dips, rearing in the hole board, line crossings and rearings in the open field, and an increase in avoidance behaviors in the social interaction tests. Sodium cromoglycate (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, ip), a mast cell stabilizer, and diethyldithiocarbamic acid (75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, ip), a selective NF-κB inhibitor, were employed to modulate restraint stress-induced behavioral changes. The administration of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid significantly attenuated the restraint stress-induced behavioral changes. The noted beneficial effects of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid may possibly be attributed to mast cell stabilization and inhibition of NF-κB activity, respectively.

  5. Sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Mans, Christoph; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Lahner, Lesanna L; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Sladky, Kurt K

    2012-09-01

    Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Adult parrots (n=9) were administered either midazolam (2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution intranasally before a 15-minute manual restraint in a complete crossover study. Respiratory rate and sedation scores were recorded before and during capture and during and after 15 minutes of manual restraint. Heart rate and cloacal temperature were recorded during manual restraint. After restraint, the parrots received intranasal flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution, and the recovery time was recorded. In those birds that received midazolam, sedation was observed within 3 minutes of administration, and vocalization, flight, and defense responses were significantly reduced during capture. During manual restraint, the mean rate of cloacal temperature increase was significantly slower and remained significantly lower in birds that received midazolam compared with controls. Mean respiratory rates were significantly lower for up to 12 minutes in parrots that received midazolam compared with those receiving saline solution. Flumazenil antagonized the effects of midazolam within 10 minutes. No overt clinical adverse effects to intranasal midazolam and flumazenil administration were observed. Further studies on the safety of intranasal midazolam and flumazenil in this species are warranted.

  6. Participation of NMDA receptors in the lateral hypothalamus in gastric erosion induced by cold-water restraint.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated whether neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) play a role in the occurrence of gastric ulcerations induced by cold-water restraint. The first experiment indicated that bilateral N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) lesions of the LH (20μg/1μl per side) reduced the amount of gastric ulceration induced by cold-water restraint. In the second experiment, the NMDA antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV; 2.5μg/0.5μl per side) or its vehicle was microinjected bilaterally into the LH prior to the cold-water restraint procedure. APV did not induce gastric ulcerations but reduced the amount of ulceration induced by cold-water restraint. These results indicate that NMDA receptors in the LH play an important role in the occurrence of gastric ulceration induced by cold-water restraint. The participation of the LH and possible neuronal circuitry involved in stress-induced ulceration are discussed.

  7. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  8. Anhedonia in pigs? Effects of social stress and restraint stress on sucrose preference.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jaime; Solà-Oriol, David; Manteca, Xavier; Pérez, José Francisco; Dwyer, Dominic Michael

    2015-11-01

    The fact that consumption of normally palatable foods is affected by stress in both humans and rats suggests a means to assess hedonic reaction in non-verbal animals. However, little is known about anhedonia and stress in productive animals such as pigs. Thus we examined the separate effects of social stress and restraint stress in 42-day old pigs on the preference for dilute sucrose solutions over water. Pigs in the social stress group (SS) were mixed with unfamiliar animals from separate pens for two 20 minute periods (Experiment 1). Pigs in the restraint stress group (RS) were immobilized three times a day, for 3-min periods, on 3 consecutive days (Experiment 2). Consumption of dilute sucrose solutions and water was examined after these stress manipulations and in the unstressed control groups (CG). Pigs were tested in pairs (12 control and 12 experimental) with a choice between water and sucrose solutions (at either 0.5% or 1%) during 30 min sessions. In both experiments CG pigs showed higher intakes of 0.5% and 1% sucrose solutions over water. Neither SS nor RS pigs consumed more 0.5% sucrose than water, but both groups did consume more 1% sucrose than water. Both social stress and restraint stress reduced sucrose preference at low concentrations but not at higher concentrations suggesting that stress may limit food consumption in pigs unless a palatable feed is present. In addition, the results suggest that stress reduces the hedonic impact of dilute sucrose. Therefore, sucrose preference may be a useful test for the presence of stress and anhedonia in pigs.

  9. Car restraints and seating position for prevention of motor vehicle injuries in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Skalkidou, A; Lescohier, I; Trichopoulos, D

    1998-04-01

    The protective effect of child restraint and the relative safety of front and rear seating in a population where children often travel unrestrained was assessed in a population based case-control study. The cases were all 129 children aged 0-11 years injured as car passengers in a motor vehicle accident who contacted, during 1996, one of the two major children's hospitals in Athens; emergency cases are accepted by the two hospitals on alternate days throughout the year, thus generating a random sample of children injured as car passengers. The prevalence of the studied exposures in the study base was estimated from an inspection survey comprising a random sample of 191 children of the same age who travelled in passenger cars. The survey was conducted by medical staff from our centre in collaboration with the road traffic police. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated after adjustment for confounding factors through the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. The OR for injury was 3.3 among unrestrained children compared with restrained children (comparison essentially limited to children aged 0-4 years) and 5.0 for children seated in the front compared with those seated in the rear (comparison essentially limited among unrestrained children). Protective effect estimates derived from this analytical study suggest that in Greece about two thirds of all childhood injuries from car crashes could have been avoided through the regular use of a proper child restraint. The data also indicate that, in the absence of a child restraint system, a rear seating position conveys substantial protection and could explain the low mortality of children as car passengers in Greece, a country which is characterised by a high overall road traffic mortality as well as a high childhood accident mortality.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Differential Restraint: The Devil is in the Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The Differential Restraint, a mechanism used on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover to maintain symmetry of the mobility system during the launch, cruise, and entry descent and landing phases of the MSL mission, completed nearly three full design cycles before a finalized successful design was achieved. This paper address the lessons learned through these design cycles, including three major design elements that can easily be overlooked during the design process, including, tolerance stack contribution to load path, the possibility of Martian dirt as a failure mode, and the effects of material properties at temperature extremes.

  11. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money.

    PubMed

    Arfer, Kodi B; Bixter, Michael T; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard.

  12. Successful seclusion and restraint prevention effort in child and adolescent programs.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Beth; Albert, Chantell; Azeem, Muhammad W; Beck, Susan; Cocoros, David; Cocoros, Trish; Montes, Raquel; Reddy, Bhagya

    2014-11-01

    The current article presents the experiences of three different child- and family-serving programs in the United States that have successfully implemented interventions to prevent the use of restraint and seclusion (R/S) in their respective facilities. The article also provides family and youth perspectives on the impact of and recommendations for preventing R/S. Over the past decade, a significant shift has occurred toward preventing the use of R/S within programs serving children and adolescents. National efforts have included the work of the Building Bridges Initiative, as well as growing interest and support for the implementation of trauma-informed environments of care.

  13. The effect of restraint stress on prepulse inhibition and on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF receptor gene expression in Wistar-Kyoto and Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jane E.; Burian, Linda C.; Covault, Jonathan; Conti, Lisa H.

    2010-01-01

    Stress plays a role in many psychiatric disorders that are characterized by deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI), a form of sensorimotor gating. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is one of the most important neurotransmitters involved in behavioral components of the stress response, and central infusion of CRF decreases PPI in rodents. We recently demonstrated that restraint stress decreases PPI and attenuates the increase in PPI caused by repeated testing. To broaden our investigation into how restraint affects PPI, we subjected Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Brown Norway (BN) rats to 10 consecutive days of 2-hour restraint, or to brief handling, prior to assessing PPI. We next examined the effects of 1 or 10 days of 2-hour restraint on plasma corticosterone levels in order to determine whether the endocrine response to stress parallels the behavioral effect of stress. Finally, we examined the effects of 1 or 10 days of 2-hour restraint on CRF and CRF receptor gene expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus in order to determine whether a temporal pattern of gene expression parallels the change in the behavioral response to stress. The major findings of the present study are that 1) restraint stress attenuates the increase in PPI caused by repeated testing in both WKY and BN rats, and BN rats are more sensitive to the effects of restraint on PPI than WKY rats, 2) restraint-induced increases in corticosterone levels mirror the effect of restraint on PPI in WKY rats but not in BN rats, 3) laterality effects on gene expression were observed for the amygdala, whereby restraint increases CRF gene expression in the left, but not right, amygdala, and 4) some restraint-induced changes in CRF and CRF receptor gene expression precede changes in PPI while other changes coincide with altered PPI in a rat strain- and brain region-dependent manner. PMID:20709096

  14. Effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on endocannabinoid content in the amygdala, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex in mice.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, David J; Meier, Sarah E; Shi, Leyu; Ho, W-S Vanessa; Jarrahian, Abbas; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2008-01-01

    Endocannabinoid signaling has been implicated in habituation to repeated stress. The hypothesis that repeated exposures to stress alters endocannabinoid signaling in the limbic circuit was tested by restraining male mice for 30 min/day for 1, 7, or 10 days and measuring brain endocannabinoid content. Amygdalar N-arachidonylethanolamine was decreased after 1, 7, and 10 restraint episodes; 2-arachidonylglycerol was increased after the 10th restraint. A similar pattern occurred in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC): N-arachidonylethanolamine was decreased after the 7th and 10th restraints and 2-arachidonylglycerol was increased after the 10th restraint. In the ventral striatum, the pattern reversed: N-arachidonylethanolamine was increased after the 10th restraint and 2-arachidonylglycerol was decreased after the 7th restraint. Palmitoylethanolamide contents changed in parallel with N-arachidonylethanolamine in the amygdala and ventral striatum. A single restraint episode did not affect the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in any of the brain regions examined. After the 10th restraint, both V(max) and K(m) for N-arachidonylethanolamine were increased in the mPFC; while only the V(max) was increased in the amygdala. On the other hand, the V(max) of FAAH was decreased in ventral striatum after the 10th restraint. After the 10th restraint, the maximum velocity for 2-oleoylglycerol hydrolysis was increased in mPFC; no other changes in 2-oleoylglycerol hydrolysis occurred. Repeated exposure to restraint produced no changes in CB(1) receptor density in any of the areas examined. These studies are consistent with the hypothesis that stress exposure alters endocannabinoid signaling in the brain and that alterations in endocannabinoid signaling occur during habituation to stress.

  15. The Effects of Physical Time-Out on the Aggressive Behaviors of a Severely Emotionally Disturbed Child in a Public School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Mary Beth; Simpson, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    A firm physical restraint procedure (physically holding the child from behind until all verbal and physical aggressions had ceased for 30 seconds) was effective in significantly reducing the aggressive responses of a 6-year-old severely emotionally disturbed male in a self-contained special education class. (Author/CL)

  16. Restraint feeds stress: The relationship between eating disorder symptoms, stress generation, and the interpersonal theory of suicide.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Dorian; Smith, April; Bodell, Lindsay

    2014-12-01

    Integrating research on stress generation and the interpersonal theory of suicide we examined whether eating disorder symptoms are related to stress generation and whether negative life events (stressors) contribute to feelings of burdensomeness and low belongingness. At two time points (approximately 1month apart), participants (n=186; 75% female) completed questionnaires measuring eating disorder symptoms, negative life events, burdensomeness, and belongingness. Regression analyses indicated that while controlling for depression, anxiety, and baseline frequency of negative events, dietary restraint significantly predicted negative events at follow-up. Dietary restraint indirectly influenced higher levels of perceived burdensomeness and low belongingness through its influence on negative events. Thus, dietary restraint may contribute to stress generation, and in turn exacerbate feelings of burdensomeness and low belongingness, two important constructs of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Greater understanding of these factors could lead to more effective and targeted suicide interventions for individuals who restrict food intake.

