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Sample records for restricted bcl2-derived epitope

  1. Hierarchy among multiple H-2b-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes within simian virus 40 T antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Mylin, L M; Bonneau, R H; Lippolis, J D; Tevethia, S S

    1995-01-01

    Simian virus 40 large tumor (T) antigen contains three H-2Db-restricted (I, II/III, and V) and one H-2Kb-restricted (IV) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. We demonstrate that a hierarchy exists among these CTL epitopes, since vigorous CTL responses against epitopes I, II/III, and IV are detected following immunization of H-2b mice with syngeneic, T-antigen-expressing cells. By contrast, a weak CTL response against the H-2Db-restricted epitope V was detected only following immunization of H-2b mice with epitope loss variant B6/K-3,1,4 cells, which have lost expression of CTL epitopes I, II/III, and IV. Limiting-dilution analysis confirmed that the lack of epitope V-specific CTL activity in bulk culture splenocytes correlated with inefficient expansion and priming of epitope V-specific CTL precursors in vivo. We examined whether defined genetic alterations of T antigen might improve processing and presentation of epitope V to the epitope V-specific CTL clone Y-5 in vitro and/or overcome the recessive nature of epitope V in vivo. Deletion of the H-2Db-restricted epitopes I and II/III from T antigen did not increase target cell lysis by epitope V-specific CTL clones in vitro. The amino acid sequence SMIKNLEYM, which species an optimized H-2Db binding motif and was found to induce CTL in H-2b mice, did not further reduce epitope V presentation in vitro when inserted within T antigen. Epitope V-containing T-antigen derivatives which retained epitopes I and II/III or epitope IV did not induce epitope V-specific CTL in vivo: T-antigen derivatives in which epitope V replaced epitope I failed to induce epitope V-specific CTL. Recognition of epitope V-H-2Db complexes by multiple independently derived epitope V-specific CTL clones was rapidly and dramatically reduced by incubation of target cells in the presence of brefeldin A compared with the recognition of the other T-antigen CTL epitopes by epitope specific CTL, suggesting that the epitope V-H-2Db complexes either are

  2. Identification of novel HLA-A(*)0201-restricted CTL epitopes from Pokemon.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bangqing; Zhao, Lin; Xian, Ronghua; Zhao, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors and aberrant overexpressed in various human cancers. Therefore, the related peptide epitopes derived from Pokemon is essential for the development of specific immunotherapy of malignant tumors. In this study, we predicted and identified HLA-A(*)0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes derived from Pokemon with computer-based epitope prediction, peptide-binding assay and testing of the induced CTLs toward different kinds of carcinoma cells. The results demonstrated that effectors induced by peptides of Pokemon containing residues 32-40, 61-69, 87-95, and 319-327 could specifically secrete IFN-γ and lyse tumor cell lines of Pokemon-positive and HLA-A2-matched. The results suggest that Pokemon32, Pokemon61, Pokemon87, and Pokemon319 peptides are novel HLA-A(*)0201-restricted restricted CTL epitopes, and could be utilized in the cancer immunotherapy against a broad spectrum of tumors.

  3. Studies of epitope restriction on myeloperoxidase (MPO), an important antigen in systemic vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    SHORT, A K; LOCKWOOD, C M

    1997-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are important components of the inflammatory response in patients with systemic vasculitis. Their role in the pathogenesis of these conditions remains incompletely defined. Several antigens have been identified, and MPO is one of the most important. To gain more understanding of the immune mechanisms involved, we were keen to see if the antibody response to MPO was restricted, or whether there was a general loss of tolerance to the whole surface of the molecule. To study the epitopes we employed both ELISA and biosensor technology, and were able to demonstrate restriction both in the number and localization of the epitopes being recognized. PMID:9367412

  4. Identification of novel HLA-A(*)0201-restricted CTL epitopes from Pokemon.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bangqing; Zhao, Lin; Xian, Ronghua; Zhao, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors and aberrant overexpressed in various human cancers. Therefore, the related peptide epitopes derived from Pokemon is essential for the development of specific immunotherapy of malignant tumors. In this study, we predicted and identified HLA-A(*)0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes derived from Pokemon with computer-based epitope prediction, peptide-binding assay and testing of the induced CTLs toward different kinds of carcinoma cells. The results demonstrated that effectors induced by peptides of Pokemon containing residues 32-40, 61-69, 87-95, and 319-327 could specifically secrete IFN-γ and lyse tumor cell lines of Pokemon-positive and HLA-A2-matched. The results suggest that Pokemon32, Pokemon61, Pokemon87, and Pokemon319 peptides are novel HLA-A(*)0201-restricted restricted CTL epitopes, and could be utilized in the cancer immunotherapy against a broad spectrum of tumors. PMID:22405859

  5. Vaccine Strain-Specificity of Protective HLA-Restricted Class 1 P. falciparum Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Sedegah, Martha; Peters, Bjoern; Ganeshan, Harini D.; Huang, Jun; Farooq, Fouzia; Belmonte, Maria N.; Belmonte, Arnel D.; Limbach, Keith J.; Diggs, Carter; Soisson, Lorraine; Chuang, Ilin; Villasante, Eileen D.

    2016-01-01

    A DNA prime/adenovirus boost malaria vaccine encoding Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7 CSP and AMA1 elicited sterile clinical protection associated with CD8+ T cell interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) cells responses directed to HLA class 1-restricted AMA1 epitopes of the vaccine strain 3D7. Since a highly effective malaria vaccine must be broadly protective against multiple P. falciparum strains, we compared these AMA1 epitopes of two P. falciparum strains (7G8 and 3D7), which differ by single amino acid substitutions, in their ability to recall CD8+ T cell activities using ELISpot and flow cytometry/intracellular staining assays. The 7G8 variant peptides did not recall 3D7 vaccine-induced CD8+ T IFN-γ cell responses in these assays, suggesting that protection may be limited to the vaccine strain. The predicted MHC binding affinities of the 7G8 variant epitopes were similar to the 3D7 epitopes, suggesting that the amino acid substitutions of the 7G8 variants may have interfered with TCR recognition of the MHC:peptide complex or that the 7G8 variant may have acted as an altered peptide ligand. These results stress the importance of functional assays in defining protective epitopes. Clinical Trials Registrations: NCT00870987, NCT00392015 PMID:27695088

  6. Identification of new HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes from neuritin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao; Zhao, Tianzhi; Liu, Yong; Gong, Zili; Cheng, Saiyu; Yang, Qingwu

    2013-08-01

    Identification of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes from additional tumor antigens is essential for the development of specific immunotherapy of malignant tumors. Neuritin, a recently discovered antigen overexpressed in astrocytoma, is considered to be a promising target for biological therapy. In the present study, we predicted and identified HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes from neuritin by using the following four-step procedure: (1) computer-based epitope prediction from the amino acid sequence of neuritin; (2) peptide-binding assay to determine the affinity of the predicted peptide with HLA-A2.1 molecule; (3) stimulation of primary T cell response against the predicted peptides in vitro; and (4) testing of the induced CTLs toward target cells expressing neuritin and HLA-A2.1. The results demonstrated that effectors induced by peptides of neuritin containing residues 13-21, 121-129 and 4-12 could specifically-secrete interferon-γ and lyse target cells. Our results indicate that these peptides are new HLA-A2.1-restricted CTL epitopes, and may serve as valuable tools for astrocytoma immunotherapy. PMID:23754640

  7. Characterization of two Epstein-Barr virus epitopes restricted by HLA-B7.

    PubMed

    Hill, A; Worth, A; Elliott, T; Rowland-Jones, S; Brooks, J; Rickinson, A; McMichael, A

    1995-01-01

    We have identified two epitopes for Epstein-Barr virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) restricted by the common allele HLA-B7. They are EBNA 3C 881-9 (QPRAPIRPI) and EBNA 3A 379-387 (RPPIFIRRL). The epitopes conform well to the recently described motif for HLA-B7-binding peptides (Huckzo et al., J. Immunol. 1993. 151:2572). Titration of the peptides in CTL assays and detergent lysate binding assays revealed that extending the peptides at either the N or C terminus did not reduce their affinity for HLA-B7. This behavior contrasted with HLA-B51, which binds peptides with a similar motif to B7, and has identical amino acid residues at sites expected to form the "F" pocket of the peptide-binding groove. HLA-B51 also bound the peptide EBNA 3C 881-9, but was unable to bind peptides extended at the C terminus.

  8. Identification of an H2-M3-Restricted Listeria Epitope: Implications for Antigen Presentation by M3

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Laurel L.; Dere, Beverley; Bevan, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Using expression cloning, we have identified an H2-M3-restricted epitope of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Picomolar concentrations of an amino-terminal N-formylated hexapeptide, fMIGWII, targeted cells for lysis by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, while the nonformylated peptide was approximately 100-fold less active. The sequence of the 185 aa protein source of this epitope predicts a transmembrane protein that retains its N terminus and assumes an Nout–Cin topology. This membrane orientation offers an explanation for the protection of the epitope from deformylases present in the bacterial cell and suggests an explanation for the ability of phagocytes to present H2-M3-restricted bacterial epitopes via a vacuolar TAP-independent mechanism. PMID:8758895

  9. T cell recognition of an HLA-A2-restricted epitope derived from a cleaved signal sequence

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    An alternative pathway for class I-restricted antigen presentation has been suggested on the basis of peptides bound to HLA-A2 molecules in cells lacking the transporter for antigen presentation (TAP). Most of these peptides were derived from signal sequences for translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, it is not known whether these peptides can be presented to T cells. The hydrophobic nature of an HLA-A2-restricted T cell epitope (M1 58-66) was exploited to test whether it could be presented to T cells when derived from a signal sequence. Replacing the signal sequence of the influenza virus hemagglutinin molecule H3 with an artificial sequence containing that HLA-A2-restricted T cell epitope resulted in efficient translocation of H3 molecules into the ER and transport to the cell surface. This signal sequence-derived epitope was presented to HLA-A2-restricted T cells. Involvement of cytosolic processing for this presentation is very unlikely, because (a) presentation occurred in cells lacking TAP; (b) expression of H3 molecules with the artificial signal sequence did not produce a detectable cytosolic form of H3; and (c) presentation of the same epitope expressed in cytosolic forms of antigen required TAP. Thus, a peptide derived from a signal sequence cleaved in the ER can provide an epitope for HLA-A2-restricted T cell recognition. PMID:7525846

  10. Conservation and Diversity of Influenza A H1N1 HLA-Restricted T Cell Epitope Candidates for Epitope-Based Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Paul ThiamJoo; Heiny, A. T.; Miotto, Olivo; Salmon, Jerome; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Lemonnier, Francois; August, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background The immune-related evolution of influenza viruses is exceedingly complex and current vaccines against influenza must be reformulated for each influenza season because of the high degree of antigenic drift among circulating influenza strains. Delay in vaccine production is a serious problem in responding to a pandemic situation, such as that of the current H1N1 strain. Immune escape is generally attributed to reduced antibody recognition of the viral hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins whose rate of mutation is much greater than that of the internal non-structural proteins. As a possible alternative, vaccines directed at T cell epitope domains of internal influenza proteins, that are less susceptible to antigenic variation, have been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings HLA transgenic mouse strains expressing HLA class I A*0201, A*2402, and B*0702, and class II DRB1*1501, DRB1*0301 and DRB1*0401 were immunized with 196 influenza H1N1 peptides that contained residues of highly conserved proteome sequences of the human H1N1, H3N2, H1N2, H5N1, and avian influenza A strains. Fifty-four (54) peptides that elicited 63 HLA-restricted peptide-specific T cell epitope responses were identified by IFN-γ ELISpot assay. The 54 peptides were compared to the 2007–2009 human H1N1 sequences for selection of sequences in the design of a new candidate H1N1 vaccine, specifically targeted to highly-conserved HLA-restricted T cell epitopes. Conclusions/Significance Seventeen (17) T cell epitopes in PB1, PB2, and M1 were selected as vaccine targets based on sequence conservation over the past 30 years, high functional avidity, non-identity to human peptides, clustered localization, and promiscuity to multiple HLA alleles. These candidate vaccine antigen sequences may be applicable to any avian or human influenza A virus. PMID:20090904

  11. Identification of a dengue virus-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ T cell epitope.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jinsheng; Duan, Zhiliang; Jiang, Lifang

    2010-04-01

    In this study, a combination of epitope-prediction programs and in vitro assays was used to identify dengue virus (DENV)-specific CD8(+) T cell epitopes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from patients who recovered from dengue fever were stimulated with candidate epitope peptides derived from DENV, which were predicted by using SYFPEITHI and RANKpep epitope-prediction programs. The IFN-gamma ELISpot results and the results of intracellular staining of IFN-gamma showed that peptides NS4b_40 (TLYAVATTI), E_256 (QEGAMHTAL), NS3_205 (LPAIVREAI), NS5_210 (SRNSTHEMY), and NS3_207 (AIVREAIKR) could induce the recall response of CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, the results of the MHC-peptide complex stabilization assay revealed that peptide NS4b_40 (TLYAVATTI) has a high affinity for HLA-A*0201 molecules. The IFN-gamma ELISpot results and staining of intracellular IFN-gamma confirmed that this peptide could induce high-level CD8(+) T cell response in HLA-A*0201 positive PBMCs. Peptide NS4b_40 (TLYAVATTI) was identified as a novel DENV-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope.

  12. An immunoinformatic approach for identification of Trypanosoma cruzi HLA-A2-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Eickhoff, Christopher S; Van Aartsen, Daniel; Terry, Frances E; Meymandi, Sheba K; Traina, Mahmoud M; Hernandez, Salvador; Martin, William D; Moise, Leonard; De Groot, Annie S; Hoft, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is a major neglected tropical disease caused by persistent chronic infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. An estimated 8 million people are infected with T. cruzi, however only 2 drugs are approved for treatment and no vaccines are available. Thus there is an urgent need to develop vaccines and new drugs to prevent and treat Chagas disease. In this work, we identify T cell targets relevant for human infection with T. cruzi. The trans-sialidase (TS) gene family is a large family of homologous genes within the T. cruzi genome encoding over 1,400 members. There are 12 highly conserved TS gene family members which encode enzymatically active TS (functional TS; F-TS), while the remaining TS family genes are less conserved, enzymatically inactive and have been hypothesized to be involved in immune evasion (non-functional TS; NF-TS). We utilized immunoinformatic tools to identify HLA-A2-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes conserved within F-TS family members and NF-TS gene family members. We also utilized a whole-genome approach to identify T cell epitopes present within genes which have previously been shown to be expressed in life stages relevant for human infection (Non-TS genes). Thirty immunogenic HLA-A2-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes were identified using IFN-γ ELISPOT assays after vaccination of humanized HLA-A2 transgenic mice with mature dendritic cells pulsed with F-TS, NF-TS, and Non-TS peptide pools. The immunogenic HLA-A2-restricted T cell epitopes identified in this work may serve as potential components of an epitope-based T cell targeted vaccine for Chagas disease. PMID:26107442

  13. Experimental Validation of Multi-Epitope Peptides Including Promising MHC Class I- and II-Restricted Epitopes of Four Known Leishmania infantum Proteins.

    PubMed

    Agallou, Maria; Athanasiou, Evita; Koutsoni, Olga; Dotsika, Eleni; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a significant worldwide health problem for which no vaccine exists. Activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells is crucial for the generation of protective immunity against parasite. Recent trend in vaccine design has been shifted to epitope-based vaccines that are more specific, safe, and easy to produce. In the present study, four known antigenic Leishmania infantum proteins, cysteine peptidase A (CPA), histone H1, KMP-11, and Leishmania eukaryotic initiation factor (LeIF) were analyzed for the prediction of binding epitopes to H2(d) MHC class I and II molecules, using online available algorithms. Based on in silico analysis, eight peptides including highly scored MHC class I- and II-restricted epitopes were synthesized. Peptide immunogenicity was validated in MHC compatible BALB/c mice immunized with each synthetic peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant/incomplete Freund's adjuvant. CPA_p2, CPA_p3, H1_p1, and LeIF_p6 induced strong spleen cell proliferation upon in vitro peptide re-stimulation. In addition, the majority of the peptides, except of LeIF_p1 and KMP-11_p1, induced IFN-γ secretion, while KMP-11_p1 indicated a suppressive effect on IL-10 production. CPA_p2, CPA_p3, LeIF_p3, and LeIF_p6 induced IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells indicating a TH1-type response. In addition, CPA_p2, CPA_p3, and H1_p1 induced also the induction of CD8(+) T cells. The induction of peptide-specific IgG in immunized mice designated also the existence of B cell epitopes in peptide sequences. Combining immunoinformatic tools and experimental validation, we demonstrated that CPA_p2, CPA_p3, H1_p1, H1_p3, CPA_p2, LeIF_p3, and LeIF_p6 are likely to include potential epitopes for the induction of protective cytotoxic and/or TH1-type immune responses supporting the feasibility of peptide-based vaccine development for leishmaniasis. PMID:24959167

  14. Identification of human leukemia antigen A*0201-restricted epitopes derived from epidermal growth factor pathway substrate number 8

    PubMed Central

    TANG, BAISHAN; ZHOU, WEIJUN; DU, JINGWEN; HE, YANJIE; LI, YUHUA

    2015-01-01

    T-cell-mediated immunotherapy of hematological malignancies requires selection of targeted tumor-associated antigens and T-cell epitopes contained in these tumor proteins. Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (EPS8), whose function is pivotal for tumor proliferation, progression and metastasis, has been found to be overexpressed in most human tumor types, while its expression in normal tissue is low. The aim of the present study was to identify human leukemia antigen (HLA)-A*0201-restricted epitopes of EPS8 by using a reverse immunology approach. To achieve this, computer algorithms were used to predict HLA-A*0201 molecular binding, proteasome cleavage patterns as well as translocation of transporters associated with antigen processing. Candidate peptides were experimentally validated by T2 binding affinity assay and brefeldin-A decay assay. The functional avidity of peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) induced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay and a cytotoxicity assay. Four peptides, designated as P455, P92, P276 and P360, had high affinity and stability of binding towards the HLA-A*0201 molecule, and specific CTLs induced by them significantly responded to the corresponding peptides and secreted IFN-γ. At the same time, the CTLs were able to specifically lyse EPS8-expressing cell lines in an HLA-A*0201-restricted manner. The present study demon-strated that P455, P92, P276 and P360 were CTL epitopes of EPS8, and were able to be used for epitope-defined adoptive T-cell transfer and multi-epitope-based vaccine design. PMID:25936538

  15. In silico analysis of MHC-I restricted epitopes of Chikungunya virus proteins: Implication in understanding anti-CHIKV CD8(+) T cell response and advancement of epitope based immunotherapy for CHIKV infection.

    PubMed

    Pratheek, B M; Suryawanshi, Amol R; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, responsible for acute febrile infection. The high morbidity and socio-economic loss associated with the recent CHIKV epidemics worldwide have raised a great public health concern and emphasize the need to study the immunological basis of CHIKV infection to control the disease. MHC-I restricted CD8(+) T cell response represent one of the major anti-viral immune responses. Accordingly, it is essential to have a detailed understanding towards CHIKV specific MHC-I restricted immunogenic epitopes for anti-viral CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. In the present study, a computational approach was used to predict the conserved MHC-I epitopes for mouse haplotypes (H2-Db and H2-Dd) and some alleles of the major HLA-I supertypes (HLA-A2, -A3, -A24, -B7, -B15) of all CHIKV proteins. Further, an in-depth computational analysis was carried out to validate the selected epitopes for their nature of conservation in different global CHIKV isolates to assess their binding affinities to the appropriate site of respective MHC-I molecules and to predict anti-CHIKV CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. Our analyses resulted in fifteen highly conserved epitopes for H2-Db and H2-Dd and fifty epitopes for different HLA-I supertypes. Out of these, the MHC-I epitopes VLLPNVHTL and MTPERVTRL were found to have highest predictable CTL immunogenicities and least binding energies for H2-Db and H2-Dd, whereas, for HLA-I, the epitope FLTLFVNTL was with the highest population coverage, CTL immunogenicity and least binding energy. Hence, our study has identified MHC-I restricted epitopes that may help in the advancement of MHC-I restricted epitope based anti-CHIKV immune responses against this infection and this will be useful towards the development of epitope based anti-CHIKV immunotherapy in the future. However, further experimental investigations for cross validation and evaluation are warranted to establish the ability of epitopes to induce CD8(+) T cell

  16. In silico analysis of MHC-I restricted epitopes of Chikungunya virus proteins: Implication in understanding anti-CHIKV CD8(+) T cell response and advancement of epitope based immunotherapy for CHIKV infection.

    PubMed

    Pratheek, B M; Suryawanshi, Amol R; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, responsible for acute febrile infection. The high morbidity and socio-economic loss associated with the recent CHIKV epidemics worldwide have raised a great public health concern and emphasize the need to study the immunological basis of CHIKV infection to control the disease. MHC-I restricted CD8(+) T cell response represent one of the major anti-viral immune responses. Accordingly, it is essential to have a detailed understanding towards CHIKV specific MHC-I restricted immunogenic epitopes for anti-viral CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. In the present study, a computational approach was used to predict the conserved MHC-I epitopes for mouse haplotypes (H2-Db and H2-Dd) and some alleles of the major HLA-I supertypes (HLA-A2, -A3, -A24, -B7, -B15) of all CHIKV proteins. Further, an in-depth computational analysis was carried out to validate the selected epitopes for their nature of conservation in different global CHIKV isolates to assess their binding affinities to the appropriate site of respective MHC-I molecules and to predict anti-CHIKV CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. Our analyses resulted in fifteen highly conserved epitopes for H2-Db and H2-Dd and fifty epitopes for different HLA-I supertypes. Out of these, the MHC-I epitopes VLLPNVHTL and MTPERVTRL were found to have highest predictable CTL immunogenicities and least binding energies for H2-Db and H2-Dd, whereas, for HLA-I, the epitope FLTLFVNTL was with the highest population coverage, CTL immunogenicity and least binding energy. Hence, our study has identified MHC-I restricted epitopes that may help in the advancement of MHC-I restricted epitope based anti-CHIKV immune responses against this infection and this will be useful towards the development of epitope based anti-CHIKV immunotherapy in the future. However, further experimental investigations for cross validation and evaluation are warranted to establish the ability of epitopes to induce CD8(+) T cell

  17. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted epitope discovery in yellow fewer and dengue viruses: importance of HLA binding strength.

    PubMed

    Lund, Ole; Nascimento, Eduardo J M; Maciel, Milton; Nielsen, Morten; Larsen, Mette Voldby; Lundegaard, Claus; Harndahl, Mikkel; Lamberth, Kasper; Buus, Søren; Salmon, Jérôme; August, Thomas J; Marques, Ernesto T A

    2011-01-01

    Epitopes from all available full-length sequences of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue fever virus (DENV) restricted by Human Leukocyte Antigen class I (HLA-I) alleles covering 12 HLA-I supertypes were predicted using the NetCTL algorithm. A subset of 179 predicted YFV and 158 predicted DENV epitopes were selected using the EpiSelect algorithm to allow for optimal coverage of viral strains. The selected predicted epitopes were synthesized and approximately 75% were found to bind the predicted restricting HLA molecule with an affinity, K(D), stronger than 500 nM. The immunogenicity of 25 HLA-A*02:01, 28 HLA-A*24:02 and 28 HLA-B*07:02 binding peptides was tested in three HLA-transgenic mice models and led to the identification of 17 HLA-A*02:01, 4 HLA-A*2402 and 4 HLA-B*07:02 immunogenic peptides. The immunogenic peptides bound HLA significantly stronger than the non-immunogenic peptides. All except one of the immunogenic peptides had K(D) below 100 nM and the peptides with K(D) below 5 nM were more likely to be immunogenic. In addition, all the immunogenic peptides that were identified as having a high functional avidity had K(D) below 20 nM. A*02:01 transgenic mice were also inoculated twice with the 17DD YFV vaccine strain. Three of the YFV A*02:01 restricted peptides activated T-cells from the infected mice in vitro. All three peptides that elicited responses had an HLA binding affinity of 2 nM or less. The results indicate the importance of the strength of HLA binding in shaping the immune response.

  18. Heligmosomoides polygyrus elicits a dominant nonprotective antibody response directed against restricted glycan and peptide epitopes.

    PubMed

    Hewitson, James P; Filbey, Kara J; Grainger, John R; Dowle, Adam A; Pearson, Mark; Murray, Janice; Harcus, Yvonne; Maizels, Rick M

    2011-11-01

    Heligmosomoides polygyrus is a widely used gastrointestinal helminth model of long-term chronic infection in mice, which has not been well-characterized at the antigenic level. We now identify the major targets of the murine primary Ab response as a subset of the secreted products in H. polygyrus excretory-secretory (HES) Ag. An immunodominant epitope is an O-linked glycan (named glycan A) carried on three highly expressed HES glycoproteins (venom allergen Ancylostoma-secreted protein-like [VAL]-1, -2, and -5), which stimulates only IgM Abs, is exposed on the adult worm surface, and is poorly represented in somatic parasite extracts. A second carbohydrate epitope (glycan B), present on both a non-protein high molecular mass component and a 65-kDa molecule, is widely distributed in adult somatic tissues. Whereas the high molecular mass component and 65-kDa molecules bear phosphorylcholine, the glycan B epitope itself is not phosphorylcholine. Class-switched IgG1 Abs are found to glycan B, but the dominant primary IgG1 response is to the polypeptides of VAL proteins, including also VAL-3 and VAL-4. Secondary Ab responses include the same specificities while also recognizing VAL-7. Although vaccination with HES conferred complete protection against challenge H. polygyrus infection, mAbs raised against each of the glycan epitopes and against VAL-1, VAL-2, and VAL-4 proteins were unable to do so, even though these specificities (with the exception of VAL-2) are also secreted by tissue-phase L4 larvae. The primary immune response in susceptible mice is, therefore, dominated by nonprotective Abs against a small subset of antigenic epitopes, raising the possibility that these act as decoy specificities that generate ineffective humoral immunity. PMID:21964031

  19. HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR-restricted epitopes in GRA5 of toxoplasma gondii strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryati, S.; Sari, Y.; APrasetyo, A.; Sariyatun, R.

    2016-02-01

    The dense granular (GRA) proteins of Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) have been demonstrated as potential sources of T. gondii vaccine antigens. However, data of the GRA5 protein are limited. This study analyzed twenty-one complete GRA5 sequences of T. gondii GT1, RH, ME49, VEG, MAS, RUB, FOU, p89, VAND, and GAB2-2007-GAL-DOM2 strains to identify potential epitopes restricted by Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHC- II) molecules (human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR) in the protein. In all T. gondii strains, peptides positioned at amino acid (aa) 15-29, 16-30, 17-31, 18-32, 19-33, 83-97, 84-98, 86-100, 87-101, 89-103, and 90-104 were predicted to pose high affinity and binding with HLA-DRB1*0101, HLA-DRB1*0301 (DR17), HLA-DRB1*0401 (DR4Dw4), HLA-DRB1*0701, HLA-DRB1*1101, HLA-DRB1*1501 (DR2b), and/or HLA-DRB5*0101. Considering the epitope's affinity, ligation strength, and hydrophilicity, LRLLRRRRRRAIQEE sequence (aa 90-104) restricted by HLA-DRB1*0101, HlA- DRB1*0301 (DR17), and HLA-DRB1*0401 (DR4Dw4) was considered as the most potential MHC-II epitope in GRA5 of T. gondii. These results would be useful for studies concerning in developing T. gondii vaccine and diagnostic method.

  20. DCs Pulsed with Novel HLA-A2-Restricted CTL Epitopes against Hepatitis C Virus Induced a Broadly Reactive Anti-HCV-Specific T Lymphocyte Response

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhongsheng; Zhang, Henghui; Rao, Huiying; Jiang, Dong; Cong, Xu; Feng, Bo; Wang, Jianghua; Wei, Lai; Chen, Hongsong

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with single or multiple-peptide mixtures of novel hepatitis C virus (HCV) epitopes to stimulate HCV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector functions. Methods A bioinformatics approach was used to predict HLA-A2-restricted HCV-specific CTL epitopes, and the predicted peptides identified from this screen were synthesized. Subsequent IFN-γ ELISPOT analysis detected the stimulating function of these peptides in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from both chronic and self-limited HCV infected subjects (subjects exhibiting spontaneous HCV clearance). Mature DCs, derived in vitro from CD14+ monocytes harvested from the study subjects by incubation with appropriate cytokine cocktails, were loaded with novel peptide or epitope peptide mixtures and co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes. Granzyme B (GrB) and IFN-γ ELISPOT analysis was used to test for epitope-specific CTL responses. T-cell-derived cytokines contained in the co-cultured supernatant were detected by flow cytometry. Results We identified 7 novel HLA-A2-restricted HCV-specific CTL epitopes that increased the frequency of IFN-γ-producing T cells compared to other epitopes, as assayed by measuring spot forming cells (SFCs). Two epitopes had the strongest stimulating capability in the self-limited subjects, one found in the E2 and one in the NS2 region of HCV; five epitopes had a strong stimulating capacity in both chronic and self-limited HCV infection, but were stronger in the self-limited subjects. They were distributed in E2, NS2, NS3, NS4, and NS5 regions of HCV, respectively. We also found that mDCs loaded with novel peptide mixtures could significantly increase GrB and IFN-γ SFCs as compared to single peptides, especially in chronic HCV infection subjects. Additionally, we found that DCs pulsed with multiple epitope peptide mixtures induced a Th1-biased immune response. Conclusions Seven novel and strongly stimulating

  1. Identification of Novel HLA-A*24:02-Restricted Epitope Derived from a Homeobox Protein Expressed in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Maiko; Otsuka, Yohei; Tsutsumida, Naoya; Tanaka, Chiaki; Uchiumi, Akane; Ozawa, Koji; Suzuki, Takuma; Ichikawa, Daiju; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Hattori, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The homeobox protein, PEPP2 (RHOXF2), has been suggested as a cancer/testis (CT) antigen based on its expression pattern. However, the peptide epitope of PEPP2 that is recognized by cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) is unknown. In this study, we revealed that PEPP2 gene was highly expressed in myeloid leukemia cells and some other hematological malignancies. This gene was also expressed in leukemic stem-like cells. We next identified the first reported epitope peptide (PEPP2271-279). The CTLs induced by PEPP2271-279 recognized PEPP2-positive target cells in an HLA-A*24:02-restricted manner. We also found that a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine, could enhance PEPP2 expression in leukemia cells but not in blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. The cytotoxic activity of anti-PEPP2 CTL against leukemic cells treated with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine was higher than that directed against untreated cells. These results suggest a clinical rationale that combined treatment with this novel antigen-specific immunotherapy together with demethylating agents might be effective in therapy-resistant myeloid leukemia patients. PMID:26784514

  2. Identification of a Novel Immunodominant HLA-B*07: 02-restricted Adenoviral Peptide Epitope and Its Potential in Adoptive Transfer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Günther, Patrick S; Peper, Janet K; Faist, Benjamin; Kayser, Simone; Hartl, Lena; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Jahn, Gerhard; Neuenhahn, Michael; Busch, Dirk H; Stevanović, Stefan; Dennehy, Kevin M

    2015-09-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients, particularly following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, are associated with morbidity and mortality. Immunotherapy by adoptive transfer of hexon-specific and penton-specific T cells has been successfully applied, but many approaches are impeded by the low number of HLA class I-restricted adenoviral peptide epitopes described to date. We use a novel method to identify naturally presented adenoviral peptide epitopes from infected human cells, ectopically expressing defined HLA, using peptide elution and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We show that the previously described HLA-A*01:01-restricted peptide epitope LTDLGQNLLY from hexon protein is naturally presented, and demonstrate the functionality of LTDLGQNLLY-specific T cells. We further identify a novel immunodominant HLA-B*07:02-restricted peptide epitope VPATGRTLVL from protein 13.6 K, and demonstrate the high proliferative, cytotoxic, and IFN-γ-producing capacity of peptide-specific T cells. Lastly, LTDLGQNLLY-specific T cells can be detected ex vivo following adoptive transfer therapy, and LTDLGQNLLY-specific and VPATGRTLVL-specific T cells have memory phenotypes ex vivo. Given their proliferative and cytotoxic capacity, such epitope-specific T cells are promising candidates for adoptive T-cell transfer therapy of adenovirus infection.

  3. An HLA-C-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clone recognizes a highly conserved epitope on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag.

    PubMed Central

    Littaua, R A; Oldstone, M B; Takeda, A; Debouck, C; Wong, J T; Tuazon, C U; Moss, B; Kievits, F; Ennis, F A

    1991-01-01

    A unique epitope on the gag protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), located at amino acid 145 to 150, has been mapped by using a CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clone. This epitope is highly conserved among 18 HIV-1 strains. The HIV-1 gag-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted CD8+ CTL clone was generated from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an HIV-seropositive donor by stimulation with gamma-irradiated allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and recombinant interleukin-2. This gag-specific CTL clone killed autologous target cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the gag gene of HIV-1 and target cells pulsed with an authentic p24gag construct expressed in Escherichia coli. Fine specificity was determined by using a panel of overlapping 30-amino-acid-long synthetic peptides and subsequently using smaller peptides to precisely map the CTL domain on p24. The epitope is on a highly conserved region, and it overlaps with a major B-cell epitope of gag. This CD8+ T-cell epitope is restricted by HLA-Cw3, which has not been previously identified as a restricting element for human CTL responses. PMID:1712857

  4. Novel HLA-B27-restricted epitopes from Chlamydia trachomatis generated upon endogenous processing of bacterial proteins suggest a role of molecular mimicry in reactive arthritis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Navarro, Carlos; Cragnolini, Juan J; Dos Santos, Helena G; Barnea, Eilon; Admon, Arie; Morreale, Antonio; López de Castro, José A

    2013-09-01

    Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an HLA-B27-associated spondyloarthropathy that is triggered by diverse bacteria, including Chlamydia trachomatis, a frequent intracellular parasite. HLA-B27-restricted T-cell responses are elicited against this bacterium in ReA patients, but their pathogenetic significance, autoimmune potential, and relevant epitopes are unknown. High resolution and sensitivity mass spectrometry was used to identify HLA-B27 ligands endogenously processed and presented by HLA-B27 from three chlamydial proteins for which T-cell epitopes were predicted. Fusion protein constructs of ClpC, Na(+)-translocating NADH-quinone reductase subunit A, and DNA primase were expressed in HLA-B27(+) cells, and their HLA-B27-bound peptidomes were searched for endogenous bacterial ligands. A non-predicted peptide, distinct from the predicted T-cell epitope, was identified from ClpC. A peptide recognized by T-cells in vitro, NQRA(330-338), was detected from the reductase subunit. This is the second HLA-B27-restricted T-cell epitope from C. trachomatis with relevance in ReA demonstrated to be processed and presented in live cells. A novel peptide from the DNA primase, DNAP(211-223), was also found. This was a larger variant of a known epitope and was highly homologous to a self-derived natural ligand of HLA-B27. All three bacterial peptides showed high homology with human sequences containing the binding motif of HLA-B27. Molecular dynamics simulations further showed a striking conformational similarity between DNAP(211-223) and its homologous and much more flexible human-derived HLA-B27 ligand. The results suggest that molecular mimicry between HLA-B27-restricted bacterial and self-derived epitopes is frequent and may play a role in ReA.

  5. Novel HLA-B27-restricted Epitopes from Chlamydia trachomatis Generated upon Endogenous Processing of Bacterial Proteins Suggest a Role of Molecular Mimicry in Reactive Arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Navarro, Carlos; Cragnolini, Juan J.; Dos Santos, Helena G.; Barnea, Eilon; Admon, Arie; Morreale, Antonio; López de Castro, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an HLA-B27-associated spondyloarthropathy that is triggered by diverse bacteria, including Chlamydia trachomatis, a frequent intracellular parasite. HLA-B27-restricted T-cell responses are elicited against this bacterium in ReA patients, but their pathogenetic significance, autoimmune potential, and relevant epitopes are unknown. High resolution and sensitivity mass spectrometry was used to identify HLA-B27 ligands endogenously processed and presented by HLA-B27 from three chlamydial proteins for which T-cell epitopes were predicted. Fusion protein constructs of ClpC, Na+-translocating NADH-quinone reductase subunit A, and DNA primase were expressed in HLA-B27+ cells, and their HLA-B27-bound peptidomes were searched for endogenous bacterial ligands. A non-predicted peptide, distinct from the predicted T-cell epitope, was identified from ClpC. A peptide recognized by T-cells in vitro, NQRA(330–338), was detected from the reductase subunit. This is the second HLA-B27-restricted T-cell epitope from C. trachomatis with relevance in ReA demonstrated to be processed and presented in live cells. A novel peptide from the DNA primase, DNAP(211–223), was also found. This was a larger variant of a known epitope and was highly homologous to a self-derived natural ligand of HLA-B27. All three bacterial peptides showed high homology with human sequences containing the binding motif of HLA-B27. Molecular dynamics simulations further showed a striking conformational similarity between DNAP(211–223) and its homologous and much more flexible human-derived HLA-B27 ligand. The results suggest that molecular mimicry between HLA-B27-restricted bacterial and self-derived epitopes is frequent and may play a role in ReA. PMID:23867464

  6. HLA-A2-Restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitopes from Human Heparanase as Novel Targets for Broad-Spectrum Tumor Immunotherapy1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Tang, Xu-Dong; Wan, Yin; Chen, Ling; Yu, Song-Tao; Xiong, Zhen; Fang, Dian-Chun; Liang, Guang-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Peptide vaccination for cancer immunotherapy requires identification of peptide epitopes derived from antigenic proteins associated with tumors. Heparanase (Hpa) is broadly expressed in various advanced tumors and seems to be an attractive new tumor-associated antigen. The present study was designed to predict and identify HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes in the protein of human Hpa. For this purpose, HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes were identified using the following four-step procedure: 1) a computer-based epitope prediction from the amino acid sequence of human Hpa, 2) a peptide-binding assay to determine the affinity of the predicted protein with the HLA-A2 molecule, 3) stimulation of the primary T-cell response against the predicted peptides in vitro, and 4) testing of the induced CTLs toward different kinds of carcinoma cells expressing Hpa antigens and/or HLA-A2. The results demonstrated that, of the tested peptides, effectors induced by peptides of human Hpa containing residues 525–533 (PAFSYSFFV, Hpa525), 277–285 (KMLKSFLKA, Hpa277), and 405–413 (WLSLLFKKL, Hpa405) could effectively lyse various tumor cell lines that were Hpa-positive and HLA-A2-matched. We also found that these peptide-specific CTLs could not lyse autologous lymphocytes with low Hpa activity. Further study revealed that Hpa525, Hpa277, and Hpa405 peptides increased the frequency of IFN-γ-producing T cells compared to a negative peptide. Our results suggest that Hpa525, Hpa277, and Hpa405 peptides are new HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes capable of inducing Hpa-specific CTLs in vitro. Because Hpa is expressed in most advanced malignant tumors, Hpa525, Hpa277, and Hpa405 peptide-based vaccines may be useful for the immunotherapy for patients with advanced tumors. PMID:18714399

  7. Using HLA-A2.1 Transgenic Rabbit Model to Screen and Characterize New HLA-A2.1 Restricted Epitope DNA Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiafen; Schell, Todd D.; Peng, Xuwen; Cladel, Nancy M.; Balogh, Karla K.; Christensen, Neil D.

    2011-01-01

    We have established an HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit /cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) infection model. Using this novel transgenic animal model, we reported earlier that a multivalent epitope DNA vaccine (CRPVE1ep1-5) containing five HLA-A2.1 restricted epitopes from CRPVE1 (42-50, 149-157, 161-169, 245-253 and 303-311) was successful in providing strong and specific protective and therapeutic immunity. Among these five epitopes, two (161-169 and 303-311) have been proven to stimulate strong immunity in both HLA-A2.1 transgenic mouse and rabbit models. In the current study, we further identified the remaining three epitopes (CRPVE1/42-50,149-157, 245-253) in both animal models. CRPVE1/149-157 was able to induce specific CTL responses in HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice by DNA immunization but undetectable by peptide immunization. CRPVE1/42-50 and 245-253 failed to respond in HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice either by peptide or DNA immunization. All the three epitopes when administrated as DNA vaccines, however, were able to stimulate strong protective immunity in HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits in a dose dependent manner. Among the five epitopes, two (CRPVE1/ 303-311and CRPVE1/149-157) DNA vaccines also showed specific therapeutic effects in CRPV-infected HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits. Taken together, the HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model recognized more epitopes than did the HLA-A2.1 transgenic mouse model. Our data demonstrate that the HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model can complement the HLA-A2.1 transgenic mouse model for the development and testing of new HLA-A2.1 restricted prophylactic and therapeutic T cell based DNA vaccines. PMID:21572916

  8. Diverse solid tumors expressing a restricted epitope of L1-CAM can be targeted by chimeric antigen receptor redirected T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hao; Stastny, Michael; Brown, Christine; Chang, Wen-Chung; Ostberg, Julie R; Forman, Stephen J; Jensen, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion molecule L1-CAM (CD171) was originally reported to be overexpressed on neuroblastoma and to play an important role during tumor progression. More recently, it has been shown to be overexpressed on many other solid tumors such as melanoma and carcinomas of the cervix, ovary, bladder, and others. Thus, there has been a growing interest in using this cell-surface molecule as a target for both antibody-based and cellular-based therapy-our group has previously examined the clinical utility of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected cytolytic T cells that specifically target the CE7 epitope of L1-CAM on neuroblastoma patients. Here, we sought to determine whether this CE7 epitope is present on other recently identified L1-CAM tumors and whether it too can be targeted by CAR T cells. Our studies demonstrate that a diverse array of human tumor cell lines and primary solid tumors (ovarian, lung, and renal carcinoma, glioblastoma and neuroblastoma) do express the CE7 epitope and can efficiently stimulate CE7-specific CAR-redirected (CE7R) T-cell lytic activity and secretion of proinflamatory cytokines. L1-CAM was also detected on a limited number of normal tissues; however, L1-CAM expressed on normal human monocytes was not bound by the CE7 mAb nor was it targeted by CE7R T cells, suggesting that the CE7 epitope is more tumor restricted and not expressed on all L1-CAM tissues. Overall, the CE7 epitope of L1-CAM on a variety of tumors may be amenable to targeting by CE7R T cells, making it a promising target for adoptive immunotherapy.

  9. Diverse solid tumors expressing a restricted epitope of L1-CAM can be targeted by chimeric antigen receptor redirected T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hao; Stastny, Michael; Brown, Christine; Chang, Wen-Chung; Ostberg, Julie R; Forman, Stephen J; Jensen, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion molecule L1-CAM (CD171) was originally reported to be overexpressed on neuroblastoma and to play an important role during tumor progression. More recently, it has been shown to be overexpressed on many other solid tumors such as melanoma and carcinomas of the cervix, ovary, bladder, and others. Thus, there has been a growing interest in using this cell-surface molecule as a target for both antibody-based and cellular-based therapy-our group has previously examined the clinical utility of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected cytolytic T cells that specifically target the CE7 epitope of L1-CAM on neuroblastoma patients. Here, we sought to determine whether this CE7 epitope is present on other recently identified L1-CAM tumors and whether it too can be targeted by CAR T cells. Our studies demonstrate that a diverse array of human tumor cell lines and primary solid tumors (ovarian, lung, and renal carcinoma, glioblastoma and neuroblastoma) do express the CE7 epitope and can efficiently stimulate CE7-specific CAR-redirected (CE7R) T-cell lytic activity and secretion of proinflamatory cytokines. L1-CAM was also detected on a limited number of normal tissues; however, L1-CAM expressed on normal human monocytes was not bound by the CE7 mAb nor was it targeted by CE7R T cells, suggesting that the CE7 epitope is more tumor restricted and not expressed on all L1-CAM tissues. Overall, the CE7 epitope of L1-CAM on a variety of tumors may be amenable to targeting by CE7R T cells, making it a promising target for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:24509172

  10. Human HLA class I- and HLA class II-restricted cloned cytotoxic T lymphocytes identify a cluster of epitopes on the measles virus fusion protein.

    PubMed Central

    van Binnendijk, R S; Versteeg-van Oosten, J P; Poelen, M C; Brugghe, H F; Hoogerhout, P; Osterhaus, A D; Uytdehaag, F G

    1993-01-01

    The transmembrane fusion (F) glycoprotein of measles virus is an important target antigen of human HLA class I- and class II-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Genetically engineered F proteins and nested sets of synthetic peptides spanning the F protein were used to determine sequences of F recognized by a number of F-specific CTL clones. Combined N- and C-terminal deletions of the respective peptides revealed that human HLA class I and HLA class II-restricted CTL efficiently recognize nonapeptides or decapeptides representing epitopes of F. Three distinct sequences recognized by three different HLA class II (DQw1, DR2, and DR4/w53)-restricted CTL clones appear to cluster between amino acids 379 and 466 of F, thus defining an important T-cell epitope area of F. Within this same region, a nonamer peptide of F was found to be recognized by an HLA-B27-restricted CTL clone, as expected on the basis of the structural homology between this peptide and other known HLA-B27 binding peptides. PMID:7680390

  11. HLA-restricted epitope identification and detection of functional T cell responses by using MHC–peptide and costimulatory microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jennifer D.; Demkowicz, Walter E.; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of T cell epitopes is a vital but often slow and difficult step in studying the immune response to infectious agents and autoantigens. We report a spatially addressable technique for screening large numbers of T cell epitopes for both specific antigen recognition and functional activity induced. This system uses microarrays of immobilized, recombinant MHC–peptide complexes, costimulatory molecules, and cytokine-capture antibodies. The array elements act as synthetic antigen-presenting cells and specifically elicit T cell responses, including adhesion, secretion of cytokines, and modulation of surface markers. The method allows facile identification of pertinent T cell epitopes in a large number of candidates and simultaneous determination of the functional outcome of the interaction. Using this method, we have characterized the activation of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responding to vaccinia, influenza, HIV-1, and Epstein–Barr viruses. PMID:15728728

  12. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 peptides in chimeric and multivalent constructs with promiscuous T-cell epitopes enhance immunogenicity and overcome genetic restriction.

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, M D; DiGeorge, A M; Conrad, S F; Trevino, A V; Lal, R B; Kaumaya, P T

    1995-01-01

    Conventional strategies of viral peptide immunizations often elicit low-affinity antibody responses and have limited ability to elicit immune responses in outbred animals of diverse major histocompatibility (MHC) haplotypes. This genetically restricted T-cell-stimulatory activity of peptides is a serious obstacle to vaccine design. However, the use of promiscuous T-cell epitopes may circumvent this problem. Promiscuous T-cell epitopes from tetanus toxin (amino acids [aa] 580 to 599) and the measles virus F protein (aa 288 to 302) that bind to several isotypic and allotypic forms of human MHC class II molecules have been identified and have been used in highly immunogenic constructs to overcome haplotype-restricted immune responses. Chimeric and beta-template peptide constructs incorporating known human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) B- and T-cell epitopes from the surface envelope protein gp46 (SP2 [aa 86 to 107] and SP4a [aa 190 to 209]) and promiscuous T-cell peptides were synthesized, and their immunogenicities were evaluated in both rabbits and mouse strains of divergent haplotypes (C3H/HeJ [H-2k], C57BL/6 [H-2b], and BALB/c [H-2d]). In addition, peptide preparations were structurally characterized by analytical high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. In contrast to their linear forms, the chimeric constructs of both the SP2 and SP4a epitopes displayed alpha-helical secondary structures. Immunogenicity of the peptide constructs was evaluated by direct and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), as well as by radioimmunoprecipitation, syncytium inhibition, and antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation assays. Immunization with the SP4a peptide without conjugation to a carrier protein produced antibodies specific for SP4a in two mouse strains (C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6). However, BALB/c mice failed to respond to the peptide, indicating that the T-cell epitope of the SP4a sequence is MHC restricted. In

  13. CD4+CD25− T cells transduced to express MHC class I-restricted epitope specific TCR synthesize Th1 cytokines and exhibit MHC class I-restricted cytolytic effector function in a human melanoma model

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Arvind; Yang, Lili; Wang, Pin; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Das, Raja; Chakraborty, Nitya G.; Ray, Swagatam; Mehrotra, Shikhar; Yang, Haiguang; Hardee, Cinnamon L.; Hollis, Roger; Dorsky, David I.; Koya, Richard; Kohn, Donald B.; Ribas, Antoni; Economou, James S.; Baltimore, David; Mukherji, Bijay

    2009-01-01

    Cytolytic T cell-centric active specific and adoptive immunotherapeutic approaches might benefit from the simultaneous engagement of CD4+ T cells. Considering the difficulties in simultaneously engaging CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in tumor immunotherapy -- especially in an antigen specific manner -- “redirecting” CD4+ T cells to MHC class I-restricted epitopes through engineered expression of MHC class I-restricted epitope specific T cell receptors (TCR) in CD4+ T cells has emerged as a strategic consideration. Such TCR engineered CD4+ T cells have been shown to be capable of synthesizing cytokines as well as lysing target cells. We have carried out a critical examination of functional characteristics of CD4+ T cells engineered to express the α and β chains of a high functional avidity TCR specific for the melanoma epitope, MART-127–35 (M1), as a prototypic human tumor antigen system. We found that unpolarized CD4+CD25− T cells engineered to express the M1 TCR selectively synthesize Th1 cytokines and exhibit a potent antigen-specific lytic granule exocytosis-mediated cytolytic effector function of comparable efficacy to that of CD8+ CTL. Such TCR engineered CD4+ T cells, therefore, might be useful in clinical immunotherapy. PMID:18606658

  14. Availability of a diversely avid CD8+ T cell repertoire specific for the subdominant HLA-A2-restricted HIV-1 Gag p2419-27 epitope.

    PubMed

    Schaubert, Keri L; Price, David A; Frahm, Nicole; Li, Jinzhu; Ng, Hwee L; Joseph, Aviva; Paul, Elyse; Majumder, Biswanath; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Gostick, Emma; Adams, Sharon; Marincola, Francesco M; Sewell, Andrew K; Altfeld, Marcus; Brenchley, Jason M; Douek, Daniel C; Yang, Otto O; Brander, Christian; Goldstein, Harris; Kan-Mitchell, June

    2007-06-15

    HLA-A2-restricted CTL responses to immunodominant HIV-1 epitopes do not appear to be very effective in the control of viral replication in vivo. In this study, we studied human CD8+ T cell responses to the subdominant HLA-A2-restricted epitope TV9 (Gag p24(19-27), TLNAWVKVV) to explore the possibility of increasing its immune recognition. We confirmed in a cohort of 313 patients, infected by clade B or clade C viruses, that TV9 is rarely recognized. Of interest, the functional sensitivity of the TV9 response can be relatively high. The potential T cell repertoires for TV9 and the characteristics of constituent clonotypes were assessed by ex vivo priming of circulating CD8+ T cells from healthy seronegative donors. TV9-specific CTLs capable of suppressing viral replication in vitro were readily generated, suggesting that the cognate T cell repertoire is not limiting. However, these cultures contained multiple discrete populations with a range of binding avidities for the TV9 tetramer and correspondingly distinct functional dependencies on the CD8 coreceptor. The lack of dominant clonotypes was not affected by the stage of maturation of the priming dendritic cells. Cultures primed by dendritic cells transduced to present endogenous TV9 were also incapable of clonal maturation. Thus, a diffuse TCR repertoire appeared to be an intrinsic characteristic of TV9-specific responses. These data indicate that subdominance is not a function of poor immunogenicity, cognate TCR repertoire availability, or the potential avidity properties thereof, but rather suggest that useful responses to this epitope are suppressed by competing CD8+ T cell populations during HIV-1 infection.

  15. Identification of Novel HLA-A2-Restricted Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitopes Predicted by the HLA-A2 Supertype Peptide-Binding Motif

    PubMed Central

    Altfeld, Marcus A.; Livingston, Brian; Reshamwala, Neha; Nguyen, Phuong T.; Addo, Marylyn M.; Shea, Amy; Newman, Mark; Fikes, John; Sidney, John; Wentworth, Peggy; Chesnut, Robert; Eldridge, Robert L.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Brander, Christian; Sax, Paul E.; Boswell, Steve; Flynn, Theresa; Buchbinder, Susan; Goulder, Philip J. R.; Walker, Bruce D.; Sette, Alessandro; Kalams, Spyros A.

    2001-01-01

    Virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses are critical in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and will play an important part in therapeutic and prophylactic HIV-1 vaccines. The identification of virus-specific epitopes that are efficiently recognized by CTL is the first step in the development of future vaccines. Here we describe the immunological characterization of a number of novel HIV-1-specific, HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes that share a high degree of conservation within HIV-1 and a strong binding to different alleles of the HLA-A2 superfamily. These novel epitopes include the first reported CTL epitope in the Vpr protein. Two of the novel epitopes were immunodominant among the HLA-A2-restricted CTL responses of individuals with acute and chronic HIV-1 infection. The novel CTL epitopes identified here should be included in future vaccines designed to induce HIV-1-specific CTL responses restricted by the HLA-A2 superfamily and will be important to assess in immunogenicity studies in infected persons and in uninfected recipients of candidate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:11152503

  16. Monoclonal antibody characterization of the 195-kilodalton major surface glycoprotein of Plasmodium falciparum malaria schizonts and merozoites: identification of additional processed products and a serotype-restricted repetitive epitope.

    PubMed

    Lyon, J A; Haynes, J D; Diggs, C L; Chulay, J D; Haidaris, C G; Pratt-Rossiter, J

    1987-02-01

    The gp195 from Camp strain parasites was characterized with eight monoclonal antibodies (MAb) that recognize different epitopes on gp195 and three of its merozoite-associated processed products. Four MAb (3H7, 3B10, 7F1, and 4G12) reacted with different epitopes on the 45-kDa glycosylated product (gp45), shown by differences in their reactivities with soluble and immunoblotted gp45. One MAb (7H10) reacted with a conformational epitope probably formed as a result of the interaction of gp45 with a nonglycosylated 45-kDa product (p45). Three other MAb (3D3, 7B11, and 7B2) reacted with different epitopes on a nonglycosylated 83-kDa product (p83), shown by differences in their reactivities against various parasite isolates in immunofluorescent antibody assays. Immunoprecipitation of antigens that were pulse-labeled with [3H]isoleucine and chased with cold isoleucine showed that p45 and gp45 were processed products of gp195 and p83 was sequentially processed into smaller fragments of 73 and 67 kDa (p73 and p67). Immunoblots showed that the 7B11 and 7B2 epitopes were present on p83, p73, and p67, but that the 3D3 epitope was present only on p83 and p73. A two-site immunoassay showed the 3D3 epitope to be repetitive. The 3D3 and 7B11 epitopes were serotype restricted (present in seven and 24 of 33 isolates, respectively), but the other five epitopes were common to all isolates tested. The gp195 and its processed products have Mr that are consistent with the Mr of a number of antigens shown previously to be associated with the immune complexes that are formed when merozoites are agglutinated by antibodies contained in some growth inhibitory immune sera.

  17. MHC-restricted recognition of immunogenic T cell epitopes of pertussis toxin reveals determinants in man distinct from the ADP-ribosylase active site

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The S1 subunit of Pertussis toxin (PT) is responsible for the reactogenicity and in part the immunogenicity of Bordetella pertussis vaccine. The critical residues associated with the immunomodulatory effects of PT were located around Glu140 in the S1 subunit. In man, T cell responses to PT are directed at S1 peptides distinct from Glu140. Two such epitopes, p64-75 and p151-161, are immunogenic in a panel of individuals covering a wide range of HLA genotypes. The response to PT peptides is HLA class II restricted. The response to p64-75 is blocked by an anti-HLA-DQ mAb, while that to p151-161 is blocked by an anti-HLA- DR mAb. These findings may allow for the development of a B. pertussis vaccine free from reactogenicity. PMID:2460578

  18. Identification of an H2-Kb or H2-Db restricted and glypican-3-derived cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope peptide

    PubMed Central

    IWAMA, TATSUAKI; HORIE, KAZUTAKA; YOSHIKAWA, TOSHIAKI; NOBUOKA, DAISUKE; SHIMOMURA, MANAMI; SAWADA, YU; NAKATSURA, TETSUYA

    2013-01-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but not expressed in normal tissues except for placenta and fetal liver and therefore is an ideal target for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we identified an H2-Kb or H2-Db restricted and murine GPC3 (mGPC3)-derived cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope peptide in C57BL/6 (B6) mice, which can be used in the design of preclinical studies of various therapies with GPC3-target immunotherapy in vivo. First, 11 types of 9- to 10-mer peptides predicted to bind with H2-Kb or H2-Db were selected from the mGPC3 amino acid sequence based on the binding score as calculated by the BIMAS software. We evaluated the peptide-binding affinity and confirmed that all peptides were able to bind to H2-Kb or H2-Db by in vitro cellular binding assay. Subsequently, a mixed peptide vaccine and single peptide vaccine were given to B6 mice to evaluate immunogenic potential of the 11 selected peptides. Using the splenocytes from peptide-vaccinated mice, interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays showed that mGPC3-1127–136 (AMFKNNYPSL) peptide was the most efficient for inducing CTLs among the 11 peptides. Next, we demonstrated that the mGPC3-1 peptide-specific CTL line could recognize mGPC3-expressing cancer cells, suggesting that mGPC3-1 peptide was an endogenously presented peptide. In conclusion, we identified mGPC3-1 as an H2-Kb or H2-Db restricted, mGPC3-derived CTL epitope peptide. PMID:23354275

  19. ALK as a novel lymphoma-associated tumor antigen: identification of 2 HLA-A2.1-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Passoni, Lorena; Scardino, Antonio; Bertazzoli, Carla; Gallo, Barbara; Coluccia, Addolorata M L; Lemonnier, François A; Kosmatopoulos, Konstadinos; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2002-03-15

    Oncogenic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion proteins (NPM/ALK and associated variants) are expressed in about 60% of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) but are absent in normal tissues. In this study, we investigated whether ALK, which is expressed at high levels in lymphoma cells, could be a target for antigen-specific cell-mediated immunotherapy. A panel of ALK-derived peptides was tested for their binding affinity to HLA-A*0201 molecules. Binding peptides were assessed for their capacity to elicit a specific immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) both in vivo, in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice, and in vitro in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from healthy donors. Two HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes, p280-89 (SLAMLDLLHV) and p375-86 (GVLLWEIFSL), both located in the ALK kinase domain were identified. The p280-89- and p375-86-induced peptide-specific CTL lines were able to specifically release interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on stimulation with ALK peptide-pulsed autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells (LCLs) or T2 cells. Anti-ALK CTLs lysed HLA-matched ALCL and neuroblastoma cell lines endogenously expressing ALK proteins. CTL activity was inhibited by anti-HLA-A2 monoclonal antibody CR11.351, consistent with a class I-restricted mechanism of cytotoxicity. These results show the existence of functional anti-ALK CTL precursors within the peripheral T-cell repertoire of healthy donors, clearly indicating ALK as a tumor antigen and ALK-derived peptides, p280-89 and p375-86, as suitable epitopes for the development of vaccination strategies.

  20. Artificial antigen-presenting cells transduced with telomerase efficiently expand epitope-specific, human leukocyte antigen-restricted cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Jakob; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Ma, Chia; Sadelain, Michel

    2005-06-15

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is overexpressed in most human tumors, making it a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. hTERT-derived CTL epitopes have been identified previously, including p865 (RLVDDFLLV) and p540 (ILAKFLHWL), which are restricted by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I A*0201 allele. However, it remains a major challenge to efficiently and consistently expand hTERT-specific CTLs from donor peripheral blood T lymphocytes. To bypass the need for generating conventional antigen-presenting cells (APC) on an autologous basis, we investigated the potential ability of fibroblast-derived artificial APCs (AAPC) to activate and expand HLA-A*0201-restricted CTLs. We show here that AAPCs stably expressing HLA-A*0201, human beta(2)-microglobulin, B7.1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and LFA-3, together with either p540 and p865 minigenes or the full-length hTERT, effectively stimulate tumoricidal, hTERT-specific CTLs. hTERT-expressing AAPCs stimulated both p540 and p865 CTLs as shown by peptide-specific cytolysis and tetramer staining, indicating that hTERT is processed by the AAPCs and that the two peptides are presented as codominant epitopes. The level of cytotoxic activity against a panel of tumors comprising hematologic and epithelial malignancies varied, correlating overall with the level of HLA-A2 and hTERT expression by the target cell. Starting from 100 mL blood, approximately 100 million hTERT-specific CTLs could be generated over the course of five sequential stimulations, representing an expansion of approximately 1 x 10(5). Our data show that AAPCs process hTERT antigen and efficiently stimulate hTERT-specific CTLs from human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and suggest that sufficient expansion could be achieved to be clinically useful for adoptive cell therapy.

  1. Identification of HLA-A*0201-Restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitopes Derived from HLA-DOβ as a Novel Target for Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yoon Joong; Zeng, Wanyong; Song, Weihua; Reinhold, Bruce; Choi, Jaewon; Brusic, Vladimir; Yamashita, Takuto; Munshi, Aditya; Li, Cheng; Minvielle, Stephane; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Sasada, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite the recent development of effective therapeutic agents against multiple myeloma (MM), new therapeutic approaches, including immunotherapies, remain to be developed. Here we identified novel human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 (HLAA2)-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes from a B cell specific molecule HLA-DOβ (DOB) as a potential target for MM. By DNA microarray analysis, the HLADOB expression in MM cells was significantly higher than that in normal plasma cells. Twenty-five peptides were predicted to bind to HLA-A2 from the amino acid sequence of HLA-DOB. When screened for the immunogenicity in HLA-A2-transgenic mice immunized with HLA-DOB cDNA, 4 peptides were substantially immunogenic. By mass spectrometry analysis of peptides eluted from HLA-A2-immunoprecipitates of MM cell lines, only two epitopes, HLA-DOB232-240 (FLLGLIFLL) and HLA-DOB185-193 (VMLEMTPEL), were confirmed for their physical presence on cell surface. When healthy donor blood was repeatedly stimulated in vitro with these two peptides and assessed by antigen-specific γ-interferon secretion, HLA-DOB232-240 was more immunogenic than HLA-DOB185-193. Additionally, the HLA-DOB232-240-specific CTLs, but not the HLA-DOB185-193-specific CTLs, displayed an major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted reactivity against MM cell lines expressing both HLA-A2 and HLA-DOB. Taken together, based on the physical presence on tumour cell surface and high immunogenicity, HLA-DOB232-240 might be useful for developing a novel immunotherapy against MM. PMID:24032635

  2. HLA-DR-restricted T-cell responses to Factor VIII epitopes in a mild haemophilia A family with missense substitution A2201P

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Ruth A.; James, Eddie A.; Kwok, William W.; Thompson, Arthur R.; Pratt, Kathleen P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction An HLA-DRA-DRB1*0101-restricted T-cell epitope in the factor VIII (FVIII) C2 domain occurred in a mild haemophilia A patient with missense substitution FVIII-A2201P. His T cells responded to synthetic peptides FVIII2186-2205 and FVIII2194-2213. Aim T cells from family members with genotype FVIII-A2201P were analyzed to determine if FVIII-specific T cells occur in individuals with a hemophilic mutation but no clinically significant inhibitor response. Methods Fluorescent MHC class II tetramers corresponding to subjects’ HLA-DRB1 types were loaded with 20-mer peptides and utilized to label antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. T-cell responses to peptides spanning the FVIII-C2 sequence were evaluated. T cells recognizing specific peptides were cloned, and antigen specificity was verified by proliferation assays. Plasma and/or purified IgG samples were tested for FVIII inhibitory activity. Results CD4+ T cells and T-cell clones from two brothers who shared the DRB1*0101 allele responded to FVIII2194-2213. A haemophilic cousin’s HLA-DRA-DRB1*1104-restricted response to FVIII2202-2221 was detected only when CD4+CD25+ cells were depleted. A great uncle and two obligate carriers had no detectable FVIII-C2-specific T cells. Concentrated IgG from the brother without a clinical inhibitor response showed a low-titer FVIII inhibitor. Conclusion FVIII-specific T cells and inhibitory IgG were found in a previously infused, haemophilic subject who had a sub-clinical FVIII inhibitor. CD4+CD25+ depleted T cells from a non-infused haemophilic cousin recognized an overlapping FVIII epitope, indicating a latent HLA-DRA-DRB1*1104-restricted T-cell response to FVIII. Specific T-cell responses to FVIII can occur without clinically significant inhibitors. PMID:20536985

  3. Definition of the region on NS3 which contains multiple epitopes recognized by dengue virus serotype-cross-reactive and flavivirus-cross-reactive, HLA-DPw2-restricted CD4+ T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Y; Kurane, I; Leporati, A M; Ennis, F A

    1998-04-01

    The epitopes recognized by six CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones established from a dengue-3 virus-immune donor were defined. (i) Three CTL clones, JK10, JK34 and JK39, were cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1-4. (ii) One clone, JK28, was cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1-4 and West Nile virus. (iii) Two clones, JK26 and JK49, were cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1-4, West Nile virus and yellow fever virus. The clones, except for JK49, recognized the same epitope on NS3 in an HLA-DPw2-restricted fashion. The smallest synthetic peptide recognized by the five CTL clones was a 10 aa peptide which comprises aa 255-264 on dengue virus NS3. JK49 recognized the overlapping epitope which comprises aa 257-266 in an HLA-DPw2-restricted fashion. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) usage by these T cell clones revealed that (i) JK10 and JK34 use V alpha11, and JK34 and JK28 use V beta23, and (ii) the amino acid sequences of the V(D)J junctional region of the TCR were different among these five CTL clones. There were, however, single amino acid conservations among TCRs of some of these T cell clones. These results indicate that the region on NS3 which comprises aa 255-266 contains multiple epitopes recognized by dengue serotype-cross-reactive and flavivirus-cross-reactive CD4+ CTL in an HLA-DPw2-restricted fashion and that a single epitope can be recognized by T cells which have heterogeneous virus specificities.

  4. The Ankylosing Spondylitis-Associated HLA-B*2705 Presents a B*0702-Restricted EBV Epitope and Sustains the Clonal Amplification of Cytotoxic T Cells in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tedeschi, Valentina; Vitulano, Carolina; Cauli, Alberto; Paladini, Fabiana; Piga, Matteo; Mathieu, Alessandro; Sorrentino, Rosa; Fiorillo, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    HLA-B*27 is strongly associated with an inflammatory autoimmune disorder, the Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) and plays a protective role in viral infections. The two aspects might be linked. In this work, we compared in B*2705/B*07 positive patients with AS, the CD8+ T cell responses to two immunodominant EBV-derived epitopes restricted for either the HLA-B*27 (pEBNA3C) or the HLA-B*07 (pEBNA3A). We have unexpectedly found that the HLA-B*07-restricted EBNA3A peptide is presented by both the B*0702 and the B*2705 but not by the non AS-associated B*2709, that differs from the AS-associated B*2705 for a single amino acid in the peptide-binding groove (His116Asp). We then analyzed 38 B*2705-positive/B*07-negative (31 AS-patients and 7 healthy donors) and 8 B*2709-positive/B*07-negative subjects. EBNA3A-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes were present in 55.3% of the HLA-B*2705 but in none of the B*2709 donors (p = 0.0049). TCR β-chain analysis identified common TCRBV and TCRBJ gene segments and shared CDR3β sequences in pEBNA3A-responsive CTLs of B*2705 carriers, suggesting the existence of a shared TCR repertoire for recognition of the uncanonical B*2705/pEBNA3A complex. These data highlight the plasticity of the AS-associated HLA-B*2705, which presents peptides with suboptimal binding motifs, possibly contributing both to its enhanced capacity to protect against pathogens and to predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:27254288

  5. Comparative analysis of core amino acid residues of H-2D(b)-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition epitopes in simian virus 40 T antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Deckhut, A M; Lippolis, J D; Tevethia, S S

    1992-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) tumor (T) antigen expressed in H-2b SV40-transformed cells induces the generation of Lyt-2+ (CD8+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which are involved in tumor rejection, in syngeneic mice. Five CTL recognition sites on T antigen have been described by using mutant T antigens. Four of the sites (I, II, III, and V) are H-2Db restricted and have been broadly mapped with synthetic peptides of 15 amino acids in length overlapping by 5 residues at the amino and carboxy termini. The goal of this study was to define the minimal and optimal amino acid sequences of T antigen which would serve as recognition elements for the H-2Db-restricted CTL clones Y-1, Y-2, Y-3, and Y-5, which recognizes sites I, II, III, and V, respectively. The minimal and optimal residues of T antigen recognized by the four CTL clones were determined by using synthetic peptides truncated at the amino or carboxy terminus and an H-2Db peptide-binding motif. The minimal site recognized by CTL clone Y-1 was defined as amino acids 207 to 215 of SV40 T antigen. However, the optimal sequence recognized by CTL clone Y-1 spanned T-antigen amino acids 205 to 215. The T-antigen peptide sequence LT223-231 was the optimal and minimal sequence recognized by both CTL clones Y-2 and Y-3. Site V was determined to be contained within amino acids 489 to 497 of T antigen. The lytic activities of CTL clones Y-2 and Y-3, which recognize a single nonamer peptide, LT223-231, were affected differently by anti-Lyt-2 antibody, suggesting that the T-cell receptors of these two CTL clones differ in their avidities. As the minimal and optimal H-2Db-restricted CTL recognition sites have been defined by nonamer synthetic peptides, it is now possible to search for naturally processed H-2Db-restricted epitopes of T antigen and identify critical residues involved in processing, presentation, and recognition by SV40-specific CTL. PMID:1370091

  6. Identification of the murine H-2D(b) and human HLA-A*0201 MHC class I-restricted HPV6 E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shiwen; Mattox, Austin; Best, Simon R; Barbu, Anca M; Burns, James A; Akpeng, Belinda; Jeang, Jessica; Yang, Benjamin; Ishida, Eiichi; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Pai, Sara I

    2016-03-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, most commonly types 6 (HPV-6) and 11 (HPV-11). Due to failed host immune responses, HPV is unable to be cleared from the host, resulting in recurrent growth of HPV-related lesions that can obstruct the lumen of the airway within the upper aerodigestive tract. In our murine model, the HPV-6b and HPV-11 E7 antigens are not innately immunogenic. In order to enhance the host immune responses against the HPV E7 antigen, we linked calreticulin (CRT) to HPV-6b E7 and found that vaccinating C57BL/6 mice with the HPV-6b CRT/E7 DNA vaccine is able to induce a CD8+ T cell response that recognizes an H-2D(b)-restricted E7aa21-29 epitope. Additionally, vaccination of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with HPV-6b CRT/E7 DNA generated a CD8+ T cell response against the E7aa82-90 epitope that was not observed in the wild-type C57BL/6 mice, indicating this T cell response is restricted to HLA-A*0201. In vivo cytotoxic T cell killing assays demonstrated that the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells are able to efficiently kill target cells. Interestingly, the H-2D(b)-restricted E7aa21-29 sequence and the HLA-A*0201-restricted E7aa82-90 sequence are conserved between HPV-6b and HPV-11 and may represent shared immunogenic epitopes. The identification of the HPV-6b/HPV-11 CD8+ T cell epitopes facilitates the evaluation of various immunomodulatory strategies in preclinical models. More importantly, the identified HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitope may serve as a peptide vaccination strategy, as well as facilitate the monitoring of vaccine-induced HPV-specific immunologic responses in future human clinical trials.

  7. Identification of the murine H-2D(b) and human HLA-A*0201 MHC class I-restricted HPV6 E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shiwen; Mattox, Austin; Best, Simon R; Barbu, Anca M; Burns, James A; Akpeng, Belinda; Jeang, Jessica; Yang, Benjamin; Ishida, Eiichi; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Pai, Sara I

    2016-03-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, most commonly types 6 (HPV-6) and 11 (HPV-11). Due to failed host immune responses, HPV is unable to be cleared from the host, resulting in recurrent growth of HPV-related lesions that can obstruct the lumen of the airway within the upper aerodigestive tract. In our murine model, the HPV-6b and HPV-11 E7 antigens are not innately immunogenic. In order to enhance the host immune responses against the HPV E7 antigen, we linked calreticulin (CRT) to HPV-6b E7 and found that vaccinating C57BL/6 mice with the HPV-6b CRT/E7 DNA vaccine is able to induce a CD8+ T cell response that recognizes an H-2D(b)-restricted E7aa21-29 epitope. Additionally, vaccination of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with HPV-6b CRT/E7 DNA generated a CD8+ T cell response against the E7aa82-90 epitope that was not observed in the wild-type C57BL/6 mice, indicating this T cell response is restricted to HLA-A*0201. In vivo cytotoxic T cell killing assays demonstrated that the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells are able to efficiently kill target cells. Interestingly, the H-2D(b)-restricted E7aa21-29 sequence and the HLA-A*0201-restricted E7aa82-90 sequence are conserved between HPV-6b and HPV-11 and may represent shared immunogenic epitopes. The identification of the HPV-6b/HPV-11 CD8+ T cell epitopes facilitates the evaluation of various immunomodulatory strategies in preclinical models. More importantly, the identified HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitope may serve as a peptide vaccination strategy, as well as facilitate the monitoring of vaccine-induced HPV-specific immunologic responses in future human clinical trials. PMID:26759151

  8. Restricted V gene usage and VH/VL pairing of mouse humoral response against the N-terminal immunodominant epitope of the amyloid β peptide

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Remy; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Ghochikyan, Anahit; Agadjanyan, Michael G.; Cribbs, David H.; Van Nostrand, William E.; Wark, Kim L.; Dolezal, Olan

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the potential of antibodies as therapeutic strategies to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been growing, based on successful experimental and clinical trials in transgenic mice. Despite, undesirable side effects in humans using an active immunization approach, immunotherapy still remains one of the most promising treatments for AD. In this study, we analyzed the V genes of twelve independently isolated monoclonal antibodies raised against the N-terminal immunodominant epitope of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ or A beta). Surprisingly, we found a high and unusual level of restriction in the VH/VL pairing of these antibodies. Moreover, these antibodies mostly differ in their heavy chain complementary determining region 3 (HCDR3) and the residues in the antibodies which contact Aβ are already present in the germline V-genes. Based on these observations and or co-crystal structures of antibodies with Aβ, the aim of the current study was to better understand the role of antibody V-domains, HCDR3 regions, key contact residue (H58) and germline encoded residues in Aβ recognition. For that purpose, we designed and produced a range of recombinant Fab constructs. All the Fabs were tested and compared by surface plasmon resonance on Aβ1–16, Aβ1–42 high molecular weight and Aβ1–42 low molecular weight soluble oligomers. Although all the Fabs recognized the Aβ1–16 peptide and the Aβ1–42 high molecular weight soluble oligomers, they did not bind the Aβ1–42 low molecular weight soluble oligomers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that: (1) an aromatic residue at position H58 in the antibody is essential in the recognition of Aβ and (2) Fabs based on germline V-genes bind to Aβ monomers with a low affinity. These findings may have important implications in designing more effective therapeutic antibodies against Aβ. PMID:20970857

  9. The Length Distribution of Class I-Restricted T Cell Epitopes Is Determined by Both Peptide Supply and MHC Allele-Specific Binding Preference.

