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Sample records for restricted ketogenic diet

  1. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  2. Mitoprotective dietary approaches for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Caloric restriction, fasting, and ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Courtney

    2015-11-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is an idiopathic illness characterized by debilitating fatigue and neuro-immune abnormalities. A growing body of evidence proposes mitochondrial dysfunction as a central perpetrator of the illness due to activation of immune-inflammatory pathways that burden the mitochondria. Under a model of mitochondrial dysfunction, this paper explores dietary strategies that are mitoprotective. Studied for decades, the cellular mechanisms of ketogenic diets, fasting, and caloric restriction now reveal mitochondria-specific mechanisms which could play a role in symptom reduction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Future research should examine the physiological effects of these dietary strategies in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

  3. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer’s oxidative phosphorylation system. Methods Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Results Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Conclusions Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting

  4. ERGO: a pilot study of ketogenic diet in recurrent glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Johannes; Bähr, Oliver; Maurer, Gabriele D; Hattingen, Elke; Franz, Kea; Brucker, Daniel; Walenta, Stefan; Kämmerer, Ulrike; Coy, Johannes F; Weller, Michael; Steinbach, Joachim P

    2014-06-01

    Limiting dietary carbohydrates inhibits glioma growth in preclinical models. Therefore, the ERGO trial (NCT00575146) examined feasibility of a ketogenic diet in 20 patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Patients were put on a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet containing plant oils. Feasibility was the primary endpoint, secondary endpoints included the percentage of patients reaching urinary ketosis, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. The effects of a ketogenic diet alone or in combination with bevacizumab was also explored in an orthotopic U87MG glioblastoma model in nude mice. Three patients (15%) discontinued the diet for poor tolerability. No serious adverse events attributed to the diet were observed. Urine ketosis was achieved at least once in 12 of 13 (92%) evaluable patients. One patient achieved a minor response and two patients had stable disease after 6 weeks. Median PFS of all patients was 5 (range, 3-13) weeks, median survival from enrollment was 32 weeks. The trial allowed to continue the diet beyond progression. Six of 7 (86%) patients treated with bevacizumab and diet experienced an objective response, and median PFS on bevacizumab was 20.1 (range, 12-124) weeks, for a PFS at 6 months of 43%. In the mouse glioma model, ketogenic diet alone had no effect on median survival, but increased that of bevacizumab-treated mice from 52 to 58 days (p<0.05). In conclusion, a ketogenic diet is feasible and safe but probably has no significant clinical activity when used as single agent in recurrent glioma. Further clinical trials are necessary to clarify whether calorie restriction or the combination with other therapeutic modalities, such as radiotherapy or anti-angiogenic treatments, could enhance the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. PMID:24728273

  5. ERGO: A pilot study of ketogenic diet in recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    RIEGER, JOHANNES; BÄHR, OLIVER; MAURER, GABRIELE D.; HATTINGEN, ELKE; FRANZ, KEA; BRUCKER, DANIEL; WALENTA, STEFAN; KÄMMERER, ULRIKE; COY, JOHANNES F.; WELLER, MICHAEL; STEINBACH, JOACHIM P.

    2014-01-01

    Limiting dietary carbohydrates inhibits glioma growth in preclinical models. Therefore, the ERGO trial (NCT00575146) examined feasibility of a ketogenic diet in 20 patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Patients were put on a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet containing plant oils. Feasibility was the primary endpoint, secondary endpoints included the percentage of patients reaching urinary ketosis, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. The effects of a ketogenic diet alone or in combination with bevacizumab was also explored in an orthotopic U87MG glioblastoma model in nude mice. Three patients (15%) discontinued the diet for poor tolerability. No serious adverse events attributed to the diet were observed. Urine ketosis was achieved at least once in 12 of 13 (92%) evaluable patients. One patient achieved a minor response and two patients had stable disease after 6 weeks. Median PFS of all patients was 5 (range, 3–13) weeks, median survival from enrollment was 32 weeks. The trial allowed to continue the diet beyond progression. Six of 7 (86%) patients treated with bevacizumab and diet experienced an objective response, and median PFS on bevacizumab was 20.1 (range, 12–124) weeks, for a PFS at 6 months of 43%. In the mouse glioma model, ketogenic diet alone had no effect on median survival, but increased that of bevacizumab-treated mice from 52 to 58 days (p<0.05). In conclusion, a ketogenic diet is feasible and safe but probably has no significant clinical activity when used as single agent in recurrent glioma. Further clinical trials are necessary to clarify whether calorie restriction or the combination with other therapeutic modalities, such as radiotherapy or anti-angiogenic treatments, could enhance the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. PMID:24728273

  6. Ketogenic diets, mitochondria, and neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gano, Lindsey B.; Patel, Manisha; Rho, Jong M.

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a broad-spectrum therapy for medically intractable epilepsy and is receiving growing attention as a potential treatment for neurological disorders arising in part from bioenergetic dysregulation. The high-fat/low-carbohydrate “classic KD”, as well as dietary variations such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, the modified Atkins diet, the low-glycemic index treatment, and caloric restriction, enhance cellular metabolic and mitochondrial function. Hence, the broad neuroprotective properties of such therapies may stem from improved cellular metabolism. Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that these diets restrict glycolysis and increase fatty acid oxidation, actions which result in ketosis, replenishment of the TCA cycle (i.e., anaplerosis), restoration of neurotransmitter and ion channel function, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Further, there is mounting evidence that the KD and its variants can impact key signaling pathways that evolved to sense the energetic state of the cell, and that help maintain cellular homeostasis. These pathways, which include PPARs, AMP-activated kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and the sirtuins, have all been recently implicated in the neuroprotective effects of the KD. Further research in this area may lead to future therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of the KD. PMID:24847102

  7. The Ketogenic Diet Improves Recently Worsened Focal Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneuve, Nathalie; Pinton, Florence; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Dulac, Olivier; Chiron, Catherine; Nabbout, Rima

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We observed a dramatic response to the ketogenic diet in several patients with highly refractory epilepsy whose seizure frequency had recently worsened. This study aimed to identify whether this characteristic was a useful indication for the ketogenic diet. Method: From the 70 patients who received the ketogenic diet during a 3-year period at…

  8. The ketogenic diet in pharmacoresistant childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Winesett, Steven Parrish; Bessone, Stacey Kordecki; Kossoff, Eric H W

    2015-06-01

    Available pharmacologic treatments for seizures are limited in their efficacy. For a patient with seizures, pharmacologic treatment with available anticonvulsant medications leads to seizure control in <70% of patients. Surgical resection can lead to control in a select subset of patients but still leaves a significant number of patients with uncontrolled seizures. The ketogenic diet and related diets have proven to be useful in pharmacoresistant childhood epilepsy.

  9. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  10. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15–18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity. PMID:25610820

  11. Purines and neuronal excitability: links to the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Masino, S A; Kawamura, M; Ruskin, D N; Geiger, J D; Boison, D

    2012-07-01

    ATP and adenosine are purines that play dual roles in cell metabolism and neuronal signaling. Acting at the A(1) receptor (A(1)R) subtype, adenosine acts directly on neurons to inhibit excitability and is a powerful endogenous neuroprotective and anticonvulsant molecule. Previous research showed an increase in ATP and other cell energy parameters when an animal is administered a ketogenic diet, an established metabolic therapy to reduce epileptic seizures, but the relationship among purines, neuronal excitability and the ketogenic diet was unclear. Recent work in vivo and in vitro tested the specific hypothesis that adenosine acting at A(1)Rs is a key mechanism underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy and yielded direct evidence linking A(1)Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Specifically, an in vitro mimic of a ketogenic diet revealed an A(1)R-dependent metabolic autocrine hyperpolarization of hippocampal neurons. In parallel, applying the ketogenic diet in vivo to transgenic mouse models with spontaneous electrographic seizures revealed that intact A(1)Rs are necessary for the seizure-suppressing effects of the diet. This is the first direct in vivo evidence linking A(1)Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Other predictions of the relationship between purines and the ketogenic diet are discussed. Taken together, recent research on the role of purines may offer new opportunities for metabolic therapy and insight into its underlying mechanisms. PMID:21880467

  12. An Update on the Ketogenic Diet, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Halevy, Ayelet; Peleg-Weiss, Lilach; Cohen, Roni; Shuper, Avinoam

    2012-01-01

    The ketogenic diet has been in use for the last 90 years, and its role in the treatment of epilepsy in the pediatric population has been gaining recognition. It can be helpful in many types of epilepsies, even the more severe ones, and has a beneficial effect on the child’s alertness and cognition, which can be impaired by both the condition and the medications needed for controlling it. Parental compliance is good in spite of the inconveniences inherent in following the diet. The significant advancements in understanding the nature of the diet are in better defining when its use is contraindicated and in validating its application in severe epilepsies in infancy, such as infantile spasms. Although most neurologists do not consider it as being the preferred first-line therapy, it is often a reasonable option when two medications have already failed. PMID:23908829

  13. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Glut1D on Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Heussinger, Nicole; Lausch, Ekkehart; Bosch, Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    High-fat ketogenic diets are the only treatment available for Glut1 deficiency (Glut1D). Here, we describe an 8-year-old girl with classical Glut1D responsive to a 3:1 ketogenic diet and ethosuximide. After 3 years on the diet a gradual increase of blood lipids was followed by rapid, severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (1,910 mg/dL). Serum lipid apheresis was required to determine liver, renal, and pancreatic function. A combination of medium chain triglyceride-oil and a reduction of the ketogenic diet to 1:1 ratio normalized triglyceride levels within days but triggered severe myoclonic seizures requiring comedication with sultiam. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in children with Glut1D on ketogenic diets may be underdiagnosed and harmful. In contrast to congenital hypertriglyceridemias, children with Glut1D may be treated effectively by dietary adjustments alone. PMID:26902182

  14. The Use of Ketogenic Diet in Pediatric Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Misiewicz Runyon, Amanda; So, Tsz-Yin

    2012-01-01

    A ketogenic diet is a nonpharmacologic treatment strategy to control refractory epilepsy in children. Although this diet has been used successfully to reduce seizures since the 1920s, the anticonvulsant mechanism of ketosis remains unknown. The initiation of the diet requires an average four-day hospitalization to achieve ketosis in the patient as well as to provide thorough education on diet maintenance for both the patient and the caregivers. A ketogenic diet, consisting of low carbohydrate and high fat intake, leaves little room for additional carbohydrates supplied by medications. Patients on ketogenic diets who exceed their daily carbohydrate limit have the risk of seizure relapse, necessitating hospital readmission to repeat the diet initiation process. These patients are at a high risk for diversion from the diet. Patients admitted to the hospital setting are often initiated on multiple medications, and many hospital systems are not equipped with appropriate monitoring systems to prevent clinicians from introducing medications with high carbohydrate contents. Pharmacists have the resources and the expertise to help identify and prevent the initiation of medications with high carbohydrate content in patients on ketogenic diets. PMID:22970384

  15. Mitochondria: The ketogenic diet--A metabolism-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Vidali, Silvia; Aminzadeh, Sepideh; Lambert, Bridget; Rutherford, Tricia; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Feichtinger, René G

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles of the cell, generating ATP via oxidative phosphorylation mainly by using pyruvate derived from glycolytic processing of glucose. Ketone bodies generated by fatty acid oxidation can serve as alternative metabolites for aerobic energy production. The ketogenic diet, which is high in fat and low in carbohydrates, mimics the metabolic state of starvation, forcing the body to utilize fat as its primary source of energy. The ketogenic diet is used therapeutically for pharmacoresistant epilepsy and for "rare diseases" of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter type 1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency). As metabolic reprogramming from oxidative phosphorylation toward increased glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer cells; there is increasing evidence that the ketogenic diet may also be beneficial as an adjuvant cancer therapy by potentiating the antitumor effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies.

  16. A review of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Westman, Eric C; Mavropoulos, John; Yancy, William S; Volek, Jeff S

    2003-11-01

    In response to the emerging epidemic of obesity in the United States, a renewal of interest in alternative diets has occurred, especially in diets that limit carbohydrate intake. Recent research has demonstrated that low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets can lead to weight loss and favorable changes in serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This review summarizes the physiology and recent clinical studies regarding this type of diet.

  17. CSF Amino Acids, Pterins and Mechanism of the Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Investigators from Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain, studied the relationship between the etiology of refractory childhood epilepsy, CSF neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids, and response to a ketogenic diet in 60 patients with refractory epilepsy, 83% focal and 52% idiopathic. PMID:26933537

  18. Ketogenic diet does not change NKCC1 and KCC2 expression in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lira, Gisela; Mendoza-Torreblanca, Julieta Griselda; Granados-Rojas, Leticia

    2011-09-01

    In control rats, we examined the effects of ketogenic diet on NKCC1 and KCC2 expression levels in hippocampus. Neither the number of NKCC1 immunoreactive cells nor the intensity of labeling of KCC2 was found to modify in hippocampus of the rats after ketogenic diet treatment. These results indicate that ketogenic diet by itself does not modify the expression of these cation chloride cotransporters.

  19. Will seizure control improve by switching from the modified Atkins diet to the traditional ketogenic diet?

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Bosarge, Jennifer L; Miranda, Maria J; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Kang, Hoon Chul; Kim, Heung Dong

    2010-12-01

    It has been reported that children can maintain seizure control when the ketogenic diet (KD) is transitioned to the less-restrictive modified Atkins diet (MAD). What is unknown, however, is the likelihood of additional seizure control from a switch from the MAD to the KD. Retrospective information was obtained from 27 patients who made this dietary change from four different institutions. Ten (37%) patients had ≥10% additional seizure reduction with the KD over the MAD, of which five became seizure-free. The five children who did not improve on the MAD failed to improve when transitioned to the KD. A higher incidence of improvement with the KD occurred for those with myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (70% vs. 12% for all other etiologies, p = 0.004), including all who became seizure-free. These results suggest that the KD probably represents a "higher dose" of dietary therapy than the MAD, which may particularly benefit those with myoclonic-astatic epilepsy.

  20. Mouse models: the ketogenic diet and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Borges, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Literature on the anticonvulsant effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) in mouse seizure models is summarized. Recent data show that a KD balanced in vitamin, mineral, and antioxidant content is anticonvulsant in mice, confirming that the KD's effect in mice can be attributed to the composition of the diet and not other dietary factors. Given that the anticonvulsant mechanism of the KD is still unknown, the anticonvulsant profile of the diet in different seizure models may help to decipher this mechanism. The implications of the findings that the KD is anticonvulsant in electrical seizure models are indicated. Further, the potential involvement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the KD's anticonvulsant mechanism is discussed.

  1. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. Methods To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. Results The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. Conclusion In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently

  2. Monitoring of ketogenic diet for carnitine metabolites by subcutaneous microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Hack, Alexandra; Busch, Verena; Pascher, Bettina; Busch, Raymonde; Bieger, Iris; Gempel, Klaus; Baumeister, Friedrich A M

    2006-07-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) provides ketones from the degradation of free fatty acids for energy metabolism. It is a therapeutic option for pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Carnitine is the carrier molecule that transports fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane for degradation into ketones. The integrity of this transport system is a prerequisite for an adequate ketogenic response. For monitoring of tissue metabolism with KD, we used the sampling method of s.c. microdialysis (MD), which permits minimally invasive, frequent, and extensive metabolic monitoring independent of blood tests. By using this new method, we monitored changes in carnitine metabolism induced by KD, particularly in free carnitine (C0), acetylcarnitine (C2), and hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C4OH). Correlation of microdialysate and tissue concentrations for carnitines in vitro was about 85%. Carnitine metabolism was monitored in seven children started on a KD for pharmacoresistant epilepsy after a conventional initial fasting period. Detected metabolic changes consisted of a slight decrease in s.c. C0 and a marked increase in C2/CO and C4OH/CO levels. The levels of s.c. C4OH strongly correlate with beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels in plasma providing an additional parameter for the carnitine reserve of the body and reflect an optimal ketogenic energy supply. Subcutaneous MD allows close and extensive monitoring of metabolism with a KD.

  3. Should we routinely use modified Atkins diet instead of regular ketogenic diet to treat children with epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Auvin, Stéphane

    2012-05-01

    The modified Atkins diet (MAD) consists of a nearly balanced diet without any age-dependent restriction of recommended daily calorie intake. Recently, there has been a marked increase in the use of the MAD in the treatment of epilepsy. Over the last 8 years, evidence suggesting that the MAD may exhibit similar anticonvulsant properties as the traditional ketogenic diet (KD) has been accumulating. KD is now an 'evidence-based' treatment for refractory epilepsy. Although there are currently no direct comparisons data from the literature suggest that the KD is more efficacious than the MAD. However, the MAD is easier to administer and has better tolerability. This review discusses when to consider each diet. The MAD may be the first diet of choice. In case of insufficient efficacy under the MAD, a switch from the MAD to the KD should be considered.

  4. Fat-Free Mass Changes During Ketogenic Diets and the Potential Role of Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-02-01

    Low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate diets are often used as weight-loss strategies by exercising individuals and athletes. Very-low-carbohydrate diets can lead to a state of ketosis, in which the concentration of blood ketones (acetoacetate, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) increases as a result of increased fatty acid breakdown and activity of ketogenic enzymes. A potential concern of these ketogenic diets, as with other weight-loss diets, is the potential loss of fat-free mass (e.g., skeletal muscle). On examination of the literature, the majority of studies report decreases in fat-free mass in individuals following a ketogenic diet. However, some confounding factors exist, such as the use of aggressive weight-loss diets and potential concerns with fat-free mass measurement. A limited number of studies have examined combining resistance training with ketogenic diets, and further research is needed to determine whether resistance training can effectively slow or stop the loss of fat-free mass typically seen in individuals following a ketogenic diet. Mechanisms underlying the effects of a ketogenic diet on fat-free mass and the results of implementing exercise interventions in combination with this diet should also be examined. PMID:26284291

  5. High-fat and ketogenic diets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2013-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Epidemiologic data suggest that malnutrition is a common feature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and being overweight or obese confers a survival advantage in this patient population. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse models, a high-fat diet has been shown to lead to weight gain and prolonged survival. However, little research has been conducted to test whether nutritional interventions might ameliorate the disease course in humans. Here we review the currently available evidence supporting the potential role of dietary interventions as a therapeutic tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ultimately, determining whether a high-fat or ketogenic diet could be beneficial in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will require large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

  6. Reconciling diabetes management and the ketogenic diet in a child with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Maria J; Thornton, Paul S; Preis, Christina M; Chee, Clare; Grimberg, Adda

    2006-05-01

    A 4-year-old girl with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, static encephalopathy, and seizure disorder treated with the ketogenic diet presented in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare genetic defect of mitochondrial energy metabolism that leads to inefficient glucose use and lactic acidosis. The ketogenic diet provides the brain with an alternate fuel source, but its implementation opposes traditional diabetes management. Faced with this therapeutic dilemma, we aimed to maintain ketosis without compromising safety to optimize neurologic function and quality of life. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a child simultaneously treated with the ketogenic diet and exogenous insulin. A 28-month follow-up revealed excellent glycemic control, improved activity level, significant developmental achievements, and, perhaps most striking, catch-up linear growth from < 5th percentile to the 50th percentile. Her progress to date indicates that diabetes does not preclude use of the ketogenic diet.

  7. Recommendations for the clinical management of children with refractory epilepsy receiving the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Alberti, María J; Agustinho, Ariela; Argumedo, Laura; Armeno, Marisa; Blanco, Virginia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Cabrera, Analía; Caraballo, Roberto; Caramuta, Luciana; Cresta, Araceli; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; De Martini, Martha G; Diez, Cecilia; Dlugoszewski, Corina; Escobal, Nidia; Ferrero, Hilario; Galicchio, Santiago; Gambarini, Victoria; Gamboni, Beatriz; Guisande, Silvina; Hassan, Amal; Matarrese, Pablo; Mestre, Graciela; Pesce, Laura; Ríos, Viviana; Sosa, Patricia; Vaccarezza, María; Viollaz, Rocío; Panico, Luis

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet, a non-drug treatment with proven effectiveness, has been the most commonly used therapy in the past decade for the management of refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population. Compared to adding a new drug to a pre-existing treatment, the ketogenic diet is highly effective and reduces the number of seizures by 50-90% in approximately 45-60% of children after six months of treatment. For this reason, the Argentine Society of Pediatric Neurology established the Ketogenic Diet Working Group. It is integrated by pediatric dietitians, pediatricians, pediatric neurologists and B.S. in Nutrition, who developed recommendations for the optimal management of patients receiving the classical ketogenic diet based on expert consensus and scientific publications in this field.

  8. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input–output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy. PMID:26009636

  9. The ketogenic diet for the treatment of myoclonic astatic epilepsy in a child with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Nicole M; Shah, Namrata; Sellers, Elizabeth A

    2014-08-01

    Initiation of the ketogenic diet in a child with epilepsy and type 1 diabetes mellitus presents a challenge because the distinction between diet-induced ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis is difficult to discern. We report the successful use of the ketogenic diet in a child with myoclonic astatic epilepsy and type 1 diabetes.

  10. Timing of ketogenic diet initiation in an experimental epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Su, S W; Cilio, M R; Sogawa, Y; Silveira, D C; Holmes, G L; Stafstrom, C E; Silveira, D

    2000-12-29

    Following kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE), the ketogenic diet (KD) retards the development of epileptogenesis, with fewer spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and less mossy fiber sprouting than rats on a normal diet. In this study, we investigated whether there is a critical period for initiation of the KD, in terms of the diet's effectiveness in reducing SRS. In addition, we investigated whether early treatment with the KD prevents the deficits in spatial learning and memory that ordinarily follow KA-induced SE. Young rats (P30) underwent KA-induced SE, followed by assignment to one of three treatment groups: control diet ('KA'), KD begun 2 days after SE ('KD2'), and KD begun fourteen days after SE ('KD14'). For 12 weeks following SE, rats were monitored by closed circuit video recording (12 h/wk) to detect SRS. KD2 rats had significantly fewer SRS than rats in the control or KD14 groups. On water maze testing to assess spatial learning and memory, KD2 rats had significantly poorer acquisition of place learning than control (KA alone) or KD14 rats. KD2 rats also failed to gain weight well. There was no difference between groups on routine histologic examination of the hippocampus. In summary, P30 rats placed on the KD 2 days after SE were relatively protected from recurrent seizures, but showed behavioral and physical impairment. Rats placed on the KD 14 days after KA-induced SE did not differ from controls with regard to spontaneous seizure rate.

  11. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sivaraju, Adithya; Nussbaum, Ilisa; Cardoza, Candace S; Mattson, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG) and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients. PMID:26005637

  12. The Therapeutic Potential of the Ketogenic Diet in Treating Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Storoni, Mithu; Plant, Gordon T.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, multiple sclerosis has been viewed as an entirely inflammatory disease without acknowledgment of the significant neurodegenerative component responsible for disease progression and disability. This perspective is being challenged by observations of a dissociation between inflammation and neurodegeneration where the neurodegenerative component may play a more significant role in disease progression. In this review, we explore the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. We review evidence that the ketogenic diet can improve mitochondrial function and discuss the potential of the ketogenic diet in treating progressive multiple sclerosis for which no treatment currently exists. PMID:26839705

  13. Targeting metabolism with a ketogenic diet during the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Champ, Colin E; Palmer, Joshua D; Volek, Jeff S; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Andrews, David W; Evans, James J; Glass, Jon; Kim, Lyndon; Shi, Wenyin

    2014-03-01

    Retrospective data suggests that low serum glucose levels during the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) may improve clinical outcomes. As such, many patients are implementing a ketogenic diet (KD) in order to decrease serum glucose flux while simultaneously elevating circulating ketones during radiation therapy and chemotherapy for the treatment of GBM. With IRB approval, a retrospective review of patients with high-grade glioma treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy was carried out from August 2010 to April 2013. Serum glucose and ketone levels, dexamethasone dose, and toxicity of patients undergoing a KD during treatment were also assessed. Blood glucose levels were compared between patients on an unspecified/standard diet and a KD. Toxicity was assessed by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. In total, 53 patients were analyzed. Six underwent a KD during treatment. The diet was well tolerated with no grade III toxicity and one episode of grade II fatigue. No episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia were experienced. Four patients are alive at a median follow-up of 14 months. The mean blood glucose of patients on a standard diet was 122 versus 84 mg/dl for those on a KD. Based on this retrospective study, a KD appears safe and well tolerated during the standard treatment of GBM. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates through a KD reduces serum glucose levels significantly, even in conjunction with high dose steroids, which may affect the response to standard treatment and prognosis. Larger prospective trials to confirm this relationship are warranted.

  14. Neuroactive Peptides as Putative Mediators of Antiepileptic Ketogenic Diets

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Carmela; Marchiò, Maddalena; Timofeeva, Elena; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Various ketogenic diet (KD) therapies, including classic KD, medium chain triglyceride administration, low glycemic index treatment, and a modified Atkins diet, have been suggested as useful in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy. A common goal of these approaches is to achieve an adequate decrease in the plasma glucose level combined with ketogenesis, in order to mimic the metabolic state of fasting. Although several metabolic hypotheses have been advanced to explain the anticonvulsant effect of KDs, including changes in the plasma levels of ketone bodies, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and brain pH, direct modulation of neurotransmitter release, especially purinergic (i.e., adenosine) and γ-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission, was also postulated. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are potent modulators of synaptic activity, and their levels are regulated by metabolic states. This is the case for neuroactive peptides such as neuropeptide Y, galanin, cholecystokinin, and peptide hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, and growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs). In particular, the GHRP ghrelin and its related peptide des-acyl ghrelin are well-known controllers of energy homeostasis, food intake, and lipid metabolism. Notably, ghrelin has also been shown to regulate the neuronal excitability and epileptic activation of neuronal networks. Several lines of evidence suggest that GHRPs are upregulated in response to starvation and, particularly, in patients affected by anorexia and cachexia, all conditions in which also ketone bodies are upregulated. Moreover, starvation and anorexia nervosa are accompanied by changes in other peptide hormones such as adiponectin, which has received less attention. Adipocytokines such as adiponectin have also been involved in modulating epileptic activity. Thus, neuroactive peptides whose plasma levels and activity change in the presence of ketogenesis might be potential candidates for elucidating the neurohormonal

  15. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets.

    PubMed

    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-08-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand. PMID:23801097

  16. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand. PMID:23801097

  17. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets.

    PubMed

    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-08-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand.

  18. Prospective study of the modified atkins diet in combination with a ketogenic liquid supplement during the initial month.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L; Turner, Zahava; Pyzik, Paula L

    2011-02-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for intractable childhood epilepsy. As data suggest that a stricter diet onset can be more effective, we added a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month. Thirty children with intractable epilepsy were prospectively started on the modified Atkins diet in combination with a daily 400-calorie KetoCal shake. At 1 month, 24 (80%) children had >50% seizure reduction, of which 11 (37%) had >90% seizure reduction. There was no significant loss of efficacy during the second month after KetoCal was discontinued. The use of this ketogenic supplement increased daily fat intake and thus the ketogenic ratio (1.8:1 versus 1.0:1 in the modified Atkins diet alone, P = .0002), but did not change urinary or serum ketosis. The addition of a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month appears to be beneficial.

  19. Adenosine, Ketogenic Diet and Epilepsy: The Emerging Therapeutic Relationship Between Metabolism and Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Masino, S.A; Kawamura, M; Wasser, C.D.; Pomeroy, L.T; Ruskin, D.N

    2009-01-01

    For many years the neuromodulator adenosine has been recognized as an endogenous anticonvulsant molecule and termed a “retaliatory metabolite.” As the core molecule of ATP, adenosine forms a unique link between cell energy and neuronal excitability. In parallel, a ketogenic (high-fat, low-carbohydrate) diet is a metabolic therapy that influences neuronal activity significantly, and ketogenic diets have been used successfully to treat medically-refractory epilepsy, particularly in children, for decades. To date the key neural mechanisms underlying the success of dietary therapy are unclear, hindering development of analogous pharmacological solutions. Similarly, adenosine receptor–based therapies for epilepsy and myriad other disorders remain elusive. In this review we explore the physiological regulation of adenosine as an anticonvulsant strategy and suggest a critical role for adenosine in the success of ketogenic diet therapy for epilepsy. While the current focus is on the regulation of adenosine, ketogenic metabolism and epilepsy, the therapeutic implications extend to acute and chronic neurological disorders as diverse as brain injury, inflammatory and neuropathic pain, autism and hyperdopaminergic disorders. Emerging evidence for broad clinical relevance of the metabolic regulation of adenosine will be discussed. PMID:20190967

  20. Adenosine, ketogenic diet and epilepsy: the emerging therapeutic relationship between metabolism and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Masino, S A; Kawamura, M; Wasser, C D; Wasser, C A; Pomeroy, L T; Ruskin, D N

    2009-09-01

    For many years the neuromodulator adenosine has been recognized as an endogenous anticonvulsant molecule and termed a "retaliatory metabolite." As the core molecule of ATP, adenosine forms a unique link between cell energy and neuronal excitability. In parallel, a ketogenic (high-fat, low-carbohydrate) diet is a metabolic therapy that influences neuronal activity significantly, and ketogenic diets have been used successfully to treat medically-refractory epilepsy, particularly in children, for decades. To date the key neural mechanisms underlying the success of dietary therapy are unclear, hindering development of analogous pharmacological solutions. Similarly, adenosine receptor-based therapies for epilepsy and myriad other disorders remain elusive. In this review we explore the physiological regulation of adenosine as an anticonvulsant strategy and suggest a critical role for adenosine in the success of ketogenic diet therapy for epilepsy. While the current focus is on the regulation of adenosine, ketogenic metabolism and epilepsy, the therapeutic implications extend to acute and chronic neurological disorders as diverse as brain injury, inflammatory and neuropathic pain, autism and hyperdopaminergic disorders. Emerging evidence for broad clinical relevance of the metabolic regulation of adenosine will be discussed. PMID:20190967

  1. Dietary and medication adjustments to improve seizure control in patients treated with the ketogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Selter, Jessica H.; Turner, Zahava; Doerrer, Sarah C.; Kossoff, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike anticonvulsant drugs and vagus nerve stimulation, there are no guidelines regarding adjustments to ketogenic diet regimens to improve seizure efficacy once the diet has been started. A retrospective chart review was performed of 200 consecutive patients treated with the ketogenic diet at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2007-2013. Ten dietary and supplement changes were identified, along with anticonvulsant adjustments. A total of 391 distinct interventions occurred, of which 265 were made specifically to improve seizure control. Adjustments lead to >50% further seizure reduction in-18%, but only 3% became seizure-free. The benefits of interventions did not decrease over time. There was a trend towards medication adjustments being more successful than dietary modifications (24% vs. 15%, p = 0.08). No single dietary change stood out as the most effective, but calorie changes were largely unhelpful (10% with additional benefit). PMID:24859788

  2. Long-term High Fat Ketogenic Diet Promotes Renal Tumor Growth in a Rat Model of Tuberous Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D.; Kasprowska, Daniela; Wojakowska, Anna; Polański, Krzysztof; Lewin–Kowalik, Joanna; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jędrzejowska–Szypułka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional imbalance underlies many disease processes but can be very beneficial in certain cases; for instance, the antiepileptic action of a high fat and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. Besides this therapeutic feature it is not clear how this abundant fat supply may affect homeostasis, leading to side effects. A ketogenic diet is used as anti-seizure therapy i.a. in tuberous sclerosis patients, but its impact on concomitant tumor growth is not known. To examine this we have evaluated the growth of renal lesions in Eker rats (Tsc2+/−) subjected to a ketogenic diet for 4, 6 and 8 months. In spite of existing opinions about the anticancer actions of a ketogenic diet, we have shown that this anti-seizure therapy, especially in its long term usage, leads to excessive tumor growth. Prolonged feeding of a ketogenic diet promotes the growth of renal tumors by recruiting ERK1/2 and mTOR which are associated with the accumulation of oleic acid and the overproduction of growth hormone. Simultaneously, we observed that Nrf2, p53 and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase α dependent antitumor mechanisms were launched by the ketogenic diet. However, the pro-cancerous mechanisms finally took the ascendency by boosting tumor growth. PMID:26892894

  3. Diet and identity: being a good parent in the face of contradictions presented by the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Webster, Michelle; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a high-fat diet used to treat drug-resistant childhood epilepsy. Given that negative meanings tend to be attached to fatty foods and children's food consumption is seen to be the responsibility of parents, the ketogenic diet may be problematic for parenting identity. This article draws upon in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 parents from 10 families that have a child whose epilepsy is being treated with the ketogenic diet. The main focus of the article is the meanings these parents attached to foods and how they were drawn upon or altered to overcome some of the contradictions presented by the diet. It will be argued that the diet was medicalised and parents came to view food as medicine. When viewing food in this way, negative associations with fat were reversed. Furthermore, parents also used food as a symbol of inclusion and prioritised portion size or the child's enjoyment of food in order to use food as a symbol of love. In turn this enabled parents to feel they were being good parents. Overall, it seems that diet can be medicalised and the identity of the good parent maintained if dietary treatment is successful.

  4. Long term successful weight loss with a combination biphasic ketogenic Mediterranean diet and Mediterranean diet maintenance protocol.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A; Lodi, Alessandra; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-12-01

    Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term-a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term "yo-yo" is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight. The subjects followed a staged diet protocol over a period of 12 months: 20 day of KEMEPHY; 20 days low carb-non ketogenic; 4 months Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition; a second 20 day ketogenic phase followed by 6 months of Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition. For the majority of subjects (88.25%) there was significant loss of weight (from 100.7 ± 16.54 to 84.59 ± 9.71 kg; BMI from 35.42 ± 4.11 to 30.27 ± 3.58) and body fat (form 43.44% ± 6.34% to 33.63% ± 7.6%) during both ketogenic phases followed by successful maintenance, without weight regain, during the 6 month stabilization phase with only 8 subjects failing to comply. There were also significant and stable decreases in total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides and glucose levels over the 12 month study period. HDLc showed small increases after the ketogenic phases but over the full 12 months there was no significant change. No significant changes were observed in ALT, AST, Creatinine or BUN. The combination of a biphasic KEMEPHY diet separated by longer periods of maintenance nutrition, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet, led to successful long term weight loss and improvements in health risk factors in a majority of subjects; compliance was very high which was a key determinant of the results seen. PMID:24352095

  5. The Efficacy of Ketogenic Diet and Associated Hypoglycemia as an Adjuvant Therapy for High-Grade Gliomas: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Carico, Christine; Ortega, Alicia; Patil, Chirag G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet, often referred to as a ketogenic diet (KD), has been suggested to reduce frequency and severity of chronic pediatric and adult seizures. A hypoglycemic state, perpetuated by administration of a KD, has been hypothesized as a potential aid to the current standard treatments of high-grade gliomas. Methods: To understand the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet as a therapy for malignant gliomas, studies analyzing components of a KD were reviewed. Both preclinical and clinical studies were included. The keywords “ketogenic diet, GBM, malignant glioma, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia” were utilized to search for both abstracts and full articles in English. Overall, 39 articles were found and included in this review. Results: Studies in animal models showed that a KD is able to control tumor growth and increase overall survival. Other pre-clinical studies have suggested that a KD sustains an environment in which tumors respond better to standard treatments, such as chemoradiation. In human cohorts, the KD was well tolerated. Quality of life was improved, compared to a standard, non-calorie or carbohydrate restricted diet. Hyperglycemia was independently associated with diminished survival. Conclusion: Recent clinical findings have demonstrated that induced hypoglycemia and ketogenic diet are tolerable and can potentially be an adjuvant to standard treatments, such as surgery and chemoradiation. Other findings have advocated for KD as a malignant cell growth inhibitor, and indicate that further studies analyzing larger cohorts of GBM patients treated with a KD are needed to determine the breadth of impact a KD can have on GBM treatment. PMID:26180675

  6. Medication cost reduction in children on the ketogenic diet: data from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D L; Pyzik, P L; Vining, E P; Freeman, J M

    1999-07-01

    In a prospective study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in children with severe, refractory epilepsy, data were collected on medication changes over 1 year. Cost reductions in medications were calculated over the first year and estimated for a second year. Fifty-seven percent of the children stayed on the diet for 1 year, and 74% of these children had their number of medications reduced. Forty-eight percent of children who stayed on the diet were on no medications at 12 months follow-up. Daily medication costs were reduced by nearly 70%.

  7. Usefulness of ketogenic diet in a girl with migrating partial seizures in infancy.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tatsuo; Imai, Katsumi; Oboshi, Taikan; Fujiwara, Yuh; Takeshita, Saoko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi

    2016-06-01

    Migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI) are an age-specific epilepsy syndrome characterized by migrating focal seizures, which are intractable to various antiepileptic drugs and cause severe developmental delay. We report a case of MPSI with heterozygous missense mutation in KCNT1, which was successfully managed by ketogenic diet. At age 2months, the patient developed epilepsy initially manifesting focal seizures with eye deviation and apnea, then evolving to secondarily generalized clonic convulsion. Various antiepileptic drugs including phenytoin, valproic acid, zonisamide, clobazam, levetiracetam, vitamin B6, and carbamazepine were not effective, but high-dose phenobarbital allowed discontinuation of midazolam infusion. Ictal scalp electroencephalogram showed migrating focal seizures. MPSI was suspected and she was transferred to our hospital for further treatment. Potassium bromide (KBr) was partially effective, but the effect was transient. High-dose KBr caused severe adverse effects such as over-sedation and hypercapnia, with no further effects on the seizures. At age 9months, we started a ketogenic diet, which improved seizure frequency and severity without obvious adverse effects, allowing her to be discharged from hospital. Ketogenic diet should be tried in patients with MPSI unresponsive to antiepileptic drugs. In MPSI, the difference in treatment response in patients with and those without KCNT1 mutation remains unknown. Accumulation of case reports would contribute to establish effective treatment options for MPSI.