  17. The effects of fat talk on body dissatisfaction and eating behavior: the moderating role of dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Compeau, Alyssa; Ambwani, Suman

    2013-09-01

    Although research suggests that fat talk, the normalized conversations that involve degrading one's body shape/weight and size, can increase body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behavior, the extent to which dietary restraint may moderate these relationships remains uncertain. A pilot study (N=30) comparing online videos with researcher-developed vignettes as prospective manipulations for fat talk exposure suggested use of the vignettes as potent yet subtle stimuli. In the main study, women undergraduates (N=116) were randomized to read a fat talk or neutral vignette and then completed standardized measures of body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint while being concurrently presented with food stimuli. Results suggest significant moderation effects for dietary restraint: whereas fat talk exposure was associated with increased body dissatisfaction among low dietary restrainers, it appeared to reduce food consumption among high dietary restrainers. Findings highlight the importance of individual differences in shaping responses to fat talk.

  18. A traditional Korean multiple herbal formulae (Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang) attenuates acute restraint stress-induced brain tissue oxidation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyoung-Il; Lee, Hye-Won; Eom, Tae-Min; Lim, Sung-Ah; Ha, Hun-Yong; Seol, In-Chan; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Oh, Dal-Seok; Yoo, Ho-Ryong

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang (YJT) against acute restraint stress-induced brain oxidative damage. A water extract of YJT was prepared and subjected to high performance liquid chromatography - diode array detector-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Thirty-six heads of C57BL/6J male mice (7 weeks) were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). The mice were orally administrated YJT (0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or vitamin C (100 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days before 6 h of acute restraint stress. In the brain tissue, lipidperoxidation, antioxidant components, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured, and the serum corticosterone level was determined. Acute restraint stress-induced notably increased lipid peroxidation in brain tissues, and pretreatment with YJT showed a significant decreased the lipid peroxidation levels (p< 0.05). The levels of antioxidant components including total glutathione contents, activities of SOD and catalase were remarkably depleted by acute restraint stress, whereas these alterations were significantly restored by treatment with YJT (p< 0.05 or p< 0.01). The restraint stress markedly increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6 in the gene expression and protein levels (p< 0.05 or p< 0.01). Pretreatment with YJT significantly attenuated serum corticosterone (200 mg/kg, p < 0.05). YJT drastically attenuated the levels of 4- HNE, HO-1, Nox 2 and iNOSwhich were elevated during acute restraint stress, whereas the Nrf2 level was increased in brain tissue protein levels. Our data suggest that YJT protects the brain tissue against oxidative damage and regulates stress hormones.

  19. Flight restraint

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Dein, F.J.; Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Mirande, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Many techniques are available for pre ve n ting escape of captive cranes. These include tenotomy, tenectomy, wing clipping, confinement under nets, amputation, brailing, and vane trimming (Ellis and Dein 1991). The advantages and limitations of each technique are presented.

  20. Improving prediction of helix-helix packing in membrane proteins using predicted contact numbers as restraints.

    PubMed

    Li, Bian; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Elizabeth Dong; Weiner, Brian E; Fischer, Axel W; Meiler, Jens

    2017-03-06

    One of the challenging problems in tertiary structure prediction of helical membrane proteins (HMPs) is the determination of rotation of α-helices around the helix normal. Incorrect prediction of helix rotations substantially disrupts native residue-residue contacts while inducing only a relatively small effect on the overall fold. We previously developed a method for predicting residue contact numbers (CNs), which measure the local packing density of residues within the protein tertiary structure. In this study, we tested the idea of incorporating predicted CNs as restraints to guide the sampling of helix rotation. For a benchmark set of 15 HMPs with simple to rather complicated folds, the average contact recovery (CR) of best-sampled models was improved for all targets, the likelihood of sampling models with CR greater than 20% was increased for 13 targets, and the average RMSD100 of best-sampled models was improved for 12 targets. This study demonstrated that explicit incorporation of CNs as restraints improves the prediction of helix-helix packing. Proteins 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Chronic restraint stress down-regulates amygdaloid expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    Cordero, M I; Rodríguez, J J; Davies, H A; Peddie, C J; Sandi, C; Stewart, M G

    2005-01-01

    The amygdala is a brain area which plays a decisive role in fear and anxiety. Since exposure to chronic stress can induce profound effects in emotion and cognition, plasticity in specific amygdaloid nuclei in response to prior stress has been hypothesized to account for stress-induced emotional alterations. In order to identify amygdala nuclei which may be affected under chronic stress conditions we evaluated the effects of 21-days chronic restraint stress on the expression of a molecule implicated crucially in alterations in structural plasticity: the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule. We found that polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule-immunoreactivity within the amygdala, present in somata and neuronal processes, has a regional gradient with the central medial and medial amygdaloid nuclei showing the highest levels. Our results demonstrate that chronic restraint stress induced an overall reduction in polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule-immunoreactivity in the amygdaloid complex, mainly due to a significant decrease in the central medial amygdaloid and medial amygdaloid nuclei. Our data suggest that polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in these nuclei may play a prominent role in functional and structural remodeling induced by stress, being a potential mechanism for cognitive and emotional modulation. Furthermore, these finding provide the first clear evidence that life experiences can regulate the expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in the amygdaloid complex.

  2. Reduction of Seclusion and Restraint in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Blair, Ellen W; Woolley, Stephen; Szarek, Bonnie L; Mucha, Theodore F; Dutka, Olga; Schwartz, Harold I; Wisniowski, Jeff; Goethe, John W

    2017-03-01

    The authors describe a quality and safety initiative designed to decrease seclusion/restraint (S/R) and present the results of a pilot study that evaluated the effectiveness of this program. The study sample consisted of consecutive admissions to a 120-bed psychiatric service after the intervention was implemented (October 2010-September 2012, n = 8029). Analyses compared S/R incidence and duration in the study sample to baseline (consecutive admissions during the year prior to introduction of the intervention, October 2008-September 2009, n = 3884). The study intervention, which used evidence-based therapeutic practices for reducing violence/aggression, included routine use of the Brøset Violence Checklist, mandated staff education in crisis intervention and trauma informed care, increased frequency of physician reassessment of need for S/R, formal administrative review of S/R events and environmental enhancements (e.g., comfort rooms to support sensory modulation). Statistically significant associations were found between the intervention and a decrease in both the number of seclusions (p < 0.01) and the duration of seclusion per admission (p < 0.001). These preliminary results support the conclusion that this intervention was effective in reducing use of seclusion. Further study is needed to determine if these prevention strategies are generalizable, the degree to which each component of the intervention contributes to improve outcome, and if continuation of the intervention will further reduce restraint use.

  3. Choice of lard, but not total lard calories, damps adrenocorticotropin responses to restraint.

    PubMed

    la Fleur, Susanne E; Houshyar, Hani; Roy, Monica; Dallman, Mary F

    2005-05-01

    Although rats given the choice of eating high-density calories as concentrated sucrose solutions or lard exhibit reduced responsivity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, rats fed high-fat diets have normal or augmented responses to stressors. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we compared in adult male rats the effects of 7-d feeding with lard + chow (choice) to feeding a 50% lard-chow mixture (no-choice) and to chow only. Rats with choice composed diets with 50-60% total calories from lard. Rats were exposed to 30 min of restraint on d 7. In the choice group, there was a robust inhibition of ACTH and corticosterone responses to restraint compared with chow or no-choice groups. Total caloric intake was less with choice than no-choice. Fat depot weights and body weight gain were similar in the high-fat groups. Leptin concentrations were equal but insulin was higher in the choice group. We conclude the following: 1) choice of eating high-density calories strongly damps hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress; without choice, high-density diet is ineffective; and 2) insulin may signal metabolic well-being, and may act through hypothalamic sites to reduce caloric intake but through forebrain sites to damp stress responses.

  4. Calculation of rigid-body conformational changes using restraint-driven Cartesian transformations.

    PubMed Central

    Sompornpisut, P; Liu, Y S; Perozo, E

    2001-01-01

    We present an approach for calculating conformational changes in membrane proteins using limited distance information. The method, named restraint-driven Cartesian transformations, involves 1) the use of relative distance changes; 2) the systematic sampling of rigid body movements in Cartesian space; 3) a penalty evaluation; and 4) model refinement using energy minimization. As a test case, we have analyzed the structural basis of activation gating in the Streptomyces lividans potassium channel (KcsA). A total of 10 pairs of distance restraints derived from site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL-EPR) spectra were used to calculate the open conformation of the second transmembrane domains of KcsA (TM2). The SDSL-EPR based structure reveals a gating mechanism consistent with a scissoring-type motion of the TM2 segments that includes a pivot point near middle of the helix. The present approach considerably reduces the amount of time and effort required to establish the overall nature of conformational changes in membrane proteins. It is expected that this approach can be implemented into restrained molecular dynamics protocol to calculate the structure and conformational changes in a variety of membrane protein systems. PMID:11606268

  5. Cold-restraint induced gastric lesions in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Athey, G.R.; Iams, S.G.

    1981-02-23

    Spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to 2 hr of cold-restraint stress at 4-6/sup o/C following a 24 hr fast. WKY rats had a significantly greater incidence and degree of ulceration of the gastric glandular mucosa than did SHR rats. Mean arterial pressure, obtained from a chronic arterial cannula, fell during 2 hr of cold-restraint stress in both SHR and WKY rats. Heart rate was unchanged in WKY but fell significantly in SHR. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E), determined by radioenzymatic assay, increased significantly following stress. Increased levels of NE remained similar for both SHR and WKY rats, while post-stress levels of E for the SHR rats greatly exceeded E levels for WKY rats. A greater degree of hypothermia was also noted in SHR rats. Decreased stress induced ulcerogenesis in the SHR may be due to the well-known altered hemodynamic and autonomic nervous system reactivity in this strain or other factors not yet discovered.

  6. Gastroprotective Effect of Thymoquinone on Water Immersion Restraint Stress Induced Ulceration in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Syed Sufiyan; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Kaundal, Madhu; Akhtar, Mohd

    2017-03-02

    To evaluated the role of thymoquinone (TQ) on stress induced ulceration progress in rats subjected to water immersion restraint as a stress (WRS) condition model. Wistar albino rats were divided into different groups; the animals were subjected to WRS. TQ (10 mg/kg) alone and TQ with ranitidine (20 mg/kg) were administered per orally as pre treatment for 7 days. On 8(th) day the animals were sacrificed, gastric juice, pH, acid secretion, acid output, ulcer index and markers of oxidative stress and histopathology were determined. Volume of gastric juice, acid secretion was increased, while pH decreased in WRS animals. TQ pre-treated group showed reduction in the above parameters. The combination group showed more significant results than TQ and ranitidine alone on the above parameters. TQ decreased the ulcer index (UI), again combination group showed more significant decreased in UI. Oxidative stress markers were reduced and antioxidant enzymes were augmented. Gastric mucosa was protected as demonstrated by histological slides. The present study is one of its kinds to demonstrate anti ulcer effect of TQ against the water immersion restraint method of stress ulceration. Thus, TQ has the potential to be the promising drug for stress induced gastric ulcers.