    PubMed

    Trolle, Thomas; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Sidney, John; Bardet, Wilfried; Osborn, Sean C; Kaever, Thomas; Sette, Alessandro; Hildebrand, William H; Nielsen, Morten; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-02-15

    HLA class I-binding predictions are widely used to identify candidate peptide targets of human CD8(+) T cell responses. Many such approaches focus exclusively on a limited range of peptide lengths, typically 9 aa and sometimes 9-10 aa, despite multiple examples of dominant epitopes of other lengths. In this study, we examined whether epitope predictions can be improved by incorporating the natural length distribution of HLA class I ligands. We found that, although different HLA alleles have diverse length-binding preferences, the length profiles of ligands that are naturally presented by these alleles are much more homogeneous. We hypothesized that this is due to a defined length profile of peptides available for HLA binding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Based on this, we created a model of HLA allele-specific ligand length profiles and demonstrate how this model, in combination with HLA-binding predictions, greatly improves comprehensive identification of CD8(+) T cell epitopes. PMID:26783342

  10. Effect of secondary anchor amino acid substitutions on the immunogenic properties of an HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitope derived from the Trypanosoma cruzi KMP-11 protein.

    PubMed

    Lasso, Paola; Cárdenas, Constanza; Guzmán, Fanny; Rosas, Fernando; Thomas, María Carmen; López, Manuel Carlos; González, John Mario; Cuéllar, Adriana; Campanera, Josep Maria; Luque, F Javier; Puerta, Concepción Judith

    2016-04-01

    The TcTLE peptide (TLEEFSAKL) is a CD8(+) T cell HLA-A*0201-restricted epitope derived from the Trypanosoma cruzi KMP-11 protein that is efficiently processed, presented and recognized by CD8(+) T cells from chagasic patients. Since the immunogenic properties of wild-type epitopes may be enhanced by suitable substitutions in secondary anchor residues, we have studied the effect of introducing specific mutations at position 3, 6 and 7 of the TcTLE peptide. Mutations (E3L, S6V and A7F) were chosen on the basis of in silico predictions and in vitro assays were performed to determine the TcTLE-modified peptide binding capacity to the HLA-A*0201 molecule. In addition, the functional activity of peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells in HLA-A2(+) chagasic patients was also interrogated. In contrast to bioinformatics predictions, the TcTLE-modified peptide was found to have lower binding affinity and stability than the original peptide. Nevertheless, CD8(+) T cells from chronic chagasic patients recognized the TcTLE-modified peptide producing TNF-α and INF-γ and expressing CD107a/b, though in less extension than the response triggered by the original peptide. Overall, although the amino acids at positions 3, 6 and 7 of TcTLE are critical for the peptide affinity, they have a limited effect on the immunogenic properties of the TcTLE epitope.

  11. Effect of secondary anchor amino acid substitutions on the immunogenic properties of an HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitope derived from the Trypanosoma cruzi KMP-11 protein.

    PubMed

    Lasso, Paola; Cárdenas, Constanza; Guzmán, Fanny; Rosas, Fernando; Thomas, María Carmen; López, Manuel Carlos; González, John Mario; Cuéllar, Adriana; Campanera, Josep Maria; Luque, F Javier; Puerta, Concepción Judith

    2016-04-01

    The TcTLE peptide (TLEEFSAKL) is a CD8(+) T cell HLA-A*0201-restricted epitope derived from the Trypanosoma cruzi KMP-11 protein that is efficiently processed, presented and recognized by CD8(+) T cells from chagasic patients. Since the immunogenic properties of wild-type epitopes may be enhanced by suitable substitutions in secondary anchor residues, we have studied the effect of introducing specific mutations at position 3, 6 and 7 of the TcTLE peptide. Mutations (E3L, S6V and A7F) were chosen on the basis of in silico predictions and in vitro assays were performed to determine the TcTLE-modified peptide binding capacity to the HLA-A*0201 molecule. In addition, the functional activity of peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells in HLA-A2(+) chagasic patients was also interrogated. In contrast to bioinformatics predictions, the TcTLE-modified peptide was found to have lower binding affinity and stability than the original peptide. Nevertheless, CD8(+) T cells from chronic chagasic patients recognized the TcTLE-modified peptide producing TNF-α and INF-γ and expressing CD107a/b, though in less extension than the response triggered by the original peptide. Overall, although the amino acids at positions 3, 6 and 7 of TcTLE are critical for the peptide affinity, they have a limited effect on the immunogenic properties of the TcTLE epitope. PMID:26854383

  12. Immunogenicity Evaluation of a Rationally Designed Polytope Construct Encoding HLA-A*0201 Restricted Epitopes Derived from Leishmania major Related Proteins in HLA-A2/DR1 Transgenic Mice: Steps toward Polytope Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Seyed, Negar; Taheri, Tahereh; Vauchy, Charline; Dosset, Magalie; Godet, Yann; Eslamifar, Ali; Sharifi, Iraj; Adotevi, Olivier; Borg, Christophe; Rohrlich, Pierre Simon; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several reports demonstrating the role of CD8 T cells against Leishmania species. Therefore peptide vaccine might represent an effective approach to control the infection. We developed a rational polytope-DNA construct encoding immunogenic HLA-A2 restricted peptides and validated the processing and presentation of encoded epitopes in a preclinical mouse model humanized for the MHC-class-I and II. Methods and Findings HLA-A*0201 restricted epitopes from LPG-3, LmSTI-1, CPB and CPC along with H-2Kd restricted peptides, were lined-up together as a polytope string in a DNA construct. Polytope string was rationally designed by harnessing advantages of ubiquitin, spacers and HLA-DR restricted Th1 epitope. Endotoxin free pcDNA plasmid expressing the polytope was inoculated into humanized HLA-DRB1*0101/HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice intramuscularly 4 days after Cardiotoxin priming followed by 2 boosters at one week interval. Mice were sacrificed 10 days after the last booster, and splenocytes were subjected to ex-vivo and in-vitro evaluation of specific IFN-γ production and in-vitro cytotoxicity against individual peptides by ELISpot and standard chromium-51(51Cr) release assay respectively. 4 H-2Kd and 5 HLA-A*0201 restricted peptides were able to induce specific CD8 T cell responses in BALB/C and HLA-A2/DR1 mice respectively. IFN-γ and cytolytic activity together discriminated LPG-3-P1 as dominant, LmSTI-1-P3 and LmSTI-1-P6 as subdominant with both cytolytic activity and IFN-γ production, LmSTI-1-P4 and LPG-3-P5 as subdominant with only IFN-γ production potential. Conclusions Here we described a new DNA-polytope construct for Leishmania vaccination encompassing immunogenic HLA-A2 restricted peptides. Immunogenicity evaluation in HLA-transgenic model confirmed CD8 T cell induction with expected affinities and avidities showing almost efficient processing and presentation of the peptides in relevant preclinical model. Further evaluation will determine

  13. Target epitope in the Tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type I recognized by class I major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Kannagi, M; Shida, H; Igarashi, H; Kuruma, K; Murai, H; Aono, Y; Maruyama, I; Osame, M; Hattori, T; Inoko, H

    1992-05-01

    A trans-acting regulatory gene product p40tax (Tax) of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is one of the main target antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for HTLV-I. A CTL epitope within the Tax protein was identified in this report. HTLV-I-specific CD8+ CTL lines established from two HTLV-I carriers with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy or Sjögren syndrome were previously demonstrated to kill predominantly the target cells expressing HTLV-I Tax. The CTL from two patients showed significant levels of cytotoxicity to autologous target cells pulsed with a synthetic peptide of 24 amino acids corresponding to the amino-terminal sequences of the Tax protein. Allogeneic target cells were also sensitized for CTL by this peptide when the target cells have HLA-A2. Tax-specific cytotoxicity, detected as cytolysis of the target cells infected with vaccinia virus-HTLV-I recombinant expressing Tax protein, was almost completely inhibited by competitor cells pulsed with the synthetic peptide. This indicates that a major CTL epitope is present in this peptide. Further analysis using shorter peptides revealed that the core sequence of the CTL epitope was LLFGYPVYV at positions 11 through 19. This sequence can be aligned with the HLA-A2-specific motifs reported recently. PMID:1373197

  14. EGFR T790M mutation as a possible target for immunotherapy; identification of HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitopes derived from the EGFR T790M mutation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Teppei; Azuma, Koichi; Muta, Emi; Kim, Jintaek; Sugawara, Shunichi; Zhang, Guang Lan; Matsueda, Satoko; Kasama-Kawaguchi, Yuri; Yamashita, Yuichi; Yamashita, Takuto; Nishio, Kazuto; Itoh, Kyogo; Hoshino, Tomoaki; Sasada, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as gefitinib and erlotinib, has achieved high clinical response rates in patients with non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). However, over time, most tumors develop acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs, which is associated with the secondary EGFR T790M resistance mutation in about half the cases. Currently there are no effective treatment options for patients with this resistance mutation. Here we identified two novel HLA-A*0201 (A2)-restricted T cell epitopes containing the mutated methionine residue of the EGFR T790M mutation, T790M-5 (MQLMPFGCLL) and T790M-7 (LIMQLMPFGCL), as potential targets for EGFR-TKI-resistant patients. When peripheral blood cells were repeatedly stimulated in vitro with these two peptides and assessed by antigen-specific IFN-γ secretion, T cell lines responsive to T790M-5 and T790M-7 were established in 5 of 6 (83%) and 3 of 6 (50%) healthy donors, respectively. Additionally, the T790M-5- and T790M-7-specific T cell lines displayed an MHC class I-restricted reactivity against NSCLC cell lines expressing both HLA-A2 and the T790M mutation. Interestingly, the NSCLC patients with antigen-specific T cell responses to these epitopes showed a significantly less frequency of EGFR-T790M mutation than those without them [1 of 7 (14%) vs 9 of 15 (60%); chi-squared test, p  =  0.0449], indicating the negative correlation between the immune responses to the EGFR-T790M-derived epitopes and the presence of EGFR-T790M mutation in NSCLC patients. This finding could possibly be explained by the hypothesis that immune responses to the mutated neo-antigens derived from T790M might prevent the emergence of tumor cell variants with the T790M resistance mutation in NSCLC patients during EGFR-TKI treatment. Together, our results suggest that the identified T cell epitopes might provide a novel immunotherapeutic approach for prevention and/or treatment of EGFR

  15. Immunodominance of a low-affinity major histocompatibility complex-binding myelin basic protein epitope (residues 111-129) in HLA-DR4 (B1*0401) subjects is associated with a restricted T cell receptor repertoire.

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, P A; Vergelli, M; Kalbus, M; Banks, D E; Nagle, J W; Tranquill, L R; Nepom, G T; Biddison, W E; McFarland, H F; Martin, R

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently ascribed in part to a T cell-mediated process targeting myelin components. The T cell response to one candidate autoantigen, myelin basic protein (MBP), in the context of HLA-DR15Dw2, has been previously studied in detail. However, the characteristics of cellular immunity in the context of other MS-associated HLA-DR haplotypes are scarcely known. MBP-specific T cell lines (TCL) were generated from HLA-DR4 (B1*0401)-positive MS subjects. Out of 275 MBP-specific TCL, 178 (64. 7%) specifically recognized region MBP(111-129), predominantly in the context of DRB1*0401. The major T cell epitope for MBP recognition corresponded to residues MBP(116-123). These TCL expressed disparate profiles of cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity. T cell receptor analysis, on the other hand, revealed a strikingly limited heterogeneity of rearrangements. In contrast to MBP(81-99), which binds with high affinity to HLA-DR15 and is recognized by a diverse T cell repertoire, MBP(111-129) binds weakly to DRB1*0401, suggesting that only high affinity T cell receptors might be able to efficiently engage such unstable MHC/peptide complexes, thus accounting for the T cell receptor restriction we observed. This study provides new insight about MBP recognition and proposes an alternative mechanism for immunodominance of self-antigen T cell epitopes in humans. PMID:9218510

  16. CD8(+) T cell cross-reactivity profiles and HIV-1 immune escape towards an HLA-B35-restricted immunodominant Nef epitope.

    PubMed

    Motozono, Chihiro; Miles, John J; Hasan, Zafrul; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Meribe, Stanley C; Price, David A; Oka, Shinichi; Sewell, Andrew K; Ueno, Takamasa

    2013-01-01

    Antigen cross-reactivity is an inbuilt feature of the T cell compartment. However, little is known about the flexibility of T cell recognition in the context of genetically variable pathogens such as HIV-1. In this study, we used a combinatorial library containing 24 billion octamer peptides to characterize the cross-reactivity profiles of CD8(+) T cells specific for the immunodominant HIV-1 subtype B Nef epitope VY8 (VPLRPMTY) presented by HLA-B(*)35∶01. In conjunction, we examined naturally occurring antigenic variations within the VY8 epitope. Sequence analysis of plasma viral RNA isolated from 336 HIV-1-infected individuals revealed variability at position (P) 3 and P8 of VY8; Phe at P8, but not Val at P3, was identified as an HLA-B(*)35∶01-associated polymorphism. VY8-specific T cells generated from several different HIV-1-infected patients showed unique and clonotype-dependent cross-reactivity footprints. Nonetheless, all T cells recognized both the index Leu and mutant Val at P3 equally well. In contrast, competitive titration assays revealed that the Tyr to Phe substitution at P8 reduced T cell recognition by 50-130 fold despite intact peptide binding to HLA-B(*)35∶01. These findings explain the preferential selection of Phe at the C-terminus of VY8 in HLA-B(*)35∶01(+) individuals and demonstrate that HIV-1 can exploit the limitations of T cell recognition in vivo.

  17. In Silico Analysis of Six Known Leishmania major Antigens and In Vitro Evaluation of Specific Epitopes Eliciting HLA-A2 Restricted CD8 T Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Seyed, Negar; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Safaiyan, Shima; Gholami, Elham; Doustdari, Fatemeh; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Mirzaei, Maryam; Saeedi Eslami, Nasir; Khadem Sadegh, Akbar; Eslami far, Ali; Sharifi, Iraj; Rafati, Sima

    2011-01-01

    Background As a potent CD8+ T cell activator, peptide vaccine has found its way in vaccine development against intracellular infections and cancer, but not against leishmaniasis. The first step toward a peptide vaccine is epitope mapping of different proteins according to the most frequent HLA types in a population. Methods and Findings Six Leishmania (L.) major-related candidate antigens (CPB,CPC,LmsTI-1,TSA,LeIF and LPG-3) were screened for potential CD8+ T cell activating 9-mer epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201 (the most frequent HLA-A allele). Online software including SYFPEITHI, BIMAS, EpiJen, Rankpep, nHLApred, NetCTL and Multipred were used. Peptides were selected only if predicted by almost all programs, according to their predictive scores. Pan-A2 presentation of selected peptides was confirmed by NetMHCPan1.1. Selected peptides were pooled in four peptide groups and the immunogenicity was evaluated by in vitro stimulation and intracellular cytokine assay of PBMCs from HLA-A2+ individuals recovered from L. major. HLA-A2− individuals recovered from L. major and HLA-A2+ healthy donors were included as control groups. Individual response of HLA-A2+ recovered volunteers as percent of CD8+/IFN-γ+ T cells after in vitro stimulation against peptide pools II and IV was notably higher than that of HLA-A2− recovered individuals. Based on cutoff scores calculated from the response of HLA-A2− recovered individuals, 31.6% and 13.3% of HLA-A2+ recovered persons responded above cutoff in pools II and IV, respectively. ELISpot and ELISA results confirmed flow cytometry analysis. The response of HLA-A2− recovered individuals against peptide pools I and III was detected similar and even higher than HLA-A2+ recovered individuals. Conclusion Using in silico prediction we demonstrated specific response to LmsTI-1 (pool II) and LPG-3- (pool IV) related peptides specifically presented in HLA-A*0201 context. This is among the very few reports mapping L. major epitopes for

  18. Detection of restricted predominant epitopes of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus capsid proteins expressed in the lambda gt11 system: differential patterns of antibody reactivity among different mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Crane, M A; Jue, C; Mitchell, M; Lipton, H; Kim, B S

    1990-05-01

    Intracerebral injection of mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus results in chronic demyelination in susceptible strains, and serves as a model system for the study of multiple sclerosis. The role of individual epitopes in the disease process remains to be elucidated. Random fragments of DNA from the viral capsid protein genome covering the coding regions from VP1, VP2, and VP3 have been expressed in the lambda gt11 vector system. Fusion proteins from the clones were expressed and probed with antibodies from both resistant and susceptible strains of mice. Each strain displays a distinctive pattern with certain fusion proteins recognized by all of the strains and others recognized uniquely by either the susceptible or the resistant strains.

  19. A HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope induces anti-tumor effects against human lung cancer in mouse xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I-Hua; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Chen-Yuan; Chiang, I-Ping; Roffler, Steve; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is attractive for antigen-specific T cell-mediated anti-tumor therapy, especially in induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this report, we evaluated human CTL epitope-induced anti-tumor effects in human lung cancer xenograft models. The tumor associated antigen L6 (TAL6) is highly expressed in human lung cancer cell lines and tumor specimens as compared to normal lung tissues. TAL6 derived peptides strongly inhibited tumor growth, cancer metastasis and prolonged survival time in HLA-A2 transgenic mice immunized with a formulation of T-helper (Th) peptide, synthetic CpG ODN, and adjuvant Montanide ISA-51 (ISA-51). Adoptive transfer of peptide-induced CTL cells from HLA-A2 transgenic mice into human tumor xenograft SCID mice significantly inhibited tumor growth. Furthermore, combination of CTL-peptide immunotherapy and gemcitabine additively improved the therapeutic effects. This pre-clinical evaluation model provides a useful platform to develop efficient immunotherapeutic drugs to treat lung cancer and demonstrates a promising strategy with benefit of antitumor immune responses worthy of further development in clinical trials. PMID:26621839

  20. A HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope induces anti-tumor effects against human lung cancer in mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Lin, Su-I; Chen, I-Hua; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Chen-Yuan; Chiang, I-Ping; Roffler, Steve; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is attractive for antigen-specific T cell-mediated anti-tumor therapy, especially in induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this report, we evaluated human CTL epitope-induced anti-tumor effects in human lung cancer xenograft models. The tumor associated antigen L6 (TAL6) is highly expressed in human lung cancer cell lines and tumor specimens as compared to normal lung tissues. TAL6 derived peptides strongly inhibited tumor growth, cancer metastasis and prolonged survival time in HLA-A2 transgenic mice immunized with a formulation of T-helper (Th) peptide, synthetic CpG ODN, and adjuvant Montanide ISA-51 (ISA-51). Adoptive transfer of peptide-induced CTL cells from HLA-A2 transgenic mice into human tumor xenograft SCID mice significantly inhibited tumor growth. Furthermore, combination of CTL-peptide immunotherapy and gemcitabine additively improved the therapeutic effects. This pre-clinical evaluation model provides a useful platform to develop efficient immunotherapeutic drugs to treat lung cancer and demonstrates a promising strategy with benefit of antitumor immune responses worthy of further development in clinical trials. PMID:26621839

  1. High-yield reassortant influenza vaccine production virus has a mutation at an HLA-A 2.1-restricted CD8+ CTL epitope on the NS1 protein.

    PubMed

    Terajima, M; Jameson, J; Norman, J E; Cruz, J; Ennis, F A

    1999-06-20

    Current influenza virus vaccines are prepared using high-yield reassortant virus strains obtained from a mixed infection of the new virus strain and a prototype high-yielding virus strain. The high-titered reassortant virus strain used as vaccine seed virus possesses the recent virus HA and NA and contains the internal genes from the high-growing prototype parent. We established a human CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) line, 10-2C2, which recognizes an HLA-A2.1-restricted influenza A virus H1, H2, H3 cross-reactive T cell epitope on amino acids 122-130 of the NS1 protein, and unexpectedly we observed that there was decreased lysis of target cells infected with the A/Texas/36/91 (H1N1) vaccine virus strain compared to the lysis of target cells infected with the prototype A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus. RT-PCR results showed that the A/Texas vaccine virus strain contained a quasispecies. Approximately 50% of viral RNA of the NS1 gene had a nucleotide substitution that resulted in the N --> K amino acid change at the sixth position of the nonamer peptide. Current influenza vaccines are inactivated and do not contain the NS1 protein; however, future influenza vaccines may include live attenuated vaccines and with this mutation a live virus would fail to induce a CD8(+) CTL response to this epitope in individuals with HLA-A2.1, a very common allele, and potentially have reduced efficacy.

  2. Structure and Function of HLA-A*02-Restricted Hantaan Virus Cytotoxic T-Cell Epitope That Mediates Effective Protective Responses in HLA-A2.1/Kb Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Cheng, Linfeng; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Yusi; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhang, Yun; Tang, Kang; Zhuang, Ran; Chen, Lihua; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Fanglin; Jin, Boquan

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infections cause severe emerging diseases in humans and are associated with high mortality rates; therefore, they have become a global public health concern. Our previous study showed that the CD8+ T-cell epitope aa129–aa137 (FVVPILLKA, FA9) of the Hantaan virus (HTNV) nucleoprotein (NP), restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*02, induced specific CD8+ T-cell responses that controlled HTNV infection in humans. However, the in vivo immunogenicity of peptide FA9 and the effect of FA9-specific CD8+ T-cell immunity remain unclear. Here, based on a detailed structural analysis of the peptide FA9/HLA-A*0201 complex and functional investigations using HLA-A2.1/Kb transgenic (Tg) mice, we found that the overall structure of the peptide FA9/HLA-A*0201 complex displayed a typical MHC class I fold with Val2 and Ala9 as primary anchor residues and Val3 and Leu7 as secondary anchor residues that allow peptide FA9 to bind tightly with an HLA-A*0201 molecule. Residues in the middle portion of peptide FA9 extruding out of the binding groove may be the sites that allow for recognition by T-cell receptors. Immunization with peptide FA9 in HLA-A2.1/Kb Tg mice induced FA9-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses characterized by the induction of high expression levels of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, granzyme B, and CD107a. In an HTNV challenge trial, significant reductions in the levels of both the antigens and the HTNV RNA loads were observed in the liver, spleen, and kidneys of Tg mice pre-vaccinated with peptide FA9. Thus, our findings highlight the ability of HTNV epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell immunity to control HTNV and support the possibility that the HTNV-NP FA9 peptide, naturally processed in vivo in an HLA-A*02-restriction manner, may be a good candidate for the development HTNV peptide vaccines. PMID:27551282

  3. Structure and Function of HLA-A*02-Restricted Hantaan Virus Cytotoxic T-Cell Epitope That Mediates Effective Protective Responses in HLA-A2.1/K(b) Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Cheng, Linfeng; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Yusi; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhang, Yun; Tang, Kang; Zhuang, Ran; Chen, Lihua; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Fanglin; Jin, Boquan

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infections cause severe emerging diseases in humans and are associated with high mortality rates; therefore, they have become a global public health concern. Our previous study showed that the CD8(+) T-cell epitope aa129-aa137 (FVVPILLKA, FA9) of the Hantaan virus (HTNV) nucleoprotein (NP), restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*02, induced specific CD8(+) T-cell responses that controlled HTNV infection in humans. However, the in vivo immunogenicity of peptide FA9 and the effect of FA9-specific CD8(+) T-cell immunity remain unclear. Here, based on a detailed structural analysis of the peptide FA9/HLA-A*0201 complex and functional investigations using HLA-A2.1/K(b) transgenic (Tg) mice, we found that the overall structure of the peptide FA9/HLA-A*0201 complex displayed a typical MHC class I fold with Val2 and Ala9 as primary anchor residues and Val3 and Leu7 as secondary anchor residues that allow peptide FA9 to bind tightly with an HLA-A*0201 molecule. Residues in the middle portion of peptide FA9 extruding out of the binding groove may be the sites that allow for recognition by T-cell receptors. Immunization with peptide FA9 in HLA-A2.1/K(b) Tg mice induced FA9-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses characterized by the induction of high expression levels of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, granzyme B, and CD107a. In an HTNV challenge trial, significant reductions in the levels of both the antigens and the HTNV RNA loads were observed in the liver, spleen, and kidneys of Tg mice pre-vaccinated with peptide FA9. Thus, our findings highlight the ability of HTNV epitope-specific CD8(+) T-cell immunity to control HTNV and support the possibility that the HTNV-NP FA9 peptide, naturally processed in vivo in an HLA-A*02-restriction manner, may be a good candidate for the development HTNV peptide vaccines. PMID:27551282

  4. The Use of the Immune Epitope Database to Study Autoimmune Epitope Data Related to Alopecia Areata.

    PubMed

    Sette, Alessandro; Paul, Sinu; Vaughan, Kerrie; Peters, Bjoern

    2015-11-01

    The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) is a repository of published epitope data for infectious diseases, allergy, transplantation and autoimmunity. Herein we provide an introduction to the IEDB search interface, focusing on data related to autoimmune diseases, including alopecia areata (AA). We demonstrate how common questions related can be answered, such as how to search for specific autoantigens, epitope sequences, response types (B- and/or T-cell assays), or host, as well as how to search for epitopes of known major histocompatibility complex restriction and for data related to a specific disease. Our survey of the data found that while as a whole Autoimmunity-specific records represent a significant portion (∼30%); epitopes reported for AA are remarkably few, just 23 epitopes from six antigens. This reveals a significant knowledge gap for AA, and suggests that additional mapping of epitopes and identification of novel AA-associated autoantigens is warranted. Citing recently published examples, we show how bioinformatic, proteomic, and technological advances make it now increasingly feasible to identify epitopes and novel antigens in human disease. The goal herein was to increase awareness of the IEDB as a free resource for the scientific community and to demonstrate its use in finding (existing) and analyzing (prediction) epitope data. PMID:26551944

  5. Identification of a naturally processed HLA-A*02:01-restricted CTL epitope from the human tumor-associated antigen Nectin-4.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marc; Ghidouche, Abderrezak; Rochas, Caroline; Godelaine, Danièle; Carrasco, Javier; Colau, Didier; Hames, Gérald; Montero-Julian, Félix A; Coulie, Pierre G; Olive, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Nectin-4 is a tumor antigen present on the surface of breast, ovarian and lung carcinoma cells. It is rarely present in normal adult tissues and is therefore a candidate target for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we identified a Nectin-4 antigenic peptide that is naturally presented to T cells by HLA-A2 molecules. We first screened the 502 nonamer peptides of Nectin-4 (510 amino acids) for binding to and off-rate from eight different HLA class I molecules. We then combined biochemical, cellular and algorithmic assays to select 5 Nectin-4 peptides that bound to HLA-A*02:01 molecules. Cytolytic T lymphocytes were obtained from healthy donors, that specifically lyzed HLA-A2(+) cells pulsed with 2 out of the 5 peptides, indicating the presence of anti-Nectin-4 CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the human T cell repertoire. Finally, an HLA-A2-restricted cytolytic T cell clone derived from a breast cancer patient recognized peptide Nectin-4145-153 (VLVPPLPSL) and lyzed HLA-A2(+) Nectin-4(+) breast carcinoma cells. These results indicate that peptide Nectin-4145-153 is naturally processed for recognition by T cells on HLA-A2 molecules. It could be used to monitor antitumor T cell responses or to immunize breast cancer patients.

  6. CD8(+) T cells specific to a single Yersinia pseudotuberculosis epitope restrict bacterial replication in the liver but fail to provide sterilizing immunity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haiqian; Gonzalez-Juarbe, Norberto; Blanchette, Krystle; Crimmins, Gregory; Bergman, Molly A; Isberg, Ralph R; Orihuela, Carlos J; Dube, Peter H

    2016-09-01

    CD8(+) T cells use contact-dependent cytolysis of target cells to protect the host against intracellular pathogens. We have previously shown that CD8(+) T cells and perforin are required to protect against the extracellular pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Here we establish an experimental system where CD8(+) T cells specific to a single model antigen are the only memory response present at time of challenge. Using mice immunized with a vaccine strain of Listeria monocytogenes that expresses secreted ovalbumin (Lm-OVA), we show that OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells are generated and provide limited protection against challenge with virulent OVA(+)Y. pseudotuberculosis. Perforin expression by OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells was required, as Lm-OVA-immunized perforin-deficient mice showed higher bacterial burden as compared to Lm-OVA-immunized perforin-sufficient mice. Surprisingly, antigen-specific T cell protection waned over time, as Lm-OVA-immune mice eventually succumbed to Yersinia infection. Kinetic analysis of infection in mice with and without OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells revealed that bacterial numbers increased sharply in OVA-naïve mice until death, while OVA-immune mice held bacterial burden to a lower level throughout the duration of illness until death. Clonal analysis of bacterial populations in OVA-naïve and OVA-immune mice at distinct time points revealed equivalent and severe bottle-neck effects for bacteria in both sets of mice immediately after intravenous challenge, demonstrating a dominant role for other aspects of the immune system regardless of CD8(+) T cell status. These studies indicate that CD8(+) T cells against a single antigen can restrict Y. pseudotuberculosis colonization in a perforin-dependent manner, but ultimately are insufficient in their ability to provide sterilizing immunity and protect against death. PMID:27268148

  7. CD8(+) T cells specific to a single Yersinia pseudotuberculosis epitope restrict bacterial replication in the liver but fail to provide sterilizing immunity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haiqian; Gonzalez-Juarbe, Norberto; Blanchette, Krystle; Crimmins, Gregory; Bergman, Molly A; Isberg, Ralph R; Orihuela, Carlos J; Dube, Peter H

    2016-09-01

    CD8(+) T cells use contact-dependent cytolysis of target cells to protect the host against intracellular pathogens. We have previously shown that CD8(+) T cells and perforin are required to protect against the extracellular pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Here we establish an experimental system where CD8(+) T cells specific to a single model antigen are the only memory response present at time of challenge. Using mice immunized with a vaccine strain of Listeria monocytogenes that expresses secreted ovalbumin (Lm-OVA), we show that OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells are generated and provide limited protection against challenge with virulent OVA(+)Y. pseudotuberculosis. Perforin expression by OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells was required, as Lm-OVA-immunized perforin-deficient mice showed higher bacterial burden as compared to Lm-OVA-immunized perforin-sufficient mice. Surprisingly, antigen-specific T cell protection waned over time, as Lm-OVA-immune mice eventually succumbed to Yersinia infection. Kinetic analysis of infection in mice with and without OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells revealed that bacterial numbers increased sharply in OVA-naïve mice until death, while OVA-immune mice held bacterial burden to a lower level throughout the duration of illness until death. Clonal analysis of bacterial populations in OVA-naïve and OVA-immune mice at distinct time points revealed equivalent and severe bottle-neck effects for bacteria in both sets of mice immediately after intravenous challenge, demonstrating a dominant role for other aspects of the immune system regardless of CD8(+) T cell status. These studies indicate that CD8(+) T cells against a single antigen can restrict Y. pseudotuberculosis colonization in a perforin-dependent manner, but ultimately are insufficient in their ability to provide sterilizing immunity and protect against death.

  8. HLA-A02:01-Restricted Epitopes Identified from the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP11/12 Preferentially Recall Polyfunctional Effector Memory CD8+ T Cells from Seropositive Asymptomatic Individuals and Protect “Humanized” HLA-A*02:01 Transgenic Mice Against Ocular Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Spencer, Doran; Vahed, Hawa; Lopes, Patricia P.; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Wang, Christine; Pham, Thanh T.; Huang, Jiawei; Scarfone, Vanessa M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 virion tegument phosphoprotein 11/12 (HSV-1 VP11/12) is a major antigen targeted by CD8+ T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether and which VP11/12-epitope-specific CD8+ T cells play a role in the “natural” protection seen in seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we used multiple prediction computer-assisted algorithms to identify 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes from the 716 amino acids sequence of VP11/12. Three out of ten epitopes exhibited high to moderate binding affinity to HLA-A*02:01 molecules. In ten sequentially studied HLA-A*02:01 positive and HSV-1-seropositive ASYMP individuals, the most frequent, robust and polyfunctional effector CD8+ T-cell responses, as assessed by a combination of tetramer frequency, granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, CD107a/b cytotoxic degranulation, IFN-γ and multiplex cytokines assays, were predominantly directed against three epitopes: VP11/1266–74, VP11/12220–228 and VP11/12702–710. Interestingly, ASYMP individuals had significantly higher proportion of CD45RAlowCCR7lowCD44highCD62LlowCD27lowCD28lowCD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM) specific to the three epitopes, compared to symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpetic disease). Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three ASYMP CD8+ TEM cell epitopes induced robust and polyfunctional epitope-specific CD8+ TEM cells that were associated with a strong protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings outline phenotypic and functional features of protective HSV-specific CD8+ T cells that should guide the development of an effective T-cell-based herpes vaccine. PMID:25617474

  9. HLA-A02:01-restricted epitopes identified from the herpes simplex virus tegument protein VP11/12 preferentially recall polyfunctional effector memory CD8+ T cells from seropositive asymptomatic individuals and protect humanized HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice against ocular herpes.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A; Spencer, Doran; Vahed, Hawa; Lopes, Patricia P; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Wang, Christine; Pham, Thanh T; Huang, Jiawei; Scarfone, Vanessa M; Nesburn, Anthony B; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-03-01

    The HSV type 1 tegument virion phosphoprotein (VP) 11/12 (VP11/12) is a major Ag targeted by CD8(+) T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether and which VP11/12 epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells play a role in the "natural" protection seen in seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we used multiple prediction computer-assisted algorithms to identify 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitopes from the 718-aa sequence of VP11/12. Three of 10 epitopes exhibited high-to-moderate binding affinity to HLA-A*02:01 molecules. In 10 sequentially studied HLA-A*02:01-positive and HSV-1-seropositive ASYMP individuals, the most frequent, robust, and polyfunctional effector CD8(+) T cell responses, as assessed by a combination of tetramer frequency, granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, CD107(a/b) cytotoxic degranulation, IFN-γ, and multiplex cytokines assays, were predominantly directed against three epitopes: VP11/1266-74, VP11/12220-228, and VP11/12702-710. Interestingly, ASYMP individuals had a significantly higher proportion of CD45RA(low)CCR7(low)CD44(high)CD62L(low)CD27(low)CD28(low)CD8(+) effector memory CD8(+) T cells (TEMs) specific to the three epitopes, compared with symptomatic individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpetic disease). Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three ASYMP CD8(+) TEM cell epitopes induced robust and polyfunctional epitope-specific CD8(+) TEM cells that were associated with a strong protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings outline phenotypic and functional features of protective HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells that should guide the development of an effective T cell-based herpes vaccine. PMID:25617474

  10. HLA-A02:01-restricted epitopes identified from the herpes simplex virus tegument protein VP11/12 preferentially recall polyfunctional effector memory CD8+ T cells from seropositive asymptomatic individuals and protect humanized HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice against ocular herpes.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A; Spencer, Doran; Vahed, Hawa; Lopes, Patricia P; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Wang, Christine; Pham, Thanh T; Huang, Jiawei; Scarfone, Vanessa M; Nesburn, Anthony B; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-03-01

    The HSV type 1 tegument virion phosphoprotein (VP) 11/12 (VP11/12) is a major Ag targeted by CD8(+) T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether and which VP11/12 epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells play a role in the "natural" protection seen in seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we used multiple prediction computer-assisted algorithms to identify 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitopes from the 718-aa sequence of VP11/12. Three of 10 epitopes exhibited high-to-moderate binding affinity to HLA-A*02:01 molecules. In 10 sequentially studied HLA-A*02:01-positive and HSV-1-seropositive ASYMP individuals, the most frequent, robust, and polyfunctional effector CD8(+) T cell responses, as assessed by a combination of tetramer frequency, granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, CD107(a/b) cytotoxic degranulation, IFN-γ, and multiplex cytokines assays, were predominantly directed against three epitopes: VP11/1266-74, VP11/12220-228, and VP11/12702-710. Interestingly, ASYMP individuals had a significantly higher proportion of CD45RA(low)CCR7(low)CD44(high)CD62L(low)CD27(low)CD28(low)CD8(+) effector memory CD8(+) T cells (TEMs) specific to the three epitopes, compared with symptomatic individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpetic disease). Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three ASYMP CD8(+) TEM cell epitopes induced robust and polyfunctional epitope-specific CD8(+) TEM cells that were associated with a strong protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings outline phenotypic and functional features of protective HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells that should guide the development of an effective T cell-based herpes vaccine.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii HLA-B*0702-restricted GRA7(20-28) peptide with adjuvants and a universal helper T cell epitope elicits CD8(+) T cells producing interferon-γ and reduces parasite burden in HLA-B*0702 mice.

    PubMed

    Cong, Hua; Mui, Ernest J; Witola, William H; Sidney, John; Alexander, Jeff; Sette, Alessandro; Maewal, Ajesh; El Bissati, Kamal; Zhou, Ying; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Lee, Daniel; Woods, Stuart; Sommerville, Caroline; Henriquez, Fiona L; Roberts, Craig W; McLeod, Rima

    2012-01-01

    The ability of CD8(+) T cells to act as cytolytic effectors and produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was demonstrated to mediate resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in murine models because of the recognition of peptides restricted by murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. However, no T gondii-specific HLA-B07-restricted peptides were proven protective against T gondii. Recently, 2 T gondii-specific HLA-B*0702-restricted T cell epitopes, GRA7(20-28) (LPQFATAAT) and GRA3(27-35) (VPFVVFLVA), displayed high-affinity binding to HLA-B*0702 and elicited IFN-γ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of seropositive HLA-B*07 persons. Herein, these peptides were evaluated to determine whether they could elicit IFN-γ in splenocytes of HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice when administered with adjuvants and protect against subsequent challenge. Peptide-specific IFN-γ-producing T cells were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot and proliferation assays utilizing splenic T lymphocytes from human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic mice. When HLA-B*0702 mice were immunized with one of the identified epitopes, GRA7(20-28) in conjunction with a universal CD4(+) T cell epitope (PADRE) and adjuvants (CD4(+) T cell adjuvant, GLA-SE, and TLR2 stimulatory Pam(2)Cys for CD8(+) T cells), this immunization induced CD8(+) T cells to produce IFN-γ and protected mice against high parasite burden when challenged with T gondii. This work demonstrates the feasibility of bioinformatics followed by an empiric approach based on HLA binding to test this biologic activity for identifying protective HLA-B*0702-restricted T gondii peptides and adjuvants that elicit protective immune responses in HLA-B*0702 mice.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii HLA-B*0702 restricted GRA720–28 peptide with adjuvants and an universal helper T cell epitope elicits CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ and reduces parasite burden in HLA-B*0702 mice1

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Hua; Mui, Ernest J.; Witola, William H.; Sidney, John; Alexander, Jeff; Sette, Alessandro; Maewal, Ajesh; El Bissati, Kamal; Zhou, Ying; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Lee, Daniel; Woods, Stuart; Sommerville, Caroline; Henriquez, Fiona; W.Roberts, Craig; McLeod, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Ability of CD8+ T cells to act as cytolytic effectors and produce IFN-γ was shown to mediate resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in murine models due to recognition of peptides restricted by murine MHC Class I molecules. However, no T. gondii specific HLA-B07 restricted peptides were proven protective against T gondii. Recently, two T gondii-specific HLA-B*0702-restricted T cell epitopes, GRA720–28 (LPQFATAAT) and GRA327–35 (VPFVVFLVA), displayed high-affinity binding to HLA-B*0702, and elicited IFN-γ from PBMCs of seropositive HLA-B*0702 persons. Herein, these peptides were evaluated to determine whether they could elicit IFN-γ in splenocytes of HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice when administered with adjuvants and protect against subsequent challenge. Peptide-specific IFN-γ producing T cells were identified by ELISPOT and proliferation assays utilizing splenic T lymphocytes from HLA transgenic mice. When HLA-B*0702 mice were immunized with one of the epitopes identified, GRA720–28 in conjunction with a universal CD4+ T cell epitope (PADRE) and adjuvants (CD4+ T cell adjuvant, GLA-SE, and TLR2 stimulatory Pam2Cys for CD8+ T cells), this immunization induced CD8+ T cells to produce IFN-γ and protected mice against high parasite burden when challenged with T gondii. This work demonstrates feasibility of bioinformatics followed by an empirical approach based on HLA binding to test this biological activity for identifying protective HLA-B*0702 restricted T gondii peptides and adjuvants that elicit protective immune responses in HLA-B*0702 mice. PMID:22027386

  13. Inhibition by chloroquine of the class II major histocompatibility complex-restricted presentation of endogenous antigens varies according to the cellular origin of the antigen-presenting cells, the nature of the T-cell epitope, and the responding T cell.

    PubMed Central

    Lombard-Platlet, S; Bertolino, P; Deng, H; Gerlier, D; Rabourdin-Combe, C

    1993-01-01

    Chloroquine treatment of antigen-presenting cells (APC) was explored as a tool to investigate the processing pathway for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted presentation of the endogenous secreted hen egg lysozyme (HEL) and transmembrane measles virus haemagglutinin (HA). A 72-hr pretreatment of the APC with 25 microM chloroquine blocked the presentation of the HEL(52-61) T-cell epitope generated from endogenous HEL to the I-Ak-restricted 3A9 T-cell hybridoma by MHC class II-transfected L cells expressing the invariant chain (Ii). The presentation of exogenously added HEL peptides was not affected. Under the same conditions, no inhibition of the presentation of HEL(106-116) to the I-Ed-restricted G28 high-avidity T-cell hybridoma, nor of HA when synthesized by L cells, was observed. When B-lymphoid APC were used, inhibition was observed in every case with a low number of B APC pretreated for 48 hr with chloroquine prior to the T-cell stimulation test. Moreover, addition of chloroquine to untreated B APC during the T-cell stimulation assay was sufficient to inhibit completely the presentation of HEL(106-116) to the B10.D24.42 low avidity T-cell hybridoma. Altogether these studies suggest that an apparent resistance of endogenous Ag presentation to chloroquine inhibition may not necessarily indicate the existence of a non-endosomal pathway but may be due to the nature of the T-cell epitope, to the use of 'non-professional' APC such as L cells, to the use of T cells of high avidity, and to high amounts of pre-existing MHC class II-peptide complexes expressed by the APC. We demonstrate here that, at least in conventional APC such as B cells, class II-restricted presentation of both endogenous secreted HEL and transmembrane HA involves an endosomal pathway. PMID:7508420

  14. Stepwise identification of HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitope peptides from herpes simplex virus type 1 genome boosted by a StepRank scheme.

    PubMed

    Bi, Jianjun; Song, Rengang; Yang, Huilan; Li, Bingling; Fan, Jianyong; Liu, Zhongrong; Long, Chaoqin

    2011-01-01

    Identification of immunodominant epitopes is the first step in the rational design of peptide vaccines aimed at T-cell immunity. To date, however, it is yet a great challenge for accurately predicting the potent epitope peptides from a pool of large-scale candidates with an efficient manner. In this study, a method that we named StepRank has been developed for the reliable and rapid prediction of binding capabilities/affinities between proteins and genome-wide peptides. In this procedure, instead of single strategy used in most traditional epitope identification algorithms, four steps with different purposes and thus different computational demands are employed in turn to screen the large-scale peptide candidates that are normally generated from, for example, pathogenic genome. The steps 1 and 2 aim at qualitative exclusion of typical nonbinders by using empirical rule and linear statistical approach, while the steps 3 and 4 focus on quantitative examination and prediction of the interaction energy profile and binding affinity of peptide to target protein via quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and structure-based free energy analysis. We exemplify this method through its application to binding predictions of the peptide segments derived from the 76 known open-reading frames (ORFs) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome with or without affinity to human major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecule HLA-A*0201, and find that the predictive results are well compatible with the classical anchor residue theory and perfectly match for the extended motif pattern of MHC I-binding peptides. The putative epitopes are further confirmed by comparisons with 11 experimentally measured HLA-A*0201-restrcited peptides from the HSV-1 glycoproteins D and K. We expect that this well-designed scheme can be applied in the computational screening of other viral genomes as well. PMID:21072852

  15. Recognition of the immunodominant myelin basic protein peptide by autoantibodies and HLA-DR2-restricted T cell clones from multiple sclerosis patients. Identity of key contact residues in the B-cell and T-cell epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Wucherpfennig, K W; Catz, I; Hausmann, S; Strominger, J L; Steinman, L; Warren, K G

    1997-01-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) may be an important autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS), with the MBP(82-100) region being immunodominant for T cells and autoantibodies. The structural requirements for autoantibody recognition were compared to those previously defined for MBP-specific T cell clones. MBP autoantibodies were affinity-purified from central nervous system lesions of 11/12 postmortem cases studied. The MBP(83-97) peptide was immunodominant in all 11 cases since it inhibited autoantibody binding to MBP > 95%. Residues contributing to autoantibody binding were located in a 10-amino acid segment (V86-T95) that also contained the MHC/T cell receptor contact residues of the T cell epitope. In the epitope center, the same residues were important for antibody binding and T cell recognition. Based on the antibody-binding motif, microbial peptides were identified that were bound by purified autoantibodies. Autoantibody binding of microbial peptides required sequence identity at four or five contiguous residues in the epitope center. Microbial peptides previously found to activate T cell clones did not have such obvious homology to MBP since sequence identity was not required at MHC contacts. The similar fine specificity of B cells and T cells may be useful for tolerance induction to MBP in MS. PMID:9276728

  16. Proximal glycans outside of the epitopes regulate the presentation of HIV-1 envelope gp120 helper epitopes1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hualin; Xu, Chong-Feng; Blais, Steven; Wan, Qi; Zhang, Hui-Tang; Landry, Samuel J.; Hioe, Catarina E.

    2010-01-01

    Glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope gp120 determines not only the proper structure, but also the immune responses against this antigen. While glycans may be part of specific epitopes or shield other epitopes from T cells and antibodies, this study provides evidence for a different immunomodulatory function of glycans associated with gp120 residues N230 and N448. These glycans are required for efficient MHC class II-restricted presentation of nearby CD4 T-cell epitopes, even though they are not part of the epitopes. The glycans do not affect CD4 T cell recognition of more distant epitopes, and are not essential for the proper folding and function of gp120. Data on CD4 T-cell recognition of N448 mutants combined with proteolysis analyses and surface electrostatic potential calculation around residue N448 support the notion that N448-glycan near the epitope's C-terminus renders the site to be surface accessible and allows its efficient processing. In contrast, the N230-glycan contributes to the nearby epitope presentation at a step other than the proteolytic processing of the epitope. Hence, N-glycans can determine CD4 T-cell recognition of nearby gp120 epitopes by regulating the different steps in the MHC class II processing and presentation pathway after APCs acquire the intact gp120 antigen exogenously. Modifications of amino acids bearing glycans at the C termini of gp120 helper epitopes may prove to be a useful strategy for enhancing the immunogenicity of HIV-1 envelope gp120. PMID:19414790

  17. Targeting Non-classical Myelin Epitopes to Treat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jintao; Baylink, David J.; Li, Chih-Huang; Watts, Douglas M.; Xu, Yi; Qin, Xuezhong; Walter, Michael H.; Tang, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Qa-1 epitopes, the peptides that bind to non-classical major histocompatibility complex Ib Qa-1 molecules and are recognized by Qa-1-restricted CD8+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, have been identified in pathogenic autoimmune cells that attack myelin sheath in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis [MS]). Additionally, immunization with such epitopes ameliorates the EAE. However, identification of such epitopes requires knowledge of the pathogenic autoimmune cells which are largely unknown in MS patients. Hence, we asked whether the CD8+ Treg cells could directly target the myelin sheath to ameliorate EAE. To address this question, we analyzed Qa-1 epitopes in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG that is a protein in myelin sheath). Here, we report identification of a MOG-specific Qa-1 epitope. Immunization with this epitope suppressed ongoing EAE, which was abrogated by CD8+ T cell depletion. Additionally, the epitope immunization activated the epitope-specific CD8+ T cells which specifically accumulated in the CNS-draining cervical lymph nodes. Finally, CD8+ T cells primed by the epitope immunization transferred EAE suppression. Hence, this study reveals a novel regulatory mechanism mediated by the CD8+ Treg cells. We propose that immunization with myelin-specific HLA-E epitopes (human homologues of Qa-1 epitopes) is a promising therapy for MS. PMID:27796368

  18. Finding epitopes with computers.

    PubMed

    Malito, Enrico; Rappuoli, Rino

    2013-10-24

    The goal of structural vaccinology is to enable the design and engineering of improved antigens. In a recent issue of Chemistry & Biology, Gourlay and colleagues provided evidence that structure-based computational methods allow prediction of B cell epitopes, a crucial step for antigen selection and optimization in vaccine development.

  19. Computational elucidation of potential antigenic CTL epitopes in Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Dikhit, Manas R; Kumar, Santosh; Vijaymahantesh; Sahoo, Bikash R; Mansuri, Rani; Amit, Ajay; Yousuf Ansari, Md; Sahoo, Ganesh C; Bimal, Sanjiva; Das, Pradeep

    2015-12-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is important for the control of Ebola virus infection. We hypothesized that those HLA A0201 and HLA B40 restricted epitopes derived from Ebola virus proteins, would mount a good antigenic response. Here we employed an immunoinformatics approach to identify specific 9mer amino acid which may be capable of inducing a robust cell-mediated immune response in humans. We identified a set of 28 epitopes that had no homologs in humans. Specifically, the epitopes derived from NP, RdRp, GP and VP40 share population coverage of 93.40%, 84.15%, 74.94% and 77.12%, respectively. Based on the other HLA binding specificity and population coverage, seven novel promiscuous epitopes were identified. These 7 promiscuous epitopes from NP, RdRp and GP were found to have world-wide population coverage of more than 95% indicating their potential significance as useful candidates for vaccine design. Epitope conservancy analysis also suggested that most of the peptides are highly conserved (100%) in other virulent Ebola strain (Mayinga-76, Kikwit-95 and Makona-G3816- 2014) and can therefore be further investigated for their immunological relevance and usefulness as vaccine candidates.

  20. HIV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses strongly associated with delayed disease progression cross-recognize epitope variants efficiently.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Emma L; Lopes, A Ross; Jones, Nicola A; Cornforth, David; Newton, Phillipa; Aldam, Diana; Pellegrino, Pierre; Turner, Jo; Williams, Ian; Wilson, Craig M; Goepfert, Paul A; Maini, Mala K; Borrow, Persephone

    2006-05-15

    The ability of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses to recognize epitope variants resulting from viral sequence variation in vivo may affect the ease with which HIV-1 can escape T cell control and impact on the rate of disease progression in HIV-1-infected humans. Here, we studied the functional cross-reactivity of CD8 responses to HIV-1 epitopes restricted by HLA class I alleles associated with differential prognosis of infection. We show that the epitope-specific responses exhibiting the most efficient cross-recognition of amino acid-substituted variants were those strongly associated with delayed progression to disease. Not all epitopes restricted by the same HLA class I allele showed similar variant cross-recognition efficiency, consistent with the hypothesis that the reported associations between particular HLA class I alleles and rate of disease progression may be due to the quality of responses to certain "critical" epitopes. Irrespective of their efficiency of functional cross-recognition, CD8(+) T cells of all HIV-1 epitope specificities examined showed focused TCR usage. Furthermore, interpatient variability in variant cross-reactivity correlated well with use of different dominant TCR Vbeta families, suggesting that flexibility is not conferred by the overall clonal breadth of the response but instead by properties of the dominant TCR(s) used for epitope recognition. A better understanding of the features of T cell responses associated with long-term control of viral replication should facilitate rational vaccine design.

  1. HIV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses strongly associated with delayed disease progression cross-recognize epitope variants efficiently.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Emma L; Lopes, A Ross; Jones, Nicola A; Cornforth, David; Newton, Phillipa; Aldam, Diana; Pellegrino, Pierre; Turner, Jo; Williams, Ian; Wilson, Craig M; Goepfert, Paul A; Maini, Mala K; Borrow, Persephone

    2006-05-15

    The ability of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses to recognize epitope variants resulting from viral sequence variation in vivo may affect the ease with which HIV-1 can escape T cell control and impact on the rate of disease progression in HIV-1-infected humans. Here, we studied the functional cross-reactivity of CD8 responses to HIV-1 epitopes restricted by HLA class I alleles associated with differential prognosis of infection. We show that the epitope-specific responses exhibiting the most efficient cross-recognition of amino acid-substituted variants were those strongly associated with delayed progression to disease. Not all epitopes restricted by the same HLA class I allele showed similar variant cross-recognition efficiency, consistent with the hypothesis that the reported associations between particular HLA class I alleles and rate of disease progression may be due to the quality of responses to certain "critical" epitopes. Irrespective of their efficiency of functional cross-recognition, CD8(+) T cells of all HIV-1 epitope specificities examined showed focused TCR usage. Furthermore, interpatient variability in variant cross-reactivity correlated well with use of different dominant TCR Vbeta families, suggesting that flexibility is not conferred by the overall clonal breadth of the response but instead by properties of the dominant TCR(s) used for epitope recognition. A better understanding of the features of T cell responses associated with long-term control of viral replication should facilitate rational vaccine design. PMID:16670322

  2. Induction of an antitumor response using dendritic cells transfected with DNA constructs encoding the HLA-A*02:01-restricted epitopes of tumor-associated antigens in culture of mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sennikov, Sergey Vital'evich; Shevchenko, Julia Alexandrovna; Kurilin, Vasilii Vasil'evich; Khantakova, Julia Nikolaevna; Lopatnikova, Julia Anatol'evna; Gavrilova, Elena Vasil'evna; Maksyutov, Rinat Amirovich; Bakulina, Anastasiya Yur'evna; Sidorov, Sergey Vasil'evich; Khristin, Alexander Alexandrovich; Maksyutov, Amir Zakievich

    2016-02-01

    Advances in oncoimmunology related to the definition of the basic mechanisms of the formation of antitumor immune response, as well as the opening of tumor-associated antigens recognized by immune cells, allowed to start developing ways to influence the effector cells of the immune system to generate effective antitumor cytotoxic response. We investigated the possibility to stimulate an antitumor response in a culture of mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients by dendritic cells transfected with HLA-A*02:01-restricted DNA constructs. We isolated dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes and delivered our constructs to these cells by magnetic transfection. Additionally, a series of experiments with loading of dendritic cells with autologous tumor cell lysate antigens was conducted. We have shown that dendritic cells transfected with the HLA-A*02:01-restricted DNA constructs are effective in inducing an antitumor response in a culture of mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients. Dendritic cells transfected with DNA constructor dendritic cells loaded with lysate antigens revealed a comparable stimulated cytotoxic response of mononuclear cells to these two ways of antigen delivery. We conclude that using DNA constructs in conjunction with patient stratification by HLA type allows the application of transfected DCs as an effective method to stimulate antitumor immunity in vitro.

  3. Allergen structures and epitopes.

    PubMed

    Meno, K H

    2011-07-01

    Human type 1 hypersensitivity diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis are characterized by allergen-specific IgE antibodies produced in allergic individuals after allergen exposure. IgE antibodies bound to receptors on the surface of effector cells trigger an allergic response by interacting with three-dimensional (conformational) epitopes on the allergen surface. Crystal structures are available for complexes of antibody specifically bound to five allergens, from birch pollen, bee venom, cockroach, cow's milk and timothy grass pollen. The details of the antibody-allergen interaction extending all the way to atomic resolution are available from such complexes. In vitro investigations using recombinant monoclonal antibodies and human basophils show that binding affinity is a key to triggering the allergic response. Continued molecular characterization of antibody-allergen interactions is paving the way for the use of recombinant allergens in allergen-specific diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:21668845

  4. Prediction of Antibody Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies recognize their cognate antigens in a precise and effective way. In order to do so, they target regions of the antigenic molecules that have specific features such as large exposed areas, presence of charged or polar atoms, specific secondary structure elements, and lack of similarity to self-proteins. Given the sequence or the structure of a protein of interest, several methods exploit such features to predict the residues that are more likely to be recognized by an immunoglobulin. Here, we present two methods (BepiPred and DiscoTope) to predict linear and discontinuous antibody epitopes from the sequence and/or the three-dimensional structure of a target protein. PMID:26424260

  5. Structure of viral B-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Van Regenmortel, M H

    1990-01-01

    Four categories of viral epitopes can be distinguished that have been designated cryptotopes, neotopes, metatopes and neutralization epitopes. Specific examples of each epitope type are presented and the methods used for locating their positions in viral proteins are described. The epitopes of four well-characterized viruses, namely poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, influenza virus and tobacco mosaic virus are briefly described.

  6. Epitope diversification driven by non-tumor epitope-specific Th1 and Th17 mediates potent antitumor reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kosuke; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenichi; Miyabayashi, Takao; Koshio, Jun; Miura, Satoru; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Hirohisa; Narita, Ichiei

    2012-09-21

    MHC class I-restricted peptide-based vaccination therapies have been conducted to treat cancer patients, because CD8⁺ CTL can efficiently induce apoptosis of tumor cells in an MHC class I-restricted epitope-specific manner. Interestingly, clinical responders are known to demonstrate reactivity to epitopes other than those used for vaccination; however, the mechanism underlying how antitumor T cells with diverse specificity are induced is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) that engulfed apoptotic tumor cells in the presence of non-tumor MHC class II-restricted epitope peptides, OVA(323-339), efficiently presented tumor-associated antigens upon effector-dominant CD4⁺ T cell balance against regulatory T cells (Treg) for the OVA(323-339) epitope. Th1 and Th17 induced tumor-associated antigens presentation of DC, while Th2 ameliorated tumor-antigen presentation for CD8⁺ T cells. Blocking experiments with anti-IL-23p19 antibody and anti-IL-23 receptor indicated that an autocrine mechanism of IL-23 likely mediated the diverted tumor-associated antigens presentation of DC. Tumor-associated antigens presentation of DC induced by OVA(323-339) epitope-specific CD4⁺ T cells resulted in facilitated antitumor immunity in both priming and effector phase in vivo. Notably, this immunotherapy did not require pretreatment to reduce Treg induced by tumor. This strategy may have clinical implications for designing effective antitumor immunotherapies.

  7. Measles Virus Epitope Presentation by HLA: Novel Insights into Epitope Selection, Dominance, and Microvariation

    PubMed Central

    Schellens, Ingrid M.; Meiring, Hugo D.; Hoof, Ilka; Spijkers, Sanne N.; Poelen, Martien C. M.; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A. M.; Costa, Ana I.; Vennema, Harry; Keşmir, Can; van Baarle, Debbie; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunity to infections with measles virus (MV) can involve vigorous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses. MV, albeit regarded monotypic, is known to undergo molecular evolution across its RNA genome. To address which regions of the MV proteome are eligible for recognition by CD8+ CTLs and how different HLA class I loci contribute to the epitope display, we interrogated the naturally processed and presented MV peptidome extracted from cell lines expressing in total a broad panel of 16 different common HLA-A, -B, and -C molecules. The repertoire and abundance of MV peptides were bona fide identified by nanoHPLC–MS/MS. ­Eighty-nine MV peptides were discovered and assignment to an HLA-A, -B, or -C allele, based on HLA-peptide affinity prediction, was in most cases successful. Length variation and presentation by multiple HLA class I molecules was common in the MV peptidome. More than twice as many unique MV epitopes were found to be restricted by HLA-B than by HLA-A, while MV peptides with supra-abundant expression rates (>5,000 cc) were rather associated with HLA-A and HLA-C. In total, 59 regions across the whole MV proteome were identified as targeted by HLA class I. Sequence coverage by epitopes was highest for internal proteins transcribed from the MV-P/V/C and -M genes and for hemagglutinin. At the genome level, the majority of the HLA class I-selected MV epitopes represented codons having a higher non-synonymous mutation rate than silent mutation rate, as established by comparison of a set of 58 unique full length MV genomes. Interestingly, more molecular variation was seen for the epitopes expressed at rates ≥1,000 cc. These data for the first time indicate that HLA class I broadly samples the MV proteome and that CTL pressure may contribute to the genomic evolution of MV. PMID:26579122

  8. Plasmodium vivax Promiscuous T-Helper Epitopes Defined and Evaluated as Linear Peptide Chimera Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Aguilar, Ivette; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio; Guzmán, Fanny; De la Vega, Patricia; Elkin Patarroyo, Manuel; Galinski, Mary R.; Moreno, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Clinical trials of malaria vaccines have confirmed that parasite-derived T-cell epitopes are required to elicit consistent and long-lasting immune responses. We report here the identification and functional characterization of six T-cell epitopes that are present in the merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP-1) and bind promiscuously to four different HLA-DRB1∗ alleles. Each of these peptides induced lymphoproliferative responses in cells from individuals with previous P. vivax infections. Furthermore, linear-peptide chimeras containing the promiscuous PvMSP-1 T-cell epitopes, synthesized in tandem with the Plasmodium falciparum immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP) B-cell epitope, induced high specific antibody titers, cytokine production, long-lasting immune responses, and immunoglobulin G isotype class switching in BALB/c mice. A linear-peptide chimera containing an allele-restricted P. falciparum T-cell epitope with the CSP B-cell epitope was not effective. Two out of the six promiscuous T-cell epitopes exhibiting the highest anti-peptide response also contain B-cell epitopes. Antisera generated against these B-cell epitopes recognize P. vivax merozoites in immunofluorescence assays. Importantly, the anti-peptide antibodies generated to the CSP B-cell epitope inhibited the invasion of P. falciparum sporozoites into human hepatocytes. These data and the simplicity of design of the chimeric constructs highlight the potential of multimeric, multistage, and multispecies linear-peptide chimeras containing parasite promiscuous T-cell epitopes for malaria vaccine development. PMID:12065487

  9. Impact of HLA-B alleles, epitope binding affinity, functional avidity, and viral coinfection on the immunodominance of virus-specific CTL responses.

    PubMed

    Bihl, Florian; Frahm, Nicole; Di Giammarino, Loriana; Sidney, John; John, Mina; Yusim, Karina; Woodberry, Tonia; Sango, Kaori; Hewitt, Hannah S; Henry, Leah; Linde, Caitlyn H; Chisholm, John V; Zaman, Tauheed M; Pae, Eunice; Mallal, Simon; Walker, Bruce D; Sette, Alessandro; Korber, Bette T; Heckerman, David; Brander, Christian

    2006-04-01

    Immunodominance is variably used to describe either the most frequently detectable response among tested individuals or the strongest response within a single individual, yet factors determining either inter- or intraindividual immunodominance are still poorly understood. More than 90 individuals were tested against 184 HIV- and 92 EBV-derived, previously defined CTL epitopes. The data show that HLA-B-restricted epitopes were significantly more frequently recognized than HLA-A- or HLA-C-restricted epitopes. HLA-B-restricted epitopes also induced responses of higher magnitude than did either HLA-A- or HLA-C-restricted epitopes, although this comparison only reached statistical significance for EBV epitopes. For both viruses, the magnitude and frequency of recognition were correlated with each other, but not with the epitope binding affinity to the restricting HLA allele. The presence or absence of HIV coinfection did not impact EBV epitope immunodominance patterns significantly. Peptide titration studies showed that the magnitude of responses was associated with high functional avidity, requiring low concentration of cognate peptide to respond in in vitro assays. The data support the important role of HLA-B alleles in antiviral immunity and afford a better understanding of the factors contributing to inter- and intraindividual immunodominance.

  10. Identification and translational validation of novel mammaglobin-A CD8 T cell epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Soysal, S. D.; Kan-Mitchell, J.; Huarte, E.; Zhang, X.; Wilkinson-Ryan, I.; Fleming, T.; Tiriveedhi, V.; Mohanakumar, T.; Li, L.; Herndon, J.; Oertli, D.; Goedegebuure, S. P.; Gillanders, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    Mammaglobin-A (MAM-A) is a secretory protein that is overexpressed in 80 % of human breast cancers. Its near-universal expression in breast cancer as well as its exquisite tissue specificity makes it an attractive target for a breast cancer prevention vaccine, and we recently initiated a phase 1 clinical trial of a MAM-A DNA vaccine. Previously, we have identified multiple MAM-A CD8 T cell epitopes using a reverse immunology candidate epitope approach based on predicted binding, but to date no attempt has been made to identify epitopes using an unbiased approach. In this study, we used human T cells primed in vitro with autologous dendritic cells expressing MAM-A to systematically identify MAM-A CD8 T cell epitopes. Using this unbiased approach, we identified three novel HLA-A2-restricted MAM-A epitopes. CD8 T cells specific for these epitopes are able to recognize and lyse human breast cancer cells in a MAM-A-specific, HLA-A2-dependent fashion. HLA-A2+/MAM-A+ breast cancer patients have an increased prevalence of CD8 T cells specific for these novel MAM-A epitopes, and vaccination with a MAM-A DNA vaccine significantly increases the number of these CD8 T cells. The identification and translational validation of novel MAM-A epitopes has important implications for the ongoing clinical development of vaccine strategies targeting MAM-A. The novel MAM-A epitopes represent attractive targets for epitope-based vaccination strategies, and can also be used to monitor immune responses. Taken together these studies provide additional support for MAM-A as an important therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25212176

  11. Immune recognition of citrullinated epitopes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai; James, Eddie A

    2016-10-01

    Conversion of arginine into citrulline is a post-translational modification that is observed in normal physiological processes. However, abnormal citrullination can provoke autoimmunity by generating altered self-epitopes that are specifically targeted by autoantibodies and T cells. In this review we discuss the recognition of citrullinated antigens in human autoimmune diseases and the role that this modification plays in increasing antigenic diversity and circumventing tolerance mechanisms. Early published work demonstrated that citrullinated proteins are specifically targeted by autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis and that citrullinated peptides are more readily presented to T cells by arthritis-susceptible HLA class II 'shared epitope' proteins. Emerging data support the relevance of citrullinated epitopes in other autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis, whose susceptible HLA haplotypes also preferentially present citrullinated peptides. In these settings, autoimmune patients have been shown to have elevated responses to citrullinated epitopes derived from tissue-specific antigens. Contrasting evidence implicates autophagy or perforin and complement-mediated membrane attack as inducers of ectopic citrullination. In either case, the peptidyl deiminases responsible for citrullination are activated in response to inflammation or insult, providing a mechanistic link between this post-translational modification and interactions with the environment and infection. As such, it is likely that immune recognition of citrullinated epitopes also plays a role in pathogen clearance. Indeed, our recent data suggest that responses to citrullinated peptides facilitate recognition of novel influenza strains. Therefore, increased understanding of responses to citrullinated epitopes may provide important insights about the initiation of autoimmunity and recognition of heterologous viruses. PMID:27531825

  12. The conformational specificity of viral epitopes.

    PubMed

    Van Regenmortel, M H

    1992-12-15

    Four types of antigenic sites found in viruses are discussed: cryptotopes, neotopes, metatopes and neutralization epitopes. The role played by conformation on the specificity of viral epitopes is illustrated in the case of tobacco mosaic virus and influenza virus. It appears that mechanisms reminiscent of induced fit contribute to the recognition of viral epitopes by antibodies.

  13. Epitope specific T-cell responses against influenza A in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Savic, Miloje; Dembinski, Jennifer L; Kim, Yohan; Tunheim, Gro; Cox, Rebecca J; Oftung, Fredrik; Peters, Bjoern; Mjaaland, Siri

    2016-02-01

    Pre-existing human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunity may be a useful correlate of protection against severe influenza disease. Identification and evaluation of common epitopes recognized by T cells with broad cross-reactivity is therefore important to guide universal influenza vaccine development, and to monitor immunological preparedness against pandemics. We have retrieved an optimal combination of MHC class I and class II restricted epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database (www.iedb.org), by defining a fitness score function depending on prevalence, sequence conservancy and HLA super-type coverage. Optimized libraries of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell epitopes were selected from influenza antigens commonly present in seasonal and pandemic influenza strains from 1934 to 2009. These epitope pools were used to characterize human T-cell responses in healthy donors using interferon-γ ELISPOT assays. Upon stimulation, significant CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses were induced, primarily recognizing epitopes from the conserved viral core proteins. Furthermore, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were phenotypically characterized regarding functionality, cytotoxic potential and memory phenotype using flow cytometry. Optimized sets of T-cell peptide epitopes may be a useful tool to monitor the efficacy of clinical trials, the immune status of a population to predict immunological preparedness against pandemics, as well as being candidates for universal influenza vaccines.

  14. Relative abundance of tau and neurofilament epitopes in hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, M. L.; Lee, V. M.; Trojanowski, J. Q.

    1990-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) derive, in part, from normal neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, ie, large portions of tau (tau) but only restricted segments of the peripheral domains of the high- and middle-molecular weight neurofilament subunits. To learn more about the events leading to the incorporation of tau and neurofilament epitopes into NFTs, the relative abundance of tau and NF determinants in these lesions was quantitatively analyzed in hippocampi from Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls using monoclonal antibodies specific for tau or for NF proteins. Immunostained NFTs appeared qualitatively the same in both AD and controls, ie, every epitope found in AD NFTs occurred also in the NFTs of the control patients. However, in hippocampi with only a few tangles, tau epitopes, but no NF epitopes, were detected in NFTs. In contrast, both tau and NF epitopes were present in those tangles that were found in hippocampi with abundant NFTs. Nevertheless, the number of tau-positive NFTs generally exceeded the number of NF-positive NFTs. These findings indicate that tau epitopes are more abundant than NF epitopes in NFTs and that the formation of NFTs may be linked to a derangement in the normal metabolism of tau that is more extensive than alterations in NF protein metabolism. Images Figure 1 PMID:1693468

  15. Analysis of the functional epitopes on different HLA-A2 molecules.

    PubMed

    Goulmy, E; van der Poel, J; Giphart, M; van Rood, J J

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies show that the serologically defined HLA-A2 molecule can be subdivided according to functional and biochemical characteristics. By the use of various HLA-A2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and isoelectric focusing, the serologically homogeneous HLA-A2 molecule can be divided into four subtypes. The polymorphism of the serologically defined HLA-A2 molecule has also been demonstrated by the use of HLA-A2-restricted CTLs. This study was designed to analyze the functional epitopes on different HLA-A2 molecules with special regard to the recognition patterns of different types of HLA-A2-restricted CTLs directed against minor histocompatibility (minor H) antigens. Fifteen so-called HLA-A2 variants belonging to distinct HLA-A2 subtypes were tested as target cells in the cell-mediated lympholysis (CML) assay against (1) HLA-A2-restricted antiminor H-Y CTLs, (2) HLA-A2 and -B7-restricted antiminor H-Y CTLs, and (3) HLA-A2, -Bw62 and -B27-restricted antiminor "HA" CTLs. We found that those three CTLs recognized only one of those HLA-A2 variants. Furthermore, positive reactions by the antiminor H CTLs were only observed on those variant cells which carried, in addition to the HLA-A2 variant, either another "normal" HLA-A2 molecule or another required restricting class I molecule necessary for associative recognition. These results indicate that the absence of HLA-A2 normal allotypic target determinant(s) leads to the loss of epitope(s) necessary for recognition of minor H-Y and minor "HA" transplantation antigens by HLA-restricted CTLs. We can conclude from the present study that HLA-A2-restricted antiminor H CTLs use, in general, the same epitope (or cluster of epitopes) for cellular recognition as alloimmune HLA-A2-specific CTLs. PMID:6204938

  16. Inadequate Reference Datasets Biased toward Short Non-epitopes Confound B-cell Epitope Prediction.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan Ullah; Sachse, Konrad; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    X-ray crystallography has shown that an antibody paratope typically binds 15-22 amino acids (aa) of an epitope, of which 2-5 randomly distributed amino acids contribute most of the binding energy. In contrast, researchers typically choose for B-cell epitope mapping short peptide antigens in antibody binding assays. Furthermore, short 6-11-aa epitopes, and in particular non-epitopes, are over-represented in published B-cell epitope datasets that are commonly used for development of B-cell epitope prediction approaches from protein antigen sequences. We hypothesized that such suboptimal length peptides result in weak antibody binding and cause false-negative results. We tested the influence of peptide antigen length on antibody binding by analyzing data on more than 900 peptides used for B-cell epitope mapping of immunodominant proteins of Chlamydia spp. We demonstrate that short 7-12-aa peptides of B-cell epitopes bind antibodies poorly; thus, epitope mapping with short peptide antigens falsely classifies many B-cell epitopes as non-epitopes. We also show in published datasets of confirmed epitopes and non-epitopes a direct correlation between length of peptide antigens and antibody binding. Elimination of short, ≤11-aa epitope/non-epitope sequences improved datasets for evaluation of in silico B-cell epitope prediction. Achieving up to 86% accuracy, protein disorder tendency is the best indicator of B-cell epitope regions for chlamydial and published datasets. For B-cell epitope prediction, the most effective approach is plotting disorder of protein sequences with the IUPred-L scale, followed by antibody reactivity testing of 16-30-aa peptides from peak regions. This strategy overcomes the well known inaccuracy of in silico B-cell epitope prediction from primary protein sequences.

  17. Identification of novel helper epitope peptides of Survivin cancer-associated antigen applicable to developing helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptide cancer vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ohtake, Junya; Ohkuri, Takayuki; Togashi, Yuji; Kitamura, Hidemitsu; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Nishimura, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    We identified novel helper epitope peptides of Survivin cancer antigen, which are presented to both HLA-DRB1*01:01 and DQB1*06:01. The helper epitope also contained three distinct Survivin-killer epitopes presented to HLA-A*02:01 and A*24:02. This 19 amino-acids epitope peptide (SU18) induced weak responses of Survivin-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells though it contained both helper and killer epitopes. To enhance the vaccine efficacy, we synthesized a long peptide by conjugating SU18 peptide and another DR53-restricted helper epitope peptide (SU22; 12 amino-acids) using glycine-linker. We designated this artificial 40 amino-acids long peptide containing two helper and three killer epitopes as Survivin-helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptide (Survivin-H/K-HELP). Survivin-H/K-HELP allowed superior activation of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) Th1 cells and CD8(+) Tc1 cells compared with the mixture of its component peptides (SU18 and SU22) in the presence of OK-432-treated monocyte-derived DC (Mo-DC). Survivin-H/K-HELP-pulsed Mo-DC pretreated with OK-432 also exhibited sustained antigen-presentation capability of stimulating Survivin-specific Th1 cells compared with Mo-DC pulsed with a mixture of SU18 and SU22 short peptides. Moreover, we demonstrated that Survivin-H/K-HELP induced a complete response in a breast cancer patient with the induction of cellular and humoral immune responses. Thus, we believe that an artificially synthesized Survivin-H/K-HELP will become an innovative cancer vaccine.

  18. [Construction of fusion gene vaccine of WT1 multi-epitope fused with stimulating epitope of mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 and its expression and immunogenicity].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei-Wei; Qiao, Zhen-Hua; Yang, Lin-Hua; Wang, Hong-Wei; Tang, Yan-Hong; Bian, Si-Cheng

    2011-04-01

    This study was purposed to construct a fusion DNA vaccine containing WT1 multi-epitope and stimulating epitope of mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 and to detect its expression and immunogenicity. On the basis of published data, a multi-epitope gene (Multi-WT1) containing three HLA *0201-restricted CTL epitopes: one HLA*2402-restricted CTL epitope, two Th epitopes and one universal Th Pan-DR epitope (PADRE) was constructed. DNA-coding sequence was modified by Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to optimize proteasome-mediated epitope processing through the introduction of different amino acid spacer sequences. The synthetic nucleotide sequence was then inserted into an eukaryotic vector to construct the plasmid pcDNA3.1-WT1.For enhancing CTL activity, HSP70 fragment including stimulatory domain P407-426 was amplified by PCR from mycobacterial HSP70 gene and cloned into pcDNA3.1(+). Then Multi-WT1 was fused to the N-terminal of pcDNA3.1-mHSP70(407-426) to make the multi-epitope fusion gene vaccine pcDNA3.1-WT1-mHSP70(407-426). HEK-293T cells were transfected with this vaccine and the expressed product was identified by RT-PCR. Enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) was used to evaluate the immunological responses elicited by vaccine. The results showed that the most of WT1 epitopes could be correctly cleaved which was confirmed by software Net Chop 3.1 and PAPROCIanalysis. RT-PCR showed correct expression of target gene in HEK293T cells and ELISPOT showed specific T-cell responses. It is concluded that the eukaryotic expression vector PcDNA3.1-WT1-mHSP70(407-426) fusion gene has been successfully constructed and the immunity response is also elicited, which is a good candidate for further research of DNA vaccine.