  8. Usefulness of ketogenic diet in a girl with migrating partial seizures in infancy.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tatsuo; Imai, Katsumi; Oboshi, Taikan; Fujiwara, Yuh; Takeshita, Saoko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi

    2016-06-01

    Migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI) are an age-specific epilepsy syndrome characterized by migrating focal seizures, which are intractable to various antiepileptic drugs and cause severe developmental delay. We report a case of MPSI with heterozygous missense mutation in KCNT1, which was successfully managed by ketogenic diet. At age 2months, the patient developed epilepsy initially manifesting focal seizures with eye deviation and apnea, then evolving to secondarily generalized clonic convulsion. Various antiepileptic drugs including phenytoin, valproic acid, zonisamide, clobazam, levetiracetam, vitamin B6, and carbamazepine were not effective, but high-dose phenobarbital allowed discontinuation of midazolam infusion. Ictal scalp electroencephalogram showed migrating focal seizures. MPSI was suspected and she was transferred to our hospital for further treatment. Potassium bromide (KBr) was partially effective, but the effect was transient. High-dose KBr caused severe adverse effects such as over-sedation and hypercapnia, with no further effects on the seizures. At age 9months, we started a ketogenic diet, which improved seizure frequency and severity without obvious adverse effects, allowing her to be discharged from hospital. Ketogenic diet should be tried in patients with MPSI unresponsive to antiepileptic drugs. In MPSI, the difference in treatment response in patients with and those without KCNT1 mutation remains unknown. Accumulation of case reports would contribute to establish effective treatment options for MPSI. PMID:26785903

  9. Cardiovascular and hormonal aspects of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Sharman, Matthew J

    2004-11-01

    In recent years, restriction of carbohydrate intake for weight loss has become widespread. Our research group began studying physiological responses to very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) in the late 1990s because we felt there was a significant void in the literature and limited understanding of metabolic responses to VLCKDs. This launched us into a line of research examining the physiological effects of VLCKDs. In this paper, we briefly overview nine studies we have published on isoenergetic and hypoenergetic VLCKDs in men and women. These studies have focused on blood lipid responses to VLCKDs, but we have also addressed changes in body weight, body composition, and hormones. Compared with low-fat diets, short-term VLCKDs consistently result in improvements in fat loss, fasting and postprandial triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, the distribution of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol subclasses, and insulin resistance. These are the key metabolic abnormalities of metabolic syndrome, a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. There is substantial variability in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol responses to VLCKD. The factors responsible for this variability are not known, and studies designed to identify methods to predict blood lipid responses to VLCKD and other dietary approaches represent critical areas for nutrition researchers. Further research is warranted to validate the physiological effects of VLCKD over longer periods of time, including studies that modify the quality of macronutrients (i.e., the type of fat and protein) and the interaction with other interventions (e.g., exercise, dietary supplements, drugs).

  10. Hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and ER stress in mice maintained long term on a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Garbow, Joel R.; Doherty, Jason M.; Schugar, Rebecca C.; Travers, Sarah; Weber, Mary L.; Wentz, Anna E.; Ezenwajiaku, Nkiruka; Cotter, David G.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets are used to manage obesity, seizure disorders, and malignancies of the central nervous system. These diets create a distinctive, but incompletely defined, cellular, molecular, and integrated metabolic state. Here, we determine the systemic and hepatic effects of long-term administration of a very low-carbohydrate, low-protein, and high-fat ketogenic diet, serially comparing these effects to a high-simple-carbohydrate, high-fat Western diet and a low-fat, polysaccharide-rich control chow diet in C57BL/6J mice. Longitudinal measurement of body composition, serum metabolites, and intrahepatic fat content, using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, reveals that mice fed the ketogenic diet over 12 wk remain lean, euglycemic, and hypoinsulinemic but accumulate hepatic lipid in a temporal pattern very distinct from animals fed the Western diet. Ketogenic diet-fed mice ultimately develop systemic glucose intolerance, hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress, steatosis, cellular injury, and macrophage accumulation, but surprisingly insulin-induced hepatic Akt phosphorylation and whole-body insulin responsiveness are not impaired. Moreover, whereas hepatic Pparg mRNA abundance is augmented by both high-fat diets, each diet confers splice variant specificity. The distinctive nutrient milieu created by long-term administration of this low-carbohydrate, low-protein ketogenic diet in mice evokes unique signatures of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and whole-body glucose homeostasis. PMID:21454445

  11. Glucose reduces the anticonvulsant effects of the ketogenic diet in EL mice.

    PubMed

    Mantis, John G; Meidenbauer, Joshua J; Zimick, Nicholas C; Centeno, Nicole A; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2014-09-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is known to be anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenic. While the mechanism behind this therapeutic benefit is unclear, a reduction of circulating glucose levels through calorie restriction (CR) has been implicated. Foods or drinks that elevate blood glucose are known to compromise the therapeutic benefit of the KD in some children with epilepsy. We therefore evaluated the effect of a calorie restricted KD (KD-R) with supplementation of glucose in the drinking water of EL mice, a natural model of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, prior to seizure testing to assess the effect of glucose on seizure generation. Mice were fed either a standard diet or the KD unrestricted (SD-UR and KD-UR, respectively), or the KD restricted (KD-R). d-Glucose (25 mM) was supplemented in the drinking water of KD-R fed mice for 0.5h or for 2.5h prior to seizure testing. Each restricted mouse served as its own body weight control to achieve a 15-18% body weight reduction. Seizure susceptibility, body weights, and plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate levels were measured over a nine-week treatment period. Body weights and glucose levels remained high over the testing period in both the SD-UR and the KD-UR groups, but were significantly reduced in all R-fed groups. A significant increase in β-hydroxybutyrate levels was observed in all KD groups. Seizure susceptibility remained highest in the SD-UR group, was slightly reduced in the KD-UR group, and was significantly reduced after three weeks in all R-fed groups. Supplementation of glucose prior to seizure testing resulted in a decrease of seizure threshold for R-fed mice, but did not alter bodyweight or circulating glucose levels. The KD has both an anticonvulsant and antiepileptogenic effect in EL mice. Here we confirm that CR enhances the anticonvulsant action of the KD in EL mice. Additionally, we show for the first time that supplementation of glucose decreases the anticonvulsant action of the KD, which further

  12. Ketogenic Diet for Children with Epilepsy: A Practical Meal Plan in a Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A ketogenic diet (KD) is a dietary approach to treat intractable epilepsy. The KD begins with hospitalization and the child and their parents can adapt to the KD for 1-2 weeks. Recently, various type of dietary intervention such as the modified Atkins diet (MAD) and the low glycemic index treatment (LGIT) have been performed. Since 2010, we carried out the KD, MAD, and LGIT for total of 802 patients; 489 patients (61%) for the KD, 147 patients (18.3%) with the MAD, and 166 patients (20.7%) for the LGIT. In this report, application of these dietary practices in Severance Hospital is shared. PMID:26839878

  13. Long-term impact of the ketogenic diet on growth and resting energy expenditure in children with intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    GROLEAU, VERONIQUE; SCHALL, JOAN I; STALLINGS, VIRGINIA A; BERGQVIST, CHRISTINA A

    2014-01-01

    AIM The long-term effects of the ketogenic diet, a high fat diet for treating intractable epilepsy, on resting energy expenditure (REE) are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 15 months of ketogenic diet treatment on growth and REE in children with intractable epilepsy. METHOD Growth, body composition and REE were assessed at baseline, 3 and 15 months in 24 children (14 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 6mo (SD 26mo), range 7mo–6y 5mo), 10 with cerebral palsy [CP]). Fifteen were identified as ketogenic diet responders at 3 months and continued on the ketogenic diet until 15 months. These were compared to 75 healthy children (43 males, 32 females; mean age 6y 3mo [SD 21mo] age range 2–9y). REE was expressed as percentage predicted, growth as height (HAz) and weight (WAz) z-scores, and body composition as fat and fat free mass (FFM). RESULTS HAz declined −0.2 and −0.6 from baseline to 3 and 15 months, respectively (p=0.001), while WAz was unchanged. In ketogenic diet responders, FFM, age and CP diagnosis predicted REE (overall R2=0.76, p<0.001) and REE did not change. REE adjusted for FFM was lower (p<0.01) in children with CP at baseline (mean [standard error], −143[51] kcals/d) and 15 months (−198[53] kcals/d) compared to the healthy children. INTERPRETATION After 15 months of the ketogenic diet, linear growth status declined while weight status and REE were unchanged. REE remained reduced in children with CP. PMID:24749520

  14. The ketogenic diet as broad-spectrum treatment for super-refractory pediatric status epilepticus: challenges in implementation in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Nicole H; Sankar, Raman; Murata, Kristina K; Sewak, Sarika L; Kezele, Michele A; Matsumoto, Joyce H

    2015-02-01

    Refractory status epilepticus carries significant morbidity and mortality. Recent reports have promoted the use of the ketogenic diet as an effective treatment for refractory status epilepticus. We describe our recent experience with instituting the ketogenic diet for 4 critically ill children in refractory status epilepticus, ranging in age from 9 weeks to 13.5 years after failure of traditional treatment. The ketogenic diet allowed these patients to be weaned off continuous infusions of anesthetics without recurrence of status epilepticus, though delayed ketosis and persistently elevated glucose measurements posed special challenges to effective initiation, and none experienced complete seizure cessation. The ease of sustaining myocardial function with fatty acid energy substrates compares favorably over the myocardial toxicity posed by anesthetic doses of barbiturates and contributes to the safety profile of the ketogenic diet. The ketogenic diet can be implemented successfully and safely for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus in pediatric patients.

  15. Occurrence of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome in patients treated with ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Ramm-Pettersen, Anette; Nakken, Karl O; Haavardsholm, Kathrine Cammermeyer; Selmer, Kaja Kristine

    2014-03-01

    Glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is a treatable metabolic encephalopathy caused by a mutation in the SLC2A1 gene. This mutation causes a compromised transport of glucose across the blood-brain barrier. The treatment of choice is ketogenic diet, with which most patients become seizure-free. At the National Centre for Epilepsy, we have, since 2005, offered treatment with ketogenic diet (KD) and modified Atkins diet (MAD) to children with difficult-to-treat epilepsy. As we believe many children with GLUT1-DS are unrecognized, the aim of this study was to search for patients with GLUT1-DS among those who had been responders (>50% reduction in seizure frequency) to KD or MAD. Of the 130 children included, 58 (44%) were defined as responders. Among these, 11 were already diagnosed with GLUT1-DS. No mutations in the SLC2A1 gene were detected in the remaining patients. However, the clinical features of these patients differed considerably from the patients diagnosed with GLUT1-DS. While 9 out of 10 patients with GLUT1-DS became seizure-free with dietary treatment, only 3 out of the 33 remaining patients were seizure-free with KD or MAD treatment. We therefore conclude that a seizure reduction of >50% following dietary treatment is not a suitable criterion for identifying patients with GLUT1-DS, as these patients generally achieve complete seizure freedom shortly after diet initiation.

  16. Long Term Successful Weight Loss with a Combination Biphasic Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet and Mediterranean Diet Maintenance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A; Lodi, Alessandra; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term—a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term “yo-yo” is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight. The subjects followed a staged diet protocol over a period of 12 months: 20 day of KEMEPHY; 20 days low carb-non ketogenic; 4 months Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition; a second 20 day ketogenic phase followed by 6 months of Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition. For the majority of subjects (88.25%) there was significant loss of weight (from 100.7 ± 16.54 to 84.59 ± 9.71 kg; BMI from 35.42 ± 4.11 to 30.27 ± 3.58) and body fat (form 43.44% ± 6.34% to 33.63% ± 7.6%) during both ketogenic phases followed by successful maintenance, without weight regain, during the 6 month stabilization phase with only 8 subjects failing to comply. There were also significant and stable decreases in total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides and glucose levels over the 12 month study period. HDLc showed small increases after the ketogenic phases but over the full 12 months there was no significant change. No significant changes were observed in ALT, AST, Creatinine or BUN. The combination of a biphasic KEMEPHY diet separated by longer periods of maintenance nutrition, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet, led to successful long term weight loss and improvements in health risk factors in a majority of subjects; compliance was very high which was a key determinant of the results seen. PMID:24352095

  17. Ketogenic Diet Decreases Emergency Room Visits and Hospitalizations Related to Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Luniova, Anastasia; Abdelmoity, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately, one-third of patients with epilepsy are refractory to pharmacological treatment which mandates extensive medical care and imposes significant economic burden on patients and their societies. This study intends to assess the impact of the treatment with ketogenic diet (KD) on reducing seizure-related emergency room visits and hospitalizations in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods. This is a retrospective review of children treated with the KD in one tertiary center. We compared a 12 months' period prior to KD with 12 months after the diet was started in regard to the number of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and hospital days as well as their associated charges. Results. 37 patients (57% males) were included. Their ages at time of KD initiation were (4.0 ± 2.78) years. Twelve months after the KD initiation, the total number of ED visits was reduced by 36% with a significant decrease of associated charges (p = 0.038). The number of hospital admissions was reduced by 40% and the number of hospital days was reduced by 39%. The cumulative charges showed net cost savings after 9 months when compared to the prediet baseline. Conclusion. In children with refractory epilepsy, treatment with the ketogenic diet reduces the number of ED visits and hospitalizations and their corresponding costs. PMID:27752367

  18. The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  19. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-06-27

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  20. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  1. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance. Methods 8 athletes, elite artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 5.5 yrs) were recruited. We analyzed body composition and various performance aspects (hanging straight leg raise, ground push up, parallel bar dips, pull up, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30 sec continuous jumps) before and after 30 days of a modified ketogenic diet. The diet was based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrates, but which mimicked their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts. During the VLCKD the athletes performed the normal training program. After three months the same protocol, tests were performed before and after 30 days of the athletes’ usual diet (a typically western diet, WD). A one-way Anova for repeated measurements was used. Results No significant differences were detected between VLCKD and WD in all strength tests. Significant differences were found in body weight and body composition: after VLCKD there was a decrease in body weight (from 69.6 ± 7.3 Kg to 68.0 ± 7.5 Kg) and fat mass (from 5.3 ± 1.3 Kg to 3.4 ± 0.8 Kg p < 0.001) with a non-significant increase in muscle mass. Conclusions Despite concerns of coaches and doctors about the possible detrimental effects of low carbohydrate diets on athletic performance and the well known importance of carbohydrates there are no data about VLCKD and strength performance. The undeniable and sudden effect of VLCKD on fat loss may be useful for those athletes who compete in sports based on weight class. We have

  2. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Detrimental Cognitive Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Weanling Rats.

    PubMed

    Scichilone, John M; Yarraguntla, Kalyan; Charalambides, Ana; Harney, Jacob P; Butler, David

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats. The diet reduces circulating glucose levels to where energy metabolism is converted from glycolysis to burning fat and generating ketone bodies which has been suggested as a highly efficient source of energy for the brain. In contrast, when weanling rats are placed in an enriched environment, they exhibit increased spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Thus, this study was done to determine if weanling rats being administered a KD in an environmental enrichment (EE) would still exhibit the negative cognitive effects of the diet previously observed. The present study suggests that an altered environment is capable of reducing the cognitive deficits in weanling rats administered a KD. Learning was improved with an EE. The effect of diet and environment on anxiety and depression suggests a significant reduction in anxiety with enrichment rearing. Interestingly, circulating energy substrate levels were increased in the EE groups along with brain-derived neurotrophic factor despite the least changes in weight gain. In light of numerous studies using KDs that seemingly have adverse effects on cognition, KD-induced reductions in excitotoxic events would not necessarily eliminate that negative aspect of seizures.

  3. MED23-associated refractory epilepsy successfully treated with the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Lionel, Anath C; Monfared, Nasim; Scherer, Stephen W; Marshall, Christian R; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2016-09-01

    We report a new patient with refractory epilepsy associated with a novel pathogenic homozygous MED23 variant. This 7.5-year-old boy from consanguineous parents had infantile onset global developmental delay and refractory epilepsy. He was treated with the ketogenic diet at 2.5 years of age and became seizure free on the first day. He had microcephaly and truncal hypotonia. His brain MRI showed delayed myelination and thin corpus callosum. He was enrolled in a whole exome sequencing research study, which identified a novel, homozygous, likely pathogenic (c.1937A>G; p.Gln646Arg) variant in MED23. MED23 is a regulator of energy homeostasis and glucose production. Liver-specific Med23-knockout mice showed reduced liver gluconeogenesis and lower blood glucose levels compared to control mice. This is the first patient with documented refractory epilepsy caused by a novel homozygous pathogenic variant in MED23 expanding the phenotypic spectrum. Identification of the underlying genetic defect in MED23 sheds light on the possible mechanism of complete response to the ketogenic diet in this child. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311965

  4. Ketogenic Diet, but Not Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet, Reduces Spontaneous Seizures in Juvenile Rats with Kainic Acid-induced Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dustin, Simone M.; Stafstrom, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. Methods: To determine the relative roles of the KD and PUFAs in an animal model, we induced epilepsy in juvenile rats (P29–35) using intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA). KA caused status epilepticus in all rats. Two days after KA, rats were randomized to one of 4 dietary groups: Control diet; PUFA diet; KD; or KD plus PUFA. All diets were administered isocalorically at 90% of the rat recommended daily calorie requirement. Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) were assessed for 3 months after diet randomization. Results: Rats receiving the KD or KD-PUFA diet had significantly fewer SRS than those receiving the Control diet or PUFA diet. The PUFA diet did not reduce SRS compared to the Control diet. Conclusions: In the KA epilepsy model, the KD protects against SRS occurrence but dietary enhancement with PUFA does not afford additional protection against spontaneous seizures. PMID:27390673

  5. Elemental changes in the hippocampal formation following two different formulas of ketogenic diet: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Patulska, A; Skoczen, A; Janeczko, K; Ciarach, M; Simon, R; Setkowicz, Z

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of the following study was the determination of elemental changes occurring within hippocampal formation as a result of high-fat and carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet (KD). To realize it, X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for topographic and quantitative analysis of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in hippocampal formations taken from rats fed with two different KDs and naive controls. The detailed comparisons were done for sectors 1 and 3 of the Ammon's, the dentate gyrus and hilus of dentate gyrus. The results of elemental analysis showed that the KDs induced statistically significant changes in the accumulation of P, K, Ca, Zn and Se in particular areas of hippocampal formation and these alterations strongly depended on the composition of the diets. Much greater influence on the hippocampal areal densities of examined elements was found for the KD which was characterized by a lower content of carbohydrates, higher content of fats and increased proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. The levels of P, K and Zn decreased whilst those of Ca and Se increased as a result of the treatment with the KDs. PMID:26537249

  6. Effects of ketogenic diets on the occurrence of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus of rats.

    PubMed

    Gama, Iclea Rocha; Trindade-Filho, Euclides Marinho; Oliveira, Suzana Lima; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Melo, Isabelle Tenório; Cabral-Junior, Cyro Rego; Barros, Elenita M; Galvão, Jaqueline A; Pereira, Wanessa S; Ferreira, Raphaela C; Domingos, Bruna R; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2015-02-01

    Two sources of medium-chain triglycerides--triheptanoin with anaplerotic properties and coconut oil with antioxidant features--have emerged as promising therapeutic options for the management of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We investigated the effects of ketogenic diets (KDs) containing coconut oil, triheptanoin, or soybean oil on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and fed a control diet (7% lipids) or a KD containing soybean oil, coconut oil, or triheptanoin (69.8% lipids). The ketogenic and control diets had a lipid:carbohydrate + protein ratio of 1:11.8 and 3.5:1, respectively. SE was induced in all rats 20 days after initiation of the dietary treatment, through the administration of pilocarpine (340 mg/kg; i.p.). The latency, frequency, duration, and severity of seizures before and during SE were observed with a camcorder. SE was aborted after 3 h with the application of diazepam (5 mg/kg; i.p.). The rats in the triheptanoin-based KD group needed to undergo a higher number of seizures to develop SE, as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Total weight gain, intake, energy intake, and feed efficiency coefficient, prior to induction of SE, differed between groups (P < 0.05), where the triheptanoin-based KD group showed less weight gain than all other groups, less energy intake than the Control group and intermediate values of feed efficiency coefficient between Control and other KDs groups. Triheptanoin-based KD may have a neuroprotective effect on the establishment of SE in Wistar rats.

  7. Danish study of a modified Atkins diet for medically intractable epilepsy in children: can we achieve the same results as with the classical ketogenic diet?

    PubMed

    Miranda, Maria J; Mortensen, Mette; Povlsen, Jane H; Nielsen, Helle; Beniczky, Sándor

    2011-03-01

    Modified Atkins diet (MAD) is a less restrictive variety of the classical ketogenic diet (KD), used for treating patients with medically resistant epilepsy. There are only few reports comparing the two types of diets in terms of seizure reduction and tolerability. We compared the effect of a MAD evaluated prospectively on 33 consecutive children with medically resistant epilepsy, with a group of 50 patients, previously treated with KD. Patients who had >50% seizure reduction were considered responders. After 3 months on the MAD, 17 patients (52%) were responders, including 14 (42%) who had >90% seizure reduction. After 6 months, 13 patients (39%) were responders. Seventeen patients (52%) remained on the MAD at least 12 months with excellent overall tolerance and compliance, including 9 patients (27%) who were responders, 4 of them (12%) having >90% seizure reduction. Although there was a trend for higher incidence of responders in the KD group, this failed to reach the level of significance: after 6 months 39% on MAD and 60% on KD were responders. However, this trend was not observed when the two groups were adjusted for difference in age (patients in the MAD group were older than the KD group). In conclusion, our experience suggests that the MAD is similarly effective as the KD in reducing seizure frequency in children with medically resistant epilepsy.

  8. Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet prevents the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalifa, A; Mathew, T C; Al-Zaid, N S; Mathew, E; Dashti, H

    2011-11-01

    Diabetes continues to be an overwhelmingly prevalent endocrine disorder that leads to several micro- and macrocomplications. It has been widely accepted that changes in dietary habits could induce or prevent the onset of diabetes. It is shown that low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) is effective in the amelioration of many of the deleterious consequences of diabetes. However, its role in preventing the onset of diabetes is not understood. Therefore, this study is focused on the effect of LCKD in preventing the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin (STZ) in rats by biochemical and histological methods. Forty-two Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups: normal diet (ND), low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD), and high carbohydrate diet (HCD). Specific diets ad libitum were given to each group of animals for a period of 8 weeks. Each group was further subdivided into normal control, sham control and diabetic groups. Animals in the diabetic group were given a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg). All the animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after the injection of STZ. Daily measurements of food and water intake as well as weekly measurement of body weight were taken during the whole 12 weeks of the experiment. After injecting with STZ, the blood glucose level of all the groups increased significantly except for the group fed on LCKD (p value<0.01). Also, food intake, water intake and urine output were significantly increased in all groups except for the LCKD group (p value<0.01). There was also a significant decrease in the weight gain of the animals that were fed on a LCKD as compared to other groups (p value<0.05). Although, substantial decrease in the number of β cells was noticed in diabetic rats, there were no change in the number of β cells in the LCKD treated diabetic animals as compared to LCKD control group. The results presented in this study, therefore, suggests that LCKD prevents

  9. Very low-calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring response to systemic therapy in relapsing plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Galdo, Giovanna; Rotondi Aufiero, Felice; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease associated with overweight/obesity and related cardiometabolic complications. The link between these diseases is likely the inflammatory background associated with adipose tissue, particularly the visceral one. Accordingly, previous studies have demonstrated that in the long-term weight loss may improve the response to systemic therapies. We report a case report of a woman in her 40s suffering from relapsing moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and obesity-related metabolic syndrome, in whom adequate response to ongoing treatment with biological therapy (adalimumab) was restored after only 4 weeks of very low-calorie, carbohydrate-free (ketogenic), protein-based diet. Accordingly, through rapid and consistent weight loss, very low calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring a quick response to systemic therapy in a patient suffering from relapsing psoriasis. This intervention should be considered in overweight/obese patients before the rearrangement of systemic therapy. Nonetheless, studies are required to evaluate whether very low calorie ketogenic diets should be preferred to common low-calorie diets to improve the response to systemic therapy at least in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis.

  10. Eucaloric Ketogenic Diet Reduces Hypoglycemia and Inflammation in Mice with Endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Nandivada, Prathima; Fell, Gillian L; Pan, Amy H; Nose, Vania; Ling, Pei-Ra; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Dietary strategies to alter the immune response to acute inflammation have the potential to improve outcomes in critically ill patients. A eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD), composed predominantly of fat with very small amounts of carbohydrate, can provide adequate caloric support while minimizing spikes in blood glucose and reducing oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an EKD on glycemic control and the inflammatory response after acute endotoxemia in mice. Mice received either an EKD or a carbohydrate-based control diet (CD) for 4 weeks. Animals subsequently underwent either a 2-h fast (postprandial) or an overnight fast (postabsorptive), and half of the animals in each diet group were randomized to receive either intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (1 mg/kg) or an equivalent volume of saline. Glycemic response, insulin resistance, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the expression of key inflammatory and metabolic genes were measured. After endotoxin challenge, hypoglycemia was more frequent in mice fed a CD than an EKD in the postprandial period. This was due in part to the preservation of hepatic glycogen stores despite endotoxin exposure and prolonged fasting in mice fed an EKD. Furthermore, mice fed the CD had higher levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the postabsorptive period, with a fivefold higher expression of hepatic NFκB compared to mice fed the EKD in both fasting periods. These results suggest that the unique metabolic state induced by an EKD can alter the response to acute inflammation in mice. PMID:27117864

  11. Rational treatment options with AEDs and ketogenic diet in Landau-Kleffner syndrome: still waiting after all these years.

    PubMed

    Lagae, Lieven

    2009-08-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) remain a first treatment approach in Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) and related syndromes. In the current literature, only class IV evidence is available. Inclusion criteria and outcome parameters are ill-defined. Most commonly, valproate, ethosuximide, and/or benzodiazepines are used. More recent case series show that sulthiame and especially levetiracetam can be considered as effective drugs. Smaller studies also point to the ketogenic diet as a valuable treatment option in LKS.

  12. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3) Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Antonio; Moro, Tatiana; Bosco, Gerardo; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A.; Camporesi, Enrico; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD—4.7 kg, KDO3—4.03 kg, body fat KD—5.41 kg, KDO3—5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state. PMID:25689563

  13. Composition of weight lost during short-term weight reduction. Metabolic responses of obese subjects to starvation and low-calorie ketogenic and nonketogenic diets.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, M U; Van Itallie, T B

    1976-01-01

    The effects of starvation, an 800-kcal mixed diet and an 800-kcal ketogenic (low carbohydrate-high fat) diet on the composition of weight lost were determined in each of six obese subjects during three 10-day periods.The energy-nitrogen balance method was used to quantify the three measurable components of weight loss; protein, fat, and water. On the 800-kcal ketogenic diet, subjects lost (mean +/- SE) 466.6 +/-51.3 g/day; on the isocaloric mixed diet, which provided carbohydrate and fat in conventional proportions, they lost 277.9+/- 32.1 g/day. Composition of weight lost (percentage) during the ketogenic diet was water 61.2, fat 35.0, protein 3.8. During the mixed diet, composition of loss was water 37.1, fat 59.5, protein 3.4... PMID:956398

  14. Nonpharmacologic care for patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: ketogenic diets and vagus nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H W; Shields, W Donald

    2014-09-01

    Individuals with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) often do not respond to or become resistant to pharmacologic treatments. Ketogenic diets (KDs) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) are nonpharmacologic treatment options for these intractable patients. The classic KD, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet with 90% of calories derived from fat, has been used in the treatment of seizures for >90 years. About half of patients with LGS respond to the KD with a >50% reduction in seizures and some patients may achieve a >90% reduction. Vagus nerve stimulation therapy involves a surgically implanted generator that delivers intermittent electrical stimuli to the brain via an electrode wrapped around the left vagus nerve. It is utilized as adjunctive therapy for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (including patients with LGS) who are not suitable candidates for resective surgery. Similar to the KD, about half of LGS patients respond to VNS therapy, with a >50% reduction in seizures, and the response may improve over time. Both the KD and VNS are options for patients with LGS.

  15. The Nervous System and Metabolic Dysregulation: Emerging Evidence Converges on Ketogenic Diet Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A link between metabolism and brain function is clear. Since ancient times, epileptic seizures were noted as treatable with fasting, and historical observations of the therapeutic benefits of fasting on epilepsy were confirmed nearly 100 years ago. Shortly thereafter a high fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) debuted as a therapy to reduce seizures. This strict regimen could mimic the metabolic effects of fasting while allowing adequate caloric intake for ongoing energy demands. Today, KD therapy, which forces predominantly ketone-based rather than glucose-based metabolism, is now well-established as highly successful in reducing seizures. Cellular metabolic dysfunction in the nervous system has been recognized as existing side-by-side with nervous system disorders – although often with much less obvious cause-and-effect as the relationship between fasting and seizures. Rekindled interest in metabolic and dietary therapies for brain disorders complements new insight into their mechanisms and broader implications. Here we describe the emerging relationship between a KD and adenosine as a way to reset brain metabolism and neuronal activity and disrupt a cycle of dysfunction. We also provide an overview of the effects of a KD on cognition and recent data on the effects of a KD on pain, and explore the relative time course quantified among hallmark metabolic changes, altered neuron function and altered animal behavior assessed after diet administration. We predict continued applications of metabolic therapies in treating dysfunction including and beyond the nervous system. PMID:22470316

  16. An observational study of sequential protein-sparing, very low-calorie ketogenic diet (Oloproteic diet) and hypocaloric Mediterranean-like diet for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Monaco, Luigi; Castaldo, Laura; Galdo, Giovanna; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    The impact of a rehabilitative multi-step dietary program consisting in different diets has been scantily investigated. In an open-label study, 73 obese patients underwent a two-phase weight loss (WL) program: a 3-week protein-sparing, very low-calorie, ketogenic diet (<500 kcal/day; Oloproteic(®) Diet) and a 6-week hypocaloric (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight/day), low glycemic index, Mediterranean-like diet (hypo-MD). Both phases improved visceral adiposity, liver enzymes, GH levels, blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the hypo-MD was responsible for a re-increase in blood lipids and glucose tolerance parameters. Changes in visceral adiposity and glucose control-related variables were more consistent in patients with metabolic syndrome. However, in these patients the hypo-MD did not result in a consistent re-increase in glucose control-related variables. A dietary program consisting in a ketogenic regimen followed by a balanced MD appeared to be feasible and efficacious in reducing cardiovascular risk, particularly in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27193396

  17. Ketogenic diet protects against epileptogenesis as well as neuronal loss in amygdaloid-kindling seizures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Yao; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Man-Man; Wen, Shu-Qun; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Ketogenic diets (KD) have shown beneficial effects in terms of anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenic properties in several experimental models. However, few studies have investigated the consequences of KD with regards to the anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects in kindling-induced seizures. Here, postnatal day 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats received one of two experimental diets for 4 weeks: (a) a 'classic' 4:1 KD; and (b) a normal regular rodent chow diet (ND). Fully-kindled seizures were achieved by daily electrical stimulation in the amygdala. Seizure stage and after-discharge duration (ADD) were assessed daily. The after-discharge threshold (ADT) was measured every 5 days. The effects of the two diets on neuronal loss were observed before kindling and 20 days after stimulation by Nissl staining. We found that the progression of seizure stage and ADD was delayed by KD. KD prevented the ADT decrease on day 5. The incidence of generalized seizures was lower in the KD group compared to the ND group. The neuronal density was decreased in the ipsilateral hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 area, as well as the contralateral CA1 area before kindling in the KD group. However, KD prevented neuronal loss in the ipsilateral CA1 area 20 days after stimulation. Our data suggest that KD can protect against epileptogenesis by preventing both after-discharge generation and propagation in kindling seizures. In addition, KD also possesses a neuroprotective function during kindling although it changes hippocampal development in early life.

  18. The effect of the ketogenic diet on hippocampal GluR5 and Glu(6 mRNA expression and Q/R site editing in the kainate-induced epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangping; Sun, Ruopeng; Jin, Ruifeng

    2008-10-01

    Treatment with the ketogenic diet has been used to control refractory epilepsy for many years, although its anticonvulsant mechanism is unknown. By modulating synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, kainate receptors and their RNA editing might play a role in the antiseizure action of the treatment. To investigate the potential effect of the ketogenic diet on GluR(5) mRNA and GluR(6) mRNA expression and Q/R site editing, we used the kainate-induced epilepsy model in the present study. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine GluR(5) and GluR(6) mRNA expression, and RNA editing was analyzed with the BbvIota restriction enzyme assay. The results demonstrated that expression of GluR(6) mRNA, but not GluR(5) mRNA, was significantly increased after 8 weeks of dietary treatment. Neither the GluR(5) nor the GluR(6) RNA editing rate at the Q/R site was significantly changed by dietary treatment. These data indicate that GluR(6) may be involved in the anticonvulsant mechanism of ketogenic diet treatment.

  19. Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: A pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tumor patients exhibit an increased peripheral demand of fatty acids and protein. Contrarily, tumors utilize glucose as their main source of energy supply. Thus, a diet supplying the cancer patient with sufficient fat and protein for his demands while restricting the carbohydrates (CHO) tumors thrive on, could be a helpful strategy in improving the patients' situation. A ketogenic diet (KD) fulfills these requirements. Therefore, we performed a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of a KD and its influence on the quality of life of patients with advanced metastatic tumors. Methods Sixteen patients with advanced metastatic tumors and no conventional therapeutic options participated in the study. The patients were instructed to follow a KD (less than 70 g CHO per day) with normal groceries and were provided with a supply of food additives to mix a protein/fat shake to simplify the 3-month intervention period. Quality of life [assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 2)], serum and general health parameters were determined at baseline, after every two weeks of follow-up, or after drop out. The effect of dietary change on metabolism was monitored daily by measuring urinary ketone bodies. Results One patient did not tolerate the diet and dropped out within 3 days. Among those who tolerated the diet, two patients died early, one stopped after 2 weeks due to personal reasons, one felt unable to stick to the diet after 4 weeks, one stopped after 6 and two stopped after 7 and 8 weeks due to progress of the disease, one had to discontinue after 6 weeks to resume chemotherapy and five completed the 3 month intervention period. These five and the one who resumed chemotherapy after 6 weeks report an improved emotional functioning and less insomnia, while several other parameters of quality of life remained stable or worsened, reflecting their very advanced disease. Except for temporary constipation and fatigue, we found no severe adverse side effects, especially no

  20. Ketogenic Diet Improves Forelimb Motor Function after Spinal Cord Injury in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Streijger, Femke; Plunet, Ward T.; Lee, Jae H. T.; Liu, Jie; Lam, Clarrie K.; Park, Soeyun; Hilton, Brett J.; Fransen, Bas L.; Matheson, Keely A. J.; Assinck, Peggy; Kwon, Brian K.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are validated non-pharmacological treatments for some forms of drug-resistant epilepsy. Ketones reduce neuronal excitation and promote neuroprotection. Here, we investigated the efficacy of KD as a treatment for acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Starting 4 hours following C5 hemi-contusion injury animals were fed either a standard carbohydrate based diet or a KD formulation with lipid to carbohydrate plus protein ratio of 3:1. The forelimb functional recovery was evaluated for 14 weeks, followed by quantitative histopathology. Post-injury 3:1 KD treatment resulted in increased usage and range of motion of the affected forepaw. Furthermore, KD improved pellet retrieval with recovery of wrist and digit movements. Importantly, after returning to a standard diet after 12 weeks of KD treatment, the improved forelimb function remained stable. Histologically, the spinal cords of KD treated animals displayed smaller lesion areas and more grey matter sparing. In addition, KD treatment increased the number of glucose transporter-1 positive blood vessels in the lesion penumbra and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) expression. Pharmacological inhibition of MCTs with 4-CIN (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate) prevented the KD-induced neuroprotection after SCI, In conclusion, post-injury KD effectively promotes functional recovery and is neuroprotective after cervical SCI. These beneficial effects require the function of monocarboxylate transporters responsible for ketone uptake and link the observed neuroprotection directly to the function of ketones, which are known to exert neuroprotection by multiple mechanisms. Our data suggest that current clinical nutritional guidelines, which include relatively high carbohydrate contents, should be revisited. PMID:24223849

  1. Gestational ketogenic diet programs brain structure and susceptibility to depression & anxiety in the adult mouse offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Dafna; Germann, Jurgen; Henkelman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The ketogenic diet (KD) has seen an increase in popularity for clinical and non-clinical purposes, leading to rise in concern about the diet's impact on following generations. The KD is known to have a neurological effect, suggesting that exposure to it during prenatal brain development may alter neuro-anatomy. Studies have also indicated that the KD has an anti-depressant effect on the consumer. However, it is unclear whether any neuro-anatomical and/or behavioral changes would occur in the offspring and persist into adulthood. Methods To fill this knowledge gap we assessed the brain morphology and behavior of 8-week-old young-adult CD-1 mice, who were exposed to the KD in utero, and were fed only a standard-diet (SD) in postnatal life. Standardized neuro-behavior tests included the Open-Field, Forced-Swim, and Exercise Wheel tests, and were followed by post-mortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess brain anatomy. Results The adult KD offspring exhibit reduced susceptibility to anxiety and depression, and elevated physical activity level when compared with controls exposed to the SD both in utero and postnatally. Many neuro-anatomical differences exist between the KD offspring and controls, including, for example, a cerebellar volumetric enlargement by 4.8%, a hypothalamic reduction by 1.39%, and a corpus callosum reduction by 4.77%, as computed relative to total brain volume. Conclusions These results suggest that prenatal exposure to the KD programs the offspring neuro-anatomy and influences their behavior in adulthood. PMID:25642385

  2. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  3. Ketogenic diet decreases oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial respiratory complex activity.

    PubMed

    Greco, Tiffany; Glenn, Thomas C; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral metabolism of ketones after traumatic brain injury (TBI) improves neuropathology and behavior in an age-dependent manner. Neuroprotection is attributed to improved cellular energetics, although other properties contribute to the beneficial effects. Oxidative stress is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction after TBI. Ketones decrease oxidative stress, increase antioxidants and scavenge free radicals. It is hypothesized that ketogenic diet (KD) will decrease post-TBI oxidative stress and improve mitochondria. Postnatal day 35 (PND35) male rats were given sham or controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury and placed on standard (STD) or KD. Ipsilateral cortex homogenates and mitochondria were assayed for markers of oxidative stress, antioxidant expression and mitochondrial function. Oxidative stress was significantly increased at 6 and 24 h post-injury and attenuated by KD while inducing protein expression of antioxidants, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1/2). Complex I activity was inhibited in STD and KD groups at 6 h and normalized by 24 h. KD significantly improved Complex II-III activity that was reduced in STD at 6 h. Activity remained reduced at 24 h in STD and unchanged in KD animals. These results strongly suggest that ketones improve post-TBI cerebral metabolism by providing alternative substrates and through antioxidant properties, preventing oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Vanderperre, Benoît; Herzig, Sébastien; Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  5. Is the interaction between fatty acids and tryptophan responsible for the efficacy of a ketogenic diet in epilepsy? The new hypothesis of action.