  7. Investigation of sleep–wake rhythm in non-human primates without restraint during data collection

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Akiyoshi; Sakai, Keita; Maki, Takehiro; Mizuno, Yuri; Niimi, Kimie; Oda, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Eiki

    2016-01-01

    To understand sleep mechanisms and develop treatments for sleep disorders, investigations using animal models are essential. The sleep architecture of rodents differs from that of diurnal mammals including humans and non-human primates. Sleep studies have been conducted in non-human primates; however, these sleep assessments were performed on animals placed in a restraint chair connected via the umbilical area to the recording apparatus. To avoid restraints, cables, and other stressful apparatuses and manipulations, telemetry systems have been developed. In the present study, sleep recordings in unrestrained cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) were conducted to characterize normal sleep. For the analysis of sleep–wake rhythms in cynomolgus monkeys, telemetry electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and electrooculography (EOG) signals were used. For the analysis of sleep–wake rhythms in marmosets, telemetry EEG and EOG signals were used. Both monkey species showed monophasic sleep patterns during the dark phase. Although non-rapid eye movement (NREM) deep sleep showed higher levels at the beginning of the dark phase in cynomolgus monkeys, NREM deep sleep rarely occurred during the dark phase in marmosets. Our results indicate that the use of telemetry in non-human primate models is useful for sleep studies, and that the different NREM deep sleep activities between cynomolgus monkeys and common marmoset monkeys are useful to examine sleep functions. PMID:27760892

  8. Effect of restraint and copper deficiency on blood pressure and mortality of adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klevay, L.M.; Halas, E.S. )

    1989-02-01

    The etiology of most hypertension is unknown; stress is thought to elevate blood pressure. Male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified diet plus a drinking solution containing 10{mu}g Zn and 2{mu}g Cu/ml (acetate sulfate, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was measured without anesthesia. After being matched by mean weight (280g) and blood pressure into 4 groups of 15, groups 1 and 2 received a drinking solution without copper. After 24 days rats in groups 2 and 4 were restrained for 45 min. daily (A.M.) for 23 days in a small plastic cage (19{times}6{times}6 cm). Final pressures were affected both by stress and dietary Cu: group 1, 119; group 2, 131; group 3, 114; group 4, 123 mm Hg. One rat in each of groups 1, 3, 4 and 10 rats in group 2, died. Among these latter hemorrhage was prominent, blood being found in bladder (2), gut (2), peritoneum (2) and scrotum (1). Copper deficiency decreased cooper in both adrenal gland and liver by 58% and in heart by 29% restraint was without effect. Cardiac sodium was increased 6% only by deficiency. Results confirm the hypertensive effect of copper deficiency in adult rats and reveal that the stress of restraint increases blood pressure. Copper deficiency plus stress is harmful.

  9. Biomechanics of side impact injuries: evaluation of seat belt restraint system, occupant kinematics and injury potential.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Carlin, Fred; Frieder, Russell; Friedman, Keith; Renfroe, David

    2006-01-01

    Side impact crashes are the second most severe motor vehicle accidents resulting in serious and fatal injuries. One of the occupant restraint systems in the vehicle is the three point lap/shoulder harness. However, the lap/shoulder restraint is not effective in a far-side crash (impact is opposite to the occupant location) since the occupant may slip out of the shoulder harness. The present comprehensive study was designed to delineate the biomechanics of far-side planar crashes. The first part of the study involves a car-to-car crash to study the crash dynamics and occupant kinematics; the second part involves an epidemiological analysis of NASS/CDS 1988-2003 database to study the distribution of serious injury; the third part includes the mathematical MADYMO analysis to study the occupant kinematics in detail; and the fourth part includes an in-depth analysis of a real world far-side accident to delineate the injury mechanism and occupant kinematics. Results indicate that the shoulder harness is ineffective in far-side crashes. The upper torso of the belted driver dummy slips out of the shoulder harness and interacted with the opposite vehicle interior such as the door panel. The unbelted occupants had a similar head injury severity pattern compared to belted occupants. The present study is another step to advance towards better understanding of the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of side impact injuries.

  10. The importance of spatial heterogeneity and self-restraint on mutualism stability - a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Dunn, Derek W; Luo, Jun; He, Jun-Zhou; Shi, Lei

    2015-10-05

    Understanding the factors that enable mutualisms to evolve and to subsequently remain stable over time, is essential to fully understand patterns of global biodiversity and for evidence based conservation policy. Theoretically, spatial heterogeneity of mutualists, through increased likelihood of fidelity between cooperative partners in structured populations, and 'self-restraint' of symbionts, due to selection against high levels of virulence leading to short-term host overexploitation, will result in either a positive correlation between the reproductive success of both mutualists prior to the total exploitation of any host resource or no correlation after any host resource has been fully exploited. A quantitative review by meta-analysis on the results of 96 studies from 35 papers, showed no evidence of a significant fitness correlation between mutualists across a range of systems that captured much taxonomic diversity. However, when the data were split according to four categories of host: 1) cnidarian corals, 2) woody plants, 3) herbaceous plants, and 4) insects, a significantly positive effect in corals was revealed. The trends for the remaining three categories did not significantly differ to zero. Our results suggest that stability in mutualisms requires alternative processes, or mechanisms in addition to, spatial heterogeneity of hosts and/or 'self-restraint' of symbionts.

  11. A prototype Crew Medical Restraint System (CMRS) for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, S. L.; Eichstadt, F. T.; Billica, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Crew Medical Restrain System (CMRS) is a prototype system designed and developed for use as a universally deployable medical restraint/workstation on Space Station Freedom (SSF), the Shuttle Transportation System (STS), and the Assured Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) for support of an ill or injured crewmember requiring stabilization and transportation to Earth. The CMRS will support all medical capabilities of the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) by providing a restraint/interface system for all equipment (advance life support packs, defibrillator, ventilator, portable oxygen supply, IV pump, transport monitor, transport aspirator, and intervenous fluids delivery system) and personnel (patient and crew medical officers). It must be functional within the STS, ACRV, and all SSF habitable volumes. The CMRS will allow for medical capabilities within CPR, ACLS and ATLS standards of care. This must all be accomplished for a worst case transport time scenario of 24 hours from SSF to a definitive medical care facility on Earth. A presentation of the above design prototype with its subsequent one year SSF/HMF and STS/ACRV high fidelity mock-up ground based simulation testing will be given. Also, parabolic flight and underwater Weightless Test Facility evaluations will be demonstrated for various medical contingencies. The final design configuration to date will be discussed with future space program impact considerations.

  12. Evolution of restraint in a structured rock–paper–scissors community

    PubMed Central

    Nahum, Joshua R.; Harding, Brittany N.; Kerr, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    It is not immediately clear how costly behavior that benefits others evolves by natural selection. By saving on inherent costs, individuals that do not contribute socially have a selective advantage over altruists if both types receive equal benefits. Restrained consumption of a common resource is a form of altruism. The cost of this kind of prudent behavior is that restrained individuals give up resources to less-restrained individuals. The benefit of restraint is that better resource management may prolong the persistence of the group. One way to dodge the problem of defection is for altruists to interact disproportionately with other altruists. With limited dispersal, restrained individuals persist because of interaction with like types, whereas it is the unrestrained individuals that must face the negative long-term consequences of their rapacity. Here, we study the evolution of restraint in a community of three competitors exhibiting a nontransitive (rock–paper–scissors) relationship. The nontransitivity ensures a form of negative feedback, whereby improvement in growth of one competitor has the counterintuitive consequence of lowering the density of that improved player. This negative feedback generates detrimental long-term consequences for unrestrained growth. Using both computer simulations and evolution experiments with a nontransitive community of Escherichia coli, we find that restrained growth can evolve under conditions of limited dispersal in which negative feedback is present. This research, thus, highlights a set of ecological conditions sufficient for the evolution of one form of altruism. PMID:21690371

  13. The effect of current and anticipated body pride and shame on dietary restraint and caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a link between body shame and eating disorder symptoms and behaviours. However, few have differentiated current feelings of body shame from those anticipated with weight change and none has examined the effects of these on subsequent eating behaviour. In this paper, a measure of body pride and shame was developed (Study 1) for the purposes of using it in a subsequent longitudinal study (Study 2). Two hundred and forty two women were recruited from a university and the general population and participated in Study 1, completing the Body Pride and Shame (BPS) scale either online or offline, as well as a number of validating measures. In Study 2, 40 female students completed the BPS, as well as a measure of dietary restraint, and subsequently recorded their dietary intake everyday for the next seven days. Study 1 identified and validated subscales of current body pride/shame as well as pride/shame that is anticipated were the individual to gain weight or lose weight. In Study 2, over and above levels of dietary restraint, current feelings of body shame predicted eating more calories over the next 7 days while the anticipation of shame with weight gain predicted eating fewer calories. Although previous research has only measured current feelings of body shame, the present studies showed that anticipated shame also impacts on subsequent behaviour. Interventions that regulate anticipated as well as current emotions, and that do not merely challenge cognitions, may be important in changing eating behaviour.

  14. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards.

  15. Variation in Behavioral Reactivity Is Associated with Cooperative Restraint Training Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Training techniques that prepare laboratory animals to participate in testing via cooperation are useful tools that have the potential to benefit animal wellbeing. Understanding how animals systematically vary in their cooperative training trajectories will help trainers to design effective and efficient training programs. In the present report we document an updated method for training rhesus monkeys to cooperatively participate in restraint in a ‘primate chair.’ We trained 14 adult male macaques to raise their head above a yoke and accept yoke closure in an average of 6.36 training days in sessions that lasted an average of 10.52 min. Behavioral observations at 2 time points prior to training (approximately 3 y and 1.3 y prior) were used to quantify behavioral reactivity directed toward humans and toward other macaques. Individual differences in submissive–affiliative reactivity to humans but not reactivity toward other monkeys were related to learning outcomes. Macaques that were more reactive to humans were less willing to participate in training, were less attentive to the trainer, were more reactive during training sessions, and required longer training sessions, longer time to yoke, and more instances of negative reinforcement. These results suggest that rhesus macaques can be trained to cooperate with restraint rapidly and that individual difference data can be used to structure training programs to accommodate variation in animal temperament. PMID:26817979

  16. Exposure to Violence in Early Adolescence: The Impact of Self-Restraint, Witnessing Violence, and Victimization on Aggression and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Farrell, Albert D.; Kliewer, Wendy; Vulin-Reynolds, Monique; Valois, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relation between self-restraint and exposure to violence (witnessing violence and victimization) in predicting increased frequencies of aggression and drug use among an ethnically diverse sample of sixth graders attending four rural middle schools (n = 913). Lower levels of self-restraint predicted higher rates of…

  17. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Moderate- to Long-Term Dietary Restriction? Objective Biological and Behavioral Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Cooper, Jamie A.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Tappe, Karyn; Lowe, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Prospective studies indicate that elevated scores on dietary restraint scales predict bulimic symptom onset, but experiments indicate that assignment to dietary restriction interventions reduces bulimic symptoms. One possible explanation for the inconsistent findings is that the dietary restraint scales used in the former studies are not valid…

  18. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  19. Restraint ulcers in the rat. 1: Influence on ulcer frequency of fasting and of environmental temperature associated with immobilization of varying durations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Gallaire, D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the production of experimental ulcers in rats are described. Two experimental conditions were found to regularly provoke the appearance of gastric ulcers in a high percentage of rats: (1) two-and-a-half hour restraint, proceeded by a 24 hour fast; and (2) one-and-a-half hour restraint with lowering of the environmental temperature while fasting.

  20. Effects of acute tilt from orthostatic to head-down antiorthostatic restraint and of sustained restraint on the intra-cerebroventricular pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Maurel, D; Ixart, G; Barbanel, G; Mekaouche, M; Assenmacher, I

    1996-10-14

    The tail-cast suspension rat model was developed to explore in ground laboratories the physiological effects of some of the stresses prevailing during space flight including and among them those of the headwards body fluid shifts. We recently showed in rats that an acute head-down tilt (45 degrees) from tail-cast orthostatic (OR) to antiorthostatic restraint (AOR) induced within 30 min and for 2 to 4 h an acute stress-like surge in plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels. Considering the proximity of the CRF producing neurons with the 3rd ventricle, we decided to explore the acute and longer-term effects of the OR/AOR tilt on the intra-cerebroventricular pressure (Picv) measured with an indwelling sensor-transmitter catheter stereotaxically implanted in the 3rd ventricle. At 1- or 10-min intervals the unit sent radiotelemetric signals for both Picv and motor activity (MA) to a receiver coupled with an automatic data analyser. The acute AOR-tilt induced within 10 min and for 60 min a 2.5-fold rise in Picv which receded to baseline between 60 and 90 min. During this time, the normally close correlation between Picv and MA was lost, as assessed by Spearman's rank coefficient. In a long-term experimental series we explored the evolution of both Picv and MA in individual rats subjected successively to a 7 day control phase (C). 7 days OR, and 3 days AOR. After the 1-h-long post-tilt rise of the Picv, the mean Picv levels measured for the next 3 days decreased significantly vs. both the preceding OR phase (-30%) and the initial C Phase (-40%). The circadian pattern of the diurnal Picv profile was impaired, as evidenced by a significant fall (i) in the night/day ratio (-25% vs. C). and (ii) even more in the spectral power of the circadian 1 c/24 h frequency (-85% vs. C). The simultaneously recorded MA fluctuations similarly displayed an altered diurnal pattern with a spectral power of the circadian frequency reduced to 7% of controls. However, contrary to the short

  1. The Treatment of Severe Self-Injurious Behavior by the Systematic Fading of Restraints: Effects of Self-Injury, Self-Restraint, Adaptive Behavior, and Behavioral Correlates of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott; Hales, Jackie; Watts, Derek; Murphy, Glynis

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of introducing flexion into a straight-arm splint, on self-injurious behavior (SIB), self-restraint, adaptive behavior, and behavioral correlates of affect for three individuals with severe mental retardation. For two individuals, SIB was reduced to zero, while overall level of restriction was also significantly…

  2. Chronic orthostatic and antiorthostatic restraint induce neuroendocrine, immune and neurophysiological disorders in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assenmacher, I.; Mekaouche, M.; Maurel, D.; Barbanel, G.; Givalois, L.; Boissin, J.; Malaval, F.; Ixart, G.