  19. Vicilin allergens of peanut and tree nuts (walnut, hazelnut and cashew nut) share structurally related IgE-binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    Barre, Annick; Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Rancé, Fabienne; Didier, Alain; Rougé, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    Surface-exposed IgE-binding epitopes of close overall conformation were characterized on the molecular surface of three-dimensional models built for the vicilin allergens of peanut (Ara h 1), walnut (Jug r 2), hazelnut (Cor a 11) and cashew nut (Ana o 1). They correspond to linear stretches of conserved amino acid sequences mainly located along the C-terminus of the polypeptide chains. A glyco-epitope corresponding to an exposed N-glycosylation site could also interfere with the IgE-binding epitopes. All these epitopic regions should participate in the IgE-binding cross-reactivity commonly reported between tree nuts or between peanut and some tree nuts in sensitized individuals. Owing to this epitopic community which constitutes a risk of cross-sensitization, the avoidance or a restricted consumption of other tree nuts should be recommended to peanut-sensitized individuals.

  20. Selection of Conserved Epitopes from Hepatitis C Virus for Pan-Populational Stimulation of T-Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Molero-Abraham, Magdalena; Lafuente, Esther M.; Flower, Darren R.; Reche, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is able to persist as a chronic infection, which can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. There is evidence that clearance of HCV is linked to strong responses by CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), suggesting that eliciting CTL responses against HCV through an epitope-based vaccine could prove an effective means of immunization. However, HCV genomic plasticity as well as the polymorphisms of HLA I molecules restricting CD8 T-cell responses challenges the selection of epitopes for a widely protective vaccine. Here, we devised an approach to overcome these limitations. From available databases, we first collected a set of 245 HCV-specific CD8 T-cell epitopes, all known to be targeted in the course of a natural infection in humans. After a sequence variability analysis, we next identified 17 highly invariant epitopes. Subsequently, we predicted the epitope HLA I binding profiles that determine their potential presentation and recognition. Finally, using the relevant HLA I-genetic frequencies, we identified various epitope subsets encompassing 6 conserved HCV-specific CTL epitopes each predicted to elicit an effective T-cell response in any individual regardless of their HLA I background. We implemented this epitope selection approach for free public use at the EPISOPT web server. PMID:24348677

  1. What is a B-cell epitope?

    PubMed

    Van Regenmortel, Marc H V

    2009-01-01

    The antigenicity of proteins resides in different types of antigenic determinants known as continuous and discontinuous epitopes, cryptotopes, neotopes, and mimotopes. All epitopes have fuzzy boundaries and can be identified only by their ability to bind to certain antibodies. Antigenic cross-reactivity is a common phenomenon because antibodies are always able to recognize a considerable number of related epitopes. This places severe limits to the specificity of antibodies. Antigenicity, which is the ability of an epitope to react with an antibody, must be distinguished from its immunogenicity or ability to induce antibodies in a competent vertebrate host. Failure to make this distinction partly explains why no successful peptide-based vaccines have yet been developed. Methods for predicting the epitopes of proteins are discussed and the reasons for the low success rate of epitope prediction are analyzed.

  2. Strategies to Query and Display Allergy-Derived Epitope Data from the Immune Epitope Database

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Kerrie; Peters, Bjoern; Larche, Mark; Pomes, Anna; Broide, David; Sette, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of specific epitopes on allergens by antibodies and T cells is a key element in allergic processes. Analysis of epitope data may be of interest for basic immunopathology or for potential application in diagnostics or immunotherapy. The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) is a freely available repository of epitope data from infectious disease agents, as well as epitopes defined for allergy, autoimmunity, and transplantation. The IEDB curates the experiments associated with each epitope and thus provides a variety of different ways to search the data. This review aims to demonstrate the utility of the IEDB and its query strategies, including searching by epitope structure (peptidic/nonpeptidic), by assay methodology, by host, by the allergen itself, or by the organism from which the allergen was derived. Links to tools for visualization of 3-D structures, epitope prediction, and analyses of B and T cell reactivity by host response frequency score are also highlighted. PMID:23172234

  3. Ligand-induced Epitope Masking

    PubMed Central

    Mould, A. Paul; Askari, Janet A.; Byron, Adam; Takada, Yoshikazu; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Humphries, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing ligand-mimetic inhibitors of integrins are unable to dissociate pre-formed integrin-fibronectin complexes (IFCs). These observations suggested that amino acid residues involved in integrin-fibronectin binding become obscured in the ligand-occupied state. Because the epitopes of some function-blocking anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) lie near the ligand-binding pocket, it follows that the epitopes of these mAbs may become shielded in the ligand-occupied state. Here, we tested whether function-blocking mAbs directed against α5β1 can interact with the integrin after it forms a complex with an RGD-containing fragment of fibronectin. We showed that the anti-α5 subunit mAbs JBS5, SNAKA52, 16, and P1D6 failed to disrupt IFCs and hence appeared unable to bind to the ligand-occupied state. In contrast, the allosteric anti-β1 subunit mAbs 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 could dissociate IFCs and therefore were able to interact with the ligand-bound state. However, another class of function-blocking anti-β1 mAbs, exemplified by Lia1/2, could not disrupt IFCs. This second class of mAbs was also distinguished from 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 by their ability to induce homotypic cell aggregation. Although the epitope of Lia1/2 was closely overlapping with those of 13, 4B4, and AIIB2, it appeared to lie closer to the ligand-binding pocket. A new model of the α5β1-fibronectin complex supports our hypothesis that the epitopes of mAbs that fail to bind to the ligand-occupied state lie within, or very close to, the integrin-fibronectin interface. Importantly, our findings imply that the efficacy of some therapeutic anti-integrin mAbs could be limited by epitope masking. PMID:27484800

  4. Towards in silico prediction of immunogenic epitopes.

    PubMed

    Flower, Darren R

    2003-12-01

    As torrents of new data now emerge from microbial genomics, bioinformatic prediction of immunogenic epitopes remains challenging but vital. In silico methods often produce paradoxically inconsistent results: good prediction rates on certain test sets but not others. The inherent complexity of immune presentation and recognition processes complicates epitope prediction. Two encouraging developments - data driven artificial intelligence sequence-based methods for epitope prediction and molecular modeling methods based on three-dimensional protein structures - offer hope for the future. PMID:14644141

  5. Identification of Conserved and HLA Promiscuous DENV3 T-Cell Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Khan, Asif M.; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Guzman, Nicole; Paulaitis, Michael; de Melo, Andréa Barbosa; Cordeiro, Marli T.; Gil, Laura V. G.; Lemonnier, Françoir; Rinaldo, Charles; August, J. Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-dengue T-cell responses have been implicated in both protection and immunopathology. However, most of the T-cell studies for dengue include few epitopes, with limited knowledge of their inter-serotype variation and the breadth of their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) affinity. In order to expand our knowledge of HLA-restricted dengue epitopes, we screened T-cell responses against 477 overlapping peptides derived from structural and non-structural proteins of the dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV3) by use of HLA class I and II transgenic mice (TgM): A2, A24, B7, DR2, DR3 and DR4. TgM were inoculated with peptides pools and the T-cell immunogenic peptides were identified by ELISPOT. Nine HLA class I and 97 HLA class II novel DENV3 epitopes were identified based on immunogenicity in TgM and their HLA affinity was further confirmed by binding assays analysis. A subset of these epitopes activated memory T-cells from DENV3 immune volunteers and was also capable of priming naïve T-cells, ex vivo, from dengue IgG negative individuals. Analysis of inter- and intra-serotype variation of such an epitope (A02-restricted) allowed us to identify altered peptide ligands not only in DENV3 but also in other DENV serotypes. These studies also characterized the HLA promiscuity of 23 HLA class II epitopes bearing highly conserved sequences, six of which could bind to more than 10 different HLA molecules representing a large percentage of the global population. These epitope data are invaluable to investigate the role of T-cells in dengue immunity/pathogenesis and vaccine design. PMID:24130917

  6. Analysis of the contribution of CTL epitopes in the immunobiology of morbillivirus infection.

    PubMed

    Beauverger, P; Cardoso, A I; Daviet, L; Buckland, R; Wild, T F

    1996-05-01

    In Balb/c (H-2d) mice, the nucleoprotein (NP) of measles virus (MV) induces a MHC class I restricted-CTL response to a single 9-amino-acid epitope (aa 281--289). This L(d)-restricted epitope is also present in the NP of the closely related canine distemper virus (CDV). To investigate whether this epitope is immunologically effective when it is present within the primary sequence of a nonviral protein, we have incorporated the 281--289 motif into the human CD36 protein. When cells are infected with vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing this protein, CD36NP, the MV epitope is correctly processed and the cells are lysed by MVNP-specific CTLs. In vivo, VV-CD36NP induced CTLs which protected mice from a lethal dose of CDV, but did not block virus replication. The MVNP contains four other potential L(d)-restricted motifs. To investigate if these could be utilized in the absence of the dominant epitope, a mutant NP was produced in which one of the anchor residues in the aa 281--289 motif was mutated. Cells infected with a VV recombinant expressing this protein (VV-NP F289S) were only poorly lysed by MVNP-specific CTLs. Similarly, immunization of Balb/c mice with VV-NP F289S induced a lower level of CTL activity compared to the VV-NP, but the activity was now directed to three other epitopes. When mice were vaccinated with VV-NP F289S they were only partially protected from a lethal CDV challenge. The significance of these results for MV vaccine development is discussed. PMID:8623522

  7. Distribution of pectic epitopes in cell walls of the sugar beet root.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Florence; Guillon, Fabienne; Bonnin, Estelle; Devaux, Marie-Françoise; Chevalier, Thérèse; Knox, J Paul; Liners, Françoise; Thibault, Jean-François

    2005-10-01

    Immunolabelling techniques with antibodies specific to partially methyl-esterified homogalacturonan (JIM5: unesterified residues flanked by methylesterified residues. JIM7: methyl-esterified residues flanked by unesterified residues), a blockwise de-esterified homogalacturonan (2F4), 1,4-galactan (LM5) and 1,5-arabinan (LM6) were used to map the distribution of pectin motifs in cell walls of sugar beet root (Beta vulgaris). PME and alkali treatments of sections were used in conjunction with JIM5-7 and 2F4. The JIM7 epitope was abundant and equally distributed in all cells. In storage parenchyma, the JIM5 epitope was restricted to some cell junctions and the lining of intercellular spaces while in vascular tissues it occurred at cell junctions in some phloem walls and in xylem derivatives. After secondary wall formation, the JIM5 epitope was restricted to inner cell wall regions between secondary thickenings. The 2F4 epitope was not detected without de-esterification treatment. PME treatments prior to the use of 2F4 indicated that HG at cell corners was not acetylated. The LM5 epitope was mainly present in the cambial zone and when present in storage parenchyma, it was restricted to the wall region closest to the plasma membrane. The LM6 epitope was widely distributed throughout primary walls but was more abundant in bundles than in medullar ray tissue and storage parenchyma. These data show that the occurrence of oligosaccharide motifs of pectic polysaccharides are spatially regulated in sugar beet root cell walls and that the spatial patterns vary between cell types suggesting that structural variants of pectic polymers are involved in the modulation of cell wall properties.

  8. Common antiviral cytotoxic t-lymphocyte epitope for diverse arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Oldstone, M B; Lewicki, H; Homann, D; Nguyen, C; Julien, S; Gairin, J E

    2001-07-01

    Members of the Arenaviridae family have been isolated from mammalian hosts in disparate geographic locations, leading to their grouping as Old World types (i.e., lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV], Lassa fever virus [LFV], Mopeia virus, and Mobala virus) and New World types (i.e., Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, and Sabia viruses) (C. J. Peters, M. J. Buchmeier, P. E. Rollin, and T. G. Ksiazek, p. 1521-1551, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996; P. J. Southern, p. 1505-1519, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996). Several types in both groups-LFV, Junin, Machupo, and Sabia viruses-cause severe and often lethal human diseases. By sequence comparison, we noted that eight Old World and New World arenaviruses share several amino acids with the nucleoprotein (NP) that consists of amino acids (aa) 118 to 126 (NP 118-126) (RPQASGVYM) of LCMV that comprise the immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope for H-2(d) mice (32). This L(d)-restricted epitope constituted >97% of the total bulk CTLs produced in the specific antiviral or clonal responses of H-2(d) BALB mice. NP 118-126 of the Old World arenaviruses LFV, Mopeia virus, and LCMV and the New World arenavirus Sabia virus bound at high affinity to L(d). The primary H-2(d) CTL anti-LCMV response as well as that of a CTL clone responsive to LCMV NP 118-126 recognized target cells coated with NP 118-126 peptides derived from LCMV, LFV, and Mopeia virus but not Sabia virus, indicating that a common functional NP epitope exists among Old World arenaviruses. Use of site-specific amino acid exchanges in the NP CTL epitope among these arenaviruses identified amino acids involved in major histocompatibility complex binding and CTL recognition.

  9. Epitope topography controls bioactivity in supramolecular nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Shantanu; Tantakitti, Faifan; Matson, John B.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating bioactivity into artificial scaffolds using peptide epitopes present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a well-known approach. A common strategy has involved epitopes that provide cells with attachment points and external cues through interaction with integrin receptors. Although a variety of bioactive sequences have been identified so far, less is known about their optimal display in a scaffold. We report here on the use of self-assembled peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofiber matrices to investigate the impact of spatial presentation of the fibronectin derived epitope RGDS on cell response. Using one, three, or five glycine residues, RGDS epitopes were systematically spaced out from the surface of the rigid nanofibers. We found that cell morphology was strongly affected by the separation of the epitope from the nanofiber surface, with the longest distance yielding the most cell-spreading, bundling of actin filaments, and a round-to-polygonal transformation of cell shape. Cell response to this type of epitope display was also accompanied with activated integrin-mediated signaling and formation of stronger adhesions between cells and substrate. Interestingly, unlike length, changing the molecular flexibility of the linker had minimal influence on cell behavior on the substrate for reasons that remain poorly understood. The use in this study of high persistence length nanofibers rather than common flexible polymers allows us to conclude that epitope topography at the nanoscale structure of a scaffold influences its bioactive properties independent of epitope density and mechanical properties. PMID:25745558

  10. Chimeric virus-like particles for the delivery of an inserted conserved influenza A-specific CTL epitope.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Wan-Shoo; Reiseger, Jessica; Turner, Stephen John; Boyd, Richard; Netter, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    The small hepatitis B virus surface antigens (HBsAg-S) have the ability to self-assemble with host-derived lipids into empty non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs). HBsAg-S VLPs are the sole component of the licensed hepatitis B vaccine, and they are a useful delivery platform for foreign epitopes. To develop VLPs capable of transporting foreign cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, HBsAg-S specific CTL epitopes at various sites were substituted with a conserved CTL epitope derived from the influenza matrix protein. Depending on the insertion site, the introduction of the MHC class I A2.1-restricted influenza epitope was compatible with the secretion competence of HBsAg-S indicating that chimeric VLPs were assembled. Immunizations of transgenic HHDII mice with chimeric VLPs induced anti-influenza CTL responses proving that the inserted foreign epitope can be correctly processed and cross-presented. Chimeric VLPs in the absence of adjuvant were able to induce memory T cell responses, which could be recalled by influenza virus infections in the mouse model system. The ability of chimeric HBsAg-S VLPs to induce anti-foreign CTL responses and also with the proven ability to induce humoral immune responses constitute a highly versatile platform for the delivery of selected multiple epitopes to target disease associated infectious agents.

  11. Synthetic Peptide libraries for T-cell epitope identification.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, H S; Drijfhout, J W; Koning, F

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes a methodology for elucidating immunogenic epitopes stimulatory for CD4(+) T-cell clones (Fig. 1). The methodology makes use of synthetic peptide libraries and must be regarded as an alternative to other approaches, such as peptide elution or the application of genetic libraries. The methodology only requires knowledge about the restriction element of the T-cell clone. The restriction element determines which major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-binding anchor motif must be built into the library peptides. A synthetic peptide library is prepared comprising approx 8 million peptides. The synthesis proceeds via a mix-and-split protocol using a solidphase approach on a hybrid resin (1,2). On a hybrid resin, most of the peptide material (84%) is attached via an acid-labile linker whereas the remaining part of the peptide material is acid-stable attached (3). During synthesis, resinbound peptides comprising 14 amino acid residues are produced, with each resin bead containing one unique peptide (4,5). The beads are split into 384 pools, with each pool containing 20,000 beads. From each pool, about 28% of the peptide material is cleaved from every bead. Subsequently, in the first screening round, the 384 pools, each containing 20,000 solubilized peptides, are tested in a proliferation assay with the T-cell clone. Fig. 1. Flow diagram of the complete procedure for the identification of T-cell epitopes using synthetic peptide libraries (1).

  12. Function and Potentials of M. tuberculosis Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Ivanyi, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Study of the function of epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens contributed significantly toward better understanding of the immunopathogenesis and to efforts for improving infection and disease control. Characterization of genetically permissively presented immunodominant epitopes has implications for the evolution of the host–parasite relationship, development of immunodiagnostic tests, and subunit prophylactic vaccines. Knowledge of the determinants of cross-sensitization, relevant to other pathogenic or environmental mycobacteria and to host constituents has advanced. Epitope-defined IFNγ assay kits became established for the specific detection of infection with tubercle bacilli both in humans and cattle. The CD4 T-cell epitope repertoire was found to be more narrow in patients with active disease than in latently infected subjects. However, differential diagnosis of active TB could not be made reliably merely on the basis of epitope recognition. The mechanisms by which HLA polymorphism can influence the development of multibacillary tuberculosis (TB) need further analysis of epitopes, recognized by Th2 helper cells for B-cell responses. Future vaccine development would benefit from better definition of protective epitopes and from improved construction and formulation of subunits with enhanced immunogenicity. Epitope-defined serology, due to its operational advantages is suitable for active case finding in selected high disease incidence populations, aiming for an early detection of infectious cases and hence for reducing the transmission of infection. The existing knowledge of HLA class I binding epitopes could be the basis for the construction of T-cell receptor-like ligands for immunotherapeutic application. Continued analysis of the functions of mycobacterial epitopes, recognized by T cells and antibodies, remains a fertile avenue in TB research. PMID:24715888

  13. Specific immunotherapy modifies allergen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in an epitope-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Wambre, Erik; DeLong, Jonathan H.; James, Eddie A.; Torres-Chinn, Nadia; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Möbs, Christian; Durham, Stephen R.; Till, Stephen J.; Robinson, David; Kwok, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system induces and controls allergic inflammation at the T cell epitope level is critical for the design of new allergy vaccine strategies. Objective To characterize allergen-specific T cell responses linked with allergy or peripheral tolerance and to determine how CD4+ T cell responses to individual allergen-derived epitopes change over allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Methods Timothy grass pollen (TGP) allergy was used as a model for studying grass pollen allergies. The breadth, magnitude, epitope hierarchy and phenotype of the DR04:01-restricted TGP-specific T cell responses in ten grass pollen allergic, five non-atopic and six allergy vaccine-treated individuals was determined using an ex vivo pMHCII-tetramer approach. Results CD4+ T cells in allergic individuals are directed to a broad range of TGP epitopes characterized by defined immunodominance hierarchy patterns and with distinct functional profiles that depend on the epitope recognized. Epitopes that are restricted specifically to either TH2 or TH1/TR1 responses were identified. ASIT was associated with preferential deletion of allergen-specific TH2 cells and without significant change in frequency of TH1/TR1 cells. Conclusions Preferential allergen-specific TH2-cells deletion after repeated high doses antigen stimulation can be another independent mechanism to restore tolerance to allergen during immunotherapy. PMID:24373351

  14. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy; Idiopathic myocardial fibrosis ... of the heart lining (endocardium), such as endomyocardial fibrosis and Loeffler syndrome (rare) Iron overload (hemochromatosis) Sarcoidosis ...

  15. [Mapping of the B Cell Neutralizing Epitopes on ED III of Envelope Protein from Dengue Virus].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaying; Wen, Kun; Guo, Yonghui; Qiu, Liwen; Pan, Yuxian; Yu, Lan; Di, Biao; Chen, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) envelope [E] protein is the major surface protein of the virions that indued neutralizing antibodies. The domain III of envelope protein (EDIII) is an immunogenic region that holds potential for the development of vaccines; however, the epitopes of DENV EDIII, especially neutralizing B-cell linear epitopes, have not been comprehensively mapped. We mapped neutralizing B-cell linear epitopes on DENV-1 EDIII using 27 monoclonal antibodies against DENV-1 EDIII proteins from mice immunized with the DENV-1 EDIII. Epitope recognition analysis was performed using two set of sequential overlapping peptides (16m and 12m) that spanned the entire EDIII protein from DENV-1, respectively. This strategy identified a DENV-1 type- specific and a group-specific neutralizing epitope, which were highly conserved among isolates of DENV-1 and the four DENV serotypes and located at two regions from DENV-1 E, namely amino acid residues 309-320 and 381-392(aa 309-320 and 381-392), respectively. aa310 -319(310KEVAETQHGT319)was similar among the four DENV serotypes and contact residues on aa 309 -320 from E protein were defined and found that substitution of residues E309 , V312, A313 and V320 in DENV-2, -3, -4 isolates were antigenically silent. We also identified a DENV-1 type-specific strain-restricted neutralizing epitope, which was located at the region from DENV-1 E, namely amino acid residues 329-348 . These novel type- and group-specific B-cell epitopes of DENV EDIII may aid help us elucidate the dengue pathogenesis and accelerate vaccine design. PMID:26951013

  16. Identification of promiscuous HPV16-derived T helper cell epitopes for therapeutic HPV vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Riemer, Angelika B

    2015-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma and several other human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies are a global public health problem, thus novel treatment modalities are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an attractive option for treatment of HPV infection and HPV-mediated premalignant and malignant lesions. However, previous approaches--focusing on the induction of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs)--have as yet not yielded clinical successes. Since CD4+ T cells have been shown to be crucial for the induction and maintenance of CTL responses, and more recently to be also important for direct anti-tumor immunity, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted epitopes are intensively investigated to improve the efficacy of peptide-based HPV immunotherapy. We here present an approach to identify promiscuous HPV16-derived CD4+ T helper epitopes, which are capable of inducing T cell immunity in a large proportion of the population. To this end, we combined HLA class II epitope prediction servers with in vitro immunological evaluation to identify HPV16 E2-, E5-, E6-, and E7-derived CD4+ T cell epitopes. Candidate selected HPV16-derived epitopes were found to be restricted by up to nine HLA-DR molecules. Furthermore, they were found to induce frequent and robust HPV16 peptide-specific Th1 responses in healthy donors, as monitored by interferon (IFN)-γ ELISPOT and cytokine secretion assays. Moreover, these selected peptides also induced specific IFN-γ T cell responses in blood from HPV16+ CIN2/3 and cervical carcinoma patients. We thus conclude that the identified T helper epitopes are valuable candidates for the development of a comprehensive therapeutic HPV vaccine.

  17. Immunochemical identification of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, N; Freer, E; Weintraub, A; Ramirez, M; Lind, S; Moreno, E

    1994-01-01

    Sera from Brucella abortus-infected and -vaccinated bovines recognized four lipopolysaccharide (LPS) determinants: two in the O-polysaccharide (A and C), one in the core oligosaccharide from rough Brucella LPS (R), and one in lipid A (LA). From 46 different hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against various LPS moieties, 9 different specificities were identified. Two epitopes, A and C/Y, were present in the O-polysaccharide. Two epitopes were found in the core oligosaccharide (R1 and R2) of rough Brucella LPS. MAbs against R1 and R2 epitopes reacted against LPS from different rough Brucella species; however, MAbs directed to the R2 epitope also reacted against enterobacterial LPS from deep rough mutants. Three epitopes (LA1, LA2, and LA3) were located in the lipid A backbone. Different sets of MAbs recognized two epitopes in the lipid A-associated outer membrane protein (LAOmp3-1 and LAOmp3-2). LPS preparations from smooth brucellae had small amounts of rough-type LPS. Although LPS from rough brucellae did not show smooth-type LPS in western blots (immunoblots), two hybridomas generated from mice immunized with rough B. abortus produced antibodies against smooth B. abortus LPS. Results are discussed in relation to the structure and function of B. abortus LPS and to previous findings on the epitopic density of the molecule. Images PMID:7496947

  18. Combinatorial tetramer staining and mass cytometry analysis facilitate T-cell epitope mapping and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Evan W; Sigal, Natalia; Nair, Nitya; Kidd, Brian A; Greenberg, Harry B; Davis, Mark M

    2013-01-01

    It is currently not possible to predict which epitopes will be recognized by T cells in different individuals. This is a barrier to the thorough analysis and understanding of T-cell responses after vaccination or infection. Here, by combining mass cytometry with combinatorial peptide–MHC tetramer staining, we have developed a method allowing the rapid and simultaneous identification and characterization of T cells specific for many epitopes. We use this to screen up to 109 different peptide–MHC tetramers in a single human blood sample, while still retaining at least 23 labels to analyze other markers of T-cell phenotype and function. Among 77 candidate rotavirus epitopes, we identified six T-cell epitopes restricted to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 in the blood of healthy individuals. T cells specific for epitopes in the rotavirus VP3 protein displayed a distinct phenotype and were present at high frequencies in intestinal epithelium. This approach should be useful for the comprehensive analysis of T-cell responses to infectious diseases or vaccines. PMID:23748502

  19. Thioreductase-Containing Epitopes Inhibit the Development of Type 1 Diabetes in the NOD Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Malek Abrahimians, Elin; Vander Elst, Luc; Carlier, Vincent A.; Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Autoreactive CD4+ T cells recognizing islet-derived antigens play a primary role in type 1 diabetes. Specific suppression of such cells therefore represents a strategic target for the cure of the disease. We have developed a methodology by which CD4+ T cells acquire apoptosis-inducing properties on antigen-presenting cells after cognate recognition of natural sequence epitopes. We describe here that inclusion of a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase (thioreductase) motif within the flanking residues of a single MHC class II-restricted GAD65 epitope induces GAD65-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells (cCD4+ T). The latter, obtained either in vitro or by active immunization, acquire an effector memory phenotype and lyse APCs by a Fas–FasL interaction. Furthermore, cCD4+ T cells eliminate by apoptosis activated bystander CD4+ T cells recognizing alternative epitopes processed by the same APC. Active immunization with a GAD65 class II-restricted thioreductase-containing T cell epitope protects mice from diabetes and abrogates insulitis. Passive transfer of in vitro-elicited cCD4+ T cells establishes that such cells are efficient in suppressing autoimmunity. These findings provide strong evidence for a new vaccination strategy to prevent type 1 diabetes. PMID:26973647

  20. Immunoinformatics Approach in Designing Epitope-based Vaccine Against Meningitis-inducing Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae Type b)

    PubMed Central

    Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Ma’rup, Ahmad; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend; Parikesit, Arli Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis infection is one of the major threats during Hajj season in Mecca. Meningitis vaccines are available, but their uses are limited in some countries due to religious reasons. Furthermore, they only give protection to certain serogroups, not to all types of meningitis-inducing bacteria. Recently, research on epitope-based vaccines has been developed intensively. Such vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines in that they are safer to use and well responded to the antibody. In this study, we developed epitope-based vaccine candidates against various meningitis-inducing bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The epitopes were selected from their protein of polysaccharide capsule. B-cell epitopes were predicted by using BCPred, while T-cell epitope for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I was predicted using PAProC, TAPPred, and Immune Epitope Database. Immune Epitope Database was also used to predict T-cell epitope for MHC class II. Population coverage and molecular docking simulation were predicted against previously generated epitope vaccine candidates. The best candidates for MHC class I- and class II-restricted T-cell epitopes were MQYGDKTTF, MKEQNTLEI, ECTEGEPDY, DLSIVVPIY, YPMAMMWRNASNRAI, TLQMTLLGIVPNLNK, ETSLHHIPGISNYFI, and SLLYILEKNAEMEFD, which showed 80% population coverage. The complexes of class I T-cell epitopes–HLA-C*03:03 and class II T-cell epitopes–HLA-DRB1*11:01 showed better affinity than standards as evaluated from their ΔGbinding value and the binding interaction between epitopes and HLA molecules. These peptide constructs may further be undergone in vitro and in vivo testings for the development of targeted vaccine against meningitis infection. PMID:27812281

  1. Circulating anti-Tax cytotoxic T lymphocytes from human T-cell leukemia virus type I-infected people, with and without tropical spastic paraparesis, recognize multiple epitopes simultaneously.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C E; Nightingale, S; Taylor, G P; Weber, J; Bangham, C R

    1994-01-01

    CD8+ T cells were freshly isolated from a human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected patient with tropical spastic paraparesis. These cells, which were specific for HTLV-I Tax, simultaneously recognized a minimum of five, and possibly as many as seven, distinct peptide epitopes within the protein. A further Tax epitope was recognized after a short period of culture without exogenous peptide stimulation. All but one of these epitopes were clustered in the N-terminal third of Tax, and one of the epitopes was clearly immunodominant on two separate occasions of testing. Recognition of the immunodominant epitope was restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B15, and recognition of all the others was by HLA A2. Similar patterns of cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of the HLA A2-restricted Tax peptides in two healthy HTLV-I-seropositive individuals, each of whom carried the HLA A2 allele, were observed. PMID:7512153

  2. Epitope fluctuations in the human papillomavirus are under dynamic allosteric control: a computational evaluation of a new vaccine design strategy.

    PubMed

    Singharoy, Abhishek; Polavarapu, Abhigna; Joshi, Harshad; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Ortoleva, Peter

    2013-12-11

    The dynamic properties of the capsid of the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 were examined using classical molecular dynamics simulations. By systematically comparing the structural fluctuations of the capsid protein, a strong dynamic allosteric connection between the epitope containing loops and the h4 helix located more than 50 Å away is identified, which was not recognized thus far. Computer simulations show that restricting the structural fluctuations of the h4 helix is key to rigidifying the epitopes, which is thought to be required for eliciting a proper immune response. The allostery identified in the components of the HPV is nonclassical because the mean structure of the epitope carrying loops remains unchanged, but as a result of allosteric effect the structural fluctuations are altered significantly, which in turn changes the biochemical reactivity profile of the epitopes. Exploiting this novel insight, a new vaccine design strategy is proposed wherein a relatively small virus capsid fragment is deposited on a silica nanoparticle in such a way that the fluctuations of the h4 helix are suppressed. The structural and dynamic properties of the epitope carrying loops on this hybrid nanoparticle match the characteristics of epitopes found on the full virus-like particle precisely, suggesting that these nanoparticles may serve as potent, cost-effective, and safe alternatives to traditionally developed vaccines. The structural and dynamic properties of the hybrid nanoparticle are examined in detail to establish the general concepts of the proposed new design. PMID:24199651

  3. CD8+ T-Cell Epitope Mapping for Pneumonia Virus of Mice in H-2b Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sidney, John; Welch, Megan; Fremgen, Daniel M.; Sette, Alessandro; Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    2013-01-01

    The paramyxovirus pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) is a rodent model of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) pathogenesis. Here we characterized the PVM-specific CD8+ T-cell repertoire in susceptible C57BL/6 mice. In total, 15 PVM-specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes restricted by H-2Db and/or H-2Kb were identified. These data open the door for using widely profiled, genetically manipulated C57BL/6 mice to study the contribution of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells to PVM pathogenesis. PMID:23824814

  4. Proteasomes generate spliced epitopes by two different mechanisms and as efficiently as non-spliced epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Ebstein, F.; Textoris-Taube, K.; Keller, C.; Golnik, R.; Vigneron, N.; Van den Eynde, B. J.; Schuler-Thurner, B.; Schadendorf, D.; Lorenz, F. K. M.; Uckert, W.; Urban, S.; Lehmann, A.; Albrecht-Koepke, N.; Janek, K.; Henklein, P.; Niewienda, A.; Kloetzel, P. M.; Mishto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome-catalyzed peptide splicing represents an additional catalytic activity of proteasomes contributing to the pool of MHC-class I-presented epitopes. We here biochemically and functionally characterized a new melanoma gp100 derived spliced epitope. We demonstrate that the gp100mel47–52/40–42 antigenic peptide is generated in vitro and in cellulo by a not yet described proteasomal condensation reaction. gp100mel47–52/40–42 generation is enhanced in the presence of the β5i/LMP7 proteasome-subunit and elicits a peptide-specific CD8+ T cell response. Importantly, we demonstrate that different gp100mel-derived spliced epitopes are generated and presented to CD8+ T cells with efficacies comparable to non-spliced canonical tumor epitopes and that gp100mel-derived spliced epitopes trigger activation of CD8+ T cells found in peripheral blood of half of the melanoma patients tested. Our data suggest that both transpeptidation and condensation reactions contribute to the frequent generation of spliced epitopes also in vivo and that their immune relevance may be comparable to non-spliced epitopes. PMID:27049119

  5. Structure of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein in the Postfusion Conformation Reveals Preservation of Neutralizing Epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason S.; Yang, Yongping; Graham, Barney S.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2011-09-16

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) invades host cells via a type I fusion (F) glycoprotein that undergoes dramatic structural rearrangements during the fusion process. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, such as 101F, palivizumab, and motavizumab, target two major antigenic sites on the RSV F glycoprotein. The structures of these sites as peptide complexes with motavizumab and 101F have been previously determined, but a structure for the trimeric RSV F glycoprotein ectodomain has remained elusive. To address this issue, we undertook structural and biophysical studies on stable ectodomain constructs. Here, we present the 2.8-{angstrom} crystal structure of the trimeric RSV F ectodomain in its postfusion conformation. The structure revealed that the 101F and motavizumab epitopes are present in the postfusion state and that their conformations are similar to those observed in the antibody-bound peptide structures. Both antibodies bound the postfusion F glycoprotein with high affinity in surface plasmon resonance experiments. Modeling of the antibodies bound to the F glycoprotein predicts that the 101F epitope is larger than the linear peptide and restricted to a single protomer in the trimer, whereas motavizumab likely contacts residues on two protomers, indicating a quaternary epitope. Mechanistically, these results suggest that 101F and motavizumab can bind to multiple conformations of the fusion glycoprotein and can neutralize late in the entry process. The structural preservation of neutralizing epitopes in the postfusion state suggests that this conformation can elicit neutralizing antibodies and serve as a useful vaccine antigen.

  6. Identification of murine CD8 T cell epitopes in codon-optimized SARS-associated coronavirus spike protein.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yan; Kobinger, Gary P; Jordan, Heather; Suchma, Katie; Weiss, Susan R; Shen, Hao; Schumer, Gregory; Gao, Guangping; Boyer, Julie L; Crystal, Ronald G; Wilson, James M

    2005-04-25

    The causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been identified as a new type of coronavirus, SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). CD8 T cells play an important role in controlling diseases caused by other coronaviruses and in mediating vaccine-induced protective immunity in corresponding animal models. The spike protein, a main surface antigen of SARS-CoV, is one of the most important antigen candidates for vaccine design. Overlapping peptides were used to identify major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted epitopes in mice immunized with vectors encoding codon-optimized SARS-CoV spike protein. CD8 T-cell responses were mapped to two H-2(b)-restricted epitopes (S436-443 and S525-532) and one H-2(d)-restricted epitope (S366-374). The identification of these epitopes will facilitate the evaluation of vaccine strategies in murine models of SARS-CoV infection. Furthermore, codon and promoter optimizations can greatly enhance the overall immunogenicity of spike protein in the context of replication-defective human and simian adenoviral vaccine carriers. The optimized recombinant adenoviral vaccine vectors encoding spike can generate robust antigen-specific cellular immunity in mice and may potentially be useful for control of SARS-CoV infection.

  7. Processing and cross-presentation of individual HLA-A, -B, or -C epitopes from NY-ESO-1 or an HLA-A epitope for Melan-A differ according to the mode of antigen delivery.

    PubMed

    Robson, Neil C; McAlpine, Tristan; Knights, Ashley J; Schnurr, Max; Shin, Amanda; Chen, Weisan; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Cebon, Jonathan

    2010-07-15

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present protein tumor antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) underpins the success of therapeutic cancer vaccines. We studied cross-presentation of the cancer/testis antigen, NY-ESO-1, and the melanoma differentiation antigen, Melan-A by human DC subsets. Monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) efficiently cross-presented human leukocyte associated (HLA)-A2-restricted epitopes from either a formulated NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX vaccine or when either antigen was mixed with ISCOMATRIX adjuvant. HLA-A2 epitope generation required endosomal acidification and was proteasome-independent for NY-ESO-1 and proteasome-dependent for Melan-A. Both MoDCs and CD1c(+) blood DCs cross-presented NY-ESO-1-specific HLA-A2(157-165)-, HLA-B7(60-72)-, and HLA-Cw3(92-100)-restricted epitopes when formulated as an NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX vaccine, but this was limited when NY-ESO-1 and ISCOMATRIX adjuvant were added separately to the DC cultures. Finally, cross-presentation of NY-ESO-1(157-165)/HLA-A2, NY-ESO-1(60-72)/HLA-B7, and NY-ESO-1(92-100)/HLA-Cw3 epitopes was proteasome-dependent when formulated as immune complexes (ICs) but only proteasome-dependent for NY-ESO-1(60-72)/HLA-B7-restricted cross-presentation facilitated by ISCOMATRIX adjuvant. We demonstrate, for the first time, proteasome-dependent and independent cross-presentation of HLA-A-, B-, and C-restricted epitopes within the same full-length tumor antigen by human DCs. Our findings identify important differences in the capacities of human DC subsets to cross-present clinically relevant, full-length tumor antigens and how vaccine formulation impacts CTL responses in vivo.

  8. The Relationship between B-cell Epitope and Mimotope Sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Li, Yunyun; Tang, Weina; Zhou, Zhiguo; Sun, Pingping; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    B-cell epitope is a group of residues which is on the surface of an antigen. It invokes humoral responses. Locating B-cell epitope is important for effective vaccine design, and the development of diagnostic reagents. Mimotope-based B-cell epitope prediction method is a kind of conformational B-cell epitope prediction, and the core idea of the method is mapping the mimotope sequences which are obtained from a random phage display library. However, current mimotope-based B-cell epitope prediction methods cannot maintain a high degree of satisfaction in the circumstances of employing only mimotope sequences. In this study, we did a multi-perspective analysis on parameters for conformational B-cell epitopes and characteristics between epitope and mimotope on a benchmark datasets which contains 67 mimotope sets, corresponding to 40 unique complex structures. In these 67 cases, there are 25 antigen-antibody complexes and 42 protein-protein interactions. We analyzed the two parts separately. The results showed the mimotope sequences do have some epitope features, but there are also some epitope properties that mimotope sequences do not contain. In addition, the numbers of epitope segments with different lengths were obviously different between the antigen-antibody complexes and the protein-protein interactions. This study reflects how similar do mimotope sequence and genuine epitopes have; and evaluates existing mimotope-based B-cell epitope prediction methods from a novel viewpoint.

  9. The Relationship between B-cell Epitope and Mimotope Sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Li, Yunyun; Tang, Weina; Zhou, Zhiguo; Sun, Pingping; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    B-cell epitope is a group of residues which is on the surface of an antigen. It invokes humoral responses. Locating B-cell epitope is important for effective vaccine design, and the development of diagnostic reagents. Mimotope-based B-cell epitope prediction method is a kind of conformational B-cell epitope prediction, and the core idea of the method is mapping the mimotope sequences which are obtained from a random phage display library. However, current mimotope-based B-cell epitope prediction methods cannot maintain a high degree of satisfaction in the circumstances of employing only mimotope sequences. In this study, we did a multi-perspective analysis on parameters for conformational B-cell epitopes and characteristics between epitope and mimotope on a benchmark datasets which contains 67 mimotope sets, corresponding to 40 unique complex structures. In these 67 cases, there are 25 antigen-antibody complexes and 42 protein-protein interactions. We analyzed the two parts separately. The results showed the mimotope sequences do have some epitope features, but there are also some epitope properties that mimotope sequences do not contain. In addition, the numbers of epitope segments with different lengths were obviously different between the antigen-antibody complexes and the protein-protein interactions. This study reflects how similar do mimotope sequence and genuine epitopes have; and evaluates existing mimotope-based B-cell epitope prediction methods from a novel viewpoint. PMID:26715528

  10. Identification of CD8+ T Cell Epitopes in the West Nile Virus Polyprotein by Reverse-Immunology Using NetCTL

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Lelic, Alina; Parsons, Robin; Nielsen, Morten; Hoof, Ilka; Lamberth, Kasper; Loeb, Mark B.; Buus, Søren; Bramson, Jonathan; Lund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) is a growing threat to public health and a greater understanding of the immune response raised against WNV is important for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings In a reverse-immunology approach, we used bioinformatics methods to predict WNV-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes and selected a set of peptides that constitutes maximum coverage of 20 fully-sequenced WNV strains. We then tested these putative epitopes for cellular reactivity in a cohort of WNV-infected patients. We identified 26 new CD8+ T cell epitopes, which we propose are restricted by 11 different HLA class I alleles. Aiming for optimal coverage of human populations, we suggest that 11 of these new WNV epitopes would be sufficient to cover from 48% to 93% of ethnic populations in various areas of the World. Conclusions/Significance The 26 identified CD8+ T cell epitopes contribute to our knowledge of the immune response against WNV infection and greatly extend the list of known WNV CD8+ T cell epitopes. A polytope incorporating these and other epitopes could possibly serve as the basis for a WNV vaccine. PMID:20856867

  11. Induction of Protective Anti-CTL Epitope Responses against HER-2-Positive Breast Cancer Based on Multivalent T7 Phage Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pouyanfard, Somayeh; Bamdad, Taravat; Hashemi, Hamidreza; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Kazemi, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    We report here the development of multivalent T7 bacteriophage nanoparticles displaying an immunodominant H-2kd-restricted CTL epitope derived from the rat HER2/neu oncoprotein. The immunotherapeutic potential of the chimeric T7 nanoparticles as anti-cancer vaccine was investigated in BALB/c mice in an implantable breast tumor model. The results showed that T7 phage nanoparticles confer a high immunogenicity to the HER-2-derived minimal CTL epitope, as shown by inducing robust CTL responses. Furthermore, the chimeric nanoparticles protected mice against HER-2-positive tumor challenge in both prophylactic and therapeutic setting. In conclusion, these results suggest that CTL epitope-carrying T7 phage nanoparticles might be a promising approach for development of T cell epitope-based cancer vaccines. PMID:23166703

  12. Human CD8(+) T Cells Target Multiple Epitopes in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Burbulla, Daniel; Günther, Patrick S; Peper, Janet K; Jahn, Gerhard; Dennehy, Kevin M

    2016-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a serious health problem in young children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. The development of novel prevention strategies, such as a vaccine to RSV, is a high priority. One strategy is to design a peptide-based vaccine that activates appropriate CD8(+) T-cell responses. However, this approach is limited by the low number of RSV peptide epitopes defined to date that activate CD8(+) T cells. We aimed to identify peptide epitopes that are presented by common human leukocyte antigen types (HLA-A*01, -A*02, and -B*07). We identify one novel HLA-A*02-restricted and two novel HLA-A*01-restricted peptide epitopes from RSV polymerase. Peptide-HLA multimer staining of specific T cells from healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cell, the memory phenotype of such peptide-specific T cells ex vivo, and functional IFNγ responses in short-term stimulation assays suggest that these peptides are recognized during RSV infection. Such peptides are candidates for inclusion into a peptide-based RSV vaccine designed to stimulate defined CD8(+) T-cell responses.

  13. Myelin basic protein-specific T lymphocyte repertoire in multiple sclerosis. Complexity of the response and dominance of nested epitopes due to recruitment of multiple T cell clones.

    PubMed Central

    Meinl, E; Weber, F; Drexler, K; Morelle, C; Ott, M; Saruhan-Direskeneli, G; Goebels, N; Ertl, B; Jechart, G; Giegerich, G

    1993-01-01

    The human T cell response to the myelin basic protein (MBP) has been studied with respect to T cell receptor (TCR) usage, HLA class II restriction elements, and epitope specificity using a total of 215 long-term MBP-specific T cell lines (TCL) isolated from the peripheral blood of 13 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 healthy donors. In most donors, the anti-MBP response was exceedingly heterogeneous. Using a panel of overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the entire length of human MBP, at least 26 epitopes recognized by human TCL could be distinguished. The MBP domain most commonly recognized was sequence 80-105 (31% of MS TCL, and 24% of control TCL). Sequence 29-48 was recognized more frequently by control-derived TCL (24%) than by TCL from MS patients (5%). The MBP epitopes were recognized in the context of DRB1 *0101, DRB5*0101, DRB1*1501, DRB1*0301, DRB1*0401, DRB1*1402, and DRB3*0102, as demonstrated using a panel of DR gene-transfected L cells. The TCR gene usage was also heterogeneous. V beta 5.2, a peptide of which is currently being used in a clinical trial for treatment of MS patients, was expressed by only one of our TCL. However, within this complex pattern of MBP-specific T cell responses, a minority of MS patients were found to exhibit a more restricted response with respect to their TCL epitope specificity. In these patients 75-87% of the TCL responded to a single, patient-specific cluster of immunodominant T cell epitopes located within a small (20-amino acid) domain of MBP. These nested clusters of immunodominant epitopes were noted within the amino acids 80-105, 108-131, and 131-153. The T cell response to the immunodominant epitopes was not monoclonal, but heterogeneous, with respect to fine specificity, TCR usage, and even HLA restriction. In one patient (H.K.), this restricted epitope profile remained stable for > 2 yr. The TCR beta chain sequences of TCL specific for the immunodominant region of HK are consistent with an

  14. Physical detection of influenza A epitopes identifies a stealth subset on human lung epithelium evading natural CD8 immunity.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Derin B; Reinhold, Bruce B; Zhang, Guang Lan; Ivanov, Alexander R; Karger, Barry L; Reinherz, Ellis L

    2015-02-17

    Vaccines eliciting immunity against influenza A viruses (IAVs) are currently antibody-based with hemagglutinin-directed antibody titer the only universally accepted immune correlate of protection. To investigate the disconnection between observed CD8 T-cell responses and immunity to IAV, we used a Poisson liquid chromatography data-independent acquisition MS method to physically detect PR8/34 (H1N1), X31 (H3N2), and Victoria/75 (H3N2) epitopes bound to HLA-A*02:01 on human epithelial cells following in vitro infection. Among 32 PR8 peptides (8-10mers) with predicted IC50 < 60 nM, 9 were present, whereas 23 were absent. At 18 h postinfection, epitope copies per cell varied from a low of 0.5 for M13-11 to a high of >500 for M1(58-66) with PA, HA, PB1, PB2, and NA epitopes also detected. However, aside from M1(58-66), natural CD8 memory responses against conserved presented epitopes were either absent or only weakly observed by blood Elispot. Moreover, the functional avidities of the immunodominant M1(58-66)/HLA-A*02:01-specific T cells were so poor as to be unable to effectively recognize infected human epithelium. Analysis of T-cell responses to primary PR8 infection in HLA-A*02:01 transgenic B6 mice underscores the poor avidity of T cells recognizing M1(58-66). By maintaining high levels of surface expression of this epitope on epithelial and dendritic cells, the virus exploits the combination of immunodominance and functional inadequacy to evade HLA-A*02:01-restricted T-cell immunity. A rational approach to CD8 vaccines must characterize processing and presentation of pathogen-derived epitopes as well as resultant immune responses. Correspondingly, vaccines may be directed against "stealth" epitopes, overriding viral chicanery.

  15. Identification of CD4+ T-cell epitopes on iron-regulated surface determinant B of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Simiao; Zhang, Hua; Yao, Di; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xintong; Chen, Xiaoting; Wei, Yuhua; Zhang, Zhenghai; Wang, Jiannan; Yu, Liquan; Sun, Hunan; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Yongzhong; Song, Baifen; Ma, Jinzhu; Tong, Chunyu; Cui, Yudong

    2015-12-01

    Iron-regulated surface determinant B (IsdB) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a highly conserved surface protein that can induce protective CD4(+) T-cell immune response. A pivotal role of CD4(+) T-cells in effective immunity against S. aureus infection has been proved, but CD4(+) T-cell epitopes on the S. aureus IsdB have not been well identified. In this study, MHC binding assay was firstly used to predict CD4(+) T-cell epitopes on S. aureus IsdB protein, and six peptides were synthesized to validate the probable epitopes. Two novel IsdB CD4(+) T-cell epitopes, P1 (residues 159-178) and P4 (residues 287-306), were for the first time identified using CD4(+) T-cells obtained from IsdB-immunized C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) and BALB/c (H-2(d)) mice spleen based on cell proliferation and cytokines response. The results showed that P1 and P4 emulsified in Freund's adjuvant (FA) induced much higher cell proliferation compared with PBS emulsified in FA. CD4(+) T-cells stimulated with peptides P1 and P4 secreted significantly higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A. However, the level of the cytokine IL-4 almost remained unchanged, suggesting that P1 and P4 preferentially elicited polarized Th1-type responses. In addition, BALB/c mice just respond to P4 not P1, while C57BL/6 mice respond to P1 not P4, implying that epitope P1 and P4 were determined as H-2(b) and H-2(d) restricted epitope, respectively. Taken together, our data may provide an explanation of the IsdB-induced protection against S. aureus and highlight the possibility of developing the epitope-based vaccine against the S. aureus.

  16. DNA vaccines encoding altered peptide ligands for SSX2 enhance epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses☆

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heath A.; Rekoske, Brian T.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid DNA serves as a simple and easily modifiable form of antigen delivery for vaccines. The USDA approval of DNA vaccines for several non-human diseases underscores the potential of this type of antigen delivery method as a cost-effective approach for the treatment or prevention of human diseases, including cancer. However, while DNA vaccines have demonstrated safety and immunological effect in early phase clinical trials, they have not consistently elicited robust anti-tumor responses. Hence many recent efforts have sought to increase the immunological efficacy of DNA vaccines, and we have specifically evaluated several target antigens encoded by DNA vaccine as treatments for human prostate cancer. In particular, we have focused on SSX2 as one potential target antigen, given its frequent expression in metastatic prostate cancer. We have previously identified two peptides, p41–49 and p103–111, as HLA-A2-restricted SSX2-specific epitopes. In the present study we sought to determine whether the efficacy of a DNA vaccine could be enhanced by an altered peptide ligand (APL) strategy wherein modifications were made to anchor residues of these epitopes to enhance or ablate their binding to HLA-A2. A DNA vaccine encoding APL modified to increase epitope binding elicited robust peptide-specific CD8+ T cells producing Th1 cytokines specific for each epitope. Ablation of one epitope in a DNA vaccine did not enhance immune responses to the other epitope. These results demonstrate that APL encoded by a DNA vaccine can be used to elicit increased numbers of antigen-specific T cells specific for multiple epitopes simultaneously, and suggest this could be a general approach to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines encoding tumor antigens. PMID:24492013

  17. Ribosomal scanning past the primary initiation codon as a mechanism for expression of CTL epitopes encoded in alternative reading frames

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence has shown that epitopes restricted to MHC class I molecules and recognized by CTL need not be encoded in a primary open reading frame (ORF). Such epitopes have been demonstrated after stop codons, in alternative reading frames (RF) and within introns. We have used a series of frameshifts (FS) introduced into the Influenza A/PR/8 /34 nucleoprotein (NP) gene to confirm the previous in vitro observations of cryptic epitope expression, and show that they are sufficiently expressed to prime immune responses in vivo. This presentation is not due to sub-dominant epitopes, transcription from cryptic promoters beyond the point of the FS, or internal initiation of translation. By introducing additional mutations to the construct exhibiting the most potent presentation, we have identified initiation codon readthrough (termed scanthrough here, where the scanning ribosome bypasses the conventional initiation codon, initiating translation further downstream) as the likely mechanism of epitope production. Further mutational analysis demonstrated that, while it should operate during the expression of wild-type (WT) protein, scanthrough does not provide a major source of processing substrate in our system. These findings suggest (i) that the full array of self- and pathogen-derived epitopes available during thymic selection and infection has not been fully appreciated and (ii) that cryptic epitope expression should be considered when the specificity of a CTL response cannot be identified or in therapeutic situations when conventional CTL targets are limited, as may be the case with latent viral infections and transformed cells. Finally, initiation codon readthrough provides a plausible explanation for the presentation of exocytic proteins by MHC class I molecules. PMID:8879204

  18. Limited Variation in BK Virus T-Cell Epitopes Revealed by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Malaya K; Tan, Susanna K; Chen, Sharon F; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Concepcion, Katherine R; Kjelson, Lynn; Mallempati, Kalyan; Farina, Heidi M; Fernández-Viña, Marcelo; Tyan, Dolly; Grimm, Paul C; Anderson, Matthew W; Concepcion, Waldo; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-10-01

    BK virus (BKV) infection causing end-organ disease remains a formidable challenge to the hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and kidney transplant fields. As BKV-specific treatments are limited, immunologic-based therapies may be a promising and novel therapeutic option for transplant recipients with persistent BKV infection. Here, we describe a whole-genome, deep-sequencing methodology and bioinformatics pipeline that identify BKV variants across the genome and at BKV-specific HLA-A2-, HLA-B0702-, and HLA-B08-restricted CD8 T-cell epitopes. BKV whole genomes were amplified using long-range PCR with four inverse primer sets, and fragmentation libraries were sequenced on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). An error model and variant-calling algorithm were developed to accurately identify rare variants. A total of 65 samples from 18 pediatric HCT and kidney recipients with quantifiable BKV DNAemia underwent whole-genome sequencing. Limited genetic variation was observed. The median number of amino acid variants identified per sample was 8 (range, 2 to 37; interquartile range, 10), with the majority of variants (77%) detected at a frequency of <5%. When normalized for length, there was no statistical difference in the median number of variants across all genes. Similarly, the predominant virus population within samples harbored T-cell epitopes similar to the reference BKV strain that was matched for the BKV genotype. Despite the conservation of epitopes, low-level variants in T-cell epitopes were detected in 77.7% (14/18) of patients. Understanding epitope variation across the whole genome provides insight into the virus-immune interface and may help guide the development of protocols for novel immunologic-based therapies.

  19. Limited Variation in BK Virus T-Cell Epitopes Revealed by Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Malaya K.; Tan, Susanna K.; Chen, Sharon F.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Concepcion, Katherine R.; Kjelson, Lynn; Mallempati, Kalyan; Farina, Heidi M.; Fernández-Viña, Marcelo; Tyan, Dolly; Grimm, Paul C.; Anderson, Matthew W.; Concepcion, Waldo

    2015-01-01

    BK virus (BKV) infection causing end-organ disease remains a formidable challenge to the hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and kidney transplant fields. As BKV-specific treatments are limited, immunologic-based therapies may be a promising and novel therapeutic option for transplant recipients with persistent BKV infection. Here, we describe a whole-genome, deep-sequencing methodology and bioinformatics pipeline that identify BKV variants across the genome and at BKV-specific HLA-A2-, HLA-B0702-, and HLA-B08-restricted CD8 T-cell epitopes. BKV whole genomes were amplified using long-range PCR with four inverse primer sets, and fragmentation libraries were sequenced on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). An error model and variant-calling algorithm were developed to accurately identify rare variants. A total of 65 samples from 18 pediatric HCT and kidney recipients with quantifiable BKV DNAemia underwent whole-genome sequencing. Limited genetic variation was observed. The median number of amino acid variants identified per sample was 8 (range, 2 to 37; interquartile range, 10), with the majority of variants (77%) detected at a frequency of <5%. When normalized for length, there was no statistical difference in the median number of variants across all genes. Similarly, the predominant virus population within samples harbored T-cell epitopes similar to the reference BKV strain that was matched for the BKV genotype. Despite the conservation of epitopes, low-level variants in T-cell epitopes were detected in 77.7% (14/18) of patients. Understanding epitope variation across the whole genome provides insight into the virus-immune interface and may help guide the development of protocols for novel immunologic-based therapies. PMID:26202116

  20. Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Protein Epitopes: The Basis of Antigenic Stability.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Maino; Bürckert, Jean-Philippe; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Maenaka, Katsumi; Muller, Claude P; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Globally eliminating measles using available vaccines is biologically feasible because the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) protein is antigenically stable. The H protein is responsible for receptor binding, and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. The immunodominant epitope, known as the hemagglutinating and noose epitope, is located near the receptor-binding site (RBS). The RBS also contains an immunodominant epitope. Loss of receptor binding correlates with an escape from the neutralization by antibodies that target the epitope at RBS. Another neutralizing epitope is located near RBS and is shielded by an N-linked sugar in certain genotype strains. However, human sera from vaccinees and measles patients neutralized all MV strains with similar efficiencies, regardless of the N-linked sugar modification or mutations at these epitopes. Two other major epitopes exist at a distance from RBS. One has an unstructured flexible domain with a linear neutralizing epitope. When MV-H forms a tetramer (dimer of dimers), these epitopes may form the dimer-dimer interface, and one of the two epitopes may also interact with the F protein. The neutralization mechanisms of antibodies that recognize these epitopes may involve inhibiting the H-F interaction or blocking the fusion cascade after MV-H binds to its receptors. PMID:27490564

  1. Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Protein Epitopes: The Basis of Antigenic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Maino; Bürckert, Jean-Philippe; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Maenaka, Katsumi; Muller, Claude P.; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Globally eliminating measles using available vaccines is biologically feasible because the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) protein is antigenically stable. The H protein is responsible for receptor binding, and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. The immunodominant epitope, known as the hemagglutinating and noose epitope, is located near the receptor-binding site (RBS). The RBS also contains an immunodominant epitope. Loss of receptor binding correlates with an escape from the neutralization by antibodies that target the epitope at RBS. Another neutralizing epitope is located near RBS and is shielded by an N-linked sugar in certain genotype strains. However, human sera from vaccinees and measles patients neutralized all MV strains with similar efficiencies, regardless of the N-linked sugar modification or mutations at these epitopes. Two other major epitopes exist at a distance from RBS. One has an unstructured flexible domain with a linear neutralizing epitope. When MV-H forms a tetramer (dimer of dimers), these epitopes may form the dimer-dimer interface, and one of the two epitopes may also interact with the F protein. The neutralization mechanisms of antibodies that recognize these epitopes may involve inhibiting the H-F interaction or blocking the fusion cascade after MV-H binds to its receptors. PMID:27490564

  2. High-resolution autoreactive epitope mapping and structural modeling of the 65 kDa form of human glutamic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H L; Chandonia, J M; Kash, S F; Kanaani, J; Tunnell, E; Domingo, A; Cohen, F E; Banga, J P; Madec, A M; Richter, W; Baekkeskov, S

    1999-04-16

    The smaller isoform of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), is unusually susceptible to becoming a target of autoimmunity affecting its major sites of expression, GABA-ergic neurons and pancreatic beta-cells. In contrast, a highly homologous isoform, GAD67, is not an autoantigen. We used homolog-scanning mutagenesis to identify GAD65-specific amino acid residues which form autoreactive B-cell epitopes in this molecule. Detailed mapping of 13 conformational epitopes, recognized by human monoclonal antibodies derived from patients, together with two and three-dimensional structure prediction led to a model of the GAD65 dimer. GAD65 has structural similarities to ornithine decarboxylase in the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-binding middle domain (residues 201-460) and to dialkylglycine decarboxylase in the C-terminal domain (residues 461-585). Six distinct conformational and one linear epitopes cluster on the hydrophilic face of three amphipathic alpha-helices in exons 14-16 in the C-terminal domain. Two of those epitopes also require amino acids in exon 4 in the N-terminal domain. Two distinct epitopes reside entirely in the N-terminal domain. In the middle domain, four distinct conformational epitopes cluster on a charged patch formed by amino acids from three alpha-helices away from the active site, and a fifth epitope resides at the back of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding site and involves amino acid residues in exons 6 and 11-12. The epitopes localize to multiple hydrophilic patches, several of which also harbor DR*0401-restricted T-cell epitopes, and cover most of the surface of the protein. The results reveal a remarkable spectrum of human autoreactivity to GAD65, targeting almost the entire surface, and suggest that native folded GAD65 is the immunogen for autoreactive B-cells. PMID:10222205

  3. Viral Evolution and Cytotoxic T Cell Restricted Selection in Acute Infant HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Knight, Miguel A; Slyker, Jennifer; Payne, Barbara Lohman; Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky; de Silva, Thushan I; Chohan, Bhavna; Khasimwa, Brian; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; John-Stewart, Grace; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L; Esbjörnsson, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1 infected infants experience poor viral containment and rapid disease progression compared to adults. Viral factors (e.g. transmitted cytotoxic T- lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations) or infant factors (e.g. reduced CTL functional capacity) may explain this observation. We assessed CTL functionality by analysing selection in CTL-targeted HIV-1 epitopes following perinatal infection. HIV-1 gag, pol and nef sequences were generated from a historical repository of longitudinal specimens from 19 vertically infected infants. Evolutionary rate and selection were estimated for each gene and in CTL-restricted and non-restricted epitopes. Evolutionary rate was higher in nef and gag vs. pol, and lower in infants with non-severe immunosuppression vs. severe immunosuppression across gag and nef. Selection pressure was stronger in infants with non-severe immunosuppression vs. severe immunosuppression across gag. The analysis also showed that infants with non-severe immunosuppression had stronger selection in CTL-restricted vs. non-restricted epitopes in gag and nef. Evidence of stronger CTL selection was absent in infants with severe immunosuppression. These data indicate that infant CTLs can exert selection pressure on gag and nef epitopes in early infection and that stronger selection across CTL epitopes is associated with favourable clinical outcomes. These results have implications for the development of paediatric HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:27403940

  4. Viral Evolution and Cytotoxic T Cell Restricted Selection in Acute Infant HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Knight, Miguel A.; Slyker, Jennifer; Payne, Barbara Lohman; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; de Silva, Thushan I.; Chohan, Bhavna; Khasimwa, Brian; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; John-Stewart, Grace; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.; Esbjörnsson, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1 infected infants experience poor viral containment and rapid disease progression compared to adults. Viral factors (e.g. transmitted cytotoxic T- lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations) or infant factors (e.g. reduced CTL functional capacity) may explain this observation. We assessed CTL functionality by analysing selection in CTL-targeted HIV-1 epitopes following perinatal infection. HIV-1 gag, pol and nef sequences were generated from a historical repository of longitudinal specimens from 19 vertically infected infants. Evolutionary rate and selection were estimated for each gene and in CTL-restricted and non-restricted epitopes. Evolutionary rate was higher in nef and gag vs. pol, and lower in infants with non-severe immunosuppression vs. severe immunosuppression across gag and nef. Selection pressure was stronger in infants with non-severe immunosuppression vs. severe immunosuppression across gag. The analysis also showed that infants with non-severe immunosuppression had stronger selection in CTL-restricted vs. non-restricted epitopes in gag and nef. Evidence of stronger CTL selection was absent in infants with severe immunosuppression. These data indicate that infant CTLs can exert selection pressure on gag and nef epitopes in early infection and that stronger selection across CTL epitopes is associated with favourable clinical outcomes. These results have implications for the development of paediatric HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:27403940

  5. Multiple HLA Epitopes Contribute to Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Roark, Christina L.; Anderson, Kirsten M.; Simon, Lucas J.; Schuyler, Ronald P.; Aubrey, Michael T.; Freed, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Disease susceptibility for type 1 diabetes is strongly associated with the inheritance of specific HLA alleles. However, conventional allele frequency analysis can miss HLA associations because many alleles are rare. In addition, disparate alleles that have similar peptide-binding sites, or shared epitopes, can be missed. To identify the HLA shared epitopes associated with diabetes, we analyzed high-resolution genotyping for class I and class II loci. The HLA epitopes most strongly associated with susceptibility for disease were DQB1 A57, DQA1 V76, DRB1 H13, and DRB1 K71, whereas DPB1 YD9,57, HLA-B C67, and HLA-C YY9,116 were more weakly associated. The HLA epitopes strongly associated with resistance were DQB1 D57, DQA1 Y80, DRB1 R13, and DRB1 A71. A dominant resistance phenotype was observed for individuals bearing a protective HLA epitope, even in the presence of a susceptibility epitope. In addition, an earlier age of disease onset correlated with significantly greater numbers of susceptibility epitopes and fewer resistance epitopes (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of both DQ and DR susceptibility epitopes was higher in patients than in control subjects and was not exclusively a result of linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that multiple HLA epitopes may work together to increase the risk of developing diabetes. PMID:24357703

  6. Determination of epitopes by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hager-Braun, Christine; Tomer, Kenneth B

    2004-01-01

    As a response to an infection, the immune system produces antibodies. The determination of the antigenic structure recognized by the antibody through epitope mapping provides information about the interaction between antigen and antibody for the diagnosis of a disease on a molecular level, for characterizing the pathogenesis of the infectious material, and for the development of interfering drugs or preventative vaccines. Here we present the determination of the fine structure of the linear epitope located on the gp41 protein of the human immunodeficiency virus recognized by the monoclonal antibody 2F5. In this approach we coupled the antigen SOSgp140 to the antibody 2F5, which was covalently linked to an Fc-specific antibody immobilized on cyanogen bromide (CNBr)-activated Sepharose beads. Digestion of the antigen with endoproteinase LysC resulted in an affinity-bound peptide whose fine structure was characterized by digestion with carboxypeptidase Y and aminopeptidase M. All steps of this method were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS). The epitope recognized by 2F5 was identified to be the 16-mer peptide with the sequence NEQELLELDKWASLWN.

  7. Caspr2 autoantibodies target multiple epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Abby L.; Lai, Yongjie; Dalmau, Josep; Scherer, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To better understand the mechanisms of autoantibodies to the axonal protein contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2) by studying their target epitopes. Methods: A plasmid for expressing Caspr2 was modified so that the various extracellular subdomains were deleted individually and in groups. Cultured cells were transfected to express these constructs and assayed by immunofluorescence staining with a commercial Caspr2 antibody and a panel of patient sera known to react with Caspr2. Western blotting was also performed. The role of glycosylation in immunogenicity was tested with tunicamycin and PNGase F treatment. Results: Patient antibodies bound to the extracellular domain of Caspr2. Neither native protein structure nor glycosylation was required for immunoreactivity. Caspr2 constructs with single or multidomain deletions were expressed on the plasma membrane. All deletion constructs were recognized by patients' sera, although reactivity was significantly reduced with deletion of the discoidin-like subdomain and strongly reduced or abolished with larger deletions of multiple N-terminal subdomains. Caspr2 with all subdomains deleted except the discoidin-like domain was still recognized by the antibodies. Conclusion: Caspr2 autoantibodies recognize multiple target epitopes in the extracellular domain of Caspr2, including one in the discoidin-like domain. Reactivity for some epitopes is not dependent on glycosylation or native protein structure. PMID:26185774

  8. Generation of antiserum to specific epitopes.

    PubMed

    Marchion, D C; Manning, D S; Shafer, W M; Judd, R C

    1996-12-01

    The ability to prevent disease by immunization with subunit vaccines that incorporate specific epitopes was demonstrated by DiMarchi et al. (1), who used a synthetic peptide to protect cattle against foot-and-mouth disease. However, generation of antibody to peptide antigens is often difficult owing to the small molecular mass and limited chemical complexity. We tested the hypothesis that recombinant DNA and synthetic peptide techniques would make it possible to stimulate vigorous immune responses to specific epitopes of an outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The MtrC AP1 sequence from the invariant MtrC gonococcal lipoprotein was genetically fused to maltose binding protein. The resultant fusion protein was used as the primary immunogen to stimulate MtrC AP1-specific antiserum. To enhance antibody production specific to MtrC AP1, boosting immunizations were performed with synthetic MtrC AP1 sequence contained in a multiple antigenic peptide system immunogen. The MtrC AP1-specific antiserum strongly recognized the MtrC protein on Western blots and appeared to bind native MtrC protein in situ. The generation of antibody in this fashion provides the technology to produce antibody to defined epitopes of any protein, including those found in the gonococcal outer membrane. The ability of those antibodies to inhibit bacterial growth or to activate complement protein can then be tested.

  9. Vaccines Targeting the Cancer Testis Antigen SSX-2 Elicit HLA-A2 Epitope-Specific Cytolytic T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heath A.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    The cancer-testis antigen SSX-2 is a potentially attractive target for tumor immunotherapy based upon its tissue-restricted expression to germline cells and its frequent expression in malignancies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate a genetic vaccine encoding SSX-2 to prioritize HLA-A2-specific epitopes and determine if a DNA vaccine can elicit SSX-2-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) capable of lysing prostate cancer cells. HLA-A2-restricted epitopes were identified based on their in vitro binding affinity for HLA-A2 and by the ability of a genetic vaccine to elicit peptide-specific CTL in A2/DR1 (HLA-A2.1+/HLA-DR1+/H-2 class I-/class II-knockout) transgenic mice. We found that SSX-2 peptides p41-49 (KASEKIFYV) and p103-111 (RLQGISPKI) had high affinity for HLA-A2 and were immunogenic in vivo, however peptide p103-111 was immunodominant with robust peptide-specific immune responses elicited in mice vaccinated with a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding SSX-2. Furthermore, p103-111-specific CTL were able to lyse an HLA-A2+ prostate cancer cell line. The immunodominance of this epitope was found not to be due to a putative HLA-DR1 epitope (p98-112) flanking p103-111. Finally, we demonstrated that SSX-2 epitope-specific CTL could be detected and cultured from the peripheral blood of HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients, notably patients with advanced prostate cancer. Overall, we conclude that SSX-2 peptide p103-111 is an immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted epitope, and epitope-specific CD8+ T cells can be detected in patients with prostate cancer, suggesting that tolerance to SSX-2 can be circumvented in vivo. Together, these findings suggest that SSX-2 may be a relevant target antigen for prostate cancer vaccine approaches. PMID:21904219

  10. Vaccines targeting the cancer-testis antigen SSX-2 elicit HLA-A2 epitope-specific cytolytic T cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heath A; McNeel, Douglas G

    2011-10-01

    The cancer-testis antigen synovial sarcoma X breakpoint-2 (SSX-2) is a potentially attractive target for tumor immunotherapy based upon its tissue-restricted expression to germline cells and its frequent expression in malignancies. The goal of this study was to evaluate genetic vaccine encoding SSX-2 to prioritize human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-specific epitopes and determine if a DNA vaccine can elicit SSX-2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) capable of lysing prostate cancer cells. HLA-A2-restricted epitopes were identified based on their in vitro binding affinity for HLA-A2 and by the ability of a genetic vaccine to elicit peptide-specific CTL in A2/DR1 (HLA-A2.1+/HLA-DR1+/H-2 class I-/class II-knockout) transgenic mice. We found that SSX-2 peptides p41-49 (KASEKIFYV) and p103-111 (RLQGISPKI) had high affinity for HLA-A2 and were immunogenic in vivo; however, peptide p103-111 was immunodominant with robust peptide-specific immune responses elicited in mice vaccinated with a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding SSX-2. Furthermore, p103-111-specific CTLs were able to lyse an HLA-A2+ prostate cancer cell line. The immunodominance of this epitope was found not to be due to a putative HLA-DR1 epitope (p98-112) flanking p103-111. Finally, we demonstrated that SSX-2 epitope-specific CTLs could be detected and cultured from the peripheral blood of HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients, notably patients with advanced prostate cancer. Overall, we conclude that SSX-2 peptide p103-111 is an immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted epitope, and epitope-specific CD8 T cells can be detected in patients with prostate cancer, suggesting that tolerance to SSX-2 can be circumvented in vivo. Together, these findings suggest that SSX-2 may be a relevant target antigen for prostate cancer vaccine approaches. PMID:21904219

  11. CMV-Specific T-cells Generated From Naïve T-cells Recognize Atypical Epitopes And May Be Protective in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Patrick J.; Melenhorst, Jan J.; Nikiforow, Sarah; Scheinberg, Phillip; Blaney, James W.; Demmler-Harrison, Gail; Cruz, C. Russell; Lam, Sharon; Krance, Robert A.; Leung, Kathryn S.; Martinez, Caridad A.; Liu, Hao; Heslop, Helen E.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Barrett, A. John; Rodgers, John R.; Bollard, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of adult-seropositive, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cells can effectively restore antiviral immunity after transplantation. Lack of CMV-specific memory T-cells in blood from CMV-seronegative adult and cord blood (CB) donors restricts the availability of donor-derived virus-specific T-cells for immunoprophylaxis. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of naïve-donor-derived CMV-specific T-cell therapy for transplant recipients. Primed naïve T-cells recognized only atypical epitopes and with a similar avidity to CMV-seropositive-derived T-cells recognizing typical epitopes, but T-cells from CMV-seropositive donors recognizing atypical epitopes had a lower avidity suggesting the loss of high-avidity T-cells over time. Clonotypic analysis revealed T-cells recognizing atypical CMVpp65 epitopes in the peripheral blood of recipients of CB grafts who did not develop CMV. T-cell receptors from atypical epitopes were most common in unmanipulated CB units explaining why these T-cells expanded. When infused to recipients, naïve donor-derived virus specific T-cells that recognized atypical epitopes were associated with prolonged periods of CMV-free survival and complete remission. PMID:25925682

  12. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Correia, Bruno E; Bates, John T; Loomis, Rebecca J; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; Macpherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E; Graham, Barney S; Wyatt, Richard T; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K; Crowe, James E; Johnson, Philip R; Schief, William R

    2014-03-13

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

  13. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Christopher; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Multiple major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for research and development of a human RSV vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as HIV and influenza. PMID:24499818

  14. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

  15. Cryo-EM visualization of an exposed RGD epitope on adenovirus that escapes antibody neutralization.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P L; Chiu, C Y; Huang, S; Muir, T; Zhao, Y; Chait, B; Mathias, P; Nemerow, G R

    1997-01-01

    Interaction of the adenovirus penton base protein with alpha v integrins promotes virus entry into host cells. The location of the integrin binding sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) on human type 2 adenovirus (Ad2) was visualized by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image reconstruction using a mAb (DAV-1) which recognizes a linear epitope, IRGDTFATR. The sites for DAV-1 binding corresponded to the weak density above each of the five 22 A protrusions on the adenovirus penton base protein. Modeling of a Fab fragment crystal structure into the adenovirus-Fab cryo-EM density indicated a large amplitude of motion for the Fab and the RGD epitope. An unexpected finding was that Fab fragments, but not IgG antibody molecules, inhibited adenovirus infection. Steric hindrance from the adenovirus fiber and a few bound IgG molecules, as well as epitope mobility, most likely prevent binding of IgG antibodies to all five RGD sites on the penton base protein within the intact virus. These studies indicate that the structure of the adenovirus particle facilitates interaction with cell integrins, whilst restricting binding of potentially neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9135136

  16. Predictions versus high-throughput experiments in T-cell epitope discovery: competition or synergy?

    PubMed Central

    Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Prediction methods as well as experimental methods for T-cell epitope discovery have developed significantly in recent years. High-throughput experimental methods have made it possible to perform full-length protein scans for epitopes restricted to a limited number of MHC alleles. The high costs and limitations regarding the number of proteins and MHC alleles that are feasibly handled by such experimental methods have made in silico prediction models of high interest. MHC binding prediction methods are today of a very high quality and can predict MHC binding peptides with high accuracy. This is possible for a large range of MHC alleles and relevant length of binding peptides. The predictions can easily be performed for complete proteomes of any size. Prediction methods are still, however, dependent on good experimental methods for validation, and should merely be used as a guide for rational epitope discovery. We expect prediction methods as well as experimental validation methods to continue to develop and that we will soon see clinical trials of products whose development has been guided by prediction methods. PMID:22149708

  17. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes from cattle immunized against Theileria parva exhibit pronounced cross-reactivity among different strain-specific epitopes of the Tp1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Steinaa, L; Saya, R; Awino, E; Toye, P

    2012-02-15

    The protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes a usually fatal disease in cattle, known as East Coast fever. Cattle can be vaccinated by injecting live parasites simultaneously with long acting oxytetracycline (the infection and treatment method, ITM). The immunity induced by ITM is believed to be mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Although effective, the ITM vaccine has disadvantages such as the need for a liquid nitrogen cold chain and a complex production process, which may be overcome by the development of a subunit vaccine. However, the high level of antigenic polymorphism among different strains of T. parva may hinder the development of a subunit vaccine aimed at induction of a protective CTL response. In this study, the CTL cross-reactivity among T. parva strains was examined. The Tp1(214-224) epitope has previously been shown to be recognized by cattle of the A18 BoLA type. Three different variants of this epitope have been identified from different T. parva strains. Here, bulk CTL and CTL clones were generated from two animals using both the live sporozoite vaccine composed of three different strains and a Muguga strain for immunization. The cross-reactivity of these CTL with the three variant Tp1 epitopes was examined in interferon gamma ELISPOT assays and CTL killing assays. CD8(+) cells from both animals cross-reacted with the three variant CTL epitopes in interferon gamma ELISPOT assays, although the CD8(+) cells from the Muguga-immunized animal showed a more epitope restricted response. Clones from the vaccine immunized animal showed diverse response patterns with clones responding to each variant peptide. Although some variability in the cytotoxic response was observed, overall strong cross-reactivity among the variant Tp1 epitopes was seen in both animals. Such epitope polymorphism does not, in this case, serve as a potential challenge in a putative subunit vaccine as it would be sufficient to only include one of the variant epitopes.