    PubMed

    Maciejak, P; Szyndler, J; Turzyńska, D; Sobolewska, A; Kołosowska, K; Krząścik, P; Płaźnik, A

    2016-01-28

    The effects of a ketogenic diet in controlling seizure activity have been proven in many studies, although its mechanism of action remains elusive in many regards. We hypothesize that the ketogenic diet may exert its antiepileptic effects by influencing tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of octanoic and decanoic fatty acids (FAs), the main components in the MCT diet (medium-chain triglyceride diet, a subtype of the ketogenic diet), on the metabolism of TRP, the activity of the kynurenic pathway and the concentrations of monoamines and amino acids, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) in rats. The acute effects of FA on the sedation index and hippocampal electrical after-discharge threshold were also assessed. We observed that intragastric administration of FA increased the brain levels of TRP and the central and peripheral concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA), as well as caused significant changes in the brain and plasma concentrations of BCAA and AAA. We found that the administration of FA clearly increased the seizure threshold and induced sedation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that blocking TRP passage into the brain abolished these effects of FA but had no similar effect on the formation of ketone bodies. Given that FAs are major components of a ketogenic diet, it is suggested that the anticonvulsant effects of a ketogenic diet may be at least partly dependent on changes in TRP metabolism. We also propose a more general hypothesis concerning the intracellular mechanism of the ketogenic diet. PMID:26601775

  6. The Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Paradigm for Diverse Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stafstrom, Carl E.; Rho, Jong M.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary and metabolic therapies have been attempted in a wide variety of neurological diseases, including epilepsy, headache, neurotrauma, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, sleep disorders, brain cancer, autism, pain, and multiple sclerosis. The impetus for using various diets to treat – or at least ameliorate symptoms of – these disorders stems from both a lack of effectiveness of pharmacological therapies, and also the intrinsic appeal of implementing a more “natural” treatment. The enormous spectrum of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the aforementioned diseases would suggest a degree of complexity that cannot be impacted universally by any single dietary treatment. Yet, it is conceivable that alterations in certain dietary constituents could affect the course and impact the outcome of these brain disorders. Further, it is possible that a final common neurometabolic pathway might be influenced by a variety of dietary interventions. The most notable example of a dietary treatment with proven efficacy against a neurological condition is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) used in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. While the mechanisms through which the KD works remain unclear, there is now compelling evidence that its efficacy is likely related to the normalization of aberrant energy metabolism. The concept that many neurological conditions are linked pathophysiologically to energy dysregulation could well provide a common research and experimental therapeutics platform, from which the course of several neurological diseases could be favorably influenced by dietary means. Here we provide an overview of studies using the KD in a wide panoply of neurologic disorders in which neuroprotection is an essential component. PMID:22509165

  7. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Rainer J.; Champ, Colin E.; Otto, Christoph; Kämmerer, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently ketogenic diets (KDs) are hyped as an anti-tumor intervention aimed at exploiting the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells. However, while data in humans is sparse, translation of murine tumor models to the clinic is further hampered by small sample sizes, heterogeneous settings and mixed results concerning tumor growth retardation. The aim was therefore to synthesize the evidence for a growth inhibiting effect of KDs when used as a monotherapy in mice. Methods We conducted a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on all studies assessing the survival (defined as the time to reach a pre-defined endpoint such as tumor volume) of mice on an unrestricted KD compared to a high carbohydrate standard diet (SD). For 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria either a mean survival time ratio (MR) or hazard ratio (HR) between the KD and SD groups could be obtained. The posterior estimates for the MR and HR averaged over four priors on the between-study heterogeneity τ2 were MR = 0.85 (95% highest posterior density interval (HPDI) = [0.73, 0.97]) and HR = 0.55 (95% HPDI = [0.26, 0.87]), indicating a significant overall benefit of the KD in terms of prolonged mean survival times and reduced hazard rate. All studies that used a brain tumor model also chose a late starting point for the KD (at least one day after tumor initiation) which accounted for 26% of the heterogeneity. In this subgroup the KD was less effective (MR = 0.89, 95% HPDI = [0.76, 1.04]). Conclusions There was an overall tumor growth delaying effect of unrestricted KDs in mice. Future experiments should aim at differentiating the effects of KD timing versus tumor location, since external evidence is currently consistent with an influence of both of these factors. PMID:27159218

  8. Fibrogenic response of hepatic stellate cells in ovariectomised rats exposed to ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Bobowiec, R; Wojcik, M; Jaworska-Adamu, J; Tusinska, E

    2013-02-01

    The discrepancy about the role of estrogens in hepatic fibrogenesis and lack of studies addressed of ketogenic diet (KD) on hepatic stellate cells (HSC), prompted us to investigate the activity of HSC in control, KD- and thioacetamide (TAA)-administrated rats with different plasma concentration of estradiol (E2). HSC were isolated by the collagenase perfusion methods and separated by the Percoll gradient centrifugation. After the 4(th) and 8(th) day of incubation, lysates of HSC and the media were collected for further analysis. The HSC derived from KD-rats released remarkably more transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 than cells obtained from animals fed with a standard diet. The ovariectomy of KD-rats markedly intensified the secretion of this fibrogenic cytokine on the 8(th) day of incubation (201.33 ±1 7.15 pg/ml). In HSC of rats exposed to E2, the TGF-β1 concentration did not exceed 157 ± 34.39 pg/ml. In respect to the collagen type I, the HSC obtained from ovariectomised KD-rats released an augmented amount of this ECM protein after the 8(th) day of culture (1.83 ± 0.14 U/ml). In the same time, higher quantities of ASMA appeared in the KD rats (1.41 ± 0.3 pg/mg protein). Exposition of rats to E2 did not markedly decrease the amount of ASMA. In summary, KD was able to induce morphological and functional changes in HSC, especially derived from rats deprived of ovarian estrogens. However, the preservation of E2 in ovariectomised rats didn't substantially alter the activation of HSC.

  9. The ketogenic diet as a treatment paradigm for diverse neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, Carl E; Rho, Jong M

    2012-01-01

    Dietary and metabolic therapies have been attempted in a wide variety of neurological diseases, including epilepsy, headache, neurotrauma, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, sleep disorders, brain cancer, autism, pain, and multiple sclerosis. The impetus for using various diets to treat - or at least ameliorate symptoms of - these disorders stems from both a lack of effectiveness of pharmacological therapies, and also the intrinsic appeal of implementing a more "natural" treatment. The enormous spectrum of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the aforementioned diseases would suggest a degree of complexity that cannot be impacted universally by any single dietary treatment. Yet, it is conceivable that alterations in certain dietary constituents could affect the course and impact the outcome of these brain disorders. Further, it is possible that a final common neurometabolic pathway might be influenced by a variety of dietary interventions. The most notable example of a dietary treatment with proven efficacy against a neurological condition is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) used in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. While the mechanisms through which the KD works remain unclear, there is now compelling evidence that its efficacy is likely related to the normalization of aberrant energy metabolism. The concept that many neurological conditions are linked pathophysiologically to energy dysregulation could well provide a common research and experimental therapeutics platform, from which the course of several neurological diseases could be favorably influenced by dietary means. Here we provide an overview of studies using the KD in a wide panoply of neurologic disorders in which neuroprotection is an essential component.

  10. The development of tumours under a ketogenic diet in association with the novel tumour marker TKTL1: A case series in general practice

    PubMed Central

    JANSEN, NATALIE; WALACH, HARALD

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial observations by Warburg in 1924, it has become clear in recent years that tumour cells require a high level of glucose to proliferate. Therefore, a ketogenic diet that provides the body with energy mainly through fat and proteins, but contains a reduced amount of carbohydrates, has become a dietary option for supporting tumour treatment and has exhibited promising results. In the present study, the first case series of such a treatment in general practice is presented, in which 78 patients with tumours were treated within a time window of 10 months. The patients were monitored regarding their levels of transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), a novel tumour marker associated with aerobic glycolysis of tumour cells, and the patients' degree of adherence to a ketogenic diet. Tumour progression was documented according to oncologists' reports. Tumour status was correlated with TKTL1 expression (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.0001), indicating that more progressed and aggressive tumours may require a higher level of aerobic glycolysis. In palliative patients, a clear trend was observed in patients who adhered strictly to a ketogenic diet, with one patient experiencing a stagnation in tumour progression and others an improvement in their condition. The adoption of a ketogenic diet was also observed to affect the levels of TKTL1 in those patients. In conclusion, the results from the present case series in general practice suggest that it may be beneficial to advise tumour patients to adopt a ketogenic diet, and that those who adhere to it may have positive results from this type of diet. Thus, the use of a ketogenic diet as a complementary treatment to tumour therapy must be further studied in rigorously controlled trials. PMID:26870251

  11. Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ≥ 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ± 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in BMI (31.45 Kg/m2 to 29.01 Kg/m2), body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg), percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%), waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm), total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl), LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl), triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl) and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in HDLc (46 mg/dl to 52 mg/dl). Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and

  12. What are the minimum requirements for ketogenic diet services in resource-limited regions? Recommendations from the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force for Dietary Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Al-Macki, Nabil; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Kim, Heung D; Liao, Jianxiang; Megaw, Katherine; Nathan, Janak K; Raimann, Ximena; Rivera, Rocio; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Williams, Emma; Zupec-Kania, Beth A

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of dietary therapies for children and adults with refractory epilepsy, the availability of these treatments in developing countries with limited resources remains suboptimal. One possible contributory factor may be the costs. There is often reported a significant perceived need for a large ketogenic diet team, supplements, laboratory studies, and follow-up visits to provide this treatment. The 2009 Epilepsia Consensus Statement described ideal requirements for a ketogenic diet center, but in some situations this is not feasible. As a result, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Dietary Therapy was asked to convene and provide practical, cost-effective recommendations for new ketogenic diet centers in resource-limited regions of the world.

  13. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  14. [Glucose transponer type 1 deficiency síndrome (GLUT-1 SD) treated with ketogenic diet. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Verónica E; Cabello, Juan Francisco A; Colombo, Marta C; Raimann, Erna B

    2007-05-01

    The glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 SD) (OMIM 606777) is an inborn error of metabolism of brain glucose transport. The characteristic clinical manifestations are seizures, hypotonia, developmental delay, microcephaly and hypoglycorrhachia. We report a girl with normal weight and height at birth. At 6 weeks of age she started with convulsions reaching up to 20 myoclonic seizures a day. She was treated with valproate, phenobarbital and carbamazepine without response. Blood analysis including aminoacids and acylcarnitines were all normal. The brain MRI showed frontal atrophy with an increased subarachnoidal space and Electroencephalography was abnormal. Blood glucose was 84 mg/dl and spinal fluid glucose 26 mg/dl with a ratio of 0.31 (Normal Ratio >0.65+/-00.1). These results suggested the diagnosis of GLUT-1 SD, and was confirmed with erythrocyte glucose uptake of 44% (Normal range 80-100%). A molecular study found the mutation 969del, C971T in exon 6 of the gene Glut-1. Treatment with a ketogenic diet was started immediately and after 7 days with this diet seizures ceased. Anticonvulsants were progressively suspended. At present, the patient is 6 years old, she continues on a ketogenic diet and supplements with L-carnitine, lipoic acid, vitamins and minerals. Growth and development are normal with an intelligence quotient of 103. It is concluded that it is necessary to include GLUT-1 SD in the differential diagnosis of children with early seizures that are non responsive to pharmacological treatment.

  15. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response.

  16. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472

  17. Comparison of seizure reduction and serum fatty acid levels after receiving the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet.

    PubMed

    Porta, Natacha; Vallée, Louis; Boutry, Elisabeth; Fontaine, Monique; Dessein, Anne-Frédérique; Joriot, Sylvie; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; Auvin, Stéphane

    2009-06-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) and the modified Atkins diet are effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. We compared retrospectively the KD and modified Atkins diet in 27 children and also assessed serum long chain fatty acid profiles. After 3 months, using an intent-to-treat analysis, the KD was more successful, with >50% seizure reduction in 11/17 (65%) vs. 2/10 (20%) with the modified Atkins diet, p=0.03. After 6 months, however, the difference was no longer significant: 7/17 (41%) vs. 2/10 (20%) (p=0.24). We observed a preventive effect of both diets on the occurrence of status epilepticus. After 1 and 3 months of either diet, responders experienced a significant decrease in serum arachidonic acid concentration compared to non-responders. The KD and modified Atkins diet led to seizure reduction in this small pilot series, with slightly better results after 3 months with the KD, but not after 6 months. The decrease of serum arachidonic acid levels might be involved in the anticonvulsive effects of KD or modified Atkins diet.

  18. Resistance training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of 10 weeks resistance training in combination with either a regular diet (Ex) or a low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (Lc+Ex) in overweight women on body weight and body composition. Methods 18 untrained women between 20 and 40 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg*m-2 were randomly assigned into the Ex or Lc+Ex group. Both groups performed 60-100 min of varied resistance exercise twice weekly. Dietary estimates were based on two 4-day weighed records. Body composition was estimated using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and glucose. Results 16 subjects were included in the analyses. Percentage of energy (En%) from carbohydrates, fat and protein was 6, 66, and 22 respectively in the (Lc+Ex) group and 41, 34, 17 in the Ex group. Mean weight change (pre-post) was -5.6 ± 2.6 kg in Lc+Ex; (p < 0.001) and 0.8 ± 1.5 kg in Ex; (p = 0.175). The Lc+Ex group lost 5.6 ± 2.9 kg of fat mass (p = 0.001) with no significant change in lean body mass (LBM), while the Ex group gained 1.6 ± 1.8 kg of LBM (p = 0.045) with no significant change in fat mass (p = 0.059). Fasting blood lipids and blood glucose were not significantly affected by the interventions. Conclusion Resistance exercise in combination with a ketogenic diet may reduce body fat without significantly changing LBM, while resistance exercise on a regular diet may increase LBM in without significantly affecting fat mass. Fasting blood lipids do not seem to be negatively influenced by the combination of resistance exercise and a low carbohydrate diet. PMID:20196854

  19. Ketolytic and glycolytic enzymatic expression profiles in malignant gliomas: implication for ketogenic diet therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies in animal models, based on the hypothesis that malignant glioma cells are more dependent on glycolysis for energy generation, have shown promising results using ketogenic diet (KD) therapy as an alternative treatment strategy for malignant glioma, effectively starving glioma cells while providing ketone bodies as an energy source for normal neurons and glial cells. In order to test this treatment strategy in humans, we investigated the relative expression of several key enzymes involved in ketolytic and glycolytic metabolism in human anaplastic glioma (WHO grade III) and glioblastoma (GBM, WHO grade IV). Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections from 22 brain biopsies (17 GBM, 3 anaplastic astrocytoma and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytoma) using antibodies raised against glycolytic and ketolytic enzymes. The glycolytic enzymes included hexokinase-II (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2). The ketone body metabolic enzymes included: succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (OXCT1), 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and BDH2), and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1). The immunoreactivities were graded using a semi-quantitative scale based on the percentage of positive cells: POS (>20%), LOW (5-20%), and very low (VLOW) (<5%). Focal non-neoplastic “normal” brain tissue within the biopsy specimens served as internal controls. Results The rate limiting mitochondrial ketolytic enzymes (OXCT1 and BDH1) were either LOW or VLOW, concordantly in 14 of the 17 GBMs and in 1 of 5 anaplastic gliomas, whereas at least one of the glycolytic enzymes was POS in 13 of these 17 GBMs and all 5 anaplastic gliomas. Cytosolic BDH2 and mitochondrial ACTAT1 were, surprisingly, POS in most of these tumors. Conclusion Our results showing that malignant gliomas have differential expression of ketolytic and glycolytic enzymes are consistent with previous studies that have shown that these are genetically

  20. Ketogenic diet change cPLA2/clusterin and autophagy related gene expression and correlate with cognitive deficits and hippocampal MFs sprouting following neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong; Zhao, Dong-Jing; Tian, Tian

    2016-02-01

    Because the ketogenic diet (KD) was affecting expression of energy metabolism- related genes in hippocampus and because lipid membrane peroxidation and its associated autophagy stress were also found to be involved in energy depletion, we hypothesized that KD might exert its neuroprotective action via lipid membrane peroxidation and autophagic signaling. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining the long-term expression of lipid membrane peroxidation-related cPLA2 and clusterin, its downstream autophagy marker Beclin-1, LC3 and p62, as well as its execution molecule Cathepsin-E following neonatal seizures and chronic KD treatment. On postnatal day 9 (P9), 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures group and control group. On P28, they were further randomly divided into the seizure group without ketogenic diet (RS+ND), seizure plus ketogenic diet (RS+KD), the control group without ketogenic diet (NS+ND), and the control plus ketogenic diet (NS+KD). Morris water maze test was performed during P37-P43. Then mossy fiber sprouting and the protein levels were detected by Timm staining and Western blot analysis, respectively. Flurothyl-induced RS+ND rats show a long-term lower amount of cPLA2 and LC3II/I, and higher amount of clusterin, Beclin-1, p62 and Cathepsin-E which are in parallel with hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits. Furthermore, chronic KD treatment (RS+KD) is effective in restoring these molecular, neuropathological and cognitive changes. The results imply that a lipid membrane peroxidation and autophagy-associated pathway is involved in the aberrant hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits following neonatal seizures, which might be a potential target of KD for the treatment of neonatal seizure-induced brain damage.

  1. Ketogenic diet change cPLA2/clusterin and autophagy related gene expression and correlate with cognitive deficits and hippocampal MFs sprouting following neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong; Zhao, Dong-Jing; Tian, Tian

    2016-02-01

    Because the ketogenic diet (KD) was affecting expression of energy metabolism- related genes in hippocampus and because lipid membrane peroxidation and its associated autophagy stress were also found to be involved in energy depletion, we hypothesized that KD might exert its neuroprotective action via lipid membrane peroxidation and autophagic signaling. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining the long-term expression of lipid membrane peroxidation-related cPLA2 and clusterin, its downstream autophagy marker Beclin-1, LC3 and p62, as well as its execution molecule Cathepsin-E following neonatal seizures and chronic KD treatment. On postnatal day 9 (P9), 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures group and control group. On P28, they were further randomly divided into the seizure group without ketogenic diet (RS+ND), seizure plus ketogenic diet (RS+KD), the control group without ketogenic diet (NS+ND), and the control plus ketogenic diet (NS+KD). Morris water maze test was performed during P37-P43. Then mossy fiber sprouting and the protein levels were detected by Timm staining and Western blot analysis, respectively. Flurothyl-induced RS+ND rats show a long-term lower amount of cPLA2 and LC3II/I, and higher amount of clusterin, Beclin-1, p62 and Cathepsin-E which are in parallel with hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits. Furthermore, chronic KD treatment (RS+KD) is effective in restoring these molecular, neuropathological and cognitive changes. The results imply that a lipid membrane peroxidation and autophagy-associated pathway is involved in the aberrant hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits following neonatal seizures, which might be a potential target of KD for the treatment of neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. PMID:26709877

  2. Transcript profiling of the ruminant liver indicates a unique program of transcriptional regulation of ketogenic enzymes during food restriction.

    PubMed

    Doelman, John; Cao, Honghe; Purdie, Norman G; Kim, Julie J M; Swanson, Kendall C; Osborne, Vernon R; Tey, Jasper; Ali, Ayesha; Feng, Zeny; Karrow, Niel A; Cant, John P

    2012-09-01

    Ruminants absorb little glucose and rely on hepatic gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in the fed state to convert short-chain fatty acids produced during digestion into glucose and ketone bodies, respectively. In contrast to the non-ruminant response, fluxes through gluconeogenic and ketogenic pathways decrease during food restriction. Transcriptional regulation responsible for these unique food restriction responses has not been established. To determine the hepatic transcriptional response of ruminants to an acute drop in dietary nutrient supply, 102 yearling heifers were assigned to either ad libitum feeding or 24 h of food withdrawal in a randomized block design. Liver biopsies were obtained for microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses of gene expression. Plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids were higher in food restricted heifers, while levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, triacylglycerol, and glucose were decreased. Despite a decline in substrate supply and a lower hepatic production of glucose, expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was upregulated as in non-ruminants. Downregulation of cholesterolgenic genes and upregulation of fatty acid oxidative genes were consistent with SREBP-2 and PPARα control, respectively. Ketogenesis from short-chain fatty acids was downregulated, contrary to the non-ruminant response to food restriction. Short-chain fatty acids may exert transcriptional control in the ruminant liver similar to that demonstrated in the large intestine of non-ruminants.

  3. Nutritional deficiencies in children on restricted diets.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Midge; Danner, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Pediatric nutritional deficiencies are associated not only with poverty and developing countries, but also in children in the developed world who adhere to restricted diets. At times, these diets are medically necessary, such as the gluten-free diet for management of celiac disease or exclusion diets in children with food allergies. At other times, the diets are self-selected by children with behavioral disorders, or parent-selected because of nutrition misinformation, cultural preferences, alternative nutrition therapies, or misconceptions regarding food tolerance. Health care providers must be vigilant in monitoring both growth and feeding patterns to identify inappropriate dietary changes that may result in nutritional deficiencies.

  4. Counting calories in Drosophila diet restriction.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-03-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high-yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  5. The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mavropoulos, John C; Yancy, William S; Hepburn, Juanita; Westman, Eric C

    2005-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Because low carbohydrate diets have been shown to reduce insulin resistance, this pilot study investigated the six-month metabolic and endocrine effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) on overweight and obese women with PCOS. Results Eleven women with a body mass index >27 kg/m2 and a clinical diagnosis of PCOS were recruited from the community. They were instructed to limit their carbohydrate intake to 20 grams or less per day for 24 weeks. Participants returned every two weeks to an outpatient research clinic for measurements and reinforcement of dietary instruction. In the 5 women who completed the study, there were significant reductions from baseline to 24 weeks in body weight (-12%), percent free testosterone (-22%), LH/FSH ratio (-36%), and fasting insulin (-54%). There were non-significant decreases in insulin, glucose, testosterone, HgbA1c, triglyceride, and perceived body hair. Two women became pregnant despite previous infertility problems. Conclusion In this pilot study, a LCKD led to significant improvement in weight, percent free testosterone, LH/FSH ratio, and fasting insulin in women with obesity and PCOS over a 24 week period. PMID:16359551

  6. PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPAR{gamma} activation in the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Ohkura, Naoki; Horie, Shuichi

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. {yields} Hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and PCG-1{alpha} are induced by a ketogenic diet. {yields} PPAR{gamma} antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. {yields} Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPAR{alpha}-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPAR{alpha} target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPAR{alpha} activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and its coactivator PCG-1{alpha} were more effectively induced in PPAR{alpha}-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, in both WT and PPAR

  7. Neurobehavioral Deficits in a Rat Model of Recurrent Neonatal Seizures Are Prevented by a Ketogenic Diet and Correlate with Hippocampal Zinc/Lipid Transporter Signals.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Ni, Hong; Sun, Bao-liang

    2015-10-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been shown to be effective as an antiepileptic therapy in adults, but it has not been extensively tested for its efficacy in neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. We have previously shown altered expression of zinc/lipid metabolism-related genes in hippocampus following penicillin-induced developmental model of epilepsy. In this study, we further investigated the effect of KD on the neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits, as well as if KD has any influence in the activity of zinc/lipid transporters such as zinc transporter 3 (ZnT-3), MT-3, ApoE, ApoJ (clusterin), and ACAT-1 activities in neonatal rats submitted to flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures. Postnatal day 9 (P9), 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: flurothyl-induced recurrent seizure group (EXP) and control group (CONT). On P28, they were further randomly divided into the seizure group without ketogenic diet (EXP1), seizure plus ketogenic diet (EXP2), the control group without ketogenic diet (CONT1), and the control plus ketogenic diet (CONT2). Neurological behavioral parameters of brain damage (plane righting reflex, cliff avoidance reflex, and open field test) were observed from P35 to P49. Morris water maze test was performed during P51-P57. Then hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and the protein levels of ZnT3, MT3, ApoE, CLU, and ACAT-1 were detected by Timm staining and Western blot analysis, respectively. Flurothyl-induced neurobehavioral toxicology and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting were blocked by KD. In parallel with these behavioral changes, rats treated with KD (EXP2) showed a significant down-regulated expression of ZnT-3, MT-3, ApoE, clusterin, and ACAT-1 in hippocampus when compared with the non-KD-treated EXP1 group. Our findings provide support for zinc/lipid transporter signals being potential targets for the treatment of neonatal seizure-induced brain damage by KD.

  8. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Eric C; Yancy, William S; Mavropoulos, John C; Marquart, Megan; McDuffie, Jennifer R

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (<20 g of carbohydrate daily; LCKD) or a low-glycemic, reduced-calorie diet (500 kcal/day deficit from weight maintenance diet; LGID). Both groups received group meetings, nutritional supplementation, and an exercise recommendation. The main outcome was glycemic control, measured by hemoglobin A1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3%) participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03), body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p < 0.001) compared to the LGID group. Diabetes medications were reduced or eliminated in 95.2% of LCKD vs. 62% of LGID participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes. PMID:19099589

  9. Ketogenic diet exposure during the juvenile period increases social behaviors and forebrain neural activation in adult Engrailed 2 null mice.

    PubMed

    Verpeut, Jessica L; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of ketogenic diets (KD) has reported neuroprotective benefits. Several studies suggest KD interventions could be useful in the management of neurological and developmental disorders. Alterations in the Engrailed (En) genes, specifically Engrailed 2 (En2), have neurodevelopmental consequences and produce autism-related behaviors. The following studies used En2 knockout (KO; En2(-/-)), and wild-type (WT; En2(+/+)), male mice fed either KD (80% fat, 0.1% carbohydrates) or control diet (CD; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrates). The objective was to determine whether a KD fed from weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21 to adulthood (PND 60) would alter brain monoamines concentrations, previously found dysregulated, and improve social outcomes. In WT animals, there was an increase in hypothalamic norepinephrine content in the KD-fed group. However, regional monoamines were not altered in KO mice in KD-fed compared with CD-fed group. In order to determine the effects of juvenile exposure to KD in mice with normal blood ketone levels, separate experiments were conducted in mice removed from the KD or CD and fed standard chow for 2days (PND 62). In a three-chamber social test with a novel mouse, KO mice previously exposed to the KD displayed similar social and self-grooming behaviors compared with the WT group. Groups previously exposed to a KD, regardless of genotype, had more c-Fos-positive cells in the cingulate cortex, lateral septal nuclei, and anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In the novel object condition, KO mice previously exposed to KD had similar behavioral responses and pattern of c-Fos immunoreactivity compared with the WT group. Thus, juvenile exposure to KD resulted in short-term consequences of improving social interactions and appropriate exploratory behaviors in a mouse model that displays autism-related behaviors. Such findings further our understanding of metabolic-based therapies for neurological and developmental disorders. PMID

  10. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet on motor functions in Parkinson’s disease: A rat model

    PubMed Central

    Shaafi, Sheida; Najmi, Safa; Aliasgharpour, Hamed; Mahmoudi, Javad; Sadigh-Etemad, Saeed; Farhoudi, Mahdi; Baniasadi, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ketogenic diet (KD), high in fat and low in carbohydrate and protein, provides sufficient protein but insufficient carbohydrates for all the metabolic needs of the body. KD has been known as a therapeutic manner intractable epilepsy. In recent years, the effectiveness of KD drew attention to the treatment of some other disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study has evaluated the efficacy of KD on motor function in Parkinsonian model of rat and compared it with pramipexole. Methods: A total of 56 male Wistar rats weighing 200-240 g between 12 and 14 weeks of age were randomized in seven 8-rat groups as follows: Control group; sham-operated group; KD group; Parkinsonian control group; KD-Parkinsonian group; pramipexole-Parkinsonian group; and KD-pramipexole-Parkinsonian group. The results of bar test, beam traversal task test, and cylinder task test were compared between the groups. Results: The mean number of ketone bodies had increased significantly in the rats blood after KD. Regarding the results of the triad tests, no statistically significant difference was found between the controls and the sham-operated group. Among the Parkinsonian rats, better results were found in KD groups compared to the non-KD group. The KD enhanced the effect of pramipexole for motor function but did not reach a statistically significant level. Conclusion: The KD reinforced the motor function in Parkinsonian rats in our study. When the diet was combined with pramipexole, the effectiveness of the drug increased in enhancing motor function. PMID:27326359

  11. Effectiveness of ketogenic diet in pentylenetetrazol-induced and kindling rats as well as its potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Ding, Yao; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Shen, Chun-Hong; Jin, Bo; Guo, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2016-02-12

    The effects and mechanisms of ketogenic diets (KD) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to reveal electrographic and behavioral thresholds in responses to the KD in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, as well as its antiepileptogenic effects on PTZ-kindling rats. Additionally, we investigated the potential link between KD and expression levels of two cation chloride co-transporters: K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1). The KD group had significantly higher electrographic thresholds than the control (ND) group for the first spike-and-wave, subcontinuous spike-and-wave, high amplitude spike-and-wave, and polyspikes both in the cortex and hippocampus. Compared to the ND group, the KD group had higher behavioral thresholds for behavioral absence, first jerk, first overt myoclonia, and generalized seizures. In the PTZ-kindling model, KD not only prolonged the latency of myoclonic and clonic convulsions, but shortened clonic and generalized duration. In addition, KD rats had higher KCC2 protein expression before kindling, during myoclonic jerks, and GTCS compared with ND rats. There were no significant differences in NKCC1 protein levels between both groups following the four-week dietary intervention without PTZ exposure (before kindling). Moreover, KD inhibited the upregulation of NKCC1 expression induced by kindling in myoclonic jerks and GTCS. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that KD had antiepileptic features in elevating thresholds to most electrographic and behavioral seizure patterns in PTZ-induced rats, as well as delaying the progression and alleviating the severity of seizure in PTZ-kindling model. The antiepileptogenic effects of KD may be attributed to its regulatory properties on KCC2 and NKCC1 protein expression.

  12. Effectiveness of ketogenic diet in pentylenetetrazol-induced and kindling rats as well as its potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Ding, Yao; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Shen, Chun-Hong; Jin, Bo; Guo, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2016-02-12

    The effects and mechanisms of ketogenic diets (KD) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to reveal electrographic and behavioral thresholds in responses to the KD in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, as well as its antiepileptogenic effects on PTZ-kindling rats. Additionally, we investigated the potential link between KD and expression levels of two cation chloride co-transporters: K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1). The KD group had significantly higher electrographic thresholds than the control (ND) group for the first spike-and-wave, subcontinuous spike-and-wave, high amplitude spike-and-wave, and polyspikes both in the cortex and hippocampus. Compared to the ND group, the KD group had higher behavioral thresholds for behavioral absence, first jerk, first overt myoclonia, and generalized seizures. In the PTZ-kindling model, KD not only prolonged the latency of myoclonic and clonic convulsions, but shortened clonic and generalized duration. In addition, KD rats had higher KCC2 protein expression before kindling, during myoclonic jerks, and GTCS compared with ND rats. There were no significant differences in NKCC1 protein levels between both groups following the four-week dietary intervention without PTZ exposure (before kindling). Moreover, KD inhibited the upregulation of NKCC1 expression induced by kindling in myoclonic jerks and GTCS. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that KD had antiepileptic features in elevating thresholds to most electrographic and behavioral seizure patterns in PTZ-induced rats, as well as delaying the progression and alleviating the severity of seizure in PTZ-kindling model. The antiepileptogenic effects of KD may be attributed to its regulatory properties on KCC2 and NKCC1 protein expression. PMID:26751594

  13. The modified atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

  14. Very low calorie ketogenic weight reduction diet in patients with cirrhosis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Temmerman, J C; Friedman, A N

    2013-01-01

    Weight reduction may be necessary in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) before liver transplantation. Although very low calorie diets (VLCDs) are a highly effective weight loss strategy, they risk inducing protein-calorie malnutrition, sarcopenia and hepatic encephalopathy in ESLD patients. We report for the first time on the use of VCLDs in ESLD. Two severely obese individuals with ESLD underwent a modified VLCD to become eligible for liver transplantation. Patients consumed four protein supplements and one lean meal daily, equivalent to 800 kilocalories (kcal) and were closely monitored during the diet period. Subject 1, a 46-year-old male with alcoholic cirrhosis, lost 44.1 kg after 28 weeks on a modified VLCD. Liver function and MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) scores improved and he currently does not require listing for transplantation. Subject 2, a 64-year-old female with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, lost 39.7 kg after a 30-week modified VLCD. She is awaiting liver transplantation listing with a stable MELD score. VLCDs were well tolerated by both patients without adverse effects. In conclusion, under close medical supervision VLCDs in patients with ESLD can be safe and effective in reducing weight, facilitating liver transplantation listing, and possibly improving liver damage. PMID:24247485

  15. Catabolism of (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal via ω- and ω-1-Oxidation Stimulated by Ketogenic Diet*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhicheng; Berthiaume, Jessica M.; Li, Qingling; Henry, Fabrice; Huang, Zhong; Sadhukhan, Sushabhan; Gao, Peng; Tochtrop, Gregory P.; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; Zhang, Guo-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress triggers the peroxidation of ω-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids to reactive lipid fragments, including (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). We previously reported two parallel catabolic pathways of HNE. In this study, we report a novel metabolite that accumulates in rat liver perfused with HNE or 4-hydroxynonanoic acid (HNA), identified as 3-(5-oxotetrahydro-2-furanyl)propanoyl-CoA. In experiments using a combination of isotopic analysis and metabolomics studies, three catabolic pathways of HNE were delineated following HNE conversion to HNA. (i) HNA is ω-hydroxylated to 4,9-dihydroxynonanoic acid, which is subsequently oxidized to 4-hydroxynonanedioic acid. This is followed by the degradation of 4-hydroxynonanedioic acid via β-oxidation originating from C-9 of HNA breaking down to 4-hydroxynonanedioyl-CoA, 4-hydroxyheptanedioyl-CoA, or its lactone, 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA, and 2-ketoglutaric acid entering the citric acid cycle. (ii) ω-1-hydroxylation of HNA leads to 4,8-dihydroxynonanoic acid (4,8-DHNA), which is subsequently catabolized via two parallel pathways we previously reported. In catabolic pathway A, 4,8-DHNA is catabolized to 4-phospho-8-hydroxynonanoyl-CoA, 3,8-dihydroxynonanoyl-CoA, 6-hydroxyheptanoyl-CoA, 4-hydroxypentanoyl-CoA, propionyl-CoA, and acetyl-CoA. (iii) The catabolic pathway B of 4,8-DHNA leads to 2,6-dihydroxyheptanoyl-CoA, 5-hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, and acetyl-CoA. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that HNE can be catabolically disposed via ω- and ω-1-oxidation in rat liver and kidney, with little activity in brain and heart. Dietary experiments showed that ω- and ω-1-hydroxylation of HNA in rat liver were dramatically up-regulated by a ketogenic diet, which lowered HNE basal level. HET0016 inhibition and mRNA expression level suggested that the cytochrome P450 4A are main enzymes responsible for the NADPH-dependent ω- and ω-1-hydroxylation of HNA/HNE. PMID:25274632

  16. A gestational ketogenic diet alters maternal metabolic status as well as offspring physiological growth and brain structure in the neonatal mouse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the ketogenic diet (KD) among women of child-bearing age has been increasing, leading to increased interest in identifying the diet’s suitability during gestation. To date, no studies have thoroughly investigated the effect of a gestational KD on offspring growth. Since ketones have been reported to play a role in cerebral lipid and myelin synthesis, it is particularly important to investigate the diet’s impact on brain anatomy of the offspring. Methods To fill this knowledge gap we imaged CD-1 mouse neonates whose mothers were fed either a standard diet (SD) or a KD prior to and during gestation. Images were collected at postnatal (P) 11.5 and 21.5 using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Maternal metabolic status was also tracked during lactation, by following their body weight, blood glucose, ketone, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. Results The KD dams exhibit a significant reduction in maternal fertility and litter size, as well as a high risk of developing fatal ketoacidosis by mid-lactation. To increase survival of the KD dams and offspring, fostering of P2.5 pups (from both KD and SD litters) by SD-foster dams was carried out. This resulted in stabilization of blood ketones of the KD dams, and aversion of the fatal ketoacidosis. We also note a slower and smaller weight loss for the KD compared with the SD dams. The average fostered KD pup exhibits retarded growth by P21.5 compared with the average fostered SD pup. An anatomical comparison of their brains further revealed significant structural differences at P11.5, and particularly at P21.5. The KD brain shows a relative bilateral decrease in the cortex, fimbria, hippocampus, corpus callosum and lateral ventricle, but a relative volumetric enlargement of the hypothalamus and medulla. Conclusion A gestational ketogenic diet deleteriously affects maternal fertility and increases susceptibility to fatal ketoacidosis during lactation. Prenatal and early postnatal exposure to

  17. Rapid adaptation of rat brain and liver metabolism to a ketogenic diet: an integrated study using 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Maggie; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Naulin, Jérôme; El Hamrani, Dounia; Gallis, Jean-Louis; Cunnane, Stephen C; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine

    2015-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective alternative treatment for refractory epilepsy in children, but the mechanisms by which it reduces seizures are poorly understood. To investigate how the KD modifies brain metabolism, we infused control (CT) and 7-day KD rats with either [1-13C]glucose (Glc) or [2,4-13C2]β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB). Specific enrichments of amino acids (AAs) measured by 1H- and 13C-NMR in total brain perchloric acid extracts were similar between CT and KD rats after [1-13C]Glc infusion whereas they were higher in KD rats after [2,4-13C2]β-HB infusion. This suggests better metabolic efficiency of ketone body utilization on the KD. The relative rapid metabolic adaptation to the KD included (1) 11%-higher brain γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)/glutamate (Glu) ratio versus CT, (2) liver accumulation of the ketogenic branched-chain AAs (BCAAs) leucine (Leu) and isoleucine (ILeu), which were never detected in CT, and (3) higher brain Leu and ILeu contents. Since Glu and GABA are excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, respectively, higher brain GABA/Glu ratio could contribute to the mechanism by which the KD reduces seizures in epilepsy. Increased BCAA on the KD may also contribute to better seizure control. PMID:25785828

  18. Ketogenic diet delays the phase of circadian rhythms and does not affect AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Genzer, Yoni; Dadon, Maayan; Burg, Chen; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren

    2015-12-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is used for weight loss or to treat epilepsy. KD leads to liver AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which would be expected to inhibit gluconeogenesis. However, KD leads to increased hepatic glucose output. As AMPK and its active phosphorylated form (pAMPK) show circadian oscillation, this discrepancy could stem from wrong-time-of-day sampling. The effect of KD was tested on mouse clock gene expression, AMPK, mTOR, SIRT1 and locomotor activity for 2 months and compared to low-fat diet (LFD). KD led to 1.5-fold increased levels of blood glucose and insulin. Brain pAMPK/AMPK ratio was 40% higher under KD, whereas that in liver was not affected. KD led to 40% and 20% down-regulation of the ratio of pP70S6K/P70S6K, the downstream target of mTOR, in the brain and liver, respectively. SIRT1 levels were 40% higher in the brain, but 40% lower in the liver of KD-fed mice. Clock genes showed delayed rhythms under KD. In the brain of KD-fed mice, amplitudes of clock genes were down-regulated, whereas 6-fold up-regulation was found in the liver. The metabolic state under KD indicates reduced satiety in the brain and reduced anabolism alongside increased gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  19. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Goday, A; Bellido, D; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A B; Burguera, B; García-Luna, P P; Oleaga, A; Moreno, B; Casanueva, F F

    2016-01-01

    Brackground: The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Objective: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. Methods: Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m−2 participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months. Forty-five subjects were randomly assigned to the interventional weight loss (VLCK diet), and 44 to the standard low-calorie diet. Results: No significant differences in the laboratory safety parameters were found between the two study groups. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in VLCK diet were not significant and were comparable to control group. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen did not change significantly relative to baseline nor between groups. Weight loss and reduction in waist circumference in the VLCK diet group were significantly larger than in control subjects (both P<0.001). The decline in HbA1c and glycemic control was larger in the VLCK diet group (P<0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and mild AE in the VLCK diet group declined at last follow-up. Conclusions: The interventional weight loss program based on a VLCK diet is most effective in reducing body weight and improvement of glycemic control than a standard hypocaloric diet with safety and good tolerance for T2DM patients. PMID:27643725

  20. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans.