    The tail-cast suspension rat model has been developed in ground laboratories interested in space physiology for extensive study of mechanisms causing the pathophysiological syndrome associated with space flights. We used individually-caged male rats to explore the effects of acute and chronic (7d) orthostatic restraint (OR) and head-down anti-orthostatic restraint (AOR) on a series of physiological variables. The acute restraint study showed that (1) the installation of the OR device induced an acute reaction for 2 days, with a substantial rise in ACTH (x2) and CORT (x6), and that (2) the head-down tilt from OR to AOR induced (i) within 10 min and lasting 60 min a 2-fold rise in the intra-cerebro-ventricular pressure (Picv) monitored with an icv telemetric recording system, which receded to normal between 60 and 120 min; and (ii) within 30 min a short-lived 4-fold rise in plasma ACTH and CORT levels. Chronic OR induced (1) the suppression of the diurnal ACTH/CORT rhythm, with increased mean levels, especially for ACTH, (2) a degraded circadian locomotor activity rhythm manifested by a significant reduction in the spectral power of the 24h periodicity and a concomitant emergence of shorter (ultradian) periodicities, (3) an associated, but less pronounced alteration of the diurnal rhythm in body temperature; and (4) a marked increase in baseline plasma levels of IL-1β and an increased reactivity in cytokine release following an E. coli endotoxin (LPS) challenge. AOR induced (1) a similar obliteration of the circadian ACTH/CORT rhythm, (2) the loss of close correlation between ACTH and CORT, (3) a generalized increase in baseline plasma IL-1β levels and (4) more extensive degradation of the arcadian periodicity for both locomotor activity and, to a lesser extent, body temperature, replaced by dominant spectral powers for ultradian periodicities (3 to 10h). In conclusion, both experimental paradigms — but AOR more than OR — caused a blockade of the arcadian

  3. Restraint stress-induced reduction in prepulse inhibition in Brown Norway rats: Role of the CRF2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jane E.; Conti, Lisa H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress plays a role in many psychiatric disorders that are characterized by deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI), a form of sensorimotor gating. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is one of the most important neurotransmitters involved in behavioral components of the stress response. Central infusion of CRF reduces PPI in both rats and mice. In mice, it has been shown that CRF1 receptor activation mediates the effect of exogenous CRF on PPI. However, the roles of the two CRF receptors in a stress-induced reduction in PPI are not known. We sought to determine whether CRF1 and/or CRF2 receptor blockade attenuates a stress-induced reduction of PPI in rats. In separate experiments, we assessed PPI in Brown Norway rats after exposure to five days of 2-hour restraint, and after pretreatment with the CRF1 receptor antagonist, CP-154,526 (20.0 mg/kg), or the CRF2 receptor antagonist, antisauvagine-30 (10.0 µg). Repeated, but not acute, restraint decreased PPI and attenuated the increase in PPI caused by repeated PPI testing. Blockade of the CRF1 receptor did not attenuate the effect of repeated restraint on PPI or grooming behavior. While CRF2 receptor blockade did attenuate the effect of repeated restraint on PPI, repeated ICV infusion of the selective CRF2 receptor agonist urocortin III, did not affect PPI. These findings demonstrate the effect of stress on sensorimotor gating and suggest that the CRF2 receptor mediates this effect in rats. PMID:21185316

  4. The Contribution of Children's Temperamental Fear and Effortful Control to Restraint and Seclusion during Inpatient Treatment in a Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgett, David J.; Valentino, Kristin; Hayden, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined temperament characteristics as risk factors for restraint and seclusion (R/S) events in psychiatrically hospitalized youth, extending work that has sought to identify R/S risk factors and research examining temperament-behavior problem associations that has largely relied upon community samples. It was anticipated that…

  5. Nonlifting wing-body combinations with certain geometric restraints having minimum wave drag at low supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Harvard

    1957-01-01

    Several variational problems involving optimum wing and body combinations having minimum wave drag for different kinds of geometrical restraints are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the effect on the wave drag of shortening the fuselage and, for slender axially symmetric bodies, the effect of fixing the fuselage diameter at several points or even of fixing whole portions of its shape.

  6. 76 FR 13621 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Litters and Patient Restraints to Proposed Test Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), CDC, HHS, in collaboration with the National Truck Equipment... Retention System Dynamic Test--Proposed (draft), seeks to improve patient and litter retention during crash... Recommended Practice, Occupant Restraint and Equipment Mounting Integrity--Frontal Impact...

  7. 49 CFR 571.202a - Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., subpart E, the applicable head restraint must conform to S4.2 of this section. S4.2Dimensional and static... S5.3 of this section, during a forward acceleration of the dynamic test platform described in S5.3.1... seat component attached to or adjacent to the rear seat back. S5.2Dimensional and static...

  8. Effect of prolonged nicotine infusion on response of rat catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes to restraint and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Yuan; Glazkova, Dina; Serova, Lidia; Sabban, Esther L

    2005-11-01

    There is a paradoxical relationship between nicotine and stress. To help elucidate their relationship on catecholamine biosynthesis, rats were infused with nicotine for 7-14 days before exposure to cold or restraint stress. Nicotine (5 mg/kg/day, 14 days) did not alter basal plasma corticosterone or its elevation with 24 h cold stress, but prevented corticosterone elevation following 2 h restraint stress. In adrenal medulla (AM), response of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), but not tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA, to both stressors was attenuated in nicotine-infused rats. In locus coeruleus (LC), restraint stress elevated TH and DBH mRNA in saline-, but not in nicotine-infused rats. Cold stress triggered a similar response of TH and DBH mRNAs in LC with and without nicotine infusion. With shorter nicotine infusion (8 mg/kg/day, 7 days), TH mRNA in AM was not induced by restraint stress on one (1x) or two (2x) consecutive days nor was DBH mRNA in AM or LC by 2x. The findings demonstrate that constant release of nicotine can modulate, or even prevent, some stress responses at the level of the HPA axis and gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in LC and AM.

  9. 49 CFR 571.202 - Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... parallel to the torso reference line defined by the three dimensional SAE J826 (rev. Jul 95) manikin, to a plane normal to the torso reference line. Top of the head restraint means the point on the head..., limit rearward angular displacement of the head reference line to 45 degrees from the torso...

  10. 49 CFR 571.202 - Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... parallel to the torso reference line defined by the three dimensional SAE J826 (rev. Jul 95) manikin, to a plane normal to the torso reference line. Top of the head restraint means the point on the head..., limit rearward angular displacement of the head reference line to 45 degrees from the torso...

  11. 49 CFR 571.202a - Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... either S4.2 or S4.3 of this section must be provided at each front outboard designated seating position... performance. Each head restraint located in the front outboard designated seating position and each head....2.1Minimum height. (a) Front outboard designated seating positions. (1) Except as provided in...

  12. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint.

    PubMed

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P < .01]; RR, -17.5 ± 22.6 breaths/min, [P < .05]). Hooded birds had significantly lower HRs and RRs at 15 minutes of restraint (HR: 232.5 ± 26 bpm, [P < .037]; RR: 33.1 ± 6.7 breaths/min, [P < .05]) compared to birds restrained without a hood (HR: 280 ± 74.1 bpm; RR: 51.5 ± 28.8 breaths/min). Cloacal temperature increased significantly in all manually restrained birds (+2.2 ± 0.7°C, [P < .01]), with a comparable increase in hooded and nonhooded birds. In this study of the effects of manual restraint on red-tailed hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia.

  13. The Latent Structure of Dietary Restraint, Body Dissatisfaction, and Drive for Thinness: A Series of Taxometric Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm-Denoma, Jill M.; Richey, J. Anthony; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although the latent structure of various eating disorders has been explored in previous studies, no published studies have examined the latent structure of theoretically relevant variables that have been shown to cut across eating disorder diagnoses. The current study examined 3 such variables (dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive…

  14. Delineating potential mechanisms of implicit alcohol cognitions: drinking restraint, negative affect, and their relationship with approach alcohol associations.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Cameron, Amy Y; Udo, Tomoko; Hagman, Brett T; Mitchell, Jessica; Bramm, Stephanie; Ehlke, Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Problem drinkers may use alcohol to avoid negative mood states and may develop implicit cognitive associations between negative emotional states and reinforcing properties of drinking. It is paradoxical that attempts to control drinking, such as among those high in drinking restraint, may inadvertently increase desire to drink and subsequent alcohol consumption, and this may be exaggerated under times of emotional distress when urges to drink are high. We examined whether individuals who are high on drinking restraint would demonstrate stronger alcohol-related thoughts elicited by stimuli that represent the desire to use alcohol, in response to stronger versus weaker negative mood arousal. Seventy hazardous drinkers completed measurements of drinking restraint, alcohol consumption, and consequences of use. After being randomized to view negative or positive pictures sets, participants completed an Implicit Association Task (IAT) to test differences in the strength of the association between desire to approach or avoid alcohol or water cues, and then a measurement of subjective craving following the IAT. Regression analyses showed that trait restriction not temptation was positively related to IAT scores, after controlling for relevant covariates and explained 7% of the total variance. Trait temptation not IAT predicted subjective craving. Negative affect was unrelated to IAT scores, singly or in conjunction with measures of drinking restraint, contrary to predictions. In sum, implicit alcohol cognitions are related to attempts to restrict drinking not temptation to drink and are less strongly influenced by mood state.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of configurational ensembles compatible with experimental FRET efficiency data through a restraint on instantaneous FRET efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Reif, Maria M; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-12-15

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements are widely used to investigate (bio)molecular interactions or/and association. FRET efficiencies, the primary data obtained from this method, give, in combination with the common assumption of isotropic chromophore orientation, detailed insight into the lengthscale of molecular phenomena. This study illustrates the application of a FRET efficiency restraint during classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of a mutant mastoparan X peptide in either water or 7 M aqueous urea. The restraint forces acting on the donor and acceptor chromophores ensure that the sampled peptide configurational ensemble satisfies the experimental primary data by modifying interchromophore separation and chromophore transition dipole moment orientations. By means of a conformational cluster analysis, it is seen that indeed different configurational ensembles may be sampled without and with application of the restraint. In particular, while the FRET efficiency and interchromophore distances monitored in an unrestrained simulation may differ from the experimentally-determined values, they can be brought in agreement with experimental data through usage of the FRET efficiency restraining potential. Furthermore, the present results suggest that the assumption of isotropic chromophore orientation is not always justified. The FRET efficiency restraint allows the generation of configurational ensembles that may not be accessible with unrestrained simulations, and thereby supports a meaningful interpretation of experimental FRET results in terms of the underlying molecular degrees of freedom. Thus, it offers an additional tool to connect the realms of computer and wet-lab experimentation.