  18. Immunoinformatics prediction of linear epitopes from Taenia solium TSOL18

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Gutiérrez, Andrés Hazaet; Gilman, Robert Hugh; López, César; Quiliano, Miguel; Evangelista, Wilfredo; Gonzales, Armando; García, Héctor Hugo; Sheen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a public health problem in several developing countries. The oncosphere protein TSOL18 is the most immunogenic and protective antigen ever reported against porcine cysticercosis, although no specific epitope has been identified to account for these properties. Recent evidence suggests that protection might be associated with conformational epitopes. Linear epitopes from TSOL18 were computationally predicted and evaluated for immunogenicity and protection against porcine cysticercosis. A synthetic peptide was designed based on predicted linear B cell and T cell epitopes that are exposed on the surface of the theoretically modeled structure of TSOL18. Three surface epitopes from TSOL18 were predicted as immunogenic. A peptide comprising a linear arrangement of these epitopes was chemically synthesized. The capacity of the synthetic peptide to protect pigs against an oral challenge with Taenia solium proglottids was tested in a vaccine trial. The synthetic peptide was able to produce IgG antibodies in pigs and was associated to a reduction of the number of cysts, although was not able to provide complete protection, defined as the complete absence of cysts in necropsy. This study demonstrated that B cell and T cell predicted epitopes from TSOL18 were not able to completely protect pigs against an oral challenge with Taenia solium proglottids. Therefore, other linear epitopes or eventually conformational epitopes may be responsible for the protection conferred by TSOL18. PMID:21738328

  19. Using patient serum to epitope map soybean glycinins reveals common epitopes shared with many legumes and tree nuts.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hanaa; Gagnon, Christine; Cober, Elroy; Gleddie, Steve

    2016-02-01

    Soybean consumption is increasing in many Western diets; however, recent reviews suggest that the prevalence of soy allergy can be as high as 0.5% for the general population and up to 13% for children. The immunoglobulin-E (IgE) binding of sera from six soy-sensitive adult human subjects to soybean proteins separated by 2D gel electrophoresis was studied. Synthetic peptide sets spanning the mature glycinin subunit A2 and A3 primary sequences were used to map the IgE-binding regions. Putative epitopes identified in this study were also localized on glycinin hexamer models using bioinformatics software. We identified linear IgE-binding epitopes of the major storage protein Gly m 6 by screening individual soy-sensitive patient sera. These epitopes were then further analysed by 3D in silico model localization and compared to other plant storage protein epitopes. Web-based software applications were also used to study the ability to accurately predict epitopes with mixed results. A total of nine putative IgE-binding epitopes were identified in the glycinin A3 (A3.1-A3.3) and A2 (A2.1-A2.6) subunits. Most patients' sera IgE bound to only one or two epitopes, except for one patient's serum which bound to four different A2 epitopes. Two epitopes (A3.2 and A2.4) overlapped with a previously identified epitope hot spot of 11S globulins from other plant species. Most epitopes were predicted to be exposed on the surface of the 3D model of the glycinin hexamer. Amino acid sequence alignments of soybean acidic glycinins and other plant globulins revealed one dominant epitope hot spot among the four reported hot spots. This study may be helpful for future development of soy allergy immunotherapy and diagnosis.

  20. Molecular Determinants of T Cell Epitope Recognition to the Common Timothy Grass Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Oseroff, Carla; Sidney, John; Kotturi, Maya F.; Kolla, Ravi; Alam, Rafeul; Broide, David H.; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Weiskopf, Daniela; McKinney, Denise M.; Chung, Jo L.; Petersen, Arnd; Grey, Howard; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the molecular determinants of allergen-derived T cell epitopes in humans utilizing the Phleum pratense (Timothy grass) allergens (Phl p). PBMCs from allergic individuals were tested in ELISPOT assays with overlapping peptides spanning known Phl p allergens. A total of 43 distinct antigenic regions were recognized, illustrating the large breadth of grass-specific T cell epitopes. Th2 cytokines (as represented by IL-5) were predominant, whereas IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17 were detected less frequently. Responses from specific immunotherapy treatment individuals were weaker and less consistent, yet similar in epitope specificity and cytokine pattern to allergic donors, whereas nonallergic individuals were essentially nonreactive. Despite the large breadth of recognition, nine dominant antigenic regions were defined, each recognized by multiple donors, accounting for 51% of the total response. Multiple HLA molecules and loci restricted the dominant regions, and the immunodominant epitopes could be predicted using bioinformatic algorithms specific for 23 common HLA-DR, DP, and DQ molecules. Immunodominance was also apparent at the Phl p Ag level. It was found that 52, 19, and 14% of the total response was directed to Phl p 5, 1, and 3, respectively. Interestingly, little or no correlation between Phl p-specific IgE levels and T cell responses was found. Thus, certain intrinsic features of the allergen protein might influence immunogenicity at the level of T cell reactivity. Consistent with this notion, different Phl p Ags were associated with distinct patterns of IL-5, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17 production. PMID:20554959

  1. Three novel NY-ESO-1 epitopes bound to DRB1*0803, DQB1*0401 and DRB1*0901 recognized by CD4 T cells from CHP-NY-ESO-1-vaccinated patients.

    PubMed

    Mizote, Yu; Taniguchi, Taku; Tanaka, Kei; Isobe, Midori; Wada, Hisashi; Saika, Takashi; Kita, Shoichi; Koide, Yukari; Uenaka, Akiko; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2010-07-19

    Three novel NY-ESO-1 CD4 T cell epitopes were identified using PBMC obtained from patients who were vaccinated with a complex of cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) and NY-ESO-1 protein (CHP-NY-ESO-1). The restriction molecules were determined by antibody blocking and using various EBV-B cells with different HLA alleles as APC to present peptides to CD4 T cells. The minimal epitope peptides were determined using various N- and C-termini truncated peptides deduced from 18-mer overlapping peptides originally identified for recognition. Those epitopes were DRB1*0901-restricted NY-ESO-1 87-100, DQB1*0401-restricted NY-ESO-1 95-107 and DRB1*0803-restricted NY-ESO-1 124-134. CD4 T cells used to determine those epitope peptides recognized EBV-B cells or DC that were treated with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein or NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cell lysate, suggesting that the epitope peptides are naturally processed. These CD4 T cells showed a cytokine profile with Th1 characteristics. Furthermore, NY-ESO-1 87-100 peptide/HLA-DRB1*0901 tetramer staining was observed. Multiple Th1-type CD4 T cell responses are beneficial for inducing effective anti-tumor responses after NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination.

  2. HLA-A*0201 T-cell epitopes in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid and spike proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Y.-P.; Lin, J.-Y.; Jan, J.-T.; Leng, C.-H.; Chu, C.-C.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chen, S.-L. . E-mail: showlic@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2006-05-26

    The immunogenicity of HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) peptide in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nuclear capsid (N) and spike (S) proteins was determined by testing the proteins' ability to elicit a specific cellular immune response after immunization of HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice and in vitro vaccination of HLA-A2.1 positive human peripheral blood mononuclearcytes (PBMCs). First, we screened SARS N and S amino acid sequences for allele-specific motif matching those in human HLA-A2.1 MHC-I molecules. From HLA peptide binding predictions (http://thr.cit.nih.gov/molbio/hla{sub b}ind/), ten each potential N- and S-specific HLA-A2.1-binding peptides were synthesized. The high affinity HLA-A2.1 peptides were validated by T2-cell stabilization assays, with immunogenicity assays revealing peptides N223-231, N227-235, and N317-325 to be First identified HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of SARS-CoV N protein. In addition, previous reports identified three HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of S protein (S978-986, S1203-1211, and S1167-1175), here we found two novel peptides S787-795 and S1042-1050 as S-specific CTL epitopes. Moreover, our identified N317-325 and S1042-1050 CTL epitopes could induce recall responses when IFN-{gamma} stimulation of blood CD8{sup +} T-cells revealed significant difference between normal healthy donors and SARS-recovered patients after those PBMCs were in vitro vaccinated with their cognate antigen. Our results would provide a new insight into the development of therapeutic vaccine in SARS.

  3. A novel linear neutralizing epitope of hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zi-Min; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Min; Wen, Gui-Ping; Yang, Fan; Cai, Wei; Wang, Si-Ling; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a serious public health problem that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is primarily transmitted through fecal and oral routes. The major anti-HEV antibody responses are against conformational epitopes located in a.a. 459-606 of HEV pORF2. All reported neutralization epitopes are present on the dimer domain constructed by this peptide. While looking for a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb)-recognized linear epitope, we found a novel neutralizing linear epitope (L2) located in a.a. 423-437 of pORF2. Moreover, epitope L2 is proved non-immunodominant in the HEV-infection process. Using the hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier to display this novel linear epitope, we show herein that this epitope could induce a neutralizing antibody response against HEV in mice and could protect rhesus monkeys from HEV infection. Collectively, our results showed a novel non-immunodominant linear neutralizing epitope of hepatitis E virus, which provided additional insight of HEV vaccine. PMID:26051517

  4. Brucella melitensis T Cell Epitope Recognition in Humans with Brucellosis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cannella, Anthony P.; Arlehamn, Cecilia S. Lindestam; Sidney, John; Patra, Kailash P.; Torres, Katherine; Tsolis, Renee M.; Liang, Li; Felgner, Philip L.; Saito, Mayuko; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Sette, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Brucella melitensis, one of the causative agents of human brucellosis, causes acute, chronic, and relapsing infection. While T cell immunity in brucellosis has been extensively studied in mice, no recognized human T cell epitopes that might provide new approaches to classifying and prognosticating B. melitensis infection have ever been delineated. Twenty-seven pools of 500 major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) restricted peptides were created by computational prediction of promiscuous MHC-II CD4+ T cell derived from the top 50 proteins recognized by IgG in human sera on a genome level B. melitensis protein microarray. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) analyses were used to quantify and compare Th1 and Th2 responses of leukapheresis-obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Peruvian subjects cured after acute infection (n = 9) and from patients who relapsed (n = 5). Four peptide epitopes derived from 3 B. melitensis proteins (BMEI 1330, a DegP/HtrA protease; BMEII 0029, type IV secretion system component VirB5; and BMEII 0691, a predicted periplasmic binding protein of a peptide transport system) were found repeatedly to produce significant IFN-γ ELISPOT responses in both acute-infection and relapsing patients; none of the peptides distinguished the patient groups. IL-5 responses against the panel of peptides were insignificant. These experiments are the first to systematically identify B. melitensis MHC-II-restricted CD4+ T cell epitopes recognized by the human immune response, with the potential for new approaches to brucellosis diagnostics and understanding the immunopathogenesis related to this intracellular pathogen. PMID:24126518

  5. Autoantibody recognition mechanisms of p53 epitopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    There is an urgent need for economical blood based, noninvasive molecular biomarkers to assist in the detection and diagnosis of cancers in a cost-effective manner at an early stage, when curative interventions are still possible. Serum autoantibodies are attractive biomarkers for early cancer detection, but their development has been hindered by the punctuated genetic nature of the ten million known cancer mutations. A landmark study of 50,000 patients (Pedersen et al., 2013) showed that a few p53 15-mer epitopes are much more sensitive colon cancer biomarkers than p53, which in turn is a more sensitive cancer biomarker than any other protein. The function of p53 as a nearly universal "tumor suppressor" is well established, because of its strong immunogenicity in terms of not only antibody recruitment, but also stimulation of autoantibodies. Here we examine dimensionally compressed bioinformatic fractal scaling analysis for identifying the few sensitive epitopes from the p53 amino acid sequence, and show how it could be used for early cancer detection (ECD). We trim 15-mers to 7-mers, and identify specific 7-mers from other species that could be more sensitive to aggressive human cancers, such as liver cancer. Our results could provide a roadmap for ECD.

  6. Fine mapping of epitopes by intradomain Kd/Dd recombinants

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    11 intradomain recombinants between H-2Kd and H-2Dd were produced using an original technique based on in vivo recombination in Escherichia coli. After transfection into mouse L cells, all these recombinants were expressed at high levels on the cell surface. The specificities of 77 mAbs were examined on these cell lines. mAbs could be organized in 12 groups. In each group, a small number of amino acids participating in the recognized epitope(s) were identified. In a few instances, noncontinuous epitopes comprising amino acids belonging to different domains of the antigen were found. The data thus obtained are compatible with those produced in previous exon-shuffling experiments, but permit a much more precise definition of recognized epitope(s). PMID:2439641

  7. Analysis of Structures and Epitopes of Surface Antigen Glycoproteins Expressed in Bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Hua; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Qingli; Gong, Jing; Cong, Haizi; Xin, Qing; He, Shenyi

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite capable of infecting humans and animals. Surface antigen glycoproteins, SAG2C, -2D, -2X, and -2Y, are expressed on the surface of bradyzoites. These antigens have been shown to protect bradyzoites against immune responses during chronic infections. We studied structures of SAG2C, -2D, -2X, and -2Y proteins using bioinformatics methods. The protein sequence alignment was performed by T-Coffee method. Secondary structural and functional domains were predicted using software PSIPRED v3.0 and SMART software, and 3D models of proteins were constructed and compared using the I-TASSER server, VMD, and SWISS-spdbv. Our results showed that SAG2C, -2D, -2X, and -2Y are highly homologous proteins. They share the same conserved peptides and HLA-I restricted epitopes. The similarity in structure and domains indicated putative common functions that might stimulate similar immune response in hosts. The conserved peptides and HLA-restricted epitopes could provide important insights on vaccine study and the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:23586017

  8. Classification epitopes in groups based on their protein family

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The humoral immune system response is based on the interaction between antibodies and antigens for the clearance of pathogens and foreign molecules. The interaction between these proteins occurs at specific positions known as antigenic determinants or B-cell epitopes. The experimental identification of epitopes is costly and time consuming. Therefore the use of in silico methods, to help discover new epitopes, is an appealing alternative due the importance of biomedical applications such as vaccine design, disease diagnostic, anti-venoms and immune-therapeutics. However, the performance of predictions is not optimal been around 70% of accuracy. Further research could increase our understanding of the biochemical and structural properties that characterize a B-cell epitope. Results We investigated the possibility of linear epitopes from the same protein family to share common properties. This hypothesis led us to analyze physico-chemical (PCP) and predicted secondary structure (PSS) features of a curated dataset of epitope sequences available in the literature belonging to two different groups of antigens (metalloproteinases and neurotoxins). We discovered statistically significant parameters with data mining techniques which allow us to distinguish neurotoxin from metalloproteinase and these two from random sequences. After a five cross fold validation we found that PCP based models obtained area under the curve values (AUC) and accuracy above 0.9 for regression, decision tree and support vector machine. Conclusions We demonstrated that antigen's family can be inferred from properties within a single group of linear epitopes (metalloproteinases or neurotoxins). Also we discovered the characteristics that represent these two epitope groups including their similarities and differences with random peptides and their respective amino acid sequence. These findings open new perspectives to improve epitope prediction by considering the specific antigen

  9. Bioinformatics analysis of the epitope regions for norovirus capsid protein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Norovirus is the major cause of nonbacterial epidemic gastroenteritis, being highly prevalent in both developing and developed countries. Despite of the available monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for different sub-genogroups, a comprehensive epitope analysis based on various bioinformatics technology is highly desired for future potential antibody development in clinical diagonosis and treatment. Methods A total of 18 full-length human norovirus capsid protein sequences were downloaded from GenBank. Protein modeling was performed with program Modeller 9.9. The modeled 3D structures of capsid protein of norovirus were submitted to the protein antigen spatial epitope prediction webserver (SEPPA) for predicting the possible spatial epitopes with the default threshold. The results were processed using the Biosoftware. Results Compared with GI, we found that the GII genogroup had four deletions and two special insertions in the VP1 region. The predicted conformational epitope regions mainly concentrated on N-terminal (1~96), Middle Part (298~305, 355~375) and C-terminal (560~570). We find two common epitope regions on sequences for GI and GII genogroup, and also found an exclusive epitope region for GII genogroup. Conclusions The predicted conformational epitope regions of norovirus VP1 mainly concentrated on N-terminal, Middle Part and C-terminal. We find two common epitope regions on sequences for GI and GII genogroup, and also found an exclusive epitope region for GII genogroup. The overlapping with experimental epitopes indicates the important role of latest computational technologies. With the fast development of computational immunology tools, the bioinformatics pipeline will be more and more critical to vaccine design. PMID:23514273

  10. B Epitope Multiplicity and B/T Epitope Orientation Influence Immunogenicity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Peptide Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Esther; Cubillos, Carolina; Moreno, Noelia; Bárcena, Juan; de la Torre, Beatriz G.; Andreu, David

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic peptides incorporating protective B- and T-cell epitopes are candidates for new safer foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines. We have reported that dendrimeric peptides including four copies of a B-cell epitope (VP1 136 to 154) linked to a T-cell epitope (3A 21 to 35) of FMD virus (FMDV) elicit potent B- and T-cell specific responses and confer protection to viral challenge, while juxtaposition of these epitopes in a linear peptide induces less efficient responses. To assess the relevance of B-cell epitope multivalency, dendrimers bearing two (B2T) or four (B4T) copies of the B-cell epitope from type O FMDV (a widespread circulating serotype) were tested in CD1 mice and showed that multivalency is advantageous over simple B-T-epitope juxtaposition, resulting in efficient induction of neutralizing antibodies and optimal release of IFNγ. Interestingly, the bivalent B2T construction elicited similar or even better B- and T-cell specific responses than tetravalent B4T. In addition, the presence of the T-cell epitope and its orientation were shown to be critical for the immunogenicity of the linear juxtaposed monovalent peptides analyzed in parallel. Taken together, our results provide useful insights for a more accurate design of FMD subunit vaccines. PMID:24454475

  11. Identification of T-cell epitopes of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen.

    PubMed

    Blaher, B; Suphioglu, C; Knox, R B; Singh, M B; McCluskey, J; Rolland, J M

    1996-07-01

    T-cell recognition of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass pollen, was investigated by using a T-cell line and T-cell clones generated from the peripheral blood of an atopic donor. The T-cell line reacted with purified Lol p 9, as well as with crude ryegrass pollen extract, but failed to cross-react with Bermuda grass pollen extract. All of six T-cell clones generated from this line proliferated in response to Lol p 9. Epitope mapping was carried out with a panel of 34 overlapping synthetic peptides, which spanned the entire sequence of the Lol p 9 12R isoform. The T-cell line responded to two of the peptides, Lol p 9 (105-116) and Lol p 9 (193-204), whereas reactivity with one or other of these peptides was shown by five T-cell clones. These two peptides contained sequences consistent with motifs previously reported for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted peptides. HLA antibody blocking studies showed that presentation of peptide Lol p 9 (105-116) to one T-cell clone was HLA-DR-restricted; this clone expressed a T helper cell phenotype (CD3+, CD4+) and the T-cell receptor alpha beta. The identification of immunodominant T-cell epitope(s) on allergens is essential for devising safer and more effective immunotherapy strategies, which can interrupt the chain of events leading to allergic disease.

  12. Bypass of carrier-induced epitope-specific suppression using a T-helper epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Sad, S; Rao, K; Arora, R; Talwar, G P; Raghupathy, R

    1992-01-01

    A gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-based vaccine is being developed as a method for non-surgical immunotherapy as immunization with this vaccine results in atrophy of the prostate. This vaccine, a conjugate of GnRH and diphtheria toxoid (DT), provides a unique hapten-carrier system for investigating the influence of carrier presensitization on antibody responses to self haptens. In a recent communication we showed that preimmunization with carriers diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid results in a strain-dependent inhibition of anti-GnRH responses in mice and that T cells from carrier-presensitized mice are responsible for anti-haptenic suppression. In the present report we describe a strategy for bypassing DT-induced epitopic suppression using a T-helper epitope from DT. PMID:1383134

  13. Epitope Spreading of Autoantibody Response to PLA2R Associates with Poor Prognosis in Membranous Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Seitz-Polski, Barbara; Dolla, Guillaume; Payré, Christine; Girard, Christophe A; Polidori, Joel; Zorzi, Kevin; Birgy-Barelli, Eléonore; Jullien, Perrine; Courivaud, Cécile; Krummel, Thierry; Benzaken, Sylvia; Bernard, Ghislaine; Burtey, Stéphane; Mariat, Christophe; Esnault, Vincent L M; Lambeau, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) is the major autoantigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the value of anti-PLA2R1 antibody titers in predicting patient outcomes is unknown. Here, we screened serum samples from 50 patients positive for PLA2R1 for immunoreactivity against a series of PLA2R1 deletion mutants covering the extracellular domains. We identified reactive epitopes in the cysteine-rich (CysR), C-type lectin domain 1 (CTLD1), and C-type lectin domain 7 (CTLD7) domains and confirmed the reactivity with soluble forms of each domain. We then used ELISAs to stratify 69 patients positive for PLA2R1 by serum reactivity to one or more of these domains: CysR (n=23), CysRC1 (n=14), and CysRC1C7 (n=32). Median ELISA titers measured using the full-length PLA2R1 antigens were not statistically different between subgroups. Patients with anti-CysR-restricted activity were younger (P=0.008), had less nephrotic range proteinuria (P=0.02), and exhibited a higher rate of spontaneous remission (P=0.03) and lower rates of renal failure progression (P=0.002) and ESRD (P=0.01) during follow-up. Overall, 31 of 69 patients had poor renal prognosis (urinary protein/creatinine ratio >4 g/g or eGFR<45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at end of follow-up). High anti-PLA2R1 activity and epitope spreading beyond the CysR epitope were independent risk factors of poor renal prognosis in multivariable Cox regression analysis. Epitope spreading during follow-up associated with disease worsening (n=3), whereas reverse spreading from a CysRC1C7 profile back to a CysR profile associated with favorable outcome (n=1). We conclude that analysis of the PLA2R1 epitope profile and spreading is a powerful tool for monitoring disease severity and stratifying patients by renal prognosis.

  14. Identifying Novel B Cell Epitopes within Toxoplasma gondii GRA6

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Cai, Jian Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study of antigenic epitopes from Toxoplasma gondii has not only enhanced our understanding of the structure and function of antigens, the reactions between antigens and antibodies, and many other aspects of immunology, but it also plays a significant role in the development of new diagnostic reagents and vaccines. In the present study, T. gondii GRA6 epitopes were identified using bioinformatics tools and a synthetic peptide technique. The potential B cell epitopes of GRA6 predicted by bioinformatics tools concentrated upon 3 regions of GRA6, 1-20 aa, 44-103 aa, and 172-221 aa. Ten shorter peptides from the 3 regions were synthesized and assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Three of the 10 peptides (amino acids 44-63, 172-191, and 192-211) tested were recognized by all sera and determined to be immunodominant B-cell epitopes of GRA6. The results indicated that we precisely and accurately located the T. gondii GRA6 epitopes using pig sera collected at different time points after infection. The identified epitopes may be very useful for further studies of epitope-based vaccines and diagnostic reagents. PMID:27658594

  15. Chimeric Epitope Vaccine from Multistage Antigens for Lymphatic Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Anugraha, G; Madhumathi, J; Prince, P R; Prita, P J Jeya; Khatri, V K; Amdare, N P; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2015-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease, affects more than 120 million people worldwide. Vaccination for filariasis by targeting different stages of the parasite will be a boon to the existing MDA efforts of WHO which required repeated administration of the drug to reduce the infection level and sustained transmission. Onset of a filaria-specific immune response achieved through antigen vaccines can act synergistically with these drugs to enhance the parasite killing. Multi-epitope vaccine approach has been proved to be successful against several parasitic diseases as it overcomes the limitations associated with the whole antigen vaccines. Earlier results from our group suggested the protective efficacy of multi-epitope vaccine comprising two immunodominant epitopes from Brugia malayi antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), several epitopes from transglutaminase (TGA) and abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2). In this study, the prophylactic efficacy of the filarial epitope protein (FEP), a chimera of selective epitopes identified from our earlier study, was tested in a murine model (jird) of filariasis with L3 larvae. FEP conferred a significantly (P < 0.0001) high protection (69.5%) over the control in jirds. We also observed that the multi-epitope recombinant construct (FEP) induces multiple types of protective immune responses, thus ensuring the successful elimination of the parasite; this poses FEP as a potential vaccine candidate. PMID:26179420

  16. Identifying Novel B Cell Epitopes within Toxoplasma gondii GRA6.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Cai, Jian Ping

    2016-08-01

    The study of antigenic epitopes from Toxoplasma gondii has not only enhanced our understanding of the structure and function of antigens, the reactions between antigens and antibodies, and many other aspects of immunology, but it also plays a significant role in the development of new diagnostic reagents and vaccines. In the present study, T. gondii GRA6 epitopes were identified using bioinformatics tools and a synthetic peptide technique. The potential B cell epitopes of GRA6 predicted by bioinformatics tools concentrated upon 3 regions of GRA6, 1-20 aa, 44-103 aa, and 172-221 aa. Ten shorter peptides from the 3 regions were synthesized and assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Three of the 10 peptides (amino acids 44-63, 172-191, and 192-211) tested were recognized by all sera and determined to be immunodominant B-cell epitopes of GRA6. The results indicated that we precisely and accurately located the T. gondii GRA6 epitopes using pig sera collected at different time points after infection. The identified epitopes may be very useful for further studies of epitope-based vaccines and diagnostic reagents. PMID:27658594

  17. Chimeric Epitope Vaccine from Multistage Antigens for Lymphatic Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Anugraha, G; Madhumathi, J; Prince, P R; Prita, P J Jeya; Khatri, V K; Amdare, N P; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2015-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease, affects more than 120 million people worldwide. Vaccination for filariasis by targeting different stages of the parasite will be a boon to the existing MDA efforts of WHO which required repeated administration of the drug to reduce the infection level and sustained transmission. Onset of a filaria-specific immune response achieved through antigen vaccines can act synergistically with these drugs to enhance the parasite killing. Multi-epitope vaccine approach has been proved to be successful against several parasitic diseases as it overcomes the limitations associated with the whole antigen vaccines. Earlier results from our group suggested the protective efficacy of multi-epitope vaccine comprising two immunodominant epitopes from Brugia malayi antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), several epitopes from transglutaminase (TGA) and abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2). In this study, the prophylactic efficacy of the filarial epitope protein (FEP), a chimera of selective epitopes identified from our earlier study, was tested in a murine model (jird) of filariasis with L3 larvae. FEP conferred a significantly (P < 0.0001) high protection (69.5%) over the control in jirds. We also observed that the multi-epitope recombinant construct (FEP) induces multiple types of protective immune responses, thus ensuring the successful elimination of the parasite; this poses FEP as a potential vaccine candidate.

  18. Dissecting antibodies with regards to linear and conformational epitopes.

    PubMed

    Forsström, Björn; Axnäs, Barbara Bisławska; Rockberg, Johan; Danielsson, Hanna; Bohlin, Anna; Uhlen, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    An important issue for the performance and specificity of an antibody is the nature of the binding to its protein target, including if the recognition involves linear or conformational epitopes. Here, we dissect polyclonal sera by creating epitope-specific antibody fractions using a combination of epitope mapping and an affinity capture approach involving both synthesized peptides and recombinant protein fragments. This allowed us to study the relative amounts of antibodies to linear and conformational epitopes in the polyclonal sera as well as the ability of each antibody-fraction to detect its target protein in Western blot assays. The majority of the analyzed polyclonal sera were found to have most of the target-specific antibodies directed towards linear epitopes and these were in many cases giving Western blot bands of correct molecular weight. In contrast, many of the antibodies towards conformational epitopes did not bind their target proteins in the Western blot assays. The results from this work have given us insights regarding the nature of the antibody response generated by immunization with recombinant protein fragments and has demonstrated the advantage of using antibodies recognizing linear epitopes for immunoassay involving wholly or partially denatured protein targets. PMID:25816293

  19. Monoclonal antibodies that define neutralizing epitopes of pertussis toxin: conformational dependence and epitope mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, A B; Ganss, M T; Cryz, S J

    1989-01-01

    The epitope specificities of 13 hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for pertussis toxin (PT) is described. Hybridoma lines were derived by the fusion of spleen cells from mice immunized with native PT, Formalin-detoxified PT, or isolated PT subunits (S1 to S5) with the myeloma line X63-Ag8.653. Five MAbs showed a toxin-neutralizing ability, which was demonstrated by use of a Chinese hamster ovary cell assay system and by a NAD glycohydrolase assay. All five toxin-neutralizing MAbs demonstrated high specificities for and reactivities with native PT but were unable to bind to denatured PT. One MAb was able to neutralize the enzymatic activity of PT. The other four neutralizing MAbs inhibited the binding of PT or PT subunits to the surface of Chinese hamster ovary cells, as shown by an immunofluorescence assay. All neutralizing MAbs reacted with purified S2-S4 or S3-S4 dimers but not with S4 alone. Three MAbs which recognized a common epitope shared by S2 and S3 (which are about 70% homologous at the DNA level) and one MAb which recognized S4 were not neutralizing. Isolated S2-S4 and S3-S4 dimers bound to Chinese hamster ovary cells. These results indicate that the majority of critical epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibody are conformation dependent. Images PMID:2474500

  20. Definition of an optimal cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope in the latently expressed Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus kaposin protein.

    PubMed

    Brander, C; O'Connor, P; Suscovich, T; Jones, N G; Lee, Y; Kedes, D; Ganem, D; Martin, J; Osmond, D; Southwood, S; Sette, A; Walker, B D; Scadden, D T

    2001-07-15

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) recognize and kill virus-infected cells and contribute to immunologic control of viral replication. For many herpesviruses (e.g., Epstein-Barr and cytomegalovirus), virus-specific CTL responses can be readily detected in infected persons, but CTL responses against Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) appear to be weak and remain poorly characterized. Using a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) binding motif-based epitope prediction algorithm, we identified 37 HLA-A*0201 binding peptides from 8 KSHV open-reading frames (ORFs). After in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from KSHV-infected persons, CTL responses against 1 peptide in the KSHV kaposin protein (ORF K12) were detected in 2 HLA-A*0201-positive subjects. The optimal CTL epitope was identified by HLA restriction analysis and peptide titration assays. These data describe a latent phase viral gene product targeted by CTL that may be relevant for KSHV immunopathogenesis.

  1. Dengue virus specific dual HLA binding T cell epitopes induce CD8+ T cell responses in seropositive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Comber, Joseph D; Karabudak, Aykan; Huang, Xiaofang; Piazza, Paolo A; Marques, Ernesto T A; Philip, Ramila

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus infects an estimated 300 million people each year and even more are at risk of becoming infected as the virus continues to spread into new areas. Despite the increase in viral prevalence, no anti-viral medications or vaccines are approved for treating or preventing infection. CD8+ T cell responses play a major role in viral clearance. Therefore, effective vaccines that induce a broad, multi-functional T cell response with substantial cross-reactivity between all virus serotypes can have major impacts on reducing infection rates and infection related complications. Here, we took an immunoproteomic approach to identify novel MHC class I restricted T cell epitopes presented by dengue virus infected cells, representing the natural and authentic targets of the T cell response. Using this approach we identified 4 novel MHC-I restricted epitopes: 2 with the binding motif for HLA-A24 molecules and 2 with both HLA-A2 and HLA-A24 binding motifs. These peptides were able to activate CD8+ T cell responses in both healthy, seronegative individuals and in seropositive individuals who have previously been infected with dengue virus. Importantly, the dual binding epitopes activated pre-existing T cell precursors in PBMCs obtained from both HLA-A2+ and HLA-A24+ seropositive individuals. Together, the data indicate that these epitopes are immunologically relevant T cell activating peptides presented on infected cells during a natural infection and therefore may serve as candidate antigens for the development of effective multi-serotype specific dengue virus vaccines. PMID:25668665

  2. Dengue virus specific dual HLA binding T cell epitopes induce CD8+ T cell responses in seropositive individuals.

    PubMed

    Comber, Joseph D; Karabudak, Aykan; Huang, Xiaofang; Piazza, Paolo A; Marques, Ernesto T A; Philip, Ramila

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus infects an estimated 300 million people each year and even more are at risk of becoming infected as the virus continues to spread into new areas. Despite the increase in viral prevalence, no anti-viral medications or vaccines are approved for treating or preventing infection. CD8+ T cell responses play a major role in viral clearance. Therefore, effective vaccines that induce a broad, multi-functional T cell response with substantial cross-reactivity between all virus serotypes can have major impacts on reducing infection rates and infection related complications. Here, we took an immunoproteomic approach to identify novel MHC class I restricted T cell epitopes presented by dengue virus infected cells, representing the natural and authentic targets of the T cell response. Using this approach we identified 4 novel MHC-I restricted epitopes: 2 with the binding motif for HLA-A24 molecules and 2 with both HLA-A2 and HLA-A24 binding motifs. These peptides were able to activate CD8+ T cell responses in both healthy, seronegative individuals and in seropositive individuals who have previously been infected with dengue virus. Importantly, the dual binding epitopes activated pre-existing T cell precursors in PBMCs obtained from both HLA-A2+ and HLA-A24+ seropositive individuals. Together, the data indicate that these epitopes are immunologically relevant T cell activating peptides presented on infected cells during a natural infection and therefore may serve as candidate antigens for the development of effective multi-serotype specific dengue virus vaccines. PMID:25668665

  3. Identification of cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes on swine viruses: multi-epitope design for universal T cell vaccine.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Chieh-Hua; Chung, Wen-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) are the primary diseases affecting the pig industry globally. Vaccine induced CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune response might be long-lived and cross-serotype and thus deserve further attention. Although large panels of synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the polyproteins of a virus facilitate the detection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, it is an exceedingly costly and cumbersome approach. Alternatively, computational predictions have been proven to be of satisfactory accuracy and are easily performed. Such a method enables the systematic identification of genome-wide CTL epitopes by incorporating epitope prediction tools in analyzing large numbers of viral sequences. In this study, we have implemented an integrated bioinformatics pipeline for the identification of CTL epitopes of swine viruses including the CSF virus (CSFV), FMD virus (FMDV) and PRRS virus (PRRSV) and assembled these epitopes on a web resource to facilitate vaccine design. Identification of epitopes for cross protections to different subtypes of virus are also reported in this study and may be useful for the development of a universal vaccine against such viral infections among the swine population. The CTL epitopes identified in this study have been evaluated in silico and possibly provide more and wider protection in compared to traditional single-reference vaccine design. The web resource is free and open to all users through http://sb.nhri.org.tw/ICES. PMID:24358361

  4. Design and characterization of epitope-scaffold immunogens that present the motavizumab epitope from respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Jason S; Correia, Bruno E; Chen, Man; Yang, Yongping; Graham, Barney S; Schief, William R; Kwong, Peter D

    2011-06-24

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in infants, but an effective vaccine has not yet been developed. An ideal vaccine would elicit protective antibodies while avoiding virus-specific T-cell responses, which have been implicated in vaccine-enhanced disease with previous RSV vaccines. We propose that heterologous proteins designed to present RSV-neutralizing antibody epitopes and to elicit cognate antibodies have the potential to fulfill these vaccine requirements, as they can be fashioned to be free of viral T-cell epitopes. Here we present the design and characterization of three epitope-scaffolds that present the epitope of motavizumab, a potent neutralizing antibody that binds to a helix-loop-helix motif in the RSV fusion glycoprotein. Two of the epitope-scaffolds could be purified, and one epitope-scaffold based on a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain bound motavizumab with kinetic and thermodynamic properties consistent with the free epitope-scaffold being stabilized in a conformation that closely resembled the motavizumab-bound state. This epitope-scaffold was well folded as assessed by circular dichroism and isothermal titration calorimetry, and its crystal structure (determined in complex with motavizumab to 1.9 Å resolution) was similar to the computationally designed model, with all hydrogen-bond interactions critical for binding to motavizumab preserved. Immunization of mice with this epitope-scaffold failed to elicit neutralizing antibodies but did elicit sera with F binding activity. The elicitation of F binding antibodies suggests that some of the design criteria for eliciting protective antibodies without virus-specific T-cell responses are being met, but additional optimization of these novel immunogens is required.

  5. Design and Characterization of Epitope-Scaffold Immunogens That Present the Motavizumab Epitope from Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason S.; Correia, Bruno E.; Chen, Man; Yang, Yongping; Graham, Barney S.; Schief, William R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-06-28

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in infants, but an effective vaccine has not yet been developed. An ideal vaccine would elicit protective antibodies while avoiding virus-specific T-cell responses, which have been implicated in vaccine-enhanced disease with previous RSV vaccines. We propose that heterologous proteins designed to present RSV-neutralizing antibody epitopes and to elicit cognate antibodies have the potential to fulfill these vaccine requirements, as they can be fashioned to be free of viral T-cell epitopes. Here we present the design and characterization of three epitope-scaffolds that present the epitope of motavizumab, a potent neutralizing antibody that binds to a helix-loop-helix motif in the RSV fusion glycoprotein. Two of the epitope-scaffolds could be purified, and one epitope-scaffold based on a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain bound motavizumab with kinetic and thermodynamic properties consistent with the free epitope-scaffold being stabilized in a conformation that closely resembled the motavizumab-bound state. This epitope-scaffold was well folded as assessed by circular dichroism and isothermal titration calorimetry, and its crystal structure (determined in complex with motavizumab to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution) was similar to the computationally designed model, with all hydrogen-bond interactions critical for binding to motavizumab preserved. Immunization of mice with this epitope-scaffold failed to elicit neutralizing antibodies but did elicit sera with F binding activity. The elicitation of F binding antibodies suggests that some of the design criteria for eliciting protective antibodies without virus-specific T-cell responses are being met, but additional optimization of these novel immunogens is required.

  6. Benchmarking B cell epitope prediction: underperformance of existing methods.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Martin J; Flower, Darren R

    2005-01-01

    Sequence profiling is used routinely to predict the location of B-cell epitopes. In the postgenomic era, the need for reliable epitope prediction is clear. We assessed 484 amino acid propensity scales in combination with ranges of plotting parameters to examine exhaustively the correlation of peaks and epitope location within 50 proteins mapped for polyclonal responses. After examining more than 10(6) combinations, we found that even the best set of scales and parameters performed only marginally better than random. Our results confirm the null hypothesis: Single-scale amino acid propensity profiles cannot be used to predict epitope location reliably. The implication for studies using such methods is obvious. PMID:15576553

  7. Celiac disease T-cell epitopes from gamma-gliadins: immunoreactivity depends on the genome of origin, transcript frequency, and flanking protein variation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is caused by an uncontrolled immune response to gluten, a heterogeneous mixture of wheat storage proteins. The CD-toxicity of these proteins and their derived peptides is depending on the presence of specific T-cell epitopes (9-mer peptides; CD epitopes) that mediate the stimulation of HLA-DQ2/8 restricted T-cells. Next to the thoroughly characterized major T-cell epitopes derived from the α-gliadin fraction of gluten, γ-gliadin peptides are also known to stimulate T-cells of celiac disease patients. To pinpoint CD-toxic γ-gliadins in hexaploid bread wheat, we examined the variation of T-cell epitopes involved in CD in γ-gliadin transcripts of developing bread wheat grains. Results A detailed analysis of the genetic variation present in γ-gliadin transcripts of bread wheat (T. aestivum, allo-hexaploid, carrying the A, B and D genome), together with genomic γ-gliadin sequences from ancestrally related diploid wheat species, enabled the assignment of sequence variants to one of the three genomic γ-gliadin loci, Gli-A1, Gli-B1 or Gli-D1. Almost half of the γ-gliadin transcripts of bread wheat (49%) was assigned to locus Gli-D1. Transcripts from each locus differed in CD epitope content and composition. The Gli-D1 transcripts contained the highest frequency of canonical CD epitope cores (on average 10.1 per transcript) followed by the Gli-A1 transcripts (8.6) and the Gli-B1 transcripts (5.4). The natural variants of the major CD epitope from γ-gliadins, DQ2-γ-I, showed variation in their capacity to induce in vitro proliferation of a DQ2-γ-I specific and HLA-DQ2 restricted T-cell clone. Conclusions Evaluating the CD epitopes derived from γ-gliadins in their natural context of flanking protein variation, genome specificity and transcript frequency is a significant step towards accurate quantification of the CD toxicity of bread wheat. This approach can be used to predict relative levels of CD toxicity of individual wheat

  8. Evaluation of conformational epitopes on thyroid peroxidase by antipeptide antibody binding and mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    GORA, M; GARDAS, A; WIKTOROWICZ, W; HOBBY, P; WATSON, P F; WEETMAN, A P; SUTTON, B J; BANGA, J P

    2004-01-01

    Autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) recognize predominantly conformational epitopes, which are restricted to two distinct determinants, termed immunodominant domain region (IDR) A and B. These dominant determinants reside in the region with structural homology to myeloperoxidase (MPO)-like domain and may extend into the adjacent complement control protein (CCP) domain. We have explored the location of these determinants on the MPO-like domain of the structural model of TPO, by identifying exposed hydrophilic loops that are potential candidates for the autoantigenic sites, generating rabbit antipeptide antisera, and competing with well characterized murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for these two IDRs. We recently defined the location of IDR-B, and here report our findings on the location of IDR-A and its relationship to IDR-B, defined with a new panel of 15 antipeptide antisera. Moreover, in combination with single amino acid replacements by in vitro mutagenesis, we have defined the limits of the IDR-B region on the TPO model. The combination of antisera to peptides P12 (aa 549–563), P14 (aa 599–617) and P18 (aa 210–225) inhibited the binding of the mab specific for IDR-A (mab 2) by 75. The same combination inhibited the binding of autoantibodies to native TPO from 67 to 94% (mean 81·5%) at autoantibody levels of 5 IU. Fabs prepared from the antipeptide IgG and pooled in this combination were also effective in competition assays, thus defining the epitopes more precisely. IDR-A was found to lie immediately adjacent to IDR-B and thus the two immunodominant epitopes form an extended patch on the surface of TPO. Finally, by single amino acid mutagenesis, we show that IDR-B extends to residue N642, thus further localizing the boundary of this autoantigenic region on the structural model. PMID:15030525

  9. Strategic Use of Epitope Matching to Improve Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Chris; Nickerson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the events leading to allorecognition and the subsequent effector pathways engaged is key for the development of strategies to prolong graft survival. Optimizing patient outcomes will require 2 major advancements: (1) minimizing premature death with a functioning graft in the patients with stable graft function, and (2) maximizing graft survival by avoiding the aforementioned allorecognition. This necessitates personalized immunosuppression to avoid known metabolic side effects, risk for infection, and malignancy, while holding the alloimmune system in check. Since the beginning of transplant a key strategy to achieve this goal is to minimize HLA mismatching between donor and recipient. What has not evolved is any refinement in our evaluation of HLA relatedness between donor and recipient when HLA mismatch exists. Donor-recipient HLA mismatch at the amino acid level can now be determined. These mismatches serve as potential epitopes for de novo donor specific antibody development and correlate with late rejection and graft loss. It is in this context that HLA epitope analysis is considered as a strategy to permit safe immunosuppression minimization to improve patient outcomes through: (1) improved allocation schemes that favor donor-recipient pairs with a low HLA epitope mismatch load (especially at the class II loci) or avoiding specific epitope mismatches known to be highly immunogenic and (2) immunosuppressive minimization in patients with low epitope mismatch loads or without highly immunogenic epitope mismatches.

  10. Generation of functional CD8+ T Cells by human dendritic cells expressing glypican-3 epitopes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glypican 3 (GPC-3) is an oncofoetal protein that is expressed in most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Since it is a potential target for T cell immunotherapy, we investigated the generation of functional, GPC-3 specific T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods Dendritic cells (DC) were derived from adherent PBMC cultured at 37°C for 7 days in X-Vivo, 1% autologous plasma, and 800 u/ml GM-CSF plus 500 u/ml IL-4. Immature DC were transfected with 20 μg of in vitro synthesised GPC-3 mRNA by electroporation using the Easy-ject plus system (Equibio, UK) (300 V, 150 μF and 4 ms pulse time), or pulsed with peptide, and subsequently matured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Six predicted GPC-3 peptide epitopes were synthesized using standard f-moc technology and tested for their binding affinity to HLA-A2.1 molecules using the cell line T2. Results DC transfected with GPC-3 mRNA but not control DC demonstrated strong intracellular staining for GPC-3 and in vitro generated interferon-gamma expressing T cells from autologous PBMC harvested from normal subjects. One peptide, GPC-3522-530 FLAELAYDL, fulfilled our criteria as a naturally processed, HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope: i) it showed high affinity binding to HLA-A2, in T2 cell binding assay; ii) it was generated by the MHC class I processing pathway in DC transfected with GPC-3 mRNA, and iii) HLA-A2 positive DC loaded with the peptide stimulated proliferation in autologous T cells and generated CTL that lysed HLA-A2 and GPC-3 positive target cells. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that electroporation of GPC-3 mRNA is an efficient method to load human monocyte-derived DC with antigen because in vitro they generated GPC-3-reactive T cells that were functional, as shown by interferon-gamma production. Furthermore, this study identified a novel naturally processed, HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope, GPC-3522-530 FLAELAYDL, which can be used to monitor HLA-A2

  11. Epitope Mapping of Avian Influenza M2e Protein: Different Species Recognise Various Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Tarigan, Simson; Peaston, Anne; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2016-01-01

    A common approach for developing diagnostic tests for influenza virus detection is the use of mouse or rabbit monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies against a target antigen of the virus. However, comparative mapping of the target antigen using antibodies from different animal sources has not been evaluated before. This is important because identification of antigenic determinants of the target antigen in different species plays a central role to ensure the efficiency of a diagnostic test, such as competitive ELISA or immunohistochemistry-based tests. Interest in the matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e) protein of avian influenza virus (AIV) as a candidate for a universal vaccine and also as a marker for detection of virus infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) is the rationale for the selection of this protein for comparative mapping evaluation. This study aimed to map the epitopes of the M2e protein of avian influenza virus H5N1 using chicken, mouse and rabbit monoclonal or monospecific antibodies. Our findings revealed that rabbit antibodies (rAbs) recognized epitope 6EVETPTRN13 of the M2e, located at the N-terminal of the protein, while mouse (mAb) and chicken antibodies (cAbs) recognized epitope 10PTRNEWECK18, located at the centre region of the protein. The findings highlighted the difference between the M2e antigenic determinants recognized by different species that emphasized the importance of comparative mapping of antibody reactivity from different animals to the same antigen, especially in the case of multi-host infectious agents such as influenza. The findings are of importance for antigenic mapping, as well as diagnostic test and vaccine development. PMID:27362795

  12. Identification, characterization, and synthesis of peptide epitopes and a recombinant six-epitope protein for Trichomonas vaginalis serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, JF; Neace, Calvin J

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for a rapid, accurate serodiagnostic test useful for both women and men infected by Trichomonas vaginalis, which causes the number one sexually transmitted infection (STI). Women and men exposed to T. vaginalis make serum antibody to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), α-enolase (ENO), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP). We identified, by epitope mapping, the common and distinct epitopes of each protein detected by the sera of women patients with trichomonosis and by the sera of men highly seropositive to the immunogenic protein α-actinin (positive control sera). We analyzed the amino acid sequences to determine the extent of identity of the epitopes of each protein with other proteins in the databanks. This approach identified epitopes unique to T. vaginalis, indicating these peptide-epitopes as possible targets for a serodiagnostic test. Individual or combinations of 15-mer peptide epitopes with low to no identity with other proteins were reactive with positive control sera from both women and men but were unreactive with negative control sera. These analyses permitted the synthesis of a recombinant His6 fusion protein of 111 amino acids with an Mr of ~13.4 kDa, which consisted of 15-mer peptides of two distinct epitopes each for ALD, ENO, and GAP. This recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. This composite protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot blots, and immunoblots, using positive control sera from women and men. These data indicate that it is possible to identify epitopes and that either singly, in combination, or as a composite protein represent targets for a point-of-care serodiagnostic test for T. vaginalis. PMID:27471691

  13. Development and application of fully functional epitope-tagged forms of transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Wolfraim, Lawrence A; Alkemade, Gonnie M; Alex, Biju; Sharpe, Shellyann; Parks, W Tony; Letterio, John J

    2002-08-01

    Administration of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been found to be of therapeutic benefit in various mouse disease models and has potential clinical usefulness. However, the ability to track the distribution of exogenously administered, recombinant forms of these proteins has been restricted by cross-reactivity with endogenous TGF-beta and related TGF-beta isoforms. We describe novel FLAG- and hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged versions of mature TGF-beta1 that retain full biological activity as demonstrated by their ability to inhibit the growth of Mv1Lu epithelial cells, and to induce phosphorylation of the TGF-beta signaling intermediate, smad 2. Intracellular FLAG- and HA-TGF-beta1 can be detected in transfected cells by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. We also describe sandwich ELISAs designed to specifically detect epitope-tagged TGF-beta and demonstrate the utility of these tagged ligands as probes for TGF-beta receptor expression by flow cytometry. The design of these fully functional epitope-tagged TGF-beta proteins should facilitate studies such as the evaluation of in vivo peptide pharmacodynamics and trafficking of TGF-beta ligand-receptor complexes.

  14. Anti-idiotypic antibodies function as a surrogate surface epitope of Brugia malayi infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Carlow, C K; Busto, P; Storey, N; Philipp, M

    1990-07-01

    Anti-idiotypic (AB2) antibodies were generated in rabbits following immunization with a murine IgM monoclonal antibody (AB1) recognizing a surface determinant of Brugia malayi infective stage larvae. AB2 specifically inhibited the binding of AB1 to B. malayi larvae. Furthermore, AB2 had the ability to mimic the original antigen since mice immunized with AB2 possessed serum antibodies (AB3) specific for the B. malayi surface determinant. The presence of anti-surface antibodies (AB3 and AB1) induced either by AB2 immunization or by administration of AB1, did not alter the outcome of an intraperitoneal infection of B. malayi larvae in BABL/c mice when compared to untreated animals. AB3 antibodies like AB1, were IgM, thus indicating an isotype restricted response to the B. malayi epitope. There were no detectable cell mediated responses to the surface determinant in mice immunized with AB2, assessed by lymphocyte blastogenesis or IL3 production in vitro in response to the idiotope as presented by living larvae. The lack of cellular responses and/or the previously demonstrated rapid shedding of the epitope may explain the inability of AB1 or AB2 to protect mice against larval challenge in this study.

  15. T cell epitope-based allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Larché, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) with extracts containing intact allergen molecules is clinically efficacious, but associated with frequent adverse events related to the allergic sensitization of the patient. As a result, treatment is initiated in an incremental dose fashion which ultimately achieves a plateau (maintenance dose) that may be continued for several years. Reduction of allergic adverse events may allow safer and more rapid treatment Thus, many groups have developed and evaluated strategies to reduce allergenicity whilst maintaining immunogenicity, the latter being required to achieve specific modulation of the immune response. Peptide immunotherapy can be used to target T and/or B cells in an antigen-specific manner. To date, only approaches that target T cells have been clinically evaluated. Short, synthetic peptides representing immunodominant T cell epitopes of major allergens are able to modulate allergen-specific T cell responses in the absence of IgE cross linking and activation of effector cells. Here we review clinical and mechanistic studies associated with peptide immunotherapy targeting allergy to cats or to bee venom. 

  16. Ex vivo detection of adenovirus specific CD4{sup +} T-cell responses to HLA-DR-epitopes of the Hexon protein show a contracted specificity of T{sub HELPER} cells following stem cell transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Serangeli, Celine; Bicanic, Oliver; Scheible, Michael H.; Lang, Peter; Handgretinger, Rupert

    2010-02-20

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, especially after stem cell transplantation (SCT). Viral clearance has been attributed to CD4{sup +} T-cell responses against the Hexon-protein, but the frequency of specific T{sub HELPER} cells is extremely low or not detectable ex vivo and preference for different CD4{sup +} T-cell epitopes is variable among individuals. We therefore analyzed 44 healthy donors and 6 SCT-recipients for Hexon-specific CD4{sup +}-responses ex vivo, to identify epitopes which would be broadly applicable. We selected 19 candidate epitopes with predicted restriction to HLA-DR1/DR3/DR4/DR7; 16 were located within the highly conserved regions, indicating cross-reactivity of T cells among HAdV-subspecies. Ten epitopes induced CD4{sup +}-proliferation in >50% of individuals, confirmed by intracellular IFN-gamma detection. Three SCT recipients who recovered from an infection with HAdV displayed reactivity towards only a single hexon epitope, whereas healthy individuals were responsive to two to eight epitopes (median 3). The ex vivo detection of Hexon-specific CD4{sup +} T-cells, without any long-term culture in vitro, enables the detection and generation of HAdV-specific CD4{sup +} T cells for adoptive T-cell transfer against HAdV-infection post SCT.

  17. Synthetic Long Peptide Influenza Vaccine Containing Conserved T and B Cell Epitopes Reduces Viral Load in Lungs of Mice and Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Rosendahl Huber, S. K.; Camps, M. G. M.; Jacobi, R. H. J.; Mouthaan, J.; van Dijken, H.; van Beek, J.; Ossendorp, F.; de Jonge, J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently licensed influenza vaccines mainly induce antibodies against highly variable epitopes. Due to antigenic drift, protection is subtype or strain-specific and regular vaccine updates are required. In case of antigenic shifts, which have caused several pandemics in the past, completely new vaccines need to be developed. We set out to develop a vaccine that provides protection against a broad range of influenza viruses. Therefore, highly conserved parts of the influenza A virus (IAV) were selected of which we constructed antibody and T cell inducing peptide-based vaccines. The B epitope vaccine consists of the highly conserved HA2 fusion peptide and M2e peptide coupled to a CD4 helper epitope. The T epitope vaccine comprises 25 overlapping synthetic long peptides of 26-34 amino acids, thereby avoiding restriction for a certain MHC haplotype. These peptides are derived from nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1) and matrix protein 1 (M1). C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice, and ferrets were vaccinated with the B epitopes, 25 SLP or a combination of both. Vaccine-specific antibodies were detected in sera of mice and ferrets and vaccine-specific cellular responses were measured in mice. Following challenge, both mice and ferrets showed a reduction of virus titers in the lungs in response to vaccination. Summarizing, a peptide-based vaccine directed against conserved parts of influenza virus containing B and T cell epitopes shows promising results for further development. Such a vaccine may reduce disease burden and virus transmission during pandemic outbreaks. PMID:26046664

  18. Critical components of a DNA fusion vaccine able to induce protective cytotoxic T cells against a single epitope of a tumor antigen.

    PubMed

    Rice, Jason; Buchan, Sarah; Stevenson, Freda K

    2002-10-01

    DNA vaccines can activate immunity against tumor Ags expressed as MHC class I-associated peptides. However, priming of CD8(+) CTL against weak tumor Ags may require adjuvant molecules. We have used a pathogen-derived sequence from tetanus toxin (fragment C (FrC)) fused to tumor Ag sequences to promote Ab and CD4(+) T cell responses. For induction of CD8(+) T cell responses, the FrC sequence has been engineered to remove potentially competitive MHC class I-binding epitopes and to improve presentation of tumor epitopes. The colon carcinoma CT26 expresses an endogenous retroviral gene product, gp70, containing a known H2-L(d)-restricted epitope (AH1). A DNA vaccine encoding gp70 alone was a poor inducer of CTL, and performance was not significantly improved by fusion of full-length FrC. However, use of a minimized domain of FrC, with the AH1 sequence fused to the 3' position, led to rapid induction of high levels of CTL. IFN-gamma-producing epitope-specific CTL were detectable ex vivo and these killed CT26 targets in vitro. The single epitope vaccine was more effective than GM-CSF-transfected CT26 tumor cells in inducing an AH1-specific CTL response and equally effective in providing protection against tumor challenge. Levels of AH1-specific CTL in vivo were increased following injection of tumor cells, and CTL expanded in vitro were able to kill CT26 cells in tumor bearers. Pre-existing immunity to tetanus toxoid had no effect on the induction of AH1-specific CTL. These data demonstrate the power of epitope-specific CTL against tumor cells and illustrate a strategy for priming immunity via a dual component DNA vaccine.

  19. Invertebrate host-parasite relationships: convergent evolution of a tropomyosin epitope between Schistosoma sp., Fasciola hepatica, and certain pulmonate snails.

    PubMed

    Weston, D; Allen, B; Thakur, A; LoVerde, P T; Kemp, W M

    1994-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against Schistosoma mansoni tropomyosin isoform, SMTM (Xu et al. Experimental Parasitology 69, 373-392, 1989), were used to test for cross-reactivity with Biomphalaria glabrata antigens. One mAb (1F10) recognized antigens of 39, 41, and 80 kDa in a snail head/foot antigen preparation but not a hepatopancreas antigen preparation. Another mAb (1C1) cross-reacted with a 39-kDa antigen in the head/foot extract but not in the hepatopancreas extract. Epitope mapping revealed the 1F10 epitope to be between amino acids 135 and 188 of both Bg39 (Dissous et al. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 43, 245-256, 1990) and BgTMII (Weston and Kemp, Experimental Parasitology 76, 358-370, 1993), while the 1C1 epitope was located between amino acids 189 and 213 of BgTMII. Various invertebrate species, including members from Trematoda, Pulmonata, Annelida, and Arthropoda, were tested for cross-reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies. While the 1F10 mAb displayed broad invertebrate cross-reactivity, the 1C1 mAb cross-reactivity was restricted to schistosomes, F. hepatica, and the pulmonate snails B. glabrata and Physa sp. PMID:7512930

  20. T cell epitopes and post-translationally modified epitopes in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    McGinty, John W; Marré, Meghan L; Bajzik, Veronique; Piganelli, Jon D; James, Eddie A

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which progressive loss of self-tolerance, evidenced by accumulation of auto-antibodies and auto-reactive T cells that recognize diverse self-proteins, leads to immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells and loss of insulin secretion. In this review, we discuss antigens and epitopes in T1D and the role that post-translational modifications play in circumventing tolerance mechanisms and increasing antigenic diversity. Emerging data suggest that, analogous to other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and celiac disease, enzymatically modified epitopes are preferentially recognized in T1D. Modifying enzymes such as peptidyl deiminases and tissue transglutaminase are activated in response to beta cell stress, providing a mechanistic link between post-translational modification and interactions with the environment. Although studies of such responses in the at-risk population have been limited, current data suggests that breakdown in tolerance through post-translational modification represents an important checkpoint in the development of T1D. PMID:26370701

  1. Thyrotropin Receptor Epitope and Human Leukocyte Antigen in Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Hidefumi; De Groot, Leslie J; Akamizu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in this condition. Since the extracellular domain of human TSHR (TSHR-ECD) is shed into the circulation, TSHR-ECD is a preferentially immunogenic portion of TSHR. Both genetic factors and environmental factors contribute to development of GD. Inheritance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, especially HLA-DR3, is associated with GD. TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and processed to TSHR-ECD peptides. These peptide epitopes bind to HLA-class II molecules, and subsequently the complex of HLA-class II and TSHR-ECD epitope is presented to CD4+ T cells. The activated CD4+ T cells secrete cytokines/chemokines that stimulate B-cells to produce TSAb, and in turn hyperthyroidism occurs. Numerous studies have been done to identify T- and B-cell epitopes in TSHR-ECD, including (1) in silico, (2) in vitro, (3) in vivo, and (4) clinical experiments. Murine models of GD and HLA-transgenic mice have played a pivotal role in elucidating the immunological mechanisms. To date, linear or conformational epitopes of TSHR-ECD, as well as the molecular structure of the epitope-binding groove in HLA-DR, were reported to be related to the pathogenesis in GD. Dysfunction of central tolerance in the thymus, or in peripheral tolerance, such as regulatory T cells, could allow development of GD. Novel treatments using TSHR antagonists or mutated TSHR peptides have been reported to be effective. We review and update the role of immunogenic TSHR epitopes and HLA in GD, and offer perspectives on TSHR epitope specific treatments. PMID:27602020

  2. Thyrotropin Receptor Epitope and Human Leukocyte Antigen in Graves’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Hidefumi; De Groot, Leslie J.; Akamizu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in this condition. Since the extracellular domain of human TSHR (TSHR-ECD) is shed into the circulation, TSHR-ECD is a preferentially immunogenic portion of TSHR. Both genetic factors and environmental factors contribute to development of GD. Inheritance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, especially HLA-DR3, is associated with GD. TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and processed to TSHR-ECD peptides. These peptide epitopes bind to HLA-class II molecules, and subsequently the complex of HLA-class II and TSHR-ECD epitope is presented to CD4+ T cells. The activated CD4+ T cells secrete cytokines/chemokines that stimulate B-cells to produce TSAb, and in turn hyperthyroidism occurs. Numerous studies have been done to identify T- and B-cell epitopes in TSHR-ECD, including (1) in silico, (2) in vitro, (3) in vivo, and (4) clinical experiments. Murine models of GD and HLA-transgenic mice have played a pivotal role in elucidating the immunological mechanisms. To date, linear or conformational epitopes of TSHR-ECD, as well as the molecular structure of the epitope-binding groove in HLA-DR, were reported to be related to the pathogenesis in GD. Dysfunction of central tolerance in the thymus, or in peripheral tolerance, such as regulatory T cells, could allow development of GD. Novel treatments using TSHR antagonists or mutated TSHR peptides have been reported to be effective. We review and update the role of immunogenic TSHR epitopes and HLA in GD, and offer perspectives on TSHR epitope specific treatments.

  3. Thyrotropin Receptor Epitope and Human Leukocyte Antigen in Graves’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Hidefumi; De Groot, Leslie J.; Akamizu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in this condition. Since the extracellular domain of human TSHR (TSHR-ECD) is shed into the circulation, TSHR-ECD is a preferentially immunogenic portion of TSHR. Both genetic factors and environmental factors contribute to development of GD. Inheritance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, especially HLA-DR3, is associated with GD. TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and processed to TSHR-ECD peptides. These peptide epitopes bind to HLA-class II molecules, and subsequently the complex of HLA-class II and TSHR-ECD epitope is presented to CD4+ T cells. The activated CD4+ T cells secrete cytokines/chemokines that stimulate B-cells to produce TSAb, and in turn hyperthyroidism occurs. Numerous studies have been done to identify T- and B-cell epitopes in TSHR-ECD, including (1) in silico, (2) in vitro, (3) in vivo, and (4) clinical experiments. Murine models of GD and HLA-transgenic mice have played a pivotal role in elucidating the immunological mechanisms. To date, linear or conformational epitopes of TSHR-ECD, as well as the molecular structure of the epitope-binding groove in HLA-DR, were reported to be related to the pathogenesis in GD. Dysfunction of central tolerance in the thymus, or in peripheral tolerance, such as regulatory T cells, could allow development of GD. Novel treatments using TSHR antagonists or mutated TSHR peptides have been reported to be effective. We review and update the role of immunogenic TSHR epitopes and HLA in GD, and offer perspectives on TSHR epitope specific treatments. PMID:27602020

  4. Prediction of T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluation of their protective role in mice.

    PubMed

    Afley, Prachiti; Dohre, Sudhir K; Prasad, G B K S; Kumar, Subodh

    2015-09-01

    Brucellae are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that cause an important zoonotic disease called brucellosis. The animal vaccines are available but have disadvantage of causing abortions in a proportion of pregnant animals. The animal vaccines are also pathogenic to humans. Recent trend in vaccine design has shifted to epitope-based vaccines that are safe and specific. In this study, efforts were made to identify MHC-I- and MHC-II-restricted T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluate their vaccine potential in mice. The peptides were designed using online available immunoinformatics tools, and five MHC-I- and one MHC-II-restricted T cell peptides were selected on the basis of their ability to produce interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in in vivo studies. The selected peptides were co-administered with poly DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles and evaluated for immunogenicity and protection in BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with peptides either entrapped in PLG microparticles (EPLG-Pep) or adsorbed on PLG particles (APLG-Pep) showed significantly higher splenocyte proliferation and IFN-γ generation to all selected peptides than the mice immunized with corresponding irrelevant peptides formulated PLG microparticles or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A significant protection compared to PBS control was also observed in EPLG-Pep and APLG-Pep groups. A plasmid DNA vaccine construct (pVaxPep) for peptides encoding DNA sequences was generated and injected to mice by in vivo electroporation. Significant protection was observed (1.66 protection units) when compared with PBS and empty vector control group animals. Overall, the MHC-I and MHC-II peptides identified in this study are immunogenic and protective in mouse model and support the feasibility of peptide-based vaccine for brucellosis.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to HLA-E bind epitopes carried by unfolded β2 m-free heavy chains.

    PubMed

    Tremante, Elisa; Lo Monaco, Elisa; Ingegnere, Tiziano; Sampaoli, Camilla; Fraioli, Rocco; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2015-08-01

    Since HLA-E heavy chains accumulate free of their light β2 -microglobulin (β2 m) subunit, raising mAbs to folded HLA-E heterodimers has been difficult, and mAb characterization has been controversial. Herein, mAb W6/32 and 5 HLA-E-restricted mAbs (MEM-E/02, MEM-E/07, MEM-E/08, DT9, and 3D12) were tested on denatured, acid-treated, and natively folded (both β2 m-associated and β2 m-free) HLA-E molecules. Four distinct conformations were detected, including unusual, partially folded (and yet β2 m-free) heavy chains reactive with mAb DT9. In contrast with previous studies, epitope mapping and substitution scan on thousands of overlapping peptides printed on microchips revealed that mAbs MEM-E/02, MEM-E/07, and MEM-E/08 bind three distinct α1 and α2 domain epitopes. All three epitopes are linear since they span just 4-6 residues and are "hidden" in folded HLA-E heterodimers. They contain at least one HLA-E-specific residue that cannot be replaced by single substitutions with polymorphic HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-F, and HLA-G residues. Finally, also the MEM-E/02 and 3D12 epitopes are spatially distinct. In summary, HLA-E-specific residues are dominantly immunogenic, but only when heavy chains are locally unfolded. Consequently, the available mAbs fail to selectively bind conformed HLA-E heterodimers, and HLA-E expression may have been inaccurately assessed in some previous oncology, reproductive immunology, virology, and transplantation studies. PMID:25982269

  6. Immunoinformatics and epitope prediction in the age of genomic medicine.

    PubMed

    Backert, Linus; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2015-11-20

    Immunoinformatics involves the application of computational methods to immunological problems. Prediction of B- and T-cell epitopes has long been the focus of immunoinformatics, given the potential translational implications, and many tools have been developed. With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, an unprecedented wealth of information has become available that requires more-advanced immunoinformatics tools. Based on information from whole-genome sequencing, exome sequencing and RNA sequencing, it is possible to characterize with high accuracy an individual's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allotype (i.e., the individual set of HLA alleles of the patient), as well as changes arising in the HLA ligandome (the collection of peptides presented by the HLA) owing to genomic variation. This has allowed new opportunities for translational applications of epitope prediction, such as epitope-based design of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, and personalized cancer immunotherapies. Here, we review a wide range of immunoinformatics tools, with a focus on B- and T-cell epitope prediction. We also highlight fundamental differences in the underlying algorithms and discuss the various metrics employed to assess prediction quality, comparing their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we discuss the new challenges and opportunities presented by high-throughput data-sets for the field of epitope prediction.

  7. Recombinant expression and epitope mapping of grass pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C; Smith, P M; Ong, E K; Knox, R B; Singh, M B

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the expression of recombinant forms of Group 1 allergens from rye-grass and Bermuda grass pollens. Recombinant Lol p 1 expressed in bacteria bound serum IgE from allergic patients. Based on analysis of fragments of the Lol p 1 cDNA clone, the major IgE-reactive epitope has been mapped to the C-terminus. However, although SDS-denatured natural Cyn d 1 (from Bermuda grass) bound IgE, the full or partial recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria did not bind IgE. We have since expressed Cyn d 1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris and restored IgE binding. cDNA clones encoding two isoforms of Lol p 5, Lol p 5A and Lol p 5B, have been expressed in bacteria and resulting polypeptides show IgE-binding. Random fragments of these clones have been generated and when expressed as partial recombinant proteins in bacteria, allowed us to identify the major IgE-binding epitopes. The allergenic epitopes were localised towards the C-terminal half of the molecule. Although both isoforms shared similar IgE-reactive epitopes, Lol p 5B did not recognise the Lol p 5A-specific monoclonal antibody A7. At sequence level, there appear to be several amino acid differences between the antigenic epitopes of these two isoallergens. These results aid in the design of diagnostics and in grass pollen immunotherapy.

  8. Accurate identification of paraprotein antigen targets by epitope reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sompuram, Seshi R.; Bastas, Gerassimos; Vani, Kodela

    2008-01-01

    We describe the first successful clinical application of a new discovery technology, epitope-mediated antigen prediction (E-MAP), to the investigation of multiple myeloma. Until now, there has been no reliable, systematic method to identify the cognate antigens of paraproteins. E-MAP is a variation of previous efforts to reconstruct the epitopes of paraproteins, with the significant difference that it provides enough epitope sequence data so as to enable successful protein database searches. We first reconstruct the paraprotein's epitope by analyzing the peptides that strongly bind. Then, we compile the data and interrogate the nonredundant protein database, searching for a close match. As a clinical proof-of-concept, we apply this technology to uncovering the protein targets of para-proteins in multiple myeloma (MM). E-MAP analysis of 2 MM paraproteins identified human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a target in both. E-MAP sequence analysis determined that one para-protein binds to the AD-2S1 epitope of HCMV glycoprotein B. The other binds to the amino terminus of the HCMV UL-48 gene product. We confirmed these predictions using immunoassays and immunoblot analyses. E-MAP represents a new investigative tool for analyzing the role of chronic antigenic stimulation in B-lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:17878398

  9. Aspartate-β-hydroxylase induces epitope-specific T cell responses in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tomimaru, Yoshito; Mishra, Sasmita; Safran, Howard; Charpentier, Kevin P; Martin, William; De Groot, Anne S; Gregory, Stephen H; Wands, Jack R

    2015-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a poor prognosis due to high recurrence rate. Aspartate-β-hydroxylase (ASPH) is a highly conserved transmembrane protein, which is over expressed in HCC and promotes a malignant phenotype. The capability of ASPH protein-derived HLA class I and II peptides to generate antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) immune responses is unknown. Therefore, these studies aim to define the epitope specific components required for a peptide based candidate vaccine. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) generated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HCC patients were loaded with ASPH protein. Helper CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were co-incubated with the DCs; T cell activation was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoinformatics tools were used to predict HLA class I- and class II-restricted ASPH sequences, and the corresponding peptides were synthesized. The immunogenicity of each peptide in cultures of human PBMCs was determined by IFN-γ ELISpot assay. ASPH protein-loaded DCs activated both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells contained within the PBMC population derived from HCC patients. Furthermore, the predicted HLA class I- and class II-restricted ASPH peptides were significantly immunogenic. Both HLA class I- and class II-restricted peptides derived from ASPH induce T cell activation in HCC. We observed that ASPH protein and related peptides were highly immunogenic in patients with HCC and produce the type of cellular immune responses required for generation of anti-tumor activity.

  10. Ab and T cell epitopes of influenza A virus, knowledge and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Peters, Bjoern; Assarsson, Erika; Mbawuike, Innocent; Sette, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resources (IEDB) (www.immuneepitope.org) was recently developed to capture epitope related data. IEDB also hosts various bioinformatics tools that can be used to identify novel epitopes as well as to analyze and visualize existing epitope data. Herein, a comprehensive analysis was undertaken (i) to compile and inventory existing knowledge regarding influenza A epitopes and (ii) to determine possible cross-reactivities of identified epitopes among avian H5N1 and human influenza strains. At present, IEDB contains >600 different epitopes derived from 58 different strains and 10 influenza A proteins. By using the IEDB analysis resources, conservancy analyses were performed, and several conserved and possibly cross-reactive epitopes were identified. Significant gaps in the current knowledge were also revealed, including paucity of Ab epitopes in comparison with T cell epitopes, limited number of epitopes reported for avian influenza strains/subtypes, and limited number of epitopes reported from proteins other than hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein. This analysis provides a resource for researchers to access existing influenza epitope data. At the same time, the analysis illustrates gaps in our collective knowledge that should inspire directions for further study of immunity against the influenza A virus. PMID:17200302

  11. CD8 T-cell responses against the immunodominant Theileria parva peptide Tp249-59 are composed of two distinct populations specific for overlapping 11-mer and 10-mer epitopes.