  1. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    PubMed

    Poff, A M; Ward, N; Seyfried, T N; Arnold, P; D'Agostino, D P

    2015-01-01

    The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT) and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control), low glucose (LG), ketone supplementation (βHB), hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT), or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT) on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers.

  2. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Poff, A. M.; Ward, N.; Seyfried, T. N.; Arnold, P.; D’Agostino, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies – the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT) and dietary ketone supplementation – could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control), low glucose (LG), ketone supplementation (βHB), hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT), or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT) on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers. PMID:26061868

  3. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    PubMed

    Poff, A M; Ward, N; Seyfried, T N; Arnold, P; D'Agostino, D P

    2015-01-01

    The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT) and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control), low glucose (LG), ketone supplementation (βHB), hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT), or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT) on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers. PMID:26061868

  4. The Ketogenic Diet Alters the Hypoxic Response and Affects Expression of Proteins Associated with Angiogenesis, Invasive Potential and Vascular Permeability in a Mouse Glioma Model

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Eric C.; Curley, Kara L.; Liu, Qingwei; Turner, Gregory H.; Charlton, Julie A.; Preul, Mark C.; Scheck, Adrienne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The successful treatment of malignant gliomas remains a challenge despite the current standard of care, which consists of surgery, radiation and temozolomide. Advances in the survival of brain cancer patients require the design of new therapeutic approaches that take advantage of common phenotypes such as the altered metabolism found in cancer cells. It has therefore been postulated that the high-fat, low-carbohydrate, adequate protein ketogenic diet (KD) may be useful in the treatment of brain tumors. We have demonstrated that the KD enhances survival and potentiates standard therapy in a mouse model of malignant glioma, yet the mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods To explore the effects of the KD on various aspects of tumor growth and progression, we used the immunocompetent, syngeneic GL261-Luc2 mouse model of malignant glioma. Results Tumors from animals maintained on KD showed reduced expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9, hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha, and decreased activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Additionally, tumors from animals maintained on KD had reduced tumor microvasculature and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vimentin. Peritumoral edema was significantly reduced in animals fed the KD and protein analyses showed altered expression of zona occludens-1 and aquaporin-4. Conclusions The KD directly or indirectly alters the expression of several proteins involved in malignant progression and may be a useful tool for the treatment of gliomas. PMID:26083629

  5. Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Holland, Angelia Maleah; Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Lowery, Ryan P; Shake, Joshua J; Patel, Romil K; Healy, James C; McCullough, Danielle J; Kluess, Heidi A; Huggins, Kevin W; Kavazis, Andreas N; Wilson, Jacob M; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P < 0.05). Absolute and relative (body mass-adjusted) omental adipose tissue (OMAT) masses were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and OMAT adipocyte diameters were lowest in KD-fed rats (P < 0.05). None of the assayed OMAT or subcutaneous (SQ) protein markers were affected by the diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum β-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss. PMID:27357802

  6. Modified Atkins diet therapy for a case with glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ito, Susumu; Oguni, Hirokazu; Ito, Yasushi; Ishigaki, Keiko; Ohinata, Junko; Osawa, Makiko

    2008-03-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 DS), giving rise to impaired glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier, is characterized by infantile seizures, complex motor disorders, global developmental delay, acquired microcephaly, and hypoglycorrhachia. GLUT-1 DS can be treated effectively with a ketogenic diet because it can provide an alternative fuel for brain metabolism; however, the excessive restriction of food intake involved frequently makes it difficult for patients to initiate or continue the diet. Recently, the modified Atkins diet, which is much less restrictive in terms of the total calorie and protein intake than the classical ketogenic diet, has been shown to be effective and well tolerated in children with intractable epilepsy. We successfully introduced the modified Atkins diet to a 7-year-old boy with GLUT-1 DS, whose caregivers refused ketogenic diet treatment because of strong concerns over restricting the diet. The modified Atkins diet should be considered for patients with GLUT-1 DS as an alternative to the traditional ketogenic diet.

  7. Safety and role of ketogenic parenteral nutrition for intractable childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da Eun; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Lee, Joon Soo; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Heung Dong

    2012-09-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the safety and role of ketogenic parenteral nutrition in patients with intractable childhood epilepsy. The ketogenic parenteral nutrition was given to 10 patients who were unable to absorb nutrients through the intestinal tract because of various gastrointestinal disorders and required complete bowel rest. This nutrition consisted of conventional intravenous fat emulsion (20% Lipision) plus dextrose and amino acid (6% Trophamine) hyperalimentation in a 4:1 (or 3:1) lipid to non-lipid ratio, infused during the bowel rest. If the ketogenic parenteral nutrition allowed normal daily functioning or resolved the underlying problems, we soon changed it to the enteral ketogenic diet (KD). The mean (±SD) duration of the ketogenic parenteral nutrition was 4.1 (±1.5) days. Although a brief span of several days, all patients could maintain ketosis and the efficacy of the previous enteral KD during the ketogenic parenteral nutrition. Complications included elevated aspartate aminotransferase and/or alanine aminotransferase in one patient. Amylase and lipase increased in one patient. Serum triglyceride level increased to the level of 1885 mg/dl in one patient, but normalized in one week after discontinuation of the ketogenic parenteral nutrition and resuming of the enteral KD. Nine patients (90%) remained on the enteral KD after the ketogenic parenteral nutrition (the mean follow-up period was 9 months), including 2 patients who successfully completed the diet with seizure free state. Only one patient discontinued the ketogenic parenteral nutrition because of persistent increase of the amylase and lipase levels. The ketogenic parenteral nutrition proved to be a relatively safe short-term method of continuing KD to maintain ketosis for seizure control, while patients were unable to absorb nutrients through their intestinal tract.

  8. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  9. Adaptation of Myocardial Substrate Metabolism to a Ketogenic Nutrient Environment*

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Anna E.; d'Avignon, D. André; Weber, Mary L.; Cotter, David G.; Doherty, Jason M.; Kerns, Robnet; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Reddy, Naveen; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Crawford, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Heart muscle is metabolically versatile, converting energy stored in fatty acids, glucose, lactate, amino acids, and ketone bodies. Here, we use mouse models in ketotic nutritional states (24 h of fasting and a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet) to demonstrate that heart muscle engages a metabolic response that limits ketone body utilization. Pathway reconstruction from microarray data sets, gene expression analysis, protein immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical analysis of myocardial tissue from nutritionally modified mouse models reveal that ketotic states promote transcriptional suppression of the key ketolytic enzyme, succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; encoded by Oxct1), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-dependent induction of the key ketogenic enzyme HMGCS2. Consistent with reduction of SCOT, NMR profiling demonstrates that maintenance on a ketogenic diet causes a 25% reduction of myocardial 13C enrichment of glutamate when 13C-labeled ketone bodies are delivered in vivo or ex vivo, indicating reduced procession of ketones through oxidative metabolism. Accordingly, unmetabolized substrate concentrations are higher within the hearts of ketogenic diet-fed mice challenged with ketones compared with those of chow-fed controls. Furthermore, reduced ketone body oxidation correlates with failure of ketone bodies to inhibit fatty acid oxidation. These results indicate that ketotic nutrient environments engage mechanisms that curtail ketolytic capacity, controlling the utilization of ketone bodies in ketotic states. PMID:20529848

  10. Adaptation of myocardial substrate metabolism to a ketogenic nutrient environment.

    PubMed

    Wentz, Anna E; d'Avignon, D André; Weber, Mary L; Cotter, David G; Doherty, Jason M; Kerns, Robnet; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Reddy, Naveen; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Crawford, Peter A

    2010-08-01

    Heart muscle is metabolically versatile, converting energy stored in fatty acids, glucose, lactate, amino acids, and ketone bodies. Here, we use mouse models in ketotic nutritional states (24 h of fasting and a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet) to demonstrate that heart muscle engages a metabolic response that limits ketone body utilization. Pathway reconstruction from microarray data sets, gene expression analysis, protein immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical analysis of myocardial tissue from nutritionally modified mouse models reveal that ketotic states promote transcriptional suppression of the key ketolytic enzyme, succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; encoded by Oxct1), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-dependent induction of the key ketogenic enzyme HMGCS2. Consistent with reduction of SCOT, NMR profiling demonstrates that maintenance on a ketogenic diet causes a 25% reduction of myocardial (13)C enrichment of glutamate when (13)C-labeled ketone bodies are delivered in vivo or ex vivo, indicating reduced procession of ketones through oxidative metabolism. Accordingly, unmetabolized substrate concentrations are higher within the hearts of ketogenic diet-fed mice challenged with ketones compared with those of chow-fed controls. Furthermore, reduced ketone body oxidation correlates with failure of ketone bodies to inhibit fatty acid oxidation. These results indicate that ketotic nutrient environments engage mechanisms that curtail ketolytic capacity, controlling the utilization of ketone bodies in ketotic states. PMID:20529848

  11. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women.

    PubMed

    Volek, Js; Sharman, Mj; Gómez, Al; Judelson, DA; Rubin, Mr; Watson, G; Sokmen, B; Silvestre, R; French, Dn; Kraemer, Wj

    2004-11-08

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK) and low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in overweight/obese men and women. DESIGN: Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day) diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%). SUBJECTS: 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean +/- s.e.m.: age 33.2 +/- 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 +/- 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 +/- 1.1 kg/m2) and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 +/- 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 +/- 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 +/- 1.1 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. RESULTS: Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28%) and the LF (~58:22:20%) were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day) compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day) diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake). The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the

  12. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    PubMed Central

    Volek, JS; Sharman, MJ; Gómez, AL; Judelson, DA; Rubin, MR; Watson, G; Sokmen, B; Silvestre, R; French, DN; Kraemer, WJ

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK) and low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day) diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%). Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2) and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2). Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28%) and the LF (~58:22:20%) were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day) compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day) diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake). The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the VLCK diet in

  13. A decade of the modified Atkins diet (2003–2013): Results, insights, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Henry, Bobbie J; Haney, Courtney A; Turner, Zahava

    2013-12-01

    The modified Atkins diet has been used since 2003 for the treatment of children and adults with refractory epilepsy.This “alternative” ketogenic diet is started in clinic, without fasting, hospitalization, and restriction of protein,calories, or fluid intake. Now after 10 years of continued use, approximately 400 patients have been reported in over 30 studies of the modified Atkins diet as treatment for intractable seizures, with results demonstrating similar efficacy to the ketogenic diet and improved tolerability. The modified Atkins diet is being increasingly used in the adult population. Clinical trials have provided insight into the mechanisms of action of dietary therapies overall. This review will discuss the past decade of experience with the modified Atkins diet as well as predictions for its role in the treatment of epilepsy a decade from now.

  14. A pilot study of the modified Atkins diet for Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Borsage, Jennifer L; Comi, Anne M

    2010-12-01

    The modified Atkins diet (MAD) is a dietary treatment for epilepsy which does not restrict fluids or calories. This theoretically makes the MAD safer than the ketogenic diet for children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Five children aged 4-18 years with SWS and at least monthly intractable seizures were started prospectively on the MAD for 6 months. All children had urinary ketosis and seizure improvement, including 3 with > 50% seizure reduction.

  15. Efficacy of the Atkins diet as therapy for intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Krauss, Gregory L; McGrogan, Jane R; Freeman, John M

    2003-12-23

    The ketogenic diet is effective for treating seizures in children with epilepsy. The Atkins diet can also induce a ketotic state, but has fewer protein and caloric restrictions, and has been used safely by millions of people worldwide for weight reduction. Six patients, aged 7 to 52 years, were started on the Atkins diet for the treatment of intractable focal and multifocal epilepsy. Five patients maintained moderate to large ketosis for periods of 6 weeks to 24 months; three patients had seizure reduction and were able to reduce antiepileptic medications. This provides preliminary evidence that the Atkins diet may have a role as therapy for patients with medically resistant epilepsy.

  16. Mechanism of protection of moderately diet restricted rats against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-11-15

    Clinical use of doxorubicin (Adriamycin (registered) ), an antitumor agent, is limited by its oxyradical-mediated cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that moderate diet restriction protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and inducing cardioprotective mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on diet restriction [35% less food than ad libitum]. Cardiotoxicity was estimated by measuring biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, cardiac function, lipid peroxidation, and histopathology. A LD{sub 100} dose of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, ip) administered on day 43 led to 100% mortality in ad libitum rats between 7 and 13 days due to higher cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction, whereas all the diet restricted rats exhibited normal cardiac function and survived. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed equal accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the ad libitum and diet restricted hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that diet restricted rats were protected due to (1) lower oxyradical stress from increased cardiac antioxidants leading to downregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) induction of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha} and plasma adiponectin increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (666.9 {+-}14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ad libitum versus 1035.6 {+-} 32.3 nmol/min/g heart in diet restriction) and mitochondrial AMP{alpha}2 protein kinase. The changes led to 51% higher cardiac ATP levels (17.7 {+-} 2.1 {mu}mol/g heart in ad libitum versus 26.7 {+-} 1.9 {mu}mol/g heart in diet restriction), higher ATP/ADP ratio, and (3) increased cardiac erythropoietin and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which upregulates cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings collectively show that moderate diet restriction renders resiliency against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress, enhancing ATP synthesis, and inducing the JAK/STAT3 pathway.

  17. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  18. [Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Rovenko, B M; Lushchak, V I; Lushchak, O V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40-50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60-70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

  19. Rationale for using intermittent calorie restriction as a dietary treatment for drug resistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Alan W C; Sander, Josemir W

    2014-04-01

    There has been resurgence in the use of dietary treatment, principally the classical ketogenic diet and its variants, for people with epilepsy. These diets generally require significant medical and dietician support. An effective but less restrictive dietary regimen is likely to be more acceptable and more widely used. Calorie-restricted diets appear to produce a range of biochemical and metabolic changes including reduced glucose levels, reduced inflammatory markers, increased sirtuins, increased AMPK signaling, inhibition of mTOR signaling, and increase in autophagy. There are studies in animal seizure models that suggest that these biochemical and metabolic changes may decrease ictogenesis and epileptogenesis. A calorie-restricted diet might be effective in reducing seizures in people with epilepsy. Hence, there is a sufficient rationale to undertake clinical trials to assess the efficacy and safety of calorie-restricted diets in people with epilepsy. PMID:24657501

  20. A practical guide to fad diets.

    PubMed

    Porcello, L A

    1984-07-01

    This discussion of fad diets may be concluded by comparing the 14 selected diets with the standards previously outlined for desirable weight reducing plans. Many of the popular diets supply large quantities of saturated fat and cholesterol, which are dietary components that have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Ketogenic diets are not appropriate for athletes because of problems with secondary dehydration and hyponatremia. Almost all of the diets are nutritionally inadequate. The rate of anticipated weight loss will vary according to the age, sex, weight, basal energy requirement, and activity level of an individual. However, it is expected that weight loss will be excessively rapid if a competitive athlete consumes a diet of less than 1000 calories per day. These hypocaloric diets cannot meet the training demands of athletes and will promote loss of lean body mass and carbohydrate stores. Many of the ketogenic diets do not restrict calories; therefore, weight loss will depend upon individual daily caloric consumption. The Cambridge Diet and starvation diets produce weight loss far in excess of that desired for an athlete in training. Long-term eating patterns to maintain weight loss are not encouraged in any of the 14 selected fad diets. In fact, most of these diets promote patterns of poor nutrition. Not one of the diets provides options or choices for dieters to use in accommodating food preference and lifestyle patterns. Some of the diets are fairly easy to comply with and others require special foods and supplements. None of the 14 diets reviewed fulfull all of the standards for a sound weight reduction diet plan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability.

  2. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of diet related perinatal folic acid restriction.

    PubMed

    Middaugh, L D; Grover, T A; Blackwell, L A; Zemp, J W

    1976-08-01

    Some effects of restricting dietary folic acid during the perinatal period on tissue folate and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) concentrations and on behavior were examined in 35-day-old DBA/2J mice. In one study dams were started on diets containing no folate (FO), 1.1 mg of folic acid/kg diet (F1.1) or 9.9 mg of folic acid/kg diet (F9.9) on the day of parturition. In a second study some mice were started on the FO or F9.9 diets 6-7 days prior to parturition and some remained on lab chow (LC). The dams and their pups remained on their assigned diets until offspring were killed for biochemical assays. The major findings of the 2 studies are: (1) that eliminating folic acid from diets of dams and developing pups from birth or 1 week prior to birth causes a reduction of folate in brain tissue; (2) that reduction in brain tissue is not as severe as that of liver; (3) that initiating the folate free diet 1 week prior to birth caused reductions in body, liver, and brain weights and in activity levels of surviving offspring; and (4) that offspring of dams started on either the FO or F9.9 diet one week prior to parturition are less viable and have lower levels of SAM in brain tissue than animals reared on the LC diets. PMID:996047

  3. Effects of diet, energy restriction and diabetes on hexose transport in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H D; Schedl, H P

    1979-05-01

    1. Effects of dietary composition, energy restriction, and diabetes on hexose absorption were examined by feeding male rats isoenergetic, semi-synthetic diets of differing carbohydrate and protein content. Diets were carbohydrate, (g/kg): 890 sucrose; carbohydrate-protien, 500 sucrose, 390 casein; or protein, 890 casein. An additional group was fed on commercial rat chow ad lib. 2. Hexose (3-O-methyl-D-glucose) absorption was measured by luminal perfusion of the entire small intestine in situ. Absorption by the total small intestine, i.e. absorption per rat, and absorption per g dry weight of mucosa (specific absorption) were calculated. 3. When semi-synthetic diets were fed at 210 kJ/d to normal animals absorption depended on composition of diets: carbohydrate enhanced or protein suppressed hexose absorption. Dietary carbohydrate as glucose, dextrimaltose or starch gave the same hexose absorption response as sucrose. 4. When diets of normal rats were restricted to 118 kJ/d, specific absorption was independent of dietary composition and was increased for all dietary groups to the level of the group fed on the carbohydrate diet at 210 kJ/d. 5. When diabetic rats were given 210 kJ/d, hexose specific absorption was the same for all diabetic groups independent of dietary composition and was equal to that of controls given carbohydrate, but greater than that of protein-fed controls. 6. Thus, when two of the three stimuli (i.e. carbohydrate diet plus energy restriction or diabetes) were combined, the effect was not additive, and the response of hexose specific absorption to diabetes and energy restriction was the same: absorption was independent of dietary composition and was stimulated relative to controls fed on diets containing protein. 7. The pattern of response of total small intestinal hexose absorption to the stimuli of dietary composition, energy restriction and diabetes was similar to that of specific absorption. 8. Compared with groups given semi

  4. Physiogenomic comparison of human fat loss in response to diets restrictive of carbohydrate or fat

    PubMed Central

    Seip, Richard L; Volek, Jeff S; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic factors that predict responses to diet may ultimately be used to individualize dietary recommendations. We used physiogenomics to explore associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and changes in relative body fat (Δ%BF) to low fat and low carbohydrate diets. Methods We assessed Δ%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 28 candidate genes involved in food intake, energy homeostasis, and adipocyte regulation were ranked according to probability of association with the change in %BF using multiple linear regression. Results Dieting reduced %BF by 3.0 ± 2.6% (absolute units) for LC and 1.9 ± 1.6% for LF (p < 0.01). SNPs in nine genes were significantly associated with Δ%BF, with four significant after correction for multiple statistical testing: rs322695 near the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) (p < 0.005), rs2838549 in the hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFKL), and rs3100722 in the histamine N-methyl transferase (HNMT) genes (both p < 0.041) due to LF; and the rs5950584 SNP in the angiotensin receptor Type II (AGTR2) gene due to LC (p < 0.021). Conclusion Fat loss under LC and LF diet regimes appears to have distinct mechanisms, with PFKL and HNMT and RARB involved in fat restriction; and AGTR2 involved in carbohydrate restriction. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Δ%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat diets. PMID:18254975

  5. Parental restriction and children's diets. The chocolate coin and Easter egg experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Cordey, Phillipa; Cutler, Laura; Thomas, Hayley

    2013-02-01

    Two naturalistic experiments are reported exploring the impact of parental restriction on children's diets. For study 1, 53 parents gave 75 g of chocolate coins to their child over a weekend. For study 2, 86 parents were recruited prior to the 2 week Easter break when their children would be receiving chocolate Easter eggs. For both studies, parents were randomly allocated to either the non-restriction or restriction conditions and rated their child's preoccupation with the target food and other sweet foods (demanding and eating) at the start and end of the interventions. Perceived and actual food intake was assessed. Children in the restriction conditions consumed fewer chocolate coins and Easter eggs. All children showed decreased preoccupation with chocolate coins or Easter eggs over the course of the studies yet by the end the restriction group were more preoccupied with the target food. In contrast, all children showed an increased preoccupation with other sweet foods as the studies progressed which was greater in the non-restriction group for the chocolate coins study. Overall, restriction resulted in reduced intake but relative increased preoccupation with the food being restricted. Non-restriction resulted in a greater preoccupation with other sweet foods once the target foods had been consumed.

  6. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  7. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  8. Antioxidant status of pair-fed labrador retrievers is affected by diet restriction and aging.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Howard D; Lawler, Dennis F; Kealy, Richard D

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-four sibling pairs of 8-wk-old Labrador Retrievers were assigned to an experiment to determine the effects of diet restriction (75% of control-fed pair mate) on the quality and span of canine life and to identify biological markers of aging in dogs. The antioxidant status of these dogs was monitored by annual assays for serum retinol (RT), retinyl palmitate (RP), total vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and ceruloplasmin (Cp), plasma ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and total peroxyl-radical trapping activity (TRAP), and whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). Data in this report are for the 6-y period of the experiment when the dogs were between 5 and 10 y of age. Diet restriction reduced RT, VE, Cu, and Cp. Aging was associated with decreased RP, VA, VE, Se, and Cu and with increased RT, Cp, and Gpx. Female dogs had lower RP, VA, Cu, and Cp than male dogs. Litter effects were observed for VE, Cu, UA, and Gpx. Treatment effects on serum RT and Cu suggest that these variables are not as regulated homeostatically by hepatic storage as in most other species. Although the antioxidant profiles did not elucidate how diet restriction contributes to longevity, they have the potential to enhance our understanding of canine clinical nutrition and to have practical applications in formulating canine diets. PMID:16772447

  9. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces diet-induced obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing obesity may alleviate many medical complications including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has been suggested that obesity is contributed by the disruption of the circadian rhythms in addition to increased caloric intake. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day ma...

  10. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  11. [National consensus on the ketogenic diet].

    PubMed

    Armeno, Marisa; Caraballo, Roberto; Vaccarezza, María; Alberti, M Julia; Ríos, Viviana; Galicchio, Santiago; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; Mestre, Graciela; Escobal, Nidia; Matarrese, Pablo; Viollaz, Rocío; Agostinho, Ariela; Díez, Cecilia; Cresta, Araceli; Cabrera, Analía; Blanco, Virginia; Ferrero, Hilario; Gambarini, Victoria; Sosa, Patricia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Caramuta, Luciana; Guisande, Silvina; Gamboni, Beatriz; Hassan, Amal; Pesce, Laura; Argumedo, Laura; Dlugoszewski, Corina; DeMartini, Martha G; Panico, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Introduccion. La epilepsia es una enfermedad cronica que afecta al 0,5-1% de la poblacion, mayormente de inicio durante la infancia. Un tercio de los pacientes evoluciona hacia una forma refractaria al tratamiento con farmacos antiepilepticos, lo que plantea al equipo de salud un desafio terapeutico. La dieta cetogenica (DC) es un tratamiento no farmacologico efectivo utilizado como un metodo alternativo para el tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria. Objetivos. Es necesario establecer directrices para utilizar la DC adecuadamente y asi expandir su conocimiento y utilizacion en paises hispanoparlantes. El Comite Nacional de Dieta Cetogenica, dependiente de la Sociedad Argentina de Neurologia Infantil, elaboro este consenso para estandarizar el uso de la DC basandose en la bibliografia publicada y la experiencia clinica. El grupo esta formado por neuropediatras, medicos nutricionistas y licenciadas en nutricion de cinco provincias de Argentina pertenecientes a 10 centros que aplican la DC como tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria. Desarrollo. Se exponen temas tales como la seleccion del paciente, el asesoramiento a la familia antes del tratamiento, las interacciones de la DC con la medicacion anticonvulsionante, los suplementos, el control de efectos adversos y la retirada de dicha dieta. Conclusiones. La DC es un tratamiento util para los pacientes pediatricos con epilepsia intratable. Es fundamental la educacion y colaboracion del paciente y la familia. El tratamiento debe llevarlo a cabo un equipo interdisciplinar experimentado, siguiendo un protocolo. La formacion de un grupo nacional interdisciplinar, y la publicacion de este consenso, ofrece la posibilidad de orientar a nuevos centros en su implantacion.

  12. Effects of sleep restriction on glucose control and insulin secretion during diet-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41 [5] y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7 [3] months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131 [30] min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492

  13. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-05-10

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent.

  14. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Jessica L; McCay, Timothy S; Garneau, Danielle E

    2012-09-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards.

  15. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, Jessica L.; McCay, Timothy S.; Garneau, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  16. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  17. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  18. Iodine Deficiency and Hypothyroidism From Voluntary Diet Restrictions in the US: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Booms, Stephanie; Hill, Elizabeth; Kulhanek, Leah; Vredeveld, Jennifer; Gregg, Brigid

    2016-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is rare in the United States today, and this is largely due to the effectiveness of iodization in the general food supply. Recent trends among specific populations of children in the United States include adopting food restrictions, such casein-free and gluten-free diets. Although the effect of these types of diets on overall nutrition status and certain micronutrients has been studied in children with autism spectrum disorder, the effect of these limitations on iodine levels in children has not been assessed. We present here 2 cases of iodine deficiency resulting from severe food restriction and associated primary hypothyroidism. In 1 case a classic presentation with a goiter was seen. These children were able to discontinue thyroid hormone treatment once iodine levels were normalized. There were no adverse events or unanticipated outcomes. The occurrence of these cases of iodine deficiency in the United States points to the need for thyroid function testing in children with severe food restrictions, especially those who have limited exposure to dairy, baked goods, and table salt.

  19. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    PubMed

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. PMID:24291541

  20. Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Phinney, Stephen D; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Quann, Erin E; Wood, Richard J; Puglisi, Michael J; Kraemer, William J; Bibus, Doug M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Feinman, Richard D

    2009-04-01

    We recently proposed that the biological markers improved by carbohydrate restriction were precisely those that define the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and that the common thread was regulation of insulin as a control element. We specifically tested the idea with a 12-week study comparing two hypocaloric diets (approximately 1,500 kcal): a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = 12:59:28) and a low-fat diet (LFD) (56:24:20) in 40 subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Both interventions led to improvements in several metabolic markers, but subjects following the CRD had consistently reduced glucose (-12%) and insulin (-50%) concentrations, insulin sensitivity (-55%), weight loss (-10%), decreased adiposity (-14%), and more favorable triacylglycerol (TAG) (-51%), HDL-C (13%) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (-14%) responses. In addition to these markers for MetS, the CRD subjects showed more favorable responses to alternative indicators of cardiovascular risk: postprandial lipemia (-47%), the Apo B/Apo A-1 ratio (-16%), and LDL particle distribution. Despite a threefold higher intake of dietary saturated fat during the CRD, saturated fatty acids in TAG and cholesteryl ester were significantly decreased, as was palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), an endogenous marker of lipogenesis, compared to subjects consuming the LFD. Serum retinol binding protein 4 has been linked to insulin-resistant states, and only the CRD decreased this marker (-20%). The findings provide support for unifying the disparate markers of MetS and for the proposed intimate connection with dietary carbohydrate. The results support the use of dietary carbohydrate restriction as an effective approach to improve features of MetS and cardiovascular risk.

  1. Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Ballard, Kevin D; Silvestre, Ricardo; Judelson, Daniel A; Quann, Erin E; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J

    2009-12-01

    We previously reported that a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) ameliorated many of the traditional markers associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk compared with a low-fat diet (LFD). There remains concern how CRD affects vascular function because acute meals high in fat have been shown to impair endothelial function. Here, we extend our work and address these concerns by measuring fasting and postprandial vascular function in 40 overweight men and women with moderate hypertriacylglycerolemia who were randomly assigned to consume hypocaloric diets (approximately 1500 kcal) restricted in carbohydrate (percentage of carbohydrate-fat-protein = 12:59:28) or LFD (56:24:20). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery was assessed before and after ingestion of a high-fat meal (908 kcal, 84% fat) at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared with the LFD, the CRD resulted in a greater decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol (-47% vs -15%, P = .007), insulin (-51% vs -6%, P = .009), and lymphocyte (-12% vs -1%, P = .050) responses. Postprandial fatty acids were significantly increased by the CRD compared with the LFD (P = .033). Serum interleukin-6 increased significantly over the postprandial period; and the response was augmented in the CRD (46%) compared with the LFD (-13%) group (P = .038). After 12 weeks, peak flow-mediated dilation at 3 hours increased from 5.1% to 6.5% in the CRD group and decreased from 7.9% to 5.2% in the LFD group (P = .004). These findings show that a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet improves postprandial vascular function more than a LFD in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  2. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces adiposity and inflammatory cytokine production in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythms contributes to obesity. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day may reset the circadian rhythms and reduce obesity and resulting complications. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity...

  3. The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid. Plant proteins - especially those derived from legumes or nuts - tend to be lower in methionine than animal proteins. Furthermore, the total protein content of vegan diets, as a function of calorie content, tends to be lower than that of omnivore diets, and plant protein has somewhat lower bioavailability than animal protein. Whole-food vegan diets that moderate bean and soy intake, while including ample amounts of fruit and wine or beer, can be quite low in methionine, while supplying abundant nutrition for health (assuming concurrent B12 supplementation). Furthermore, low-fat vegan diets, coupled with exercise training, can be expected to promote longevity by decreasing systemic levels of insulin and free IGF-I; the latter effect would be amplified by methionine restriction - though it is not clear whether IGF-I down-regulation is the sole basis for the impact of low-methionine diets on longevity in rodents.

  4. Low-carbohydrate diets cause obesity, low-carbohydrate diets reverse obesity: a metabolic mechanism resolving the paradox

    PubMed Central

    Mobbs, Charles V.; Mastaitis, Jason; Yen, Kelvin; Schwartz, Joseph; Mohan, Vinuta; Poplawski, Michal; Isoda, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    High-fat diets produce obesity in part because, per calorie, glucose produces greater post-prandial thermogenesis than lipids, an effect probably mediated by glucose-sensing neurons. A very low carbohydrate/high-fat/high-protein Atkins-type diet produces obesity but is marginally ketogenic in mice. In contrast, high-sucrose/low-fat diets, and very low carbohydrate/high-fat/low-protein (anti-epileptic) ketogenic diets reverse diet-induced obesity independent of caloric intake. We propose that a non-ketogenic high-fat diet reduces glucose metabolism and signaling in glucose-sensing neurons, thereby reducing postprandial thermogenesis, and that a ketogenic high-fat diet does not reduce glucose signaling, thereby preventing and/or reversing obesity. PMID:17141367

  5. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  6. The modified Atkins diet.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L

    2008-11-01

    In 2003, a case series was published describing the benefits of a less restrictive ketogenic diet (KD) started as an outpatient without a fast and without any restrictions on calories, fluids, or protein. This "Modified Atkins Diet" (MAD) restricts carbohydrates to 10 g/day (15 g/day in adults) while encouraging high fat foods. Now 5 years later, there have been eight prospective and retrospective studies published on this alternative dietary therapy, both in children as well as adults. In these reports, 45 (45%) have had 50-90% seizure reduction, and 28 (28%) >90% seizure reduction, which is remarkably similar to the traditional KD. This review will discuss basics and tips to best provide the MAD, evidence for its efficacy, suggestions about the role of ketosis in dietary treatment efficacy, and its side effect profile. Lastly, the possible future benefits of this treatment for new-onset seizures, adults, neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, and developing countries of the world will be discussed.

  7. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Rivas, Donato A.; Ezzyat, Yassine; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Andrew J.; McClung, James P.; Fielding, Roger A.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or CR (40% restriction), adequate (10%), or high (32%) protein (PRO) milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05) in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05), respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05) in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27649241

  8. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Rivas, Donato A; Ezzyat, Yassine; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Andrew J; McClung, James P; Fielding, Roger A; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or CR (40% restriction), adequate (10%), or high (32%) protein (PRO) milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g(-1) lower (p < 0.05) in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05), respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05) in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR-specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content-may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27649241

  9. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Rivas, Donato A; Ezzyat, Yassine; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Andrew J; McClung, James P; Fielding, Roger A; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or CR (40% restriction), adequate (10%), or high (32%) protein (PRO) milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g(-1) lower (p < 0.05) in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05), respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05) in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR-specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content-may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  10. Components of an anticancer diet: dietary recommendations, restrictions and supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Cynthia; Page, Stacey; Bell, Laurie Heilman; Verhoef, Marja

    2011-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol's development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol's safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  11. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, Cynthia; Page, Stacey; Bell, Laurie Heilman; Verhoef, Marja

    2010-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs. PMID:22254073

  12. Influence of restricted diet on epithelial renewal and maturation in the mice jejunum.

    PubMed

    Koga, A; Kimura, S

    1978-01-01

    It has been known that the intestinal epithelial cell is characterized by a rapid cell turnover and by a gradient of differentiation from crypt to villus. The present study was undertaken to clarity the effect of diet on the migration and the maturation of the intestinal epithelial cells. The transit time from the crypt to the extrusion zone at the villus tip was determined with tritiated thymidine. To study the maturation of the cells the distribution of the terminal digestive enzymes, maltase [EC 3.2.1.20] and leucylnaphthylamidase E1EC 3.4.1.1], along the villus and crypt was analyzed quantitatively. And total activities of the same enzymes were assayed also in the mucosal homogenates. It was observed that the decrease in the migrating speed of villus cells was brought by energy restriction and the decrease in the migrating speed was associated with an increase of the enzyme activities in the upper zone of villus. And the result was that the intestinal epithelial cells which decrease in migrating speed by dietary restriction become more mature on the upper villus than those with unrestriced control.

  13. Responses of brown adipose tissue to diet-induced obesity, exercise, dietary restriction and ephedrine treatment.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Nikki; Durrant, Jessica R; Bailey, David; Yoon, Lawrence; Jordan, Holly; Barton, Joanna; Brown, Roger H; Clifton, Lisa; Milliken, Tula; Harrington, Wallace; Kimbrough, Carie; Faber, Catherine A; Cariello, Neal; Elangbam, Chandikumar S

    2013-07-01

    Drug-induced weight loss in humans has been associated with undesirable side effects not present in weight loss from lifestyle interventions (caloric restriction or exercise). To investigate the mechanistic differences of weight loss by drug-induced and lifestyle interventions, we examined the gene expression (mRNA) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and conducted histopathologic assessments in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice given ephedrine (18 mg/kg/day orally), treadmill exercise (10 m/min, 1-h/day), and dietary restriction (DR: 26% dietary restriction) for 7 days. Exercise and DR mice lost more body weight than controls and both ephedrine and exercise reduced percent body fat. All treatments reduced BAT and liver lipid accumulation (i.e., cytoplasmic lipids in brown adipocytes and hepatocytes) and increased oxygen consumption (VO2 ml/kg/h) compared with controls. Mitochondrial biogenesis/function-related genes (TFAM, NRF1 and GABPA) were up-regulated in the BAT of all groups. UCP-1 was up-regulated in exercise and ephedrine groups, whereas MFSD2A was up-regulated in ephedrine and DR groups. PGC-1α up-regulation was observed in exercise and DR groups but not in ephedrine group. In all experimental groups, except for ephedrine, fatty acid transport and metabolism genes were up-regulated, but the magnitude of change was higher in the DR group. PRKAA1 was up-regulated in all groups but not significantly in the ephedrine group. ADRß3 was slightly up-regulated in the DR group only, whereas ESRRA remained unchanged in all groups. Although our data suggest a common pathway of BAT activation elicited by ephedrine treatment, exercise or DR, mRNA changes were indicative of additional nutrient-sensing pathways in exercise and DR.