  16. New Considerations in the Prevention of Aversives, Restraint, and Seclusion: Incorporating the Role of Relationships into an Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    While many individuals with challenging behaviors now enjoy the benefits of inclusion and self-determination, large numbers of their peers remain in segregated, restrictive settings and continue to be subjected to coercive intervention plans that include aversives, (nonemergency) restraint, and seclusion as "treatment." A rising tide of…

  17. 77 FR 41742 - In the Matter of: Humane Restraint, Inc., 912 Bethel Circle, Waunakee, WI 53597, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ..., items subject to the Regulations, classified under Export Control Classification Number (``ECCN'') 0A982... Regulations, classified under ECCN 0A982, controlled for Crime Control reasons, and valued at approximately... an ambulatory restraint kit, items classified under ECCN 0A982, controlled for Crime Control...

  18. Developmental Trajectories in Toddlers' Self-Restraint Predict Individual Differences in Executive Functions 14 Years Later: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Naomi P.; Miyake, Akira; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Hewitt, John K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether self-restraint in early childhood predicted individual differences in 3 executive functions (EFs; inhibiting prepotent responses, updating working memory, and shifting task sets) in late adolescence in a sample of approximately 950 twins. At ages 14, 20, 24, and 36 months, the children were shown an attractive toy and told not…

  19. Delineating Potential Mechanisms of Implicit Alcohol Cognitions: Drinking Restraint, Negative Affect, and their Relationship with Approach Alcohol Associations

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy M.; Cameron, Amy Y.; Udo, Tomoko; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica; Bramm, Stephanie; Ehlke, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Problem drinkers may use alcohol to avoid negative mood states and may develop implicit cognitive associations between negative emotional states and reinforcing properties of drinking. Ironically, attempts to control drinking, such as among those high in drinking restraint, may inadvertently increase desire to drink and subsequent alcohol consumption, and this may be exaggerated under times of emotional distress when urges to drink are high. We examined whether individuals who are high on drinking restraint would demonstrate stronger alcohol-related thoughts elicited by stimuli that represent the desire to use alcohol, in response to stronger versus weaker negative mood arousal. Seventy hazardous drinkers completed measurements of drinking restraint, alcohol consumption, and consequences of use. After being randomized to view negative or positive pictures sets, participants completed an Implicit Association Task (IAT) to test differences in the strength of the association between desire to approach or avoid alcohol or water cues, and then a measurement of subjective craving following the IAT. Regression analyses showed that trait restriction, but not temptation, was positively related to IAT scores, after controlling for relevant covariates and explained 7% of the total variance. Trait temptation, but not IAT, predicted subjective craving. Negative affect was unrelated to IAT scores, singly or in conjunction with measures of drinking restraint, contrary to predictions. In sum, implicit alcohol cognitions are related to attempts to restrict drinking, but not temptation to drink, and are less strongly influenced by mood state. PMID:22369223

  20. Improper use of child restraint seats as a sleeping environment: Two cases of childhood death.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Ash; Adams, Elysia; Desapriya, Ediriweera

    2012-11-01

    A child restraint seat (CRS) is designed to keep infants safe inside motor vehicles while in motion. However, there have been a growing number of reports of injuries sustained as a result of CRS use outside the vehicle. These injuries commonly result from a fall from an elevated surface or an overturning of the CRS. The incidence of death from these events, however, is not well documented. The present report retrospectively analyzed the British Columbia Coroner Service Database to identify deaths involving CRS use outside the vehicle. Two such fatalities were identified. In both instances, infants had been placed in a CRS overnight and, in both cases, the CRS was found overturned, resulting in asphyxiation. The history and pathological findings of both cases are summarized.

  1. Experimental research of error restraint for dynamic interferometer in optical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Linna; Yu, Yingjie

    2015-02-01

    Phase shifting interferometry is commonly used in precision optical surface measurement, but which possesses some limitation because of the sensitivity to environment. Therefore, it is hardly used in optical testing in the workshop environment. Thus, the instantaneous interferometry is a good choice because of the insensitive to vibration. This paper will describe an instantaneous interferometry utilizing spatial carrier and Fourier transform, and discuss the accuracy of the interferometer for optical testing when phase-shifting interferometry is unable to realize the precision measurement. With a lot of experiments, some problems were analyzed, including the relationships between the measurement accuracy and systematic error, vibration, temperature, the test surface cleanliness and so on. The discussed work of error restraint can provide a reference for the instantaneous interferometry applications.

  2. Metatraits of the Big Five differentially predict engagement and restraint of behavior.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Deyoung, Colin G; Peterson, Jordan B

    2009-08-01

    Although initially believed to contain orthogonal dimensions, the Big Five personality taxonomy appears to have a replicable higher-order structure, with the metatrait of Plasticity reflecting the shared variance between Extraversion and Openness/Intellect, and the metatrait of Stability reflecting the shared variance among Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. These higher order traits have been theorized to relate to individual differences in the functioning of the dopamine and serotonin systems, respectively. As dopamine is associated with exploration and incentive-related action, and serotonin with satiety and constraint, this neuropharmacological trait theory has behavioral implications, which we tested in 307 adults by examining the association of a large number of behavioral acts with multi-informant reports of the metatraits. The frequencies of acts were consistently positively correlated with Plasticity and negatively correlated with Stability. At the broadest level of description, variation in human personality appears to reflect engagement and restraint of behavior.

  3. Behavioral skills training to improve installation and use of child passenger safety restraints.

    PubMed

    Himle, Michael B; Wright, Kalon A

    2014-01-01

    The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install rear-facing CPSRs correctly using a multiple baseline design. Results show that installation errors were common for all participants during baseline. After BST, all 10 participants were able to install the rear-facing CPSR without error. An extension probe to assess whether the skills taught during BST extended to forward-facing installation showed that each participant made at least 1 critical error.

  4. Restraint hypothermia in cold-exposed rats at 3 G and 1 G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, C. B.; Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between heat loss, heat production, and hypothermia was investigated in experiments with rats which determined if hypergravity affects heat production by altering oxygen consumption and if restraint modifies the ability of the rats to activate thermogenic mechanisms after cold exposure in a hypergravic field. Restrained and unrestrained rats were exposed for 1 hr periods to 1 G and 3 G at ambient temperatures of 24 C or 10 C, and the rate of oxygen consumption, the core temperatures, and the tail temperatures were measured. Results show that thermoregulatory mechanisms are impaired when rats are exposed to 3 G fields, and at 24 C as well as at 10 C this impairment leads to an inappropriate increase in heat loss.

  5. Tantalus, Restraint Theory, and the Low-Sacrifice Diet: The Art of Reverse Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Blair-West, George W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that clinicians face the unique artistic challenge of taking concrete pieces of data – scientific findings – and abstracting them into effective therapeutic interventions. Moreover, this abstraction has to be modified for different personality types. The process of therapeutic change and how it can be impeded by the traditional medical model are briefly explored. The doctor-patient dyadic treatment relationship, while appropriate and necessary for many medical interventions, can disavow the source of change when it comes to lifestyle conditions such as obesity. Restraint theory and its origins in Greek mythology are briefly reviewed and integrated with Bowlby's attachment theory as precepts in developing a psychologically based dietary approach. By retaining in people's diets foods they have a deep emotional attachment to, the low-sacrifice diet attempts to encourage caloric restriction in a way that does not trigger rebound overeating. PMID:18311368

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Liver Proteins in a Rat Model of Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Depression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Guo, Zhengguang; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a global mental disorder disease and greatly threatened human health and stress is considered to be one of the important factors that lead to depression. In this study, we used newly developed iTRAQ labeling and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrum united analysis technology obtained the 2176 accurate proteins. Successively, we used the GO analysis and IPA software to analyze the 98 differentially expressed proteins of liver in depression rats due to chronic restraint stress, showing a map of proteomics analysis of liver proteins from the aspects of related functions, disease and function analysis, canonical pathway analysis, and associated network. This study provide important information for comprehensively understanding the mechanisms of dysfunction or injury in the liver in depression. PMID:28293639

  7. A Preliminary Evaluation of Child Restraints and Anchorage Systems for an Australian Car

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Judith L.; Fildes, Brian; Laemmle, Ronald; Smith, Stuart; Douglas, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the performance of three rear-facing and two forward-facing child restraints (CRS) with three anchorage systems: standard seatbelt, LATCH (flexible) and ISOFIX (rigid). Frontal (64 km/h) and side impact (15 km/h) HyGe sled tests were conducted using a sedan buck. Overall, the preliminary findings suggested superior performance of rigid over seatbelt and flexible anchorages, particularly in side impacts. The results also suggest a need for design improvement for CRS with flexible anchorages to increase stability in side impacts. The findings have important implications for the proposed introduction of changes to Australian Standards for CRS to permit both flexible and rigid systems to coexist with conventional seatbelt anchorage systems. PMID:15319118

  8. Early exposure to restraint stress enhances chemical carcinogenesis in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Laconi, E; Tomasi, C; Curreli, F; Diana, S; Laconi, S; Serra, G; Collu, M; Pani, P

    2000-12-20

    This study examines the effect of a stress-associated condition on chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. Rats were given diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.), followed, 1 week later, by three cycles of immobilization at room temperature. Two weeks after the last cycle they were treated according to the resistant hepatocyte protocol. At 4 weeks after selection, mean size of glutathione-S-transferase 7-7 positive foci/nodules was increased in the immobilized group (0.82+/-0.22 vs. 0.25+/-0.04 mm(2) in controls). Furthermore, at the end of 1 year 10/13 animals (77%) developed hepatocellular carcinoma in the former group, while only 6/14 (43%) incidence of cancer was found in controls. These results indicate that exposure to restraint stress early during carcinogenesis enhances the development of chemically-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat.

  9. A self-medication hypothesis for increased vulnerability to drug abuse in prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Gatta, Eleonora; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Fagioli, Francesca; Maccari, Stefania; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related events that occur in the perinatal period can permanently change brain and behavior of the developing individual and there is increasing evidence that early-life adversity is a contributing factor in the etiology of drug abuse and mood disorders. Neural adaptations resulting from early-life stress may mediate individual differences in novelty responsiveness and in turn contribute to drug abuse vulnerability. Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) in rats is a well-documented model of early stress known to induce long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral alterations including impaired feedback mechanisms of the HPA axis, enhanced novelty seeking, and increased sensitiveness to psychostimulants as well as anxiety/depression-like behavior. Together with the HPA axis, functional alterations of the mesolimbic dopamine system and of the metabotropic glutamate receptors system appear to be involved in the addiction-like profile of PRS rats.

  10. The causes of physiological suppression among female meerkats: a role for subordinate restraint due to the threat of infanticide?

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Monfort, Steven L; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-01-01

    In many animal societies, subordinates exhibit down-regulated reproductive endocrine axes relative to those of dominants, but whether this 'physiological suppression' arises from active interference by dominants or subordinate self-restraint is a matter of debate. Here we investigate the roles that these processes play in precipitating physiological suppression among subordinate female meerkats, Suricata suricatta. We show that, while subordinate females are known to suffer stress-related physiological suppression during periodic temporary evictions by the dominant female, their low estrogen levels while within their groups cannot be readily attributed to chronic stress, as their fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels during this time are comparable to those of dominants. The low estrogen levels of subordinate females also cannot be explained simply by self-restraint due to factors that could reduce their payoff from maintaining their fertility regardless of the presence of the dominant female (young age, a lack of unrelated mates, poor body condition and limited breeding experience), as substantial rank-related differences in fecal total-estrogen metabolite levels remain when such factors are controlled. We suggest that this residual difference in estrogen levels may reflect a degree of subordinate restraint due in part to the dominant female's ability to kill their young. Accordingly, subordinate female estrogen levels vary in association with temporal variation in the likelihood of infanticide by the dominant. Attempts to identify the causes of physiological suppression should be cautious if rejecting any role for dominant interference in favor of subordinate restraint, as the dominant's capacity to interfere may often be the reason why subordinates exercise restraint.