    PubMed

    Connelley, Timothy K; Li, Xiaoying; MacHugh, Niall; Colau, Didier; Graham, Simon P; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Taracha, Evans L; Gill, Andy; Morrison, William Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Immunity against Theileria parva is associated with CD8 T-cell responses that exhibit immunodominance, focusing the response against limited numbers of epitopes. As candidates for inclusion in vaccines, characterization of responses against immunodominant epitopes is a key component in novel vaccine development. We have previously demonstrated that the Tp249-59 and Tp1214-224 epitopes dominate CD8 T-cell responses in BoLA-A10 and BoLA-18 MHC I homozygous animals, respectively. In this study, peptide-MHC I tetramers for these epitopes, and a subdominant BoLA-A10-restricted epitope (Tp298-106 ), were generated to facilitate accurate and rapid enumeration of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. During validation of these tetramers a substantial proportion of Tp249-59 -reactive T cells failed to bind the tetramer, suggesting that this population was heterogeneous with respect to the recognized epitope. We demonstrate that Tp250-59 represents a distinct epitope and that tetramers produced with Tp50-59 and Tp49-59 show no cross-reactivity. The Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes use different serine residues as the N-terminal anchor for binding to the presenting MHC I molecule. Molecular dynamic modelling predicts that the two peptide-MHC I complexes adopt structurally different conformations and Tcell receptor β sequence analysis showed that Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 are recognized by non-overlapping T-cell receptor repertoires. Together these data demonstrate that although differing by only a single residue, Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes form distinct ligands for T-cell receptor recognition. Tetramer analysis of T. parva-specific CD8 T-cell lines confirmed the immunodominance of Tp1214-224 in BoLA-A18 animals and showed in BoLA-A10 animals that the Tp249-59 epitope response was generally more dominant than the Tp250-59 response and confirmed that the Tp298-106 response was subdominant.

  12. CD8 T-cell responses against the immunodominant Theileria parva peptide Tp249-59 are composed of two distinct populations specific for overlapping 11-mer and 10-mer epitopes.

    PubMed

    Connelley, Timothy K; Li, Xiaoying; MacHugh, Niall; Colau, Didier; Graham, Simon P; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Taracha, Evans L; Gill, Andy; Morrison, William Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Immunity against Theileria parva is associated with CD8 T-cell responses that exhibit immunodominance, focusing the response against limited numbers of epitopes. As candidates for inclusion in vaccines, characterization of responses against immunodominant epitopes is a key component in novel vaccine development. We have previously demonstrated that the Tp249-59 and Tp1214-224 epitopes dominate CD8 T-cell responses in BoLA-A10 and BoLA-18 MHC I homozygous animals, respectively. In this study, peptide-MHC I tetramers for these epitopes, and a subdominant BoLA-A10-restricted epitope (Tp298-106 ), were generated to facilitate accurate and rapid enumeration of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. During validation of these tetramers a substantial proportion of Tp249-59 -reactive T cells failed to bind the tetramer, suggesting that this population was heterogeneous with respect to the recognized epitope. We demonstrate that Tp250-59 represents a distinct epitope and that tetramers produced with Tp50-59 and Tp49-59 show no cross-reactivity. The Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes use different serine residues as the N-terminal anchor for binding to the presenting MHC I molecule. Molecular dynamic modelling predicts that the two peptide-MHC I complexes adopt structurally different conformations and Tcell receptor β sequence analysis showed that Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 are recognized by non-overlapping T-cell receptor repertoires. Together these data demonstrate that although differing by only a single residue, Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes form distinct ligands for T-cell receptor recognition. Tetramer analysis of T. parva-specific CD8 T-cell lines confirmed the immunodominance of Tp1214-224 in BoLA-A18 animals and showed in BoLA-A10 animals that the Tp249-59 epitope response was generally more dominant than the Tp250-59 response and confirmed that the Tp298-106 response was subdominant. PMID:27317384

  13. Antibody specific epitope prediction-emergence of a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Sela-Culang, Inbal; Ofran, Yanay; Peters, Bjoern

    2015-04-01

    The development of accurate tools for predicting B-cell epitopes is important but difficult. Traditional methods have examined which regions in an antigen are likely binding sites of an antibody. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that most antigen surface residues will be able to bind one or more of the myriad of possible antibodies. In recent years, new approaches have emerged for predicting an epitope for a specific antibody, utilizing information encoded in antibody sequence or structure. Applying such antibody-specific predictions to groups of antibodies in combination with easily obtainable experimental data improves the performance of epitope predictions. We expect that further advances of such tools will be possible with the integration of immunoglobulin repertoire sequencing data.

  14. Epitope-Specific Binder Design by Yeast Surface Display.

    PubMed

    Mann, Jasdeep K; Park, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    Yeast surface display is commonly used to engineer affinity and design novel molecular interaction. By alternating positive and negative selections, yeast display can be used to engineer binders that specifically interact with the target protein at a defined site. Epitope-specific binders can be useful as inhibitors if they bind the target molecule at functionally important sites. Therefore, an efficient method of engineering epitope specificity should help with the engineering of inhibitors. We describe the use of yeast surface display to design single domain monobodies that bind and inhibit the activity of the kinase Erk-2 by targeting a conserved surface patch involved in protein-protein interaction. The designed binders can be used to disrupt signaling in the cell and investigate Erk-2 function in vivo. The described protocol is general and can be used to design epitope-specific binders of an arbitrary protein. PMID:26060073

  15. Common food allergens and their IgE-binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hiroaki; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Taogoshi, Takanori

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune response to certain kinds of food. Although any food can cause allergic reactions, chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shellfish, fruit, and buckwheat account for 75% of food allergies in Japan. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies play a pivotal role in the development of food allergy. Recent advances in molecular biological techniques have enabled the efficient analysis of food allergens. As a result, many food allergens have been identified, and their molecular structure and IgE-binding epitopes have also been identified. Studies of allergens have demonstrated that IgE antibodies specific to allergen components and/or the peptide epitopes are good indicators for the identification of patients with food allergy, prediction of clinical severity and development of tolerance. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding the allergens and IgE epitopes in the well-researched allergies to chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shrimp, and peanut.

  16. Branched peptide amphiphiles, related epitope compounds and self assembled structures thereof

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Guler, Mustafa O.

    2008-11-18

    Branched peptide amphiphilic compounds incorporating one or residues providing a pendant amino group for coupling one or more epitope sequences thereto, such compounds and related compositions for enhanced epitope presentation.

  17. Epitope-specific tolerance induction with an engineered immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Zambidis, E T; Scott, D W

    1996-01-01

    Isologous and heterologous immunoglobulins have been shown to be extremely effective as tolerogenic carriers for nearly 30 years. The efficacy of these proteins is due in part to their long half-life in vivo, as well as their ability to crosslink surface IgM with Fc receptors. The concept of using IgG as a carrier molecule to induce unresponsiveness in the adult immune system has been exploited for simple haptens, such as nucleosides, as well as for peptides. To further evaluate the in vivo potential of these molecules for inducing tolerance to a defined epitope, we have engineered a fusion protein of mouse IgG1 with the immunodominant epitope 12-26 from bacteriophage lambda cI repressor protein. This 15-mer, which contains both a B-cell and T-cell epitope, has been fused in-frame to the N terminus of a mouse heavy chain IgG1 construct, thus creating a "genetic hapten-carrier" system. We describe a novel in vitro and in vivo experimental system for studying the feasibility of engineered tolerogens, consisting of a recombinant flagellin challenge antigen and a murine IgG1 tolerogen, both expressing the lambda repressor epitope 12-26. Herein, we show that peptide-grafted IgG molecules injected i.v., or expressed by transfected, autologous B cells, can efficiently modulate the cellular and humoral immune responses to immunodominant epitopes. This model displays the feasibility of "tailor-designing" immune responses to whole antigens by selecting epitopes for either tolerance or immunity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:8643522

  18. MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes predicted by computational glycomics

    PubMed Central

    SONG, WEI; DELYRIA, ELIZABETH S.; CHEN, JIEQING; HUANG, WEI; LEE, JUN SOO; MITTENDORF, ELIZABETH A.; IBRAHIM, NUHAD; RADVANYI, LASZLO G.; LI, YUNSEN; LU, HONGZHOU; XU, HUAXI; SHI, YINQIANG; WANG, LAI-XI; ROSS, JEREMY A.; RODRIGUES, SILAS P.; ALMEIDA, IGOR C.; YANG, XIFENG; QU, JIN; SCHOCKER, NATHANIEL S.; MICHAEL, KATJA; ZHOU, DAPENG

    2012-01-01

    Bioinformatic tools and databases for glycobiology and glycomics research are playing increasingly important roles in functional studies. However, to verify hypotheses generated by computational glycomics with empirical functional assays is only an emerging field. In this study, we predicted glycan epitopes expressed by a cancer-derived mucin, MUC1, by computational glycomics. MUC1 is expressed by tumor cells with a deficiency in glycosylation. Although numerous diagnostic reagents and cancer vaccines have been designed based on abnormally glycosylated MUC1 sequences, the glycan and peptide sequences responsible for immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. The immunogenicity of synthetic MUC1 glycopeptides bearing Tn or sialyl-Tn antigens have been studied in mouse models, while authentic glyco-epitopes expressed by tumor cells remain unclear. To examine the immunogenicity of authentic cancer derived MUC1 glyco-epitopes, we expressed membrane bound forms of MUC1 tandem repeats in Jurkat, a mutant cancer cell line deficient of mucin-type core-1 β1–3 galactosyltransferase activity, and immunized mice with cancer cells expressing authentic MUC1 glyco-epitopes. Antibody responses to individual glyco-epitopes were determined by chemically synthesized candidate MUC1 glycopeptides predicted through computational glycomics. Monoclonal antibodies can be generated toward chemically synthesized glycopeptide sequences. With RPAPGS(Tn)TAPPAHG as an example, a monoclonal antibody 16A, showed 25-fold higher binding to glycosylated peptide (EC50=9.278±1.059 ng/ml) compared to its non-glycosylated form (EC50=247.3±16.29 ng/ml) as measured by ELISA experiments with plate-bound peptides. A library of monoclonal antibodies toward authentic MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes may be a valuable tool for studying glycan and peptide sequences in cancer, as well as reagents for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23023583

  19. Antibody protection reveals extended epitopes on the human TSH receptor.

    PubMed

    Latif, Rauf; Teixeira, Avelino; Michalek, Krzysztof; Ali, M Rejwan; Schlesinger, Max; Baliram, Ramkumarie; Morshed, Syed A; Davies, Terry F

    2012-01-01

    Stimulating, and some blocking, antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) have conformation-dependent epitopes reported to involve primarily the leucine rich repeat region of the ectodomain (LRD). However, successful crystallization of TSHR residues 22-260 has omitted important extracellular non-LRD residues including the hinge region which connects the TSHR ectodomain to the transmembrane domain and which is involved in ligand induced signal transduction. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to determine if TSHR antibodies (TSHR-Abs) have non-LRD binding sites outside the LRD. To obtain this information we employed the method of epitope protection in which we first protected TSHR residues 1-412 with intact TSHR antibodies and then enzymatically digested the unprotected residues. Those peptides remaining were subsequently delineated by mass spectrometry. Fourteen out of 23 of the reported stimulating monoclonal TSHR-Ab crystal contact residues were protected by this technique which may reflect the higher binding energies of certain residues detected in this approach. Comparing the protected epitopes of two stimulating TSHR-Abs we found both similarities and differences but both antibodies also contacted the hinge region and the amino terminus of the TSHR following the signal peptide and encompassing cysteine box 1 which has previously been shown to be important for TSH binding and activation. A monoclonal blocking TSHR antibody revealed a similar pattern of binding regions but the residues that it contacted on the LRD were again distinct. These data demonstrated that conformationally dependent TSHR-Abs had epitopes not confined to the LRDs but also incorporated epitopes not revealed in the available crystal structure. Furthermore, the data also indicated that in addition to overlapping contact regions within the LRD, there are unique epitope patterns for each of the antibodies which may contribute to their functional heterogeneity. PMID:22957097

  20. Current methods of epitope identification for cancer vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Cherryholmes, Gregory A; Stanton, Sasha E; Disis, Mary L

    2015-12-16

    The importance of the immune system in tumor development and progression has been emerging in many cancers. Previous cancer vaccines have not shown long-term clinical benefit possibly because were not designed to avoid eliciting regulatory T-cell responses that inhibit the anti-tumor immune response. This review will examine different methods of identifying epitopes derived from tumor associated antigens suitable for immunization and the steps used to design and validate peptide epitopes to improve efficacy of anti-tumor peptide-based vaccines. Focusing on in silico prediction algorithms, we survey the advantages and disadvantages of current cancer vaccine prediction tools.

  1. Broad spectrum assessment of the epitope fluctuation--Immunogenicity hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Grosch, Jason S; Yang, Jing; Shen, Alice; Sereda, Yuriy V; Ortoleva, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Prediction of immunogenicity is a substantial barrier in vaccine design. Here, a molecular dynamics approach to assessing the immunogenicity of nanoparticles based on structure is presented. Molecular properties of epitopes on nonenveloped viral particles are quantified via a set of metrics. One such metric, epitope fluctuation (and implied flexibility), is shown to be inversely correlated with immunogenicity for each of a broad spectrum of nonenveloped viruses. The molecular metrics and experimentally determined immunogenicities for these viruses are archived in the open-source vaccine computer-aided design database. Results indicate the promise of computer-aided vaccine design to bring greater efficiency to traditional lab-based vaccine discovery approaches.

  2. Meta-analysis of all immune epitope data in the Flavivirus genus: inventory of current immune epitope data status in the context of virus immunity and immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Kerrie; Greenbaum, Jason; Blythe, Martin; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2010-06-01

    A meta-analysis was performed in order to inventory the immune epitope data related to viruses in the genus Flavivirus. Nearly 2000 epitopes were captured from over 130 individual Flavivirus-related references identified from PubMed and reported as of September 2009. This report includes all epitope structures and associated immune reactivity from the past and current literature, including: the epitope distribution among pathogens and related strains, the epitope distribution among different pathogen antigens, the number of epitopes defined in human and animal models of disease, the relationship between epitopes identified in different disease states following natural (or experimental) infection, and data from studies focused on candidate vaccines. We found that the majority of epitopes were defined for dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV). The prominence of DENV and WNV data in the epitope literature is likely a reflection of their overall worldwide impact on human disease, and the lack of vaccines. Conversely, the relatively smaller number of epitopes defined for the other viruses within the genus (yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis virus) most likely reflects the presence of established prophylaxis and/or their more modest impact on morbidity and mortality globally. Through this work we hope to provide useful data to those working in the area of Flavivirus research.

  3. 3D-Epitope-Explorer (3DEX): localization of conformational epitopes within three-dimensional structures of proteins.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Andreas; Humbert, Michael; Benz, Alexander; Dietrich, Ursula

    2005-07-15

    Neutralizing antibodies often recognize conformational, discontinuous epitopes. Linear peptides mimicking such conformational epitopes can be selected from phage display peptide libraries by screening with the respective antibodies. However, it is difficult to localize these "mimotopes" within the three-dimensional (3D) structures of the target proteins. Knowledge of conformational epitopes of neutralizing antibodies would help to design antigens able to elicit protective immune responses. Therefore, we provide here a software that allows to localize linear peptide sequences within 3D structures of proteins. The 3D-Epitope-Explorer (3DEX) software allows to map conformational epitopes in 3D protein structures based on an algorithm that takes into account the physicochemical neighborhood of C(alpha)- or C(beta)-atoms of individual amino acids. A given amino acid of a peptide sequence is localized within the protein and the software searches within predefined distances for the amino acids neighboring that amino acid in the peptide. Surface exposure of the amino acids can also be taken into consideration. The procedure is then repeated for the remaining amino acids of the peptide. The introduction of a joker function allows to map peptide mimotopes, which do not necessarily have 100% sequence homology to the protein. Using this software we were able to localize mimotopes selected from phage displayed peptide libraries with polyclonal antibodies from HIV-positive patient plasma within the 3D structure of gp120, the exterior glycoprotein of HIV-1. We also analyzed two recently published peptide sequences corresponding to known conformational epitopes to further confirm the integrity of 3DEX.

  4. Immunoproteasome LMP2 60HH Variant Alters MBP Epitope Generation and Reduces the Risk to Develop Multiple Sclerosis in Italian Female Population

    PubMed Central

    Mishto, Michele; Bellavista, Elena; Ligorio, Claudia; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Santoro, Aurelia; Giordano, Mara; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Listì, Florinda; Nacmias, Benedetta; Cellini, Elena; Leone, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Luigi M.E.; Fenoglio, Chiara; Esposito, Federica; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Seifert, Ulrike; Amato, Maria Pia; Caruso, Calogero; Foschini, Maria P.; Kloetzel, Peter M.; Franceschi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Background Albeit several studies pointed out the pivotal role that CD4+T cells have in Multiple Sclerosis, the CD8+ T cells involvement in the pathology is still in its early phases of investigation. Proteasome degradation is the key step in the production of MHC class I-restricted epitopes and therefore its activity could be an important element in the activation and regulation of autoreactive CD8+ T cells in Multiple Sclerosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunoproteasomes and PA28-αβ regulator are present in MS affected brain area and accumulated in plaques. They are expressed in cell types supposed to be involved in MS development such as neurons, endothelial cells, oligodendrocytes, macrophages/macroglia and lymphocytes. Furthermore, in a genetic study on 1262 Italian MS cases and 845 controls we observed that HLA-A*02+ female subjects carrying the immunoproteasome LMP2 codon 60HH variant have a reduced risk to develop MS. Accordingly, immunoproteasomes carrying the LMP2 60H allele produce in vitro a lower amount of the HLA-A*0201 restricted immunodominant epitope MBP111–119. Conclusion/Significance The immunoproteasome LMP2 60HH variant reduces the risk to develop MS amongst Italian HLA-A*02+ females. We propose that such an effect is mediated by the altered proteasome-dependent production of a specific MBP epitope presented on the MHC class I. Our observations thereby support the hypothesis of an involvement of immunoproteasome in the MS pathogenesis. PMID:20174631

  5. Identification of an immunogenic CD8+ T-cell epitope derived from γ-globin, a putative tumor-associated antigen for juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Naoto; Butler, Marcus O.; Xia, Zhinan; Berezovskaya, Alla; Murray, Andrew P.; Ansén, Sascha; Kojima, Seiji; Nadler, Lee M.

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare clonal myeloproliferative disorder. Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation can induce long-term remissions, relapse rates remain high and innovative approaches are needed. Since donor lymphocyte infusions have clinical activity in JMML, T-cell-mediated immunotherapy could provide a nonredundant treatment approach to compliment current therapies. γ-Globin, an oncofetal protein overexpressed by clonogenic JMML cells, may serve as a target of an antitumor immune response. We predicted 5 γ-globin-derived peptides as potential human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes and showed that 4 (g031, g071, g105, and g106) bind A2 molecules in vitro. Using an artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) that can process both the N- and C-termini of endogenously expressed proteins, we biochemically confirmed that g105 is naturally processed and presented by cell surface A2. Furthermore, g105-specific CD8+ CTLs generated from A2-positive healthy donors were able to specifically cytolyze γ-globin+, but not γ-globin- JMML cells in an A2-restricted manner. These results suggest that this aAPC-based approach enables the biochemical identification of CD8+ T-cell epitopes that are processed and presented by intact cells, and that CTL immunotherapy of JMML could be directed against the γ-globin-derived epitope g105. PMID:16778141

  6. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; O'Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S

    2016-02-01

    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells.

  7. Macaque Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Novel Conserved Epitopes within Filovirus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Zhen-Yong; Enterlein, Sven G.; Howell, Katie A.; Vu, Hong; Shulenin, Sergey; Warfield, Kelly L.; Froude, Jeffrey W.; Araghi, Nazli; Douglas, Robin; Biggins, Julia; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Lau, Patrick; Wang, Yong; Herbert, Andrew S.; Dye, John M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Foung, Steven K. H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filoviruses cause highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Current immunotherapeutic options for filoviruses are mostly specific to Ebola virus (EBOV), although other members of Filoviridae such as Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), and Marburg virus (MARV) have also caused sizeable human outbreaks. Here we report a set of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) derived from cynomolgus macaques immunized repeatedly with a mixture of engineered glycoproteins (GPs) and virus-like particles (VLPs) for three different filovirus species. The antibodies recognize novel neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on the filovirus glycoprotein, including conserved conformational epitopes within the core regions of the GP1 subunit and a novel linear epitope within the glycan cap. We further report the first filovirus antibody binding to a highly conserved epitope within the fusion loop of ebolavirus and marburgvirus species. One of the antibodies binding to the core GP1 region of all ebolavirus species and with lower affinity to MARV GP cross neutralized both SUDV and EBOV, the most divergent ebolavirus species. In a mouse model of EBOV infection, this antibody provided 100% protection when administered in two doses and partial, but significant, protection when given once at the peak of viremia 3 days postinfection. Furthermore, we describe novel cocktails of antibodies with enhanced protective efficacy compared to individual MAbs. In summary, the present work describes multiple novel, cross-reactive filovirus epitopes and innovative combination concepts that challenge the current therapeutic models. IMPORTANCE Filoviruses are among the most deadly human pathogens. The 2014-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) led to more than 27,000 cases and 11,000 fatalities. While there are five species of Ebolavirus and several strains of marburgvirus, the current immunotherapeutics primarily target Ebola virus

  8. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to multiple hepatitis B virus polymerase epitopes during and after acute viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are thought to contribute to viral clearance and liver cell injury during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Using a strategy involving the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with HBV-derived synthetic peptides containing HLA-A2.1, -A31, and -Aw68 binding motifs, we have previously described CTL responses to several epitopes within the HBV nucleocapsid and envelope antigens in patients with acute hepatitis. In this study we define six HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes located in the highly conserved reverse transcriptase and RNase H domains of the viral polymerase protein, and we show that the CTL response to polymerase is polyclonal, multispecific, and mediated by CD8+ T cells in patients with acute viral hepatitis, but that it is not detectable in patients with chronic HBV infection or uninfected healthy blood donors. Importantly, the peptide-activated CTL recognize target cells that express endogenously synthesized polymerase protein, suggesting that these peptides represent naturally processed viral epitopes. DNA sequence analysis of the viruses in patients who did not respond to peptide stimulation indicated that CTL nonresponsiveness was not due to infection by viral variants that differed in sequences from the synthetic peptides. CTL specific for one of the epitopes were unable to recognize several naturally occurring viral variants, except at high peptide concentration, underlining the HBV subtype specificity of this response. Furthermore, CTL responses against polymerase, core, and envelope epitopes were detectable for more than a year after complete clinical recovery and seroconversion, reflecting either the persistence of trace amounts of virus or the presence of long lived memory CTL in the absence of viral antigen. Finally, we demonstrated that wild type viral DNA and RNA can persist indefinitely, in trace quantities, in the serum and PBMC after complete clinical and serological recovery

  9. Structural Illumination of Equine MHC Class I Molecules Highlights Unconventional Epitope Presentation Manner That Is Evolved in Equine Leukocyte Antigen Alleles.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shugang; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Nianzhi; Liu, Yanjie; Wang, Junya; Wu, Yanan; Gao, George Fu; Xia, Chun

    2016-02-15

    MHC class I (MHC I)-restricted virus-specific CTLs are implicated as critical components in the control of this naturally occurring lentivirus and in the protective immune response to the successfully applied attenuated equine infectious anemia virus vaccine in the horse. Nevertheless, the structural basis for how the equine MHC I presents epitope peptides remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the binding of several equine infectious anemia virus-derived epitope peptides by the ability to refold recombinant molecules and by thermal stability, and then by determining the x-ray structure of five peptide-MHC I complexes: equine MHC class I allele (Eqca)-N*00602/Env-RW12, Eqca-N*00602/Gag-GW12, Eqca-N*00602/Rev-QW11, Eqca-N*00602/Gag-CF9, and Eqca-N*00601/Gag-GW12. Although Eqca-N*00601 and Eqca-N*00602 differ by a single amino acid, Eqca-N*00601 exhibited a drastically different peptide presentation when binding a similar CTL epitope, Gag-GW12; the result makes the previously reported function clear to be non-cross-recognition between these two alleles. The structures plus Eqca-N*00602 complexed with a 9-mer peptide are particularly noteworthy in that we illuminated differences in apparent flexibility in the center of the epitope peptides for the complexes with Gag-GW12 as compared with Env-RW12, and a strict selection of epitope peptides with normal length. The featured preferences and unconventional presentations of long peptides by equine MHC I molecules provide structural bases to explain the exceptional anti-lentivirus immunity in the horse. We think that the beneficial reference points could serve as an initial platform for other human or animal lentiviruses. PMID:26764037

  10. In vivo immunogenicity of Tax(11-19) epitope in HLA-A2/DTR transgenic mice: implication for dendritic cell-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Divya; Masih, Shet; Schell, Todd; Jacobson, Steven; Comber, Joseph D; Philip, Ramila; Wigdahl, Brian; Jain, Pooja; Khan, Zafar K

    2014-05-30

    Viral oncoprotein Tax plays key roles in transformation of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-infected T cells leading to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and is the key antigen recognized during HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM). In HLA-A2+ asymptomatic carriers as well as ATL and HAM patients, Tax(11-19) epitope exhibits immunodominance. Here, we evaluate CD8 T-cell immune response against this epitope in the presence and absence of dendritic cells (DCs) given the recent encouraging observations made with Phase 1 DC-based vaccine trial for ATL. To facilitate these studies, we first generated an HLA-A2/DTR hybrid mouse strain carrying the HLA-A2.1 and CD11c-DTR genes. We then studied CD8 T-cell immune response against Tax(11-19) epitope delivered in the absence or presence of Freund's adjuvant and/or DCs. Overall results demonstrate that naturally presented Tax epitope could initiate an antigen-specific CD8T cell response in vivo but failed to do so upon DC depletion. Presence of adjuvant potentiated Tax(11-19)-specific response. Elevated serum IL-6 levels coincided with depletion of DCs whereas decreased TGF-β was associated with adjuvant use. Thus, Tax(11-19) epitope is a potential candidate for the DC-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine and the newly hybrid mouse strain could be used for investigating DC involvement in human class-I-restricted immune responses.

  11. Characterization of immunologic properties of a second HLA-A2 epitope from a granule protease in CML patients and HLA-A2 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Simon F.; La Rosa, Corinna; Kaltcheva, Teodora; Srivastava, Tumul; Seidel, Aprille; Zhou, Wendi; Rawal, Ravindra; Hagen, Katharine; Krishnan, Aparna; Longmate, Jeff; Andersson, Helen A.; St. John, Lisa; Bhatia, Ravi; Pullarkat, Vinod; Forman, Stephen J.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.; Molldrem, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The serine proteases, neutrophil elastase (HNE) and proteinase 3 (PR3), are aberrantly expressed in human myeloid leukemias. T-cell responses to these proteins have been correlated with remission in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Human PR3/HNE-specific CD8+ T cells predominantly recognize a nonameric HLA-A2–restricted T-cell epitope called PR1 which is conserved in both Ags. However, CML patients have CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood recognizing an additional HLA-A2 epitope termed PR2. To assess immunologic properties of these Ags, novel recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) expressing PR3 and HNE were evaluated in HLA-A2 transgenic (Tg) mice (HHDII). Immunization of HHDII mice with rVV-PR3 elicited a robust PR3-specific CD8+ T-cell response dominated by recognition of PR2, with minimal recognition of the PR1 epitope. This result was unexpected, because the PR2 peptide has been reported to bind poorly to HLA. To account for these findings, we proposed that HHDII mice negatively selected PR1-specific T cells because of the presence of this epitope within murine PR3 and HNE, leading to immunodominance of PR2-specific responses. PR2-specific splenocytes are cytotoxic to targets expressing naturally processed PR3, though PR1-specific splenocytes are not. We conclude that PR2 represents a functional T-cell epitope recognized in mice and human leukemia patients. These studies are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00716911. PMID:21719601

  12. Localization of infection-related epitopes on the non-structural protein 3ABC of foot-and-mouth disease virus and the application of tandem epitopes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Lu, Ping; Wang, Xin

    2004-08-01

    By means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western-blotting, infection specific linear epitopes were identified on the non-structural protein 3ABC of FMDV. The epitopes reacted with sera from pigs or guinea pigs infected with different serotypes of FMDV, but not with sera from normal or vaccinated animals. A protein was constructed by tandem repeat of the epitope covering amino acid residues 141-190 on 3ABC. An ELISA based on the protein with tandem epitopes could be used as a diagnostic antigen for differentiating infected pigs from vaccinated ones. PMID:15158588

  13. Two highly similar LAEDDTNAQKT and LTDKIGTEI epitopes in G glycoprotein may be useful for effective epitope based vaccine design against pathogenic Henipavirus.

    PubMed

    Parvege, Md Masud; Rahman, Monzilur; Nibir, Yead Morshed; Hossain, Mohammad Shahnoor

    2016-04-01

    Nipah virus and Hendra virus, two members of the genus Henipavirus, are newly emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause acute respiratory illness and severe encephalitis in human. Lack of the effective antiviral therapy endorses the urgency for the development of vaccine against these deadly viruses. In this study, we employed various computational approaches to identify epitopes which has the potential for vaccine development. By analyzing the immune parameters of the conserved sequences of G glycoprotein using various databases and bioinformatics tools, we identified two potential epitopes which may be used as peptide vaccines. Using different B cell epitope prediction servers, four highly similar B cell epitopes were identified. Immunoinformatics analyses revealed that LAEDDTNAQKT is a highly flexible and accessible B-cell epitope to antibody. Highly similar putative CTL epitopes were analyzed for their binding with the HLA-C 12*03 molecule. Docking simulation assay revealed that LTDKIGTEI has significantly lower binding energy, which bolstered its potential as epitope-based vaccine design. Finally, cytotoxicity analysis has also justified their potential as promising epitope-based vaccine candidate. In sum, our computational analysis indicates that either LAEDDTNAQKT or LTDKIGTEI epitope holds a promise for the development of universal vaccine against all kinds of pathogenic Henipavirus. Further in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to validate the obtained findings. PMID:26970211

  14. Two highly similar LAEDDTNAQKT and LTDKIGTEI epitopes in G glycoprotein may be useful for effective epitope based vaccine design against pathogenic Henipavirus.

    PubMed

    Parvege, Md Masud; Rahman, Monzilur; Nibir, Yead Morshed; Hossain, Mohammad Shahnoor

    2016-04-01

    Nipah virus and Hendra virus, two members of the genus Henipavirus, are newly emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause acute respiratory illness and severe encephalitis in human. Lack of the effective antiviral therapy endorses the urgency for the development of vaccine against these deadly viruses. In this study, we employed various computational approaches to identify epitopes which has the potential for vaccine development. By analyzing the immune parameters of the conserved sequences of G glycoprotein using various databases and bioinformatics tools, we identified two potential epitopes which may be used as peptide vaccines. Using different B cell epitope prediction servers, four highly similar B cell epitopes were identified. Immunoinformatics analyses revealed that LAEDDTNAQKT is a highly flexible and accessible B-cell epitope to antibody. Highly similar putative CTL epitopes were analyzed for their binding with the HLA-C 12*03 molecule. Docking simulation assay revealed that LTDKIGTEI has significantly lower binding energy, which bolstered its potential as epitope-based vaccine design. Finally, cytotoxicity analysis has also justified their potential as promising epitope-based vaccine candidate. In sum, our computational analysis indicates that either LAEDDTNAQKT or LTDKIGTEI epitope holds a promise for the development of universal vaccine against all kinds of pathogenic Henipavirus. Further in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to validate the obtained findings.

  15. MUC-1 Tumor Antigen Agonist Epitopes for Enhancing T-cell Responses to Human Tumors | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at NIH have identified 7 new agonist epitopes of the MUC-1 tumor associated antigen. Compared to their native epitope counterparts, peptides reflecting these agonist epitopes have been shown to enhance the generation of human tumor cells, which in turn have a greater ability to kill human tumor cells endogenously expressing the native MUC-1 epitope.

  16. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Babu; Poh, Chit Laa; Kirk, Kristin; McBride, William John Hannan; Aaskov, John; Grollo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine. PMID:27223692

  17. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Chit Laa; Kirk, Kristin; McBride, William John Hannan; Aaskov, John; Grollo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine. PMID:27223692

  18. An unstable Th epitope of P. falciparum fosters central memory T cells and anti-CS antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Parra-López, Carlos A; Bernal-Estévez, David; Yin, Liusong; Vargas, Luis Eduardo; Pulido-Calixto, Carolina; Salazar, Luz Mary; Calvo-Calle, J Mauricio; Stern, Lawrence J

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted by Plasmodium-infected anopheles mosquitoes. Widespread resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides and resistance of parasites to drugs highlight the urgent need for malaria vaccines. The most advanced malaria vaccines target sporozoites, the infective form of the parasite. A major target of the antibody response to sporozoites are the repeat epitopes of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein, which span almost one half of the protein. Antibodies to these repeats can neutralize sporozoite infectivity. Generation of protective antibody responses to the CS protein (anti-CS Ab) requires help by CD4 T cells. A CD4 T cell epitope from the CS protein designated T* was previously identified by screening T cells from volunteers immunized with irradiated P. falciparum sporozoites. The T* sequence spans twenty amino acids that contains multiple T cell epitopes restricted by various HLA alleles. Subunit malaria vaccines including T* are highly immunogenic in rodents, non-human primates and humans. In this study we characterized a highly conserved HLA-DRβ1*04:01 (DR4) restricted T cell epitope (QNT-5) located at the C-terminus of T*. We found that a peptide containing QNT-5 was able to elicit long-term anti-CS Ab responses and prime CD4 T cells in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice despite forming relatively unstable MHC-peptide complexes highly susceptible to HLA-DM editing. We attempted to improve the immunogenicity of QNT-5 by replacing the P1 anchor position with an optimal tyrosine residue. The modified peptide QNT-Y formed stable MHC-peptide complexes highly resistant to HLA-DM editing. Contrary to expectations, a linear peptide containing QNT-Y elicited almost 10-fold lower long-term antibody and IFN-γ responses compared to the linear peptide containing the wild type QNT-5 sequence. Some possibilities regarding why QNT-5 is more effective than QNT-Y in inducing long-term T cell and anti-CS Ab when used as vaccine are discussed.

  19. Design and Evaluation of Optimized Artificial HIV-1 Poly-T Cell-Epitope Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Reguzova, Alena; Antonets, Denis; Karpenko, Larisa; Ilyichev, Alexander; Maksyutov, Rinat; Bazhan, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    A successful HIV vaccine in addition to induction of antibody responses should elicit effective T cell responses. Here we described possible strategies for rational design of T-cell vaccine capable to induce high levels of both CD4+ and CD8+ T- cell responses. We developed artificial HIV-1 polyepitope T-cell immunogens based on the conserved natural CD8+ and CD4+ T cell epitopes from different HIV-1 strains and restricted by the most frequent major human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Designed immunogens contain optimized core polyepitope sequence and additional “signal” sequences which increase epitope processing and presentation to CD8+ and CD4+ T-lymphocytes: N-terminal ubiquitin, N-terminal signal peptide and C-terminal tyrosine motif of LAMP-1 protein. As a result we engineered three T cell immunogens – TCI-N, TCI-N2, and TCI-N3, with different combinations of signal sequences. All designed immunogens were able to elicit HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses following immunization. Attachment of either ubiquitin or ER-signal/LAMP-1 sequences increased both CD4+ and CD8+ mediated HIV-specific T cell responses in comparison with polyepitope immunogen without any additional signal sequences. Moreover, TCI-N3 polyepitope immunogen with ubiquitin generated highest magnitude of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in our study. Obtained data suggests that attachment of signal sequences targeting polyepitope immunogens to either MHC class I or MHC class II presentation pathways may improve immunogenicity of T-cell vaccines. These results support the strategy of the rational T cell immunogen design and contribute to the development of effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:25786238

  20. Identification of two T-cell epitopes on the candidate Epstein-Barr virus vaccine glycoprotein gp340 recognized by CD4+ T-cell clones.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L E; Wright, J; Ulaeto, D O; Morgan, A J; Rickinson, A B

    1991-01-01

    Current efforts to develop an Epstein-Barr virus subunit vaccine are based on the major envelope glycoprotein gp340. Given the central role of CD4+ T cells in regulating immune responses to subunit vaccine antigens, the present study has begun the work of identifying linear epitopes which are recognized by human CD4+ T cells within the 907-amino-acid sequence of gp340. A panel of gp340-specific CD4+ T-cell clones from an Epstein-Barr virus-immune donor were first assayed for their proliferative responses to a series of truncated gp340 molecules expressed from recombinant DNA vectors in rat GH3 cells, by using an autologous B lymphoblastoid cell line as a source of antigen-presenting cells. The first four T-cell clones analyzed all responded to a truncated form of gp340 which contained only the first 260 N-terminal amino acids. These clones were subsequently screened for responses to each of a panel of overlapping synthetic peptides (15-mers) corresponding to the primary amino acid sequence of the first 260 N-terminal amino acids of gp340. One clone (CG2.7) responded specifically to peptides from the region spanning amino acids 61 to 81, while three other clones (CG5.15, CG5.24, and CG5.36) responded specifically to peptides from the region spanning amino acids 163 to 183. Work with individual peptides from these regions allowed finer mapping of the T-cell epitopes and also revealed the highly dose-dependent nature of peptide-induced responses, with inhibitory effects apparent when the most antigenic peptides were present at supraoptimal concentrations. Experiments using homozygous typing B lymphoblastoid cell lines as antigen-presenting cells showed that the T-cell clones with different epitope specificities were restricted through different HLA class II antigens; clone CG2.7 recognized epitope 61-81 in the context of HLA DRw15, whereas clones CG5.15, CG5.24, and CG5.36 recognized epitope 163-183 in the context of HLA DRw11. The present protocol therefore makes a

  1. Characterization of a Proteasome and TAP-independent Presentation of Intracellular Epitopes by HLA-B27 Molecules*

    PubMed Central

    Magnacca, Adriana; Persiconi, Irene; Nurzia, Elisa; Caristi, Silvana; Meloni, Francesca; Barnaba, Vincenzo; Paladini, Fabiana; Raimondo, Domenico; Fiorillo, Maria Teresa; Sorrentino, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Nascent HLA-class I molecules are stabilized by proteasome-derived peptides in the ER and the new complexes proceed to the cell surface through the post-ER vesicles. It has been shown, however, that less stable complexes can exchange peptides in the Trans Golgi Network (TGN). HLA-B27 are the most studied HLA-class I molecules due to their association with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). Chimeric proteins driven by TAT of HIV have been exploited by us to deliver viral epitopes, whose cross-presentation by the HLA-B27 molecules was proteasome and TAP-independent and not restricted to Antigen-Presenting Cells (APC). Here, using these chimeric proteins as epitope suppliers, we compared with each other and with the HLA-A2 molecules, the two HLA-B*2705 and B*2709 alleles differing at residue 116 (D116H) and differentially associated with AS. We found that the antigen presentation by the two HLA-B27 molecules was proteasome-, TAP-, and APC-independent whereas the presentation by the HLA-A2 molecules required proteasome, TAP and professional APC. Assuming that such difference could be due to the unpaired, highly reactive Cys-67 distinguishing the HLA-B27 molecules, C67S mutants in HLA-B*2705 and B*2709 and V67C mutant in HLA-A*0201 were also analyzed. The results showed that this mutation did not influence the HLA-A2-restricted antigen presentation while it drastically affected the HLA-B27-restricted presentation with, however, remarkable differences between B*2705 and B*2709. The data, together with the occurrence on the cell surface of unfolded molecules in the case of C67S-B*2705 mutant but not in that of C67S-B*2709 mutant, indicates that Cys-67 has a more critical role in stabilizing the B*2705 rather than the B*2709 complexes. PMID:22807446

  2. Antiretroviral restriction factors.

    PubMed

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2011-12-01

    Studies of retroviruses have been instrumental in revealing the existence of an array of antiviral proteins, or restriction factors, and the mechanisms by which they function. Some restriction factors appear to specifically inhibit retrovirus replication, while others have a broader antiviral action. Here, we briefly review current understanding of the mechanisms by which several such proteins exert antiviral activity. We also discuss how retroviruses have evolved to evade or antagonize antiviral proteins, including through the action of viral accessory proteins. Restriction factors, their viral targets and antagonists have exerted evolutionary pressure on each other, resulting in specialization and barriers to cross-species transmission. Potentially, this recently revealed intrinsic system of antiviral immunity might be mobilized for therapeutic benefit.

  3. Epitope predictions indicate the presence of two distinct types of epitope-antibody-reactivities determined by epitope profiling of intravenous immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Luštrek, Mitja; Lorenz, Peter; Kreutzer, Michael; Qian, Zilliang; Steinbeck, Felix; Wu, Di; Born, Nadine; Ziems, Bjoern; Hecker, Michael; Blank, Miri; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Cao, Zhiwei; Glocker, Michael O; Li, Yixue; Fuellen, Georg; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Epitope-antibody-reactivities (EAR) of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) determined for 75,534 peptides by microarray analysis demonstrate that roughly 9% of peptides derived from 870 different human protein sequences react with antibodies present in IVIG. Computational prediction of linear B cell epitopes was conducted using machine learning with an ensemble of classifiers in combination with position weight matrix (PWM) analysis. Machine learning slightly outperformed PWM with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.884 vs. 0.849. Two different types of epitope-antibody recognition-modes (Type I EAR and Type II EAR) were found. Peptides of Type I EAR are high in tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, and low in asparagine, glutamine and glutamic acid residues, whereas for peptides of Type II EAR it is the other way around. Representative crystal structures present in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) of Type I EAR are PDB 1TZI and PDB 2DD8, while PDB 2FD6 and 2J4W are typical for Type II EAR. Type I EAR peptides share predicted propensities for being presented by MHC class I and class II complexes. The latter interaction possibly favors T cell-dependent antibody responses including IgG class switching. Peptides of Type II EAR are predicted not to be preferentially presented by MHC complexes, thus implying the involvement of T cell-independent IgG class switch mechanisms. The high extent of IgG immunoglobulin reactivity with human peptides implies that circulating IgG molecules are prone to bind to human protein/peptide structures under non-pathological, non-inflammatory conditions. A webserver for predicting EAR of peptide sequences is available at www.sysmed-immun.eu/EAR.

  4. Aspartate-β-hydroxylase Induces Epitope-specific T Cell Responses in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tomimaru, Yoshito; Mishra, Sasmita; Safran, Howard; Charpentier, Kevin P.; Martin, William; De Groot, Anne S.; Gregory, Stephen H.; Wands, Jack R.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a poor prognosis due to high recurrence rate. Aspartate-β-hydroxylase (ASPH) is a highly conserved transmembrane protein, which is over expressed in HCC and promotes a malignant phenotype. The capability of ASPH protein-derived HLA Class I and II peptides to generate antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses is unknown. Therefore, these studies aim to define the epitope specific components required for a peptide based candidate vaccine. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) generated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HCC patients were loaded with ASPH protein. Helper CD4+ T cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were co-incubated with the DCs; T cell activation was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoinformatics tools were used to predict HLA class I- and class II-restricted ASPH sequences, and the corresponding peptides were synthesized. The immunogenicity of each peptide in cultures of human PBMCs was determined by IFN-γ ELISpot assay. ASPH protein-loaded DCs activated both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells contained within the PBMC population derived from HCC patients. Furthermore, the predicted HLA class I- and class II-restricted ASPH peptides were significantly immunogenic. Both HLA class I- and class II-restricted peptides derived from ASPH induce T cell activation in HCC. We observed that ASPH protein and related peptides were highly immunogenic in patients with HCC and produce the type of cellular immune responses required for generation of anti-tumor activity. PMID:25629522

  5. Fine mapping of sequential neutralization epitopes on the subunit protein VP8 of human rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Yoo, Dongwan; Mine, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    The epitopes of the HRV (human rotavirus), especially those involved in virus neutralization, have not been determined in their entirety, and would have significant implications for HRV vaccine development. In the present study, we report on the epitope mapping and identification of sequential neutralization epitopes, on the Wa strain HRV subunit protein VP8, using synthetic overlapping peptides. Polyclonal antibodies against recombinant Wa VP8 were produced previously in chicken, and purified from egg yolk, which showed neutralizing activity against HRV in vitro. Overlapping VP8 peptide fragments were synthesized and probed with the anti-VP8 antibodies, revealing five sequential epitopes on VP8. Further analysis suggested that three of the five epitopes detected, M1-L10, I55-D66 and L223-P234, were involved in virus neutralization, indicating that sequential epitopes may also be important for the HRV neutralization. The interactions of the antibodies with the five epitopes were characterized by an examination of the critical amino acids involved in antibody binding. Epitopes comprised primarily of hydrophobic amino acid residues, followed by polar and charged residues. The more critical amino acids appeared to be located near the centre of the epitopes, with proline, isoleucine, serine, glutamine and arginine playing an important role in the binding of antibody to the VP8 epitopes. PMID:12901721

  6. Sequence variation of cytotoxic T cell epitopes in different isolates of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Apolloni, A; Moss, D; Stumm, R; Burrows, S; Suhrbier, A; Misko, I; Schmidt, C; Sculley, T

    1992-01-01

    Previous results have identified two distinct cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), TETA (ORF BLRF3/BERF1 residues 329-353) and EENL (ORF BERF3/BERF4 residues 290-309). Measurement of the specificities of CTL clones (TETA-specific clone 13 and EENL-specific clone 7) directed against these epitopes indicated that the EENL epitope is conserved in all strains of EBV tested while the TETA epitope varied between individual virus strains. Sequencing of the DNA regions encoding these two CTL epitopes in different EBV isolates confirmed these interpretations and demonstrated that different TETA epitope sequences were encoded by B-type EBV strains and by the B95-8 isolate of EBV compared to the other A-type EBV strains. Titration of synthetic variants of the TETA epitope revealed that the epitope encoded by B95-8 was 15-fold less efficient as a T cell epitope than the sequence encoded by other A-type viral strains while the TETA variant encoded by the B-type strains displayed essentially no activity as a T cell epitope.

  7. Antigenic Analysis of Monoclonal Antibodies against Different Epitopes of σB Protein of Avian Reovirus

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chun-hong; Qin, Li-ting; Sun, Mei-yu; Gao, Yu-long; Qi, Xiao-le; Gao, Hong-lei; Wang, Yong-qiang; Wang, Xiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    Background Avian reovirus (ARV) causes arthritis, tenosynovitis, runting-stunting syndrome (RSS), malabsorption syndrome (MAS) and immunosuppression in chickens. σB is one of the major structural proteins of ARV, which is able to induce group-specific antibodies against the virus. Methods and Results The present study described the identification of two linear B-cell epitopes in ARV σB through expressing a set of partially overlapping and consecutive truncated peptides spanning σB screened with two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F4 and 1H3-1.The data indicated that 21KTPACW26 (epitope A) and 32WDTVTFH38 (epitope B) were minimal determinants of the linear B cell epitopes. Antibodies present in the serum of ARV-positive chickens recognized the minimal linear epitopes in Western blot analyses. By sequence alignment analysis, we determined that the epitopes A and B were not conserved among ARV, duck reovirus (DRV) and turkey reovirus (TRV) strains. Western blot assays, confirmed that epitopes A and B were ARV-specific epitopes, and they could not react with the corresponding peptides of DRV and TRV. Conclusions and Significance We identified 21KTPACW26 and 32WDTVTFH38 as σB -specific epitopes recognized by mAbs 1F4 and 1H3-1, respectively. The results in this study may have potential applications in development of diagnostic techniques and epitope-based marker vaccines against ARV groups. PMID:24312314

  8. High-resolution Mapping of Linear Antibody Epitopes Using Ultrahigh-density Peptide Microarrays*

    PubMed Central

    Buus, Søren; Rockberg, Johan; Forsström, Björn; Nilsson, Peter; Uhlen, Mathias; Schafer-Nielsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies empower numerous important scientific, clinical, diagnostic, and industrial applications. Ideally, the epitope(s) targeted by an antibody should be identified and characterized, thereby establishing antibody reactivity, highlighting possible cross-reactivities, and perhaps even warning against unwanted (e.g. autoimmune) reactivities. Antibodies target proteins as either conformational or linear epitopes. The latter are typically probed with peptides, but the cost of peptide screening programs tends to prohibit comprehensive specificity analysis. To perform high-throughput, high-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes, we have used ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays generating several hundred thousand different peptides per array. Using exhaustive length and substitution analysis, we have successfully examined the specificity of a panel of polyclonal antibodies raised against linear epitopes of the human proteome and obtained very detailed descriptions of the involved specificities. The epitopes identified ranged from 4 to 12 amino acids in size. In general, the antibodies were of exquisite specificity, frequently disallowing even single conservative substitutions. In several cases, multiple distinct epitopes could be identified for the same target protein, suggesting an efficient approach to the generation of paired antibodies. Two alternative epitope mapping approaches identified similar, although not necessarily identical, epitopes. These results show that ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays can be used for linear epitope mapping. With an upper theoretical limit of 2,000,000 individual peptides per array, these peptide microarrays may even be used for a systematic validation of antibodies at the proteomic level. PMID:22984286

  9. A surface epitope undergoing high-frequency phase variation is shared by Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Yogev, D; Menaker, D; Strutzberg, K; Levisohn, S; Kirchhoff, H; Hinz, K H; Rosengarten, R

    1994-01-01

    We have recently reported that three distinct size- and phase-variable surface lipoproteins (Vsps) of the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma bovis possess a common epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 1E5. In the present study, we show that this epitope is also present on a size-variant protein (PvpA) of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Application of monoclonal antibody 1E5 in Western immunoblot analysis of Triton X-114 phase-fractionated proteins and in colony immunoblots, as well as in trypsin and carboxypeptidase digestion experiments, has demonstrated that (i) PvpA is an integral membrane protein with a free C terminus, (ii) the shared epitope is surface exposed, and (iii) PvpA is subjected to high-frequency phase variation in expression. By using serum antibodies from M. gallisepticum-infected chickens, we were able to demonstrate the immunogenic nature of PvpA and identify three additional highly immunogenic Triton X-114 phase proteins (p67, p72, and p75) also undergoing high-frequency phase variation spontaneously and independently. Metabolic labeling experiments with [14C]palmitate and [14C]oleate revealed that PvpA, in contrast to p67, p72, and p75, is not lipid modified. Southern blot hybridization with restriction fragments carrying the pvpA gene of M. gallisepticum or the vspA gene of M. bovis against digested genomic DNA of the two Mycoplasma species indicated the absence of genetic relatedness between the pvpA and vspA genes. The apparent complexity of the antigenic variation phenomenon in M. gallisepticum is discussed. Images PMID:7523302

  10. Computational tools for epitope vaccine design and evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, Linling; Zhu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Rational approaches will be required to develop universal vaccines for viral pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and influenza, for which empirical approaches have failed. The main objective of a rational vaccine strategy is to design novel immunogens that are capable of inducing long-term protective immunity. In practice, this requires structure-based engineering of the target neutralizing epitopes and a quantitative readout of vaccine-induced immune responses. Therefore, computational tools that can facilitate these two areas have played increasingly important roles in rational vaccine design in recent years. Here we review the computational techniques developed for protein structure prediction and antibody repertoire analysis, and demonstrate how they can be applied to the design and evaluation of epitope vaccines.

  11. Identification of a major continuous epitope of human alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Human lens proteins were digested with trypsin or V8 protease, and the resulting peptides resolved on a C18 reverse phase column. Fractions from this column were probed with polyclonal antiserum made against the whole alpha crystallin molecule. Peptides in the seropositive fraction were purified to homogeneity, then characterized by mass spectral analysis and partial Edman degradation. The tryptic and V8 digests contained only one seropositive peptide that was derived from the C-terminal region of the alpha-A molecule. To determine the exact boundaries of the epitope, various size analogues of this region were synthesized and probed with anti-alpha serum. Together, these studies demonstrate that the major continuous epitope of the alpha-A chain includes the sequence KPTSAPS, corresponding to residues 166-172 of the human alpha-A crystallin chain.

  12. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies (TSHRAbs): epitopes, origins and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Leonard D; Harii, Norikazu

    2003-01-01

    Epitopes for > 95% stimulating thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies (TSHRAbs) causally implicated in Graves' disease (Basedow's disease or primary hyperthyroidism) have been identified on on the N-terminal portion of the TSHR extracellular domain, residues 8-165. If the stimulating TSHRAb activity is solely dependent on this region, it is termed homogeneous; if its activity is only largely related to this region, it is termed heterogeneous. The presence of a heterogeneous stimulating TSHRAb in a patient is associated with rapid responses to propylthiouracil or methimazole and may be predictive of long term remission with these oral immunosuppressives. Epitopes for two different Graves' autoantibodies that inhibit TSH binding, TSH binding inhibition immunoglobulins or TBIIs, have also been identified on this region of the TSHR. They do not increase cAMP levels, although one may activate the inositol phosphate, Ca++, arachidonate release signal system. The epitope of blocking TSHRAbs with the ability to inhibit TSH binding (TBII activity), TSH activity, and stimulating TSHRAb activity, and that are causally implicated in the primary hypothyroidism of patients with idiopathic myxedema or some patients with Hashimoto's disease have, in contrast, been largely identified largely on the C-terminal portion of the TSHR extracellular domain, residues 270-395. They have been implicated as important in pregnancy where they attenuate the signs and symptoms of Graves' hyperthyroidism. The appearance of these blocking TSHRAbs during pregnancy in Graves' patients might cause overt or occult hypothyroidism, with resultant effects on fetal development and postnatal intelligence levels. The different TSHRAbs can exist in the same patient at any moment in time, potentially making disease expression a sum of their activities. Assays taking advantage of the epitope mapping findings enable us to detect individual TSHRAbs within a single patient and to better understand their clinical

  13. Regulation of ISWI involves inhibitory modules antagonized by nucleosomal epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Clapier, Cedric R.; Cairns, Bradley R.

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs) mobilize nucleosomes to mediate the access of DNA-binding factors to their sites in vivo. These CRCs contain a catalytic subunit that bears an ATPase/DNA translocase domain, and flanking regions that bind nucleosomal epitopes1. A central question is whether and how these flanking regions regulate ATP hydrolysis or the coupling of hydrolysis to DNA translocation, to affect nucleosome sliding efficiency. ISWIfamily CRCs contain ISWI2, which utilizes its ATPase/DNA translocase domain to pump DNA around the histone octamer to enable sliding3-7_ENREF_13. ISWI is positively regulated by two ‘activating’ nucleosomal epitopes: the ‘basic patch’ on the H4 tail, and extranucleosomal (linker) DNA8-13. Previous work defined the HSS domain in the ISWI C-terminus that binds linker DNA, needed for ISWI activity14,15. Here, we define two new, conserved, and separate regulatory regions on Drosophila ISWI, AutoN and NegC, that negatively regulate ATP hydrolysis (AutoN) or the coupling of ATP hydrolysis to productive DNA translocation (NegC). Rather than ‘activating’, the two aforementioned nucleosomal epitopes actually inhibit the negative regulation of AutoN and NegC. Remarkably, mutation/removal of AutoN and NegC enables significant nucleosome sliding without the H4 ‘basic patch’ or extranucleosomal DNA, or the HSS domain – converting ISWI to biochemical attributes of SWI/SNF-family ATPases. Thus, the ISWI ATPase catalytic core is an intrinsically-active DNA translocase which conducts nucleosome sliding, onto which selective ‘inhibition-of-inhibition’ modules are placed, to help ensure that remodeling occurs only in the presence of proper nucleosomal epitopes. This supports a general concept for the specialization of chromatin remodeling ATPases, where specific regulatory modules adapt an ancient active DNA translocase to conduct particular tasks only on the appropriate chromatin landscape. PMID:23143334

  14. Common food allergens and their IgE-binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hiroaki; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Taogoshi, Takanori

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune response to certain kinds of food. Although any food can cause allergic reactions, chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shellfish, fruit, and buckwheat account for 75% of food allergies in Japan. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies play a pivotal role in the development of food allergy. Recent advances in molecular biological techniques have enabled the efficient analysis of food allergens. As a result, many food allergens have been identified, and their molecular structure and IgE-binding epitopes have also been identified. Studies of allergens have demonstrated that IgE antibodies specific to allergen components and/or the peptide epitopes are good indicators for the identification of patients with food allergy, prediction of clinical severity and development of tolerance. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding the allergens and IgE epitopes in the well-researched allergies to chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shrimp, and peanut. PMID:26433529

  15. Hydrophobic, hydrophilic and other interactions in epitope-paratope binding.

    PubMed

    Van Oss, C J

    1995-02-01

    Macroscopic, non-covalent, aspecific interactions between hydrophilic biopolymers, particles and cells in aqueous media tend to be repulsive; they are caused by Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW), Lewis acid-base (AB) and electrostatic (EL) forces. Microscopic scale specific interactions, e.g. between epitopes and paratopes, are also non-covalent and caused by attractive LW, AB and EL forces, which locally must be able to overcome the long- to medium-range macroscopic aspecific repulsive forces. Thus epitopes and paratopes need to be able to attract each other over a distance of at least 3 nm. The medium- and long-range specific attractive forces are mainly of hydrophobic (AB) and of EL origin; in aqueous media the medium- and long-range LW attractions are usually much weaker. It has been shown that hydrophobic (AB) interactions are as often enthalpic as entropic. Upon expulsion of interstitial water of hydration between epitope and paratope, a strong interfacial bond ultimately arises which is mainly caused by LW forces.

  16. Mapping epitopes and antigenicity by site-directed masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paus, Didrik; Winter, Greg

    2006-06-01

    Here we describe a method for mapping the binding of antibodies to the surface of a folded antigen. We first created a panel of mutant antigens (-lactamase) in which single surface-exposed residues were mutated to cysteine. We then chemically tethered the cysteine residues to a solid phase, thereby masking a surface patch centered on each cysteine residue and blocking the binding of antibodies to this region of the surface. By these means we mapped the epitopes of several mAbs directed to -lactamase. Furthermore, by depleting samples of polyclonal antisera to the masked antigens and measuring the binding of each depleted sample of antisera to unmasked antigen, we mapped the antigenicity of 23 different epitopes. After immunization of mice and rabbits with -lactamase in Freund's adjuvant, we found that the antisera reacted with both native and denatured antigen and that the antibody response was mainly directed to an exposed and flexible loop region of the native antigen. By contrast, after immunization in PBS, we found that the antisera reacted only weakly with denatured antigen and that the antibody response was more evenly distributed over the antigenic surface. We suggest that denatured antigen (created during emulsification in Freund's adjuvant) elicits antibodies that bind mainly to the flexible regions of the native protein and that this explains the correlation between antigenicity and backbone flexibility. Denaturation of antigen during vaccination or natural infections would therefore be expected to focus the antibody response to the flexible loops. backbone flexibility | Freund's adjuvant | conformational epitope | antisera

  17. Loss of Immunization-Induced Epitope-Specific CD4 T-Cell Response following Anaplasma marginale Infection Requires Presence of the T-Cell Epitope on the Pathogen and Is Not Associated with an Increase in Lymphocytes Expressing Known Regulatory Cell Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Turse, Joshua E.; Lawrence, Paulraj K.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Scoles, Glen A.; Deringer, James R.; Sutten, Eric L.; Han, Sushan; Norimine, Junzo

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that in cattle previously immunized with outer membrane proteins, infection with Anaplasma marginale induces a functionally exhausted CD4 T-cell response to the A. marginale immunogen. Furthermore, T-cell responses following infection in nonimmunized cattle had a delayed onset and were sporadic and transient during persistent infection. The induction of an exhausted T-cell response following infection presumably facilitates pathogen persistence. In the current study, we hypothesized that the loss of epitope-specific T-cell responses requires the presence of the immunizing epitope on the pathogen, and T-cell dysfunction correlates with the appearance of regulatory T cells. In limited studies in cattle, regulatory T cells have been shown to belong to γδ T-cell subsets rather than be CD4 T cells expressing forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3). Cattle expressing the DRB3*1101 haplotype were immunized with a truncated A. marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a that contains a DRB3*1101-restricted CD4 T-cell epitope, F2-5B. Cattle either remained unchallenged or were challenged with A. marginale bacteria that express the epitope or with A. marginale subsp. centrale that do not. Peripheral blood and spleen mononuclear cells were monitored for MSP1a epitope F2-5B-specfic T-cell proliferative responses and were stained for γδ T-cell subsets or CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells before and during infection. As hypothesized, the induction of T-cell exhaustion occurred only following infection with A. marginale, which did not correlate with an increase in either CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells or any γδ T-cell subset examined. PMID:25924762

  18. Neuroaesthetics: range and restrictions.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) should be commended for highlighting tensions between scientific aesthetics and art history. The question of how each tradition can learn from the other is timely. While I am sympathetic to their views, their diagnosis of the problem appears exaggerated and their solution partial. They underestimate the reach of scientific aesthetics while failing to identify its inherent restrictions. PMID:23507092

  19. A Panel of Artificial APCs Expressing Prevalent HLA Alleles Permits Generation of Cytotoxic T Cells Specific for Both Dominant and Subdominant Viral Epitopes for Adoptive Therapy1

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Aisha N.; Kollen, Wouter J.; Trivedi, Deepa; Selvakumar, Annamalai; Dupont, Bo; Sadelain, Michel; O'Reilly, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells can treat infections complicating allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants. However, autologous antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are often limited in supply. Here, we describe a panel of artificial APCs (AAPCs) consisting of murine 3T3 cells transduced to express human B7.1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3 that each stably express one of a series of 6 common HLA class I alleles. In comparative analyses, T cells sensitized with AAPCs expressing a shared HLA allele or autologous APCs loaded with a pool of 15-mers spanning the sequence of CMVpp65 produced similar yields of HLA-restricted CMVpp65 specific T cells; significantly higher yields could be achieved by sensitization with AAPCs transduced to express the CMVpp65 protein. T cells generated were CD8+, IFNγ+ and exhibited HLA-restricted CMVpp65 specific cytotoxicity. T cells sensitized with either peptide-loaded or transduced AAPCs recognized epitopes presented by each HLA allele known to be immunogenic in man. Sensitization with AAPCs also permitted expansion of IFNγ+ cytotoxic effector cells against subdominant epitopes that were either absent or in low frequencies in T cells sensitized with autologous APCs. This replenishable panel of AAPCs can be used for immediate sensitization and expansion of virus-specific T cells of desired HLA restriction for adoptive immunotherapy. It may be of particular value for recipients of transplants from HLA disparate donors. PMID:19635907

  20. Rapid fine conformational epitope mapping using comprehensive mutagenesis and deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kowalsky, Caitlin A; Faber, Matthew S; Nath, Aritro; Dann, Hailey E; Kelly, Vince W; Liu, Li; Shanker, Purva; Wagner, Ellen K; Maynard, Jennifer A; Chan, Christina; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2015-10-30

    Knowledge of the fine location of neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes on human pathogens affords a better understanding of the structural basis of antibody efficacy, which will expedite rational design of vaccines, prophylactics, and therapeutics. However, full utilization of the wealth of information from single cell techniques and antibody repertoire sequencing awaits the development of a high throughput, inexpensive method to map the conformational epitopes for antibody-antigen interactions. Here we show such an approach that combines comprehensive mutagenesis, cell surface display, and DNA deep sequencing. We develop analytical equations to identify epitope positions and show the method effectiveness by mapping the fine epitope for different antibodies targeting TNF, pertussis toxin, and the cancer target TROP2. In all three cases, the experimentally determined conformational epitope was consistent with previous experimental datasets, confirming the reliability of the experimental pipeline. Once the comprehensive library is generated, fine conformational epitope maps can be prepared at a rate of four per day. PMID:26296891

  1. Structural basis for epitope masking and strain specificity of a conserved epitope in an intrinsically disordered malaria vaccine candidate

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Rodrigo A. V.; MacRaild, Christopher A.; Seow, Jeffrey; Krishnarjuna, Bankala; Drinkwater, Nyssa; Rouet, Romain; Anders, Robin F.; Christ, Daniel; McGowan, Sheena; Norton, Raymond S.

    2015-01-01

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is an intrinsically disordered, membrane-anchored antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. MSP2 can elicit a protective, albeit strain-specific, antibody response in humans. Antibodies are generated to the conserved N- and C-terminal regions but many of these react poorly with the native antigen on the parasite surface. Here we demonstrate that recognition of a conserved N-terminal epitope by mAb 6D8 is incompatible with the membrane-bound conformation of that region, suggesting a mechanism by which native MSP2 escapes antibody recognition. Furthermore, crystal structures and NMR spectroscopy identify transient, strain-specific interactions between the 6D8 antibody and regions of MSP2 beyond the conserved epitope. These interactions account for the differential affinity of 6D8 for the two allelic families of MSP2, even though 6D8 binds to a fully conserved epitope. These results highlight unappreciated mechanisms that may modulate the specificity and efficacy of immune responses towards disordered antigens. PMID:25965408

  2. Tissue invasiveness and non-acidic pH in human candidiasis correlate with “in vivo” expression by Candida albicans of the carbohydrate epitope recognised by new monoclonal antibody 1H4

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, C; Viudes, A; Lazzell, A; Martinez, J P; Lopez-Ribot, J L

    2004-01-01

    Background: The morphogenetic conversion between yeast and hyphal growth forms appears to be crucial in the pathogenesis of invasive candidiasis, and can be regulated by environmental signals such as extracellular pH. Aims: To characterise the epitope recognised by monoclonal antibody 1H4, and to evaluate the expression of its corresponding epitope in Candida albicans cells under different conditions of pH and temperature, and “in vivo”, in tissue samples from patients with human candidiasis. Methods: Monoclonal antibody 1H4 was generated against the 58 kDa cell wall mannoprotein of C albicans (mp58), and was further characterised by immunoblot analysis, periodate treatment of the antigenic preparations, and agglutination experiments of C albicans strains 3153A, SC5314, and 412, cultured under different environmental conditions (growth media and pH). An immunohistochemical study was performed in 24 human tissue samples from patients with mucocutaneous and systemic candidiasis. Results: 1H4 recognises a pH sensitive carbohydrate epitope on the surface of C albicans cells, and this epitope is not restricted to mp58, but is shared with other cell wall mannoproteins. Immunohistochemical findings indicated that expression of the 1H4 epitope on C albicans cells in tissue sections from human candidiasis correlates with tissue invasion and pH of the niche. 1H4 immunoreactivity was also found in candida remnants within macrophages. Conclusions: The fact that 1H4 epitope expression selectively identifies invasive forms of C albicans, in addition to candida remnants within macrophages, supports its potential value in the diagnosis and management of human candidiasis. PMID:15166263

  3. A novel multi-epitope peptide vaccine against cancer: an in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Nezafat, Navid; Ghasemi, Younes; Javadi, Gholamreza; Khoshnoud, Mohammad Javad; Omidinia, Eskandar

    2014-05-21

    Cancer immunotherapy has an outstanding position in cancer prevention and treatment. In this kind of therapy, the immune system is activated to eliminate cancerous cells. Multi-epitope peptide cancer vaccines are manifesting as the next generation of cancer immunotherapy. In the present study, we have implemented various strategies to design an efficient multi-epitope vaccine. CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) epitopes, which have a pivotal role in cellular immune responses, helper epitopes and adjuvant, are three crucial components of peptide vaccine. CTL epitopes were determined from two high immunogenic protein Wilms tumor-1 (WT1) and human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 by various servers, which apply different algorithms. CTL epitopes were linked together by AAY and HEYGAEALERAG motifs to enhance epitope presentation. Pan HLA DR-binding epitope (PADRE) peptide sequence and helper epitopes, which have defined from Tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFrC) by various servers, were used to induce CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (HTLs) responses. Additionally, helper epitopes were conjugated together via GPGPG motifs that stimulate HTL immunity. Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin (HBHA), a novel TLR4 agonist was employed as an adjuvant to polarize CD4+ T cells toward T-helper 1 to induce strong CTL responses. Moreover, the EAAAK linker was introduced to N and C terminals of HBHA for efficient separation. 3D model of protein was generated and predicted B cell epitopes were determined from the surface of built structure. Our protein contains several linear and conformational B cell epitopes, which suggests the antibody triggering property of this novel vaccine. Hence, our final protein can be used for prophylactic or therapeutic usages, because it can potentially stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses.

  4. Rational design and synthesis of altered peptide ligands based on human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 epitope: inhibition of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tselios, Theodore; Aggelidakis, Mihalis; Tapeinou, Anthi; Tseveleki, Vivian; Kanistras, Ioannis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Matsoukas, John

    2014-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the etiology of MS remains unclear, there is evidence T-cell recognition of immunodominant epitopes of myelin proteins, such as the 35-55 epitope of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), plays a pathogenic role in the induction of chronic EAE. Cyclization of peptides is of great interest since the limited stability of linear peptides restricts their potential use as therapeutic agents. Herein, we have designed and synthesized a number of linear and cyclic peptides by mutating crucial T cell receptor (TCR) contact residues of the human MOG35-55 epitope. In particular, we have designed and synthesized cyclic altered peptide ligands (APLs) by mutating Arg41 with Ala or Arg41 and Arg46 with Ala. The peptides were synthesized in solid phase on 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl) using the Fmoc/t-Bu methodology. The purity of final products was verified by RP-HPLC and their identification was achieved by ESI-MS. It was found that the substitutions of Arg at positions 41 and 46 with Ala results in peptide analogues that reduce the severity of MOG-induced EAE clinical symptoms in C57BL/6 mice when co-administered with mouse MOG35-55 peptide at the time of immunization.

  5. Rational design and synthesis of altered peptide ligands based on human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 epitope: inhibition of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tselios, Theodore; Aggelidakis, Mihalis; Tapeinou, Anthi; Tseveleki, Vivian; Kanistras, Ioannis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Matsoukas, John

    2014-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the etiology of MS remains unclear, there is evidence T-cell recognition of immunodominant epitopes of myelin proteins, such as the 35-55 epitope of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), plays a pathogenic role in the induction of chronic EAE. Cyclization of peptides is of great interest since the limited stability of linear peptides restricts their potential use as therapeutic agents. Herein, we have designed and synthesized a number of linear and cyclic peptides by mutating crucial T cell receptor (TCR) contact residues of the human MOG35-55 epitope. In particular, we have designed and synthesized cyclic altered peptide ligands (APLs) by mutating Arg41 with Ala or Arg41 and Arg46 with Ala. The peptides were synthesized in solid phase on 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl) using the Fmoc/t-Bu methodology. The purity of final products was verified by RP-HPLC and their identification was achieved by ESI-MS. It was found that the substitutions of Arg at positions 41 and 46 with Ala results in peptide analogues that reduce the severity of MOG-induced EAE clinical symptoms in C57BL/6 mice when co-administered with mouse MOG35-55 peptide at the time of immunization. PMID:25375337

  6. Influenza A HA's conserved epitopes and broadly neutralizing antibodies: a prediction method.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Ellis, John; Li, Jinyan

    2014-10-01

    A conserved epitope is an epitope retained by multiple strains of influenza as the key target of a broadly neutralizing antibody. Identification of conserved epitopes is of strong interest to help design broad-spectrum vaccines against influenza. Conservation score measures the evolutionary conservation of an amino acid position in a protein based on the phylogenetic relationships observed amongst homologous sequences. Here, Average Amino Acid Conservation Score (AAACS) is proposed as a method to identify HA's conserved epitopes. Our analysis shows that there is a clear distinction between conserved epitopes and nonconserved epitopes in terms of AAACS. This method also provides an excellent classification performance on an independent dataset. In contrast, alignment-based comparison methods do not work well for this problem, because conserved epitopes to the same broadly neutralizing antibody are usually not identical or similar. Location-based methods are not successful either, because conserved epitopes are located at both the less-conserved globular head (HA1) and the more-conserved stem (HA2). As a case study, two conserved epitopes on HA are predicted for the influenza A virus H7N9: One should match the broadly neutralizing antibodies CR9114 or FI6v3, while the other is new and requires validation by wet-lab experiments.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Human B Cell Epitopes Based on BCG Genomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Machao; Liu, Haican; Zhao, Xiuqin; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis is a huge global health problem. BCG is the only vaccine used for about 100 years against TB, but the reasons for protection variability in populations remain unclear. To improve BCG efficacy and develop a strategy for new vaccines, the underlying genetic differences among BCG subtypes should be understood urgently. Methods and Findings. Human B cell epitope data were collected from the Immune Epitope Database. Epitope sequences were mapped with those of 15 genomes, including 13 BCGs, M. bovis AF2122/97, and M. tuberculosis H37Rv, to identify epitopes distribution. Among 398 experimentally verified B cell epitopes, 321 (80.7%) were conserved, while the remaining 77 (19.3%) were lost to varying degrees in BCGs. The variable protective efficacy of BCGs may result from the degree of B cell epitopes deficiency. Conclusions. Here we firstly analyzed the genetic characteristics of BCGs based on B cell epitopes and found that B cell epitopes distribution may contribute to vaccine efficacy. Restoration of important antigens or effective B cell epitopes in BCG could be a useful strategy for vaccine development. PMID:27382565

  8. A versatile PCR-based tandem epitope tagging system for Streptomyces coelicolor genome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Nu; Yi, Jeong Sang; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min Woo; Song, Yoseb; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2012-07-20

    Epitope tagging approaches have been widely used for the analysis of functions, interactions and subcellular distributions of proteins. However, incorporating epitope sequence into protein loci in Streptomyces is time-consuming procedure due to the absence of the versatile tagging methods. Here, we developed a versatile PCR-based tandem epitope tagging tool for the Streptomyces genome engineering. We constructed a series of template plasmids that carry repeated sequence of c-myc epitope, Flp recombinase target (FRT) sites, and apramycin resistance marker to insert epitope tags into any desired spot of the chromosomal loci. A DNA module which includes the tandem epitope-encoding sequence and a selectable marker was amplified by PCR with primers that carry homologous extensions to the last portion and downstream region of the targeted gene. We fused the epitope tags at the 3' region of global transcription factors of Streptomyces coelicolor to test the validity of this system. The proper insertion of the epitope tag was confirmed by PCR and western blot analysis. The recombinants showed the identical phenotype to the wild-type that proved the conservation of in vivo function of the tagged proteins. Finally, the direct binding targets were successfully detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation with the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio. The epitope tagging system describes here would provide wide applications to study the protein functions in S. coelicolor. PMID:22704935

  9. Comparative Analysis of Human B Cell Epitopes Based on BCG Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haican; Zhao, Xiuqin; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis is a huge global health problem. BCG is the only vaccine used for about 100 years against TB, but the reasons for protection variability in populations remain unclear. To improve BCG efficacy and develop a strategy for new vaccines, the underlying genetic differences among BCG subtypes should be understood urgently. Methods and Findings. Human B cell epitope data were collected from the Immune Epitope Database. Epitope sequences were mapped with those of 15 genomes, including 13 BCGs, M. bovis AF2122/97, and M. tuberculosis H37Rv, to identify epitopes distribution. Among 398 experimentally verified B cell epitopes, 321 (80.7%) were conserved, while the remaining 77 (19.3%) were lost to varying degrees in BCGs. The variable protective efficacy of BCGs may result from the degree of B cell epitopes deficiency. Conclusions. Here we firstly analyzed the genetic characteristics of BCGs based on B cell epitopes and found that B cell epitopes distribution may contribute to vaccine efficacy. Restoration of important antigens or effective B cell epitopes in BCG could be a useful strategy for vaccine development. PMID:27382565

  10. Determination of B-Cell Epitopes in Patients with Celiac Disease: Peptide Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok Seon; Marietta, Eric V.; Van Dyke, Carol T.; Brantner, Tricia L.; Rajasekaran, John; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Wang, Tianhao; Bei, Kang; Krishna, Karthik; Krishnamurthy, Hari K.; Snyder, Melissa R.; Jayaraman, Vasanth; Murray, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Most antibodies recognize conformational or discontinuous epitopes that have a specific 3-dimensional shape; however, determination of discontinuous B-cell epitopes is a major challenge in bioscience. Moreover, the current methods for identifying peptide epitopes often involve laborious, high-cost peptide screening programs. Here, we present a novel microarray method for identifying discontinuous B-cell epitopes in celiac disease (CD) by using a silicon-based peptide array and computational methods. Methods Using a novel silicon-based microarray platform with a multi-pillar chip, overlapping 12-mer peptide sequences of all native and deamidated gliadins, which are known to trigger CD, were synthesized in situ and used to identify peptide epitopes. Results Using a computational algorithm that considered disease specificity of peptide sequences, 2 distinct epitope sets were identified. Further, by combining the most discriminative 3-mer gliadin sequences with randomly interpolated3- or 6-mer peptide sequences, novel discontinuous epitopes were identified and further optimized to maximize disease discrimination. The final discontinuous epitope sets were tested in a confirmatory cohort of CD patients and controls, yielding 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusions These novel sets of epitopes derived from gliadin have a high degree of accuracy in differentiating CD from controls, compared with standard serologic tests. The method of ultra-high-density peptide microarray described here would be broadly useful to develop high-fidelity diagnostic tests and explore pathogenesis. PMID:26824466

  11. Bioinformatics Resources and Tools for Conformational B-Cell Epitope Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pingping; Ju, Haixu; Liu, Zhenbang; Ning, Qiao; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Xiaowei; Huang, Yanxin; Ma, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuxin

    2013-01-01

    Identification of epitopes which invoke strong humoral responses is an essential issue in the field of immunology. Localizing epitopes by experimental methods is expensive in terms of time, cost, and effort; therefore, computational methods feature for its low cost and high speed was employed to predict B-cell epitopes. In this paper, we review the recent advance of bioinformatics resources and tools in conformational B-cell epitope prediction, including databases, algorithms, web servers, and their applications in solving problems in related areas. To stimulate the development of better tools, some promising directions are also extensively discussed. PMID:23970944

  12. License restrictions at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.R.

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  13. Lymphocryptovirus Infection of Nonhuman Primate B Cells Converts Destructive into Productive Processing of the Pathogenic CD8 T Cell Epitope in Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Jagessar, S. Anwar; Holtman, Inge R.; Hofman, Sam; Morandi, Elena; Heijmans, Nicole; Laman, Jon D.; Gran, Bruno; Faber, Bart W.; van Kasteren, Sander I.; Eggen, Bart J. L.