  14. Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on emerging plasma markers for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Richard J; Volek, Jeff S; Davis, Steven R; Dell'Ova, Carly; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2006-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence supports carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) for weight loss and improvement in traditional markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD); less is known regarding emerging CVD risk factors. We previously reported that a weight loss intervention based on a CRD (% carbohydrate:fat:protein = 13:60:27) led to a mean weight loss of 7.5 kg and a 20% reduction of abdominal fat in 29 overweight men. This group showed reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and elevations in HDL-cholesterol as well as reductions in large and medium VLDL particles and increases in LDL particle size. In this study we report on the effect of this intervention with and without fiber supplementation on plasma homocysteine, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Methods Twenty nine overweight men [body mass index (BMI) 25–35 kg/m2] aged 20–69 years consumed an ad libitum CRD (% carbohydrate:fat:protein = 13:60:27) including a standard multivitamin every other day for 12 wk. Subjects were matched by age and BMI and randomly assigned to consume 3 g/d of either a soluble fiber supplement (n = 14) or placebo (n = 15). Results There were no group or interaction (fiber × time) main effects, but significant time effects were observed for several variables. Energy intake was spontaneously reduced (-30.5%). This was accompanied by an increase in protein intake (96.2 ± 29.8 g/d to 107.3 ± 29.7 g/d) and methionine intake (2.25 ± 0.7 g/d, to 2.71 ± 0.78 g/d; P < 0.001). Trans fatty acid intake was significantly reduced (-38.6%) while dietary folate was unchanged, as was plasma homocysteine. Bodyweight (-7.5 ± 2.5 kg) was reduced as was plasma Lp(a) (-11.3%). Changes in plasma Lp(a) correlated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol (r = .436, P < 0.05) and fat loss (r = .385, P < 0,05). At wk 12, both CRP (-8.1%) and TNF-α (-9.3%) were reduced (P < 0.05) independently of weight loss. IL-6

  15. VEGF mRNA in adipocytes increase with rebound weight-gain after diet-restriction.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Kanae; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Yasui, Tomoyo; Morimura, Mina; Nobeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Eri; Noriyuki, Maiko; Honda, Kenichi; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Ishiko, Osamu

    2004-03-01

    The mechanism of rebound body weight-gain after a restricted-diet state is unclear. We investigated the expression of angiogenic factors in human adipocytes with a changing nutritional state in culture medium, and attempted to ascertain the mechanisms involved in rebound weight-gain. Adipocytes were divided into three groups; the first group (control group) was cultured in medium with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), the second (DR3% group) was cultured in medium with 3% FCS, and the third (DR6% group) was cultured in medium with 6% FCS. After being cultured for 48 h, each was next cultured with 12% FCS for a further 48 h. When made to change from a low nutrition state to a higher one, adipocytes changed from hypotrophic to hypertrophic. Simultaneously, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture medium increased significantly. When investigated immunohistochemically, the expression of VEGF was similarly shown in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. The same tendency with the same quantity of mRNA was shown by RT-PCR. These results show that VEGF produced and secreted from adipocytes increases, when the cultivation state of adipocytes is changed from a low nutritional state to a higher one. VEGF produced and secreted from adipocytes may be related to rebound weight-gain.

  16. Neuropsychological Studies on Adolescents with Phenylketonuria Returned to Phenylalanine-Restricted Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, J. T. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated neuropsychological effects of high or low phenylalanine diets on nine phenylketonuric (PKU) adolescents who had been on unrestricted diets for 2 to 11 years. Results found that PKU adolescents on unrestricted diets have a neuropsychological deficit which can be partly reversed by returning to dietary phenylalanine restricted…

  17. A randomized, crossover comparison of daily carbohydrate limits using the modified Atkins diet.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Turner, Zahava; Bluml, Renee M; Pyzik, Paula L; Vining, Eileen P G

    2007-05-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a dietary therapy for intractable epilepsy that mimics the ketogenic diet, yet does not restrict protein, calories, and fluids. The ideal starting carbohydrate limit is unknown. Twenty children with intractable epilepsy were randomized to either 10 or 20 g of carbohydrates per day for the initial 3 months of the modified Atkins diet, and then crossed over to the opposite amount. A significantly higher likelihood of >50% seizure reduction was noted for children started on 10 g of carbohydrate per day at 3 months: 60% versus 10% (P=0.03). Most parents reported no change in seizure frequency or ketosis between groups, but improved tolerability with 20 g per day. A starting carbohydrate limit of 10 g per day for children starting the modified Atkins diet may be ideal, with a planned increase to a more tolerable 20 g per day after 3 months.

  18. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-05-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups.

  19. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity.

  20. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity. PMID:25516334

  1. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF THE DASH DIET ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH EXERCISE AND CALORIC RESTRICTION ON INSULIN SENSITIVITY AND LIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Babyak, Michael A.; Sherwood, Andrew; Craighead, Linda; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Johnson, Julie; Watkins, Lana L.; Wang, Jenny T.; Kuhn, Cynthia; Feinglos, Mark; Hinderliter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on insulin sensitivity and lipids. In a randomized control trial, 144 overweight (body mass index 25–40) men (N= 47) and women (N= 97) with high blood pressure (130–159/85–99 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to either: (1) DASH diet alone (DASH-A); (2) DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction (DASH-WM); or usual diet controls (UC). Body composition, fitness, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipids were measured before and following 4 months of treatment. Insulin sensitivity was estimated based on glucose and insulin levels in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load. Participants in the DASH-WM condition lost weight (−8.7 [95% CI = −2.0, −9.7] kg,), and exhibited a significant increase in aerobic capacity, while the DASH-A and UC participants maintained their weight (−0.3 [95% CI = −1.2, 0.5] kg and +0.9 [95% CI = 0.0, 1.7] kg, respectively) and had no improvement in exercise capacity. DASH-WM demonstrated lower glucose levels following the oral glucose load, improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total cholesterol and triglycerides compared to both DASH-A and UC, and lower fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to UC; DASH-A participants generally did not differ from UC in these measures. Combining the DASH diet with exercise and weight loss resulted in significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipids. Despite clinically significant reductions in blood pressure, the DASH diet alone, without caloric restriction or exercise, resulted in minimal improvements in insulin sensitivity or lipids. PMID:20212264

  3. Taurine supplementation preserves hypothalamic leptin action in normal and protein-restricted mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Rafael L; Batista, Thiago M; Ribeiro, Rosane A; Branco, Renato C S; Da Silva, Priscilla M R; Izumi, Clarice; Araujo, Thiago R; Greene, Lewis J; Boschero, Antonio C; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2015-11-01

    Malnutrition programs the neuroendocrine axis by disruption of food-intake control, leading to obesity. Taurine (Tau) is neuroprotective and improves anorexigenic actions in the hypothalamus. We evaluated the hypothalamic gene-expression profile and food-intake control in protein-restricted mice submitted to a high-fat diet (HFD) and Tau supplementation. Mice were fed on a control (14 % protein-C) or a protein-restricted diet (6 % protein-R) for 6 weeks. Thereafter, mice received, or not, HFD for 8 weeks (CH and RH) with or without 5 % Tau supplementation (CHT and RHT). Protein restriction led to higher food intake, but calories were matched to controls. Excessive calorie intake occurred in HFD mice and this was prevented by Tau supplementation only in the CH group. Additionally, RH and CH mice developed hypothalamic leptin resistance, which was prevented by Tau. Global alterations in the expressions of genes involved in hypothalamic metabolism, cellular defense, apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways were induced by dietary manipulations and Tau treatment. The orexigenic peptides NPY and AgRP were increased by protein restriction and lowered by the HFD. The anorexigenic peptide Pomc was increased by HFD, and this was prevented by Tau only in CH mice. Thus, food intake was disrupted by dietary protein restriction and obesity. HFD-induced alterations were not enhanced by previous protein deficiency, but the some beneficial effects of Tau supplementation upon food intake were blunted by protein restriction. Tau effects upon feeding behavior control are complex and involve interactions with a vast gene network, preventing hypothalamic leptin resistance. PMID:26133737

  4. Salicylate elimination diets in children: is food restriction supported by the evidence?

    PubMed

    Gray, Paul E A; Mehr, Sam; Katelaris, Constance H; Wainstein, Brynn K; Star, Anita; Campbell, Dianne; Joshi, Preeti; Wong, Melanie; Frankum, Brad; Keat, Karuna; Dunne, Geraldine; Dennison, Barbara; Kakakios, Alyson; Ziegler, John B

    2013-06-17

    A review of case notes from our Sydney-based paediatric allergy services, between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2011, identified 74 children who had been prescribed diets that eliminated foods containing natural salicylates before attending our clinics. The most common indications for starting the diets were eczema (34/74) and behavioural disturbances (17/74) including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We could find no peer-reviewed evidence to support the efficacy of salicylate elimination diets in managing these diseases. We do not prescribe these diets, and in a survey of European and North American food allergy experts, only 1/23 respondents used a similar diet for eczema, with none of the respondents using salicylate elimination to treat ADHD. A high proportion (31/66) of children suffered adverse outcomes, including nutritional deficiencies and food aversion, with four children developing eating disorders. We could find no published evidence to support the safety of these diets in children. While this uncontrolled study does not prove a causal relationship between salicylate elimination diets and harm, the frequency of adverse events appears high, and in the absence of evidence of safety or efficacy, we cannot recommend the use of these diets in children.

  5. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to protein diets and energy restriction: a randomized control trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite some beneficial effects on bone, high protein diets are conventionally considered a primary dietary risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fracture due to the acid load associated with protein catabolism. To test the hypothesis that high dietary protein diets do not negatively affect calcium ...

  6. Eggs modulate the inflammatory response to carbohydrate restricted diets in overweight men

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Joseph C; Mutungi, Gisella; Puglisi, Michael J; Volek, Jeff S; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2008-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) consistently lower glucose and insulin levels and improve atherogenic dyslipidemia [decreasing triglycerides and increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)]. We have previously shown that male subjects following a CRD experienced significant increases in HDL-C only if they were consuming a higher intake of cholesterol provided by eggs compared to those individuals who were taking lower concentrations of dietary cholesterol. Here, as a follow up of our previous study, we examined the effects of eggs (a source of both dietary cholesterol and lutein) on adiponectin, a marker of insulin sensitivity, and on inflammatory markers in the context of a CRD. Methods Twenty eight overweight men [body mass index (BMI) 26–37 kg/m2] aged 40–70 y consumed an ad libitum CRD (% energy from CHO:fat:protein = 17:57:26) for 12 wk. Subjects were matched by age and BMI and randomly assigned to consume eggs (EGG, n = 15) (640 mg additional cholesterol/day provided by eggs) or placebo (SUB, n = 13) (no additional dietary cholesterol). Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention to assess plasma lipids, insulin, adiponectin and markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1). Results Body weight, percent total body fat and trunk fat were reduced for all subjects after 12 wk (P < 0.0001). Increases in adiponectin were also observed (P < 0.01). Subjects in the EGG group had a 21% increase in this adipokine compared to a 7% increase in the SUB group (P < 0.05). Plasma CRP was significantly decreased only in the EGG group (P < 0.05). MCP-1 levels were decreased for the SUB group (P < 0.001), but unchanged in the EGG group. VCAM-1, ICAM-1, TNF-α, and IL-8 were not modified by CRD or eggs. Conclusion A CRD with daily intake of

  7. New research with diets and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Cross, J Helen

    2013-08-01

    The ketogenic diet is not a new treatment for the treatment of epilepsy, but the degree of literature now available seems to have given it a new lease of life. Over the past 12 years, there has been more scientific data on both benefits and effect of the ketogenic diet. Data demonstrate a clear benefit in efficacy. We also have a clearer idea in utilization, type of diet to use, and in whom. Questions however remain and further work is required, not least in recognizing likely candidates and in simplifying administration. PMID:23680944

  8. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation. PMID:23890357

  9. The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Madero, Magdalena; Arriaga, Julio C; Jalal, Diana; Rivard, Christopher; McFann, Kim; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Vázquez, Armando; Ruiz, Arturo; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Jimenez, Carlos Roncal; Johnson, Richard J; Lozada, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    One of the proposed causes of obesity and metabolic syndrome is the excessive intake of products containing added sugars, in particular, fructose. Although the ability of excessive intake of fructose to induce metabolic syndrome is mounting, to date, no study has addressed whether a diet specifically lowering fructose but not total carbohydrates can reduce features of metabolic syndrome. A total of 131 patients were randomized to compare the short-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets-a low-fructose diet vs a moderate natural fructose diet-on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters. Patients were randomized to receive 1500, 1800, or 2000 cal diets according to sex, age, and height. Because natural fructose might be differently absorbed compared with fructose from added sugars, we randomized obese subjects to either a low-fructose diet (<20 g/d) or a moderate-fructose diet with natural fruit supplements (50-70 g/d) and compared the effects of both diets on the primary outcome of weight loss in a 6-week follow-up period. Blood pressure, lipid profile, serum glucose, insulin resistance, uric acid, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and quality of life scores were included as secondary outcomes. One hundred two (78%) of the 131 participants were women, mean age was 38.8 ± 8.8 years, and the mean body mass index was 32.4 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). Each intervention diet was associated with significant weight loss compared with baseline. Weight loss was higher in the moderate natural fructose group (4.19 ± 0.30 kg) than the low-fructose group (2.83 ± 0.29 kg) (P = .0016). Compared with baseline, each intervention diet was associated with significant improvement in secondary outcomes. Reduction of energy and added fructose intake may represent an important therapeutic target to reduce the frequency of obesity and diabetes. For weight loss achievement, an energy-restricted moderate natural fructose diet was superior to a low-fructose diet.

  10. Angiogenesis in adipose tissues and skeletal muscles with rebound weight-gain after diet-restriction in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morimura, M; Ishiko, O; Sumi, T; Yoshida, H; Ogita, S

    2001-11-01

    The mechanisms of excessive body weight gain after diet-restriction are still unclear. In this study, we investigated expression of angiogenic factors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of rabbits which had rebound weight gains; trying to make inquiries into the mechanisms of this rebound weight gain. Ten rabbits were divided into two groups. One group had free food intake (group C), and the other group had restricted food intake until day 40 of the experiments and then had free food intake (group DR). Specimens of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were collected from each rabbit on days 20, 40, and 60 after the initial examination, and expressions of CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) were investigated. Expression of VEGF was significantly strong in the adipose tissue of group DR at the recovery period of body weight. In conclusion, rebound weight gain after a restricted-diet may be associated with angiogenesis in adipose tissue, and the angiogenesis may be induced by VEGF.

  11. Long–Term Effects of High-and Low-Glycemic Load Energy-Restricted Diets on Metabolic Adaptation and the Composition of Weight Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of high glycemic load (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition changes in response to caloric restriction (CR) remains controversial. Objective To examine the effects of two CR diets differing primarily in glycemic load on RMR and the % o...

  12. Restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces spontaneous metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. We previously reported that consumption of a high-fat diet enhances metastasis in mice (Yan, Clin Exp Metastasis 2010). The present study investigated the effects of restricted feeding of a high-fat diet on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) i...

  13. Calorie Restriction with a High-Fat Diet Effectively Attenuated Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress-Related Markers in Obese Tissues of the High Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seungae; Park, Na-Young; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Lim, Yunsook

    2012-01-01

    Obesity characterized by increased mass of adipose tissue leads to systemic inflammation. Calorie restriction (CR) improves parameters associated with immune response and antioxidant defense. We hypothesized that CR with a high fat diet (HFCR) regulates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress damage in a high fat diet induced obesity (HF group). We investigated effect of HFCR on inflammation and oxidative stress-related markers in liver and adipose tissues as well as adipokines in plasma. HFCR lowered liver triglyceride levels, total cholesterol levels, and the plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio to normal levels and improved glucose tolerance. HFCR also improved fatty liver and normalized adipocyte size and morphology. HFCR reduced lipid peroxidation and decreased the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthetase, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-E2-related factor, and heme oxygenase-1 in the liver. Moreover, HFCR suppressed the expression levels of C- reactive protein and manganese superoxide dismutase in the adipose tissue in the HF group. These results suggest that HFCR may have beneficial effects on inflammation and oxidative stress as well as lipid profiles in the HF diet induced obesity. Moreover, HFCR may be a good way to increase compliance in obese patients and to prevent obesity induced complications without changes in dietary pattern. PMID:22778500

  14. Ketogenic Essential Amino Acids Modulate Lipid Synthetic Pathways and Prevent Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshiko; Aleman, Jose O.; Young, Jamey D.; Koyama, Naoto; Kelleher, Joanne K.; Takahashi, Michio; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Background Although dietary ketogenic essential amino acid (KAA) content modifies accumulation of hepatic lipids, the molecular interactions between KAAs and lipid metabolism are yet to be fully elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a diet with a high ratio (E/N) of essential amino acids (EAAs) to non-EAAs by partially replacing dietary protein with 5 major free KAAs (Leu, Ile, Val, Lys and Thr) without altering carbohydrate and fat content. This high-KAA diet was assessed for its preventive effects on diet-induced hepatic steatosis and whole-animal insulin resistance. C57B6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet, and hyperinsulinemic ob/ob mice were fed with a high-fat or high-sucrose diet. The high-KAA diet improved hepatic steatosis with decreased de novo lipogensis (DNL) fluxes as well as reduced expressions of lipogenic genes. In C57B6 mice, the high-KAA diet lowered postprandial insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, in association with restored expression of muscle insulin signaling proteins repressed by the high-fat diet. Lipotoxic metabolites and their synthetic fluxes were also evaluated with reference to insulin resistance. The high-KAA diet lowered muscle and liver ceramides, both by reducing dietary lipid incorporation into muscular ceramides and preventing incorporation of DNL-derived fatty acids into hepatic ceramides. Conclusion Our results indicate that dietary KAA intake improves hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating lipid synthetic pathways. PMID:20706589

  15. Age-related changes in meat tenderness and tissue pentosidine: effect of diet restriction and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Klandorf, H

    1999-09-01

    The nonenzymatic glycosylation of tissue protein contributes to the formation of crosslinks that leads to structural and functional deterioration in the long-lived tissue protein, collagen. The accumulation of these crosslinks thus contributes to the objectionable toughness of meat from aged animals, decreases its economic value, and limits its use in whole muscle foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of diet restriction and the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), on reducing the accumulation of crosslinks, thereby improving meat tenderness in broiler breeder hens. The glycoxidation product, pentosidine, was also measured in skin (Ps) to determine whether changes in its concentrations correlated with the changes in shear value (SV). Chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups from 8 to 125 wk after hatch: ad libitum (AL), diet restricted (DR), AL and DR groups supplemented with 400 ppm AG each (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). Shear value was measured with an Instron Universal Mechanical Machine. Skin pentosidine was isolated by reverse phase HPLC. There was an age-related, linear increase in SV (P<0.0001, r = 0.96), which correlated (r = 0.86) with the age-related increase in Ps in AL hens. Diet restriction retarded SV (P<0.0001) over the sampling period. In general, SV values for AL+AG were similar to those measured in DR, whereas no additive effect was observed for AG in DR birds. It was concluded that there was a linear increase in meat toughness (SV) with age that correlates with the accumulation of Ps, and that the decline in meat tenderness can be retarded by DR or AG. Secondly, the effect of DR on accumulation of Ps was so pronounced that AG supplementation did not further enhance this effect.

  16. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet.

  17. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. PMID:26525915

  18. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet alone and in combination with exercise and caloric restriction on insulin sensitivity and lipids.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, James A; Babyak, Michael A; Sherwood, Andrew; Craighead, Linda; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Johnson, Julie; Watkins, Lana L; Wang, Jenny T; Kuhn, Cynthia; Feinglos, Mark; Hinderliter, Alan

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on insulin sensitivity and lipids. In a randomized control trial, 144 overweight (body mass index: 25 to 40) men (n=47) and women (n=97) with high blood pressure (130 to 159/85 to 99 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) DASH diet alone; (2) DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction; or (3) usual diet controls (UC). Body composition, fitness, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipids were measured before and after 4 months of treatment. Insulin sensitivity was estimated on the basis of glucose and insulin levels in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load. Participants in the DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction condition lost weight (-8.7 kg [95% CI: -2.0 to -9.7 kg]) and exhibited a significant increase in aerobic capacity, whereas the DASH diet alone and UC participants maintained their weight (-0.3 kg [95% CI: -1.2 to 0.5 kg] and +0.9 kg [95% CI: 0.0 to 1.7 kg], respectively) and had no improvement in exercise capacity. DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction demonstrated lower glucose levels after the oral glucose load, improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total cholesterol and triglycerides compared with both DASH diet alone and UC, as well as lower fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with UC. DASH diet alone participants generally did not differ from UC in these measures. Combining the DASH diet with exercise and weight loss resulted in significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipids. Despite clinically significant reductions in blood pressure, the DASH diet alone, without caloric restriction or exercise, resulted in minimal improvements in insulin sensitivity or lipids.

  19. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  20. Food restriction and refeeding induces changes in lipid pathways and fat deposition in the adipose and hepatic tissues in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Maria, Adriana Simone Lopes Santa; de Aquino, Antônio Eduardo; Oishi, Jorge Camargo; Rossi, Elizeu Antônio; Garcia de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Cláudia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of successive cycles of a moderately restrictive diet and refeeding with a high-fat diet on the metabolism of the adipose and hepatic tissues of obese rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: a chow diet; a high-fat diet; a moderate caloric restriction; or a moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding. Some animals in each group were given [1-(14)C]triolein intragastrically, while others received an intraperitoneal injection of 3 mCi (3)H(2)O. All animals were killed by decapitation. The retroperitoneal, visceral epididymal and omental white adipose tissues, brown adipose tissue, liver and blood were immediately removed. The lipid uptake from the diet, in vivo rate of lipogenesis, percentage of fat, lipid profile and leptin concentration were analysed. The high-fat diet promoted an increase in fatty liver (P ≤ 0.05), adiposity mass (P ≤ 0.05) and the plasma concentration of leptin (P ≤ 0.05) and a decreased lipid uptake in white adipose tissue depots (P ≤ 0.05) in relation to the chow diet. The moderate caloric restriction did not reverse the changes promoted by the high-fat diet but induced a small decrease in adiposity, which was reversed after refeeding, and the animals maintained a dyslipidaemic profile and high fat deposition in the liver. We can conclude that the high-fat diet and subsequent moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding increased the risks of developing visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which suggests that this type of experimental protocol can be used to study mechanisms related to the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Effects of casein and glucose on responses of cows fed diets based on restrictively fermented grass silage.

    PubMed

    Vanhatalo, A; Varvikko, T; Huhtanen, P

    2003-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether well fed dairy cows given restrictively fermented grass silage diet will respond to incremental glucose and amino acid supply at early stage of lactation. Four rumen-cannulated Finnish Ayrshire cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 14-d periods. The cows were fed good quality restrictively fermented grass silage ensiled with a formic acid additive for ad libitum intake. A concentrate mixture consisting of barley (85%) and solvent extracted rapeseed meal (11.4%) was given at a rate of 9 kg/d. The four treatments were continuous abomasal infusions of water (control), casein 300 g/d, glucose 300 g/d, and casein 300 g/d + glucose 300 g/d. The infusions had only minor effects on feed intake, diet digestibility, or rumen fermentation pattern. Both casein and glucose infusions increased milk, protein and lactose yields the effects being partly additive on the combined infusion. Infused casein increased milk protein and urea as well as plasma urea concentrations. Both casein and glucose tended to increase plasma glucose concentration. Casein increased arterial plasma concentrations of essential amino acids (EAA), branched-chain AA (BCAA), and total AA (TAA). Both casein and glucose, although glucose usually less than casein, increased arteriovenous differences of EAA, nonessential AA, BCAA, and TAA. Extraction efficiencies of AA were higher for glucose than for casein. Mammary plasma flow was at highest on the control diet, but reduced owing to infused nutrients, the reduction being less with combined rather than separate infusions of casein and glucose. Based on the partly additive increases in milk production parameters and changes in plasma metabolites, it is suggested that glucose alone increased milk protein yield by sparing AA from hepatic utilization, while casein increased both supply of AA and glucose. It was concluded that cows at early stage of lactation fed diets comprising of restrictively

  2. Long Term Effects of Energy-Restricted Diets Differing in Glycemic Load on Metabolic Adaptation and Body Composition*

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sai Krupa; Gilhooly, Cheryl H.; Golden, Julie K.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Fuss, Paul J.; Dallal, Gerard E.; McCrory, Megan A.; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial of high glycemic load (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets with food provided for 6 months and self-administered for 6 additional months at 30% caloric restriction (CR) was performed in 29 overweight adults (mean±SD, age 35±5y; BMI 27.5±1.5 kg/m2). Total energy expenditure (TEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), fat and fat free mass (FFM), were measured at 3, 6 and 12 months. Changes in TEE, but not changes in RMR, were greater than accounted for by the loss of FFM and fat mass (P=0.001-0.013) suggesting an adaptive response to long-term CR. There was no significant effect of diet group on change in RMR or TEE. However, in subjects who lost >5% body weight (n=26), the LG diet group had a higher percentage of weight loss as fat than the HG group (p<0.05), a finding that may have implications for dietary recommendations during weight reduction. PMID:20711415

  3. A weekly alternating diet between caloric restriction and medium fat protects the liver from fatty liver development in middle-aged C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Rusli, Fenni; Boekschoten, Mark V; Zubia, Arantza Aguirre; Lute, Carolien; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2015-01-01

    Scope We investigated whether a novel dietary intervention consisting of an every-other-week calorie-restricted diet could prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development induced by a medium-fat (MF) diet. Methods and results Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice received either a (i) control (C), (ii) 30E% calorie restricted (CR), (iii) MF (25E% fat), or (iv) intermittent (INT) diet, a diet alternating weekly between 40E% CR and an ad libitum MF diet until sacrifice at the age of 12 months. The metabolic, morphological, and molecular features of NAFLD were examined. The INT diet resulted in healthy metabolic and morphological features as displayed by the continuous CR diet: glucose tolerant, low hepatic triglyceride content, low plasma alanine aminotransferase. In contrast, the C- and MF-exposed mice with high body weight developed signs of NAFLD. However, the gene expression profiles of INT-exposed mice differed to those of CR-exposed mice and showed to be more similar with those of C- and MF-exposed mice with a comparable body weight. Conclusions Our study reveals that the INT diet maintains metabolic health and reverses the adverse effects of the MF diet, thus effectively prevents the development of NAFLD in 12-month-old male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:25504628

  4. Moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats programs their offspring for a better response to HF diet feeding in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Palou, Mariona; Torrens, Juana María; Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to assess the lasting effects of moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats on the expression of key genes involved in energy balance of their adult offspring (CR) and their adaptations under high-fat (HF) diet. Dams were fed with either ad libitum normal-fat (NF) diet or a 30% caloric restricted diet throughout lactation. After weaning, the offspring were fed with NF diet until the age of 15 weeks and then with an NF or a HF diet until the age of 28 weeks, when they were sacrificed. Body weight and food intake were followed. Blood parameters and the expression of selected genes in hypothalamus and white adipose tissue (WAT) were analysed. CR ate fewer calories and showed lower body weight gain under HF diet than their controls. CR males were also resistant to the increase of insulin and leptin occurring in their controls under HF diet, and HF diet exposed CR females showed lower circulating fasting triglyceride levels than controls. In the hypothalamus, CR males had higher ObRb mRNA levels than controls, and CR females displayed greater InsR mRNA levels than controls and decreased neuropeptide Y mRNA levels when exposed to HF diet. CR males maintained WAT capacity of fat uptake and storage and of fatty-acid oxidation under HF diet, whereas these capacities were impaired in controls; female CR showed higher WAT ObRb mRNA levels than controls. These results suggest that 30% caloric restriction in lactating dams ameliorates diet-induced obesity in their offspring by enhancing their sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling, but in a gender-dependent manner.

  5. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life. PMID:27480608

  6. Energy Dense, Protein Restricted Diet Increases Adiposity and Perturbs Metabolism in Young, Genetically Lean Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Kimberly D.; Scheffler, Tracy L.; Kasten, Steven C.; Reinholt, Brad M.; van Eyk, Gregory R.; Escobar, Jeffery; Scheffler, Jason M.; Gerrard, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood) are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12), containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1–12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11) with 12.2–19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (P<0.001) energy per kg body weight. At wk 15, pigs were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); blood glucose increased (P<0.05) in control pigs and returned to baseline levels within 60 min. HED pigs were hyperglycemic at time 0, and blood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01), even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC) was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001). Chronic HED intake increased (P<0.05) subcutaneous, intramuscular, and perirenal fat deposition, and induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia. A subset of HED pigs (n = 7) was transitioned back to a control diet for an additional six weeks. These pigs were subjected to an additional OGTT at 22 wk. Glucose AUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs. PMID:23991090

  7. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  8. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

  9. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  10. Low-fiber diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; Surgery - low fiber diet ... of: Irritable bowel syndrome Diverticulitis Crohn disease Ulcerative colitis Sometimes people are put on this diet after ...

  11. [Autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy: the role of ketogenic diet].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. Un 5-40% de los pacientes autistas desarrolla epilepsia. Aunque generalmente se controlan bien con medicacion, hasta un 20-30% de estas epilepsias son refractarias al tratamiento farmacologico. En esta poblacion, la dieta cetogenica (DC) puede ser una terapia alternativa altamente eficaz y debe considerarse seriamente. Objetivo. Revisar el papel de la DC en el tratamiento de la epilepsia infantil refractaria y en los pacientes que asocian autismo y epilepsia. Desarrollo. La DC es un tratamiento eficaz y bien tolerado para las epilepsias infantiles refractarias, incluyendo los pacientes que asocian autismo y epilepsia. Es fundamental caracterizar de forma precisa el sindrome epileptico para conocer cuales son los mejores candidatos para tratar con DC. Por otra parte, el efecto positivo de la DC sobre las alteraciones del metabolismo oxidativo mitocondrial y la evidencia experimental obtenida con DC en animales autistas sugieren que pueda ser una alternativa eficaz en los pacientes con autismo. Conclusiones. Basandose en la utilidad demostrada de la DC en el tratamiento de pacientes con epilepsia y autismo, esta terapia se ha usado en los ultimos años como una terapia alternativa para los pacientes autistas, aunque se desconoce cual es su eficacia real. Es necesario realizar un estudio aleatorizado y controlado para definir el perfil de eficacia y seguridad en esta poblacion.

  12. A carbohydrate-restricted diet alters gut peptides and adiposity signals in men and women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew R; Miller, Carla K; Ulbrecht, Jan S; Mauger, Joanna L; Parker-Klees, Lynn; Gutschall, Melissa Davis; Mitchell, Diane C; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Covasa, Mihai

    2007-08-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets have been shown to enhance satiation- and other homeostatic-signaling pathways controlling food intake and energy balance, which may serve to reduce the incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study was designed as a correlational, observational investigation of the effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on weight loss and body fat reduction and associated changes in circulating leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in overweight/obese patients (4 men and 16 women) with metabolic syndrome. Subjects received clinical instruction on the initiation and maintenance of the commercial South Beach Diet, consisting of 2 phases: Phase I (initial 2 wk of the study) and Phase II (remaining 10 wk). Participants showed a decrease (P < 0.05) in body weight (93.5 +/- 3.6 kg vs. 88.3 +/- 3.4 kg), BMI (33.9 +/- 1.3 kg/m(2) vs. 32.0 +/- 1.3 kg/m(2)), waist circumference (112.8 +/- 2.8 cm vs. 107.7 +/- 3.0 cm), and total percent body fat (40.2 +/- 1.5% vs. 39.2 +/- 1.5%) by study completion. Plasma fasting insulin and leptin concentrations decreased significantly from baseline concentrations (139.1 +/- 12.2 pmol/L and 44.1 +/- 4.5 microg/L, respectively) by the end of Phase I (98.6 +/- 2.6 pmol/L and 33.3 +/- 4.1 microg/L, respectively). Plasma fasting ghrelin concentrations significantly increased from baseline (836.7 +/- 66.7 ng/L) by Phase II (939.9 +/- 56.8 ng/L). The postprandial increase in plasma CCK concentrations (difference in plasma CCK concentrations from fasting to postprandial) after Phase I (2.4 +/- 0.3 pmol/L) and Phase II (2.5 +/- 0.4 pmol/L) was significantly greater than the postprandial increase at baseline (1.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/L). Collectively, these results suggest that in patients with metabolic syndrome, improved adiposity signaling and increased postprandial CCK concentrations may act together as a possible compensatory control mechanism to maintain low intakes and facilitate weight loss

  13. Diet restriction in migraine, based on IgG against foods: A clinical double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Kadriye; Ertaş, Mustafa; Orhan, Elif Kocasoy; Üstay, Didem Kanca; Lieners, Camille; Baykan, Betül

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is well-known that specific foods trigger migraine attacks in some patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of diet restriction, based on IgG antibodies against food antigens on the course of migraine attacks in this randomised, double blind, cross-over, headache-diary based trial on 30 patients diagnosed with migraine without aura. Methods: Following a 6-week baseline, IgG antibodies against 266 food antigens were detected by ELISA. Then, the patients were randomised to a 6-week diet either excluding or including specific foods with raised IgG antibodies, individually. Following a 2-week diet-free interval after the first diet period, the same patients were given the opposite 6-week diet (provocation diet following elimination diet or vice versa). Patients and their physicians were blinded to IgG test results and the type of diet (provocation or elimination). Primary parameters were number of headache days and migraine attack count. Of 30 patients, 28 were female and 2 were male, aged 19–52 years (mean, 35 ± 10 years). Results: The average count of reactions with abnormally high titre was 24 ± 11 against 266 foods. Compared to baseline, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of headache days (from 10.5 ± 4.4 to 7.5 ± 3.7; P < 0.001) and number of migraine attacks (from 9.0 ± 4.4 to 6.2 ± 3.8; P < 0.001) in the elimination diet period. Conclusion: This is the first randomised, cross-over study in migraineurs, showing that diet restriction based on IgG antibodies is an effective strategy in reducing the frequency of migraine attacks. PMID:20647174

  14. Combining restricted diet with forced or voluntary exercises improves hippocampal BDNF and cognitive function in rats.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Khabour, Omar F; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alzubi, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (RDt) and exercise (Ex) enhances cognitive function due, at least in part, levels of neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This study examined changes in BDNF levels and data acquisition and retention following every-other-day RDt alone, and combined with either voluntary wheel (VxRDt) or forced swimming Exs (FxRDt) in rats. Hippocampal BDNF was measured using ELISA while learning and memory formation were assessed with the radial arm water maze (RAWM) paradigm. After 6 weeks, VxRDt and FxRDt enhanced BDNF levels, and short- and long-term memories (p < 0.05). The magnitude of the increase in BDNF was significantly higher in VxRDt group than in other groups (p < 0.05). However, no differences were found in learning and memory formation between the Ex regiments (VxRDt versus FxRDt). Additionally, RDt alone neither modulated BDNF level nor enhanced learning and memory formation (p > 0.05). These results suggest more important role of Ex, as opposed to RDt, in enhancing learning and memory formation. In addition, VxRDt appears to be more potent in enhancing brain BDNF levels than FxRDt, when combined with RDt in rats. PMID:26000806

  15. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: Two potential diets for successful brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    The vulnerability of the nervous system to advancing age is all too often manifest in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this review article we describe evidence suggesting that two dietary interventions, caloric restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting (IF), can prolong the health-span of the nervous system by impinging upon fundamental metabolic and cellular signaling pathways that regulate life-span. CR and IF affect energy and oxygen radical metabolism, and cellular stress response systems, in ways that protect neurons against genetic and environmental factors to which they would otherwise succumb during aging. There are multiple interactive pathways and molecular mechanisms by which CR and IF benefit neurons including those involving insulin-like signaling, FoxO transcription factors, sirtuins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. These pathways stimulate the production of protein chaperones, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes, all of which help cells cope with stress and resist disease. A better understanding of the impact of CR and IF on the aging nervous system will likely lead to novel approaches for preventing and treating neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:16899414

  16. Costs and Outcomes over 36 Years of Patients with Phenylketonuria Who Do and Do Not Remain on a Phenylalanine-Restricted Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, J. F.; Bai, J. J.; Taylor, R. R.; Sladkevicius, E.; Lee, P. J.; Lachmann, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To quantify the costs and consequences of managing phenylketonuria (PKU) in the UK and to estimate the potential implications to the UK's National Health Service (NHS) of keeping patients on a phenylalanine-restricted diet for life. Methods: A computer-based model was constructed depicting the management of PKU patients over the…

  17. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products May include lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs ... specific region. Others, like the DASH diet, were designed for people who have certain health problems. But ...

  18. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Duivenvoorde, Loes P M; van Schothorst, Evert M; Derous, Davina; van der Stelt, Inge; Masania, Jinit; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J; Keijer, Jaap

    2015-06-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a non-invasive challenge test that measures the flexibility to adapt metabolism. Metabolic inflexibility is one of the hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome. To test whether OxR can be used to reveal early diet-induced health effects, we exposed mice to a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for only 5 days. The response to OxR was assessed by calorimetric measurements, followed by analysis of gene expression in liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) and serum markers for e.g. protein glycation and oxidation. Although HF feeding increased body weight, HF and LF mice did not differ in indirect calorimetric values under normoxic conditions and in a fasting state. Exposure to OxR; however, increased oxygen consumption and lipid oxidation in HF mice versus LF mice. Furthermore, OxR induced gluconeogenesis and an antioxidant response in the liver of HF mice, whereas it induced de novo lipogenesis and an antioxidant response in eWAT of LF mice, indicating that HF and LF mice differed in their adaptation to OxR. OxR also increased serum markers of protein glycation and oxidation in HF mice, whereas these changes were absent in LF mice. Cumulatively, OxR is a promising new method to test food products on potential beneficial effects for human health. PMID:24974902

  19. Diet Redux: Outcomes from Reattempting Dietary Therapy for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Doerrer, Sarah C; Winesett, Steven P; Turner, Zahava; Henry, Bobbie J; Bessone, Stacey; Stanfield, Anthony; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2016-07-01

    The outcome for patients attempting dietary therapy for epilepsy a second time is unknown. Twenty-six subjects treated with the ketogenic diet as children who then began either the ketogenic diet or a Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) at least 6 months later were evaluated. The mean age at the first diet trial was 5.6 years and at the second diet trial was 11.5 years. Most restarted dietary therapy because of persistent seizures (65%) or recurrence after seizure freedom (19%). Overall, 77% had a ≥50% seizure reduction with the first diet, and 50% with the second diet, P = .04. Individual subject responses were largely similar, with 14 (54%) having identical seizure reduction both times, 9 worse (35%) with the second attempt, and 3 (16%) improved. The second diet trial was more likely to lead to >50% seizure reduction if the first trial was started at a later age (7.4 vs 3.9 years, P = .04).

  20. Cardiolipin profiles as a potential biomarker of mitochondrial health in diet-induced obese mice subjected to exercise, diet-restriction and ephedrine treatment.

    PubMed

    Faber, Catherine; Zhu, Zhaohai J; Castellino, Stephen; Wagner, David S; Brown, Roger H; Peterson, Richard A; Gates, Lisa; Barton, Joanna; Bickett, Mark; Hagerty, Laura; Kimbrough, Carie; Sola, Mario; Bailey, David; Jordan, Holly; Elangbam, Chandikumar S

    2014-11-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is crucial for mitochondrial energy metabolism and structural integrity. Alterations in CL quantity or CL species have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in several pathological conditions and diseases, including mitochondrial dysfunction-related compound attrition and post-market withdrawal of promising drugs. Here we report alterations in the CL profiles in conjunction with morphology of soleus muscle (SM) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, subjected to ephedrine treatment (EPH: 200 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) orally), treadmill exercise (EX: 10 meters per min, 1 h per day), or dietary restriction (DR: 25% less of mean food consumed by the EX group) for 7 days. Mice from the DR and EPH groups had a significant decrease in percent body weight and reduced fat mass compared with DIO controls. Morphologic alterations in the BAT included brown adipocytes with reduced cytoplasmic lipid droplets and increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia in the EX, DR and EPH groups. Increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia in the BAT was ultrastructurally manifested by increased mitochondrial cristae, fenestration of mitochondrial cristae, increased electron density of mitochondrial matrix, and increased complexity of shape and elongation of mitochondria. Mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations in the SM of the EX and DR groups included increased mitochondrial cristae, cup-shaped mitochondria and mitochondrial degeneration. All four CL species (tri-linoleoyl-mono-docosahexaenoyl, tetralinoleoyl, tri-linoleoyl-mono-oleoyl, and di-linoleoyl-di-oleoyl) were increased in the BAT of the DR and EPH groups and in the SM of the EPH and EX groups. In conclusion, cardiolipin profiling supported standard methods for assessing mitochondrial biogenesis and health, and may serve as a potential marker of mitochondrial dysfunction in preclinical toxicity studies.