  11. Prior hormonal treatment, but not sexual experience, reduces the negative effects of restraint on female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy; Adams, Sarah; Murillo, Vanessa; Martinez, Monique

    2014-02-01

    These experiments were designed to determine if prior sexual experience reduced the negative effect of mild stress on female sexual behavior. In the first experiment, ovariectomized rats were hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone for 3 consecutive weeks during which they received six mating experiences in a male's home cage or received no sexual experience. The next week, females were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate two days before a 5 min restraint. Both groups were resistant to the negative effects of the stressor. In the second experiment, females received 0, 1, 2, or 3 weeks of 10 μg estradiol benzoate and were restrained on the fourth week after priming with 10 μg estradiol benzoate. Rats without prior hormonal priming showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint but prior priming with estradiol benzoate reduced this effect. In the third experiment, rats received 3 weeks of hormonal priming with estradiol benzoate and progesterone with or without sexual experience. An additional group received no sexual experience or hormonal priming. Females were then given a 3-week hormone vacation before testing in the restraint paradigm. All groups showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint. The fourth experiment was identical to the third except that sexual experience in the male's cage and in a pacing apparatus were compared. There was no effect of either type of sexual experience on the response to restraint. Possible mechanisms responsible for effects of prior hormonal priming are presented and the absence of an effect of sexual experience is discussed in comparison to findings in male rats.

  12. Restraint effects on stress-related hormones and blood natural killer cell cytotoxicity in pigs with a mutated ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Ciepielewski, Z M; Stojek, W; Glac, W; Wrona, D

    2013-05-01

    A mutation in the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) of the calcium release channel is responsible for increased stress susceptibility in pigs. In the present study, the relation of a mutation in RYR1 with the neuroendocrine (stress-related hormone) response and the immune defense represented by natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) during a 4-h restraint and recovery phase in 60 male pigs was investigated. Blood samples were collected from pigs previously divided into RYR1 genotypes (nn, Nn, NN), based on PCR amplification and restriction analyses. The blood samples collected during the restraint and recovery phases of the experiment were used to determine NKCC ((51)Cr-release assay), large granular lymphocyte number (hematologic method), and plasma concentrations of prolactin (PRL), GH, ACTH, and cortisol (COR) (by specific RIA). The greatest degree of NKCC response (P < 0.05) to restraint stress relative to controls was observed for the stress-susceptible homozygote group (nn). Measures of stress-related hormones were positively correlated with NKCC during the entire experimental period (P < 0.001 for all investigated hormones) in the nn group. Immunostimulatory effects in the early (0-60 min) phase of restraint were associated with increased hormone responses, especially PRL and GH. In the late (180-240 min) phase of stress and the recovery phase (480 min), a decrease in immune response was accompanied by an elevated COR response in all RYR1 genotypes. Moreover, divergent responses of both PRL (greatest in nn, P < 0.001) and GH (greatest in NN, P < 0.001) to the 4-h restraint were observed. Our results suggest that stress-susceptible RYR1-mutated homozygotes develop a greater level of immune defense, including cytotoxic activity of NK cells, and accompanied by more pronounced stress-induced changes in neuroendocrine response than stress-resistant heterozygous (Nn) and homozygous (NN) pigs.

  13. Chronic restraint-induced stress has little modifying effect on radiation hematopoietic toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Katsube, Takanori; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Vares, Guillaume; Liu, Qiang; Morita, Akinori; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Both radiation and stresses cause detrimental effects on humans. Besides possible health effects resulting directly from radiation exposure, the nuclear plant accident is a cause of social psychological stresses. A recent study showed that chronic restraint-induced stresses (CRIS) attenuated Trp53 functions and increased carcinogenesis susceptibility of Trp53-heterozygous mice to total-body X-irradiation (TBXI), having a big impact on the academic world and a sensational effect on the public, especially the residents living in radioactively contaminated areas. It is important to investigate the possible modification effects from CRIS on radiation-induced health consequences in Trp53 wild-type (Trp53wt) animals. Prior to a carcinogenesis study, effects of TBXI on the hematopoietic system under CRIS were investigated in terms of hematological abnormality in the peripheral blood and residual damage in the bone marrow erythrocytes using a mouse restraint model. Five-week-old male Trp53wt C57BL/6J mice were restrained 6 h per day for 28 consecutive days, and TBXI (4 Gy) was given on the 8th day. Results showed that CRIS alone induced a marked decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) and the white blood cell (WBC) count, while TBXI caused significantly lower counts of RBCs, WBCs and blood platelets, and a lower concentration of hemoglobin regardless of CRIS. CRIS alone did not show any significant effect on erythrocyte proliferation and on induction of micronucleated erythrocytes, whereas TBXI markedly inhibited erythrocyte proliferation and induced a significant increase in the incidences of micronucleated erythrocytes, regardless of CRIS. These findings suggest that CRIS does not have a significant impact on radiation-induced detrimental effects on the hematopoietic system in Trp53wt mice. PMID:26045492

  14. Inhibition of the central extended amygdala by loud noise and restraint stress

    PubMed Central

    Day, Heidi E. W.; Nebel, Scott; Sasse, Sarah; Campeau, Serge

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) is involved in responses to stress, fear and anxiety. Many studies have used c-fos expression to map the brain's response to processive stress, but curiously the CEA generally is not highly activated. We have previously shown that exposure to a novel vs. home environment reduces amphetamine-induced activation of the lateral CEA (CEAl) and the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTov). This is consistent with the idea that processive stress inhibits neurons in these nuclei. We have tested this hypothesis by exposing rats to noise, at a range of intensities from non-stressful to stressful, or to restraint conditions, immediately after a remote injection of amphetamine, 2 mg/kg i.p., or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) 0.5 μg/kg i.p. (used to obtain a level of c-fos mRNA against which to measure inhibition). In keeping with our hypothesis, amphetamine- or IL-1β-induced c-fos and zif-268 mRNA were significantly decreased in the CEAl and BSTov under conditions of loud noise or restraint stress compared with control conditions. This inhibition does not require a stress-induced rise in corticosterone because data were similar in animals that had been adrenalectomized with a low-dose corticosterone replacement. As both the CEAl and BSTov are highly γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) -ergic and project to the medial CEA (CEAm), their inhibition potentially causes an increased input to the CEAm. As the CEAm is a major output nucleus of the amygdala, this could have important consequences within the neural circuitry controlling responses to processive stress. PMID:15673443

  15. Effects of chronic restraint-induced stress on radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Katsube, Takanori; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Varès, Guillaume; Kawagoshi, Taiki; Shiomi, Naoko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Liu, Qiang; Morita, Akinori; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    Both ionizing radiation (IR) and psychological stress (PS) cause detrimental effects on humans. A recent study showed that chronic restraint-induced PS (CRIPS) diminished the functions of Trp53 and enhanced radiocarcinogenesis in Trp53-heterozygous (Trp53(+/-)) mice. These findings had a marked impact on the academic field as well as the general public, particularly among residents living in areas radioactively contaminated by nuclear accidents. In an attempt to elucidate the modifying effects of CRIPS on radiation-induced health consequences in Trp53 wild-type (Trp53(+/+)) animals, investigations involving multidisciplinary analyses were performed. We herein demonstrated that CRIPS induced changes in the frequency of IR-induced chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in splenocytes. Five-week-old male Trp53(+/+) C57BL/6J mice were restrained for 6h per day for 28 consecutive days, and total body irradiation (TBI) at a dose of 4Gy was performed on the 8th day. Metaphase chromosome spreads prepared from splenocytes at the end of the 28-day restraint regimen were painted with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for chromosomes 1, 2, and 3. The results obtained showed that CRIPS alone did not induce CAs, while TBI caused significant increases in CAs, mostly translocations. Translocations appeared at a lower frequency in mice exposed to TBI plus CRIPS than in those exposed to TBI alone. No significant differences were observed in the frequencies of the other types of CAs (insertions, dicentrics, and fragments) visualized with FISH between these experimental groups (TBI+CRIPS vs. TBI). These results suggest that CRIPS does not appear to synergize with the clastogenicity of IR.

  16. Effects of oolong tea on metabolism of plasma fat in mice under restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Hiroshi; Fukami, Harukazu; Koda, Hirofumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Sugiura, Namino; Shibata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Takaharu

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the effects of oolong tea on the basic metabolism of plasma lipids in mice under restraint stress. When a lipid emulsion (Intralipid 20%; a lipid emulsion containing 20% soybean oil) was injected intravenously into mice, the restraint stress prolonged the half-life (T 1/2) of elimination for plasma triglyceride (TG) from 28.7 to 55.5 min. The elimination rate per minute was 48.2% in stressed mice with the rate in starved control mice as 100%. Therefore, TG metabolism was disrupted by the stress, and the use of TG as an energy source decreased. We found that the metabolism of lipids significantly response to the restrained stress in the present study. Plasma TG was 515.9 +/- 29.9mg/dl 35min after Intralipid administration in control stressed mice, 478.7 +/- 26.7 mg/dl in the stressed group given caffeine 100 mg/kg of body weight, and 418.3 +/- 18.4 mg/dl in the stressed group given 1,000 mg/kg oolong tea, an improvement by 7.2% and 18.9%, respectively, with the value for the untreated control group. The intake of oolong tea alleviated the stress-induced decrease in the rate of blood lipid metabolism; this effect may have arisen from some non-specific stress-relieving property of the tea or from acceleration of lipid metabolism by properties of polyphenols, etc. in tea. Oolong tea had anti-stress effects on plasma TG metabolism, and the effects did not depend on caffeine.

  17. Restraint Stress-Induced Morphological Changes at the Blood-Brain Barrier in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sántha, Petra; Veszelka, Szilvia; Hoyk, Zsófia; Mészáros, Mária; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Tóth, Andrea E.; Kiss, Lóránd; Kincses, András; Oláh, Zita; Seprényi, György; Rákhely, Gábor; Dér, András; Pákáski, Magdolna; Kálmán, János; Kittel, Ágnes; Deli, Mária A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress is well-known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognized in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3, and 21 days) were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occluding, and glucose transporter-1) and astroglia (GFAP). Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, 1-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5, and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes, cognitive and

  18. Residency Time as an Indicator of Reproductive Restraint in Male Burying Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashlee N.; Belk, Mark C.; Creighton, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    The cost of reproduction theory posits that there are trade-offs between current and future reproduction because resources that are allocated to current offspring cannot be used for future reproductive opportunities. Two adaptive reproductive strategies have been hypothesized to offset the costs of reproduction and maximize lifetime fitness. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that as individuals age they will allocate more resources to current reproduction as a response to decreasing residual reproductive value. The reproductive restraint hypotheses predicts that as individuals age they will allocate fewer resources to current reproduction to increase the chance of surviving for an additional reproductive opportunity. In this study, we test for adaptive responses to advancing age in male burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis. Burying beetles use facultative biparental care, but the male typically abandons the brood before the female. Previous work in male burying beetles has suggested several factors to explain variation in male residency time, but no study has observed male behavior throughout their entire reproductive lifetimes to determine whether males change residency time in an adaptive way with age. We compared residency time of males that reproduced biparentally, uniparentally, and on different-sized carcasses to determine if they used an adaptive reproductive strategy. Males did not increase residency time as they aged when reproducing biparentally, but decreased residency time with age when reproducing uniparentally. A decrease in parental care with age is consistent with a reproductive restraint strategy. When female age increased over time, males did not increase their residency time to compensate for deteriorating female condition. To our knowledge, this is the first test of adaptive reproductive allocation strategies in male burying beetles. PMID:25295755

  19. Residency time as an indicator of reproductive restraint in male burying beetles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashlee N; Belk, Mark C; Creighton, J Curtis

    2014-01-01

    The cost of reproduction theory posits that there are trade-offs between current and future reproduction because resources that are allocated to current offspring cannot be used for future reproductive opportunities. Two adaptive reproductive strategies have been hypothesized to offset the costs of reproduction and maximize lifetime fitness. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that as individuals age they will allocate more resources to current reproduction as a response to decreasing residual reproductive value. The reproductive restraint hypotheses predicts that as individuals age they will allocate fewer resources to current reproduction to increase the chance of surviving for an additional reproductive opportunity. In this study, we test for adaptive responses to advancing age in male burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis. Burying beetles use facultative biparental care, but the male typically abandons the brood before the female. Previous work in male burying beetles has suggested several factors to explain variation in male residency time, but no study has observed male behavior throughout their entire reproductive lifetimes to determine whether males change residency time in an adaptive way with age. We compared residency time of males that reproduced biparentally, uniparentally, and on different-sized carcasses to determine if they used an adaptive reproductive strategy. Males did not increase residency time as they aged when reproducing biparentally, but decreased residency time with age when reproducing uniparentally. A decrease in parental care with age is consistent with a reproductive restraint strategy. When female age increased over time, males did not increase their residency time to compensate for deteriorating female condition. To our knowledge, this is the first test of adaptive reproductive allocation strategies in male burying beetles.