    2016-01-01

    EBV is the major infectious environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Patient studies do not allow manipulation in vivo. We used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models in the common marmoset and rhesus monkey to model the association of EBV and MS. We report that B cells infected with EBV-related lymphocryptovirus (LCV) are requisite APCs for MHC-E–restricted autoaggressive effector memory CTLs specific for the immunodominant epitope 40-48 of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). These T cells drive the EAE pathogenesis to irreversible neurologic deficit. The aim of this study was to determine why LCV infection is important for this pathogenic role of B cells. Transcriptome comparison of LCV-infected B cells and CD20+ spleen cells from rhesus monkeys shows increased expression of genes encoding elements of the Ag cross-presentation machinery (i.e., of proteasome maturation protein and immunoproteasome subunits) and enhanced expression of MHC-E and of costimulatory molecules (CD70 and CD80, but not CD86). It was also shown that altered expression of endolysosomal proteases (cathepsins) mitigates the fast endolysosomal degradation of the MOG40–48 core epitope. Finally, LCV infection also induced expression of LC3-II+ cytosolic structures resembling autophagosomes, which seem to form an intracellular compartment where the MOG40–48 epitope is protected against proteolytic degradation by the endolysosomal serine protease cathepsin G. In conclusion, LCV infection induces a variety of changes in B cells that underlies the conversion of destructive processing of the immunodominant MOG40–48 epitope into productive processing and cross-presentation to strongly autoaggressive CTLs. PMID:27412414

  14. Complementary immunolocalization patterns of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins studied with the use of antibodies directed against different carbohydrate epitopes.

    PubMed

    Swords, K M; Staehelin, L A

    1993-07-01

    Antisera raised against the major hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) in carrot (Daucus carota L.) taproot, extensin-1, and a minor HRGP, extensin-2, were characterized by western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and periodate oxidation and found to be directed against carbohydrate epitopes shared by both glycoproteins. The anti-extensin-1 antibodies (gE1) target periodate-sensitive epitopes and may recognize the terminal alpha-1,3-arabinoside of extensin-1. The anti-extensin-2 antibodies (gE2) recognize periodate-insensitive epitopes, possibly binding the reducing, internal beta-1,2-arabinosides on the carbohydrate side chains. Despite the cross-reactivity of these antibodies, immunolocalization studies of carrot taproot and green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf tissues reveal a spatial segregation of gE1- and gE2-labeling patterns. The gE1 antibodies bind only to the cellulose-rich region of the cell wall (J.P. Staehelin and L.A. Stafstrom [1988] Planta 174: 321-332), whereas gE2 labeling is restricted to the expanded middle lamella at three cell junctions. Periodate oxidation of nonosmicated, thin-sectioned tissue abolishes gE1 labeling but leads to labeling of the entire cell wall by gE2, presumably as a result of unmasking cryptic epitopes on extensin-1 in the cellulose layer. Purified extensin-2 protein is more efficient than extensin-1 protein at agglutinating avirulent Pseudomonas strains lacking extracellular polysaccharide. Our results indicate that extensin-2 does not form a heterologous HRGP network with extensin-1 and that, in contrast to extensin-1, which appears to serve a structural role, extensin-2 could participate in passive defense responses against phytopathogenic bacteria.

  15. Complementary immunolocalization patterns of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins studied with the use of antibodies directed against different carbohydrate epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Swords, K M; Staehelin, L A

    1993-01-01

    Antisera raised against the major hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) in carrot (Daucus carota L.) taproot, extensin-1, and a minor HRGP, extensin-2, were characterized by western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and periodate oxidation and found to be directed against carbohydrate epitopes shared by both glycoproteins. The anti-extensin-1 antibodies (gE1) target periodate-sensitive epitopes and may recognize the terminal alpha-1,3-arabinoside of extensin-1. The anti-extensin-2 antibodies (gE2) recognize periodate-insensitive epitopes, possibly binding the reducing, internal beta-1,2-arabinosides on the carbohydrate side chains. Despite the cross-reactivity of these antibodies, immunolocalization studies of carrot taproot and green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf tissues reveal a spatial segregation of gE1- and gE2-labeling patterns. The gE1 antibodies bind only to the cellulose-rich region of the cell wall (J.P. Staehelin and L.A. Stafstrom [1988] Planta 174: 321-332), whereas gE2 labeling is restricted to the expanded middle lamella at three cell junctions. Periodate oxidation of nonosmicated, thin-sectioned tissue abolishes gE1 labeling but leads to labeling of the entire cell wall by gE2, presumably as a result of unmasking cryptic epitopes on extensin-1 in the cellulose layer. Purified extensin-2 protein is more efficient than extensin-1 protein at agglutinating avirulent Pseudomonas strains lacking extracellular polysaccharide. Our results indicate that extensin-2 does not form a heterologous HRGP network with extensin-1 and that, in contrast to extensin-1, which appears to serve a structural role, extensin-2 could participate in passive defense responses against phytopathogenic bacteria. PMID:7506427

  16. Cytotoxic T cell recognition of allelic variants of HLA B35 bound to an Epstein-Barr virus epitope: influence of peptide conformation and TCR-peptide interaction.

    PubMed

    Khanna, R; Silins, S L; Weng, Z; Gatchell, D; Burrows, S R; Cooper, L

    1999-05-01

    Fine specificity analysis of HLA B35-restricted Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones revealed a unique heterogeneity whereby one group of these clones cross-recognized an EBV epitope (YPLHEQHGM) on virus-infected cells expressing either HLA B*3501 or HLA B*3503, while another group cross-recognized this epitope in association with either HLA B*3502 or HLA B*3503. Peptide binding and titration studies ruled out the possibility that these differences were due to variation in the efficiency of peptide presentation by the HLA B35 alleles. Sequence analysis of the TCR genetic elements showed that these clonotypes either expressed BV12/AV3 or BV14/ADV17S1 heterodimers. Interestingly, CTL analysis with monosubstituted alanine mutants of the YPLHEQHGM epitope indicated that the BV12/AV3+ clones preferentially recognized residues towards the C terminus of the peptide, while the BV14/ADV17S1+ clones interacted with residues towards N terminus of the peptide. Molecular modelling of the MHC-peptide complexes suggests that the differences in two floor positions (114 and 116) of the HLA B35 alleles dictate different conformations of the peptide residues L3 and/or H7 and directly contribute in the discerning allele-specific immune recognition by the CTL clonotypes. These results provide evidence for a critical role for the selective interaction of the TCR with specific residues within the peptide epitope in the fine specificity of CTL recognition of allelic variants of an HLA molecule.

  17. Lymphocryptovirus Infection of Nonhuman Primate B Cells Converts Destructive into Productive Processing of the Pathogenic CD8 T Cell Epitope in Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Holtman, Inge R; Hofman, Sam; Morandi, Elena; Heijmans, Nicole; Laman, Jon D; Gran, Bruno; Faber, Bart W; van Kasteren, Sander I; Eggen, Bart J L; 't Hart, Bert A

    2016-08-15

    EBV is the major infectious environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Patient studies do not allow manipulation in vivo. We used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models in the common marmoset and rhesus monkey to model the association of EBV and MS. We report that B cells infected with EBV-related lymphocryptovirus (LCV) are requisite APCs for MHC-E-restricted autoaggressive effector memory CTLs specific for the immunodominant epitope 40-48 of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). These T cells drive the EAE pathogenesis to irreversible neurologic deficit. The aim of this study was to determine why LCV infection is important for this pathogenic role of B cells. Transcriptome comparison of LCV-infected B cells and CD20(+) spleen cells from rhesus monkeys shows increased expression of genes encoding elements of the Ag cross-presentation machinery (i.e., of proteasome maturation protein and immunoproteasome subunits) and enhanced expression of MHC-E and of costimulatory molecules (CD70 and CD80, but not CD86). It was also shown that altered expression of endolysosomal proteases (cathepsins) mitigates the fast endolysosomal degradation of the MOG40-48 core epitope. Finally, LCV infection also induced expression of LC3-II(+) cytosolic structures resembling autophagosomes, which seem to form an intracellular compartment where the MOG40-48 epitope is protected against proteolytic degradation by the endolysosomal serine protease cathepsin G. In conclusion, LCV infection induces a variety of changes in B cells that underlies the conversion of destructive processing of the immunodominant MOG40-48 epitope into productive processing and cross-presentation to strongly autoaggressive CTLs. PMID:27412414

  18. Structural analysis of two HLA-DR-presented autoantigenic epitopes: crucial role of peripheral but not central peptide residues for T-cell receptor recognition.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, D B; Harfouch-Hammoud, E; Otto, H; Papandreou, N A; Stern, L J; Cohen, H; Boehm, B O; Bach, J; Caillat-Zucman, S; Walk, T; Jung, G; Eliopoulos, E; Papadopoulos, G K; van Endert, P M

    2000-10-01

    Specific and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted T-cell recognition of antigenic peptides is based on interactions of the T-cell receptor (TCR) with the MHC alpha helices and solvent exposed peptide residues termed TCR contacts. In the case of MHC class II-presented peptides, the latter are located in the positions p2/3, p5 and p7/8 between MHC anchor residues. For numerous epitopes, peptide substitution studies have identified the central residue p5 as primary TCR contact characterized by very low permissiveness for peptide substitution, while the more peripheral positions generally represent auxiliary TCR contacts. In structural studies of TCR/peptide/MHC complexes, this has been shown to be due to intimate contact between the TCR complementarity determining region (CDR) three loops and the central peptide residue. We asked whether this model also applied to two HLA-DR presented epitopes derived from an antigen targeted in type 1 diabetes. Large panels of epitope variants with mainly conservative single substitutions were tested for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II binding affinity and T cell stimulation. Both epitopes bind with high affinity to the presenting HLA-DR molecules. However, in striking contrast to the standard distribution of TCR contacts, recognition of the central p5 residue displayed high permissiveness even for non-conservative substitutions, while the more peripheral p2 and p8 TCR contacts showed very low permissiveness for substitution. This suggests that intimate TCR interaction with the central peptide residue is not always required for specific antigen recognition and can be compensated by interactions with positions normally acting as auxiliary contacts.

  19. Targeting of influenza epitopes to murine CR1/CR2 using single-chain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Prechl, J; Tchorbanov, A; Horváth, A; Baiu, D C; Hazenbos, W; Rajnavölgyi, E; Kurucz, I; Capel, P J; Erdei, A

    1999-05-01

    Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies are genetically engineered molecules comprising the variable regions responsible for specific binding. scFv that recognize certain surface molecules on professional antigen presenting cells could therefore be suitable for targeting Ag to these cells. We have produced an scFv that recognizes murine complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/CR2) and genetically fused it with different numbers of influenza hemagglutinin peptides which contain both B and T cell epitopes. The CR1/CR2 specific hybridoma 7G6 was used for RT-PCR to obtain the variable regions, which were then combined to create an scFv fragment. The influenza hemagglutinin intersubunit peptide HA317-41 (IP) was engineered to the N terminus of the scFv in one, two or three copies. The so obtained IP(1-3)7G6scFv still bound the complement receptors; the peptides in the construct were recognized by the peptide specific monoclonal IP2-11-1 on Western blots and ELISAs. The CR1/CR2 positive B lymphomas A20 and 2PK3 presented the peptide to an I-Ed restricted IP specific T cell hybridoma more efficiently when incubated with the IP(1)7G6 constructs as compared to the free peptide. The results suggest that scFv could work as targeting devices in subunit vaccines.

  20. Detection of Aichi virus with antibody targeting of conserved viral protein 1 epitope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Shen; Chen, Bao-Chen; Lin, You-Sheng; Chang, Jenn-Tzong; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-10-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging single-stranded, positive-sense, non-enveloped RNA virus in the Picornaviridae that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. The first case of AiV infection in Taiwan was diagnosed in a human neonate with enterovirus-associated symptoms; the virus was successfully isolated and propagated. To establish a method to detect AiV, we analyzed the antigen epitope and generated a polyclonal antibody against AiV viral protein 1 (VP1). This peptide-purified anti-AiV VP1 antibody showed high specificity against AiV VP1 without cross-reaction to nine other tested strains of Picornaviruses. The anti-AiV VP1 antibody was used in immunofluorescence analysis, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to elucidate the cell tropism and replication kinetics of AiV. Use of the anti-AiV VP1 antibody also revealed AiV infection restriction with interferon type I and polyI/C antiviral treatment. The AiV infection and detection system may provide an in vitro platform for AiV virology study.

  1. Targeting of influenza epitopes to murine CR1/CR2 using single-chain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Prechl, J; Tchorbanov, A; Horváth, A; Baiu, D C; Hazenbos, W; Rajnavölgyi, E; Kurucz, I; Capel, P J; Erdei, A

    1999-05-01

    Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies are genetically engineered molecules comprising the variable regions responsible for specific binding. scFv that recognize certain surface molecules on professional antigen presenting cells could therefore be suitable for targeting Ag to these cells. We have produced an scFv that recognizes murine complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/CR2) and genetically fused it with different numbers of influenza hemagglutinin peptides which contain both B and T cell epitopes. The CR1/CR2 specific hybridoma 7G6 was used for RT-PCR to obtain the variable regions, which were then combined to create an scFv fragment. The influenza hemagglutinin intersubunit peptide HA317-41 (IP) was engineered to the N terminus of the scFv in one, two or three copies. The so obtained IP(1-3)7G6scFv still bound the complement receptors; the peptides in the construct were recognized by the peptide specific monoclonal IP2-11-1 on Western blots and ELISAs. The CR1/CR2 positive B lymphomas A20 and 2PK3 presented the peptide to an I-Ed restricted IP specific T cell hybridoma more efficiently when incubated with the IP(1)7G6 constructs as compared to the free peptide. The results suggest that scFv could work as targeting devices in subunit vaccines. PMID:10408376

  2. Identification of Novel IGRP Epitopes Targeted in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jarchum, Irene; Nichol, Lynn; Trucco, Massimo; Santamaria, Pere; DiLorenzo, Teresa P.

    2008-01-01

    CD8+ T cells play an important role in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice and humans. IGRP (islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein) has emerged in recent years as a major antigen in NOD mice. Therefore, we aimed to determine if IGRP is an antigen in T1D patients and to identify the HLA-A2-restricted IGRP epitopes targeted. Using IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, we tested PBMC from recent-onset pediatric T1D patients and healthy controls for reactivity to four IGRP peptides directly ex vivo. Importantly, 65% of patients and 0% of controls were positive for at least one IGRP peptide. Two of these have not been reported previously. These data provide evidence that IGRP is a CD8+ T cell antigen in humans, contributing to the understanding of the underlying disease process as well as to future directions for diagnosis and monitoring disease progression in T1D patients. PMID:18358785

  3. Induction of CD8 T-cell responses restricted to multiple HLA class I alleles in a cancer patient by immunization with a 20-mer NY-ESO-1f (NY-ESO-1 91-110) peptide.

    PubMed

    Eikawa, Shingo; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Midori; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Luescher, Immanuel; Ohue, Yoshihiro; Ikeuchi, Kazuhiro; Uenaka, Akiko; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Udono, Heiichiro; Oka, Mikio; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2013-01-15

    Immunogenicity of a long 20-mer NY-ESO-1f peptide vaccine was evaluated in a lung cancer patient TK-f01, immunized with the peptide with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51. We showed that internalization of the peptide was necessary to present CD8 T-cell epitopes on APC, contrasting with the direct presentation of the short epitope. CD8 T-cell responses restricted to all five HLA class I alleles were induced in the patient after the peptide vaccination. Clonal analysis showed that B*35:01 and B*52:01-restricted CD8 T-cell responses were the two dominant responses. The minimal epitopes recognized by A*24:02, B*35:01, B*52:01 and C*12:02-restricted CD8 T-cell clones were defined and peptide/HLA tetramers were produced. NY-ESO-1 91-101 on A*24:02, NY-ESO-1 92-102 on B*35:01, NY-ESO-1 96-104 on B*52:01 and NY-ESO-1 96-104 on C*12:02 were new epitopes first defined in this study. Identification of the A*24:02 epitope is highly relevant for studying the Japanese population because of its high expression frequency (60%). High affinity CD8 T-cells recognizing tumor cells naturally expressing the epitopes and matched HLA were induced at a significant level. The findings suggest the usefulness of a long 20-mer NY-ESO-1f peptide harboring multiple CD8 T-cell epitopes as an NY-ESO-1 vaccine. Characterization of CD8 T-cell responses in immunomonitoring using peptide/HLA tetramers revealed that multiple CD8 T-cell responses comprised the dominant response.

  4. Human Antibodies that Recognize Novel Immunodominant Quaternary Epitopes on the HIV-1 Env Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hicar, Mark D.; Chen, Xuemin; Sulli, Chidananda; Barnes, Trevor; Goodman, Jason; Sojar, Hakimuddin; Briney, Bryan; Willis, Jordan; Chukwuma, Valentine U.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Doranz, Benjamin J.; Spearman, Paul; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) target epitopes that are formed or enhanced during mature HIV envelope formation (i.e. quaternary epitopes). Generally, it is thought that Env epitopes that induce broadly neutralizing Abs are difficult to access and poorly immunogenic because of the characteristic oligomerization, conformational flexibility, sequence diversity and extensive glycosylation of Env protein. To enhance for isolation of quaternary epitope-targeting Abs (QtAbs), we previously used HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) to bind B cells from long-term non-progressor subjects to identify a panel of monoclonal Abs. When expressed as recombinant full-length Abs, a subset of these novel Abs exhibited the binding profiles of QtAbs, as they either failed to bind to monomeric Env protein or showed much higher affinity for Env trimers and VLPs. These QtAbs represented a significant proportion of the B-cell response identified with VLPs. The Ab genes of these clones were highly mutated, but they did not neutralize common HIV strains. We sought to further define the epitopes targeted by these QtAbs. Competition-binding and mapping studies revealed these Abs targeted four separate epitopes; they also failed to compete for binding by Abs to known major neutralizing epitopes. Detailed epitope mapping studies revealed that two of the four epitopes were located in the gp41 subunit of Env. These QtAbs bound pre-fusion forms of antigen and showed differential binding kinetics depending on whether oligomers were produced as recombinant gp140 trimers or as full-length Env incorporated into VLPs. Antigenic regions within gp41 present unexpectedly diverse structural epitopes, including these QtAb epitopes, which may be targeted by the naturally occurring Ab response to HIV infection. PMID:27411063

  5. Human Antibodies that Recognize Novel Immunodominant Quaternary Epitopes on the HIV-1 Env Protein.

    PubMed

    Hicar, Mark D; Chen, Xuemin; Sulli, Chidananda; Barnes, Trevor; Goodman, Jason; Sojar, Hakimuddin; Briney, Bryan; Willis, Jordan; Chukwuma, Valentine U; Kalams, Spyros A; Doranz, Benjamin J; Spearman, Paul; Crowe, James E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) target epitopes that are formed or enhanced during mature HIV envelope formation (i.e. quaternary epitopes). Generally, it is thought that Env epitopes that induce broadly neutralizing Abs are difficult to access and poorly immunogenic because of the characteristic oligomerization, conformational flexibility, sequence diversity and extensive glycosylation of Env protein. To enhance for isolation of quaternary epitope-targeting Abs (QtAbs), we previously used HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) to bind B cells from long-term non-progressor subjects to identify a panel of monoclonal Abs. When expressed as recombinant full-length Abs, a subset of these novel Abs exhibited the binding profiles of QtAbs, as they either failed to bind to monomeric Env protein or showed much higher affinity for Env trimers and VLPs. These QtAbs represented a significant proportion of the B-cell response identified with VLPs. The Ab genes of these clones were highly mutated, but they did not neutralize common HIV strains. We sought to further define the epitopes targeted by these QtAbs. Competition-binding and mapping studies revealed these Abs targeted four separate epitopes; they also failed to compete for binding by Abs to known major neutralizing epitopes. Detailed epitope mapping studies revealed that two of the four epitopes were located in the gp41 subunit of Env. These QtAbs bound pre-fusion forms of antigen and showed differential binding kinetics depending on whether oligomers were produced as recombinant gp140 trimers or as full-length Env incorporated into VLPs. Antigenic regions within gp41 present unexpectedly diverse structural epitopes, including these QtAb epitopes, which may be targeted by the naturally occurring Ab response to HIV infection. PMID:27411063

  6. Identification of IgE sequential epitopes of lentil (Len c 1) by peptide microarray immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Vereda, Andrea; Andreae, Doerthe A.; Lin, Jing; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Ibañez, Maria Dolores; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lentils are oftentimes responsible for allergic reactions to legumes in Mediterranean children. Though the primary sequence of the major allergen, Len c 1 is known, the location of the IgE binding epitopes remains undefined. Objective We sought to identify IgE-binding epitopes of Len c 1 and relate epitope binding to clinical characteristics. Methods 135 peptides corresponding to the primary sequence of Len c 1 were probed with sera from 33 lentil-allergic individuals and 15 non-atopic controls by means of microarray immunoassay. Lentil-specific IgE, Skin Prick Tests and clinical reactions to lentil were determined. Epitopes were defined as overlapping signal above inter- and intra-slide cut-offs and confirmed by inhibition assays using a peptide from the respective region. Hierarchical clustering of microarray data was used to correlate binding patterns with clinical findings. Results The lentil-allergic patients specifically recognized IgE-binding epitopes located in the C-terminal region, between peptide 107 and 135. Inhibition experiments confirmed the specificity of IgE binding in this region, identifying different epitopes. Linkage of cluster results with clinical data and lentil specific IgE levels displayed a positive correlation between lentil-specific IgE levels, epitope recognition and respiratory symptoms. Modeling based on the three-dimensional structure of a homologous soy vicilin suggests that the Len c 1 epitopes identified are exposed on the surface of the molecule. Conclusion Several IgE-binding sequential epitopes of Len c 1 have been identified. Epitopes are located in the C-terminal region, and are predicted to be exposed on the surface of the protein. Epitope diversity is positively correlated with IgE levels, pointing to a more polyclonal IgE response. PMID:20816193

  7. Epitope spreading induced by immunization with synthetic SSB peptides

    PubMed Central

    DING, MIN; ZHANG, JIANZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome type B (SSB)/La antibody is an autoantibody generally observed in connective tissue diseases whereas double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) antibodies are the most characteristic autoantibodies found in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The relationship of these autoantibodies remains unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the profile of antibody production in rabbits immunized with synthetic SSB peptides alone or with dsDNA. For this purpose, 214–225aa peptide of SSB antigen was synthesized based on the organic chemistry solid-phase peptide synthesis. Rabbits were immunized with the following antigens: i) synthetic SSB peptides linked with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH); ii) dsDNA; iii) SSB plus dsDNA; iv) KLH; and v) phosphate-buffered saline. SSB peptide antibody was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) antibody and dsDNA antibody were measured by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. The results showed that a specific anti-SSB peptide antibody was produced following immunization with SSB epitope alone or with dsDNA. The SSB peptide antibody titer in the coimmunization group was higher than that of the SSB alone group. In addition, antibodies against ribonucleoprotein (RNP), Smith and/or dsDNA were detected in rabbits of the coimmunization group. The presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies in the rabbits immunized with SSB peptide suggested the induction of epitope spreading. In conclusions, SSB antibodies were produced in rabbits immunized with SSB peptide or SSB+dsDNA, whereas SSB antibody titers were higher in the coimmunization group. Furthermore, coimmunization was associated with epitope spreading. PMID:27347030

  8. Specific antibody response to oligomannosidic epitopes in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sendid, B; Colombel, J F; Jacquinot, P M; Faille, C; Fruit, J; Cortot, A; Lucidarme, D; Camus, D; Poulain, D

    1996-01-01

    Elevated antibody levels against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been reported in sera from patients with Crohn's disease and not with ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to identify the nature of the epitopes supporting this antibody response. Whole cells from different S. cerevisiae strains were selected in immunofluorescence assay for their ability to differentiate the antibody responses of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Their cell wall phosphopeptidomannans were then tested as antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against sera from 42 patients with Crohn's disease, 20 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 34 healthy controls. Graded chemical degradations were performed on the most reactive strain phosphopeptidomannan. The discriminating epitope was determined through gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The greatest discrimination among patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and controls was obtained with Su1, a S. cerevisiae strain used in brewing of beer. ELISA directed against phosphopeptidomannan of this strain was 64% sensitive and 77% specific for discriminating Crohn's disease versus ulcerative colitis and 71% sensitive and 89% specific for Crohn's disease versus controls. Periodate oxidation and selective degradation demonstrated that the most important polysaccharide epitope was shared by both the acid-stable and the alkali-labile domains of the phosphopeptidomannan. The determination of oligomannose sequences of S. cerevisiae Su1 phosphopeptidomannans suggested that a mannotetraose, Man (1 --> 3)Man(1 --> 2)Man(1 --> 2)Man, supported the serological response seen in Crohn's disease. Further identification of the immunogen eliciting this antibody response as a marker of the disease may help to understand its etiology. PMID:8991640

  9. IMMUNOCAT-a data management system for epitope mapping studies.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jo L; Sun, Jian; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2010-01-01

    To enable rationale vaccine design, studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune recognition need to be linked with clinical studies in humans. A major challenge in conducting such translational research studies lies in the management and integration of large amounts and various types of data collected from multiple sources. For this purpose, we have established "IMMUNOCAT", an interactive data management system for the epitope discovery research projects conducted by our group. The system provides functions to store, query, and analyze clinical and experimental data, enabling efficient, systematic, and integrative data management. We demonstrate how IMMUNOCAT is utilized in a large-scale research contract that aims to identify epitopes in common allergens recognized by T cells from human donors, in order to facilitate the rational design of allergy vaccines. At clinical sites, demographic information and disease history of each enrolled donor are captured, followed by results of an allergen skin test and blood draw. At the laboratory site, T cells derived from blood samples are tested for reactivity against a panel of peptides derived from common human allergens. IMMUNOCAT stores results from these T cell assays along with MHC:peptide binding data, results from RAST tests for antibody titers in donor serum, and the respective donor HLA typing results. Through this system, we are able to perform queries and integrated analyses of the various types of data. This provides a case study for the use of bioinformatics and information management techniques to track and analyze data produced in a translational research study aimed at epitope identification.

  10. Identification and characterization of merozoite surface protein 1 epitope

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satarudra Prakash; Mishra, Bhartendu Nath

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is an important tropical infection which urgently requires intervention of an effective vaccine. Antigenic variations of the parasite and allelic diversity of the host are main problems in the development of an effective malaria vaccine. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) directed against Plasmodium falciparum­derived antigens are shown to play an important role for the protection against malaria. The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) is expressed in all the four life-cycle stages of Plasmodium falciparum and did not find any sequence similarity to human and mouse reference proteins. MSP1 is a known target of the immune response and a single CTL epitope binding to the HLA­A*0201 is available for merozoite form. Here, we report the results from the computational characterization of MSP1, precursor (1720 residue) and screening of highest scoring potential CTL epitopes for 1712 overlapping peptides binding to thirty four HLA class­I alleles and twelve HLA class­I supertypes (5 HLA­A and 7 HLA­B) using bioinformatics tools. Supertypes are the clustered groups of HLA class­I molecules, representing a sets of molecules that share largely overlapping peptide binding specificity. The prediction results for MSP1 as adhesin and adhesin-like in terms of probability is 1.0. Results also show that MSP1 has orthologs to other related species as well as having non allergenicity and single transmembrane properties demonstrating its suitability as a vaccine candidate. The predicted peptides are expected to be useful in the design of multi-epitope vaccines without compromising the human population coverage. PMID:20011145

  11. A novel conformational B-cell epitope prediction method based on mimotope and patch analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pingping; Qi, Jialiang; Zhao, Yizhu; Huang, Yanxin; Yang, Guifu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuxin

    2016-04-01

    A B-cell epitope is a group of residues on the surface of an antigen that stimulates humoral immune responses. Identifying B-cell epitopes is important for effective vaccine design. Predicting epitopes by experimental methods is expensive in terms of time, cost and effort; therefore, computational methods that have a low cost and high speed are widely used to predict B-cell epitopes. Recently, epitope prediction based on random peptide library screening has been viewed as a promising method. Some novel software and web-based servers have been proposed that have succeeded in some test cases. Herein, we propose a novel epitope prediction method based on amino acid pairs and patch analysis. The method first divides antigen surfaces into overlapping patches based on both radius (R) and number (N), then predict epitopes based on Amino Acid Pairs (AAPs) from mimotopes and the surface patch. The proposed method yields a mean sensitivity of 0.53, specificity of 0.77, ACC of 0.75 and F-measure of 0.45 for 39 test cases. Compared with mimotope-based methods, patch-based methods and two other prediction methods, the sensitivity of the new method offers a certain improvement. Our findings demonstrate that this proposed method was successful for patch and AAPs analysis and allowed for conformational B-cell epitope prediction. PMID:26804644

  12. Immunochemical characterization of two thyroid-stimulating hormone beta-subunit epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Fairlie, W D; Stanton, P G; Hearn, M T

    1995-01-01

    The epitopes of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) recognized by two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated MAb 279 and MAb 299, have been characterized. These MAbs are highly specific for the beta-subunit of TSH. The epitope recognized by MAb 279 appears to be completely conserved between bovine and human TSH and partially conserved in the porcine species. The TSH beta-subunit epitope recognized by MAb 299 is only partially conserved between the human, bovine and porcine species. Both MAbs are capable of inhibiting the binding of TSH to its receptor in a TSH radioreceptor assay, indicating that the epitopes either coincide or are located close to the TSH beta-subunit receptor-binding sites. The carbohydrate moieties of the TSH beta-subunit appear to play little or no role in the epitope recognition by MAb 279 or MAb 299 while the integrity of the disulphide bonds are essential. The epitopic recognition may also involve lysine residues, as determined by the immunoreactivity with both MAbs following citraconylation of TSH. In addition, the amino acid sequence region between residues bTSH beta 34-44 could be excised by trypsin digestion of bovine TSH beta (bTSH beta) without eliminating epitopic recognition by either MAb. These results provide further insight into the relationship between the structure of the TSH beta-subunit epitopes and location of the receptor-binding sites. Images Figure 2 PMID:7538754

  13. Introduced Amino Terminal Epitopes Can Reduce Surface Expression of Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bracamontes, John R.; Akk, Gustav; Steinbach, Joe Henry

    2016-01-01

    Epitopes accessible on the surface of intact cells are extremely valuable in studies of membrane proteins, allowing quantification and determination of the distribution of proteins as well as identification of cells expressing large numbers of proteins. However for many membrane proteins there are no suitable antibodies to native sequences, due to lack of availability, low affinity or lack of specificity. In these cases the use of an introduced epitope at specific sites in the protein of interest can often provide a suitable tool for studies. However, the introduction of the epitope sequence has the potential to affect protein expression, the assembly of multisubunit proteins or transport to the surface membrane. We find that surface expression of heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors containing the α4 and β4 subunits can be affected by introduced epitopes when inserted near the amino terminus of a subunit. The FLAG epitope greatly reduces surface expression when introduced into either α4 or β4 subunits, the V5 epitope has little effect when placed in either, while the Myc epitope reduces expression more when inserted into β4 than α4. These results indicate that the extreme amino terminal region is important for assembly of these receptors, and demonstrate that some widely used introduced epitopes may severely reduce surface expression. PMID:26963253

  14. Computational prediction of neutralization epitopes targeted by human anti-V3 HIV monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shmelkov, Evgeny; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Grigoryan, Arsen V; Pinter, Abraham; Statnikov, Alexander; Cardozo, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The extreme diversity of HIV-1 strains presents a formidable challenge for HIV-1 vaccine design. Although antibodies (Abs) can neutralize HIV-1 and potentially protect against infection, antibodies that target the immunogenic viral surface protein gp120 have widely variable and poorly predictable cross-strain reactivity. Here, we developed a novel computational approach, the Method of Dynamic Epitopes, for identification of neutralization epitopes targeted by anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Our data demonstrate that this approach, based purely on calculated energetics and 3D structural information, accurately predicts the presence of neutralization epitopes targeted by V3-specific mAbs 2219 and 447-52D in any HIV-1 strain. The method was used to calculate the range of conservation of these specific epitopes across all circulating HIV-1 viruses. Accurately identifying an Ab-targeted neutralization epitope in a virus by computational means enables easy prediction of the breadth of reactivity of specific mAbs across the diversity of thousands of different circulating HIV-1 variants and facilitates rational design and selection of immunogens mimicking specific mAb-targeted epitopes in a multivalent HIV-1 vaccine. The defined epitopes can also be used for the purpose of epitope-specific analyses of breakthrough sequences recorded in vaccine clinical trials. Thus, our study is a prototype for a valuable tool for rational HIV-1 vaccine design.

  15. Approaching rational epitope vaccine design for hepatitis C virus with meta-server and multivalent scaffolding.

    PubMed

    He, Linling; Cheng, Yushao; Kong, Leopold; Azadnia, Parisa; Giang, Erick; Kim, Justin; Wood, Malcolm R; Wilson, Ian A; Law, Mansun; Zhu, Jiang

    2015-08-04

    Development of a prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been hampered by the extraordinary viral diversity and the poor host immune response. Scaffolding, by grafting an epitope onto a heterologous protein scaffold, offers a possible solution to epitope vaccine design. In this study, we designed and characterized epitope vaccine antigens for the antigenic sites of HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 (residues 314-324) and E2 (residues 412-423), for which neutralizing antibody-bound structures are available. We first combined six structural alignment algorithms in a "scaffolding meta-server" to search for diverse scaffolds that can structurally accommodate the HCV epitopes. For each antigenic site, ten scaffolds were selected for computational design, and the resulting epitope scaffolds were analyzed using structure-scoring functions and molecular dynamics simulation. We experimentally confirmed that three E1 and five E2 epitope scaffolds bound to their respective neutralizing antibodies, but with different kinetics. We then investigated a "multivalent scaffolding" approach by displaying 24 copies of an epitope scaffold on a self-assembling nanoparticle, which markedly increased the avidity of antibody binding. Our study thus demonstrates the utility of a multi-scale scaffolding strategy in epitope vaccine design and provides promising HCV immunogens for further assessment in vivo.

  16. Immune activation promotes evolutionary conservation of T-cell epitopes in HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Nebot, Miguel R; Peris, Joan B; Alcamí, José

    2013-01-01

    The immune system should constitute a strong selective pressure promoting viral genetic diversity and evolution. However, HIV shows lower sequence variability at T-cell epitopes than elsewhere in the genome, in contrast with other human RNA viruses. Here, we propose that epitope conservation is a consequence of the particular interactions established between HIV and the immune system. On one hand, epitope recognition triggers an anti-HIV response mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), but on the other hand, activation of CD4(+) helper T lymphocytes (TH cells) promotes HIV replication. Mathematical modeling of these opposite selective forces revealed that selection at the intrapatient level can promote either T-cell epitope conservation or escape. We predict greater conservation for epitopes contributing significantly to total immune activation levels (immunodominance), and when TH cell infection is concomitant to epitope recognition (trans-infection). We suggest that HIV-driven immune activation in the lymph nodes during the chronic stage of the disease may offer a favorable scenario for epitope conservation. Our results also support the view that some pathogens draw benefits from the immune response and suggest that vaccination strategies based on conserved TH epitopes may be counterproductive.

  17. Approaching rational epitope vaccine design for hepatitis C virus with meta-server and multivalent scaffolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Linling; Cheng, Yushao; Kong, Leopold; Azadnia, Parisa; Giang, Erick; Kim, Justin; Wood, Malcolm R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun; Zhu, Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Development of a prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been hampered by the extraordinary viral diversity and the poor host immune response. Scaffolding, by grafting an epitope onto a heterologous protein scaffold, offers a possible solution to epitope vaccine design. In this study, we designed and characterized epitope vaccine antigens for the antigenic sites of HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 (residues 314-324) and E2 (residues 412-423), for which neutralizing antibody-bound structures are available. We first combined six structural alignment algorithms in a “scaffolding meta-server” to search for diverse scaffolds that can structurally accommodate the HCV epitopes. For each antigenic site, ten scaffolds were selected for computational design, and the resulting epitope scaffolds were analyzed using structure-scoring functions and molecular dynamics simulation. We experimentally confirmed that three E1 and five E2 epitope scaffolds bound to their respective neutralizing antibodies, but with different kinetics. We then investigated a “multivalent scaffolding” approach by displaying 24 copies of an epitope scaffold on a self-assembling nanoparticle, which markedly increased the avidity of antibody binding. Our study thus demonstrates the utility of a multi-scale scaffolding strategy in epitope vaccine design and provides promising HCV immunogens for further assessment in vivo.

  18. Approaching rational epitope vaccine design for hepatitis C virus with meta-server and multivalent scaffolding

    PubMed Central

    He, Linling; Cheng, Yushao; Kong, Leopold; Azadnia, Parisa; Giang, Erick; Kim, Justin; Wood, Malcolm R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun; Zhu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Development of a prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been hampered by the extraordinary viral diversity and the poor host immune response. Scaffolding, by grafting an epitope onto a heterologous protein scaffold, offers a possible solution to epitope vaccine design. In this study, we designed and characterized epitope vaccine antigens for the antigenic sites of HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 (residues 314–324) and E2 (residues 412–423), for which neutralizing antibody-bound structures are available. We first combined six structural alignment algorithms in a “scaffolding meta-server” to search for diverse scaffolds that can structurally accommodate the HCV epitopes. For each antigenic site, ten scaffolds were selected for computational design, and the resulting epitope scaffolds were analyzed using structure-scoring functions and molecular dynamics simulation. We experimentally confirmed that three E1 and five E2 epitope scaffolds bound to their respective neutralizing antibodies, but with different kinetics. We then investigated a “multivalent scaffolding” approach by displaying 24 copies of an epitope scaffold on a self-assembling nanoparticle, which markedly increased the avidity of antibody binding. Our study thus demonstrates the utility of a multi-scale scaffolding strategy in epitope vaccine design and provides promising HCV immunogens for further assessment in vivo. PMID:26238798

  19. Computational Prediction of Neutralization Epitopes Targeted by Human Anti-V3 HIV Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Shmelkov, Evgeny; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Grigoryan, Arsen V.; Pinter, Abraham; Statnikov, Alexander; Cardozo, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The extreme diversity of HIV-1 strains presents a formidable challenge for HIV-1 vaccine design. Although antibodies (Abs) can neutralize HIV-1 and potentially protect against infection, antibodies that target the immunogenic viral surface protein gp120 have widely variable and poorly predictable cross-strain reactivity. Here, we developed a novel computational approach, the Method of Dynamic Epitopes, for identification of neutralization epitopes targeted by anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Our data demonstrate that this approach, based purely on calculated energetics and 3D structural information, accurately predicts the presence of neutralization epitopes targeted by V3-specific mAbs 2219 and 447-52D in any HIV-1 strain. The method was used to calculate the range of conservation of these specific epitopes across all circulating HIV-1 viruses. Accurately identifying an Ab-targeted neutralization epitope in a virus by computational means enables easy prediction of the breadth of reactivity of specific mAbs across the diversity of thousands of different circulating HIV-1 variants and facilitates rational design and selection of immunogens mimicking specific mAb-targeted epitopes in a multivalent HIV-1 vaccine. The defined epitopes can also be used for the purpose of epitope-specific analyses of breakthrough sequences recorded in vaccine clinical trials. Thus, our study is a prototype for a valuable tool for rational HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:24587168

  20. Computational prediction of neutralization epitopes targeted by human anti-V3 HIV monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shmelkov, Evgeny; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Grigoryan, Arsen V; Pinter, Abraham; Statnikov, Alexander; Cardozo, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The extreme diversity of HIV-1 strains presents a formidable challenge for HIV-1 vaccine design. Although antibodies (Abs) can neutralize HIV-1 and potentially protect against infection, antibodies that target the immunogenic viral surface protein gp120 have widely variable and poorly predictable cross-strain reactivity. Here, we developed a novel computational approach, the Method of Dynamic Epitopes, for identification of neutralization epitopes targeted by anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Our data demonstrate that this approach, based purely on calculated energetics and 3D structural information, accurately predicts the presence of neutralization epitopes targeted by V3-specific mAbs 2219 and 447-52D in any HIV-1 strain. The method was used to calculate the range of conservation of these specific epitopes across all circulating HIV-1 viruses. Accurately identifying an Ab-targeted neutralization epitope in a virus by computational means enables easy prediction of the breadth of reactivity of specific mAbs across the diversity of thousands of different circulating HIV-1 variants and facilitates rational design and selection of immunogens mimicking specific mAb-targeted epitopes in a multivalent HIV-1 vaccine. The defined epitopes can also be used for the purpose of epitope-specific analyses of breakthrough sequences recorded in vaccine clinical trials. Thus, our study is a prototype for a valuable tool for rational HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:24587168

  1. HIV Control Is Mediated in Part by CD8+ T-Cell Targeting of Specific Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Florencia; Heckerman, David; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Kadie, Carl; Soghoian, Damien Z.; Karel, Daniel; Goldenthal, Ariel; Davis, Oliver B.; DeZiel, Charles E.; Lin, Tienho; Peng, Jian; Piechocka, Alicja; Carrington, Mary

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the hypothesis that the correlation between the class I HLA types of an individual and whether that individual spontaneously controls HIV-1 is mediated by the targeting of specific epitopes by CD8+ T cells. By measuring gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay responses to a panel of 257 optimally defined epitopes in 341 untreated HIV-infected persons, including persons who spontaneously control viremia, we found that the correlation between HLA types and control is mediated by the targeting of specific epitopes. Moreover, we performed a graphical model-based analysis that suggested that the targeting of specific epitopes is a cause of such control—that is, some epitopes are protective rather than merely associated with control—and identified eight epitopes that are significantly protective. In addition, we use an in silico analysis to identify protein regions where mutations are likely to affect the stability of a protein, and we found that the protective epitopes identified by the ELISPOT analysis correspond almost perfectly to such regions. This in silico analysis thus suggests a possible mechanism for control and could be used to identify protective epitopes that are not often targeted in natural infection but that may be potentially useful in a vaccine. Our analyses thus argue for the inclusion (and exclusion) of specific epitopes in an HIV vaccine. IMPORTANCE Some individuals naturally control HIV replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, and this ability to control is strongly correlated with the HLA class I alleles that they express. Here, in a large-scale experimental study, we provide evidence that this correlation is mediated largely by the targeting of specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes, and we identify eight epitopes that are likely to cause control. In addition, we provide an in silico analysis indicating that control occurs because mutations within these epitopes change the stability of the

  2. Antigen-specific immunomodulation for type 1 diabetes by novel recombinant antibodies directed against diabetes-associates auto-reactive T cell epitope.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Rony; Gebe, John A; Preisinger, Anton; James, Eddie A; Tendler, Mark; Nepom, Gerald T; Reiter, Yoram

    2013-12-01

    The trimolecular complex composed of autoreactive T-cell receptor, MHC class II, and an autoantigenic peptide plays a central role in the activation of pathogenic Islet-specific CD4+ T cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We isolated and characterized novel antibodies against autoreactive T-cell epitopes associated with T1D. Our antibodies mimic the specificity of the T-cell receptor (TCR), while binding MHC class II/peptide complexes in an autoantigen peptide specific, MHC-restricted manner. The isolated TCR-like antibodies were directed against the minimal T-cell epitope GAD-555-567 in the context of the HLA-DR4-diabetic-associated molecule. A representative high-affinity TCR-like antibody clone (G3H8) enabled the detection of intra- and extra-cellular DR4/GAD-555-567 complexes in antigen presenting cells. I561M single mutation at the central position (P5) of the GAD-555-567 peptide abolished the binding of G3H8 to the DR4/GAD complex, demonstrating its high fine TCR-like specificity. The G3H8 TCR-like antibody significantly inhibited GAD-555-567 specific, DR4 restricted T-cell response in vitro and in vivo in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Our findings constitute a proof-of-concept for the utility of TCR-like antibodies as antigen-specific immunomodulation agents for regulating pathogenic T-cells and suggest that TCR-like antibodies targeting autoreactive MHC class II epitopes are valuable research tools that enable studies related to antigen presentation as well as novel therapeutic agents that may be used to modulate autoimmune disorders such as T1D. PMID:24090977

  3. Antigen-specific immunomodulation for type 1 diabetes by novel recombinant antibodies directed against diabetes-associates auto-reactive T cell epitope.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Rony; Gebe, John A; Preisinger, Anton; James, Eddie A; Tendler, Mark; Nepom, Gerald T; Reiter, Yoram

    2013-12-01

    The trimolecular complex composed of autoreactive T-cell receptor, MHC class II, and an autoantigenic peptide plays a central role in the activation of pathogenic Islet-specific CD4+ T cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We isolated and characterized novel antibodies against autoreactive T-cell epitopes associated with T1D. Our antibodies mimic the specificity of the T-cell receptor (TCR), while binding MHC class II/peptide complexes in an autoantigen peptide specific, MHC-restricted manner. The isolated TCR-like antibodies were directed against the minimal T-cell epitope GAD-555-567 in the context of the HLA-DR4-diabetic-associated molecule. A representative high-affinity TCR-like antibody clone (G3H8) enabled the detection of intra- and extra-cellular DR4/GAD-555-567 complexes in antigen presenting cells. I561M single mutation at the central position (P5) of the GAD-555-567 peptide abolished the binding of G3H8 to the DR4/GAD complex, demonstrating its high fine TCR-like specificity. The G3H8 TCR-like antibody significantly inhibited GAD-555-567 specific, DR4 restricted T-cell response in vitro and in vivo in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Our findings constitute a proof-of-concept for the utility of TCR-like antibodies as antigen-specific immunomodulation agents for regulating pathogenic T-cells and suggest that TCR-like antibodies targeting autoreactive MHC class II epitopes are valuable research tools that enable studies related to antigen presentation as well as novel therapeutic agents that may be used to modulate autoimmune disorders such as T1D.

  4. Protein grafting of an HIV-1-inhibiting epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sia, Samuel K.; Kim, Peter S.

    2003-08-01

    Protein grafting, the transfer of a binding epitope of one ligand onto the surface of another protein, is a potentially powerful technique for presenting peptides in preformed and active three-dimensional conformations. Its utility, however, has been limited by low biological activity of the designed ligands and low tolerance of the protein scaffolds to surface substitutions. Here, we graft the complete binding epitope (19 nonconsecutive amino acids with a solvent-accessible surface area of >2,000 Å2) of an HIV-1 C-peptide, which is derived from the C-terminal region of HIV-1 gp41 and potently inhibits HIV-1 entry into cells, onto the surface of a GCN4 leucine zipper. The designed peptide, named C34coil, displays a potent antiviral activity approaching that of the native ligand. Moreover, whereas the linear C-peptide is unstructured and sensitive to degradation by proteases, C34coil is well structured, conformationally stable, and exhibits increased resistance to proteolytic degradation compared with the linear peptide. In addition to being a structured antiviral inhibitor, C34coil may also serve as the basis for the development of an alternative class of immunogens. This study demonstrates that "one-shot" protein grafting, without subsequent rounds of optimization, can be used to create ligands with structural conformations and improved biomedical properties.

  5. Improving wheat to remove coeliac epitopes but retain functionality

    PubMed Central

    Shewry, Peter R.; Tatham, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    Coeliac disease is an intolerance triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins. It is of increasing concern to consumers and health professionals as its incidence appears to be increasing. The amino acid sequences in gluten proteins that are responsible for triggering responses in sensitive individuals have been identified showing that they vary in distribution among and between different groups of gluten proteins. Conventional breeding may therefore be used to select for gluten protein fractions with lower contents of coeliac epitopes. Molecular breeding approaches can also be used to specifically down-regulate coeliac-toxic proteins or mutate coeliac epitopes within individual proteins. A combination of these approaches may therefore be used to develop a “coeliac-safe” wheat. However, this remains a formidable challenge due to the complex multigenic control of gluten protein composition. Furthermore, any modified wheats must retain acceptable properties for making bread and other processed foods. Not surprisingly, such coeliac-safe wheats have not yet been developed despite over a decade of research. PMID:26937068

  6. Antibody Recognition of a Highly Conserved Influenza Virus Epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Bhabha, Gira; Elsliger, Marc-André; Friesen, Robert H.E.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Throsby, Mark; Goudsmit, Jaap; Wilson, Ian A.; Scripps; Crucell

    2009-05-21

    Influenza virus presents an important and persistent threat to public health worldwide, and current vaccines provide immunity to viral isolates similar to the vaccine strain. High-affinity antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide immunity to the diverse influenza subtypes and protection against future pandemic viruses. Cocrystal structures were determined at 2.2 and 2.7 angstrom resolutions for broadly neutralizing human antibody CR6261 Fab in complexes with the major surface antigen (hemagglutinin, HA) from viruses responsible for the 1918 H1N1 influenza pandemic and a recent lethal case of H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to other structurally characterized influenza antibodies, CR6261 recognizes a highly conserved helical region in the membrane-proximal stem of HA1 and HA2. The antibody neutralizes the virus by blocking conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. The CR6261 epitope identified here should accelerate the design and implementation of improved vaccines that can elicit CR6261-like antibodies, as well as antibody-based therapies for the treatment of influenza.

  7. Epitope identification and discovery using phage display libraries: applications in vaccine development and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fa; Yu, Meng

    2004-01-01

    Antigenic epitopes are the part (contact points) of an antigen involved in specific interaction with the antigen-binding site (the paratope) of an antibody or a T-cell receptor. Detailed analysis of epitopes is important both for the understanding of immunological events and for the development of more effective vaccine and diagnostic tools for various diseases. Identification and characterization of epitopes is a complex process. Although various methods have been developed in this area, there still lacks a simple common approach which can be applied to all epitopes. Since its first introduction more than a decade ago, phage display technology has made a major impact in this area of research. With the exponential growth in this area, it is impractical to review the entire literature detailing all possible applications. Instead, this review aims to focus on specific applications related to the discovery and identification of epitopes which have potential as vaccine candidates or can be used in disease diagnosis.

  8. Chimeric peptide constructs comprising linear B-cell epitopes: application to the serodiagnosis of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yudong; Li, Zhong; Teng, Huan; Xu, Hongke; Qi, Songnan; He, Jian’an; Gu, Dayong; Chen, Qijun; Ma, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Linear B-cell epitopes are ideal biomarkers for the serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. However, the long-predicted diagnostic value of epitopes has not been realized. Here, we demonstrated a method, diagnostic epitopes in four steps (DEIFS), that delivers a combination of epitopes for the serodiagnosis of infectious diseases with a high success rate. Using DEIFS for malaria, we identified 6 epitopes from 8 peptides and combined them into 3 chimeric peptide constructs. Along with 4 other peptides, we developed a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), which is able to differentiate Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) from Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) infections with 95.6% overall sensitivity and 99.1% overall specificity. In addition to applications in diagnosis, DEIFS could also be used in the diagnosis of virus and bacterium infections, discovery of vaccine candidates, evaluation of vaccine potency, and study of disease progression. PMID:26293607

  9. Mechanisms of HIV protein degradation into epitopes: implications for vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Rucevic, Marijana; Boucau, Julie; Dinter, Jens; Kourjian, Georgio; Le Gall, Sylvie

    2014-08-21

    The degradation of HIV-derived proteins into epitopes displayed by MHC-I or MHC-II are the first events leading to the priming of HIV-specific immune responses and to the recognition of infected cells. Despite a wealth of information about peptidases involved in protein degradation, our knowledge of epitope presentation during HIV infection remains limited. Here we review current data on HIV protein degradation linking epitope production and immunodominance, viral evolution and impaired epitope presentation. We propose that an in-depth understanding of HIV antigen processing and presentation in relevant primary cells could be exploited to identify signatures leading to efficient or inefficient epitope presentation in HIV proteomes, and to improve the design of immunogens eliciting immune responses efficiently recognizing all infected cells.

  10. A General Synthetic Approach for Designing Epitope Targeted Macrocyclic Peptide Ligands.

    PubMed

    Das, Samir; Nag, Arundhati; Liang, JingXin; Bunck, David N; Umeda, Aiko; Farrow, Blake; Coppock, Matthew B; Sarkes, Deborah A; Finch, Amethist S; Agnew, Heather D; Pitram, Suresh; Lai, Bert; Yu, Mary Beth; Museth, A Katrine; Deyle, Kaycie M; Lepe, Bianca; Rodriguez-Rivera, Frances P; McCarthy, Amy; Alvarez-Villalonga, Belen; Chen, Ann; Heath, John; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N; Heath, James R

    2015-11-01

    We describe a general synthetic strategy for developing high-affinity peptide binders against specific epitopes of challenging protein biomarkers. The epitope of interest is synthesized as a polypeptide, with a detection biotin tag and a strategically placed azide (or alkyne) presenting amino acid. This synthetic epitope (SynEp) is incubated with a library of complementary alkyne or azide presenting peptides. Library elements that bind the SynEp in the correct orientation undergo the Huisgen cycloaddition, and are covalently linked to the SynEp. Hit peptides are tested against the full-length protein to identify the best binder. We describe development of epitope-targeted linear or macrocycle peptide ligands against 12 different diagnostic or therapeutic analytes. The general epitope targeting capability for these low molecular weight synthetic ligands enables a range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications, similar to those of monoclonal antibodies.

  11. Vaccine Focusing to Cross-Subtype HIV-1 gp120 Variable Loop Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Timothy; Wang, Shixia; Jiang, Xunqing; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Hioe, Catarina; Krachmarov, Chavdar

    2014-01-01

    We designed synthetic, epitope-focused immunogens that preferentially display individual neutralization epitopes targeted by cross-subtype anti-HIV V3 loop neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Vaccination of rabbits with these immunogens resulted in the elicitation of distinct polyclonal serum Abs that exhibit cross-subtype neutralization specificities mimicking the mAbs that guided the design. Our results prove the principle that a predictable range of epitope-specific polyclonal cross-subtype HIV-1 neutralizing Abs can be intentionally elicited in mammals by vaccination. The precise boundaries of the epitopes and conformational flexibility in the presentation of the epitopes in the immunogen appeared to be important for successful elicitation. This work may serve as a starting point for translating the activities of human broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) into matched immunogens that can contribute to an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:25045827

  12. First report on the antibody verification of HLA-DR, HLA-DQ and HLA-DP epitopes recorded in the HLA Epitope Registry.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Rene J; Marrari, Marilyn; Tambur, Anat R; Mulder, Arend; Sousa, Luiz Cláudio Demes da Mata; da Silva, Adalberto Socorro; do Monte, Semiramis J H

    2014-11-01

    The International Registry of Antibody-Defined HLA Epitopes (http://www.epregistry.com.br) has been recently established as a tool to understand humoral responses to HLA mismatches. These epitopes can be structurally defined as eplets by three-dimensional molecular modeling and amino acid sequence differences between HLA antigens. A major goal is to identify HLA eplets that have been verified experimentally with informative antibodies. This report addresses class II epitopes encoded by genes in the HLA-D region. Our analysis included reviews of many publications about epitope specificity of class II reactive human and murine monoclonal antibodies and informative alloantibodies from HLA sensitized patients as well as our own antibody testing results. As of July 1, 2014, 24 HLA-DRB1/3/4/5, 15 DQB, 3 DQA and 8 DPB antibody-verified epitopes have been identified and recorded. The Registry is still a work-in-progress and will become a useful resource for HLA professionals interested in histocompatibility testing at the epitope level and investigating antibody responses to HLA mismatches in transplant patients. PMID:25305456

  13. The presence of prolines in the flanking region of an immunodominant HIV‐2 gag epitope influences the quality and quantity of the epitope generated

    PubMed Central

    Leligdowicz, Aleksandra; Kramer, Holger B.; Onyango, Clayton; Cotten, Matthew; Wright, Cynthia; Whittle, Hilton C.; McMichael, Andrew; Dong, Tao; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Rowland‐Jones, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Both the recognition of HIV‐infected cells and the immunogenicity of candidate CTL vaccines depend on the presentation of a peptide epitope at the cell surface, which in turn depends on intracellular antigen processing. Differential antigen processing maybe responsible for the differences in both the quality and the quantity of epitopes produced, influencing the immunodominance hierarchy of viral epitopes. Previously, we showed that the magnitude of the HIV‐2 gag‐specific T‐cell response is inversely correlated with plasma viral load, particularly when responses are directed against an epitope, 165DRFYKSLRA173, within the highly conserved Major Homology Region of gag‐p26. We also showed that the presence of three proline residues, at positions 119, 159 and 178 of gag‐p26, was significantly correlated with low viral load. Since this proline motif was also associated with stronger gag‐specific CTL responses, we investigated the impact of these prolines on proteasomal processing of the protective 165DRFYKSLRA173 epitope. Our data demonstrate that the 165DRFYKSLRA173 epitope is most efficiently processed from precursors that contain two flanking proline residues, found naturally in low viral‐load patients. Superior antigen processing and enhanced presentation may account for the link between infection with HIV‐2 encoding the “PPP‐gag” sequence and both strong gag‐specific CTL responses as well as lower viral load. PMID:26018465

  14. Selection of SARS-Coronavirus-specific B cell epitopes by phage peptide library screening and evaluation of the immunological effect of epitope-based peptides on mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Hua; Jiang Lifang . E-mail: jianglf909@yahoo.com.cn; Fang Danyun; Yan Huijun; Zhou Jingjiao; Zhou Junmei; Liang Yu; Gao Yang; Zhao, Wei; Long Beiguo

    2007-03-15

    Antibodies to SARS-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-specific B cell epitopes might recognize the pathogen and interrupt its adherence to and penetration of host cells. Hence, these epitopes could be useful for diagnosis and as vaccine constituents. Using the phage-displayed peptide library screening method and purified Fab fragments of immunoglobulin G (IgG Fab) from normal human sera and convalescent sera from SARS-CoV-infected patients as targets, 11 B cell epitopes of SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein (S protein) and membrane protein (M protein) were screened. After a bioinformatics tool was used to analyze these epitopes, four epitope-based S protein dodecapeptides corresponding to the predominant epitopes were chosen for synthesis. Their antigenic specificities and immunogenicities were studied in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry and ELISPOT analysis of lymphocytes as well as a serologic analysis of antibody showed that these peptides could trigger a rapid, highly effective, and relatively safe immune response in BALB/c mice. These findings might aid development of SARS diagnostics and vaccines. Moreover, the role of S and M proteins as important surface antigens is confirmed.

  15. IGHV1-69-encoded antibodies expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia react with malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adduct, an immunodominant oxidation-specific epitope.

    PubMed

    Que, Xuchu; Widhopf, George F; Amir, Shahzada; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Hansen, Lotte F; Woelkers, Douglas; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Binder, Christoph J; Kipps, Thomas J; Witztum, Joseph L

    2013-01-01

    The immunoglobulins expressed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells are highly restricted, suggesting they are selected for binding either self or foreign antigen. Of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) genes expressed in CLL, IGHV1-69 is the most common, and often is expressed with little or no somatic mutation, and restricted IGHD and IGHJ gene usage. We found that antibodies encoded by one particular IGHV1-69 subset, designated CLL69C, with the HCDR3 encoded by the IGHD3-3 gene in reading frame 2 and IGHJ6, specifically bound to oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE), which are products of enhanced lipid peroxidation and a major target of innate natural antibodies. Specifically, CLL69C bound immunodominant OSE adducts termed MAA (malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducts), which are found on apoptotic cells, inflammatory tissues, and atherosclerotic lesions. It also reacted specifically with MAA-specific peptide mimotopes. Light chain shuffling indicated that non-stochastically paired L chain of IGLV3-9 contributes to the antigen binding of CLL69C. A nearly identical CLL69C Ig heavy chain was identified from an MAA-enriched umbilical cord phage displayed Fab library, and a derived Fab with the same HCDR3 rearrangement displayed identical MAA-binding properties. These data support the concept that OSE (MAA-epitopes), which are ubiquitous products of inflammation, may play a role in clonal selection and expansion of CLL B cells. PMID:23840319

  16. Functional and structural characterization of neutralizing epitopes of measles virus hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Maino; Ito, Yuri; Brindley, Melinda A; Ma, Xuemin; He, Jilan; Xu, Songtao; Fukuhara, Hideo; Sakai, Kouji; Komase, Katsuhiro; Rota, Paul A; Plemper, Richard K; Maenaka, Katsumi; Takeda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Effective vaccination programs have dramatically reduced the number of measles-related deaths globally. Although all the available data suggest that measles eradication is biologically feasible, a structural and biochemical basis for the single serotype nature of measles virus (MV) remains to be provided. The hemagglutinin (H) protein, which binds to two discrete proteinaceous receptors, is the major neutralizing target. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing distinct epitopes on the H protein were characterized using recombinant MVs encoding the H gene from different MV genotypes. The effects of various mutations on neutralization by MAbs and virus fitness were also analyzed, identifying the location of five epitopes on the H protein structure. Our data in the present study demonstrated that the H protein of MV possesses at least two conserved effective neutralizing epitopes. One, which is a previously recognized epitope, is located near the receptor-binding site (RBS), and thus MAbs that recognize this epitope blocked the receptor binding of the H protein, whereas the other epitope is located at the position distant from the RBS. Thus, a MAb that recognizes this epitope did not inhibit the receptor binding of the H protein, rather interfered with the hemagglutinin-fusion (H-F) interaction. This epitope was suggested to play a key role for formation of a higher order of an H-F protein oligomeric structure. Our data also identified one nonconserved effective neutralizing epitope. The epitope has been masked by an N-linked sugar modification in some genotype MV strains. These data would contribute to our understanding of the antigenicity of MV and support the global elimination program of measles. PMID:23115278

  17. Epitope-driven DNA vaccine design employing immunoinformatics against B-cell lymphoma: a biotech's challenge.

    PubMed

    Iurescia, Sandra; Fioretti, Daniela; Fazio, Vito Michele; Rinaldi, Monica

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccination has been widely explored to develop new, alternative and efficient vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. DNA vaccines offer several benefits such as specific targeting, use of multiple genes to enhance immunity and reduced risk compared to conventional vaccines. Rapid developments in molecular biology and immunoinformatics enable rational design approaches. These technologies allow construction of DNA vaccines encoding selected tumor antigens together with molecules to direct and amplify the desired effector pathways, as well as highly targeted vaccines aimed at specific epitopes. Reliable predictions of immunogenic T cell epitope peptides are crucial for rational vaccine design and represent a key problem in immunoinformatics. Computational approaches have been developed to facilitate the process of epitope detection and show potential applications to the immunotherapeutic treatment of cancer. In this review a number of different epitope prediction methods are briefly illustrated and effective use of these resources to support experimental studies is described. Epitope-driven vaccine design employs these bioinformatics algorithms to identify potential targets of vaccines against cancer. In this paper the selection of T cell epitopes to develop epitope-based vaccines, the need for CD4(+) T cell help for improved vaccines and the assessment of vaccine performance against tumor are reviewed. We focused on two applications, namely prediction of novel T cell epitopes and epitope enhancement by sequence modification, and combined rationale design with bioinformatics for creation of new synthetic mini-genes. This review describes the development of epitope-based DNA vaccines and their antitumor effects in preclinical research against B-cell lymphoma, corroborating the usefulness of this platform as a potential tool for cancer therapy. Achievements in the field of DNA vaccines allow to overcome hurdles to clinical translation. In a scenario where the vaccine

  18. CD45 epitope mapping of human CD1a+ dendritic cells and peripheral blood dendritic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, G. S.; Freudenthal, P. S.; Edinger, A.; Steinman, R. M.; Warnke, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors studied the pattern of leukocyte common antigen (CD45) epitope expression on dendritic cells in sections of human epidermis, tonsillar epithelium, dermatopathic lymph nodes, and in isolates from blood. The monoclonal antibodies (MAb) used were specific for all known CD45 epitopes, including the seven different CD45 common epitopes as well as the four known CD45R epitopes (two CD45RA, one CD45RB, and one CD45RO). Dendritic cells in all sites were uniformly reactive for the CD45 common epitopes tested except 2B11, which may recognize a CD45R rather than CD45 epitope. By single-label immunoperoxidase and double-label immunofluorescence epitope mapping of CD1a+ dendritic cells in tissue sections, it was generally difficult or impossible to detect expression of CD45RA, CD45RB, CD45RO, or 2B11. In blood dendritic cells, however, low levels of these CD45R epitopes were detected consistently using single-label immunoperoxidase staining of cytocentrifuge preparations. Monocytes were similar to blood dendritic cells except that the staining with MAb to CD45RO and 2B11 was slightly stronger. The authors conclude that dendritic cells differ from most subpopulations of lymphocytes in that CD45 common epitopes are readily detectable but the existing RA, RB, and RO epitopes are either undetectable or expressed at relatively low levels. These studies raise the possibility that CD1a+ dendritic cells may express a novel dominant CD45 isoform. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1711291

  19. Structural characterization and IgE epitope analysis of arginine kinase from Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hai-Yan; Cao, Min-Jie; Maleki, Soheila J; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Su, Wen-Jin; Yang, Yang; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is reported to be the pan-allergen of shellfish. However, there is limited information on its IgE epitopes and structural characteristics. In this study, AK from Scylla paramamosain was purified and characterized. The purified AK is a glycoprotein with the molecular weight of 40 kDa and it demonstrates cross-reactivity with the related allergens present in other shellfish. The cDNA of S. paramamosain AK was cloned, which encodes 357 amino acid residues. Nine linear epitopes and seven conformational epitopes were predicted following bioinformatics analysis. In addition, the entire recombinant AK (rAK) and three partial recombinant AKs (rAK1, rAK2, and rAK3) were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The proteins of rAK1, rAK2 and rAK have strong IgE reactivity with the pooled sera from crab allergic patients, while rAK3 has significantly weaker IgE reactivity, which indicates that the IgE epitopes of AK are mainly distributed in the regions of rAK1 and rAK2. Furthermore, three experimental linear epitopes (epitope 1: AA 127-141, epitope 2: AA 141-155, and epitope 3: AA 211-225) were discovered in the region of rAK1 and rAK2 using synthetized overlapping peptides. The experimental linear epitopes were mapped onto the protein homology model of AK. Meanwhile, in the IgE-binding assays of the sera from nine crab allergic patients, only three sera reacted with the denatured, linear AK as shown by Western-blotting, eight sera reacted with the native, folded AK by both dot-blotting and ELISA, which indicates that the conformational IgE epitopes of S. paramamosain AK may be more predominant.

  20. Direct ex vivo detection of HLA-DR3-restricted cytomegalovirus- and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Bronke, Corine; Palmer, Nanette M; Westerlaken, Geertje H A; Toebes, Mireille; van Schijndel, Gijs M W; Purwaha, Veenu; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Schumacher, Ton N M; van Baarle, Debbie; Tesselaar, Kiki; Geluk, Annemieke

    2005-09-01

    In order to detect epitope-specific CD4+ T cells in mycobacterial or viral infections in the context of human class II major histocompatibility complex protein human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3, two HLA-DR3 tetrameric molecules were successfully produced. One contained an immunodominant HLA-DR3-restricted T-cell epitope derived from the 65-kDa heat-shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, peptide 1-13. For the other tetramer, we used an HLA-DR3-restricted T-cell epitope derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 lower matrix protein, peptide 510-522, which induced high levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells in three of four HLA-DR3-positive CMV-seropositive individuals up to 0.84% of CD4+ T cells by intracellular cytokine staining. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells from M. tuberculosis-exposed, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated, or CMV-seropositive individuals, we were able to directly detect with both tetramers epitope-specific T cells up to 0.62% and 0.45% of the CD4+ T-cell population reactive to M. tuberculosis and CMV, respectively. After a 6-day culture with peptide p510-522, the frequency of CMV-specific tetramer-binding T cells was expanded up to 9.90% tetramer+ CFSElow (5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester) cells within the CD4+ T-cell population, further confirming the specificity of the tetrameric molecules. Thus, HLA-DR3/peptide tetrameric molecules can be used to investigate HLA-DR3-restricted antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in clinical disease or after vaccination.

  1. Clustered epitopes within a new poly-epitopic HIV-1 DNA vaccine shows immunogenicity in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, Nazli; Memarnejadian, Arash; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Kohram, Fatemeh; Aghababa, Haniyeh; Khoramabadi, Nima; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    Despite a huge number of studies towards vaccine development against human immunodeficiency virus-1, no effective vaccine has been approved yet. Thus, new vaccines should be provided with new formulations. Herein, a new DNA vaccine candidate encoding conserved and immunogenic epitopes from HIV-1 antigens of tat, pol, gag and env is designed and constructed. After bioinformatics analyses to find the best epitopes and their tandem, nucleotide sequence corresponding to the designed multiepitope was synthesized and cloned into pcDNA3.1+ vector. Expression of pcDNA3.1-tat/pol/gag/env plasmid was evaluated in HEK293T cells by RT-PCR and western-blotting. Seven groups of BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized three times either with 50, 100, 200 µg of plasmid in 2-week intervals or with similar doses of insert-free plasmid. Two weeks after the last injection, proliferation of T cells and secretion of IL4 and IFN-γ cytokines were evaluated using Brdu and ELISA methods, respectively. Results showed the proper expression of the plasmid in protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, the designed multiepitope plasmid was capable of induction of both proliferation responses as well as IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokine production in a considerable level compared to the control groups. Overall, our primary data warranted further detailed studies on the potency of this vaccine. PMID:24842263

  2. Epitope mapping and functional analysis of sigma A and sigma NS proteins of avian reovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Pi H.; Li, Ying J.; Su, Yu P.; Lee, Long H.; Liu, Hung J. . E-mail: hjliu@mail.npust.edu.tw

    2005-02-20

    We have previously shown that avian reovirus (ARV) {sigma}A and {sigma}NS proteins possess dsRNA and ssRNA binding activity and suggested that there are two epitopes on {sigma}A (I and II) and three epitopes (A, B, and C) on {sigma}NS. To further define the location of epitopes on {sigma}A and {sigma}NS proteins and to further elucidate the biological functions of these epitopes by using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 62, 1F9, H1E1, and 4A123 against the ARV S1133 strain, the full-length and deletion fragments of S2 and S4 genes of ARV generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were cloned into pET32 expression vectors and the fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. Epitope mapping using MAbs and E. coli-expressed deletion fragments of {sigma}A and {sigma}NS of the ARV S1133 strain, synthetic peptides, and the cross reactivity of MAbs to heterologous ARV strains demonstrated that epitope II on {sigma}A was located at amino acid residues {sup 340}QWVMAGLVSAA{sup 350} and epitope B on {sigma}NS at amino acid residues {sup 180}MLDMVDGRP{sup 188}. The MAbs (62, 1F9, and H1E1) directed against epitopes II and B did not require the native conformation of {sigma}A and {sigma}NS, suggesting that their binding activities were conformation-independent. On the other hand, MAb 4A123 only reacted with complete {sigma}NS but not with truncated {sigma}NS fusion proteins in Western blot, suggesting that the binding activity of MAb to epitope A on {sigma}NS was conformation-dependent. Amino acid sequence analysis and the binding assays of MAb 62 to heterologous ARV strains suggested that epitope II on {sigma}A was highly conserved among ARV strains and that this epitope is suitable as a serological marker for the detection of ARV antibodies following natural infection in chickens. On the contrary, an amino acid substitution at position 183 (M to V) in epitope B of ARV could hinder the reactivity of the {sigma}NS with MAb 1F9. The {sigma}NS of ARV with ss

  3. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  4. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20-40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  5. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive composition: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Leffel, Timothy; Lauter, Miriam; Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the brain mechanisms underlying language processing has implicated the left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) as a central region for the composition of simple phrases. Because these studies typically present their critical stimuli without contextual information, the sensitivity of LATL responses to contextual factors is unknown. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we employed a simple question-answer paradigm to manipulate whether a prenominal adjective or determiner is interpreted restrictively, i.e., as limiting the set of entities under discussion. Our results show that the LATL is sensitive to restriction, with restrictive composition eliciting higher responses than non-restrictive composition. However, this effect was only observed when the restricting element was a determiner, adjectival stimuli showing the opposite pattern, which we hypothesise to be driven by the special pragmatic properties of non-restrictive adjectives. Overall, our results demonstrate a robust sensitivity of the LATL to high level contextual and potentially also pragmatic factors. PMID:25379512

  6. Peptide specificity and HLA restriction do not dictate lymphokine production by allergen-specific T-lymphocyte clones.