  1. [COLD and HOT nature of Coptis & Evodia and their prescriptions investigated with diet restriction/cold-water swimming mice models].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-shen; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Hai-ping; Zhang, Xue-ru; Zhou, Can-ping; Xiao, Xiao-he; Jin, Cheng

    2009-11-01

    To establish a new method to evaluate the COLD and HOT nature of Coptis & Evodia and their prescriptions Zuojinwan and Fanzuojinwan. Physical models of mice were established by diet restriction with cold-water swimming (weak model, WM) and fed with high protein animal feeds (strong model, SM). An instrument with cold and hot pads was used to investigate the variation of temperature tropism among SM and WM groups of mice affected by drugs. Meanwhile, the oxygen consumption and activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were detected, in order to investigate the mechanism of energy metabolism which might be affected by these drugs. The results showed that the drug effects gradually changed in an order of "Coptis-->Zuojinwan--> Fanzuojinwan-->Evodia". In detail, Coptis increased the remaining rate (RR) of mice on hot pad, decreased oxygen consumption and ATPase activity (n=6, P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while Evodia performed inversely; which indicated the COLD nature of Coptis and HOT nature of Evodia, and confirmed with their traditional definition in medicinal works. In conclusion, the methods applied in this work, can objectively and directly express the nature disparity between the two herbs and predict the tendency of changes of the nature of their combination, which brings a new approach in investigation of the nature theory of traditional Chinese medicine.

  2. Soy compared to casein meal replacement shakes with energy-restricted diets for obese women: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James W; Fuller, Jennifer; Patterson, Katy; Blair, Robert; Tabor, Aaron

    2007-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that obese individuals lose weight more rapidly and lose more total weight with soy protein than with animal protein as a major diet component. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the weight-loss efficacy and changes in body composition, waist circumference, blood pressure, and levels of plasma glucose, insulin, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine from consumption of either 3 soy shakes or 3 casein shakes daily as part of a 16-week, energy-restricted diet for obese women. Forty-three women with body mass index values of 30 to 40 kg/m(2) were randomized to intensive dietary interventions using either casein (n = 21) or soy (n = 22) shakes. Subjects were instructed to consume 3 shakes, 1 prepackaged entrée, and 5 servings of fruits or vegetables daily to achieve an energy intake of 4.5 to 5.0 MJ/d. Subjects attended classes weekly or biweekly. Weight, body fat, lipid, and glucose measurements were obtained at baseline and at 8 and 16 weeks. For both groups combined, subjects lost 8.1% of initial body weight (7.7 kg) at 8 weeks and 13.4% (12.7 kg) at 16 weeks. Weight loss from baseline did not differ significantly by group and, for completing subjects, was 14.0% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SE) for casein and 12.8% +/- 1.4% for soy. With the intention-to-treat analysis, weight losses at 16 weeks were 12.5% +/- 1.4% for casein and 11.3% +/- 1.2% for soy. Body fat losses were 23.7% +/- 2.0% for casein and 21.8% +/- 2.4% for soy and did not differ significantly. Both study groups lost significant amounts of weight with a highly structured behavioral program incorporating 4 meal replacements and vegetables and fruits. Differences in weight loss and body composition changes between casein and soy treatments were not significant.

  3. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  4. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K. N.; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  5. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-05-20

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity.

  6. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption. PMID:27611307

  7. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Kai; Qin, Chun Fu; Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption.

  8. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Kai; Qin, Chun Fu; Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption. PMID:27611307

  9. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; < 0.01) when heifers were fed the NI diet compared with the UR diet. The amount of feed consumed increased ( < 0.01) at 0 to 3 h and decreased ( ≤ 0.03) at 3 to 24 h for restrictive vs. ad libitum feeding of both the UR and NI diets. Compared to the UR diet, the NI diet decreased ( < 0.01) feed consumption at 0 to 3 h and increased ( < 0.02) feed consumption at 3 to 24 h (except feed consumption at 9 to 12 h; = 0.90), indicating nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( < 0.01; = 0.75) blood methemoglobin, and plasma NO + NO among other rumen and blood variables had the greatest correlation (sigmoid response; < 0.01, = 0.47) with feed consumption (0 to 3 h). Particle size distribution of orts was partially altered ( = 0.02 to 0

  10. The effect of an iodine restricted including no sea foods diet, on technetium-99m thyroid scintigraphy: a neglected issue in nuclear medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Neshandarasli, Isa; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Jalallat, Sara; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Although it is recommended to patients to avoid sea food and iodine-containing medications prior to iodine-131 (¹³¹I) scanning, the efficacy of this diet as for technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) thyroid scintigraphy is not well addressed in the literature. We evaluated a self-managed, outpatients, iodine restricted diet (IRD) designed to reduce total body iodine in preparation for such a scan. We have studied 39 patients who referred to our Department for multinodular goiter, 30 females and 9 males, aged:14-54 years and their (99m)Tc-P thyroid scintigraphy showed poor visualization of the thyroid gland. These patiens were living in regions with high consumption of sea foods went underwent a two-weeks iodine restriction including restriction of sea food diet for the reduction of iodine body content. These patients were called for a repeated scan after going on a IRD for at least two weeks. The two scans were compared visually, and by semiquantitative analysis. Semiquantitative analysis was applied in 8 regions of interest (ROI) by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six subjects had better quality scintigraphy images in the post IRD thyroid scan, as was visually assessed by two nuclear medicine physicians. Semiquantitatetively, there was a significant difference in the mean counts of ROI of the right and the left thyroid lobes in favor of the post IRD scans (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that in patients with multinodular goiter, living in regions with high consumption of sea foods a two-weeks diet for the reduction of iodine body content induces in most of the cases a slightly better diagnostic thyroid (99m)Tc-P scan.

  11. The effect of an iodine restricted including no sea foods diet, on technetium-99m thyroid scintigraphy: a neglected issue in nuclear medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Neshandarasli, Isa; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Jalallat, Sara; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Although it is recommended to patients to avoid sea food and iodine-containing medications prior to iodine-131 (¹³¹I) scanning, the efficacy of this diet as for technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) thyroid scintigraphy is not well addressed in the literature. We evaluated a self-managed, outpatients, iodine restricted diet (IRD) designed to reduce total body iodine in preparation for such a scan. We have studied 39 patients who referred to our Department for multinodular goiter, 30 females and 9 males, aged:14-54 years and their (99m)Tc-P thyroid scintigraphy showed poor visualization of the thyroid gland. These patiens were living in regions with high consumption of sea foods went underwent a two-weeks iodine restriction including restriction of sea food diet for the reduction of iodine body content. These patients were called for a repeated scan after going on a IRD for at least two weeks. The two scans were compared visually, and by semiquantitative analysis. Semiquantitative analysis was applied in 8 regions of interest (ROI) by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six subjects had better quality scintigraphy images in the post IRD thyroid scan, as was visually assessed by two nuclear medicine physicians. Semiquantitatetively, there was a significant difference in the mean counts of ROI of the right and the left thyroid lobes in favor of the post IRD scans (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that in patients with multinodular goiter, living in regions with high consumption of sea foods a two-weeks diet for the reduction of iodine body content induces in most of the cases a slightly better diagnostic thyroid (99m)Tc-P scan. PMID:22413111

  12. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  13. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ren, M.; Zhang, S. H.; Zeng, X. F.; Liu, H.; Qiao, S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg) were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON), a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR) and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet) for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.05) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) of weaned pigs in PR group were lower, while gain:feed ratio was lower than the CON group (p<0.05). Compared with PR group, BCAA group improved ADG (p<0.05), ADFI (p<0.05) and feed:gain ratio (p<0.05) of piglets. The growth performance data between CON and BCAA groups was not different (p>0.05). The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (p<0.05) plasma concentration of methionine and threonine than the CON treatment. The level of some essential and functional amino acids (such as arginine, phenylalanine, histidine, glutamine etc.) in plasma of the PR group was lower (p<0.05) than that of the CON group. Compared with CON group, BCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (p<0.01) and decreased urea concentration (p<0.01) in pig plasma indicating that the efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization was increased. Compared with CON group, the small intestine of piglets fed PR diet showed villous atrophy, increasing of intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) number (p<0.05) and declining of the immunoglobulin concentration, including jejunal

  14. Restricting carbohydrates to fight head and neck cancer-is this realistic?

    PubMed

    Klement, Rainer J

    2014-09-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to accommodate for both the altered tumor cell metabolism and cancer-associated weight loss. In this review, I present three specific rationales for CHO restriction and nutritional ketosis as supportive treatment options for the HNC patient. These are (1) targeting the origin and specific aspects of tumor glycolysis; (2) protecting normal tissue from but sensitizing tumor tissue to radiation- and chemotherapy induced cell kill; (3) supporting body and muscle mass maintenance. While most of these benefits of CHO restriction apply to cancer in general, specific aspects of implementation are discussed in relation to HNC patients. While CHO restriction seems feasible in HNC patients the available evidence indicates that its role may extend beyond fighting malnutrition to fighting HNC itself.

  15. Calorie-restricted weight loss reverses high-fat diet-induced ghrelin resistance, which contributes to rebound weight gain in a ghrelin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Dana I; Lockie, Sarah H; Wu, Qunli; Lemus, Moyra B; Stark, Romana; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-01

    Twelve weeks of high-fat diet feeding causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. In the current study, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss could restore NPY/AgRP neuronal responsiveness to ghrelin and whether ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after calorie-restricted (CR) weight loss. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were allocated to one of two dietary interventions until they reached the weight of age-matched lean controls. DIO mice received chow diet ad libitum or chow diet with 40% CR. Chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice served as controls. Both dietary interventions normalized body weight, glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin. We show that diet-induced weight loss with CR increases total plasma ghrelin, restores ghrelin sensitivity, and increases hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. We propose that long-term DIO creates a higher body weight set-point and that weight loss induced by CR, as seen in the high-fat CR group, provokes the brain to protect the new higher set-point. This adaptation to weight loss likely contributes to rebound weight gain by increasing peripheral ghrelin concentrations and restoring the function of ghrelin-responsive neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Indeed, we also show that DIO ghrelin-knockout mice exhibit reduced body weight regain after CR weight loss compared with ghrelin wild-type mice, suggesting ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after CR weight loss.

  16. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, S.; Moterroso, V.; Morales, P.; Wagner, J.; Kipruto, S.; Bukachi, F.; Maitai, C.; Tshala-Katumbay, D.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5 mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50 mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~ 80X faster in the nervous system (14 milliseconds to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In macaca fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; p<0.001). The plasma CDC was ~ 2X relative to that of rodents. The nervous system susceptibility to cyanide may result from a “multiple hit” by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC. PMID:24500607

  17. Intrauterine growth restriction combined with a maternal high-fat diet increases hepatic cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Zalla, Jennifer M; Carpenter, Jeanette R; Yu, Baifeng; Yu, Xing; Chan, Gary; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal consumption of a high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) increase the risk of hypercholesterolemia, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Many pregnant women eat a HFD, thus exposing the fetus to a HFD in utero. The cumulative effect of in utero exposure to IUGR and a HFD on offspring cholesterol levels remains unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanism through which IUGR and maternal HFD consumption increase cholesterol. We hypothesize that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD would increase offspring serum and hepatic cholesterol accumulation via alteration in levels of key proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. To test our hypothesis we used a rat model of surgically induced IUGR and fed the dams a regular diet or a HFD HFD-fed dams consumed the same kilocalories as regular diet-fed dams, with no difference between surgical intervention groups. In the offspring, IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increased hepatic cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor protein levels, and Ldlr activity in female rat offspring at birth and both sexes at postnatal day 14 relative to non-IUGR offspring both from regular diet- and HFD-fed dams. These findings suggest that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increases hepatic cholesterol accumulation via increased LDL cholesterol uptake into the liver with resulting persistent increases in hepatic cholesterol accumulation.

  18. Nutritional recovery with a soybean diet after weaning reduces lipogenesis but induces inflammation in the liver in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation. PMID:25892856

  19. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation. PMID:25892856

  20. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Kimani, S; Moterroso, V; Morales, P; Wagner, J; Kipruto, S; Bukachi, F; Maitai, C; Tshala-Katumbay, D

    2014-04-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~80× faster in the nervous system (14 ms to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In M. fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; p<0.001). The plasma CDC was ~2× relative to that of rodents. The nervous system susceptibility to cyanide may result from a "multiple hit" by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC.

  1. Nutritional recovery with a soybean diet after weaning reduces lipogenesis but induces inflammation in the liver in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation.

  2. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  3. What evidence for the benefits of '5-a-day', a Mediterranean diet and sodium restriction on health?

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines for healthcare professionals encourage the provision of dietary advice to promote healthy eating, especially to patients at risk of chronic disease.1 Yet the evidence base for dietary interventions relies heavily on epidemiological studies, which are subject to the challenges associated with observational research. Such problems include difficulties of assessing and measuring outcomes, misclassification, confounding and establishing causation. This reliance on epidemiological evidence may reflect the difficulty and cost of carrying out large-scale long-term randomised controlled studies of diet.2 In addition, there is a dearth of organisations willing to fund such research. Recent publications have questioned the '5-a-day' advice for fruit and vegetable consumption and population-level attempts to lower salt consumption.3,4 Studies of lifestyle advice are widely reported in the media, which may lead to public confusion about dietary advice when conclusions differ. Some researchers have urged a move from assessing how single foods or nutrients affect risk factors, to a consideration of the overall diet pattern, as this may overcome the risk of confounding the effect of one food type by others in the diet.5 The Mediterranean diet pattern is one of the most studied, since its identification in the late 1970s. Here, we provide an update of evidence for three aspects of dietary recommendations that feature regularly in the media-fruit and vegetable intake, salt reduction and the Mediterranean diet.

  4. [Incurable keratitis and chronic palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with hypertyrosinemia. Cure using a tyrosine-restricted diet. Type II tyrosinemia].

    PubMed

    Hervé, F; Moreno, J L; Ogier, H; Saudubray, J M; De Prost, Y; Duffier, J L; Charpentier, C; Lemonnier, F; Frézal, J

    1986-01-01

    One should henceforth systematically search for hypertyrosinemia which, too often, goes unrecognized for years, in patients presenting chronic keratitis associated with palmar and plantar hyperkeratosis. As a matter of fact, this highly crippling disease may be cured with an appropriate diet and the diagnosis, once suspected, is easily confirmed by simple investigations.

  5. Restriction of vitamin A and D in beef cattle finishing diets on feedlot performance and adipose accretion.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, C L; Loerch, S C; Fluharty, F L

    2012-06-01

    Feedlot producers often exceed NRC recommendations for vitamin A and D supplementation; however, increased concentrations of these vitamins have been shown to limit adipocyte differentiation in vitro. A feedlot trial was conducted using 168 Angus crossbred steers (BW = 284 ± 0.4 kg) allotted to 24 pens. The experiment had a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: no supplemental vitamin A or D (NAND), 3,750 IU vitamin A/kg dietary DM with no supplemental vitamin D (SAND), no supplemental vitamin A and 1,860 IU vitamin D/kg dietary DM (NASD), and 3,750 IU and 1,860 IU vitamin A and D/ kg dietary DM (SASD), respectively. Serum, liver, and intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue retinol concentrations were decreased in (P < 0.001) in cattle fed the no supplemental vitamin A diets (NAND and NASD combined) compared with those consuming supplemental vitamin A (SAND and SASD combined) diets. In addition, intramuscular retinol concentration was 38% less than in the subcutaneous depot. Serum 25(OH)D(3) concentrations were reduced (P < 0.001) during the first 70 d when cattle were fed no supplemental vitamin D diets (NAND and SAND combined); however, liver 25(OH)D(3) concentrations remained unchanged (P > 0.10) through d 184. Serum and liver 25(OH)D(3) concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with vitamin D supplementation (NASD and SASD combined). The DMI, ADG, G:F, and morbidity were not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary concentration of vitamin A or D. There were vitamin A and D interactions (P < 0.03) for backfat thickness and USDA Yield grade. Cattle fed the NAND diet had greater (P < 0.03) Yield grades than other treatments because of greater (P < 0.005) 12th rib backfat thickness in NAND steers than the NASD and SAND steers. Vitamin D concentrations were attenuated and minimal carcass adiposity responses to vitamin D supplementation were observed. Feeding a diet without supplemental vitamin A increased (P < 0.05) Quality grades and marbling scores and tended (P

  6. The modified Atkins diet for intractable epilepsy may be associated with late-onset egg-induced anaphylactic reaction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Yael; Peleg-Weiss, Lilach; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa

    2011-03-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a therapeutic option for children with intractable epilepsy. It is less restrictive than the traditional ketogenic diet, with ≈60% of calories from fat sources. We describe a 6-y-old boy with intractable epilepsy treated with the modified Atkins diet who presented to the emergency department with first-time anaphylactic reaction to egg. Symptoms of urticaria and angioedema, shortness of breath, wheezing, and cyanosis developed several minutes after he ate a hard-boiled egg. His history was remarkable for asthma, but no food allergies were documented. The anaphylactic reaction appeared after 6 mo of treatment with the modified Atkins diet (including 10-15 eggs daily), which ameliorated his seizures, and was preceded by streptococcal pharyngitis. Laboratory workup revealed specific immunoglobulin E antibodies to egg. This is the first report of new-onset egg allergy in a child, probably triggered by the high egg content of the modified Atkins diet. The risk of egg allergy should be kept in mind when treating epileptic children with the modified Atkins diet, especially those with comorbid asthma.

  7. Effectiveness of annealing blocking primers versus restriction enzymes for characterization of generalist diets: unexpected prey revealed in the gut contents of two coral reef fish species.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Agudelo, Natalia; Mills, Suzanne C; Meyer, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of predator-prey interactions is challenging as researchers have to rely on indirect methods that can be costly, biased and too imprecise to elucidate the complexity of food webs. DNA amplification and sequencing techniques of gut and fecal contents are promising approaches, but their success largely depends on the ability to amplify the taxonomic array of prey consumed and then match prey amplicons with reference sequences. When little a priori information on diet is available or a generalist predator is targeted, versatile primer sets (also referred to as universal or general primers) as opposed to group- or species-specific primer sets are the most powerful to unveil the full range of prey consumed. However, versatile primers are likely to preferentially amplify the predominant, less degraded predator DNA if no manipulation is performed to exclude this confounding DNA template. In this study we compare two approaches that eliminate the confounding predator template: restriction digestion and the use of annealing blocking primers. First, we use a preliminary DNA barcode library provided by the Moorea BIOCODE project to 1) evaluate the cutting frequency of commercially available restriction enzymes and 2) design predator specific annealing blocking primers. We then compare the performance of the two predator removal strategies for the detection of prey templates using two versatile primer sets from the gut contents of two generalist coral reef fish species sampled in Moorea. Our study demonstrates that blocking primers should be preferentially used over restriction digestion for predator DNA removal as they recover greater prey diversity. We also emphasize that a combination of versatile primers may be required to best represent the breadth of a generalist's diet.

  8. Diet-related restrictive parenting practices. Impact on dietary intake of 2-year-old children and interactions with child characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; de Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between diet-related parenting practices, parental characteristics, child characteristics, and 2-year-old child's dietary intake. Cross-sectional data (N=2578) originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Principal component analyses revealed two restrictive parenting practice clusters: a cluster characterized by prohibition of the intake of various snacks and soft drinks, and a separate cluster characterized by prohibition of cookies and cake. Regression analyses showed that these clusters were related to the children's behavioural style (i.e. oppositional, depressive and/or aggressive behaviour) and to educational level, age and alternative lifestyle of the mother. The clusters also had a favourable influence on dietary intake (i.e. restrictive parenting practices were related to less consumption of the restricted (unhealthy) items and higher consumption of items considered to be healthy), which was moderated by child characteristics. The parenting practices showed a stronger association with dietary intake in children with a favourable behavioural style (i.e. non-depressed, low anxious, low overactive), a favourable eating style or a lower BMI. The findings suggest opportunities for preventive interventions focussing on parents of young children, and indicate that different approaches to parenting practice interventions are needed for different types of children.

  9. Effects of Calorie Restriction and Diet-Induced Obesity on Murine Colon Carcinogenesis, Growth and Inflammatory Factors, and MicroRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Olivo-Marston, Susan E.; Hursting, Stephen D.; Perkins, Susan N.; Schetter, Aaron; Khan, Mohammed; Croce, Carlo; Harris, Curtis C.; Lavigne, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an established colon cancer risk factor, while preventing or reversing obesity via a calorie restriction (CR) diet regimen decreases colon cancer risk. Unfortunately, the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood, hampering development of mechanism-based approaches for preventing obesity-related colon cancer. We tested the hypotheses that diet-induced obesity (DIO) would increase (and CR would decrease) colon tumorigenesis in the mouse azoxymethane (AOM) model. In addition, we established that changes in inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and microRNAs are associated with these energy balance-colon cancer links, and thus represent mechanism-based targets for colon cancer prevention. Mice were injected with AOM once a week for 5 weeks and randomized to: 1) control diet; 2) 30% CR diet; or 3) DIO diet. Mice were euthanized at week 5 (n = 12/group), 10 (n = 12/group), and 20 (n = 20/group) after the last AOM injection. Colon tumors were counted, and cytokines, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), adipokines, proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of microRNAs (miRs) were measured. The DIO diet regimen induced an obese phenotype (∼36% body fat), while CR induced a lean phenotype (∼14% body fat); controls were intermediate (∼26% body fat). Relative to controls, DIO increased (and CR decreased) the number of colon tumors (p = 0.01), cytokines (p<0.001), IGF-1 (p = 0.01), and proliferation (p<0.001). DIO decreased (and CR increased) IGFBP-3 and apoptosis (p<0.001). miRs including mir-425, mir-196, mir-155, mir-150, mir-351, mir-16, let-7, mir34, and mir-138 were differentially expressed between the dietary groups. We conclude that the enhancing effects of DIO and suppressive effects of CR on colon carcinogenesis are associated with alterations in several biological pathways, including inflammation, IGF-1, and microRNAs. PMID:24732966

  10. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  11. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  12. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  13. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  14. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  15. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia. PMID:27142740

  16. Long-term therapy with NTBC and tyrosine-restricted diet in a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhalimy, M; Overturf, K; Finegold, M; Grompe, M

    2002-01-01

    In human patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) a combination therapy of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3 cyclohexane dione (NTBC) and dietary restriction of phenylalanine and tyrosine is currently widely used. We previously reported that the use of NTBC in a murine model of HT1 abolished acute liver failure but did not prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the setting of nonrestricted protein intake. Here we present the results obtained with higher doses of NTBC plus dietary tyrosine restriction on long-term follow up (>2 years). Liver function tests and succinylacetone levels were completely corrected with this regimen and cancer-free survival was improved when compared to historical controls. However, while no HT1 animals had HCC at age 13 months, the incidence was 2/16 (13%) at age 18 months and 1/6 (17%) after 24 months. Thus, even the most stringent therapy could not prevent the emergence of HCC in the mouse model of HT1, even when initiated prenatally.

  17. [Modified Atkins diet brought back the joy of life to a developmentally severely disabled youth].

    PubMed

    Arvio, Maria; Kuisma, Liisa; Pöntinen, Mervi

    2010-01-01

    Ketogenic diet is worth considering for persons with refractory epilepsy who cannot be helped with conventional means, for instance patients receiving gavage feeding are an ideal target group but patients eating normally have to adapt themselves to an unbalanced and fat-rich diet. We describe a developmentally severely disabled man, whose epilepsy settled, autistic features were alleviated, behavioral problems disappeared and whose weight and blood lipid and glucose values have remained normal for one year during a modified Atkins diet.

  18. Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interleukin-6 and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma2 gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Dolores Parra, M; Alfredo Martínez, J

    2006-11-01

    Weight-loss maintenance after following an energy-restricted diet is a major problem that a number of studies are trying to characterise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of IL-6 -174G>C and PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala variants on weight regulation in obese subjects receiving a low-energy diet and at 1 year after the acute slimming period. Sixty-seven volunteers (age 34.7 (SD 7.0) years; BMI 35.8 (SD 4.8) kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a 10-week dietary intervention and were contacted again 1 year after the end of this period. Body composition was measured at three times during the study. Also, PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala and IL-6 -174G>C polymorphisms were analysed in the participants. No statistical differences were observed depending on the genetic variants at baseline for anthropometric variables, or after the intervention. However, the C allele of the -174G>C IL-6 gene polymorphism was more frequently observed (P=0.032) in subjects with successful weight maintenance (<10 % weight regain). In fact, the C allele partially protected against weight regain (odds ratio 0.24; P=0.049), while the conjoint presence of both gene variants (C+ and Ala+) further improved the ability for weight maintenance (odds ratio 0.19; P=0.043). The present study demonstrates that the C allele of the -174G>C polymorphism gives protection against regain of weight lost. Moreover, the presence of the Ala allele of the PPARgamma-2 together with the C allele strengthens this protection. These findings support a role for these polymorphisms on weight regulation and suggest a synergetic effect of both variants on weight maintenance after following a diet to lose weight.

  19. Short-term moderate diet restriction in adulthood can reverse oxidative, cardiovascular and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Guenancia, Charles; Rigal, Eve; Hachet, Olivier; Chollet, Pauline; Desmoulins, Lucie; Leloup, Corinne; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether moderate diet restriction could restore cardiac, oxidative and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding (PNOF). Litters of C57BL/6 male mice were either maintained at 9 (normal litter, NL), or reduced to 3 (small litter, SL) in order to induce PNOF. At 6 months, half of the NL and SL mice were subjected to 20% calorie-restriction (CR: NLCR, SLCR) for one month, while the other half continued to eat ad libitum (AL: NLAL, SLAL). Six-month old SL mice presented overweight, fat accumulation, hyperleptinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiac ROS production and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). After CR, SL mice body weight was normalized; however, their fat mass and leptinemia were not decreased, glucose metabolism was improved and LVEF was increased. In SL mice, CR increased the cardiac mitochondrial respiratory rate and decreased cardiac ROS production. Hearts from SLCR mice showed better recovery and smaller postischemic infarct size. Intriguingly, no difference was observed between NLAL and NLCR mice for most of the parameters investigated. Short-term moderate CR not only normalized body weight in SL mice but also improved metabolic programming and reversed oxidative and cardiac dysfunction induced by PNOF. PMID:27465434

  20. Short-term moderate diet restriction in adulthood can reverse oxidative, cardiovascular and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Guenancia, Charles; Rigal, Eve; Hachet, Olivier; Chollet, Pauline; Desmoulins, Lucie; Leloup, Corinne; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether moderate diet restriction could restore cardiac, oxidative and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding (PNOF). Litters of C57BL/6 male mice were either maintained at 9 (normal litter, NL), or reduced to 3 (small litter, SL) in order to induce PNOF. At 6 months, half of the NL and SL mice were subjected to 20% calorie-restriction (CR: NLCR, SLCR) for one month, while the other half continued to eat ad libitum (AL: NLAL, SLAL). Six-month old SL mice presented overweight, fat accumulation, hyperleptinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiac ROS production and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). After CR, SL mice body weight was normalized; however, their fat mass and leptinemia were not decreased, glucose metabolism was improved and LVEF was increased. In SL mice, CR increased the cardiac mitochondrial respiratory rate and decreased cardiac ROS production. Hearts from SLCR mice showed better recovery and smaller postischemic infarct size. Intriguingly, no difference was observed between NLAL and NLCR mice for most of the parameters investigated. Short-term moderate CR not only normalized body weight in SL mice but also improved metabolic programming and reversed oxidative and cardiac dysfunction induced by PNOF. PMID:27465434

  1. Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet with and without supplemental soluble fiber on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other clinical markers of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard J; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Sharman, Matthew J; Silvestre, Ricardo; Greene, Christine M; Zern, Tosca L; Shrestha, Sudeep; Judelson, Daniel A; Gomez, Ana L; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2007-01-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) promote weight loss, reductions in plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels, and increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels but may cause undesirable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) responses in some people. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of adding soluble fiber to a CRD on plasma LDL-C and other traditionally measured markers of cardiovascular disease. Using a parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 30 overweight and obese men (body mass index, 25-35 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to supplement a CRD with soluble fiber (Konjac-mannan, 3g/d) (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15). Plasma lipids, anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, and nutrient intake were evaluated at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks. Compliance was excellent as assessed by 7-day weighed dietary records and ketonuria. Both groups experienced decreases in (P < .01) body weight, percent body fat, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and plasma glucose levels. After 12 weeks, HDL-C and TAG improved significantly in the fiber (10% and -34%) and placebo (14%, -43%) groups. LDL-C decreased by 17.6% (P < .01) at week 6 and 14.1% (P < .01) at week 12 in the fiber group. Conversely, LDL-C reductions were significant in the placebo group only after 12 weeks (-6.0%, P < .05). We conclude that although clearly effective at lowering LDL-C, adding soluble fiber to a CRD during active and significant weight loss provides no additional benefits to the diet alone. Furthermore, a CRD led to clinically important positive alterations in cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  2. Leucine supplementation of a chronically restricted protein and energy diet enhances mTOR pathway activation but not muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Columbus, Daniel A; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-García, Adriana D; Hoang, Nguyet-Minh; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrient intake represents a limiting factor for growth and long-term survival of low-birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to determine if in neonates who can consume only 70 % of their protein and energy requirements for 8 days, enteral leucine supplementation will upregulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in skeletal muscle, leading to an increase in protein synthesis and muscle anabolism. Nineteen 4-day-old piglets were fed by gastric tube 1 of 3 diets, containing (kg body weight(-1) · day(-1)) 16 g protein and 190 kcal (CON), 10.9 g protein and 132 kcal (R), or 10.8 g protein + 0.2 % leucine and 136 kcal (RL) at 4-h intervals for 8 days. On day 8, plasma AA and insulin levels were measured during 6 post-feeding intervals, and muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR signaling proteins were determined at 120 min post-feeding. At 120 min, leucine was highest in RL (P < 0.001), whereas insulin, isoleucine and valine were lower in RL and R compared to CON (P < 0.001). Compared to RL and R, the CON diet increased (P < 0.01) body weight, protein synthesis, phosphorylation of S6 kinase (p-S6K1) and 4E-binding protein (p-4EBP1), and activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 complex (eIF4E · eIF4G). RL increased (P ≤ 0.01) p-S6K1, p-4EBP1 and eIF4E · eIF4G compared to R. In conclusion, when protein and energy intakes are restricted for 8 days, leucine supplementation increases muscle mTOR activation, but does not improve body weight gain or enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

  3. Variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to ketogenic dietary therapies for epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Schoeler, Natasha E.; Leu, Costin; White, Jon; Plagnol, Vincent; Ellard, Sian; Matarin, Mar; Yellen, Gary; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Mackay, Mark; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Sander, Josemir W.; Cross, J. Helen; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of specific metabolic disorders, predictors of response to ketogenic dietary therapies (KDT) are unknown. We aimed to determine whether variants in established candidate genes KCNJ11 and BAD influence response to KDT. We sequenced KCNJ11 and BAD in individuals without previously-known glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome or other metabolic disorders, who received KDT for epilepsy. Hospital records were used to obtain demographic and clinical data. Two response phenotypes were used: ≥50% seizure reduction and seizure-freedom at 3-month follow-up. Case/control association tests were conducted with KCNJ11 and BAD variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.01, using PLINK. Response to KDT in individuals with variants with MAF < 0.01 was evaluated. 303 Individuals had KCNJ11 and 246 individuals had BAD sequencing data and diet response data. Six SNPs in KCNJ11 and two in BAD had MAF > 0.01. Eight variants in KCNJ11 and seven in BAD (of which three were previously-unreported) had MAF < 0.01. No significant results were obtained from association analyses, with either KDT response phenotype. P-values were similar when accounting for ethnicity using a stratified Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test. There did not seem to be a consistent effect of rare variants on response to KDT, although the cohort size was too small to assess significance. Common variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to KDT for epilepsy. We can exclude, with 80% power, association from variants with a MAF of >0.05 and effect size >3. A larger sample size is needed to detect associations from rare variants or those with smaller effect sizes. PMID:26590798

  4. Variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to ketogenic dietary therapies for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schoeler, Natasha E; Leu, Costin; White, Jon; Plagnol, Vincent; Ellard, Sian; Matarin, Mar; Yellen, Gary; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Mackay, Mark; McMahon, Jacinta M; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Sander, Josemir W; Cross, J Helen; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of specific metabolic disorders, predictors of response to ketogenic dietary therapies (KDT) are unknown. We aimed to determine whether variants in established candidate genes KCNJ11 and BAD influence response to KDT. We sequenced KCNJ11 and BAD in individuals without previously-known glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome or other metabolic disorders, who received KDT for epilepsy. Hospital records were used to obtain demographic and clinical data. Two response phenotypes were used: ≥ 50% seizure reduction and seizure-freedom at 3-month follow-up. Case/control association tests were conducted with KCNJ11 and BAD variants with minor allele frequency (MAF)>0.01, using PLINK. Response to KDT in individuals with variants with MAF<0.01 was evaluated. 303 Individuals had KCNJ11 and 246 individuals had BAD sequencing data and diet response data. Six SNPs in KCNJ11 and two in BAD had MAF>0.01. Eight variants in KCNJ11 and seven in BAD (of which three were previously-unreported) had MAF<0.01. No significant results were obtained from association analyses, with either KDT response phenotype. P-values were similar when accounting for ethnicity using a stratified Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. There did not seem to be a consistent effect of rare variants on response to KDT, although the cohort size was too small to assess significance. Common variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to KDT for epilepsy. We can exclude, with 80% power, association from variants with a MAF of >0.05 and effect size >3. A larger sample size is needed to detect associations from rare variants or those with smaller effect sizes.

  5. Regional, but not total, body composition changes in overweight and obese adults consuming a higher protein, energy-restricted diet are sex specific.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minghua; Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2013-08-01

    Secondary analyses of data from 2 studies were used to assess the effects of protein intake and sex on diet-induced changes in body composition. The primary hypothesis was that the changes of body composition via energy restriction (ie, lean body mass [LBM], fat mass [FM], and bone) would be sex and diet specific. For 12 weeks, 43 male (study 1) and 45 female (study 2) overweight and obese adults consumed an energy-deficit diet (750 kcal/d less than energy needs) containing either 0.8 (normal protein [NP], 21 men and 23 women) or 1.4 g protein∙kg(-1)∙d(-1) (high protein [HP], 22 men and 22 women). Body composition measurements were performed at preintervention and postintervention. Over time, all research participants lost weight, LBM, and FM. Independent of protein intake, the men lost more LBM in the trunk (-0.9 vs -0.5 kg) and less in the legs (-1.5 vs -1.1 kg) compared with the women (P < .05). Independent of sex, the HP group lost less LBM in the trunk and legs than the NP group. These sex and protein intake responses resulted in the NP men losing the most LBM in the legs and the NP women losing the most LBM in the trunk. Over time, men lost more FM (-5.0 vs -3.9 kg) from the trunk and less from legs (-1.7 vs -2.1 kg) than women (P < .05), which resulted in a greater decrease of the android-to-gynoid fat ratio for the men. Protein intake did not influence these sex-specific responses or have any independent effects on changes in FM. In addition, protein intake did not influence bone mineral density responses over time; bone mineral density was reduced in women, but not in men. These findings indicate that higher protein intake during weight loss promotes the retention of LBM in both the trunk and legs despite the sex-specific changes in these body regions. PMID:23890352

  6. Assessment of quality of life of the children and parents affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet: preliminary results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development in therapeutic strategies has increased survival of children affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet (IEMRD). These diseases have mild- and long-term consequences on the health. Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their families. The aims of this study were: to compare the QoL of the children and parents affected by IEMRD with the QoL of the general population and one pathology associated with long-term consequences. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study was performed at the French Reference Center for inborn metabolic disorders (Marseille, France). Inclusion criteria were: a child with a diagnosis of organic aciduria, urea cycle defect, or maple syrups urine disease (MSUD). Socio-demographics, clinical data, and QoL were recorded. Results Twenty-one of 32 eligible families were included during a planned routine visit. Ten (47%, 95% CI 27-69%) children were affected by organic aciduria, six (29%, 95% CI 10-48%) by urea cycle defects, and five (24%, 95% CI 6-42%) by MSUD. Among the younger children, the general well-being was significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (58 ± 16 versus 76 ± 15, p = 0.012), and among the older children, the leisure activities were significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (29 ± 18 versus 62 ± 22, p < 10-3), while the relationships with teachers were better (76 ± 23 versus 60 ± 23, p = 0.01). The physical QoL score was lower in the parents than in the French norms (66 ± 21 versus 75 ± 1, p = 0.05). Factors modulating QoL were: eating and neurologic disorders, enteral nutrition, and feeding modalities. Conclusion The children and the parents of children affected presented altered ‘physical’ and ‘social’ QoL scores compared with the norms and patients with leukemia and their families. Future studies based on larger cohort

  7. Long-term Effects of Two Levels of Caloric Restriction on Body Composition, and Diet Satisfaction in CALERIE, a One Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little information on whether the extent of dietary energy restriction in a weight loss program influences long-term weight change. We examined the effects of two levels of caloric restriction (CR) over 12 months on body weight and fat loss, total energy expenditure (TEE), resting metabolic...