  20. α1 and α2-adrenoceptors in the medial amygdaloid nucleus modulate differently the cardiovascular responses to restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Fortaleza, Eduardo Albino Trindade; Scopinho, América Augusto; de Aguiar Corrêa, Fernando Morgan

    2012-08-01

    Medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) neurotransmission has an inhibitory influence on cardiovascular responses in rats submitted to restraint, which are characterized by both elevated blood pressure (BP) and intense heart rate (HR) increase. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of MeA adrenoceptors in the modulation of cardiovascular responses that are observed during an acute restraint. Male Wistar rats received bilateral microinjections of the selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101 (10, 15, and 20 nmol/100 nL) or the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 (10, 15, and 20 nmol/nL) into the MeA, before the exposure to acute restraint. The injection of WB4101 reduced the restraint-evoked tachycardia. In contrast, the injection of RX821002 increased the tachycardia. Both drugs had no influence on BP increases observed during the acute restraint. Our findings indicate that α1 and α2-adrenoceptors in the MeA play different roles in the modulation of the HR increase evoked by restraint stress in rats. Results suggest that α1-adrenoceptors and α2-adrenoceptors mediate the MeA-related facilitatory and inhibitory influences on restraint-related HR responses, respectively.

  1. NMDA antagonist MK 801 in nucleus accumbens core but not shell disrupts the restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    De Giovanni, Laura N; Guzman, Andrea S; Virgolini, Miriam B; Cancela, Liliana M

    2016-12-15

    Relapse is a common feature of cocaine addiction. In rodents, it can be elicited by cues, stress or the drug. Restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) is a useful model to study the mechanisms involved in stress-induced relapse of drug-seeking behavior. There is evidence that the glutamate NMDA receptors are critically involved in drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of seeking behavior and drug-CPP responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of NMDA receptors within core vs. shell nucleus accumbens (NAc) subregions to restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP. After extinction of cocaine-conditioned preference, animals were administered MK 801 systemically or directly into intra-core or intra-shell, and restrained for 30min or left undisturbed in their home-cages. First, we demonstrated that restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP depends on the duration of restraint as well as on the context in which it is applied. Second, this effect was blocked by systemic MK 801 administration either before or after restraint. Third, intra-core but not intra-shell administration abrogated the restraint stress-induced reinstatement. These findings show that NMDA receptors within NAc core, but not shell, play a critical role in restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-CPP.

  2. Activation of the HPA axis and depression of feeding behavior induced by restraint stress are separately regulated by PACAPergic neurotransmission in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Lee E

    2016-07-01

    We measured serum CORT elevation in wild-type and PACAP-deficient C57BL/6N male mice after acute (1 h) or prolonged (2-3 h) daily restraint stress for 7 d. The PACAP dependence of CORT elevation was compared to that of stress-induced hypophagia. Daily restraint induced unhabituated peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia/weight loss, of similar magnitude for 1, 2, and 3 h of daily restraint, in wild-type mice. Peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia, were both attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice for 2 and 3 h daily restraint. Hypophagia induced by 1-h daily restraint was also greatly reduced in PACAP-deficient mice, however CORT elevation, both peak and during recovery from stress, was unaffected. Thus, hypothalamic PACAPergic neurotransmission appears to affect CRH gene transcription and peptide production, but not CRH release, in response to psychogenic stress. A single exposure to restraint sufficed to trigger hypophagia over the following 24 h. PACAP deficiency attenuated HPA axis response (CORT elevation) to prolonged (3 h) but not acute (1 h) single-exposure restraint stress, while hypophagia induced by either a single 1 h or a single 3 h restraint were both abolished in PACAP-deficient mice. These results suggest that PACAP's actions to promote suppression of food intake following an episode of psychogenic stress is unrelated to the release of CRH into the portal circulation to activate the pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, demonstration of suppressed food intake after a single 1-h restraint stress provides a convenient assay for investigating the location of the synapses and circuits mediating the effects of PACAP on the behavioral sequelae of psychogenic stress.

  3. Morphofunctional correlations in the experimental study of myocardiopathies under the stress of forced restraint. Note 2: The influence of adrenal imbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinu, M.; Dolinescu, S.; Sneer, A.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were performed with 70 rats to determine the effects of restraint on the functions and structure of the myocardium under varying conditions of adrenal imbalance. Results showed that in rats with adrenal imbalance, fasting and restraint produced the same biochemical alterations as in the controls. The morphologic alteractions, as well as their electric expression, were more varied and evident in the animals with adrenal imbalance. Persistence of the microscopic and electrocardiographic alterations after 72 hours restraint in the animals subjected to unilateral adrenalectomy suggests chronic evolution of the myocardial lesions. This proves the necessity of intact adrenals for a good adaptability to stress.

  4. Towards Accurate Microscopic Calculation of Solvation Entropies: Extending the Restraint Release Approach to Studies of Solvation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nidhi; Warshel, Arieh

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the solvation entropies is a major conceptual and practical challenge. On the one hand, it is interesting to quantify the factors that are responsible for the solvation entropies in solutions, while on the other, it is essential to be able to assess the contributions of the solvation entropies to the binding free energies and related properties. In fact, the solvation entropies are neglected in almost all the studies of the binding entropies. The main problem is that widely used approaches, such as the quasiharmonic (QH) approximation do not provide reliable results particularly, in cases of shallow potential and multidimensional surfaces while brute force evaluations of the entropic effects by simulating temperature dependence of the free energy converges very slowly. This paper addresses the above issue by starting with an analysis of the factors that are responsible for the negative solvation entropy of ions, showing that it is not due to the change in the solvent vibration modes or to the solvent force constant but to the changes in the solvent configurational space upon change in the solute charges. We begin by clarifying that when one deals with aqueous solutions, it is easy to evaluate the corresponding entropic effect by the Langevin dipole(LD) treatment. However, in this work we are interested in developing a general microscopic tool that can be used to study similar effects in the proteins. To this end, we explore the ability of our restraint release (RR) approach to evaluate the solvation entropy. We start this analysis by reviewing the foundation of this approach and in particular, the requirements of minimizing the enthalpy contribution to the RR free energy. We then establish that our approach is not a specialized harmonic treatment but a rather powerful approach. Moving to the main topic of this work, we demonstrate that the RR approach provides quantitative results for the solvation entropies of monovalent and divalent ions and

  5. Sex Differences and HIV Risk Behaviors: The Interaction Between the Experience of Multiple Types of Abuse and Self-Restraint on HIV Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Selby M.; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Hancock, Evan; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with abuse histories have been shown to be at increased risk to acquire Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infections (HIV/STI). Additionally, teens with lower levels of self-restraint or higher levels of distress, such as those with psychiatric concerns, have also demonstrated increased sexual risk behaviors. This study explored sex differences in sexual risk behaviors among a sample of adolescents in a therapeutic/alternative high school setting. Moderated regression analysis showed that a lower level of self-restraint was associated with sexual risk behaviors in boys but not in girls. Rather, the interaction of self-restraint and multiple types of abuse was associated with greater sex risk within girls in this sample. Results suggest that girls and boys with abuse histories and low levels of self-restraint may have different intervention needs related to sexual risk behaviors. PMID:24818645

  6. Specific 13C labeling of leucine, valine and isoleucine methyl groups for unambiguous detection of long-range restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasshuber, Hannes Klaus; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Here we present an isotopic labeling strategy to easily obtain unambiguous long-range distance restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies. The method is based on the inclusion of two biosynthetic precursors in the bacterial growth medium, α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketobutyrate, leading to the production of leucine, valine and isoleucine residues that are exclusively 13C labeled on methyl groups. The resulting spectral simplification facilitates the collection of distance restraints, the verification of carbon chemical shift assignments and the measurement of methyl group dynamics. This approach is demonstrated on the type-three secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri, where 49 methyl-methyl and methyl-nitrogen distance restraints including 10 unambiguous long-range distance restraints could be collected. By combining this labeling scheme with ultra-fast MAS and proton detection, the assignment of methyl proton chemical shifts was achieved.

  7. Light activation of rhodopsin: insights from molecular dynamics simulations guided by solid-state NMR distance restraints

    PubMed Central

    Hornak, Viktor; Ahuja, Shivani; Eilers, Markus; Goncalves, Joseph A.; Sheves, Mordechai; Reeves, Philip J.; Smith, Steven O.

    2009-01-01

    Structural restraints provided by solid-state NMR measurements of the metarhodopsin II intermediate are combined with molecular dynamics simulations to help visualize the structural changes in the light activation of rhodopsin. Since the time scale for the formation of the metarhodopsin II intermediate (> 1 ms) is beyond that readily accessible by molecular dynamics, we use NMR distance restraints derived from 13C dipolar recoupling measurements to guide the simulations. The simulations yield a working model for how photoisomerization of the 11-cis retinylidene chromophore bound within the interior of rhodopsin is coupled to transmembrane helix motion and receptor activation. The mechanism of activation that emerges is that multiple switches on the extracellular (or intradiscal) side of rhodopsin trigger structural changes that converge to disrupt the ionic lock between helices H3 and H6 on the intracellular side of the receptor. PMID:20004206

  8. Backside nonconformity and locking restraints affect liner/shell load transfer mechanisms and relative motion in modular acetabular components for total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, S M; Ochoa, J A; White, C V; Srivastav, S; Cournoyer, J

    1998-05-01

    Nonconformity between the polyethylene liner and the metal shell may exist in modular acetabular components by design, due to manufacturing tolerances, or from locking mechanisms that attach the polyethylene liner to the metal shell. Relative motion at the liner/shell interface has been associated with backside wear, which may contribute to osteolysis which has been clinically observed near screw holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nonconformity and locking restraints on the liner/shell relative motion and load transfer mechanisms in a commercially available, metal-backed acetabular component with a polar fenestration. The finite element method was used to explore the hypothesis that backside nonconformity and locking restraints play important roles in long-term surface damage mechanisms that are unique to modular components, such as backside wear and liner extrusion through screw holes. The three-body quasi-static contact problem was solved using a commercially available explicit finite element code, which modeled contact between the femoral head, polyethylene liner, and the metal shell. Four sets of liner boundary conditions were investigated: no restraints, rim restraints, equatorial restraints, and both rim and equatorial restraints. The finite element model with a conforming shell predicted between 8.5 and 12.8 microm of incremental extrusion of the polyethylene through the polar fenestration, consistent with in vitro experiments of the same design under identical loading conditions. Furthermore, idealized rim and/or equatorial liner restraints were found to share up to 71% of the load across the liner/shell interface. Consequently, the results of this study demonstrate that backside nonconformity and locking restraints substantially influence backside relative motion as well as load transfer at the liner/shell interface.