    PubMed Central

    van Neerven, R J; van de Pol, M M; Wierenga, E A; Aalberse, R C; Jansen, H M; Kapsenberg, M L

    1994-01-01

    Human and murine CD4+ T lymphocytes can be subdivided into distinct subsets [T-helper type 0 (Th0), Th1 or Th2], based on their lymphokine production profiles. Not much is known about the factors that determine these restricted lymphokine secretion profiles. Peptide specificity and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) restriction may be such factors. As it is well established that allergen-specific T lymphocytes from atopic individuals and non-atopic controls differ in their lymphokine secretion profile, we studied two allergen-specific T-lymphocyte clones (TLC) with identical peptide specificity and HLA restriction that were generated from the peripheral blood of an atopic donor and a non-atopic control donor. The two CD4+ TLC recognize the same epitope (20-33) of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus major allergen Der p II. Both TLC recognize the epitope in an HLA-DQB1*0602-restricted manner. However, the lymphokine production profiles of these TLC show clear differences after allergen-specific or polyclonal activation. As expected, TLC JBD4 from the atopic donor produced high levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) without detectable interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), whereas TLC PBA1 from the non-atopic donor produced both IFN-gamma and IL-4 upon allergen-specific or polyclonal activation. Inasmuch as both TLC recognized the same epitope of Der p II in association with the same HLA-DQ molecule, these data suggest that peptide specificity and HLA restriction of human allergen-specific TLC do not dictate their lymphokine secretion profile. PMID:7525459

  7. Nanobody Binding to a Conserved Epitope Promotes Norovirus Particle Disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Koromyslova, Anna D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses are icosahedral single-stranded RNA viruses. The capsid protein is divided into shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, which are connected by a flexible hinge region. There are numerous genetically and antigenically distinct noroviruses, and the dominant strains evolve every other year. Vaccine and antiviral development is hampered by the difficulties in growing human norovirus in cell culture and the continually evolving strains. Here, we show the X-ray crystal structures of human norovirus P domains in complex with two different nanobodies. One nanobody, Nano-85, was broadly reactive, while the other, Nano-25, was strain specific. We showed that both nanobodies bound to the lower region on the P domain and had nanomolar affinities. The Nano-85 binding site mainly comprised highly conserved amino acids among the genetically distinct genogroup II noroviruses. Several of the conserved residues also were recognized by a broadly reactive monoclonal antibody, which suggested this region contained a dominant epitope. Superposition of the P domain nanobody complex structures into a cryoelectron microscopy particle structure revealed that both nanobodies bound at occluded sites on the particles. The flexible hinge region, which contained ∼10 to 12 amino acids, likely permitted a certain degree of P domain movement on the particles in order to accommodate the nanobodies. Interestingly, the Nano-85 binding interaction with intact particles caused the particles to disassemble in vitro. Altogether, these results suggested that the highly conserved Nano-85 binding epitope contained a trigger mechanism for particle disassembly. Principally, this epitope represents a potential site of norovirus vulnerability. IMPORTANCE We characterized two different nanobodies (Nano-85 and Nano-25) that bind to human noroviruses. Both nanobodies bound with high affinities to the lower region of the P domain, which was occluded on intact particles. Nano-25 was

  8. Variable epitope library carrying heavily mutated survivin-derived CTL epitope variants as a new class of efficient vaccine immunogen tested in a mouse model of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    NoeDominguez-Romero, Allan; Zamora-Alvarado, Rubén; Servín-Blanco, Rodolfo; Pérez-Hernández, Erendira G; Castrillon-Rivera, Laura E; Munguia, Maria Elena; Acero, Gonzalo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The antigenic variability of tumor cells leading to dynamic changes in cancer epitope landscape along with escape from immune surveillance by down-regulating tumor antigen expression/presentation and immune tolerance are major obstacles for the design of effective vaccines. We have developed a novel concept for immunogen construction based on introduction of massive mutations within the epitopes targeting antigenically variable pathogens and diseases. Previously, we showed that these immunogens carrying large combinatorial libraries of mutated epitope variants, termed as variable epitope libraries (VELs), induce potent, broad and long lasting CD8+IFN-γ+ T-cell response as well as HIV-neutralizing antibodies. In this proof-of-concept study, we tested immunogenic properties and anti-tumor effects of the VELs bearing survivin-derived CTL epitope (GWEPDDNPI) variants in an aggressive metastatic mouse 4T1 breast tumor model. The constructed VELs had complexities of 10,500 and 8,000 individual members, generated as combinatorial M13 phage display and synthetic peptide libraries, respectively, with structural composition GWXPXDXPI, where X is any of 20 natural amino acids. Statistically significant tumor growth inhibition was observed in BALB/c mice immunized with the VELs in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Vaccinated mice developed epitope-specific spleen cell and CD8+ IFN-γ+ T-cell responses that recognize more than 50% of the panel of 87 mutated epitope variants, as demonstrated in T-cell proliferation assays and FACS analysis. These data indicate the feasibility of the application of this new class of immunogens based on VEL concept as an alternative approach for the development of molecular vaccines against cancer. PMID:25483665

  9. Variable epitope library carrying heavily mutated survivin-derived CTL epitope variants as a new class of efficient vaccine immunogen tested in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    NoeDominguez-Romero, Allan; Zamora-Alvarado, Rubén; Servín-Blanco, Rodolfo; Pérez-Hernández, Erendira G; Castrillon-Rivera, Laura E; Munguia, Maria Elena; Acero, Gonzalo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The antigenic variability of tumor cells leading to dynamic changes in cancer epitope landscape along with escape from immune surveillance by down-regulating tumor antigen expression/presentation and immune tolerance are major obstacles for the design of effective vaccines. We have developed a novel concept for immunogen construction based on introduction of massive mutations within the epitopes targeting antigenically variable pathogens and diseases. Previously, we showed that these immunogens carrying large combinatorial libraries of mutated epitope variants, termed as variable epitope libraries (VELs), induce potent, broad and long lasting CD8+IFN-γ+ T-cell response as well as HIV-neutralizing antibodies. In this proof-of-concept study, we tested immunogenic properties and anti-tumor effects of the VELs bearing survivin-derived CTL epitope (GWEPDDNPI) variants in an aggressive metastatic mouse 4T1 breast tumor model. The constructed VELs had complexities of 10,500 and 8,000 individual members, generated as combinatorial M13 phage display and synthetic peptide libraries, respectively, with structural composition GWXPXDXPI, where X is any of 20 natural amino acids. Statistically significant tumor growth inhibition was observed in BALB/c mice immunized with the VELs in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Vaccinated mice developed epitope-specific spleen cell and CD8+ IFN-γ+ T-cell responses that recognize more than 50% of the panel of 87 mutated epitope variants, as demonstrated in T-cell proliferation assays and FACS analysis. These data indicate the feasibility of the application of this new class of immunogens based on VEL concept as an alternative approach for the development of molecular vaccines against cancer.

  10. Mapping and modeling of a strain-specific epitope in the Norwalk virus capsid inner shell.

    PubMed

    Parra, Gabriel I; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Abente, Eugenio J; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Bok, Karin; Dolan, Michael A; Green, Kim Y

    2016-05-01

    Noroviruses are diverse positive-strand RNA viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis. Cross-reactive epitopes have been mapped primarily to conserved sequences in the capsid VP1 Shell (S) domain, and strain-specific epitopes to the highly variable Protruding (P) domain. In this work, we investigated a strain-specific linear epitope defined by MAb NV10 that was raised against prototype (Genogroup I.1) strain Norwalk virus (NV). Using peptide scanning and mutagenesis, the epitope was mapped to amino acids 21-32 (LVPEVNASDPLA) of the NV S domain, and its specificity was verified by epitope transfer and reactivity with a recombinant MAb NV10 single-chain variable fragment (scFv). Comparative structural modeling of the NV10 strain-specific and the broadly cross-reactive TV20 epitopes identified two internal non-overlapping sites in the NV shell, corresponding to variable and conserved amino acid sequences among strains, respectively. The S domain, like the P domain, contains strain-specific epitopes that contribute to the antigenic diversity among the noroviruses. PMID:26971245

  11. Inhibition of Ovarian Tumor Growth by Targeting the HU177 Cryptic Collagen Epitope.

    PubMed

    Caron, Jennifer M; Ames, Jacquelyn J; Contois, Liangru; Liebes, Leonard; Friesel, Robert; Muggia, Franco; Vary, Calvin P H; Oxburgh, Leif; Brooks, Peter C

    2016-06-01

    Evidence suggests that stromal cells play critical roles in tumor growth. Uncovering new mechanisms that control stromal cell behavior and their accumulation within tumors may lead to development of more effective treatments. We provide evidence that the HU177 cryptic collagen epitope is selectively generated within human ovarian carcinomas and this collagen epitope plays a role in SKOV-3 ovarian tumor growth in vivo. The ability of the HU177 epitope to regulate SKOV-3 tumor growth depends in part on its ability to modulate stromal cell behavior because targeting this epitope inhibited angiogenesis and, surprisingly, the accumulation of α-smooth muscle actin-expressing stromal cells. Integrin α10β1 can serve as a receptor for the HU177 epitope in α-smooth muscle actin-expressing stromal cells and subsequently regulates Erk-dependent migration. These findings are consistent with a mechanism by which the generation of the HU177 collagen epitope provides a previously unrecognized α10β1 ligand that selectively governs angiogenesis and the accumulation of stromal cells, which in turn secrete protumorigenic factors that contribute to ovarian tumor growth. Our findings provide a new mechanistic understanding into the roles by which the HU177 epitope regulates ovarian tumor growth and provide new insight into the clinical results from a phase 1 human clinical study of the monoclonal antibody D93/TRC093 in patients with advanced malignant tumors.

  12. Overlap of the cancer genome atlas and the immune epitope database

    PubMed Central

    Sait, Shaimaa; Fawcett, Timothy; Blanck, George

    2016-01-01

    Mutant peptides resulting from cancer drivers or passenger mutations are expected to have the potential to serve as a basis for cancer vaccines. However, a number of parameters regulate vaccine-associated immunogenicity, including the suitability of a peptide for binding to an antigen-presenting molecule or antibody. In order to obtain a basic indication of the prospect of human cancer epitope identification via current database development strategies, an overlap of the mutant Homo sapiens epitopes listed on the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) and the mutant peptides indicated by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) somatic mutation database was obtained. No putative TCGA mutant peptides were detected among the 8,890 14–18 amino acid (AA) IEDB peptides available. In total, 3 IEDB mutant epitopes that encompassed a TCGA mutant AA position, but did not overlap the exact position of the TCGA mutant AA, were detected. The results of the present analysis confirm that verification of certain aspects of cancer epitope function can be obtained via the continued and systematic expansion of databases representing human protein epitopes. However, the analysis also indicates that there is relatively limited systematic information available regarding antigen-presenting molecule epitopes and cancer-related mutant peptides. PMID:27703532

  13. PepMapper: a collaborative web tool for mapping epitopes from affinity-selected peptides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhan; Guo, William W; Huang, Yanxin; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides has become popular in epitope prediction, and correspondingly many Web-based tools have been developed in recent years. However, the performance of these tools varies in different circumstances. To address this problem, we employed an ensemble approach to incorporate two popular Web tools, MimoPro and Pep-3D-Search, together for taking advantages offered by both methods so as to give users more options for their specific purposes of epitope-peptide mapping. The combined operation of Union finds as many associated peptides as possible from both methods, which increases sensitivity in finding potential epitopic regions on a given antigen surface. The combined operation of Intersection achieves to some extent the mutual verification by the two methods and hence increases the likelihood of locating the genuine epitopic region on a given antigen in relation to the interacting peptides. The Consistency between Intersection and Union is an indirect sufficient condition to assess the likelihood of successful peptide-epitope mapping. On average from 27 tests, the combined operations of PepMapper outperformed either MimoPro or Pep-3D-Search alone. Therefore, PepMapper is another multipurpose mapping tool for epitope prediction from affinity-selected peptides. The Web server can be freely accessed at: http://informatics.nenu.edu.cn/PepMapper/

  14. Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sormanni, Pietro; Aprile, Francesco A.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are powerful tools in life sciences research, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because of their ability to bind given molecules with high affinity and specificity. Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). Our results show that all these designed antibodies bind their targets with good affinity and specificity. As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions. PMID:26216991

  15. Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Sormanni, Pietro; Aprile, Francesco A; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-08-11

    Antibodies are powerful tools in life sciences research, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because of their ability to bind given molecules with high affinity and specificity. Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). Our results show that all these designed antibodies bind their targets with good affinity and specificity. As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions.

  16. Low-Cost Peptide Microarrays for Mapping Continuous Antibody Epitopes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Ryan; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Law, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for understanding antibody specificity in antibody and vaccine research, pepscan assays provide a rapid method for mapping and profiling antibody responses to continuous epitopes. We have developed a relatively low-cost method to generate peptide microarray slides for studying antibody binding. Using a setup of an IntavisAG MultiPep RS peptide synthesizer, a Digilab MicroGrid II 600 microarray printer robot, and an InnoScan 1100 AL scanner, the method allows the interrogation of up to 1536 overlapping, alanine-scanning, and mutant peptides derived from the target antigens. Each peptide is tagged with a polyethylene glycol aminooxy terminus to improve peptide solubility, orientation, and conjugation efficiency to the slide surface. PMID:26490468

  17. Low-Cost Peptide Microarrays for Mapping Continuous Antibody Epitopes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Ryan; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Law, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for understanding antibody specificity in antibody and vaccine research, pepscan assays provide a rapid method for mapping and profiling antibody responses to continuous epitopes. We have developed a relatively low-cost method to generate peptide microarray slides for studying antibody binding. Using a setup of an IntavisAG MultiPep RS peptide synthesizer, a Digilab MicroGrid II 600 microarray printer robot, and an InnoScan 1100 AL scanner, the method allows the interrogation of up to 1536 overlapping, alanine-scanning, and mutant peptides derived from the target antigens. Each peptide is tagged with a polyethylene glycol aminooxy terminus to improve peptide solubility, orientation, and conjugation efficiency to the slide surface.

  18. Topological mimicry and epitope duplication in the guanylyl cyclase C receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, A.; Suguna, K.; Surolia, A.; Visweswariah, S. S.

    1998-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) is the receptor for the gastrointestinal hormones, guanylin, and uroguanylin, in addition to the bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins, which are one of the major causes of watery diarrhea the world over. GCC is expressed in intestinal cells, colorectal tumor tissue and tumors originating from metastasis of the colorectal carcinoma. We have earlier generated a monoclonal antibody to human GCC, GCC:B10, which was useful for the immunohistochemical localization of the receptor in the rat intestine (Nandi A et al., 1997, J Cell Biochem 66:500-511), and identified its epitope to a 63-amino acid stretch in the intracellular domain of GCC. In view of the potential that this antibody has for the identification of colorectal tumors, we have characterized the epitope for GCC:B10 in this study. Overlapping peptide synthesis indicated that the epitope was contained in the sequence HIPPENIFPLE. This sequence was unique to GCC, and despite a short stretch of homology with serum amyloid protein and pertussis toxin, no cross reactivity was detected. The core epitope was delineated using a random hexameric phage display library, and two categories of sequences were identified, containing either a single, or two adjacent proline residues. No sequence identified by phage display was identical to the epitope present in GCC, indicating that phage sequences represented mimotopes of the native epitope. Alignment of these sequences with HIPPENIFPLE suggested duplication of the recognition motif, which was confirmed by peptide synthesis. These studies allowed us not only to define the requirements of epitope recognition by GCC:B10 monoclonal antibody, but also to describe a novel means of epitope recognition involving topological mimicry and probable duplication of the cognate epitope in the native guanylyl cyclase C receptor sequence. PMID:9792105

  19. In Vivo Validation of Predicted and Conserved T Cell Epitopes in a Swine Influenza Model.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Andres H; Loving, Crystal; Moise, Leonard; Terry, Frances E; Brockmeier, Susan L; Hughes, Holly R; Martin, William D; De Groot, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory viral infection in pigs that is responsible for significant financial losses to pig farmers annually. Current measures to protect herds from infection include: inactivated whole-virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, and alpha replicon-based vaccines. As is true for influenza vaccines for humans, these strategies do not provide broad protection against the diverse strains of influenza A virus (IAV) currently circulating in U.S. swine. Improved approaches to developing swine influenza vaccines are needed. Here, we used immunoinformatics tools to identify class I and II T cell epitopes highly conserved in seven representative strains of IAV in U.S. swine and predicted to bind to Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) alleles prevalent in commercial swine. Epitope-specific interferon-gamma (IFNγ) recall responses to pooled peptides and whole virus were detected in pigs immunized with multi-epitope plasmid DNA vaccines encoding strings of class I and II putative epitopes. In a retrospective analysis of the IFNγ responses to individual peptides compared to predictions specific to the SLA alleles of cohort pigs, we evaluated the predictive performance of PigMatrix and demonstrated its ability to distinguish non-immunogenic from immunogenic peptides and to identify promiscuous class II epitopes. Overall, this study confirms the capacity of PigMatrix to predict immunogenic T cell epitopes and demonstrate its potential for use in the design of epitope-driven vaccines for swine. Additional studies that match the SLA haplotype of animals with the study epitopes will be required to evaluate the degree of immune protection conferred by epitope-driven DNA vaccines in pigs. PMID:27411061

  20. Discovery of protective B-cell epitopes for development of antimicrobial vaccines and antibody therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Jacqueline; Rynkiewicz, Michael J; Lu, Zhaohua; Yang, Chiou-Ying

    2014-05-01

    Protective antibodies play an essential role in immunity to infection by neutralizing microbes or their toxins and recruiting microbicidal effector functions. Identification of the protective B-cell epitopes, those parts of microbial antigens that contact the variable regions of the protective antibodies, can lead to development of antibody therapeutics, guide vaccine design, enable assessment of protective antibody responses in infected or vaccinated individuals, and uncover or localize pathogenic microbial functions that could be targeted by novel antimicrobials. Monoclonal antibodies are required to link in vivo or in vitro protective effects to specific epitopes and may be obtained from experimental animals or from humans, and their binding can be localized to specific regions of antigens by immunochemical assays. The epitopes are then identified with mapping methods such as X-ray crystallography of antigen-antibody complexes, antibody inhibition of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in the antigen, antibody-induced alteration of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the antigen, and experimentally validated computational docking of antigen-antibody complexes. The diversity in shape, size and structure of protective B-cell epitopes, and the increasing importance of protective B-cell epitope discovery to development of vaccines and antibody therapeutics are illustrated through examples from different microbe categories, with emphasis on epitopes targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies to pathogens of high antigenic variation. Examples include the V-shaped Ab52 glycan epitope in the O-antigen of Francisella tularensis, the concave CR6261 peptidic epitope in the haemagglutinin stem of influenza virus H1N1, and the convex/concave PG16 glycopeptidic epitope in the gp120 V1/V2 loop of HIV type 1.

  1. Genome-based approaches to develop epitope-driven subunit vaccines against pathogens of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Vani; Pradhan, Dibyabhaba; Munikumar, Manne; Swargam, Sandeep; Umamaheswari, Amineni; Rajasekhar, D

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) has emerged as a public health problem due to changes in the etiologic spectrum and due to involvement of resistant bacterial strains with increased virulence. Developing potent vaccine is an important strategy to tackle IE. Complete genome sequences of eight selected pathogens of IE paved the way to design common T-cell driven subunit vaccines. Comparative genomics and subtractive genomic analysis were applied to identify adinosine tri phosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ATP-binding protein from Streptococcus mitis (reference organism) as common vaccine target. Reverse vaccinology technique was implemented using computational tools such as ProPred, SYFPEITHI, and Immune epitope database. Twenty-one T-cell epitopes were predicted from ABC transporter ATP-binding protein. Multiple sequence alignment of ABC transporter ATP-binding protein from eight selected IE pathogens was performed to identify six conserved T-cell epitopes. The six selected T-cell epitopes were further evaluated at structure level for HLA-DRB binding through homology modeling and molecular docking analysis using Maestro v9.2. The proposed six T-cell epitopes showed better binding affinity with the selected HLA-DRB alleles. Subsequently, the docking complexes of T-cell epitope and HLA-DRBs were ranked based on XP Gscore. The T-cell epitope (208-LNYITPDVV-216)-HLA-DRB1(∗)0101 (1T5 W) complex having the best XP Gscore (-13.25 kcal/mol) was assessed for conformational stability and interaction stability through molecular dynamic simulation for 10 ns using Desmond v3.2. The simulation results revealed that the HLA-DRB-epitope complex was stable throughout the simulation time. Thus, the epitope would be ideal candidate for T-cell driven subunit vaccine design against infective endocarditis.

  2. In Vivo Validation of Predicted and Conserved T Cell Epitopes in a Swine Influenza Model

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Andres H.; Loving, Crystal; Moise, Leonard; Terry, Frances E.; Brockmeier, Susan L.; Hughes, Holly R.; Martin, William D.; De Groot, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory viral infection in pigs that is responsible for significant financial losses to pig farmers annually. Current measures to protect herds from infection include: inactivated whole-virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, and alpha replicon-based vaccines. As is true for influenza vaccines for humans, these strategies do not provide broad protection against the diverse strains of influenza A virus (IAV) currently circulating in U.S. swine. Improved approaches to developing swine influenza vaccines are needed. Here, we used immunoinformatics tools to identify class I and II T cell epitopes highly conserved in seven representative strains of IAV in U.S. swine and predicted to bind to Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) alleles prevalent in commercial swine. Epitope-specific interferon-gamma (IFNγ) recall responses to pooled peptides and whole virus were detected in pigs immunized with multi-epitope plasmid DNA vaccines encoding strings of class I and II putative epitopes. In a retrospective analysis of the IFNγ responses to individual peptides compared to predictions specific to the SLA alleles of cohort pigs, we evaluated the predictive performance of PigMatrix and demonstrated its ability to distinguish non-immunogenic from immunogenic peptides and to identify promiscuous class II epitopes. Overall, this study confirms the capacity of PigMatrix to predict immunogenic T cell epitopes and demonstrate its potential for use in the design of epitope-driven vaccines for swine. Additional studies that match the SLA haplotype of animals with the study epitopes will be required to evaluate the degree of immune protection conferred by epitope-driven DNA vaccines in pigs. PMID:27411061

  3. Discovery of protective B-cell epitopes for development of antimicrobial vaccines and antibody therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Sharon, Jacqueline; Rynkiewicz, Michael J; Lu, Zhaohua; Yang, Chiou-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Protective antibodies play an essential role in immunity to infection by neutralizing microbes or their toxins and recruiting microbicidal effector functions. Identification of the protective B-cell epitopes, those parts of microbial antigens that contact the variable regions of the protective antibodies, can lead to development of antibody therapeutics, guide vaccine design, enable assessment of protective antibody responses in infected or vaccinated individuals, and uncover or localize pathogenic microbial functions that could be targeted by novel antimicrobials. Monoclonal antibodies are required to link in vivo or in vitro protective effects to specific epitopes and may be obtained from experimental animals or from humans, and their binding can be localized to specific regions of antigens by immunochemical assays. The epitopes are then identified with mapping methods such as X-ray crystallography of antigen–antibody complexes, antibody inhibition of hydrogen–deuterium exchange in the antigen, antibody-induced alteration of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the antigen, and experimentally validated computational docking of antigen–antibody complexes. The diversity in shape, size and structure of protective B-cell epitopes, and the increasing importance of protective B-cell epitope discovery to development of vaccines and antibody therapeutics are illustrated through examples from different microbe categories, with emphasis on epitopes targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies to pathogens of high antigenic variation. Examples include the V-shaped Ab52 glycan epitope in the O-antigen of Francisella tularensis, the concave CR6261 peptidic epitope in the haemagglutinin stem of influenza virus H1N1, and the convex/concave PG16 glycopeptidic epitope in the gp120 V1/V2 loop of HIV type 1. PMID:24219801

  4. Worldwide Distribution of HIV Type 1 Epitopes Recognized by Human Anti-V3 Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Swetnam, James; Pinter, Abraham; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Nadas, Arthur; Almond, David; Zolla-Pazner, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Epitopes, also known as antigenic determinants, are small clusters of specific atoms within macromolecules that are recognized by the immune system. Such epitopes can be targeted with vaccines designed to protect against specific pathogens. The third variable loop (V3 loop) of the HIV-1 pathogen's gp120 surface envelope glycoprotein can be a highly sensitive neutralization target. We derived sequence motifs for the V3 loop epitopes recognized by the human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 447-52D and 2219. Searching the HIV database for the occurrence of each epitope motif in worldwide viruses and correcting the results based on published WHO epidemiology reveal that the 447-52D epitope we defined occurs in 13% of viruses infecting patients worldwide: 79% of subtype B viruses, 1% of subtype C viruses, and 7% of subtype A/AG sequences. In contrast, the epitope we characterized for human anti-V3 mAb 2219 is present in 30% of worldwide isolates but is evenly distributed across the known HIV-1 subtypes: 48% of subtype B strains, 40% of subtype C, and 18% of subtype A/AG. Various assays confirmed that the epitopes corresponding to these motifs, when expressed in the SF162 Env backbone, were sensitively and specifically neutralized by the respective mAbs. The method described here is capable of accurately determining the worldwide occurrence and subtype distribution of any crystallographically resolved HIV-1 epitope recognized by a neutralizing antibody, which could be useful for multivalent vaccine design. More importantly, these calculations demonstrate that globally relevant, structurally conserved epitopes are present in the sequence variable V3 loop. PMID:19320565

  5. Restricting retrotransposons: a review.

    PubMed

    Goodier, John L

    2016-01-01

    Retrotransposons have generated about 40 % of the human genome. This review examines the strategies the cell has evolved to coexist with these genomic "parasites", focussing on the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons of humans and mice. Some of the restriction factors for retrotransposition, including the APOBECs, MOV10, RNASEL, SAMHD1, TREX1, and ZAP, also limit replication of retroviruses, including HIV, and are part of the intrinsic immune system of the cell. Many of these proteins act in the cytoplasm to degrade retroelement RNA or inhibit its translation. Some factors act in the nucleus and involve DNA repair enzymes or epigenetic processes of DNA methylation and histone modification. RISC and piRNA pathway proteins protect the germline. Retrotransposon control is relaxed in some cell types, such as neurons in the brain, stem cells, and in certain types of disease and cancer, with implications for human health and disease. This review also considers potential pitfalls in interpreting retrotransposon-related data, as well as issues to consider for future research. PMID:27525044

  6. Antiretroviral restriction factors in mice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Smita; Rein, Alan

    2014-11-26

    One of the most exciting areas in contemporary retrovirus research is the discovery of "restriction factors". These are cellular proteins that act after virus entry to inhibit infection by or replication of retroviruses (and other viruses and intracellular pathogens). We briefly discuss here three antiretroviral restriction factors in mice: Fv1, APOBEC3, and tetherin, touching on both biological and molecular aspects of these restriction systems.

  7. Identification of immunodominant epitopes of alpha-gliadin in HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice following oral immunization.

    PubMed

    Senger, Stefania; Maurano, Francesco; Mazzeo, Maria F; Gaita, Marcello; Fierro, Olga; David, Chella S; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; Siciliano, Rosa A; Rossi, Mauro

    2005-12-15

    Celiac disease, triggered by wheat gliadin and related prolamins from barley and rye, is characterized by a strong association with HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 genes. Gliadin is a mixture of many proteins that makes difficult the identification of major immunodominant epitopes. To address this issue, we expressed in Escherichia coli a recombinant alpha-gliadin (r-alpha-gliadin) showing the most conserved sequence among the fraction of alpha-gliadins. HLA-DQ8 mice, on a gluten-free diet, were intragastrically immunized with a chymotryptic digest of r-alpha-gliadin along with cholera toxin as adjuvant. Spleen and mesenteric lymph node T cell responses were analyzed for in vitro proliferative assay using a panel of synthetic peptides encompassing the entire sequence of r-alpha-gliadin. Two immunodominant epitopes corresponding to peptide p13 (aa 120-139) and p23 (aa 220-239) were identified. The response was restricted to DQ and mediated by CD4+ T cells. In vitro tissue transglutaminase deamidation of both peptides did not increase the response; furthermore, tissue transglutaminase catalyzed extensive deamidation in vitro along the entire r-alpha-gliadin molecule, but failed to elicit new immunogenic determinants. Surprisingly, the analysis of the cytokine profile showed that both deamidated and native peptides induced preferentially IFN-gamma secretion, despite the use of cholera toxin, a mucosal adjuvant that normally induces a Th2 response to bystander Ags. Taken together, these data suggest that, in this model of gluten hypersensitivity, deamidation is not a prerequisite for the initiation of gluten responses.

  8. GAD65 epitope mapping and search for novel autoantibodies in GAD-associated neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Fouka, P; Alexopoulos, H; Akrivou, S; Trohatou, O; Politis, P K; Dalakas, M C

    2015-04-15

    Antibodies against Glutamic-acid-decarboxylase (GAD65) are seen in various CNS excitability disorders including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, encephalitis and epilepsy. To explore pathogenicity, we examined whether distinct epitope specificities or other co-existing antibodies may account for each disorder. The epitope recognized by all 27 tested patients, irrespective of clinical phenotype, corresponded to the catalytic core of GAD. No autoantibodies against known GABAergic antigens were found. In a screen for novel specificities using live hippocampal neurons, three epilepsy patients, but no other, were positive. We conclude that no GAD-specific epitope defines any neurological syndrome but other antibody specificities may account for certain phenotypes.

  9. CD4+ T Cells Targeting Dominant and Cryptic Epitopes from Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor.

    PubMed

    Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J; Chu, Karen K Y; Musson, Julie A; Moore, Stephen J; Gallagher, Theresa; Baillie, Les; Williamson, Ethel D; Robinson, John H; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J; Altmann, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is an endemic infection in many countries, particularly in the developing world. The causative agent, Bacillus anthracis, mediates disease through the secretion of binary exotoxins. Until recently, research into adaptive immunity targeting this bacterial pathogen has largely focused on the humoral response to these toxins. There is, however, growing recognition that cellular immune responses involving IFNγ producing CD4+ T cells also contribute significantly to a protective memory response. An established concept in adaptive immunity to infection is that during infection of host cells, new microbial epitopes may be revealed, leading to immune recognition of so called 'cryptic' or 'subdominant' epitopes. We analyzed the response to both cryptic and immunodominant T cell epitopes derived from the toxin component lethal factor and presented by a range of HLA-DR alleles. Using IFNγ-ELISpot assays we characterized epitopes that elicited a response following immunization with synthetic peptide and the whole protein and tested their capacities to bind purified HLA-DR molecules in vitro. We found that DR1 transgenics demonstrated T cell responses to a greater number of domain III cryptic epitopes than other HLA-DR transgenics, and that this pattern was repeated with the immunodominant epitopes, as a greater proportion of these epitopes induced a T cell response when presented within the context of the whole protein. Immunodominant epitopes LF457-476 and LF467-487 were found to induce a T cell response to the peptide, as well as to the whole native LF protein in DR1 and DR15, but not in DR4 transgenics. The analysis of Domain I revealed the presence of several unique cryptic epitopes all of which showed a strong to moderate relative binding affinity to HLA-DR4 molecules. However, none of the cryptic epitopes from either domain III or I displayed notably high binding affinities across all HLA-DR alleles assayed. These responses were influenced by the specific HLA

  10. Computational designing of a poly-epitope fecundity vaccine for multiple species of livestock.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Bhaskar; Rastogi, Sunil Kumar; Prasad, Shiv

    2013-12-17

    Inhibin and follistatin are known to reduce fecundity by inhibiting the actions of activin and FSH. Thus, the immunoneutralization of these hormones is a rational proposal for augmenting reproductive performance. The present study describes a comprehensive computational methodology comprising of a consensus approach of several B- and Th-cell epitope prediction tools for the identification of epitopic regions within the structure of these hormones that can be incorporated into a poly-epitope fecundity vaccine. The proposed peptide (RGD-WSPAALRLLQRPPEEPA-KK-YSFPISSILE) should be effective in multiple animal species, generating good immunological memory.

  11. Identification of a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope in hypervariable region 1 of avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    PubMed

    Hou, Minbo; Zhou, Defang; Li, Gen; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Jianzhu; Wang, Guihua; Zheng, Qiankun; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2016-03-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a hypervariable oncogenic retrovirus that causes great economic loss in poultry. Antigenic variations in the variable regions make the development of an effective vaccine a challenging task. In the present study, we identified a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope using reverse vaccinology methods. First, we predicted the B-cell epitopes in gp85 gene of ALV-J strains by DNAman and bioinformatics. Fourteen candidate epitopes were selected and linked in tandem with glycines or serines as a multi-epitope gene. The expressed protein of multi-epitope gene can induce high-titer antibody that can recognize nature ALV-J and neutralize the infectivity of ALV-J strains. Next, we identified a high effective epitope using eight overlapping fragments of gp85 gene reacting with mAb 2D5 and anti-multi-epitope sera. The identified epitope contained one of the predicted epitopes and localized in hyervariable region 1 (hr1), indicating a variant epitope. To better understand if the variants of the epitope have a good antigenicity, we synthesized four variants to react with mAb 2D5 and anti-ALV-J sera. The result showed that all variants could react with the two kinds of antibodies though they showed different antigenicity, while could not react with ALV-J negative sera. Thus, the variant antigenic neutralizing epitope was determined as 137-LRDFIA/E/TKWKS/GDDL/HLIRPYVNQS-158. The result shows a potential use of this variant epitopes as a novel multi-epitope vaccine against ALV-J in poultry.

  12. Peptide Conformations for a Microarray Surface-Tethered Epitope of the Tumor Suppressor p53

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun; Wong, Ka-Yiu; Lynch, Gillian C.; Gao, Xiaolian; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2007-12-13

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Peptides or proteins near surfaces exhibit different structural properties from those present in a homogeneous solution, and these differences give rise to varied biological activity. Therefore, understanding the detailed molecular structure of these molecules tethered to a surface is important for interpreting the performance of the various microarrays based on the activities of the immobilized peptides or proteins. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of a pentapeptide, RHSVV, an epitope of the tumor suppressor protein p53, tethered via a spacer on a functionalized silica surface and free in solution, to study their structural and conformational differences. These calculations allowed analyses of the peptide-surface interactions, the sequence orientations, and the translational motions of the peptide on the surface to be performed. Conformational similarities are found among dominant structures of the tethered and free peptide. In the peptide microarray simulations, the peptide fluctuates between a parallel and tilted orientation driven in part by the hydrophobic interactions between the nonpolar peptide residues and the methyl-terminated silica surface. The perpendicular movement of the peptide relative to the surface is also restricted due to the hydrophobic nature of the microarray surface. With regard to structures available for recognition and binding, we find that similar conformations to those found in solution are available to the peptide tethered to the surface, but with a shifted equilibrium constant. Comparisons with experimental results show important implications of this for peptide microarray design and assays.

  13. Targeted identification of infection-related HLA class I-presented epitopes by stable isotope tagging of epitopes (SITE).

    PubMed

    Meiring, H D; Soethout, E C; de Jong, A P J M; van Els, C A C M

    2007-05-01

    Identification of peptides presented in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules after viral infection is of strategic importance for immunology and vaccine development. A powerful strategy aimed at the rapid, unambiguous identification of naturally processed HLA class I-associated peptides, which are induced by viral infection, is presented here. The methodology, stable isotope tagging of epitopes (SITE), is based on metabolic labeling of endogenously synthesized proteins during infection. This is accomplished by culturing virus-infected cells with stable isotope-labeled amino acids that are expected to be anchor residues for the human leukocyte antigen allele of interest. Subsequently, these cells are mixed with an equal number of noninfected cells, which are cultured in normal medium. Finally, peptides are acid-eluted from immunoprecipitated HLA molecules and subjected to two-dimensional nanoscale liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Virus-induced peptides are identified through computer-assisted detection of characteristic, binomially distributed ratios of labeled and unlabeled molecules.

  14. Evidence of viral adaptation to HLA class I-restricted immune pressure in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gaudieri, Silvana; Rauch, Andri; Park, Lawrence P; Freitas, Elizabeth; Herrmann, Susan; Jeffrey, Gary; Cheng, Wendy; Pfafferott, Katja; Naidoo, Kiloshni; Chapman, Russell; Battegay, Manuel; Weber, Rainer; Telenti, Amalio; Furrer, Hansjakob; James, Ian; Lucas, Michaela; Mallal, Simon A

    2006-11-01

    Cellular immune responses are an important correlate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outcome. These responses are governed by the host's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type, and HLA-restricted viral escape mutants are a critical aspect of this host-virus interaction. We examined the driving forces of HCV evolution by characterizing the in vivo selective pressure(s) exerted on single amino acid residues within nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) by the HLA types present in two host populations. Associations between polymorphisms within NS3 and HLA class I alleles were assessed in 118 individuals from Western Australia and Switzerland with chronic hepatitis C infection, of whom 82 (69%) were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. The levels and locations of amino acid polymorphisms exhibited within NS3 were remarkably similar between the two cohorts and revealed regions under functional constraint and selective pressures. We identified specific HCV mutations within and flanking published epitopes with the correct HLA restriction and predicted escaped amino acid. Additional HLA-restricted mutations were identified that mark putative epitopes targeted by cell-mediated immune responses. This analysis of host-virus interaction reveals evidence of HCV adaptation to HLA class I-restricted immune pressure and identifies in vivo targets of cellular immune responses at the population level. PMID:17071929

  15. Children's Restrictive Disclosure to Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Sliz, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Children's restrictive disclosure to friends, which is a facet of intimate friendship, was investigated. It was found that children in kindergarten, second, and fourth grade showed restrictive disclosure to friends, and that greater disclosure of positive personal information to friends than to nonfriends was exhibited with age. (PCB)

  16. An overview of bioinformatics tools for epitope prediction: implications on vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Soria-Guerra, Ruth E; Nieto-Gomez, Ricardo; Govea-Alonso, Dania O; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Exploitation of recombinant DNA and sequencing technologies has led to a new concept in vaccination in which isolated epitopes, capable of stimulating a specific immune response, have been identified and used to achieve advanced vaccine formulations; replacing those constituted by whole pathogen-formulations. In this context, bioinformatics approaches play a critical role on analyzing multiple genomes to select the protective epitopes in silico. It is conceived that cocktails of defined epitopes or chimeric protein arrangements, including the target epitopes, may provide a rationale design capable to elicit convenient humoral or cellular immune responses. This review presents a comprehensive compilation of the most advantageous online immunological software and searchable, in order to facilitate the design and development of vaccines. An outlook on how these tools are supporting vaccine development is presented. HIV and influenza have been taken as examples of promising developments on vaccination against hypervariable viruses. Perspectives in this field are also envisioned.

  17. Characterization of a linear epitope on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK-like protein.

    PubMed Central

    Birkelund, S; Larsen, B; Holm, A; Lundemose, A G; Christiansen, G

    1994-01-01

    A cytoplasmic 75-kDa immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 has previously been characterized as being similar to the Escherichia coli heat shock protein DnaK. We have localized a linear epitope for one monoclonal antibody specific for C. trachomatis DnaK. By use of a recombinant DNA technique, the epitope was limited to 14 amino acids. With synthetic peptides, the epitope was further limited to eight amino acids. Six of these amino acids are conserved in bovine HSP70, which has a known three-dimensional structure. The amino acid sequence homologous to the epitope is located in a linear part of the HSP70 molecule known as connect II. Images PMID:7513310

  18. Functional Antagonism of Human CD40 Achieved by Targeting a Unique Species-Specific Epitope.

    PubMed

    Yamniuk, Aaron P; Suri, Anish; Krystek, Stanley R; Tamura, James; Ramamurthy, Vidhyashankar; Kuhn, Robert; Carroll, Karen; Fleener, Catherine; Ryseck, Rolf; Cheng, Lin; An, Yongmi; Drew, Philip; Grant, Steven; Suchard, Suzanne J; Nadler, Steven G; Bryson, James W; Sheriff, Steven

    2016-07-17

    Current clinical anti-CD40 biologic agents include both antagonist molecules for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and agonist molecules for immuno-oncology, yet the relationship between CD40 epitope and these opposing biological outcomes is not well defined. This report describes the identification of potent antagonist domain antibodies (dAbs) that bind to a novel human CD40-specific epitope that is divergent in the CD40 of nonhuman primates. A similarly selected anti-cynomolgus CD40 dAb recognizing the homologous epitope is also a potent antagonist. Mutagenesis, biochemical, and X-ray crystallography studies demonstrate that the epitope is distinct from that of CD40 agonists. Both the human-specific and cynomolgus-specific molecules remain pure antagonists even when formatted as bivalent Fc-fusion proteins, making this an attractive therapeutic format for targeting hCD40 in autoimmune indications. PMID:27216500

  19. Longitudinal epitope mapping in MuSK myasthenia gravis: implications for disease severity.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, Maartje G; Vink, Anna-Fleur D; Niks, Erik H; Westhuis, Ruben H; van Zwet, Erik W; de Meel, Robert H; Rojas-García, Ricardo; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Kuks, Jan B; Klooster, Rinse; Straasheijm, Kirsten; Evoli, Amelia; Illa, Isabel; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Verschuuren, Jan J

    2016-02-15

    Muscle weakness in MuSK myasthenia gravis (MG) is caused predominantly by IgG4 antibodies which block MuSK signalling and destabilize neuromuscular junctions. We determined whether the binding pattern of MuSK IgG4 antibodies change throughout the disease course ("epitope spreading"), and affect disease severity or treatment responsiveness. We mapped the MuSK epitopes of 255 longitudinal serum samples of 53 unique MuSK MG patients from three independent cohorts with ELISA. Antibodies against the MuSK Iglike-1 domain determine disease severity. Epitope spreading outside this domain did not contribute to disease severity nor to pyridostigmine responsiveness. This provides a rationale for epitope specific treatment strategies.

  20. Rotavirus VP7 epitope chimeric proteins elicit cross-immunoreactivity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingxin; Pan, Xiaoxia; Teng, Yumei; Xia, Wenyue; Wang, Jing; Wen, Yuling; Chen, Yuanding

    2015-10-01

    VP7 of group A rotavirus (RVA) contains major neutralizing epitopes. Using the antigenic protein VP6 as the vector, chimeric proteins carrying foreign epitopes have been shown to possess good immunoreactivity and immunogenicity. In the present study, using modified VP6 as the vector, three chimeric proteins carrying epitopes derived from VP7 of RVA were constructed. The results showed that the chimeric proteins reacted with anti-VP6 and with SA11 and Wa virus strains. Antibodies from guinea pigs inoculated with the chimeric proteins recognized VP6 and VP7 of RVA and protected mammalian cells from SA11 and Wa infection in vitro. The neutralizing activities of the antibodies against the chimeric proteins were significantly higher than those against the vector protein VP6F. Thus, development of chimeric vaccines carrying VP7 epitopes using VP6 as a vector could be a promising alternative to enhance immunization against RVAs.

  1. The epitopes in wheat proteins for defining toxic units relevant to human health.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Angéla; Gell, Gyöngyvér; Békés, Frank; Balázs, Ervin

    2012-11-01

    Wheat-related disorders are well-studied health problems. Knowledge of the composition and amounts of epitopes present in a single wheat sample represents a significant gap, and the detailed wheat proteome datasets now available can provide the necessary information to carry out an estimation of allergen prediction for a single cultivar. The combined use of genome sequence and allergen databases, prediction methodology, and cereal chemistry results in better understanding of the level of toxicity present in the end-products produced from wheat flour. The workflow presented in this review provides information about the number and distribution of epitopes at single protein, or protein fraction, levels. In addition, epitopes present in the highest frequency and harmful proteins expressed in the highest amount can be identified. The "epitope toxicity" value obtained in this way is a significant research output from the analysis of large datasets that can be applied to the food industry.

  2. Synthetic Peptide-Based ELISA and ELISpot Assay for Identifying Autoantibody Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Pozsgay, Judit; Szarka, Eszter; Huber, Krisztina; Babos, Fruzsina; Magyar, Anna; Hudecz, Ferenc; Sarmay, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is an invaluable diagnostic tool to detect serum autoantibody binding to target antigen. To map the autoantigenic epitope(s), overlapping synthetic peptides covering the total sequence of a protein antigen are used. A large set of peptides synthesized on the crown of pins can be tested by Multipin ELISA for fast screening. Next, to validate the results, the candidate epitope peptides are resynthesized by solid-phase synthesis, coupled to ELISA plate directly, or in a biotinylated form, bound to neutravidin-coated surface and the binding of autoantibodies from patients' sera is tested by indirect ELISA. Further, selected epitope peptides can be applied in enzyme-linked immunospot assay to distinguish individual, citrullinated peptide-specific autoreactive B cells in a pre-stimulated culture of patients' lymphocytes. PMID:26490479

  3. Characterization of epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies: experimental approaches supported by freely accessible bioinformatic tools.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Nicola; Mancini, Nicasio; Castelli, Matteo; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been used successfully both in research and for clinical purposes. The possible use of protective mAbs directed against different microbial pathogens is currently being considered. The fine definition of the epitope recognized by a protective mAb is an important aspect to be considered for possible development in epitope-based vaccinology. The most accurate approach to this is the X-ray resolution of mAb/antigen crystal complex. Unfortunately, this approach is not always feasible. Under this perspective, several surrogate epitope mapping strategies based on the use of bioinformatics have been developed. In this article, we review the most common, freely accessible, bioinformatic tools used for epitope characterization and provide some basic examples of molecular visualization, editing and computational analysis.

  4. [Study on the B cell linear epitopes of rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein].

    PubMed

    Lv, Xin-Jun; Shen, Xin-Xin; Yu, Peng-Cheng; Li, Hao; Wang, Li-Hua; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2014-05-01

    To study the B cell linear epitopes of rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein, peptides were synthesized according to the amino acid sequences of B cell linear epitopes. Linear epitopes predicted by bioinformatics analysis were evaluated with immunological techniques. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that titers of antibodies to peptides (355-369 and 385-400 residues of rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein) were above 1:12 800 in mouse sera. The antibodies recognized denatured rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein in Western blot analysis. Purified anti-peptide antibodies recognized natural rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein in BHK-21 cells in indirect fluorescent antibody test. The 355-369 and 385-400 residues of rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein were validated as B cell linear epitopes.

  5. The position of heterologous epitopes inserted in hepatitis B virus core particles determines their immunogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Schödel, F; Moriarty, A M; Peterson, D L; Zheng, J A; Hughes, J L; Will, H; Leturcq, D J; McGee, J S; Milich, D R

    1992-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (HBcAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been suggested as a carrier moiety for vaccine purposes. We investigated the influence of the position of the inserted epitope within hybrid HBcAg particles on antigenicity and immunogenicity. For this purpose, genes coding for neutralizing epitopes of the pre-S region of the HBV envelope proteins were inserted at the amino terminus, the amino terminus through a precore linker sequence, the truncated carboxy terminus, or an internal site of HBcAg by genetic engineering and were expressed in Escherichia coli. All purified hybrid HBc/pre-S polyproteins were particulate. Amino- and carboxy-terminal-modified hybrid HBc particles retained HBcAg antigenicity and immunogenicity. In contrast, insertion of a pre-S(1) sequence between HBcAg residues 75 and 83 abrogated recognition of HBcAg by 5 of 6 anti-HBc monoclonal antibodies and diminished recognition by human polyclonal anti-HBc. Predictably, HBcAg-specific immunogenicity was also reduced. With respect to the inserted epitopes, a pre-S(1) epitope linked to the amino terminus of HBcAg was not surface accessible and not immunogenic. A pre-S(1) epitope fused to the amino terminus through a precore linker sequence was surface accessible and highly immunogenic. A carboxy-terminal-fused pre-S(2) sequence was also surface accessible but weakly immunogenic. Insertion of a pre-S(1) epitope at the internal site resulted in the most efficient anti-pre-S(1) antibody response. Furthermore, immunization with hybrid HBc/pre-S particles exclusively primed T-helper cells specific for HBcAg and not the inserted epitope. These results indicate that the position of the inserted B-cell epitope within HBcAg is critical to its immunogenicity. Images PMID:1370083

  6. Chemical Modification of Influenza CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes Enhances Their Immunogenicity Regardless of Immunodominance

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Josine; Hoppes, Rieuwert; Jacobi, Ronald H. J.; Hendriks, Marion; Kapteijn, Kim; Ouwerkerk, Casper; Rodenko, Boris; Ovaa, Huib; de Jonge, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    T cells are essential players in the defense against infection. By targeting the MHC class I antigen-presenting pathway with peptide-based vaccines, antigen-specific T cells can be induced. However, low immunogenicity of peptides poses a challenge. Here, we set out to increase immunogenicity of influenza-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes. By substituting amino acids in wild type sequences with non-proteogenic amino acids, affinity for MHC can be increased, which may ultimately enhance cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. Since preventive vaccines against viruses should induce a broad immune response, we used this method to optimize influenza-specific epitopes of varying dominance. For this purpose, HLA-A*0201 epitopes GILGFVFTL, FMYSDFHFI and NMLSTVLGV were selected in order of decreasing MHC-affinity and dominance. For all epitopes, we designed chemically enhanced altered peptide ligands (CPLs) that exhibited greater binding affinity than their WT counterparts; even binding scores of the high affinity GILGFVFTL epitope could be improved. When HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice were vaccinated with selected CPLs, at least 2 out of 4 CPLs of each epitope showed an increase in IFN-γ responses of splenocytes. Moreover, modification of the low affinity epitope NMLSTVLGV led to an increase in the number of mice that responded. By optimizing three additional influenza epitopes specific for HLA-A*0301, we show that this strategy can be extended to other alleles. Thus, enhancing binding affinity of peptides provides a valuable tool to improve the immunogenicity and range of preventive T cell-targeted peptide vaccines. PMID:27333291

  7. The clinical value of intracellular autoantigens B-cell epitopes in systemic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Routsias, John G; Tzioufas, Athanasios G; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M

    2004-02-01

    A hallmark of autoimmune diseases is the production of autoantibodies against intracellular autoantigens. Although their pathogenetic and their etiologic relationship are not fully understood, these autoantibodies are important tools for establishing the diagnosis, classification and prognosis of autoimmune diseases. Systemic rheumatic diseases are among the most complex disorders because their clinical presentation and constellation of findings are in part reflected by the wide spectrum of autoantibodies found in the sera of patients suffering from these disorders. These autoantibodies usually target large complexes consisting of protein antigens noncovalently associated with (ribo)-nucleic acid(s), like the spliceosome or Ro/La-RNPs. In this review, we first address the main characteristics and the clinical value of several autoantibodies, with respect to their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Subsequently, we provide a brief overview of the antigenic determinant types that have been identified on the corresponding autoantigens. The antibody targets of autontigens include primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structure epitopes, as well as cryptotopes, neoepitopes and mimotopes. We next focus on antigenic structures corresponding to B-cell epitopes with high disease specificity and sensitivity for all the major autoantigens in systemic autoimmunity including the Ro/La and U1 ribonucleoprotein complexes and the Ku70/80, ribosomal P, DNA topoisomerase I, filaggrin, Jo-1 and PM/SCl-100 autoantigens. These epitopes, defined at the peptide level, can be chemically synthesized and engineered for the development of new inexpensive and easier to perform assays and the improvement of the methods for autoantibody detection. Specific examples of newly developed assays that incorporate (i) epitopes with high disease specificity and sensitivity, (ii) modified epitopes, (iii) conformational epitopes and (iv) complementary epitopes are discussed in detail. Finally

  8. Expression of goose parvovirus whole VP3 protein and its epitopes in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Tarasiuk, K; Woźniakowski, G; Holec-Gąsior, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the expression of goose parvovirus capsid protein (VP3) and its epitopes in Escherichia coli cells. Expression of the whole VP3 protein provided an insufficient amount of protein. In contrast, the expression of two VP3 epitopes (VP3ep4, VP3ep6) in E. coli, resulted in very high expression levels. This may suggest that smaller parts of the GPV antigenic determinants are more efficiently expressed than the complete VP3 gene.

  9. Residue-Level Prediction of HIV-1 Antibody Epitopes Based on Neutralization of Diverse Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Acharya, Priyamvada; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Yongping; Louder, Mark K.; Zhou, Tongqing; Kwon, Young Do; Pancera, Marie; Bailer, Robert T.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Delineation of antibody epitopes at the residue level is key to understanding antigen resistance mutations, designing epitope-specific probes for antibody isolation, and developing epitope-based vaccines. Ideally, epitope residues are determined in the context of the atomic-level structure of the antibody-antigen complex, though structure determination may in many cases be impractical. Here we describe an efficient computational method to predict antibody-specific HIV-1 envelope (Env) epitopes at the residue level, based on neutralization panels of diverse viral strains. The method primarily utilizes neutralization potency data over a set of diverse viral strains representing the antigen, and enhanced accuracy could be achieved by incorporating information from the unbound structure of the antigen. The method was evaluated on 19 HIV-1 Env antibodies with neutralization panels comprising 181 diverse viral strains and with available antibody-antigen complex structures. Prediction accuracy was shown to improve significantly over random selection, with an average of greater-than-8-fold enrichment of true positives at the 0.05 false-positive rate level. The method was used to prospectively predict epitope residues for two HIV-1 antibodies, 8ANC131 and 8ANC195, for which we experimentally validated the predictions. The method is inherently applicable to antigens that exhibit sequence diversity, and its accuracy was found to correlate inversely with sequence conservation of the epitope. Together the results show how knowledge inherent to a neutralization panel and unbound antigen structure can be utilized for residue-level prediction of antibody epitopes. PMID:23843642

  10. Construction and characterization of 3A-epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Sun, Pu; Bai, Xingwen; Bao, Huifang; Lu, Zengjun; Fu, Yuanfang; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2015-04-01

    Nonstructural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids (aa) in most FMDVs examined to date. Specific deletion in the FMDV 3A protein has been associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in primary bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. However, the aa residues playing key roles in these processes are poorly understood. In this study, we constructed epitope-tagged FMDVs containing an 8 aa FLAG epitope, a 9 aa haemagglutinin (HA) epitope, and a 10 aa c-Myc epitope to substitute residues 94-101, 93-101, and 93-102 of 3A protein, respectively, using a recently developed O/SEA/Mya-98 FMDV infectious cDNA clone. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA), Western blot and sequence analysis showed that the epitope-tagged viruses stably maintained and expressed the foreign epitopes even after 10 serial passages in BHK-21 cells. The epitope-tagged viruses displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus in BHK-21 cells. However, the epitope-tagged viruses exhibited lower growth rates and smaller plaque size phenotypes than those of the parental virus in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells, but similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes to those of the recombinant viruses harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A. These results demonstrate that the decreased ability of FMDV to replicate in primary bovine cells was not associated with the length of 3A, and the genetic determinant thought to play key role in decreased ability to replicate in primary bovine cells could be reduced from 93-102 residues to 8 aa residues at positions 94-101 in 3A protein.

  11. Modulation of carrier-induced epitopic suppression by Bordetella pertussis components and muramyl peptide.

    PubMed

    Vogel, F R; Leclerc, C; Schutze, M P; Jolivet, M; Audibert, F; Klein, T W; Chedid, L

    1987-06-01

    Synthetic antigens employed in experimental synthetic vaccines are generally small haptenic peptides. Therefore, effective immunization with these antigens usually requires the use of an immunogenic carrier. Tetanus toxoid has been proposed for use as a carrier in future synthetic vaccines due to its high immunogenicity and acceptance for human use. Previous studies employing standard hapten/carrier systems such as DNP/KLH have demonstrated, however, that an epitope-specific suppression occurs when mice previously primed with carrier are subsequently immunized with an haptenic epitope conjugated to the same carrier. These same studies have shown that Bordetella pertussis vaccine administered at the time of carrier priming abrogates epitopic suppression. In the present investigation, epitopic suppression was studied in a synthetic vaccine model employing tetanus toxoid as a carrier. Results from these studies indicated that mice primed with tetanus toxoid 1 month before immunization with a peptide-tetanus toxoid conjugate exhibited enhanced secondary anti-tetanus toxin responses but decreased anti-peptide responses. Furthermore, injection of pertussis vaccine or purified B. pertussis toxin or endotoxin at the time of carrier priming could block the establishment of epitopic suppression. Administration of B. pertussis components enhanced antibody responses to both the carrier and the synthetic peptides as compared with responses of control animals. In addition, administration of an adjuvant-active nonpyrogenic derivative of muramyl dipeptide. Murabutide, with carrier priming reduced epitopic suppression of anti-peptide responses. B. pertussis toxin or endotoxin administered to mice previously suppressed by carrier priming with the first injection of carrier-peptide conjugate overcame epitopic suppression with resultant titers of anti-peptide antibody equal to or greater than nonsuppressed controls. These results suggest that the use of adjuvants with future synthetic

  12. Mapping Epitopes on a Protein Antigen by the Proteolysis of Antigen-Antibody Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemmerson, Ronald; Paterson, Yvonne

    1986-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody bound to a protein antigen decreases the rate of proteolytic cleavage of the antigen, having the greatest effect on those regions involved in antibody contact. Thus, an epitope can be identified by the ability of the antibody to protect one region of the antigen more than others from proteolysis. By means of this approach, two distinct epitopes, both conformationally well-ordered, were characterized on horse cytochrome c.

  13. The prediction of T- and B-combined epitope and tertiary structure of the Eg95 antigen of Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    MA, XIUMIN; ZHOU, XIAOTAO; ZHU, YUEJIE; LI, YANHUA; WANG, HONGYING; MAMUTI, WULAMU; LI, YUJIAO; WEN, HAO; DING, JIANBING

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcosis, also known as hydatid disease, is a type of zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the Echinococcus larvae infection. The disease is severely harmful to both humans and animals. Research and development of an epitope vaccine is crucial. To determine the dominant epitopes of the Eg95 antigen, the tertiary structure and the T- and B-combined epitope of the Eg95 protein for Echinococcus granulosus were predicted and analyzed in the present study. The tertiary structure of the Eg95 protein was predicted using the 3DLigandsite server and RasMol software. The T- and B-combined epitope of the Eg95 antigen was analyzed using the DNAStar (V5.0), IEDB, SYFPEITHI and BIMAS. Tertiary structure prediction results showed that there were potential epitopes in Eg95 antigen. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the T- and B-combined epitopes of Eg95 antigen. Four and six T- and B-combined epitopes induced immune responses in humans and mice. Additionally, four T- and B-combined epitopes induced immune responses in both humans and mice. The tertiary structure and T- and B-combined epitopes of the Eg95 protein were also determined. The results obtained in the present study may be beneficial in the investigation of Eg95 antigenicity and the development of dominant epitope vaccines. PMID:24137242

  14. Broadly targeted CD8⁺ T cell responses restricted by major histocompatibility complex E.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Scott G; Wu, Helen L; Burwitz, Benjamin J; Hughes, Colette M; Hammond, Katherine B; Ventura, Abigail B; Reed, Jason S; Gilbride, Roxanne M; Ainslie, Emily; Morrow, David W; Ford, Julia C; Selseth, Andrea N; Pathak, Reesab; Malouli, Daniel; Legasse, Alfred W; Axthelm, Michael K; Nelson, Jay A; Gillespie, Geraldine M; Walters, Lucy C; Brackenridge, Simon; Sharpe, Hannah R; López, César A; Früh, Klaus; Korber, Bette T; McMichael, Andrew J; Gnanakaran, S; Sacha, Jonah B; Picker, Louis J

    2016-02-12

    Major histocompatibility complex E (MHC-E) is a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed, nonclassical MHC class Ib molecule with limited polymorphism that is primarily involved in the regulation of natural killer (NK) cells. We found that vaccinating rhesus macaques with rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors in which genes Rh157.5 and Rh157.4 are deleted results in MHC-E-restricted presentation of highly varied peptide epitopes to CD8αβ(+) T cells, at ~4 distinct epitopes per 100 amino acids in all tested antigens. Computational structural analysis revealed that MHC-E provides heterogeneous chemical environments for diverse side-chain interactions within a stable, open binding groove. Because MHC-E is up-regulated to evade NK cell activity in cells infected with HIV, simian immunodeficiency virus, and other persistent viruses, MHC-E-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses have the potential to exploit pathogen immune-evasion adaptations, a capability that might endow these unconventional responses with superior efficacy. PMID:26797147

  15. Broadly targeted CD8+ T cell responses restricted by major histocompatibility complex E

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hansen, Scott G.; Wu, Helen L.; Burwits, Benjamin J.; Hughes, Colette M.; Hammond, Katherine B.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Reed, Jason S.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Ainslie, Emily; Morrow, David W.; et al

    2016-02-12

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-E is a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed, nonclassical, MHC-Ib molecule with limited polymorphism primarily involved in regulation of NK cell reactivity via interaction with NKG2/CD94 receptors. We found that vaccination of rhesus macaques with Rh157.5/.4 gene-deleted rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors uniquely diverts MHC-E function to presentation of highly diverse peptide epitopes to CD8α/β+ T cells, approximately 4 distinct epitopes per 100 amino acids, in all tested protein antigens. Computational structural analysis revealed that a relatively stable, open binding groove in MHC-E attains broad peptide binding specificity by imposing a similar backbone configuration on bound peptides with fewmore » restrictions based on amino acid side chains. Since MHC-E is up-regulated on cells infected with HIV/SIV and other persistent viruses to evade NK cell activity, MHC-E-restricted CD8+ T cell responses have the potential to exploit pathogen immune evasion adaptations, a capability that might endow these unconventional responses with superior efficacy.« less

  16. Mapping Antigenic Epitopes on the Human Bocavirus Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Kailasan, Shweta; Garrison, Jamie; Ilyas, Maria; Chipman, Paul; McKenna, Robert; Kantola, Kalle; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Kučinskaitė-Kodzė, Indrė; Žvirblienė, Aurelija

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human bocaviruses (HBoV1 to -4) are emerging pathogens associated with pneumonia and/or diarrhea in young children. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccination, so there is a need to study these pathogens to understand their disease mechanisms on a molecular and structural level for the development of control strategies. Here, we report the structures of six HBoV monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment complexes, HBoV1-15C6, HBoV2-15C6, HBoV4-15C6, HBoV1-4C2, HBoV1-9G12, and HBoV1-12C1, determined by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction to 18.0- to 8.5-Å resolution. Of these, the 15C6 MAb cross-reacted with HBoV1, HBoV2, and HBoV4, while the 4C2, 12C1, and 9G12 MAbs recognized only HBoV1. Pseudoatomic modeling mapped the 15C6 footprint to the capsid surface DE and HI loops, at the 5-fold axis and the depression surrounding it, respectively, which are conserved motifs in Parvoviridae. The footprints for 4C2, 12C1, and 9G12 span the surface loops that assemble portions of the 2-/5-fold wall (a raised surface feature between the 2-fold and 5-fold axes of symmetry) and the shoulder of the 3-fold protrusions. The MAb footprints, cross reactive and strain specific, coincide with regions with high and low sequence/structural identities, respectively, on the capsid surfaces of the HBoVs and identify potential regions for the development of peptide vaccines for these viruses. IMPORTANCE Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) may cause severe respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in young children. The nonenveloped parvovirus capsid carries determinants of host and tissue tropism, pathogenicity, genome packaging, assembly, and antigenicity important for virus infection. This information is currently unavailable for the HBoVs and other bocaparvoviruses. This study identifies three strain-specific antigenic epitopes on the HBoV1 capsid and a cross-reactive epitope on the HBoV1, HBoV2, and HBoV4 capsids using structures of capsid

  17. Temporal Exposure of Cryptic Collagen Epitopes within Ischemic Muscle during Hindlimb Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Paul J.; Tihonov, Nikita; Li, Xialou; Glaser, Joseph; Qiao, Jhenrong; Silberstein, Michael; Yee, Herman; Gagne, Elizabeth; Brooks, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Chronic limb-threatening ischemia is a devastating disease with limited surgical options. However, inducing controlled angiogenesis and enhancing reperfusion holds therapeutic promise. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to limb reperfusion, we examined the temporal biochemical and structural changes occurring within the extracellular matrix of ischemic skeletal muscle. Both the latent and active forms of MMP-2 and -9 significantly increased during the active phase of limb reperfusion. Moreover, small but significant alterations in tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase levels also occurred during a similar time course, consistent with a net increase in extracellular matrix remodeling. This temporal increase in MMP activity coincided with enhanced exposure of the unique HU177 cryptic collagen epitope. Although the HUIV26 cryptic collagen epitope has been implicated in angiogenesis, little is known concerning such epitopes within ischemic muscle tissue. Here, we provide the first evidence that a functionally distinct cryptic collagen epitope (HU177) is temporally exposed in ischemic muscle tissue during the active phase of reperfusion. Interestingly, the exposure of the HU177 epitope was greatly diminished in MMP-9 null mice, corresponding with significantly reduced limb reperfusion. Therefore, the regulated exposure of a unique cryptic collagen epitope within ischemic muscle suggests an important role for collagen remodeling during the active phase of ischemic limb reperfusion. PMID:16251419

  18. Natural variants of cytotoxic epitopes are T-cell receptor antagonists for antiviral cytotoxic T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoletti, Antonio; Sette, Alessandro; Chisari, Francis V.; Penna, Amalia; Levrero, Massimo; Carli, Marco De; Fiaccadori, Franco; Ferrari, Carlo

    1994-06-01

    IT has been suggested that mutations within immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes may be exploited by viruses to evade protective immune responses critical for clearance1-4. Viral escape could originate from passive mechanisms, such as mutations within crucial CTL epitopes, either affecting major histocompatibility complex binding or T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognition. Additionally, it has recently been shown that substitutions of TCR contact sites can yield analogue peptides that can still interact with the T-cell receptor but be unable to deliver a full stimulatory signal, thus inducing anergy5 or acting as an antagonist for the TCR6-8. We report here that hepatitis B virus isolates derived from two chronically infected patients display variant epitopes that act as natural TCR antagonists with the capacity to inhibit the CTL response to the wild-type epitope. During natural infection, TCR antagonist mutations of CTL epitopes could contribute to the development of viral persistence, especially if the antiviral CTL response is monospecific or the epitope is strongly immunodominant.

  19. Characterization of Immunodominant BK Polyomavirus 9mer Epitope T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Cioni, M.; Leboeuf, C.; Comoli, P.; Ginevri, F.

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) causes polyomavirus‐associated nephropathy and allograft loss. Reducing immunosuppression is associated with clearing viremia and nephropathy and increasing BKPyV‐specific T cell responses in most patients; however, current immunoassays have limited sensitivity, target mostly CD4+ T cells, and largely fail to predict onset and clearance of BKPyV replication. To characterize BKPyV‐specific CD8+ T cells, bioinformatics were used to predict 9mer epitopes in the early viral gene region (EVGR) presented by 14 common HLAs in Europe and North America. Thirty‐nine EVGR epitopes were experimentally confirmed by interferon‐γ enzyme‐linked immunospot assays in at least 30% of BKPyV IgG–seropositive healthy participants. Most 9mers clustered in domains, and some were presented by more than one HLA class I, as typically seen for immunodominant epitopes. Specific T cell binding using MHC class I streptamers was demonstrated for 21 of 39 (54%) epitopes. In a prospective cohort of 118 pediatric KTRs, 19 patients protected or recovering from BKPyV viremia were experimentally tested, and 13 epitopes were validated. Single HLA mismatches were not associated with viremia, suggesting that failing immune control likely involves multiple factors including maintenance immunosuppression. Combining BKPyV load and T cell assays using immunodominant epitopes may help in evaluating risk and reducing immunosuppression and may lead to safe adoptive T cell transfer. PMID:26663765

  20. Molecular modeling application on hapten epitope prediction: an enantioselective immunoassay for ofloxacin optical isomers.

    PubMed

    Mu, Hongtao; Lei, Hongtao; Wang, Baoling; Xu, Zhenlin; Zhang, Chijian; Ling, Li; Tian, Yuanxin; Hu, Jinsheng; Sun, Yuanming

    2014-08-01

    To deepen our understanding of the physiochemical principles that govern hapten-antibody recognition, ofloxacin enantiomers were chosen as a model for epitope prediction of small molecules. In this study, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) mAb-WR1 and mAb-MS1 were raised against R-ofloxacin and S-ofloxacin, respectively. The enantioselective mAbs have a high sensitivity and specificity, and the enantioselectivity is not affected by heterologous coating format reactions. The epitopes of the ofloxacin isomers were predicted using the hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship (HQSAR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) approaches. The results consistently show that the epitope of the chiral hapten should be primarily composed of the oxazine ring and the piperazinyl ring and mAbs recognize the hapten from the side of this moiety. The enantioselectivity of mAbs is most likely due to the steric hindrance caused by the stereogenic center of the epitope. Modeling of chiral hapten-protein mimics reveals that ofloxacin isomers remain upright on the surface of the carrier protein. Suggestions to improve the enantioselectivity of antibodies against ofloxacin isomers were also proposed. This study provided a simple, efficient, and general method for predicting the epitopes of small molecules via molecular modeling. The epitope predictions for small molecules may create a theoretical guide for hapten design.

  1. Multiplex localization of sequential peptide epitopes by use of a planar microbead chip.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Carsten; Rödiger, Stefan; Gruner, Melanie; Moncsek, Anja; Stohwasser, Ralf; Hanack, Katja; Schierack, Peter; Schröder, Christian

    2016-02-18

    Epitope mapping is crucial for the characterization of protein-specific antibodies. Commonly, small overlapping peptides are chemically synthesized and immobilized to determine the specific peptide sequence. In this study, we report the use of a fast and inexpensive planar microbead chip for epitope mapping. We developed a generic strategy for expressing recombinant peptide libraries instead of using expensive synthetic peptide libraries. A biotin moiety was introduced in vivo at a defined peptide position using biotin ligase. Peptides in crude Escherichia coli lysate were coupled onto streptavidin-coated microbeads by incubation, thereby avoiding tedious purification procedures. For read-out we used a multiplex planar microbead chip with size- and fluorescence-encoded microbead populations. For epitope mapping, up to 18 populations of peptide-loaded microbeads (at least 20 microbeads per peptide) displaying the primary sequence of a protein were analyzed simultaneously. If an epitope was recognized by an antibody, a secondary fluorescence-labeled antibody generated a signal that was quantified, and the mean value of all microbeads in the population was calculated. We mapped the epitopes for rabbit anti-PA28γ (proteasome activator 28γ) polyclonal serum, for a murine monoclonal antibody against PA28γ, and for a murine monoclonal antibody against the hamster polyoma virus major capsid protein VP1 as models. In each case, the identification of one distinct peptide sequence out of up to 18 sequences was possible. Using this approach, an epitope can be mapped multiparametrically within three weeks.

  2. Identification and Phylogeny of the First T Cell Epitope Identified from a Human Gut Bacteroides Species.

    PubMed

    Perez-Muñoz, Maria Elisa; Joglekar, Payal; Shen, Yi-Ju; Shen, Yi-Ji; Chang, Kuan Y; Peterson, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Host T cell reactivity toward gut bacterial epitopes has been recognized as part of disease pathogenesis. However, the specificity of T cells that recognize this vast number of epitopes has not yet been well described. After colonizing a C57BL/6J germ-free mouse with the human gut symbiotic bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, we isolated a T cell that recognized these bacteria in vitro. Using this T cell, we mapped the first known non-carbohydrate T cell epitope within the phylum Bacteroidetes. The T cell also reacted to two other additional Bacteroides species. We identified the peptide that stimulated the T cell by using a genetic approach. Genomic data from the epitope-positive and epitope-negative bacteria explain the cross-reactivity of the T cell to multiple species. This epitope degeneracy should shape our understanding of the T cell repertoire stimulated by the complex microbiome residing in the gastrointestinal tract in both healthy and disease states. PMID:26637014

  3. AGU Sonar Data Restriction Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Council accepted the report of the panel set up in February to study the issue of restriction by the U.S. Navy of access to high-resolution sonar data for the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Panel chairman John Bossier announced that “the Navy has acted in the best interests of the nation” in lifting the restriction order. Only two areas, egress routes to two submarine bases (see “Navy Defines Areas Under Sonar Ban,” in News, this issue), remain restricted.Panel members were Bruce Douglas, Alexander Malahoff, Donald Piepgras, Paul Richards, David Smith and Manik Talwani.

  4. Generation of robust CD8+ T-cell responses against subdominant epitopes in conserved regions of HIV-1 by repertoire mining with mimotopes.

    PubMed

    Schaubert, Keri L; Price, David A; Salkowitz, Janelle R; Sewell, Andrew K; Sidney, John; Asher, Tedi E; Blondelle, Sylvie E; Adams, Sharon; Marincola, Francesco M; Joseph, Aviva; Sette, Alessandro; Douek, Daniel C; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Storkus, Walter; Leung, Ming-Ying; Ng, Hwee L; Yang, Otto O; Goldstein, Harris; Wilson, Darcy B; Kan-Mitchell, June

    2010-07-01

    HLA-A 0201-restricted virus-specific CD8(+) CTL do not appear to control HIV effectively in vivo. To enhance the immunogenicity of a highly conserved subdominant epitope, TV9 (TLNAWVKVV, p24 Gag(19-27)), mimotopes were designed by screening a large combinatorial nonapeptide library with TV9-specific CTL primed in vitro from healthy donors. A mimic peptide with a low binding affinity to HLA-A 0201, TV9p6 (KINAWIKVV), was studied further. Parallel cultures of in vitro-primed CTL showed that TV9p6 consistently activated cross-reactive and equally functional CTL as measured by cytotoxicity, cytokine production and suppression of HIV replication in vitro. Comparison of TCRB gene usage between CTL primed from the same donors with TV9 or TV9p6 revealed a degree of clonal overlap in some cases and an example of a conserved TCRB sequence encoded distinctly at the nucleotide level between individuals (a "public" TCR); however, in the main, distinct clonotypes were recruited by each peptide antigen. These findings indicate that mimotopes can mobilize functional cross-reactive clonotypes that are less readily recruited from the naïve T-cell pool by the corresponding WT epitope. Mimotope-induced repertoire diversification could potentially override subdominance under certain circumstances and enhance vaccine-induced responses to conserved but poorly immunogenic determinants within the HIV proteome. PMID:20432235

  5. Generation of robust CD8+ T-cell responses against subdominant epitopes in conserved regions of HIV-1 by repertoire mining with mimotopes.

    PubMed

    Schaubert, Keri L; Price, David A; Salkowitz, Janelle R; Sewell, Andrew K; Sidney, John; Asher, Tedi E; Blondelle, Sylvie E; Adams, Sharon; Marincola, Francesco M; Joseph, Aviva; Sette, Alessandro; Douek, Daniel C; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Storkus, Walter; Leung, Ming-Ying; Ng, Hwee L; Yang, Otto O; Goldstein, Harris; Wilson, Darcy B; Kan-Mitchell, June

    2010-07-01

    HLA-A 0201-restricted virus-specific CD8(+) CTL do not appear to control HIV effectively in vivo. To enhance the immunogenicity of a highly conserved subdominant epitope, TV9 (TLNAWVKVV, p24 Gag(19-27)), mimotopes were designed by screening a large combinatorial nonapeptide library with TV9-specific CTL primed in vitro from healthy donors. A mimic peptide with a low binding affinity to HLA-A 0201, TV9p6 (KINAWIKVV), was studied further. Parallel cultures of in vitro-primed CTL showed that TV9p6 consistently activated cross-reactive and equally functional CTL as measured by cytotoxicity, cytokine production and suppression of HIV replication in vitro. Comparison of TCRB gene usage between CTL primed from the same donors with TV9 or TV9p6 revealed a degree of clonal overlap in some cases and an example of a conserved TCRB sequence encoded distinctly at the nucleotide level between individuals (a "public" TCR); however, in the main, distinct clonotypes were recruited by each peptide antigen. These findings indicate that mimotopes can mobilize functional cross-reactive clonotypes that are less readily recruited from the naïve T-cell pool by the corresponding WT epitope. Mimotope-induced repertoire diversification could potentially override subdominance under certain circumstances and enhance vaccine-induced responses to conserved but poorly immunogenic determinants within the HIV proteome.