  8. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, Andrea M; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Sears, Barry

    2007-10-01

    Ketogenic diets have been associated with reductions in free-living physical activity, a response that can be counterproductive in individuals trying to lose weight. To explore whether popular low-carbohydrate diets might impact the desire to exercise by raising blood ketone concentrations, fatigue and perceived effort during exercise were compared in untrained, overweight adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate diet or to a control diet low in carbohydrate, but not ketogenic (5%, 65%, and 30% or 40%, 30%, and 30% of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively). In this prospective, randomized, 2-week pilot study, all meals and snacks were provided to subjects, and energy intake was strictly controlled to provide approximately 70% of that needed for weight maintenance. At baseline and at the end of week 2, exercise testing was conducted in fasting participants. Weight loss and the reductions in fat mass did not differ by group during the trial. At week 2, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 3.6-fold greater for the ketogenic vs nonketogenic group (P=0.018) and correlated significantly with perceived exercise effort (r2=0.22, P=0.049). Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was also significantly correlated to feelings of "fatigue" (r=0.458, P=0.049) and to "total mood disturbance" (r=0.551, P=0.015) while exercising. These pilot data indicate that ketogenic, low-carbohydrate diets enhance fatigability and can reduce the desire to exercise in free-living individuals. PMID:17904939

  9. Content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver of rats fed restricted diets supplemented with vitamins B2, B6 and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Bertrandt, Jerzy; Klos, Anna; Debski, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate an influence of nutritional deficiency and dietary addition of vit. B(2), B(6) and folic acid on PUFAs content in rats' serum and liver. Limitation of consumption full value diet to 50% of its previously determined daily consumption, enriched with m/a vitamins, significant decreased of linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids as well as distinctly increased arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids content in serum in 30th day. In 60th day lower content of AA and DHA fatty acids was found. Nutrition with such diet, lasting 90 days caused decrease of LA content and increase of AA. Diet limitation to its 30% of daily consumption decreased of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA in the 30th day, while AA and DHA content was increased in the 60th day. Distinct decrease of AA content and increase of EPA content were found in the 90th day of experiment. Use of diets, with limited consumption to 50% caused increase of LA and ALA acids content while AA and DHA acids content were significantly decreased in the liver, in 90th day. Limited consumption supplemented diet to 30% caused in liver significant decrease of LA and increase of EPA acids content.

  10. [The use of the ketogenic diet as treatment for refractory epilepsy in the paediatric age].

    PubMed

    Pablos-Sánchez, Tamara; Oliveros-Leal, Liliana; Núñez-Enamorado, Noemí; Camacho-Salas, Ana; Moreno-Villares, José Manuel; Simón-De las Heras, Rogelio

    2014-01-16

    Introduccion. El 23-25% de los niños epilepticos son refractarios a farmacos antiepilepticos. El interes por la dieta cetogenica como tratamiento en estos pacientes no candidatos a otras opciones terapeuticas ha resurgido ultimamente. Objetivo. Valorar la eficacia y seguridad del tratamiento con dieta cetogenica en un importante numero de pacientes pediatricos con epilepsia refractaria en nuestro centro y determinar si los resultados obtenidos corroboran otros de publicacion reciente. Pacientes y metodos. Se revisaron retrospectivamente las historias clinicas de 41 niños con epilepsia refractaria que fueron tratados con dieta cetogenica entre 1998 y 2011, la mayoria con dieta tipo Radcliffe II. La mediana de edad al inicio de la dieta fue de 3,92 años. Resultados. A los seis meses del inicio de la dieta se redujeron las crisis en al menos un 50% en un 36,84% de la muestra (el 10,53% de los niños alcanzo mas de un 90% de reduccion y un 5,26% quedo sin crisis). Aproximadamente un 50% por grupo de edad en los mas pequeños respondio de manera positiva. Un 58,54% de los pacientes presento algun efecto secundario, tolerable y transitorio, principalmente elevacion de los niveles de colesterol y estreñimiento, sin observarse variacion en los parametros antropometricos. Conclusiones. La dieta cetogenica supone una buena alternativa terapeutica en los casos de epilepsia refractaria en la edad pediatrica, con mayor probabilidad de beneficio cuanto menor sea la edad del niño al inicio de la dieta. En general, es bien tolerada. Son de gran importancia en estos pacientes las revisiones periodicas con control nutricional.

  11. [Effectiveness of a ketogenic diet in children with refractory epilepsy: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Araya-Quintanilla, F; Celis-Rosati, A; Rodriguez-Leiva, C; Silva-Navarro, C; Silva-Pinto, Y; Toro-Jeria, B

    2016-05-16

    Introduccion. La epilepsia es una patologia cerebral que afecta tanto a niños como a adultos. Desde los años veinte, la dieta cetogenica ha ganado prestigio como otra opcion de tratamiento en pacientes con epilepsia refractaria. Sujetos y metodos. Se realiza una sintesis de la evidencia a traves de una revision sistematica de ensayos clinicos aleatorizados que hayan comparado una dieta cetogenica sola con otros tipos de dieta para el tratamiento de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Determinar la efectividad de la dieta cetogenica en la disminucion de los episodios de convulsiones en pacientes con epilepsia refractaria. La estrategia de busqueda incluyo ensayos clinicos aleatorizados y ensayos clinicos controlados. Las bases de datos usadas fueron: Medline, LILACS, Central y CINAHL. Resultados. Se obtuvieron seis articulos que cumplian con los criterios de elegibilidad. Conclusiones. Existe evidencia limitada de que la dieta cetogenica en comparacion con la dieta de trigliceridos de cadena media es mas efectiva en disminuir la frecuencia de las convulsiones. Existe evidencia moderada de que la dieta cetogenica clasica en comparacion con la dieta gradual (2,5:1 y 3:1) es mas efectiva para disminuir las crisis epilepticas. Existe evidencia moderada de que la dieta cetogenica clasica en comparacion con la dieta Atkins es mas efectiva para disminuir la frecuencia de convulsiones en tres meses. La decision de aplicar este tipo de dietas tambien debe basarse en costes, preferencias y seguridad del tratamiento. Ademas, debe considerarse la probabilidad de que algunos estudios, por problemas de indizacion, hayan quedado fuera de la revision.

  12. Monocarboxylate transporters in temporal lobe epilepsy: roles of lactate and ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Eid, Tore; Bergersen, Linda H

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder that affects approximately 1 % of the general population, making it one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system. Furthermore, up to 40 % of all patients with epilepsy cannot control their seizures with current medications. More efficacious treatments for medication refractory epilepsy are therefore needed. A better understanding of the mechanisms that cause this disorder is likely to facilitate the discovery of such treatments. Impairment in cerebral energy metabolism has been proposed as a possible causative factor in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is one of the most common types of medication-refractory epilepsies in adults. In this review, we will discuss some of the current hypotheses regarding the possible causal relationship between brain energy metabolism and TLE. Emphasis will be placed on the role of energy substrates (lactate and ketone bodies) and their transporter molecules, particularly monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 2 (MCT1 and MCT2). We recently reported that the cellular distribution of MCT1 and MCT2 is perturbed in the hippocampus in patients with TLE. The changes may be an adaptive response aimed at keeping high levels of lactate in the epileptic tissue, which may serve to counteract epileptic activity by downregulating cAMP levels through the lactate receptor GPR81, newly discovered in hippocampus. We propose that the perturbation of MCTs may be further involved in the pathophysiology of TLE by influencing brain energy homeostasis, mitochondrial function, GABA-ergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, and flux of lactate through the brain.

  13. HEPATIC FATTY ACID PROFILE OF RATS FED A TRIHEPTANOIN-BASED KETOGENIC DIET.

    PubMed

    Vieira de Melo, Ingrid Sofia; Da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha; Lima de Oliveira, Suzana; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte de Freitas, Johnnatan; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia del consumo de una dieta cetogénica complementada con triheptanoína, un triacilglicerol de cadena media y anaplerótico, en el perfil de ácidos grasos del hígado de ratones Wistar. Métodos: tres grupos de ratones Wistar machos (n = 10) fueron sometidos durante 60 días a una dieta AIN-93 de control, una dieta cetogénica basada en triheptanoína o una dieta cetogénica a base de aceite de soja. Los hígados fueron escindidos y sometidos a extracción de lípidos y metilación para obtener los ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos, que se sometieron a cromatografía de gas-espectrometría de masa. Resultados y discusión: en comparación con los ratones alimentados con la dieta de control, los de ambas dietas cetogénicas mostraron una reducción significativa en las concentraciones de los ácidos grasos 9-hexadecenoico y 9-octadecenoico, mientras que los alimentados con triheptanoína mostraron niveles de ácido octadecenoico aumentados. Conclusión: los cambios en los perfiles de ácidos grasos del hígado de los ratones alimentados con dietas cetogénicas no están relacionados con la fuente de grasa de la dieta (triheptanoína o aceite de soja), sino más bien con la concentración total de lípidos.

  14. CONVULSIVE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO TREATMENT WITH KETOGENIC DIET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KEITH, HADDOW M.

    WRITTEN FOR THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, THIS BOOK PROVIDES INFORMATION ON CHILDHOOD CONVULSIONS (EPILEPSY) AND METHODS OF TREATMENT. VARIOUS CONVULSIVE DISORDERS, INCLUDING HYPSARHYTHMIA, AUTONOMIC SEIZURES, SYMPTOM COMPLEXES, FEBRILE CONVULSIONS, AND "PHOTOGENIC" DISORDERS, ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT. CONVULSIONS THAT…

  15. Calorie Restriction in Overweight SeniorS: Response of Older Adults to a Dieting Study: The CROSSROADS Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Marilyn C.; Bodner, Eric V.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Bryan, David; Buys, David R.; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; Wingo, Brooks C.; Ard, Jamy; Locher, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling, obese, older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose tissue deposition (Specific Aim #1: To compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition, namely visceral adipose tissue (VAT)), cardiometabolic disease risk (Specific Aim #2: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on cardiometabolic disease risk), functional status and quality of life (Specific Aim #3: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on functional status and quality of life). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Exercise Only (Control) Intervention, Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Maintenance Intervention, or Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Loss Intervention. CROSSROADS utilized a lifestyle intervention approach consisting of exercise, dietary, and behavioral components. The development and implementation of the CROSSROADS protocol, including a description of the methodology, detailing specific elements of the lifestyle intervention, assurances of treatment fidelity, and participant retention; outcome measures and adverse event monitoring; as well as unique data management features of the trial results, are presented in this article. PMID:25424512

  16. Effect of weight loss plans on body composition and diet duration.

    PubMed

    Landers, Patti; Wolfe, Megan M; Glore, Stephen; Guild, Ralph; Phillips, Lindsay

    2002-05-01

    Are low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diets more effective in promoting loss of weight and body fat and can individuals stay on an Atkins-like diet more easily than on a conventional weight loss diet? A pre-test/post-test randomized group design composed of three cohorts was utilized to test 1) a LCHP ketogenic diet; 2) the Zone diet; and 3) a conventional hypocaloric diabetic exchange diet that supplied < 10%, 40%, and 50% of calories from carbohydrate, respectively. Body composition was measured before and after the intervention treatment period with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mean weight loss was 5.1 kg for those who completed the 12-week program. There were no significant differences in total weight, fat, or lean body mass loss when compared by diet group. Attrition was substantial for all plans at 43%, 60%, and 36% for LCHP, Zone and conventional diets, respectively.

  17. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  18. Protein-controlled versus restricted protein versus low protein diets in managing patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease: a single centre experience in Australia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition has been an important part of medical management in patients with chronic kidney disease for more than a century. Since the 1970s, due to technological advances in renal replacement therapy (RRT) such as dialysis and transplantation, the importance of nutrition intervention in non-dialysis stages has diminished. In addition, it appears that there is a lack of high-level evidence to support the use of diet therapy, in particular the use of low protein diets to slow down disease progression. However, nutrition abnormalities are known to emerge well before dialysis is required and are associated with poor outcomes post-commencing dialysis. To improve clinical outcomes it is prudent to incorporate practice research and quality audits into routine care, as part of the continuous clinical practice improvement process. This article summarises the experience of and current practices in a metropolitan tertiary teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. PMID:27624699

  19. Long-term, calorie-restricted intake of a high-fat diet in rats reduces impulse control and ventral striatal D2 receptor signalling - two markers of addiction vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy K; Sussman, Jacob L; Kaur, Sukhbir; D'souza, Anna M; Kieffer, Timothy J; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2015-12-01

    High impulsivity, mediated through ventral striatal dopamine signalling, represents an established risk factor for substance abuse, and may likewise confer vulnerability to pathological overeating. Mechanistically, the assumption is that trait impulsivity facilitates the initiation of maladaptive eating styles or choices. However, whether consumption of appetitive macronutrients themselves causes deficits in impulse control and striatal signalling, thereby contributing to cognitive changes permissive of overeating behaviour, has yet to be considered. We examined the effects of chronic maintenance on restricted equicaloric, but high-fat or high-sugar, diets (48 kcal/day; 60 kcal% fat or sucrose) on rats' performance in the five-choice serial reaction time task, indexing impulsivity and attention. Markers of dopamine signalling in the dorsal and ventral striatum, and plasma insulin and leptin levels, were also assessed. Rats maintained on the high-fat diet (HFD) were more impulsive, whereas the high-sugar diet (HSD) did not alter task performance. Importantly, body weight and hormone levels were similar between groups when behavioural changes were observed. Maintenance on HFD, but not on HSD, reduced the levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2 R), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphophorylated CREB (Ser133) proteins in the ventral, but not dorsal, striatum. D2 R expression in the ventral striatum also negatively correlated with impulsive responding, independently of diet. These data indicate that chronic exposure to even limited amounts of high-fat foods may weaken impulse control and alter neural signalling in a manner associated with vulnerability to addictions - findings that have serious implications for the propagation of uncontrolled eating behaviour in obesity and binge-eating disorder.

  20. Long-term follow-up of children treated with the modified Atkins diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy; Kossoff, Eric H

    2012-06-01

    The modified Atkins diet has been studied in mostly short-term clinical trials and case series. No studies have systematically examined the long-term benefits and side effects. The modified Atkins diet was started without prior ketogenic diet use in 87 children at the Johns Hopkins Hospital since 2002, of which 54 continued for more than 6 months. Children who had not been seen within the past 2 years were contacted by phone and email. At their most recent point during the modified Atkins diet (mean 19.9 months), 30 of 54 (55%) children with diet durations of more than 6 months achieved >50% improvement; 19 (35%) were seizure-free. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, at 12 months, 33 of 87 (38%) had >50% seizure reduction; 16 (18%) were seizure-free. These results are similar to published data for short-term modified Atkins diet and long-term ketogenic diet use. Side effects were predominantly elevations in lipid profile and gastrointestinal upset.

  1. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

    1992-01-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

  2. Long-term effects of a diet loosely restricting carbohydrates on HbA1c levels, BMI and tapering of sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetes: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Haimoto, Hajime; Iwata, Mitsunaga; Wakai, Kenji; Umegaki, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    The aim was to assess the long-term effect of a loose restriction of carbohydrate intake (carbohydrate-reduced diet: CARD) compared to a conventional diet (CD) in type 2 diabetes. One hundred and thirty-three type 2 diabetic outpatients followed the CD (n=57, 1734+/-410 kcal, carbohydrate:protein:fat ratio=57:16:26) or CARD (n=76, 1773+/-441 kcal, carbohydrate:protein:fat ratio=45:18:33) according to their own will, and were followed up for 2 years. Glycemic control, body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterols and dose of antidiabetic drugs were assessed at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. At baseline, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and BMI levels were 7.1+/-1.0% and 24.2+/-2.9, respectively, in the CD group, and 7.4+/-1.1% and 25.1+/-3.4 in the CARD group, showing no significant differences. During the 2-year follow-up period, HbA1c levels were significantly improved in the CARD group (CD: 7.5+/-1.3%, CARD: 6.7+/-0.6%, P<0.001), and BMI decreased more significantly in the CARD group (CD: 23.8+/-3.0, CARD: 23.8+/-3.5, P<0.001). The doses of sulfonylureas clearly tapered, and serum cholesterol profiles improved significantly with the CARD. Our results warrant a long-term and large-scale randomized study of the diet for type 2 diabetes.

  3. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  4. Arylesterase activity is associated with antioxidant intake and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene methylation in metabolic syndrome patients following an energy restricted diet.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Mansego, Maria L; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Zulet, M Angeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The arylesterase (ARE) activity linked to the paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene is known to protect lipoproteins from oxidation and provide defense against metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. The epigenetic regulation of enzymatic activities is gaining importance nowadays. This research aimed to assess the potential relationships between the ARE activity with the methylation levels of the PON1 gene transcriptional regulatory region, anthropometrics, biochemical markers and antioxidant dietary components. Forty-seven subjects (47 ± 10 y.o; BMI 36.2 ± 3.8 kg/m(2); 46.8 % female) with MetS features, who followed a six-month energy-restricted dietary weight-loss intervention, were included in this study (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086). Anthropometric, biochemical, enzymatic and dietary data were assessed using validated procedures. PON1 transcriptional regulatory region methylation was analyzed by a microarray technical approach. Volunteers reduced ARE activity in parallel with body weight (p = 0.005), BMI (p = 0.006), total fat mass (p = 0.020), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.018), mean blood pressure (p = 0.022) and triglycerides (p = 0.014). Methylation levels of some CpG sites of the PON1 gene correlated negatively with ARE activity (p < 0.05). Interestingly, dietary vitamin C (p = 0.001), tocopherols (p = 0.009) and lycopene (p = 0.038) were positively associated with ARE activity and showed an inverse correlation (p = 0.004, p = 0.029 and p = 0.021, respectively) with the methylation of some selected CpG sites of the PON1 gene. In conclusion, ARE activity decreased in parallel with MetS-related markers associated to the energy restriction, while dietary antioxidants might enhance the ARE activity by lowering the PON1 gene methylation in patients with MetS features.

  5. Arylesterase activity is associated with antioxidant intake and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene methylation in metabolic syndrome patients following an energy restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Mansego, Maria L.; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J.; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The arylesterase (ARE) activity linked to the paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene is known to protect lipoproteins from oxidation and provide defense against metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. The epigenetic regulation of enzymatic activities is gaining importance nowadays. This research aimed to assess the potential relationships between the ARE activity with the methylation levels of the PON1 gene transcriptional regulatory region, anthropometrics, biochemical markers and antioxidant dietary components. Forty-seven subjects (47 ± 10 y.o; BMI 36.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2; 46.8 % female) with MetS features, who followed a six-month energy-restricted dietary weight-loss intervention, were included in this study (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086). Anthropometric, biochemical, enzymatic and dietary data were assessed using validated procedures. PON1 transcriptional regulatory region methylation was analyzed by a microarray technical approach. Volunteers reduced ARE activity in parallel with body weight (p = 0.005), BMI (p = 0.006), total fat mass (p = 0.020), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.018), mean blood pressure (p = 0.022) and triglycerides (p = 0.014). Methylation levels of some CpG sites of the PON1 gene correlated negatively with ARE activity (p < 0.05). Interestingly, dietary vitamin C (p = 0.001), tocopherols (p = 0.009) and lycopene (p = 0.038) were positively associated with ARE activity and showed an inverse correlation (p = 0.004, p = 0.029 and p = 0.021, respectively) with the methylation of some selected CpG sites of the PON1 gene. In conclusion, ARE activity decreased in parallel with MetS-related markers associated to the energy restriction, while dietary antioxidants might enhance the ARE activity by lowering the PON1 gene methylation in patients with MetS features. PMID:26417268

  6. Considerations for the use of restricted, soaked grass hay diets to promote weight loss in the management of equine metabolic syndrome and obesity.

    PubMed

    Argo, Caroline McG; Dugdale, Alexandra H A; McGowan, Catherine M

    2015-11-01

    The addition of hay soaking to current nutritional advice for weight loss management for equine obesity lacks clinical evidence. Twelve overweight/obese horses and ponies were used to test the hypothesis that feeding soaked hay at 1.25% of body mass (BM) daily as dry matter (DM) before soaking would elicit weight losses within the target 0.5-1.0% of BM weekly. Six animals were used to evaluate the impact of nutrient-leaching on the digestibility and daily intakes of dietary energy and nutrients. Soaked hay DM was corrected in accordance with the 'insoluble' ADF content of fresh and soaked hays. The ADF-based method was validated using a test-soaking protocol. Animals fed soaked hay for 6 weeks lost 0.98 ± 0.10% of BM weekly. The most weight loss sensitive animal lost ~2% of BM weekly. Soaking hay did not alter DM gross energy concentrations, incurred losses of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ash and increased acid detergent fibre (ADF) concentrations. Digestibilities of GE, DM, ash and WSC were unaltered but soaking increased uncorrected values for crude protein (+12%) and ADF (+13.5%) digestibility. Corrected DM provision was only 1% of BM daily, providing 64% of maintenance DE requirements, a 23.5% increase in the intended magnitude of energy restriction. Hay soaking leached nutrients, reduced DM and DE provision and was associated with accelerated weight losses over those expected had fresh-hay been fed to the same level. The ADF-based method will allow the predictive evaluation of individual hays to direct feeding management and prevent inadvertently severe DM and energy restriction. PMID:26403956

  7. Alternate‐day versus daily energy restriction diets: which is more effective for weight loss? A systematic review and meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia‐Alvarez, A.; Alzahrnai, A. H.; Karanxha, J.; Stretchberry, D. R.; Contrera, K. J.; Utria, A. F.; Cheskin, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Alternate‐day‐fasting (ADF) has been proposed as an effective dieting method. Studies have found that it also can increase life span in rodents, and reduce inflammation in humans. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the efficacy of ADF compared to very‐low‐calorie dieting (VLCD) in terms of weight loss, and reduction of fat mass and fat‐free mass. Methods Systematic review: PubMed literature searches were performed. Fixed review procedures were applied. Studies were evaluated for quality. Twenty‐eight studies were included. Meta‐analysis: 10/28 studies (four ADF and six matched VLCD) were further analyzed. Results After adjustment for BMI and duration, there was no significant difference in mean body weight loss (VLCD 0.88 kg more weight loss than ADF, 95% CI: −4.32, 2.56) or fat‐free mass (VLCD 1.69 kg more fat‐free mass loss than ADF, 95% CI: −3.62, 0.23); there was a significant difference observed in fat mass (ADF 3.31 kg more fat mass loss than VLCD, 95% CI: 0.05, 6.56). Meta‐analysis showed that, among ADF studies, the pooled change in body weight, fat mass and fat‐free mass was 4.30 kg (95% CI: 3.41, 5.20), 4.06 kg (95% CI: 2.99, 5.13) and 0.72 kg (95% CI: −0.07, 1.51), respectively, while among VLCD studies, the pooled change was 6.28 kg (95% CI: 6.08, 6.49), 4.22 kg (95% CI: 3.95, 4.50) and 2.24 kg (95% CI: 1.95, 2.52), respectively. Conclusions Our results from both the systematic review and the meta‐analysis suggest that ADF is an efficacious dietary method, and may be superior to VLCD for some patients because of ease of compliance, greater fat‐mass loss and relative preservation of fat‐free mass. Head‐to‐head randomized clinical trials are needed to further assess relative efficacy of these two approaches. PMID:27708846

  8. Alternate‐day versus daily energy restriction diets: which is more effective for weight loss? A systematic review and meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia‐Alvarez, A.; Alzahrnai, A. H.; Karanxha, J.; Stretchberry, D. R.; Contrera, K. J.; Utria, A. F.; Cheskin, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Alternate‐day‐fasting (ADF) has been proposed as an effective dieting method. Studies have found that it also can increase life span in rodents, and reduce inflammation in humans. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the efficacy of ADF compared to very‐low‐calorie dieting (VLCD) in terms of weight loss, and reduction of fat mass and fat‐free mass. Methods Systematic review: PubMed literature searches were performed. Fixed review procedures were applied. Studies were evaluated for quality. Twenty‐eight studies were included. Meta‐analysis: 10/28 studies (four ADF and six matched VLCD) were further analyzed. Results After adjustment for BMI and duration, there was no significant difference in mean body weight loss (VLCD 0.88 kg more weight loss than ADF, 95% CI: −4.32, 2.56) or fat‐free mass (VLCD 1.69 kg more fat‐free mass loss than ADF, 95% CI: −3.62, 0.23); there was a significant difference observed in fat mass (ADF 3.31 kg more fat mass loss than VLCD, 95% CI: 0.05, 6.56). Meta‐analysis showed that, among ADF studies, the pooled change in body weight, fat mass and fat‐free mass was 4.30 kg (95% CI: 3.41, 5.20), 4.06 kg (95% CI: 2.99, 5.13) and 0.72 kg (95% CI: −0.07, 1.51), respectively, while among VLCD studies, the pooled change was 6.28 kg (95% CI: 6.08, 6.49), 4.22 kg (95% CI: 3.95, 4.50) and 2.24 kg (95% CI: 1.95, 2.52), respectively. Conclusions Our results from both the systematic review and the meta‐analysis suggest that ADF is an efficacious dietary method, and may be superior to VLCD for some patients because of ease of compliance, greater fat‐mass loss and relative preservation of fat‐free mass. Head‐to‐head randomized clinical trials are needed to further assess relative efficacy of these two approaches.

  9. Improved metabolic response after 16 weeks of calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin in impaired glucose tolerance subjects.

    PubMed

    Macedo da Costa, Teresa Helena; Pires da Silva, Fábio Vinícius; Gonçalves Reis, Caio Eduardo; Augusto Casulari, Luiz

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Este estudio analizaba los efectos metabólicos del consejo dietético de seguir una dieta con restricción calórica y un índice glucémico bajo junto con Metformina en individuos con sobrepeso / obesidad y tolerancia alterada a la glucosa. Métodos: Se siguió mensualmente durante 16 semanas a 16 individuos con un índice de masa corporal entre 27-38 kg/m² y se les trató con Metformina (1 g/día) y una prescripción dietética con un índice glucémico bajo y una reducción del energía del 25-30 ¡% de su gasto energético total. Se midieron el metabolismo de la glucosa, el perfil lipídico, la composición antropométrica y corporal y los parámetros de consumo de alimentos antes y después del tratamiento. Se emplearon las pruebas t pareadas y de Wilcoxon para comparar las diferencias con respecto al basal, con un criterio de significación estadística de p ≤0,05. Resultados: Hubo reducciones significativas en los parámetros de composición corporal y antropométricos, una disminución en las concentraciones de HOMA2-% y e triglicéridos y un aumento del índice de Cederholm. Estos resultados muestran una mejora de la sensibilidad periférica a la insulina y una conservación de la función de las células beta pancreáticas. Conclusión: la dieta con restricción calórica y un índice glucémico bajo junto con Metformina fueron beneficiosas para los parámetros metabólicos y antropométricos en individuos con sobrepeso/obesidad y una tolerancia a la glucosa alterada.

  10. Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome effectively treated with modified Atkins diet.

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Edda; Karall, Daniela; Jud, Veronika; Baumgartner, Sara Sigl; Zotter, Sibylle; Rostasy, Kevin; Baumann, Matthias; Scholl-Buergi, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    This is a report on the successful treatment of a 6-year-old girl with genetically proven glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) with modified Atkins diet (MAD). GLUT1-DS is an inborn disorder of glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier, which leads to energy deficiency of the brain with a broad spectrum of neurological symptoms including therapy-resistant epilepsy. Usually classical ketogenic diet (KD) is the standard treatment for patients with GLUT1-DS. Treatment with MAD, a variant of KD, for an observation period of 17 months resulted in improvement of seizures, alertness, cognitive abilities, and electroencephalography in this patient.

  11. Use of a computerized tracking system to monitor and provide feedback on dietary goals for calorie-restricted diets: the POUNDS LOST study.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; LeBlanc, Eric; Allen, H Raymond; Karabetian, Christy; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George; Williamson, Donald A

    2012-09-01

    The use of self-monitoring as a tool to facilitate behavioral modification is common in many lifestyle-based weight loss interventions. Electronic tracking programs, including computer-based systems and smart phone applications, have been developed to allow individuals to self-monitor their behavior digitally. These programs offer an advantage over traditional self-report modalities in that they can provide users with direct feedback about dietary and/or physical activity adherence levels and thereby assist them in real-time decision making. This article describes the use of an Internet-based computerized tracking system (CTS) that was developed specifically for the POUNDS LOST study, a 2-year randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of four macronutrient diets for weight and fat reduction in healthy, overweight men and women (body mass index range = 25.0-39.9 kg/m(2)). The CTS served many functions in this study, including data collection, dietary and exercise assessment and feedback, messaging system, and report generation. Across all groups, participants with high usage of the CTS during the initial 8 weeks lost greater amounts of weight than participants with low usage (8.7% versus 5.5% of initial body weight, respectively; p < .001) at week 32. Rates of CTS utilization were highest during the first year of this 2-year intervention, and utilization of the CTS declined steadily over time. The unique features of the CTS combined with technological developments, such as smart phone applications, offer significant potential to improve the user's self-monitoring experience and adherence to health promotion programs designed specifically for individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  12. Ketogenic enteral nutrition as a treatment for obesity: short term and long term results from 19,000 patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Only protein diet has been used successfully to prevent loss of lean body mass first in post-surgical and then in obese patients. We studied overweight and obese patients receiving short treatments of an exclusively protein-based nutritional solution as 24-hour enteral infusion. Methods 19,036 patients (age 44.3 ± 13, M:F = 2:5) with an initial body mass index of 36.5 ± 7.1 underwent 10-day cycles of enteral nutrition through a fine nasogastric tube. The nutritional solution consisted solely of 50–65 g of proteins, plus vitamins and electrolytes. The 24-hour infusion was controlled with a small portable pump. Before and after each 10-day cycle body composition was checked with a Handy 3000 impedance analyzer. At the onset of treatment, average fat mass was 40.9 ± 12.8 kg while body cell mass was 42.7 ± 7.2 kg in males and 27.4 ± 4.6 kg in females. Results After an average of 2.5 cycles the patients lost 10.2 ± 7.0 kg of body weight, 5.8 ± 5.5 kg of fat mass and 2.2 ± 3.3 kg of body cell mass. No significant adverse effects were recorded except asthenia and constipation which were easily controlled with therapy. Long-term results were obtained from 15,444 patients and after an average of 362 ± 296 days we found a mean weight regain of 15.4%. Conclusion Ketogenic Enteral Nutrition treatment of over 19,000 patients induced a rapid 10% weight loss, 57% of which was Fat Mass. No significant adverse effects were found. The treatment is safe, fast, inexpensive and has good one-year results for weight maintenance. PMID:23110922

  13. Comparison of Methods to Reduce Myocardial 18F-FDG Uptake in Mice: Calcium Channel Blockers versus High-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Cussó, Lorena; Vaquero, Juan José; Bacharach, Stephen; Desco, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Besides its application in oncology, 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging is also useful in the diagnosis of certain lung infections, inflammatory diseases, and atherosclerotic plaques. Myocardial uptake of 18F-FDG may hamper visualization of the lesions caused by these diseases. Two approaches have been proposed for reducing myocardial uptake in preclinical studies, namely, calcium channel blockers (verapamil) and high-fat diets such as commercial ketogenic diets and sunflower seed diets. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of these approaches in reducing myocardial uptake of 18F-FDG in mice. Methods We performed two experiments. In experiment A, each animal underwent four 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in the following order: baseline, after administration of verapamil, after two days on ketogenic diet and after two days on sunflower seeds. PET scans were performed 60 minutes after injection of 18.5 MBq of 18F-FDG. In experiment B, the best protocol of the three (ketogenic diet) was evaluated in a lung inflammation model to assess the efficacy of reducing myocardial uptake of 18F-FDG. Results Compared with baseline (SUV 2.03±1.21); the greatest reduction in uptake of 18F-FDG was with ketogenic diet (SUV 0.79±0.16; p = 0.008), followed by sunflower seeds (SUV 0.91±0.13; p = 0.015); the reduction in myocardial uptake produced by verapamil was not statistically significant (SUV 1.78±0.79; p = NS). In experiment B, complete suppression of myocardial uptake noticeably improved the visualization of inflamed areas near the heart, while in the case of null or partial myocardial suppression, it was much harder to distinguish lung inflammation from myocardial spillover. Conclusion A high-fat diet appeared to be the most effective method for decreasing myocardial uptake of 18F-FDG in healthy mice, outperforming verapamil. Our findings also demonstrate that ketogenic diet actually improves visualization of inflammatory lesions near the heart. PMID

  14. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy; Idiopathic myocardial fibrosis ... of the heart lining (endocardium), such as endomyocardial fibrosis and Loeffler syndrome (rare) Iron overload (hemochromatosis) Sarcoidosis ...

  15. The mTORC1-Signaling Pathway and Hepatic Polyribosome Profile Are Enhanced after the Recovery of a Protein Restricted Diet by a Combination of Soy or Black Bean with Corn Protein

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Mota, Claudia C.; Rodriguez-Gaytan, Cinthya; Adjibade, Pauline; Mazroui, Rachid; Gálvez, Amanda; Granados, Omar; Tovar, Armando R.; Torres, Nimbe

    2016-01-01

    Between 6% and 11% of the world’s population suffers from malnutrition or undernutrition associated with poverty, aging or long-term hospitalization. The present work examined the effect of different types of proteins on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1)-signaling pathway in: (1) healthy; and (2) protein restricted rats. (1) In total, 200 rats were divided into eight groups and fed one of the following diets: 20% casein (C), soy (S), black bean (B), B + Corn (BCr), Pea (P), spirulina (Sp), sesame (Se) or Corn (Cr). Rats fed C or BCr had the highest body weight gain; rats fed BCr had the highest pS6K1/S6K1 ratio; rats fed B, BCr or P had the highest eIF4G expression; (2) In total, 84 rats were fed 0.5% C for 21 day and protein rehabilitated with different proteins. The S, soy + Corn (SCr) and BCr groups had the highest body weight gain. Rats fed SCr and BCr had the highest eIF4G expression and liver polysome formation. These findings suggest that the quality of the dietary proteins modulate the mTORC1-signaling pathway. In conclusion, the combination of BCr or SCr are the best proteins for dietary protein rehabilitation due to the significant increase in body weight, activation of the mTORC1-signaling pathway in liver and muscle, and liver polysome formation. PMID:27657118

  16. Amelioration of circulating lipoprotein profile and proteinuria in a patient with LCAT deficiency due to a novel mutation (Cys74Tyr) in the lid region of LCAT under a fat-restricted diet and ARB treatment.

    PubMed

    Naito, Shokichi; Kamata, Mariko; Furuya, Masako; Hayashi, Miyuki; Kuroda, Masayuki; Bujo, Hideaki; Kamata, Kouju

    2013-05-01

    Familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is a hereditary disease characterized by an abnormal lipid profile, corneal opacity, anemia and progressive renal disease. We report a patient with complete loss of LCAT activity due to a novel lcat gene mutation of Cys74Tyr in the lid region of LCAT protein. Esterification of cholesterol in this patient was disturbed by disruption of a substrate binding loop of Cys50-Cys74 in LCAT protein. She had progressive renal dysfunction, proteinuria, corneal opacity, anemia and an abnormal lipid profile. Her serum lipids showed a significant increase in abnormal lipoproteins at the original position in agarose gel electrophoresis and VLDL-cholesterol, and a severe decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol. Lipoprotein analyzes also revealed the presence of an abnormal midband lipoprotein, and a maturation disturbance of HDL particles. Renal function and proteinuria improved following the adoption of a fat-restricted diet and administration of an angiotensin II receptor blocker. The abnormal lipoproteins also decreased after this treatment.

  17. Amelioration of circulating lipoprotein profile and proteinuria in a patient with LCAT deficiency due to a novel mutation (Cys74Tyr) in the lid region of LCAT under a fat-restricted diet and ARB treatment.

    PubMed

    Naito, Shokichi; Kamata, Mariko; Furuya, Masako; Hayashi, Miyuki; Kuroda, Masayuki; Bujo, Hideaki; Kamata, Kouju

    2013-05-01

    Familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is a hereditary disease characterized by an abnormal lipid profile, corneal opacity, anemia and progressive renal disease. We report a patient with complete loss of LCAT activity due to a novel lcat gene mutation of Cys74Tyr in the lid region of LCAT protein. Esterification of cholesterol in this patient was disturbed by disruption of a substrate binding loop of Cys50-Cys74 in LCAT protein. She had progressive renal dysfunction, proteinuria, corneal opacity, anemia and an abnormal lipid profile. Her serum lipids showed a significant increase in abnormal lipoproteins at the original position in agarose gel electrophoresis and VLDL-cholesterol, and a severe decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol. Lipoprotein analyzes also revealed the presence of an abnormal midband lipoprotein, and a maturation disturbance of HDL particles. Renal function and proteinuria improved following the adoption of a fat-restricted diet and administration of an angiotensin II receptor blocker. The abnormal lipoproteins also decreased after this treatment. PMID:23522979

  18. Meal replacements and fibre supplement as a strategy for weight loss. Proprietary PGX® meal replacement and PGX® fibre supplement in addition to a calorie-restricted diet to achieve weight loss in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Reimer, Raylene A; Kacinik, Veronica; Pal, Sebely; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Meal replacements and viscous soluble fibre represent safe and sustainable aids for weight loss. Our purpose was to determine if PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre complex in combination with a calorie-restricted diet would aid in weight loss in a clinical setting. Fifty-two overweight and obese participants (49 women, 3 men; average age 47.1 years) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) consumed 57 g of proprietary PGX® meal replacement product at breakfast and another 57 g at lunch for 12 weeks. In addition to the meal replacements, they were also asked to consume 5 g/day of PGX® fibre in the form of granules, powder or capsules together with 250 mlwater. A registered dietician recommended low-fat, low-glycaemic-index foods for snacks and the dinner menus such that each volunteer was consuming a total of 1200 kcal/day. All participants (n = 52) lost a significant amount of weight from baseline (-4.69 ± 3.73 kg), which was further reflected in the reductions in their waist (-7.11 ± 6.35 cm) and hip circumference (-5.59 ± 3.58 cm) over the 12-week study (p < 0.0001). BMI scores (n = 51) were reduced by 1.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2). The use of PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre along with a controlled dietary caloric intake is of benefit for short-term weight loss.