  9. Effect of acute restraint on hypothalamic pro-vasotocin mRNA expression in flounder, Platichthys flesus.

    PubMed

    Bond, H; Warne, J M; Balment, R J

    2007-01-01

    Arginine vasotocin (AVT) stimulates release of adenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) in trout. However, AVT's role in fish hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-axis (HPIA) is not fully understood. Here, we examined distribution of AVT and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (PM) and the AVT/cortisol response to acute restraint in flounder. The GR/AVT distribution in the PM was determined using double immunohistochemistry (IHC). Flounder were confined in nets, immersed in water for 30m, with plasma and tissue samples taken prior to, 3, 24 and 48h post-confinement. Plasma osmolality, Na(+), Cl(-) and cortisol were taken as indicators of HPIA activation. Plasma AVT was measured proVT mRNA expression in the PM was detected using in situ hybridisation (ISH) with a S35 labelled oligoprobe for homologous flounder proVT. Double IHC showed the presence of GR in AVT synthesising neurones of the PM. Plasma Na(+), Cl(-), osmolality and cortisol (1.0+/-0.9 to 183.6+/-3.1mM; p<0.001) increased significantly 3h post-restraint: recovering to control levels after 48h. Plasma AVT levels did not change. However, a concomitant increase in proVT mRNA expression in the magnocellular (PMm) and gigantocellular (PMg) neurones of the PM was observed (11.1+/-1.8 to 55.2+/-9.1% 24h post-restraint; p<0.001) and levels still remained significantly elevated at 48h (p<0.01). This suggests that PMm and PMg AVT neurones are associated with HPIA activation following acute restraint, including potential cortisol negative feedback. The extended elevation of hypothalamus proAVT mRNA expression following a single acute stressor affords a possible mechanism to moderate sensitivity of the HPIA to subsequent challenges.

  10. Development and application of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, work restraint system, stowage container and return line tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Okelly, J. K.; Whitsett, C. W.; Petynia, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a self-contained zero-gravity backpack designed for astronaut extravehicular activity, is discussed with reference to the system requirements and characteristics, and potential near-term and future uses. Attention is given to the MMU man-machine interfaces, propulsion capability, attitude control, crew restraint hardware, donning, doffing, activation, and deactivation. Specific applications discussed include: spacecraft inspection and servicing, assembly of large space systems, payload deployment/retrieval, and crew rescue.

  11. electronic Ligand Builder and Optimisation Workbench (eLBOW): A tool for ligand coordinate and restraint generation

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Nigel; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf; Adams, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The electronic Ligand Builder and Optimisation Workbench (eLBOW) is a program module of the PHENIX suite of computational crystallographic software. It's designed to be a flexible procedure using simple and fast quantum chemical techniques to provide chemically accurate information for novel and known ligands alike. A variety of input formats and options allow for the attainment of a number of diverse goals including geometry optimisation and generation of restraints.

  12. Hormonal and molecular effects of restraint stress on formalin-induced pain-like behavior in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Caela C; Sadler, Katelyn E; Kolber, Benedict J

    2016-10-15

    The evolutionary advantages to the suppression of pain during a stressful event (stress-induced analgesia (SIA)) are obvious, yet the reasoning behind sex-differences in the expression of this pain reduction are not. The different ways in which males and females integrate physiological stress responses and descending pain inhibition are unclear. A potential supraspinal modulator of stress-induced analgesia is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). This limbic brain region is involved in both the processing of stress and pain; the CeA is anatomically and molecularly linked to regions of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and descending pain network. The CeA exhibits sex-based differences in response to stress and pain that may differentially induce SIA in males and females. Here, sex-based differences in behavioral and molecular indices of SIA were examined following noxious stimulation. Acute restraint stress in male and female mice was performed prior to intraplantar injections of formalin, a noxious inflammatory agent. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors were measured for 60min following formalin injection and mechanical hypersensitivity was evaluated 120 and 180min post-injection. Restraint stress altered formalin-induced spontaneous behaviors in male and female mice and formalin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in male mice. To assess molecular indices of SIA, tissue samples from the CeA and blood samples were collected at the 180min time point. Restraint stress prevented formalin-induced increases in extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation in the male CeA, but no changes associated with pERK2 were seen with formalin or restraint in females. Sex differences were also seen in plasma corticosterone concentrations 180min post injection. These results demonstrate sex-based differences in behavioral, molecular, and hormonal indices of acute stress in mice that extend for 180min after stress and noxious stimulation.

  13. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-03

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  14. Social appearance anxiety and dietary restraint as mediators between perfectionism and binge eating: A six month three wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brosof, Leigh C; Levinson, Cheri A

    2017-01-01

    Binge eating is related to perfectionism and restrained eating. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. It is possible that social anxiety, specifically social appearance anxiety (i.e., the fear of overall appearance evaluation), influences the relationship between binge eating, perfectionism, and dietary restraint. In the current study (N = 300 women), we tested the relationship between dietary restraint, social appearance anxiety, concern over mistakes (a component of perfectionism), and binge eating in prospective data (three time points: at baseline, at two month, and at six month follow up). We found that social appearance anxiety, dietary restraint, and concern over mistakes each predicted binge eating at baseline. Only social appearance anxiety prospectively predicted binge eating when accounting for all variables. Further, in the tested model, social appearance anxiety mediated the relationship between concern over mistakes and binge eating across six months. On the contrary, dietary restraint did not mediate the relationship between concern over mistakes and binge eating in the tested model. The finding that social appearance anxiety served as a mediator between concern over mistakes and binge eating, but that dietary restraint did not, implies that social appearance anxiety may be a more salient prospective predictor of binge eating than dietary restraint. Intervening on social appearance anxiety may be important in the treatment and prevention of binge eating.

  15. Comparison of seclusion and restraint prevalence between hearing patients and deaf or hard of hearing patients in a state hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Brian; Blalock, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an effort to obtain preliminary data to assess the validity of the long-standing claim that the rate of seclusion and restraint is higher among deaf and hard of hearing individuals than among hearing individuals. This difference has been claimed repeatedly despite there being no research to support it. The sample was comprised of 22 deaf or hard of hearing individuals who had been committed to a large state hospital, all but three of whom had been discharged prior to data collection. The deaf and hard of hearing subjects were matched to subjects with no hearing loss on factors believed to be associated with behaviors that can result in seclusion or restraint. Archived clinical records of both groups of subjects were reviewed to determine the rates of seclusion and restraint for the two groups, as well as to assess the length of time each group was in seclusion or restraint. The results indicate a significantly higher frequency of seclusion and restraint for the deaf and hard of hearing group than for the hearing group. Of note is that the hearing individuals spent longer in seclusion and restraint than did the deaf and hard of hearing. The hypothesis of a higher rate of restrictive events among deaf and hard of hearing individuals is supported. The results of this study suggest that further research be undertaken to determine the generalizability of these results as well as possible sources of the differences between these two groups.

  16. Chronic restraint stress impairs neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent fear memory in mice: possible involvement of a brain-specific transcription factor Npas4.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jaesuk; Koike, Hiroyuki; Ibi, Daisuke; Toth, Erika; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nitta, Atsumi; Yoneyama, Masanori; Ogita, Kiyokazu; Yoneda, Yukio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Nagai, Taku; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2010-09-01

    Neurogenesis in the hippocampus occurs throughout life in a wide range of species and could be associated with hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Stress is well established to seriously perturb physiological/psychological homeostasis and affect hippocampal function. In the present study, to investigate the effect of chronic restraint stress in early life on hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent memory, 3-week-old mice were subjected to restraint stress 6 days a week for 4 weeks. The chronic restraint stress significantly decreased the hippocampal volume by 6.3% and impaired hippocampal neurogenesis as indicated by the reduced number of Ki67-, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine- and doublecortin-positive cells in the dentate gyrus. The chronic restraint stress severely impaired hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory without affecting hippocampus-independent fear memory. The expression level of brain-specific transcription factor neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4) mRNA in the hippocampus was down-regulated by the restraint stress or by acute corticosterone treatment. Npas4 immunoreactivity was detected in progenitors, immature and mature neurons of the dentate gyrus in control and stressed mice. Our findings suggest that the chronic restraint stress decreases hippocampal neurogenesis, leading to an impairment of hippocampus-dependent fear memory in mice. Corticosterone-induced down-regulation of Npas4 expression may play a role in stress-induced impairment of hippocampal function.

  17. Electroconvulsive therapy in a physically restrained man with comorbid major depression, severe agoraphobia with panic disorder, and histrionic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Romano, Silvia; Milioni, Mara; Capezzuto, Silvia; Carbonetti, Paolo; Angeletti, Gloria; Fensore, Claudio; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    A 36-year-old man with comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia, major depression, and histrionic personality disorder since age 21 was resistant to combined drug and psychotherapy treatment. His conditions had progressively worsened with time, causing him to withdraw socially and to simultaneously require continuous physical restraint, which further worsened his functioning. He spent almost 3 consecutive years in restraint, until he consented to receive bilateral ECT treatment. He improved after 13 sessions in all areas (social and role functioning, and panic, depressive, and histrionic symptoms) and is well 3 months later with a lithium-atypical antipsychotic combination.

  18. Stress in the wild: chronic predator pressure and acute restraint affect plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Newman, A E M; Zanette, L Y; Clinchy, M; Goodenough, N; Soma, K K

    2013-05-01

    The effects of chronic stressors on glucocorticoid levels are well described in laboratory rodents, but far less is known about the effects of chronic stressors on wild animals or on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels. DHEA can be produced by the adrenal cortex and has prominent antiglucocorticoid properties. Here, we examined wild songbirds to elucidate the relationship between chronic predator pressure and plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels. We measured circulating steroid levels at baseline and after acute restraint in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. During the breeding season, males in low predator pressure (LPP) environments had higher baseline DHEA levels than males in high predator pressure (HPP) environments. Also, acute restraint decreased DHEA levels in LPP males only but increased corticosterone levels in HPP and LPP males similarly. During the nonbreeding season, DHEA and corticosterone levels were lower than during the breeding season, and acute restraint decreased DHEA levels in both HPP and LPP males. Unlike males, breeding females showed no effect of predator pressure on baseline DHEA or corticosterone levels. These data suggest that naturalistic chronic and acute stressors affect circulating DHEA and corticosterone levels in wild animals and highlight the importance of using multiple endpoints when studying the physiological effects of chronic stress.

  19. Solid-State NMR Structure Determination from Diagonal-Compensated, Sparsely Nonuniform-Sampled 4D Proton–Proton Restraints

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report acquisition of diagonal-compensated protein structural restraints from four-dimensional solid-state NMR spectra on extensively deuterated and 1H back-exchanged proteins. To achieve this, we use homonuclear 1H–1H correlations with diagonal suppression and nonuniform sampling (NUS). Suppression of the diagonal allows the accurate identification of cross-peaks which are otherwise obscured by the strong autocorrelation or whose intensity is biased due to partial overlap with the diagonal. The approach results in unambiguous spectral interpretation and relatively few but reliable restraints for structure calculation. In addition, the diagonal suppression produces a spectrum with low dynamic range for which ultrasparse NUS data sets can be readily reconstructed, allowing straightforward application of NUS with only 2% sampling density with the advantage of more heavily sampling time-domain regions of high signal intensity. The method is demonstrated here for two proteins, α-spectrin SH3 microcrystals and hydrophobin functional amyloids. For the case of SH3, suppression of the diagonal results in facilitated identification of unambiguous restraints and improvement of the quality of the calculated structural ensemble compared to nondiagonal-suppressed 4D spectra. For the only partly assigned hydrophobin rodlets, the structure is yet unknown. Applied to this protein of biological significance with large inhomogeneous broadening, the method allows identification of unambiguous crosspeaks that are otherwise obscured by the diagonal. PMID:24988008

  20. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D. Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. Objective: To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. Methods: A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Results: Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada’s healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. Conclusions: There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers. PMID:21886279