  6. Piroxicam has at least two epitopes for contact photoallergy.

    PubMed

    Hariya, T; Osawa, J; Kitamura, K; Ikezawa, Z

    1993-12-01

    We have demonstrated previously in guinea pigs that the induction of photocontact sensitivity to piroxicam (PXM) also induces a state of cross-reactive contact hypersensitivity to two compounds having structurally related elements, thimerosal (TMS) and thiosalicylate (TOS). The present study was conducted to determine whether oral administration of TOS would desensitize guinea pigs previously photosensitized with PXM. At the same time, the spectrum of reactivities against these compounds and against tenoxicam (TXM) which resembles only piroxicam was assessed by appropriate sensitizing and eliciting protocols. As expected, animals photosensitized to PXM developed reactivities against all four compounds, PXM and TXM (photosensitivity) and TMS and TOS (contact sensitivity). By contrast, photosensitization with TXM induced cross-reactivity only against PXM. Moreover, the induction of contact sensitivity against TMS or TOS induced photosensitive cross-reactivity to PXM, but not to TXM. Finally, the oral administration of TOS produced a transient desensitization only for TMS and TOS. These results suggest that photosensitization with PXM induces two distinct reactivities. The first reactivity cross-reacts with TMS and TOS and is suppressible with orally administered TOS. The second cross-reacts only with TXM and is not suppressible with oral TOS. We conclude that PXM acquires at least two distinct immunogenic epitopes when exposed to UVA irradiation. PMID:7510999

  7. T-cell epitope vaccine design by immunoinformatics.

    PubMed

    Patronov, Atanas; Doytchinova, Irini

    2013-01-08

    Vaccination is generally considered to be the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. All vaccinations work by presenting a foreign antigen to the immune system in order to evoke an immune response. The active agent of a vaccine may be intact but inactivated ('attenuated') forms of the causative pathogens (bacteria or viruses), or purified components of the pathogen that have been found to be highly immunogenic. The increased understanding of antigen recognition at molecular level has resulted in the development of rationally designed peptide vaccines. The concept of peptide vaccines is based on identification and chemical synthesis of B-cell and T-cell epitopes which are immunodominant and can induce specific immune responses. The accelerating growth of bioinformatics techniques and applications along with the substantial amount of experimental data has given rise to a new field, called immunoinformatics. Immunoinformatics is a branch of bioinformatics dealing with in silico analysis and modelling of immunological data and problems. Different sequence- and structure-based immunoinformatics methods are reviewed in the paper.

  8. Hybrid methods for B-cell epitope prediction.

    PubMed

    Caoili, Salvador Eugenio C

    2014-01-01

    Many computational approaches to B-cell epitope prediction have been published, including combinations of previously proposed methods, which complicates the tasks of further developing such computational approaches and of selecting those most appropriate for practical applications (e.g., the design of novel immunodiagnostics and vaccines). These tasks are considered together herein to clarify their close but often overlooked interrelationship, thereby providing a guide to their performance in mutual support of one another, with emphasis on key physicochemical and biological considerations that are relevant from an applications perspective. This aims to assist investigators in performing either or both tasks, with the overall goals of successfully applying computational tools towards practical ends and of generating informative new data towards iterative improvement of the tools, particularly as regards the design of peptide-based immunogens for eliciting the production of antipeptide antibodies that modulate biological activity of protein targets via functionally relevant cross-reactivity in relation to the phenomena of protein folding and protein disorder.

  9. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine. PMID:26552001

  10. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine.

  11. Methionine restriction and lifespan control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending lifespan. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with/without adequate nutrition (e.g. particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend lifespan in various model organisms. We discuss beneficial effects of methionine-restricted (MR) diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  12. Harnessing Computational Biology for Exact Linear B-Cell Epitope Prediction: A Novel Amino Acid Composition-Based Feature Descriptor.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Vijayakumar; Gautham, Namasivayam

    2015-10-01

    Proteins embody epitopes that serve as their antigenic determinants. Epitopes occupy a central place in integrative biology, not to mention as targets for novel vaccine, pharmaceutical, and systems diagnostics development. The presence of T-cell and B-cell epitopes has been extensively studied due to their potential in synthetic vaccine design. However, reliable prediction of linear B-cell epitope remains a formidable challenge. Earlier studies have reported discrepancy in amino acid composition between the epitopes and non-epitopes. Hence, this study proposed and developed a novel amino acid composition-based feature descriptor, Dipeptide Deviation from Expected Mean (DDE), to distinguish the linear B-cell epitopes from non-epitopes effectively. In this study, for the first time, only exact linear B-cell epitopes and non-epitopes have been utilized for developing the prediction method, unlike the use of epitope-containing regions in earlier reports. To evaluate the performance of the DDE feature vector, models have been developed with two widely used machine-learning techniques Support Vector Machine and AdaBoost-Random Forest. Five-fold cross-validation performance of the proposed method with error-free dataset and dataset from other studies achieved an overall accuracy between nearly 61% and 73%, with balance between sensitivity and specificity metrics. Performance of the DDE feature vector was better (with accuracy difference of about 2% to 12%), in comparison to other amino acid-derived features on different datasets. This study reflects the efficiency of the DDE feature vector in enhancing the linear B-cell epitope prediction performance, compared to other feature representations. The proposed method is made as a stand-alone tool available freely for researchers, particularly for those interested in vaccine design and novel molecular target development for systems therapeutics and diagnostics: https://github.com/brsaran/LBEEP.

  13. Epitopes for Broad and Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses during Chronic Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Avishek; Lavine, Christine L.; Wang, Pengcheng; Lipchina, Inna; Goepfert, Paul A.; Shaw, George M.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Montefiori, David C.; Haynes, Barton F.; Easterbrook, Philippa; Robinson, James E.; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Yang, Xinzhen

    2009-01-01

    Neutralizing antibody (nAb) response is sporadic and has limited potency and breadth during infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In rare cases, broad and potent nAbs are actually induced in vivo. Identifying specific epitopes targeted by such broad and potent nAb response is valuable in guiding the design of a prophylactic vaccine aimed to induce nAb. In this study, we have defined neutralizing epitope usage in 7 out of 17 subjects with broad and potent nAbs by using targeted mutagenesis in known neutralizing epitopes of HIV-1 glycoproteins and by using in vitro depletion of serum neutralizing activity by various recombinant HIV-1 glycoproteins. Consistent with recent reports, the CD4 binding site (CD4BS) is targeted by nAbs in vivo (4 of the 7 subjects with defined neutralizing epitopes). The new finding from this study is that epitopes in the gp120 outer domain are also targeted by nAbs in vivo (5 of the 7 subjects). The outer domain epitopes include glycan-dependent epitopes (2 subjects), conserved non-linear epitope in the V3 region (2 subjects), and a CD4BS epitope composed mainly of the elements in the outer domain (1 subject). Importantly, we found indication for epitope poly-specificity, a dual usage of the V3 and CD4BS epitopes, in only one subject. This study provides a more complete profile of epitope usage for broad and potent nAb responses during HIV-1 infection. PMID:19922969

  14. The influence of orientation and number of copies of T and B cell epitopes on the specificity and affinity of antibodies induced by chimeric peptides.

    PubMed

    Partidos, C; Stanley, C; Steward, M

    1992-10-01

    CBA and TO mice were immunized with chimeric peptide immunogens consisting of B cell (residues 404-414) and T cell (residues 288-302) epitopes from the F protein of measles virus. The chimeras were co-linearly synthesized to contain one or two copies of the T cell epitope linked to one or two copies of the B cell epitope via a glycine.glycine spacer. Two orientations were synthesized such that the T cell epitope(s) were located at either the amino or carboxyl terminus of the B cell epitope(s). The levels of antibody induced following immunization with the chimeras were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using microtiter plates coated with either the homologous chimera or the B cell epitope sequence. The affinities of the anti-chimera antibodies for the B cell epitope were assessed by a fluid-phase double-isotope radioimmunoassay. All the chimeras induced good antibody responses in both strains of mice with specificity for the B cell epitope. Chimeras containing two copies of the T cell epitope induced antibodies with higher affinity for the B cell epitope than did chimeras containing one copy of the T cell epitope or two copies of the B cell epitope. Furthermore, the amino terminal location of the T cell epitope in relation to the B cell epitope in the chimera induced higher affinity anti-B cell antibody than did the reverse orientation. These results suggest that orientation of epitopes and amino acid composition of chimeric peptides affect antigen processing and presentation to T cells which govern both the specificity and affinity of antibody produced. Thus, for the production of synthetic peptide immunogens with vaccine potential, attention needs to be given to the number and orientation of the component epitopes required to produce highest affinity antibody.

  15. Characterization of T-cell response to woodchuck hepatitis virus core protein and protection of woodchucks from infection by immunization with peptides containing a T-cell epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Menne, S; Maschke, J; Tolle, T K; Lu, M; Roggendorf, M

    1997-01-01

    Specific activation of T cells appears to be a prerequisite for viral clearance during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The T-cell response to HBV core protein is essential in determining an acute or chronic outcome of HBV infection, but how this immune response contributes to the course of infection remains unclear. This is due to results obtained from humans, which are restricted to phenomenological observations occurring during the clinical onset after HBV infection. Thus, a useful animal model is needed. Characterization of the T-cell response to the core protein (WHcAg) of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) in woodchucks contributes to the understanding of these mechanisms. Therefore, we investigated the response of woodchuck peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to WHcAg and WHcAg-derived peptides, using our 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assay. We demonstrated WHcAg-specific proliferation of PBMCs and nylon wool-nonadherent cells from acutely WHV-infected woodchucks. Using a cross-reacting anti-human T-cell (CD3) antiserum, we identified nonadherent cells as woodchuck T cells. T-cell epitope mapping with overlapping peptides, covering the entire WHcAg, revealed T-cell responses of acutely WHV-infected woodchucks to peptide1-20, peptide100-119, and peptide112-131. Detailed epitope analysis in the WHcAg region from amino acids 97 to 140 showed that T cells especially recognized peptide97-110. Establishment of polyclonal T-cell lines with WHcAg or peptide97-110 revealed reciprocal stimulation by peptide97-110 or WHcAg, respectively. We vaccinated woodchucks with peptide97-110 or WHcAg to prove the importance of this immunodominant T-cell epitope. All woodchucks immunized with peptide97-110 or WHcAg were protected. Our results show that the cellular immune response to WHcAg or to one T-cell epitope protects woodchucks from WHV infection. PMID:8985324

  16. Specificities of human CD4+ T cell responses to an inactivated flavivirus vaccine and infection: correlation with structure and epitope prediction.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, Julia; Aberle, Judith H; Stiasny, Karin; Knapp, Bernhard; Schreiner, Wolfgang; Fae, Ingrid; Fischer, Gottfried; Scheinost, Ondrej; Chmelik, Vaclav; Heinz, Franz X

    2014-07-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is endemic in large parts of Europe and Central and Eastern Asia and causes more than 10,000 annual cases of neurological disease in humans. It is closely related to the mosquito-borne yellow fever, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses, and vaccination with an inactivated whole-virus vaccine can effectively prevent clinical disease. Neutralizing antibodies are directed to the viral envelope protein (E) and an accepted correlate of immunity. However, data on the specificities of CD4(+) T cells that recognize epitopes in the viral structural proteins and thus can provide direct help to the B cells producing E-specific antibodies are lacking. We therefore conducted a study on the CD4(+) T cell response against the virion proteins in vaccinated people in comparison to TBE patients. The data obtained with overlapping peptides in interleukin-2 (IL-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays were analyzed in relation to the three-dimensional structures of the capsid (C) and E proteins as well as to epitope predictions based on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II peptide affinities. In the C protein, peptides corresponding to two out of four alpha helices dominated the response in both vaccinees and patients, whereas in the E protein concordance of immunodominance was restricted to peptides of a single domain (domain III). Epitope predictions were much better for C than for E and were especially erroneous for the transmembrane regions. Our data provide evidence for a strong impact of protein structural features that influence peptide processing, contributing to the discrepancies observed between experimentally determined and computer-predicted CD4(+) T cell epitopes. Importance: Tick-borne encephalitis virus is endemic in large parts of Europe and Asia and causes more than 10,000 annual cases of neurological disease in humans. It is closely related to yellow fever, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and

  17. Emergence of a Norovirus GII.4 Strain Correlates with Changes in Evolving Blockade Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Costantini, Verónica; Swanstrom, Jesica; Debbink, Kari; Donaldson, Eric F.; Vinjé, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The major capsid protein of norovirus GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resulting in epidemic strains with altered antigenicity. GII.4.2006 Minerva strains circulated at pandemic levels in 2006 and persisted at lower levels until 2009. In 2009, a new GII.4 variant, GII.4.2009 New Orleans, emerged and since then has become the predominant strain circulating in human populations. To determine whether changes in evolving blockade epitopes correlate with the emergence of the GII.4.2009 New Orleans strains, we compared the antibody reactivity of a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against GII.4.2006 and GII.4.2009 virus-like particles (VLPs). Both anti-GII.4.2006 and GII.4.2009 MAbs effectively differentiated the two strains by VLP-carbohydrate ligand blockade assay. Most of the GII.4.2006 MAbs preferentially blocked GII.4.2006, while all of the GII.4.2009 MAbs preferentially blocked GII.4.2009, although 8 of 12 tested blockade MAbs blocked both VLPs. Using mutant VLPs designed to alter predicted antigenic epitopes, binding of seven of the blockade MAbs was impacted by alterations in epitope A, identifying residues 294, 296, 297, 298, 368, and 372 as important antigenic sites in these strains. Convalescent-phase serum collected from a GII.4.2009 outbreak confirmed the immunodominance of epitope A, since alterations of epitope A affected serum reactivity by 40%. These data indicate that the GII.4.2009 New Orleans variant has evolved a key blockade epitope, possibly allowing for at least partial escape from protective herd immunity and provide epidemiological support for the utility of monitoring changes in epitope A in emergent strain surveillance. PMID:23269783

  18. Searching for Borrelial T cell Epitopes Associated with Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Drouin, Elise E.; Glickstein, Lisa; Kwok, William W.; Nepom, Gerald T.; Steere, Allen C.

    2008-01-01

    Antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis is believed to result from an infection-induced autoimmune response triggered by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). Disease susceptibility is associated with the HLA alleles DRB1*0101, 0401, 0402, 0404, 0405 and DRB5*0101, and all these MHC molecules bind the Bb epitope OspA163-175. However, not all patients have a proliferative response to this epitope. To identify other possible Bb epitopes involved in this disease process, the algorithm TEPITOPE was used to scan 17 immunogenetic Bb proteins for potential T cell epitopes with a refractory arthritis-associated MHC binding profile, and the Bb proteome was searched for peptides with sequence homology to OspA165-173. Sixteen promising T epitopes were identified and their MHC binding profiles to 13 MHC molecules were verified using in vitro MHC/peptide binding assays. One peptide, BBK32392-404, had a strong refractory-arthritis associated MHC binding profile, and another GK297-306 shared sequence homology to OspA165-173. However, patient cells did not proliferate in response to either peptide making it highly unlikely they were involved in a refractory course. A comparison of the in silico and in vitro results revealed that TEPITOPE correctly predicted 74% of the in vitro binding peptides, but it incorrectly predicted that 44% of the in vitrononbinding peptides would bind. For a particular MHC molecule, concordance between the in silico and in vitro results varied anywhere between 33% and 100%. Therefore, while additional Bb epitopes may be involved in the development of antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis, recognition of OspA163-175 remains the only known Bb epitope associated with this disease. PMID:18191206

  19. Searching for borrelial T cell epitopes associated with antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Elise E; Glickstein, Lisa; Kwok, William W; Nepom, Gerald T; Steere, Allen C

    2008-04-01

    Antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis is believed to result from an infection-induced autoimmune response triggered by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). Disease susceptibility is associated with the HLA alleles DRB1*0101, 0401, 0402, 0404, 0405 and DRB5*0101, and all these MHC molecules bind the Bb epitope OspA(163-175.) However, not all patients have a proliferative response to this epitope. To identify other possible Bb epitopes involved in this disease process, the algorithm TEPITOPE was used to scan 17 immunogenic Bb proteins for potential T cell epitopes with a refractory arthritis-associated MHC binding profile, and the Bb proteome was searched for peptides with sequence homology to OspA(165-173). Sixteen promising T epitopes were identified and their MHC binding profiles to 13 MHC molecules were verified using in vitro MHC/peptide binding assays. One peptide, BBK32(392-404), had a strong refractory arthritis-associated MHC binding profile, and another GK(297-306) shared sequence homology to OspA(165-173). However, patient cells did not proliferate in response to either peptide making it highly unlikely they were involved in a refractory course. A comparison of the in silico and in vitro results revealed that TEPITOPE correctly predicted 74% of the in vitro binding peptides, but it incorrectly predicted that 44% of the in vitrononbinding peptides would bind. For a particular MHC molecule, concordance between the in silico and in vitro results varied anywhere between 33% and 100%. Therefore, while additional Bb epitopes may be involved in the development of antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis, recognition of OspA(163-175) remains the only known Bb epitope associated with this disease course.

  20. Defining Species-Specific Immunodominant B Cell Epitopes for Molecular Serology of Chlamydia Species

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, K. Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U.; Poudel, Anil; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Urgently needed species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia spp. have been elusive due to high cross-reactivity of chlamydial antigens. To identify Chlamydia species-specific B cell epitopes for such assays, we ranked the potential epitopes of immunodominant chlamydial proteins that are polymorphic among all Chlamydia species. High-scoring peptides were synthesized with N-terminal biotin, followed by a serine-glycine-serine-glycine spacer, immobilized onto streptavidin-coated microtiter plates, and tested with mono-specific mouse hyperimmune sera against each Chlamydia species in chemiluminescent ELISAs. For each of nine Chlamydia species, three to nine dominant polymorphic B cell epitope regions were identified on OmpA, CT618, PmpD, IncA, CT529, CT442, IncG, Omp2, TarP, and IncE proteins. Peptides corresponding to 16- to 40-amino-acid species-specific sequences of these epitopes reacted highly and with absolute specificity with homologous, but not heterologous, Chlamydia monospecies-specific sera. Host-independent reactivity of such epitopes was confirmed by testing of six C. pecorum-specific peptides from five proteins with C. pecorum-reactive sera from cattle, the natural host of C. pecorum. The probability of cross-reactivity of peptide antigens from closely related chlamydial species or strains correlated with percent sequence identity and declined to zero at <50% sequence identity. Thus, phylograms of B cell epitope regions predict the specificity of peptide antigens for rational use in the genus-, species-, or serovar-specific molecular serology of Chlamydia spp. We anticipate that these peptide antigens will improve chlamydial serology by providing easily accessible assays to nonspecialist laboratories. Our approach also lends itself to the identification of relevant epitopes of other microbial pathogens. PMID:25761461

  1. Towards the knowledge-based design of universal influenza epitope ensemble vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Qamar M.; Gatherer, Derek; Reche, Pedro A; Flower, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Influenza A viral heterogeneity remains a significant threat due to unpredictable antigenic drift in seasonal influenza and antigenic shifts caused by the emergence of novel subtypes. Annual review of multivalent influenza vaccines targets strains of influenza A and B likely to be predominant in future influenza seasons. This does not induce broad, cross protective immunity against emergent subtypes. Better strategies are needed to prevent future pandemics. Cross-protection can be achieved by activating CD8+ and CD4+ T cells against highly conserved regions of the influenza genome. We combine available experimental data with informatics-based immunological predictions to help design vaccines potentially able to induce cross-protective T-cells against multiple influenza subtypes. Results: To exemplify our approach we designed two epitope ensemble vaccines comprising highly conserved and experimentally verified immunogenic influenza A epitopes as putative non-seasonal influenza vaccines; one specifically targets the US population and the other is a universal vaccine. The USA-specific vaccine comprised 6 CD8+ T cell epitopes (GILGFVFTL, FMYSDFHFI, GMDPRMCSL, SVKEKDMTK, FYIQMCTEL, DTVNRTHQY) and 3 CD4+ epitopes (KGILGFVFTLTVPSE, EYIMKGVYINTALLN, ILGFVFTLTVPSERG). The universal vaccine comprised 8 CD8+ epitopes: (FMYSDFHFI, GILGFVFTL, ILRGSVAHK, FYIQMCTEL, ILKGKFQTA, YYLEKANKI, VSDGGPNLY, YSHGTGTGY) and the same 3 CD4+ epitopes. Our USA-specific vaccine has a population protection coverage (portion of the population potentially responsive to one or more component epitopes of the vaccine, PPC) of over 96 and 95% coverage of observed influenza subtypes. The universal vaccine has a PPC value of over 97 and 88% coverage of observed subtypes. Availability and Implementation: http://imed.med.ucm.es/Tools/episopt.html. Contact: d.r.flower@aston.ac.uk PMID:27402904

  2. Epitope characterization of an anti-PD-L1 antibody using orthogonal approaches.

    PubMed

    Hao, Gang; Wesolowski, John S; Jiang, Xuliang; Lauder, Scott; Sood, Vanita D

    2015-04-01

    The binding of programmed death ligand 1 protein (PD-L1) to its receptor programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) mediates immunoevasion in cancer and chronic viral infections, presenting an important target for therapeutic intervention. Several monoclonal antibodies targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 signaling axis are undergoing clinical trials; however, the epitopes of these antibodies have not been described. We have combined orthogonal approaches to localize and characterize the epitope of a monoclonal antibody directed against PD-L1 at good resolution and with high confidence. Limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry were applied to reveal that the epitope resides in the first immunoglobulin domain of PD-L1. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was used to identify a conformational epitope comprised of discontinuous strands that fold to form a beta sheet in the native structure. This beta sheet presents an epitope surface that significantly overlaps with the PD-1 binding interface, consistent with a desired PD-1 competitive mechanism of action for the antibody. Surface plasmon resonance screening of mutant PD-L1 variants confirmed that the region identified by HDX-MS is critical for the antibody interaction and further defined specific residues contributing to the binding energy. Taken together, the results are consistent with the observed inhibitory activity of the antibody on PD-L1-mediated immune evasion. This is the first report of an epitope for any antibody targeting PD-L1 and demonstrates the power of combining orthogonal epitope mapping techniques. PMID:25664688

  3. Defining species-specific immunodominant B cell epitopes for molecular serology of Chlamydia species.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U; Poudel, Anil; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Urgently needed species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia spp. have been elusive due to high cross-reactivity of chlamydial antigens. To identify Chlamydia species-specific B cell epitopes for such assays, we ranked the potential epitopes of immunodominant chlamydial proteins that are polymorphic among all Chlamydia species. High-scoring peptides were synthesized with N-terminal biotin, followed by a serine-glycine-serine-glycine spacer, immobilized onto streptavidin-coated microtiter plates, and tested with mono-specific mouse hyperimmune sera against each Chlamydia species in chemiluminescent ELISAs. For each of nine Chlamydia species, three to nine dominant polymorphic B cell epitope regions were identified on OmpA, CT618, PmpD, IncA, CT529, CT442, IncG, Omp2, TarP, and IncE proteins. Peptides corresponding to 16- to 40-amino-acid species-specific sequences of these epitopes reacted highly and with absolute specificity with homologous, but not heterologous, Chlamydia monospecies-specific sera. Host-independent reactivity of such epitopes was confirmed by testing of six C. pecorum-specific peptides from five proteins with C. pecorum-reactive sera from cattle, the natural host of C. pecorum. The probability of cross-reactivity of peptide antigens from closely related chlamydial species or strains correlated with percent sequence identity and declined to zero at <50% sequence identity. Thus, phylograms of B cell epitope regions predict the specificity of peptide antigens for rational use in the genus-, species-, or serovar-specific molecular serology of Chlamydia spp. We anticipate that these peptide antigens will improve chlamydial serology by providing easily accessible assays to nonspecialist laboratories. Our approach also lends itself to the identification of relevant epitopes of other microbial pathogens.

  4. Vaccine-Induced Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Responses Focused on a Single Nef Epitope Select for Escape Variants Shortly after Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Damien C.; Cruz, Michael A.; Power, Karen A.; Veloso de Santana, Marlon G.; Bean, David J.; Ogilvie, Colin B.; Gadgil, Rujuta; Lima, Noemia S.; Magnani, Diogo M.; Ejima, Keisuke; Allison, David B.; Piatak, Michael; Altman, John D.; Parks, Christopher L.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Capuano, Saverio; Galler, Ricardo; Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Allen, Todd M.; Watkins, David I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Certain major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) alleles (e.g., HLA-B*27) are enriched among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals who suppress viremia without treatment (termed “elite controllers” [ECs]). Likewise, Mamu-B*08 expression also predisposes rhesus macaques to control simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Given the similarities between Mamu-B*08 and HLA-B*27, SIV-infected Mamu-B*08+ animals provide a model to investigate HLA-B*27-mediated elite control. We have recently shown that vaccination with three immunodominant Mamu-B*08-restricted epitopes (Vif RL8, Vif RL9, and Nef RL10) increased the incidence of elite control in Mamu-B*08+ macaques after challenge with the pathogenic SIVmac239 clone. Furthermore, a correlate analysis revealed that CD8+ T cells targeting Nef RL10 was correlated with improved outcome. Interestingly, this epitope is conserved between SIV and HIV-1 and exhibits a delayed and atypical escape pattern. These features led us to postulate that a monotypic vaccine-induced Nef RL10-specific CD8+ T-cell response would facilitate the development of elite control in Mamu-B*08+ animals following repeated intrarectal challenges with SIVmac239. To test this, we vaccinated Mamu-B*08+ animals with nef inserts in which Nef RL10 was either left intact (group 1) or disrupted by mutations (group 2). Although monkeys in both groups mounted Nef-specific cellular responses, only those in group 1 developed Nef RL10-specific CD8+ T cells. These vaccine-induced effector memory CD8+ T cells did not prevent infection. Escape variants emerged rapidly in the group 1 vaccinees, and ultimately, the numbers of ECs were similar in groups 1 and 2. High-frequency vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells focused on a single conserved epitope and therefore did not prevent infection or increase the incidence of elite control in Mamu-B*08+ macaques. IMPORTANCE Since elite control of chronic-phase viremia is a classic

  5. [Highly sensitive detection technology for biological toxins applying sugar epitopes].

    PubMed

    Uzawa, Hirotaka

    2009-01-01

    The Shiga toxin is a highly poisonous protein produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157. This bacterial toxin causes the hemolytic uremic syndrome. Another plant toxin from castor beans, ricin, is also highly toxic. The toxin was used for assassination in London. Recently, there were several cases of postal matter containing ricin. Both toxins are categorized as biological warfare agents by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Conventional detection methods based on the antigen-antibody reaction, PCR and other cell-free assays have been proposed. However, those approaches have drawbacks in terms of sensitivity, analytical time, or stability of the detection reagents. Therefore, development of a facile and sensitive detection method is essential. Here we describe new detection methods applying carbohydrate epitopes as the toxin ligands, which is based on the fact that the toxins bind cell-surface oligosaccharides. Namely, the Shiga toxin has an affinity for globobiosyl (Gb(2)) disaccharide, and ricin binds the beta-D-galactose residue. For Shiga toxin detection, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was applied. A polyanionic Gb(2)-glycopolymer was designed for this purpose, and it was used for the assembly of Gb(2)-chips using alternating layer-by-layer technology. The method allowed us to detect the toxin at a low concentration of LD(50). A synthetic carbohydrate ligand for ricin was designed and immobilized on the chips. SPR analysis with the chips allows us to detect ricin in a highly sensitive and facile manner (10 pg/ml, 5 min). Our present approaches provide a highly effective way to counter bioterrorism.

  6. Disulfide-bonded discontinuous epitopes on the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype).

    PubMed

    Grigera, P R; Keil, W; Wagner, R R

    1992-06-01

    Intrachain disulfide bonds between paired cysteines in the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are required for the recognition of discontinuous epitopes by specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (W. Keil and R. R. Wagner, Virology 170:392-407, 1989). Cleavage by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease of the 517-amino-acid VSV-New Jersey G protein, limited to the glutamic acid at residue 110, resulted in a protein (designated GV8) with greatly retarded migration by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under nonreducing conditions. By Western blot (immunoblot) analysis, protein GV8 was found to lose discontinuous epitope IV, which maps within the first 193 NH2-terminal amino acids. These data, coupled with those obtained by PAGE migration of a vector-expressed, truncated protein (G1-193) under reducing and nonreducing conditions, lead us to postulate the existence of a major loop structure within the first 193 NH2-terminal amino acids of the G protein, possibly anchored by a disulfide bond between cysteine 108 and cysteine 169, encompassing epitope IV. Site-directed mutants in which 10 of the 12 cysteines were individually converted to serines in vaccinia virus-based vectors expressing these single-site mutant G proteins were also constructed, each of which was then tested by immunoprecipitation for its capacity to recognize epitope-specific MAbs. These results showed that mutations in NH2-terminal cysteines 130, 174, and, to a lesser extent, 193 all resulted in the loss of neutralization epitope VIII. A mutation at NH2-terminal cysteine 130 also resulted in the loss of neutralization epitope VII, as did a mutation at cysteine 108 to a lesser extent. Both epitopes VII and VIII disappeared when mutations were made in COOH-distal cysteine 235, 240, or 273, the general map locations of epitopes VII and VIII. These studies also reveal that distal, as well as proximal, cysteine residues markedly influence the disulfide-bond secondary structure, which

  7. Protection against lethal vaccinia virus challenge in HLA-A2 transgenic mice by immunization with a single CD8+ T-cell peptide epitope of vaccinia and variola viruses.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James T; Belyakov, Igor M; Dzutsev, Amiran; Lemonnier, François; Berzofsky, Jay A

    2004-07-01

    CD8(+) T lymphocytes have been shown to be involved in controlling poxvirus infection, but no protective cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes are defined for variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, or for vaccinia virus. Of several peptides in vaccinia virus predicted to bind HLA-A2.1, three, VETFsm(498-506), A26L(6-14), and HRP2(74-82), were found to bind HLA-A2.1. Splenocytes from HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice immunized with vaccinia virus responded only to HRP2(74-82) at 1 week and to all three epitopes by ex vivo enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay at 4 weeks postimmunization. To determine if these epitopes could elicit a protective CD8(+) T-cell response, we challenged peptide-immunized HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice intranasally with a lethal dose of the WR strain of vaccinia virus. HRP2(74-82) peptide-immunized mice recovered from infection, while naïve mice died. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells eliminated protection. Protection of HHD-2 mice, lacking mouse class I major histocompatibility complex molecules, implicates CTLs restricted by human HLA-A2.1 as mediators of protection. These results suggest that HRP2(74-82), which is shared between vaccinia and variola viruses, may be a CD8(+) T-cell epitope of vaccinia virus that will provide cross-protection against smallpox in HLA-A2.1-positive individuals, representing almost half the population.

  8. Novel epitope evoking CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes targeting multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jooeun; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C; Munshi, Nikhil C

    2011-11-01

    The development of an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting CD138 antigen could potentially represent a new treatment option for multiple myeloma (MM). This study evaluated the immune function of CD138 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), generated ex vivo using an HLA-A2-specific CD138 epitope against MM cells. A novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CD138(260-268) (GLVGLIFAV) peptide was identified from the full-length protein sequence of the CD138 antigen, which induced CTL specific to primary CD138(+) MM cells. The peptide-induced CD138-CTL contained a high percentage of CD8(+) activated/memory T cells with a low percentage of CD4(+) T cell and naive CD8(+) T cell subsets. The CTL displayed HLA-A2-restricted and CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxicity against MM cell lines. In addition, CD138-CTL demonstrated increased degranulation, proliferation and γ-interferon secretion to HLA-A2(+) /CD138(+) myeloma cells, but not HLA-A2(-) /CD138(+) or HLA-A2(+) /CD138(-) cells. The immune functional properties of the CD138-CTL were also demonstrated using primary HLA-A2(+) /CD138(+) cells isolated from myeloma patients. In conclusion, a novel immunogenic CD138(260-268) (GLVGLIFAV) peptide can induce antigen-specific CTL, which might be useful for the treatment of MM patients with peptide-based vaccine or cellular immunotherapy strategies. PMID:21902685

  9. Novel epitope evoking CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes targeting multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jooeun; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting CD138 antigen could potentially represent a new treatment option for multiple myeloma (MM). This study evaluated the immune function of CD138 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), generated ex vivo using an HLA-A2-specific CD138 epitope against MM cells. A novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) peptide was identified from the full-length protein sequence of the CD138 antigen, which induced CTL specific to primary CD138+ MM cells. The peptide-induced CD138-CTL contained a high percentage of CD8+ activated/memory T cells with a low percentage of CD4+ T cell and naive CD8+ T cell subsets. The CTL displayed HLA-A2-restricted and CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxicity against MM cell lines. In addition, CD138-CTL demonstrated increased degranulation, proliferation and γ–interferon secretion to HLA-A2+/CD138+ myeloma cells, but not HLA-A2−/CD138+ or HLA-A2+/CD138− cells. The immune functional properties of the CD138-CTL were also demonstrated using primary HLA-A2+/CD138+ cells isolated from myeloma patients. In conclusion, a novel immunogenic CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) peptide can induce antigen-specific CTL, which might be useful for the treatment of MM patients with peptide-based vaccine or cellular immunotherapy strategies. PMID:21902685

  10. Analysis of structures and epitopes of a novel secreted protein MYR1 in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Lu, Gang; He, Shenyi

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite and can infect warmblooded animals and humans all over the world. Development of effective vaccines is considered the only ideal way to control infection with T. gondii. However, only one live vaccine is commercially available for use in sheep and goats. Thus more effective antigenic proteins are searched for. In the present study we report a novel protein by secreted T. gondii termed Myc regulation 1 (MYR1). The physical and chemical characteristics, epitopes, hydrophilicity and functional sites of MYR1 were analysed by multiple bioinformatic approaches. The 3D models of MYR1 proteins were constructed and analysed. Furthermore, liner B-cell epitopes and T-cell epitopes of MYR1 protein and SAG1 were predicted. Compared to SAG1, MYR1 with good B-cell epitopes and T-cell epitopes had a potentiality to become a more successful vaccine against T. gondii. The bioinformatics analysis of MYR1 proteins could laid the foundation for further studies of its biological function experimentally and provide valuable information necessary for a better prevention and treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27580381

  11. Oxidation-specific epitopes are dominant targets of innate natural antibodies in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Meng-Yun; Fogelstrand, Linda; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Hansen, Lotte F.; Woelkers, Douglas; Shaw, Peter X.; Choi, Jeomil; Perkmann, Thomas; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Miller, Yury I.; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Corr, Maripat; Witztum, Joseph L.; Binder, Christoph J.

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins and apoptotic cells. Adaptive immune responses to various oxidation-specific epitopes play an important role in atherogenesis. However, accumulating evidence suggests that these epitopes are also recognized by innate receptors, such as scavenger receptors on macrophages, and plasma proteins, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Here, we provide multiple lines of evidence that oxidation-specific epitopes constitute a dominant, previously unrecognized target of natural Abs (NAbs) in both mice and humans. Using reconstituted mice expressing solely IgM NAbs, we have shown that approximately 30% of all NAbs bound to model oxidation-specific epitopes, as well as to atherosclerotic lesions and apoptotic cells. Because oxidative processes are ubiquitous, we hypothesized that these epitopes exert selective pressure to expand NAbs, which in turn play an important role in mediating homeostatic functions consequent to inflammation and cell death, as demonstrated by their ability to facilitate apoptotic cell clearance. These findings provide novel insights into the functions of NAbs in mediating host homeostasis and into their roles in health and diseases, such as chronic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis. PMID:19363291

  12. Oxidation-specific epitopes are dominant targets of innate natural antibodies in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Chou, Meng-Yun; Fogelstrand, Linda; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Hansen, Lotte F; Woelkers, Douglas; Shaw, Peter X; Choi, Jeomil; Perkmann, Thomas; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Miller, Yury I; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Corr, Maripat; Witztum, Joseph L; Binder, Christoph J

    2009-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins and apoptotic cells. Adaptive immune responses to various oxidation-specific epitopes play an important role in atherogenesis. However, accumulating evidence suggests that these epitopes are also recognized by innate receptors, such as scavenger receptors on macrophages, and plasma proteins, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Here, we provide multiple lines of evidence that oxidation-specific epitopes constitute a dominant, previously unrecognized target of natural Abs (NAbs) in both mice and humans. Using reconstituted mice expressing solely IgM NAbs, we have shown that approximately 30% of all NAbs bound to model oxidation-specific epitopes, as well as to atherosclerotic lesions and apoptotic cells. Because oxidative processes are ubiquitous, we hypothesized that these epitopes exert selective pressure to expand NAbs, which in turn play an important role in mediating homeostatic functions consequent to inflammation and cell death, as demonstrated by their ability to facilitate apoptotic cell clearance. These findings provide novel insights into the functions of NAbs in mediating host homeostasis and into their roles in health and diseases, such as chronic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis.

  13. NEP: web server for epitope prediction based on antibody neutralization of viral strains with diverse sequences.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Liou, David; Kwong, Peter D; Georgiev, Ivelin S

    2014-07-01

    Delineation of the antigenic site, or epitope, recognized by an antibody can provide clues about functional vulnerabilities and resistance mechanisms, and can therefore guide antibody optimization and epitope-based vaccine design. Previously, we developed an algorithm for antibody-epitope prediction based on antibody neutralization of viral strains with diverse sequences and validated the algorithm on a set of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. Here we describe the implementation of this algorithm, NEP (Neutralization-based Epitope Prediction), as a web-based server. The users must supply as input: (i) an alignment of antigen sequences of diverse viral strains; (ii) neutralization data for the antibody of interest against the same set of antigen sequences; and (iii) (optional) a structure of the unbound antigen, for enhanced prediction accuracy. The prediction results can be downloaded or viewed interactively on the antigen structure (if supplied) from the web browser using a JSmol applet. Since neutralization experiments are typically performed as one of the first steps in the characterization of an antibody to determine its breadth and potency, the NEP server can be used to predict antibody-epitope information at no additional experimental costs. NEP can be accessed on the internet at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/nep. PMID:24782517

  14. Label free targeted detection and quantification of celiac disease immunogenic epitopes by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van den Broeck, Hetty C; Cordewener, Jan H G; Nessen, Merel A; America, Antoine H P; van der Meer, Ingrid M

    2015-04-24

    Celiac disease (CD) is a food-related disease caused by certain gluten peptides containing T-cell stimulating epitopes from wheat, rye, and barley. CD-patients have to maintain a gluten-free diet and are therefore dependent on reliable testing and labeling of gluten-free products. So far, the R5-ELISA is the approved method to detect if food products can be labeled gluten-free. Because the R5-ELISA detects gluten in general, there is a demand for an improved detection method that quantifies specifically CD-epitopes. Therefore, we developed a new method for detection and quantification of CD-epitopes, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This method enables targeted label free comparative analysis of the gluten proteins present in different wheat varieties and species, and in wheat-based food products. We have tested our method by analyzing several wheat varieties that vary in CD-epitope content, as was shown before using immunoblotting and specific monoclonal antibodies. The results showed that a modern bread wheat variety Toronto contained the highest amounts of CD immunogenic peptides compared with the older bread wheat variety Minaret and the tetraploid wheat variety Dibillik Sinde. Our developed method can detect quantitatively and simultaneously multiple specific CD-epitopes in a high throughput manner. PMID:25795397

  15. Epitope Specificity Delimits the Functional Capabilities of Vaccine-Induced CD8 T Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brenna J.; Darrah, Patricia A.; Ende, Zachary; Ambrozak, David R.; Quinn, Kylie M.; Darko, Sam; Gostick, Emma; Wooldridge, Linda; van den Berg, Hugo A.; Venturi, Vanessa; Larsen, Martin; Davenport, Miles P.; Seder, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite progress toward understanding the correlates of protective T cell immunity in HIV infection, the optimal approach to Ag delivery by vaccination remains uncertain. We characterized two immunodominant CD8 T cell populations generated in response to immunization of BALB/c mice with a replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing the HIV-derived Gag and Pol proteins at equivalent levels. The Gag-AI9/H-2Kd epitope elicited high-avidity CD8 T cell populations with architecturally diverse clonotypic repertoires that displayed potent lytic activity in vivo. In contrast, the Pol-LI9/H-2Dd epitope elicited motif-constrained CD8 T cell repertoires that displayed lower levels of physical avidity and lytic activity despite equivalent measures of overall clonality. Although low-dose vaccination enhanced the functional profiles of both epitope-specific CD8 T cell populations, greater polyfunctionality was apparent within the Pol-LI9/H-2Dd specificity. Higher proportions of central memory-like cells were present after low-dose vaccination and at later time points. However, there were no noteworthy phenotypic differences between epitope-specific CD8 T cell populations across vaccine doses or time points. Collectively, these data indicate that the functional and phenotypic properties of vaccine-induced CD8 T cell populations are sensitive to dose manipulation, yet constrained by epitope specificity in a clonotype-dependent manner. PMID:25348625

  16. NEP: web server for epitope prediction based on antibody neutralization of viral strains with diverse sequences.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Liou, David; Kwong, Peter D; Georgiev, Ivelin S

    2014-07-01

    Delineation of the antigenic site, or epitope, recognized by an antibody can provide clues about functional vulnerabilities and resistance mechanisms, and can therefore guide antibody optimization and epitope-based vaccine design. Previously, we developed an algorithm for antibody-epitope prediction based on antibody neutralization of viral strains with diverse sequences and validated the algorithm on a set of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. Here we describe the implementation of this algorithm, NEP (Neutralization-based Epitope Prediction), as a web-based server. The users must supply as input: (i) an alignment of antigen sequences of diverse viral strains; (ii) neutralization data for the antibody of interest against the same set of antigen sequences; and (iii) (optional) a structure of the unbound antigen, for enhanced prediction accuracy. The prediction results can be downloaded or viewed interactively on the antigen structure (if supplied) from the web browser using a JSmol applet. Since neutralization experiments are typically performed as one of the first steps in the characterization of an antibody to determine its breadth and potency, the NEP server can be used to predict antibody-epitope information at no additional experimental costs. NEP can be accessed on the internet at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/nep.

  17. Cross‐reactivity of hepatitis C virus specific vaccine‐induced T cells at immunodominant epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Christabel; Swadling, Leo; Brown, Anthony; Capone, Stefania; Folgori, Antonella; Salio, Mariolina; Klenerman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Viral diversity is a challenge to the development of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine. Following vaccination of humans with adenoviral vectors, we determined the capacity of T cells to target common viral variants at immundominant epitopes ex vivo. We identified two major variants for epitopes NS31073 and NS31446, and multiple variants for epitope NS31406 that occurred in >5% of genotype 1 and 3 sequences at a population level. Cross‐reactivity of vaccine‐induced T cells was determined using variant peptides in IFN‐γ ELISPOT assays. Vaccine‐induced T cells targeted approximately 90% of NS31073 genotype 1 sequences and 50% of NS31446 genotype 1 and 3 sequences. For NS31406, 62% of subtype‐1b sequences were targeted. Next, we assessed whether an in vitro priming system, using dendritic cells and T cells from healthy donors, could identify a variant of NS31406 that was maximally cross‐reactive. In vitro priming assays showed that of those tested the NS31406 vaccine variant was the most immunogenic. T cells primed with genotype 1 variants from subtype 1a or 1b were broadly cross‐reactive with other variants from the same subtype. We conclude that immunization with candidate HCV adenoviral vaccines generates cross‐reactive T cells at immunodominant epitopes. The degree of cross‐reactivity varies between epitopes and may be HCV‐subtype specific. PMID:25263407

  18. Characterization of Peptide Antibodies by Epitope Mapping Using Resin-Bound and Soluble Peptides.

    PubMed

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of peptide antibodies through identification of their target epitopes is of utmost importance. Understanding antibody specificity at the amino acid level provides the key to understand the specific interaction between antibodies and their epitopes and their use as research and diagnostic tools as well as therapeutic agents. This chapter describes a straightforward strategy for mapping of continuous peptide antibody epitopes using resin-bound and soluble peptides. The approach combines three different types of peptide sets for full characterization of peptide antibodies: (1) overlapping peptides, used to locate antigenic regions; (2) truncated peptides, used to identify the minimal peptide length required for antibody binding; and (3) substituted peptides, used to identify the key residues important for antibody binding and to determine the specific contribution of key residues. For initial screening resin-bound peptides are used for epitope estimation, while soluble peptides subsequently are used for fine mapping. The combination of resin-bound peptides and soluble peptides for epitope mapping provides a time-sparing and straightforward approach for characterization of peptide antibodies.

  19. A novel IgE-binding epitope of cat major allergen, Fel d 1.

    PubMed

    Tasaniyananda, Natt; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Seesuay, Watee; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Sookrung, Nitat

    2016-02-12

    Information on the antigenic repertoire, especially the IgE-binding epitopes of an allergen is important for understanding the allergen induced immune response and cross-reactivity, as well as for generating the hypoallergenic variants for specific component resolved immunotherapy/diagnosis (CRIT and CRD). Data on the IgE-binding epitopes of cat allergens are scarce. In this study, a novel IgE-binding epitope of the cat major allergen, Fel d 1, was identified. Mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to the Fel d 1 was produced. Computerized intermolecular docking was used for determining the residues of the Fel d 1 bound by the specific MAb. The presumptive surface exposed residues of the Fel d 1 intrigued by the MAb are located on the chain 1. They are: L34 and T37 (helix 1); T39 (between helices 1 and 2); P40, E42 and E45 (helix 2); R61, K64, N65 and D68 (helix 3); and E73 and K76 (helix 4). The MAb competed efficiently with the cat allergic patients' serum IgE for Fel d 1 binding in the competitive IgE binding assay, indicating allergenicity of the MAb epitope. The newly identified allergenic epitope of the Fel d 1 is useful in a design of the CRIT and CRD for cat allergy. PMID:26797272

  20. Computationally driven deletion of broadly distributed T cell epitopes in a biotherapeutic candidate

    PubMed Central

    Salvat, Regina S.; Parker, Andrew S; Guilliams, Andrew; Choi, Yoonjoo

    2014-01-01

    Biotherapeutics are subject to immune surveillance within the body, and anti-biotherapeutic immune responses can compromise drug efficacy and patient safety. Initial development of targeted antidrug immune memory is coordinated by T cell recognition of immunogenic subsequences, termed “T cell epitopes.” Biotherapeutics may therefore be deimmunized by mutating key residues within cognate epitopes, but there exist complex trade-offs between immunogenicity, mutational load, and protein structure–function. Here, a protein deimmunization algorithm has been applied to P99 beta-lactamase, a component of antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapies. The algorithm, integer programming for immunogenic proteins, seamlessly integrates computational prediction of T cell epitopes with both 1- and 2-body sequence potentials that assess protein tolerance to epitope-deleting mutations. Compared to previously deimmunized P99 variants, which bore only one or two mutations, the enzymes designed here contain 4–5 widely distributed substitutions. As a result, they exhibit broad reductions in major histocompatibility complex recognition. Despite their high mutational loads and markedly reduced immunoreactivity, all eight engineered variants possessed wild-type or better catalytic activity. Thus, the protein design algorithm is able to disrupt broadly distributed epitopes while maintaining protein function. As a result, this computational tool may prove useful in expanding the repertoire of next-generation biotherapeutics. PMID:24880662

  1. Computationally driven deletion of broadly distributed T cell epitopes in a biotherapeutic candidate.

    PubMed

    Salvat, Regina S; Parker, Andrew S; Guilliams, Andrew; Choi, Yoonjoo; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E

    2014-12-01

    Biotherapeutics are subject to immune surveillance within the body, and anti-biotherapeutic immune responses can compromise drug efficacy and patient safety. Initial development of targeted antidrug immune memory is coordinated by T cell recognition of immunogenic subsequences, termed "T cell epitopes." Biotherapeutics may therefore be deimmunized by mutating key residues within cognate epitopes, but there exist complex trade-offs between immunogenicity, mutational load, and protein structure-function. Here, a protein deimmunization algorithm has been applied to P99 beta-lactamase, a component of antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapies. The algorithm, integer programming for immunogenic proteins, seamlessly integrates computational prediction of T cell epitopes with both 1- and 2-body sequence potentials that assess protein tolerance to epitope-deleting mutations. Compared to previously deimmunized P99 variants, which bore only one or two mutations, the enzymes designed here contain 4-5 widely distributed substitutions. As a result, they exhibit broad reductions in major histocompatibility complex recognition. Despite their high mutational loads and markedly reduced immunoreactivity, all eight engineered variants possessed wild-type or better catalytic activity. Thus, the protein design algorithm is able to disrupt broadly distributed epitopes while maintaining protein function. As a result, this computational tool may prove useful in expanding the repertoire of next-generation biotherapeutics.

  2. De Novo Structural Modeling and Conserved Epitopes Prediction of Zika Virus Envelop Protein for Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Ahmed, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Zika virus (Zika V) is a positive single-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by mosquito bites. Zika V Envelop protein is antigenic and is involved in fusion and entry of viral particles into the cell. Till date, there is no vaccine and antiviral drug available against Zika V. Thus, there is a need to develop a vaccine against Zika V. This study was designed for the prediction of B cell and T cell epitopes that can be helpful in diagnosis and vaccine designing against this emerging threat. For this purpose, several B cell and T cell epitopes were predicted that are conserved among Zika virus genomes taken from 12 different countries. Peptides QTLTPVGRL, in case of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, and IRCIGVSNRDFV, in case of MHC class II, are highly antigenic among T cell epitopes. Molecular docking was performed to study the interactions of B cell epitopes with HLA-B7. However, these predicted epitopes could play a constructive role in designing of a vaccine against Zika V.

  3. A novel IgE-binding epitope of cat major allergen, Fel d 1.

    PubMed

    Tasaniyananda, Natt; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Seesuay, Watee; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Sookrung, Nitat

    2016-02-12

    Information on the antigenic repertoire, especially the IgE-binding epitopes of an allergen is important for understanding the allergen induced immune response and cross-reactivity, as well as for generating the hypoallergenic variants for specific component resolved immunotherapy/diagnosis (CRIT and CRD). Data on the IgE-binding epitopes of cat allergens are scarce. In this study, a novel IgE-binding epitope of the cat major allergen, Fel d 1, was identified. Mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to the Fel d 1 was produced. Computerized intermolecular docking was used for determining the residues of the Fel d 1 bound by the specific MAb. The presumptive surface exposed residues of the Fel d 1 intrigued by the MAb are located on the chain 1. They are: L34 and T37 (helix 1); T39 (between helices 1 and 2); P40, E42 and E45 (helix 2); R61, K64, N65 and D68 (helix 3); and E73 and K76 (helix 4). The MAb competed efficiently with the cat allergic patients' serum IgE for Fel d 1 binding in the competitive IgE binding assay, indicating allergenicity of the MAb epitope. The newly identified allergenic epitope of the Fel d 1 is useful in a design of the CRIT and CRD for cat allergy.

  4. A novel monoclonal antibody to a defined peptide epitope in MUC16.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Silva, Lara; Ricardo, Sara; Chen, Kowa; Blixt, Ola; Arigi, Emma; Pereira, Daniela; Høgdall, Estrid; Mandel, Ulla; Bennett, Eric P; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; David, Leonor; Clausen, Henrik

    2015-11-01

    The MUC16 mucin is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in ovarian carcinomas. Immunodetection of circulating MUC16 is one of the most used cancer biomarker assays, but existing antibodies to MUC16 fail to distinguish normal and aberrant cancer glycoforms. Although all antibodies react with the tandem-repeat region, their epitopes appear to be conformational dependent and not definable by a short peptide. Aberrant glycoforms of MUC16 may constitute promising targets for diagnostic and immunotherapeutic intervention, and it is important to develop well-defined immunogens for induction of potent MUC16 immunity. Here, we developed a MUC16 vaccine based on a 1.7TR (264 aa) expressed in Escherichia coli and in vitro enzymatically glycosylated to generate the aberrant cancer-associated glycoform Tn. This vaccine elicited a potent serum IgG response in mice and we identified two major immunodominant linear peptide epitopes within the tandem repeat. We developed one monoclonal antibody, 5E11, reactive with a minimum epitope with the sequence FNTTER. This sequence contains potential N- and O-glycosylation sites and, interestingly, glycosylation blocked binding of 5E11. In immunochemistry of ovarian benign and cancer lesions, 5E11 showed similar reactivity as traditional MUC16 antibodies, suggesting that the epitope is not efficiently glycosylated. The study provides a vaccine design and immunodominant MUC16 TR epitopes. PMID:26201951

  5. Schistosoma mansoni shares a protective carbohydrate epitope with keyhole limpet hemocyanin

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The glycanic epitope of the 38,000 Mr Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula major immunogen defined by the IPLSm1 protective mAb was identified in the hemocyanin of the marine mollusc Megathura crenulata, better known as KLH. This antigenic community was exploited to investigate further the biological properties of this epitope. KLH was shown to strongly inhibit the binding of IPLSm1 mAb to its 38,000 Mr target antigen. Immunization of naive LOU rats with KLH elicited the production of anti- S. mansoni antibodies capable of immunoprecipitating the 38,000 Mr schistosomulum antigen. Antibodies to KLH mediated a marked eosinophil- dependent cytotoxicity and passively transferred immunity towards S. mansoni infection. Finally, rats immunized with KLH were significantly protected against a challenge with S. mansoni cercariae. The deglycosylation of KLH completely abolishes its immunological and functional KLH properties, indicating the participation of an oligosaccharidic epitope of the native KLH that is also recognized by the sera of S. mansoni-infected patients. These observations provide new opportunities of access to the well-defined structure of a glycanic epitope potentially available for the immunoprophylaxis and seroepidemiology of schistosomiasis, and a new approach to the isotypic response towards a well-chemically defined epitope. PMID:2434601

  6. Identification of human viral protein-derived ligands recognized by individual MHCI-restricted T-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Szomolay, Barbara; Liu, Jie; Brown, Paul E; Miles, John J; Clement, Mathew; Llewellyn-Lacey, Sian; Dolton, Garry; Ekeruche-Makinde, Julia; Lissina, Anya; Schauenburg, Andrea J; Sewell, Andrew K; Burrows, Scott R; Roederer, Mario; Price, David A; Wooldridge, Linda; van den Berg, Hugo A

    2016-07-01

    Evidence indicates that autoimmunity can be triggered by virus-specific CD8(+) T cells that crossreact with self-derived peptide epitopes presented on the cell surface by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules. Identification of the associated viral pathogens is challenging because individual T-cell receptors can potentially recognize up to a million different peptides. Here, we generate peptide length-matched combinatorial peptide library (CPL) scan data for a panel of virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell clones spanning different restriction elements and a range of epitope lengths. CPL scan data drove a protein database search limited to viruses that infect humans. Peptide sequences were ranked in order of likelihood of recognition. For all anti-viral CD8(+) T-cell clones examined in this study, the index peptide was either the top-ranked sequence or ranked as one of the most likely sequences to be recognized. Thus, we demonstrate that anti-viral CD8(+) T-cell clones are highly focused on their index peptide sequence and that 'CPL-driven database searching' can be used to identify the inciting virus-derived epitope for a given CD8(+) T-cell clone. Moreover, to augment access to CPL-driven database searching, we have created a publicly accessible webtool. Application of these methodologies in the clinical setting may clarify the role of viral pathogens in the etiology of autoimmune diseases.

  7. Identification of human viral protein-derived ligands recognized by individual MHCI-restricted T-cell receptors

    PubMed Central

    Szomolay, Barbara; Liu, Jie; Brown, Paul E; Miles, John J; Clement, Mathew; Llewellyn-Lacey, Sian; Dolton, Garry; Ekeruche-Makinde, Julia; Lissina, Anya; Schauenburg, Andrea J; Sewell, Andrew K; Burrows, Scott R; Roederer, Mario; Price, David A; Wooldridge, Linda; van den Berg, Hugo A

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that autoimmunity can be triggered by virus-specific CD8+ T cells that crossreact with self-derived peptide epitopes presented on the cell surface by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules. Identification of the associated viral pathogens is challenging because individual T-cell receptors can potentially recognize up to a million different peptides. Here, we generate peptide length-matched combinatorial peptide library (CPL) scan data for a panel of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell clones spanning different restriction elements and a range of epitope lengths. CPL scan data drove a protein database search limited to viruses that infect humans. Peptide sequences were ranked in order of likelihood of recognition. For all anti-viral CD8+ T-cell clones examined in this study, the index peptide was either the top-ranked sequence or ranked as one of the most likely sequences to be recognized. Thus, we demonstrate that anti-viral CD8+ T-cell clones are highly focused on their index peptide sequence and that ‘CPL-driven database searching' can be used to identify the inciting virus-derived epitope for a given CD8+ T-cell clone. Moreover, to augment access to CPL-driven database searching, we have created a publicly accessible webtool. Application of these methodologies in the clinical setting may clarify the role of viral pathogens in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. PMID:26846725

  8. Identification of human viral protein-derived ligands recognized by individual MHCI-restricted T-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Szomolay, Barbara; Liu, Jie; Brown, Paul E; Miles, John J; Clement, Mathew; Llewellyn-Lacey, Sian; Dolton, Garry; Ekeruche-Makinde, Julia; Lissina, Anya; Schauenburg, Andrea J; Sewell, Andrew K; Burrows, Scott R; Roederer, Mario; Price, David A; Wooldridge, Linda; van den Berg, Hugo A

    2016-07-01

    Evidence indicates that autoimmunity can be triggered by virus-specific CD8(+) T cells that crossreact with self-derived peptide epitopes presented on the cell surface by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules. Identification of the associated viral pathogens is challenging because individual T-cell receptors can potentially recognize up to a million different peptides. Here, we generate peptide length-matched combinatorial peptide library (CPL) scan data for a panel of virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell clones spanning different restriction elements and a range of epitope lengths. CPL scan data drove a protein database search limited to viruses that infect humans. Peptide sequences were ranked in order of likelihood of recognition. For all anti-viral CD8(+) T-cell clones examined in this study, the index peptide was either the top-ranked sequence or ranked as one of the most likely sequences to be recognized. Thus, we demonstrate that anti-viral CD8(+) T-cell clones are highly focused on their index peptide sequence and that 'CPL-driven database searching' can be used to identify the inciting virus-derived epitope for a given CD8(+) T-cell clone. Moreover, to augment access to CPL-driven database searching, we have created a publicly accessible webtool. Application of these methodologies in the clinical setting may clarify the role of viral pathogens in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. PMID:26846725

  9. Protective CD4 T cells targeting cryptic epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resist infection-driven terminal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Joshua S; Aagaard, Claus Sindbjerg; Hansen, Paul R; Cassidy, Joseph P; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter

    2014-04-01

    CD4 T cells are crucial to the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and are a key component of current vaccine strategies. Conversely, immune-mediated pathology drives disease, and recent evidence suggests that adaptive and innate responses are evolutionarily beneficial to M. tuberculosis. We compare the functionality of CD4 T cell responses mounted against dominant and cryptic epitopes of the M. tuberculosis 6-kDa early secreted Ag (ESAT-6) before and postinfection. Protective T cells against cryptic epitopes not targeted during natural infection were induced by vaccinating mice with a truncated ESAT-6 protein, lacking the dominant epitope. The ability to generate T cells that recognize multiple cryptic epitopes was MHC-haplotype dependent, including increased potential via heterologous MHC class II dimers. Before infection, cryptic epitope-specific T cells displayed enhanced proliferative capacity and delayed cytokine kinetics. After aerosol M. tuberculosis challenge, vaccine-elicited CD4 T cells expanded and recruited to the lung. In chronic infection, dominant epitope-specific T cells developed a terminal differentiated KLRG1(+)/PD-1(lo) surface phenotype that was significantly reduced in the cryptic epitope-specific T cell populations. Dominant epitope-specific T cells in vaccinated animals developed into IFN-γ- and IFN-γ,TNF-α-coproducing effector cells, characteristic of the endogenous response. In contrast, cryptic epitope-specific CD4 T cells maintained significantly greater IFN-γ(+)TNF-α(+)IL-2(+) and TNF-α(+)IL-2(+) memory-associated polyfunctionality and enhanced proliferative capacity. Vaccine-associated IL-17A production by cryptic CD4 T cells was also enhanced, but without increased neutrophilia/pathology. Direct comparison of dominant/cryptic epitope-specific CD4 T cells within covaccinated mice confirmed the superior ability of protective cryptic epitope-specific T cells to resist M. tuberculosis infection-driven T cell

  10. Isolation of human CD4/CD8 double-positive, graft-versus-host disease-protective, minor histocompatibility antigen-specific regulatory T cells and of a novel HLA-DR7-restricted HY-specific CD4 clone.

    PubMed

    Eljaafari, Assia; Yuruker, Ozel; Ferrand, Christophe; Farre, Annie; Addey, Caroline; Tartelin, Marie-Laure; Thomas, Xavier; Tiberghien, Pierre; Simpson, Elizabeth; Rigal, Dominique; Scott, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Minor histocompatibility (H) Ags are classically described as self-peptides derived from intracellular proteins that are expressed at the cell surface by MHC class I and class II molecules and that induce T cell alloresponses. We have isolated three different T cell populations from a skin biopsy of a patient suffering from acute graft-versus-host disease following sex-mismatched HLA-identical bone marrow transplantation. The first population was: 1) CD4(+)/CD8(+) double-positive; 2) specific for an HLA class I-restricted autosomal Ag; 3) expressed a Tr1 profile with high levels of IL-10, but low IL-2 and IFN-γ; and 4) exerted regulatory function in the presence of recipient APCs. The second was CD8 positive, specific for an HLA class I-restricted autosomally encoded minor H Ag, but was only weakly cytotoxic. The third was CD4 single positive, specific for an HLA-DR7-restricted HY epitope and exerted both proliferative and cytotoxic functions. Identification of the peptide recognized by these latter cells revealed a new human HY epitope, TGKIINFIKFDTGNL, encoded by RPS4Y and restricted by HLA-DR7. In this paper, we show human CD4/CD8 double-positive, acute graft-versus-host disease-protective, minor H Ag-specific regulatory T cells and identify a novel HLA-DR7/ HY T cell epitope, encoded by RPS4Y, a potential new therapeutic target.

  11. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al., 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al., 1990; Ouellette et al., 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  12. Recognition and sensing of low-epitope targets via ternary complexes with oligonucleotides and synthetic receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kyung-Ae; Barbu, Mihaela; Halim, Marlin; Pallavi, Payal; Kim, Benjamin; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.; Pecic, Stevan; Taylor, Steven; Worgall, Tilla S.; Stojanovic, Milan N.

    2014-11-01

    Oligonucleotide-based receptors or aptamers can interact with small molecules, but the ability to achieve high-affinity and specificity of these interactions depends strongly on functional groups or epitopes displayed by the binding targets. Some classes of targets are particularly challenging: for example, monosaccharides have scarce functionalities and no aptamers have been reported to recognize, let alone distinguish from each other, glucose and other hexoses. Here we report aptamers that differentiate low-epitope targets such as glucose, fructose or galactose by forming ternary complexes with high-epitope organic receptors for monosaccharides. In a follow-up example, we expand this method to isolate high-affinity oligonucleotides against aromatic amino acids complexed in situ with a nonspecific organometallic receptor. The method is general and enables broad clinical use of aptamers for the detection of small molecules in mix-and-measure assays, as demonstrated by monitoring postprandial waves of phenylalanine in human subjects.

  13. Recognition and sensing of low-epitope targets via ternary complexes with oligonucleotides and synthetic receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyung-Ae; Barbu, Mihaela; Halim, Marlin; Pallavi, Payal; Kim, Benjamin; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Pecic, Stevan; Taylor, Steven; Worgall, Tilla S; Stojanovic, Milan N

    2014-11-01

    Oligonucleotide-based receptors or aptamers can interact with small molecules, but the ability to achieve high-affinity and specificity of these interactions depends strongly on functional groups or epitopes displayed by the binding targets. Some classes of targets are particularly challenging: for example, monosaccharides have scarce functionalities and no aptamers have been reported to recognize, let alone distinguish from each other, glucose and other hexoses. Here we report aptamers that differentiate low-epitope targets such as glucose, fructose or galactose by forming ternary complexes with high-epitope organic receptors for monosaccharides. In a follow-up example, we expand this method to isolate high-affinity oligonucleotides against aromatic amino acids complexed in situ with a nonspecific organometallic receptor. The method is general and enables broad clinical use of aptamers for the detection of small molecules in mix-and-measure assays, as demonstrated by monitoring postprandial waves of phenylalanine in human subjects. PMID:25343606

  14. Unravelling viral camouflage: approaches to the study and characterization of conformational epitopes.

    PubMed

    Augustin, T; Cehlar, O; Skrabana, R; Majerova, P; Hanes, J

    2015-06-01

    Antibodies are broadly used in clinical and basic research. Many of monoclonal antibodies are successfully adopted for therapeutic and diagnostic targeting of viral pathogens. Efficacy of antiviral neutralizing or protective antibodies depends on their ability to recognize epitopes interfering with viral infection. However, viruses are able to incessantly change their antigenic determinants to escape surveillance of humoral immune system and therefore the successful antiviral therapies require continuous development. Characterization of interactions of antibodies with prevalently conformational viral epitopes is important for understanding antibody mode of action and can help to identify conserved regions that may be exploited in designing new vaccines and virus neutralizing antibodies. In this article, we are reviewing techniques in use for characterization of conformational epitopes of monoclonal antibodies with focus on viruses.

  15. In silico cloning and B/T cell epitope prediction of triosephosphate isomerase from Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Ye, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Because the methods of diagnosis and treatment for cystic echinococcosis were limited, it is still necessary to screen target proteins for the development of new anti-hydatidosis vaccine. In this study, the triosephosphate isomerase gene of E. granulosus was in silico cloned. The B cell and T cell epitopes were predicted by bioinformatics methods. The cDNA sequence of EgTIM was composition of 1094 base pairs, with an open reading frame of 753 base pairs. The deduced amino acid sequences were composed of 250 amino acids. Five cross-reactive epitopes, locating on 21aa-35aa, 43aa-57aa, 94aa-107aa, 115-129aa, and 164aa-183aa, could be expected to serve as candidate epitopes in the development of vaccine against E. granulosus. These results could provide bases for gene cloning, recombinant expression, and the designation of anti-hydatidosis vaccine.

  16. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on goose parvovirus non-structural protein.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Fei; Ma, Bo; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2016-10-15

    Goose parvovirus (GPV) infection can cause a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings which is widespread in all major goose (Anser anser) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss. Humoral immune responses play a major role in GPV immune protection during GPV infection. However, it is still unknown for the localization and immunological characteristics of B-cell epitopes on GPV non-structural protein (NSP). Therefore, in this study, the epitopes on the NSP of GPV were identified by means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot. The results showed that the antigenic epitopes on the GPV NSP were predominantly localized in the C-terminal (aa 485-627), and especially, the fragment NS (498-532) was strongly positive. These results may facilitate future investigations on the function of NSP of GPV and the development of immunoassays for the diagnosis of GPV infection. PMID:27590430

  17. Recognition and Sensing of Low-Epitope Targets via Ternary Complexes with Oligonucleotides and Synthetic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kyung-Ae; Barbu, Michaela; Halim, Marlin; Pallavi, Payal; Kim, Benjamin; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry; Pecic, Stevan; Taylor, Steven; Worgall, Tilla S.; Stojanovic, Milan N.

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based receptors or aptamers can interact with small molecules, but the ability to achieve high-affinity and selectivity of these interactions depends strongly on functional groups or epitopes displayed by the binding targets. Some classes of targets are particularly challenging: for example, monosaccharides have scarce functionalities and no aptamers have been reported to recognize, let alone distinguish from each other, glucose and other hexoses. Here we report aptamers that differentiate low-epitope targets such as glucose, fructose, or galactose by forming ternary complexes with high-epitope organic receptors for monosaccharides. In a follow-up example, we expand this method to isolate high-affinity oligonucleotides against aromatic amino acids complexed in situ with a non-specific organometallic receptor. The method is general and enables broad clinical use of aptamers for detection of small molecules in mix-and-measure assays, as demonstrated by monitoring postprandial waves of phenylalanine in human subjects. PMID:25343606

  18. Tools to MSn Sequence and Document the Structures of Glycan Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailong; Ashline, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Sequential disassembly (MSn) has been applied to fully characterise and document native samples containing glycan epitopes with their synthetic analogues. Both sample types were prepared by methylation, solvent phase extracted, directly infused and spatially resolved. Product ions of all samples were compiled and contrasted using management tools prepared for the fragment ion library. Each of the epitopes was further disassembled to confirm the multiple structural isomers probable within component substructures of linkage and branching. All native samples tested proved to be matched with their synthetic analogues and reasonably identical on either linear or cylindrical ion traps. Not surprisingly, spectra of mixed epitopes fragment independently, being uninfluenced by similarities. The approach has been coupled with computational tools for data handling and presentation. PMID:27110600

  19. Unravelling viral camouflage: approaches to the study and characterization of conformational epitopes.

    PubMed

    Augustin, T; Cehlar, O; Skrabana, R; Majerova, P; Hanes, J

    2015-06-01

    Antibodies are broadly used in clinical and basic research. Many of monoclonal antibodies are successfully adopted for therapeutic and diagnostic targeting of viral pathogens. Efficacy of antiviral neutralizing or protective antibodies depends on their ability to recognize epitopes interfering with viral infection. However, viruses are able to incessantly change their antigenic determinants to escape surveillance of humoral immune system and therefore the successful antiviral therapies require continuous development. Characterization of interactions of antibodies with prevalently conformational viral epitopes is important for understanding antibody mode of action and can help to identify conserved regions that may be exploited in designing new vaccines and virus neutralizing antibodies. In this article, we are reviewing techniques in use for characterization of conformational epitopes of monoclonal antibodies with focus on viruses. PMID:26104327

  20. Rapid Identification of Novel Immunodominant Proteins and Characterization of a Specific Linear Epitope of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Sebastian; Bier, Frank F.; Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus v.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains one of the major gut pathogens of our time. Its zoonotic nature and wide-spread distribution in industrialized countries calls for a quick and reliable diagnostic tool. Antibody-based detection presents a suitable means to identify pathogenic bacteria. However, the knowledge about immunodominant targets is limited. Thus, an approach is presented, which allows for the rapid screening of numerous cDNA derived expression clones to identify novel antigens. The deeper understanding of immunodominant proteins assists in the design of diagnostic tools and furthers the insight into the bacterium’s pathogenicity as well as revealing potential candidates for vaccination. We have successfully screened 1536 clones of an expression library to identify 22 proteins that have not been described as immunodominant before. After subcloning the corresponding 22 genes and expression of full-length proteins, we investigated the immunodominant character by microarrays and ELISA. Subsequently, seven proteins were selected for epitope mapping. For cj0669 and cj0920c linear epitopes were identified. For cj0669, specificity assays revealed a specific linear epitope site. Consequently, an eleven amino acid residue sequence TLIKELKRLGI was analyzed via alanine scan, which revealed the glycine residue to be significant for binding of the antibody. The innovative approach presented herein of generating cDNAs of prokaryotes in combination with a microarray platform rendering time-consuming purification steps obsolete has helped to illuminate novel immunodominant proteins of C.jejuni. The findings of a specific linear epitope pave the way for a plethora of future research and the potential use in diagnostic applications such as serological screenings. Moreover, the current approach is easily adaptable to other highly relevant bacteria making it a formidable tool for the future discovery of antigens and potential biomarkers. Consequently, it is desirable to simplify

  1. GPS-MBA: computational analysis of MHC class II epitopes in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ruikun; Liu, Zexian; Ren, Jian; Ma, Chuang; Gao, Tianshun; Zhou, Yanhong; Yang, Qing; Xue, Yu

    2012-01-01

    As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-A(g7) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number of potentially new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Furthermore, we designed a T1D epitope database (TEDB) for all of the experimentally identified and predicted T1D-associated epitopes. Taken together, this computational prediction result and analysis provides a starting point for further experimental considerations, and GPS-MBA is demonstrated to be a useful tool for generating starting information for experimentalists. The GPS-MBA is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://mba.biocuckoo.org.

  2. Rapid identification of novel immunodominant proteins and characterization of a specific linear epitope of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Sebastian; Bier, Frank F; von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus; Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus V

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains one of the major gut pathogens of our time. Its zoonotic nature and wide-spread distribution in industrialized countries calls for a quick and reliable diagnostic tool. Antibody-based detection presents a suitable means to identify pathogenic bacteria. However, the knowledge about immunodominant targets is limited. Thus, an approach is presented, which allows for the rapid screening of numerous cDNA derived expression clones to identify novel antigens. The deeper understanding of immunodominant proteins assists in the design of diagnostic tools and furthers the insight into the bacterium's pathogenicity as well as revealing potential candidates for vaccination. We have successfully screened 1536 clones of an expression library to identify 22 proteins that have not been described as immunodominant before. After subcloning the corresponding 22 genes and expression of full-length proteins, we investigated the immunodominant character by microarrays and ELISA. Subsequently, seven proteins were selected for epitope mapping. For cj0669 and cj0920c linear epitopes were identified. For cj0669, specificity assays revealed a specific linear epitope site. Consequently, an eleven amino acid residue sequence TLIKELKRLGI was analyzed via alanine scan, which revealed the glycine residue to be significant for binding of the antibody. The innovative approach presented herein of generating cDNAs of prokaryotes in combination with a microarray platform rendering time-consuming purification steps obsolete has helped to illuminate novel immunodominant proteins of C.jejuni. The findings of a specific linear epitope pave the way for a plethora of future research and the potential use in diagnostic applications such as serological screenings. Moreover, the current approach is easily adaptable to other highly relevant bacteria making it a formidable tool for the future discovery of antigens and potential biomarkers. Consequently, it is desirable to simplify the

  3. Epitope-based peptide vaccine design and target site depiction against Ebola viruses: an immunoinformatics study.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Hossain, M U; Rakib-Uz-Zaman, S M; Morshed, M N

    2015-07-01

    Ebola viruses (EBOVs) have been identified as an emerging threat in recent year as it causes severe haemorrhagic fever in human. Epitope-based vaccine design for EBOVs remains a top priority because a mere progress has been made in this regard. Another reason is the lack of antiviral drug and licensed vaccine although there is a severe outbreak in Central Africa. In this study, we aimed to design an epitope-based vaccine that can trigger a significant immune response as well as to prognosticate inhibitor that can bind with potential drug target sites using various immunoinformatics and docking simulation tools. The capacity to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity by T cell and B cell was checked for the selected protein. The peptide region spanning 9 amino acids from 42 to 50 and the sequence TLASIGTAF were found as the most potential B and T cell epitopes, respectively. This peptide could interact with 12 HLAs and showed high population coverage up to 80.99%. Using molecular docking, the epitope was further appraised for binding against HLA molecules to verify the binding cleft interaction. In addition with this, the allergenicity of the epitopes was also evaluated. In the post-therapeutic strategy, docking study of predicted 3D structure identified suitable therapeutic inhibitor against targeted protein. However, this computational epitope-based peptide vaccine designing and target site prediction against EBOVs open up a new horizon which may be the prospective way in Ebola viruses research; the results require validation by in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  4. Towards universal structure-based prediction of class II MHC epitopes for diverse allotypes.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    The binding of peptide fragments of antigens to class II MHC proteins is a crucial step in initiating a helper T cell immune response. The discovery of these peptide epitopes is important for understanding the normal immune response and its misregulation in autoimmunity and allergies and also for vaccine design. In spite of their biomedical importance, the high diversity of class II MHC proteins combined with the large number of possible peptide sequences make comprehensive experimental determination of epitopes for all MHC allotypes infeasible. Computational methods can address this need by predicting epitopes for a particular MHC allotype. We present a structure-based method for predicting class II epitopes that combines molecular mechanics docking of a fully flexible peptide into the MHC binding cleft followed by binding affinity prediction usin