  19. Meal replacements and fibre supplement as a strategy for weight loss. Proprietary PGX® meal replacement and PGX® fibre supplement in addition to a calorie-restricted diet to achieve weight loss in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Reimer, Raylene A; Kacinik, Veronica; Pal, Sebely; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Meal replacements and viscous soluble fibre represent safe and sustainable aids for weight loss. Our purpose was to determine if PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre complex in combination with a calorie-restricted diet would aid in weight loss in a clinical setting. Fifty-two overweight and obese participants (49 women, 3 men; average age 47.1 years) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) consumed 57 g of proprietary PGX® meal replacement product at breakfast and another 57 g at lunch for 12 weeks. In addition to the meal replacements, they were also asked to consume 5 g/day of PGX® fibre in the form of granules, powder or capsules together with 250 mlwater. A registered dietician recommended low-fat, low-glycaemic-index foods for snacks and the dinner menus such that each volunteer was consuming a total of 1200 kcal/day. All participants (n = 52) lost a significant amount of weight from baseline (-4.69 ± 3.73 kg), which was further reflected in the reductions in their waist (-7.11 ± 6.35 cm) and hip circumference (-5.59 ± 3.58 cm) over the 12-week study (p < 0.0001). BMI scores (n = 51) were reduced by 1.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2). The use of PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre along with a controlled dietary caloric intake is of benefit for short-term weight loss. PMID:24568282

  20. High-Fat Diet Changes Hippocampal Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in a Genotype- and Carbohydrate-Dependent Manner in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Herz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease include genetic risk factors, such as possession of ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) over the risk-neutral ApoE3 allele, and lifestyle risk factors, such as diet and exercise. The intersection of these two sources of disease risk is not well understood. We investigated the impact of diet on ApoE levels by feeding wildtype, ApoE3, and ApoE4 targeted replacement (TR) mice with chow, high-fat, or ketogenic (high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate) diets. We found that high-fat diet affected both plasma and hippocampal levels of ApoE in an isoform-dependent manner, with high-fat diet causing a surprising reduction of hippocampal ApoE levels in ApoE3 TR mice. Conversely, the ketogenic diet had no effect on hippocampal ApoE. Our findings suggest that the use of dietary interventions to slow the progression AD should take ApoE genotype into consideration.

  1. Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Sodium-Restricted/Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet After Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Hospitalization: Design and Rationale for the Geriatric OUt of hospital Randomized MEal Trial in Heart Failure (GOURMET-HF)

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Jeffrey D.; Maurer, Mathew S.; Hummel, Scott S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart Failure (HF) is a major public health problem affecting predominantly older adults. Non-adherence to diet remains a significant contributor to acute decompensated HF (ADHF). The sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH/SRD) eating plan reduces cardiovascular dysfunction that can lead to ADHF and is consistent with current HF guidelines. We propose that an intervention that promotes adherence to the DASH/SRD by home-delivering meals will be safe and improve health-related quality of life (QOL) in older adults following hospitalization for ADHF. Methods/Design This is a three center, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial of 12 weeks duration designed to determine the safety and efficacy of home-delivered DASH/SRD-compliant meals in older adults following discharge from ADHF hospitalization. 66 subjects will be randomized in a 1:1 stratified fashion by gender and left ventricular ejection fraction (< vs. ≥50%). Study subjects will receive either pre-prepared, home-delivered DASH/SRD-compliant meals or usual dietary advice for 4 weeks after hospital discharge. Investigators will be blinded to group assignment, food diaries, and urinary electrolyte measurements until study completion. The primary efficacy endpoint is the change in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) summary scores for health-related QOL from study enrollment to 4 weeks post-discharge. Safety evaluation will focus on hypotension, renal insufficiency, and hyperkalemia. Exploratory endpoints include echocardiography, non-invasive vascular testing, markers of oxidative stress, and salt taste sensitivity. Conclusion This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy, feasibility and safety of 4 weeks of DASH/SRD after ADHF hospitalization. By testing a novel dietary intervention supported by multiple levels of evidence including preliminary data in outpatients with stable HF, we will address a critical evidence gap in the care of older

  2. Protein restriction during pregnancy affects postnatal growth in swine progeny.

    PubMed

    Schoknecht, P A; Pond, W G; Mersmann, H J; Maurer, R R

    1993-11-01

    Protein deficiency during pregnancy affects fetal development. The critical period, when the fetus is most susceptible to maternal protein deficiency and its effect on neonatal growth, is unknown. Therefore, we studied the effect of a protein-restricted diet during early and late pregnancy and throughout pregnancy on growth of pigs from birth to market weight. Sows were fed a control (13% protein) or protein-restricted (0.5% protein) diet throughout pregnancy or protein-restricted diet from d 1 to 44, then control diet to term or control diet from d 1 to 81, then the protein-restricted diet to term. In Experiment 1, birth weights were measured, and 12 pigs/diet group were weaned at 4 wk and raised to market weight. Feeding the protein-restricted diet throughout pregnancy reduced birth and slaughter weights, whereas the control followed by protein-restricted and protein-restricted followed by control diets reduced only birth weight relative to controls. Indices of carcass lean were reduced in the protein-restricted piglets, with carcass fat not affected. In Experiment 2, control and control-protein-restricted litters were reduced to six piglets and 3/litter cross-fostered to a sow of the other treatment group. After weaning at 4 wk, 4 piglets/group were individually fed to 8 wk. The control and control followed by protein-restricted diet fed piglets had similar weights at birth, but piglets raised by a control-protein-restricted sow tended to weight less at weaning than their littermates raised by a control sow. After weaning, these piglets had greater feed intakes relative to other groups and there were no weight differences by 8 wk.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Empirical prediction of net splanchnic release of ketogenic nutrients, acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate in ruminants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Loncke, C; Nozière, P; Bahloul, L; Vernet, J; Lapierre, H; Sauvant, D; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2015-03-01

    For energy feeding systems for ruminants to evolve towards a nutrient-based system, dietary energy supply has to be determined in terms of amount and nature of nutrients. The objective of this study was to establish response equations of the net hepatic flux and net splanchnic release of acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate to changes in diet and animal profiles. A meta-analysis was applied on published data compiled from the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which pools the results from international publications on net splanchnic nutrient fluxes measured in multi-catheterized ruminants. Prediction variables were identified from current knowledge on digestion, hepatic and other tissue metabolism. Subsequently, physiological and other, more integrative, predictors were obtained. Models were established for intakes up to 41 g dry matter per kg BW per day and diets containing up to 70 g concentrate per 100 g dry matter. Models predicted the net hepatic fluxes or net splanchnic release of each nutrient from its net portal appearance and the animal profile. Corrections were applied to account for incomplete hepatic recovery of the blood flow marker, para-aminohippuric acid. Changes in net splanchnic release (mmol/kg BW per hour) could then be predicted by combining the previously published net portal appearance models and the present net hepatic fluxes models. The net splanchnic release of acetate and butyrate were thus predicted from the intake of ruminally fermented organic matter (RfOM) and the nature of RfOM (acetate: residual mean square error (RMSE)=0.18; butyrate: RMSE=0.01). The net splanchnic release of β-hydroxybutyrate was predicted from RfOM intake and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.035), or from the net portal appearance of butyrate and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.050). Models obtained were independent of ruminant species, and presented low interfering factors on the residuals, least

  4. Methionine restriction and lifespan control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending lifespan. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with/without adequate nutrition (e.g. particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend lifespan in various model organisms. We discuss beneficial effects of methionine-restricted (MR) diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  5. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into ...

  6. Vegetarian diets and children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A

    1995-08-01

    Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.

  7. Anti-inflammatory Diets.

    PubMed

    Sears, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition. To overcome silent inflammation requires an anti-inflammatory diet (with omega-3s and polyphenols, in particular those of Maqui). The most important aspect of such an anti-inflammatory diet is the stabilization of insulin and reduced intake of omega-6 fatty acids. The ultimate treatment lies in reestablishing hormonal and genetic balance to generate satiety instead of constant hunger. Anti-inflammatory nutrition, balanced 40:30:30 with caloric restriction, should be considered as a form of gene silencing technology, in particular the silencing of the genes involved in the generation of silent inflammation. To this anti-inflammatory diet foundation supplemental omega-3 fatty acids at the level of 2-3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day should be added. Finally, a diet rich in colorful, nonstarchy vegetables would contribute adequate amounts of polyphenols to help not only to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-κB (primary molecular target of inflammation) but also activate AMP kinase. Understanding the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on silent inflammation can elevate the diet from simply a source of calories to being on the cutting edge of gene-silencing technology. PMID:26400429

  8. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  9. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals That Enzymes of the Ketogenic Pathway Are Associated with Prostate Cancer Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Saraon, Punit; Cretu, Daniela; Musrap, Natasha; Karagiannis, George S.; Batruch, Ihor; Drabovich, Andrei P.; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Mizokami, Atsushi; Morrissey, Colm; Jarvi, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men. One common treatment is androgen-deprivation therapy, which reduces symptoms in most patients. However, over time, patients develop tumors that are androgen-independent and ultimately fatal. The mechanisms that cause this transition remain largely unknown, and as a result, there are no effective treatments against androgen-independent prostate cancer. As a model platform, we used the LNCaP cell line and its androgen-independent derivative, LNCaP-SF. Utilizing stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to mass spectrometry, we assessed the differential global protein expression of the two cell lines. Our proteomic analysis resulted in the quantification of 3355 proteins. Bioinformatic prioritization resulted in 42 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated proteins in LNCaP-SF cells relative to LNCaP cells. Our top candidate, HMGCS2, an enzyme involved in ketogenesis, was found to be 9-fold elevated in LNCaP-SF cells, based on peptide ratios. After analyzing the remaining enzymes of this pathway (ACAT1, BDH1, HMGCL, and OXCT1), we observed increased expression of these proteins in the LNCaP-SF cells, which was further verified using Western blotting. To determine whether these enzymes were up-regulated in clinical samples, we performed quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry on human prostate cancer tissues, from which we observed significantly increased transcript and protein levels in high-grade cancer (Gleason grade ≥ 8). In addition, we observed significant elevation of these enzymes in the LuCaP 96AI castration-resistant xenograft. Further assessment of ACAT1 on human castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer tissues revealed substantially elevated expression of ACAT1 in these specimens. Taken together, our results indicate that enzymes of the ketogenic pathway are up-regulated in high-grade prostate cancer and could serve as

  10. Quantitative proteomics reveals that enzymes of the ketogenic pathway are associated with prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Saraon, Punit; Cretu, Daniela; Musrap, Natasha; Karagiannis, George S; Batruch, Ihor; Drabovich, Andrei P; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Mizokami, Atsushi; Morrissey, Colm; Jarvi, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2013-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men. One common treatment is androgen-deprivation therapy, which reduces symptoms in most patients. However, over time, patients develop tumors that are androgen-independent and ultimately fatal. The mechanisms that cause this transition remain largely unknown, and as a result, there are no effective treatments against androgen-independent prostate cancer. As a model platform, we used the LNCaP cell line and its androgen-independent derivative, LNCaP-SF. Utilizing stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to mass spectrometry, we assessed the differential global protein expression of the two cell lines. Our proteomic analysis resulted in the quantification of 3355 proteins. Bioinformatic prioritization resulted in 42 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated proteins in LNCaP-SF cells relative to LNCaP cells. Our top candidate, HMGCS2, an enzyme involved in ketogenesis, was found to be 9-fold elevated in LNCaP-SF cells, based on peptide ratios. After analyzing the remaining enzymes of this pathway (ACAT1, BDH1, HMGCL, and OXCT1), we observed increased expression of these proteins in the LNCaP-SF cells, which was further verified using Western blotting. To determine whether these enzymes were up-regulated in clinical samples, we performed quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry on human prostate cancer tissues, from which we observed significantly increased transcript and protein levels in high-grade cancer (Gleason grade ≥ 8). In addition, we observed significant elevation of these enzymes in the LuCaP 96AI castration-resistant xenograft. Further assessment of ACAT1 on human castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer tissues revealed substantially elevated expression of ACAT1 in these specimens. Taken together, our results indicate that enzymes of the ketogenic pathway are up-regulated in high-grade prostate cancer and could serve as

  11. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M), which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old) were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction) and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g): animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP), animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP), animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD), and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD). Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals. PMID:22221448

  12. Effects of an energy-restricted diet rich in plant-derived α-linolenic acid on systemic inflammation and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with metabolic syndrome traits.

    PubMed

    Egert, Sarah; Baxheinrich, Andrea; Lee-Barkey, Young Hee; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Wahrburg, Ursel; Stratmann, Bernd

    2014-10-28

    Plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) may reduce the risk of CVD, possibly by decreasing systemic inflammation and improving endothelial function. In the present study, the effects of a hypoenergetic diet rich in ALA (3·4 g/d) on the biomarkers of systemic inflammation and vascular function were investigated in eighty-one overweight-to-obese patients with metabolic syndrome traits in comparison with a hypoenergetic diet low in ALA (0·9 g/d, control). After a 6-month dietary intervention, there were significant decreases in the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-6, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble endothelial selectin (sE-selectin) and asymmetric dimethylarginine in both dietary groups. However, no inter-group differences were observed for all these changes. The serum concentration of YKL-40 (human cartilage glycoprotein 39 or chitinase-3-like protein 1) decreased after the ALA diet when compared with the control diet (P< 0·05 for time × treatment interaction). Plasma concentrations of fibrinogen did not significantly change in the two dietary groups. The decreases in the serum concentrations of sICAM-1, sE-selectin, CRP and YKL-40 were significantly correlated with the decreases in body fat mass. In conclusion, the present study indicates that in overweight-to-obese patients with metabolic syndrome traits, both vascular function and inflammation are improved during body-weight loss. The high ALA intake led to a more pronounced reduction in the serum concentration of YKL-40 compared with the intake of the low-ALA control diet, indicating the existence of independent favourable physiological effects of ALA during weight loss.

  13. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations. PMID:12798783

  14. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations.

  15. Diet mimicking fasting promotes regeneration and reduces autoimmunity and multiple sclerosis symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Young; Piccio, Laura; Childress, Patra; Bollman, Bryan; Ghosh, Arko; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Suarez, Jorge; Michalsen, Andreas; Cross, Anne H.; Morgan, Todd E.; Wei, Min; Paul, Friedemann; Bock, Markus; Longo, Valter D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dietary interventions have not been effective in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that periodic 3 day cycles of a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) are effective in ameliorating demyelination and symptoms in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The FMD reduced clinical severity in all mice, and completely reversed symptoms in 20% of the animals. These improvements were associated with increased corticosterone levels and Treg cell number, reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TH1 and TH17 cells, and antigen presenting cells (APCs). Moreover, the FMD promoted oligodendrocyte precursor cell regeneration and remyelination in axons in response to both EAE and cuprizone MS models, supporting its effects on both suppression of autoimmunity and remyelination. We also report preliminary data suggesting that a FMD or a chronic ketogenic diet are safe, feasible and potentially effective in the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients (NCT01538355). PMID:27239035

  16. How do n-3 fatty acid (short-time restricted vs unrestricted) and n-6 fatty acid enriched diets affect the fatty acid profile in different tissues of German Simmental bulls?

    PubMed

    Herdmann, A; Martin, J; Nuernberg, G; Wegner, J; Dannenberger, D; Nuernberg, K

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of n-6 (control group) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supply (treatment group unrestricted) and a short-time feed restriction for n-3 PUFA supply (treatment group restricted) on intramuscular fat content and the total fatty acid composition in different tissues (muscle, subcutaneous fat, liver, serum and erythrocytes) and lipid classes of intramuscular fat of German Simmental bulls (n=25). Exogenous n-3 PUFA caused a higher concentration of the sum of all single n-3 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) in all analysed tissues. Feed restriction compared to control feeding induced a significant decrease of C18:1cis-9 in the phospholipid fraction of longissimus muscle and in subcutaneous fat. The concentration of C18:3n-3 in liver of treatment groups was between 34 and 44% higher compared to control. PUFA in serum and the sum of n-3 PUFA in erythrocytes were significantly higher in both treatment groups compared to control. The synthesis and deposition of n-3 LC PUFA seems to be tissue dependent according to different relative amounts.

  17. The Relationship of Diet to Blood Pressure Control

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Walretta O.; Brown, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Sodium restriction has become an integral part of the medical management of hypertension. In general the degree of sodium restriction recommended by physicians depends upon the severity of the disease. The commonly prescribed sodium restricted diets are classified as mild and moderate. Mild sodium restriction refers to a diet in which 3.0-4.0 gm of sodium are allowed per day. Moderate sodium restriction is indicated when hypertension is more severe; 1-2 gm of sodium are allowed daily. Sodium added in the processing of foods contributes significantly to the sodium content of the diet. “Convenience” and “fast” foods are high in sodium and are not allowed the hypertensive patients. Significant advances have occurred in the past decade in the medical management of hypertension. The sodium-restricted diet remains the cornerstone of effective blood pressure control. Therefore, nutrition must become an integral part of the hypertensive treatment program. PMID:529319

  18. Increased transsulfuration mediates longevity and dietary restriction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kabil, Hadise; Kabil, Omer; Banerjee, Ruma; Harshman, Lawrence G; Pletcher, Scott D

    2011-10-01

    The mechanisms through which dietary restriction enhances health and longevity in diverse species are unclear. The transsulfuration pathway (TSP) is a highly conserved mechanism for metabolizing the sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Here we show that Drosophila cystathionine β-synthase (dCBS), which catalyzes the rate-determining step in the TSP, is a positive regulator of lifespan in Drosophila and that the pathway is required for the effects of diet restriction on animal physiology and lifespan. dCBS activity was up-regulated in flies exposed to reduced nutrient conditions, and ubiquitous or neuron-specific transgenic overexpression of dCBS enhanced longevity in fully fed animals. Inhibition of the TSP abrogated the changes in lifespan, adiposity, and protein content that normally accompany diet restriction. RNAi-mediated knockdown of dCBS also limited lifespan extension by diet. Diet restriction reduced levels of protein translation in Drosophila, and we show that this is largely caused by increased metabolic commitment of methionine cycle intermediates to transsulfuration. However, dietary supplementation of methionine restored normal levels of protein synthesis to restricted animals without affecting lifespan, indicating that global reductions in translation alone are not required for diet-restriction longevity. Our results indicate a mechanism by which dietary restriction influences physiology and aging. PMID:21930912

  19. Glycemic modulation in neuro-oncology: experience and future directions using a modified Atkins diet for high-grade brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Strowd, Roy E.; Cervenka, Mackenzie C.; Henry, Bobbie J.; Kossoff, Eric H.; Hartman, Adam L.; Blakeley, Jaishri O.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary glycemic modulation through high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, which induce a state of systemic ketosis and alter systemic metabolic signaling, have been incorporated into the clinical management of patients with neurological disease for more than a century. Mounting preclinical evidence supports the antitumor, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects of disrupting glycolytic metabolism through dietary intervention. In recent years, interest in incorporating such novel therapeutic strategies in neuro-oncology has increased. To date, 3 published studies incorporating novel dietary therapies in oncology have been reported, including one phase I study in neuro-oncology, and have set the stage for further study in this field. In this article, we review the biochemical pathways, preclinical data, and early clinical translation of dietary interventions that modulate systemic glycolytic metabolism in the management of primary malignant brain tumors. We introduce the modified Atkins diet (MAD), a novel dietary alternative to the classic ketogenic diet, and discuss the critical issues facing future study. PMID:26649186

  20. Tongue erosions and diet cola.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace

    2007-04-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a 10-year history of painful ulcerations on her tongue. She reported that she drank large quantities of diet cola and some orange juice daily and that she used cinnamon-flavored toothpaste and mouthwash nightly. Patch testing elicited positive reactions to balsam of Peru (a fragrance as well as a flavoring agent put in cola drinks that cross-reacts with orange juice) and cinnamic aldehyde. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis. She was put on a restricted diet and a fragrance-free regimen, and her condition resolved. PMID:17500397

  1. Methionine restriction and life-span control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending life span. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with or without adequate nutrition (e.g., particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend life span in various model organisms. We discuss the beneficial effects of a methionine-restricted diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions.

  2. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  3. A randomised trial of a medium-chain TAG diet as treatment for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Law, Tsz Hong; Davies, Emma S S; Pan, Yuanlong; Zanghi, Brian; Want, Elizabeth; Volk, Holger A

    2015-11-14

    Despite appropriate antiepileptic drug treatment, approximately one-third of humans and dogs with epilepsy continue experiencing seizures, emphasising the importance for new treatment strategies to improve the quality of life of people or dogs with epilepsy. A 6-month prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over dietary trial was designed to compare a ketogenic medium-chain TAG diet (MCTD) with a standardised placebo diet in chronically antiepileptic drug-treated dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Dogs were fed either MCTD or placebo diet for 3 months followed by a subsequent respective switch of diet for a further 3 months. Seizure frequency, clinical and laboratory data were collected and evaluated for twenty-one dogs completing the study. Seizure frequency was significantly lower when dogs were fed the MCTD (2·31/month, 0-9·89/month) in comparison with the placebo diet (2·67/month, 0·33-22·92/month, P=0·020); three dogs achieved seizure freedom, seven additional dogs had ≥50 % reduction in seizure frequency, five had an overall <50 % reduction in seizures (38·87 %, 35·68-43·27 %) and six showed no response. Seizure day frequency were also significantly lower when dogs were fed the MCTD (1·63/month, 0-7·58/month) in comparison with the placebo diet (1·69/month, 0·33-13·82/month, P=0·022). Consumption of the MCTD also resulted in significant elevation of blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in comparison with placebo diet (0·041 (sd 0·004) v. 0·031 (sd 0·016) mmol/l, P=0·028). There were no significant changes in serum concentrations of glucose (P=0·903), phenobarbital (P=0·422), potassium bromide (P=0·404) and weight (P=0·300) between diet groups. In conclusion, the data show antiepileptic properties associated with ketogenic diets and provide evidence for the efficacy of the MCTD used in this study as a therapeutic option for epilepsy treatment.

  4. A randomised trial of a medium-chain TAG diet as treatment for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Law, Tsz Hong; Davies, Emma S S; Pan, Yuanlong; Zanghi, Brian; Want, Elizabeth; Volk, Holger A

    2015-11-14

    Despite appropriate antiepileptic drug treatment, approximately one-third of humans and dogs with epilepsy continue experiencing seizures, emphasising the importance for new treatment strategies to improve the quality of life of people or dogs with epilepsy. A 6-month prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over dietary trial was designed to compare a ketogenic medium-chain TAG diet (MCTD) with a standardised placebo diet in chronically antiepileptic drug-treated dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Dogs were fed either MCTD or placebo diet for 3 months followed by a subsequent respective switch of diet for a further 3 months. Seizure frequency, clinical and laboratory data were collected and evaluated for twenty-one dogs completing the study. Seizure frequency was significantly lower when dogs were fed the MCTD (2·31/month, 0-9·89/month) in comparison with the placebo diet (2·67/month, 0·33-22·92/month, P=0·020); three dogs achieved seizure freedom, seven additional dogs had ≥50 % reduction in seizure frequency, five had an overall <50 % reduction in seizures (38·87 %, 35·68-43·27 %) and six showed no response. Seizure day frequency were also significantly lower when dogs were fed the MCTD (1·63/month, 0-7·58/month) in comparison with the placebo diet (1·69/month, 0·33-13·82/month, P=0·022). Consumption of the MCTD also resulted in significant elevation of blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in comparison with placebo diet (0·041 (sd 0·004) v. 0·031 (sd 0·016) mmol/l, P=0·028). There were no significant changes in serum concentrations of glucose (P=0·903), phenobarbital (P=0·422), potassium bromide (P=0·404) and weight (P=0·300) between diet groups. In conclusion, the data show antiepileptic properties associated with ketogenic diets and provide evidence for the efficacy of the MCTD used in this study as a therapeutic option for epilepsy treatment. PMID:26337751

  5. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  6. Dietary composition and physiologic adaptations to energy restriction

    PubMed Central

    Agus, Michael SD; Swain, Janis F; Larson, Courtney L; Eckert, Elizabeth A; Ludwig, David S

    2010-01-01

    Background The concept of a body weight set point, determined predominantly by genetic mechanisms, has been proposed to explain the poor long-term results of conventional energy-restricted diets in the treatment of obesity. Objective The objective of this study was to examine whether dietary composition affects hormonal and metabolic adaptations to energy restriction. Design A randomized, crossover design was used to compare the effects of a high-glycemic-index (high-GI) and a low-glycemic-index (low-GI) energy-restricted diet. The macronutrient composition of the high-GI diet was (as percent of energy) 67% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 18% fat and that of the low-GI diet was 43% carbohydrate, 27% protein, and 30% fat; the diets had similar total energy, energy density, and fiber contents. The subjects, 10 moderately overweight young men, were studied for 9 d on 2 separate occasions. On days −1 to 0, they consumed self-selected foods ad libitum. On days 1–6, they received an energy-restricted high- or low-GI diet. On days 7–8, the high-or low-GI diets were consumed ad libitum. Results Serum leptin decreased to a lesser extent from day 0 to day 6 with the high-GI diet than with the low-GI diet. Resting energy expenditure declined by 10.5% during the high-GI diet but by only 4.6% during the low-GI diet (7.38 ± 0.39 and 7.78 ± 0.36 MJ/d, respectively, on days 5–6; P = 0.04). Nitrogen balance tended to be more negative, and energy intake from snacks on days 7–8 was greater, with the high-GI than the low-GI diet. Conclusion Diets with identical energy contents can have different effects on leptin concentrations, energy expenditure, voluntary food intake, and nitrogen balance, suggesting that the physiologic adaptations to energy restriction can be modified by dietary composition. PMID:10731495

  7. Low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C.; Singh, Arashdeep; Yee, Nicholas J.; Chelikani, Prasanth K.

    2016-01-01

    Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein). These diet-induced alterations in energy expenditure are in part mediated through enhanced serotonergic and β-adrenergic signaling coupled with upregulation of key thermogenic markers in brown fat and skeletal muscle. The protein-free and very low protein diets decreased plasma concentrations of multiple essential amino acids, anorexigenic and metabolic hormones, but these diets increased the tissue expression and plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21. Protein-free and very low protein diets induced fatty liver, reduced energy digestibility, and decreased lean mass and body weight that persisted beyond the restriction period. In contrast, moderately low protein diets promoted gain in body weight and adiposity following the period of protein restriction. Together, our findings demonstrate that low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance. PMID:27122299

  8. Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amit, M

    2010-01-01

    A well-balanced vegetarian diet can provide for the needs of children and adolescents. However, appropriate caloric intake should be ensured and growth monitored. Particular attention should be paid to adequate protein intake and sources of essential fatty acids, iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins B12 and D. Supplementation may be required in cases of strict vegetarian diets with no intake of any animal products. Pregnant and nursing mothers should also be appropriately advised to ensure that the nutritional needs of the fetus and infant are adequately met. Recommendations are provided. Adolescents on restricted vegetarian or other such diets should be screened for eating disorders. PMID:21532796

  9. Fad diets in the treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D

    2011-04-01

    Use of the term "fad diet" reflects the contentious nature of the debate in the treatment of diabetes and generally targets diets based on carbohydrate restriction, the major challenge to traditional dietary therapy. Although standard low-fat diets more accurately conform to the idea of a practice supported by social pressure rather than scientific data, it is suggested that we might want to give up altogether unscientific terms like "fad" and "healthy." Far from faddish, diets based on carbohydrate restriction have been the historical treatment for diabetes and are still supported by basic biochemistry, and it is argued that they should be considered the "default" diet, the one to try first, in diseases of carbohydrate intolerance or insulin resistance. The barrier to acceptance of low-carbohydrate diets in the past has been concern about saturated fat, which might be substituted for the carbohydrate that is removed. However, recent re-analysis of much old data shows that replacing carbohydrate with saturated fat is, if anything, beneficial. The dialectic of impact of continued hemoglobin A(1c) versus effect of dietary saturated fat in the risk of cardiovascular disease is resolved in direction of glycemic control. Putting biased language behind us and facing the impact of recent results that point to the value of low-carbohydrate diets would offer patients the maximum number of options.

  10. Diet in dermatology: revisited.

    PubMed

    Kaimal, Sowmya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Diet has an important role to play in many skin disorders, and dermatologists are frequently faced with the difficulty of separating myth from fact when it comes to dietary advice for their patients. Patients in India are often anxious about what foods to consume, and what to avoid, in the hope that, no matter how impractical or difficult this may be, following this dictum will cure their disease. There are certain disorders where one or more components in food are central to the pathogenesis, e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis, wherein dietary restrictions constitute the cornerstone of treatment. A brief list, although not comprehensive, of other disorders where diet may have a role to play includes atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, pemphigus, urticaria, pruritus, allergic contact dermatitis, fish odor syndrome, toxic oil syndrome, fixed drug eruption, genetic and metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, homocystinuria, galactosemia, Refsum's disease, G6PD deficiency, xanthomas, gout and porphyria), nutritional deficiency disorders (kwashiorkar, marasmus, phrynoderma, pellagra, scurvy, acrodermatitis enteropathica, carotenemia and lycopenemia) and miscellaneous disorders such as vitiligo, aphthous ulcers, cutaneous vasculitis and telogen effluvium. From a practical point of view, it will be useful for the dermatologist to keep some dietary information handy to deal with the occasional patient who does not seem to respond in spite of the best, scientific and evidence-based therapy.

  11. A prospective study of the modified Atkins diet for adults with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kverneland, Magnhild; Selmer, Kaja K; Nakken, Karl O; Iversen, Per O; Taubøll, Erik

    2015-12-01

    For children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, the ketogenic diet is an established treatment option worldwide. However, for adults, this treatment is less frequently offered, and its efficacy less well-documented. The aim of this study was to examine efficacy and tolerability of such a diet as an adjuvant therapy to antiepileptic drugs for adult patients with pharmacoresistant generalized epilepsy. Thirteen patients (12 women) aged 16-57 years were included prospectively. They were treated with a modified Atkins diet for 12 weeks. Nine of the 13 participants had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), two had childhood absence epilepsy, one had Jeavons syndrome, and one had generalized epilepsy of unknown type. Six participants, all with JME, completed the 12-week study period. Among these six, four had >50% seizure reduction. Their seizure severity, using the revised Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale, was reduced by 1, 5, 57.5, and 70 points, respectively (scale: 1-100 points). In three of these four responders, quality of life, assessed by QOLIE-89, increased more than 20 points (scale: 0-100 points). Mean reduction of body weight after 12 weeks on diet was 6.5 (range: 4.3-8.1) kg. Lack of motivation, poor compliance, and seizure aggravation were the main reasons for premature termination of the diet. Apart from one patient who developed gallstones when ending the treatment after 10 months, no adverse effects were noted. In conclusion, using a modified Atkins diet for 12 weeks led to a clinically relevant reduction of seizure frequency in four of thirteen adult patients with pharmacoresistant generalized epilepsy. All responders were diagnosed with JME. In three of the four, the benefits of diet were so considerable that they chose to continue the treatment.

  12. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss. PMID:26758439

  13. Mammary sensitivity to protein restriction and re-alimentation.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, M G; Jessop, N S; Oldham, J D

    1996-09-01

    The present study tested the influence of protein undernutrition and re-alimentation on mammary gland size and secretory cell activity in lactating rats. During gestation, female Sprague-Dawley rats were offered a high-protein diet (215 g crude protein (N x 6.25; CP)/kg DM; H); litters were standardized to twelve pups at parturition. During lactation, two diets were offered ad libitum, diet H and a low-protein diet (90 g CP/kg DM; L). Lactational dietary treatments were the supply ad libitum of either diet H (HHH) or diet L (LLL) for the first 12 d of lactation, or diet L transferring to diet H on either day 6 (LHH) or 9 (LLH) of lactation. On days 1, 6, 9 and 12 of lactation, rats from each group (n > or = 6) were used to estimate mammary dry mass, fat, protein, DNA and RNA; the activities of lactose synthetase (EC 2.4.1.22) enzyme and Na+,K(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.37) were also measured. Rats offered a diet considered protein sufficient (H) from day 1 of lactation showed a decrease in mammary dry mass and fat but an increase in DNA, RNA and protein on day 6, after which there was no further change, except for mammary protein which continued to increase. However, rats offered diet L showed a steady loss in mammary mass and fat throughout the 12 d lactation period and no change in mammary DNA, RNA or protein. Rats previously protein restricted for either the first 6 or 9 d of lactation had their mammary dry mass and mammary fat loss halted and showed a rapid increase in mammary DNA, RNA and protein on re-alimentation. Lactose production in group HHH, as measured by lactose synthetase activity, was similar on days 1 and 6 of lactation, after which a significant increase was seen. Protein-restricted rats showed no change in lactose synthetase activity during the 12 d experimental period. Changing from diet L to diet H led to a significant increase in lactose synthetase activity to levels comparable with those offered diet H from day 1. These results show that rats

  14. Diet Management of PKU for Infants and Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Phyllis B.; Wenz, Elizabeth

    The report focuses on the diet management of infant and preschool children with phenylketonuria (PKU), a congenital deficiency resulting in brain damage. The effective methods for rapidly lowering serum phenylalanine levels following diagnosis are discussed, a method for prescribing and calculating the phenylalanine-restricted diet is described,…

  15. [Space diet].

    PubMed

    Luigi, R

    1989-06-01

    Food prepared for astronauts meets various physical and biological requirements determined by living conditions in a space environment. Onboard systems, work programs, launch costs impose weight and volume limitations. For all investigated food items, the manufacturing technique must take into account all flight specific mechanical parameters. From a nutrition and sanitation standpoint, food packs must be designed to comply with certain specific effects of long term flights ans selected food items must be thoroughly safe, which requires very strict laboratory testing. The diet must also be varied, if possible it should match astronauts' personal preferences. Food preparations must be easy to use. Space food items are original applications of existing technologies: they are of very high quality.

  16. 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... is not fat — it's just water. And the body sucks this lost water back up like a sponge once a person ... contain laxatives or diuretics that force a person's body to eliminate more water. Just like restricted-calorie diets, the weight lost ...

  17. Diets that Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Diets that Work Fact Sheet Diets that Work February 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Susan ... there? It can be hard to know what works and what’s healthy. Everyone wants a diet that ...

  18. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity - diet myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and fact; Weight-loss diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  19. Effect of aging and dietary restriction on DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weraarchakul, N.; Strong, R.; Wood, W.G.; Richardson, A.

    1989-03-01

    DNA repair was studied as a function of age in cells isolated from both the liver and the kidney of male Fischer F344 rats. DNA repair was measured by quantifying unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by UV irradiation. Unscheduled DNA synthesis decreased approximately 50% between the ages of 5 and 30 months in both hepatocytes and kidney cells. The age-related decline in unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells isolated from the liver and kidney was compared in rats fed ad libitum and rats fed a calorie-restricted diet; calorie restriction has been shown to increase the survival of rodents. The level of unscheduled DNA synthesis was significantly higher in hepatocytes and kidney cells isolated from the rats fed the restricted diet. Thus, calorie restriction appears to retard the age-related decline in DNA repair.

  20. Influence of diet on survival of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, G; Yunis, E J; Good, R A

    1976-01-01

    The longevity of mice of the (NZB X NZW)F1 (B/W) strain and the DBA/2f strain of mice is dramatically prolonged by dietary restriction. B/W mice are susceptible to, and die at an early age from, immunocomplex nephritis. Mice of the DBA/2f strain are also relatively short-lived. Restriction of caloric intake prolonged life of B/W mice more than did protein restriction. DBA/2f mice showed prolongation of life when the diet was restricted only with respect to protein. Caloric restriction alone prolonged life less in DBA/2f mice than in B/W mice. These observations show that dietary manipulations have profound effects on immunity functions, including inhibition of the development of life-shortening autoimmune disease. PMID:1063408

  1. Diet and exercise for weight loss: a review of current issues.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Vanheest, Jaci L; Forsythe, Cassandra E

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a fast growing epidemic that is primarily due to environmental influences. Nutrition and exercise represent modifiable factors with a major impact on energy balance. Despite considerable research, there remains continued debate regarding the energy content and the optimal macronutrient distribution for promoting healthy and effective weight loss. Low-fat diets have been advised for many years to reduce obesity. However, their effectiveness has been recently challenged, partly because the prevalence of obesity continues to rise despite reductions in fat intake. There are also concerns regarding the methodology of clinical trials showing benefits of fat reduction on weight loss. Although often viewed as a fad diet, very low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets are very popular and several recent clinical trials indicate they are more effective at promoting short-term weight loss and improving characteristics of the metabolic syndrome than low-fat diets. However, there is a need to obtain long-term safety and efficacy data. Clearly, weight loss can be achieved with a variety of diet interventions but the effects on other health-related aspects also need to be considered and studied in more detail. Exercise can have positive effects on weight loss, weight control and overall general health, although debate exists concerning the most effective mode, duration and intensity of exercise required to achieve these effects. Importantly, any effective weight control treatment must consider a life-long plan or there will likely be weight regain. Perhaps the most challenging, but rewarding, question that faces researchers is how to predict individual responses to diet and exercise interventions.

  2. [Lipids composition diet in phenylketonuric children with early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Verónica; Concha, Miluska; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Raimann, Erna

    2005-12-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder caused by a partial or complete mutation of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PHA), fact that produces high levels of phenylalanine in blood resulting in mental retardation if not diagnosed during the neonatal period. Treatment consists of a phenylalanine (Phe) restricted diet. Several studies have shown that due to restriction of animal protein, this diet is deficient in fatty acids such as alfalinolenic acid (ALA) and provides high levels of linoleic acid (LA). The objective of this study was to determine the lipid composition of the diet consumed by children with early-diagnosed PKU. Lipid composition of the Phenylalanine restricted diet consumed by 29 children with PKU and in follow-up at INTA, University of Chile, were analyzed. Children were paired by sex and age with a control group. A twenty-four hour dietary recall was performed for 3 consecutive days and total fatty acid intake, including saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, LA and ALA, were calculated. In the restricted diet of children with PKU, 31.8% of total calories are from fat, 13% of which are LA and 0.2% ALA, showing significant differences as compared to the control group. The ratio of saturated:monounsaturated:polyunsaturated fatty acids was 1:1.7:3.9 and the ratio of LA:ALA was ten-fold higher than the recommended ratio of 115:1. It is concluded that the Phenyalanine restricted diet of Chilean children with PKU is high in LA and low in ALA.

  3. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J.; Yannai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53±6 g/d of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction leading to 89±6 g/d of fat loss and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p=0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  4. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity.

  5. Understanding the DASH diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... The diet was first created to help lower high blood pressure . It is also a healthy way to lose weight. ... traditional low-salt diet. The DASH diet emphasizes foods high in ... lower blood pressure. To follow the DASH diet for weight loss, ...

  6. Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.; Benner, M.

    1944-01-01

    Two experiments, using 784 bobwhite quail chicks, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to find a growing diet that would meet wartime restrictions. In 1941 a diet containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal was formulated and gave satisfactory results from the standpoints of survival and growth. Since fish meal now is scarce, search was made for a diet without war-restricted commodities yet equal to the above-mentioned diet in feeding value. Ten diets were compared.....In the present experiments, quail fed this same diet modified by the substitution of 0.12 per cent of D-activated sterol for vitamin A and D feeding oil fortified showed the highest survival and the best live weights at the end of both the sixth and tenth weeks. They also were among the top three groups in requiring the least quantity of feed per unit of gain in weight; however, they consumed the greatest quantity of feed.....Of the other nine diets, that which seemed most promising, considering survival, live weight, and efficiency of feed utilization, was as follows (parts by weight) : Yellow corn, ground 26.08...Millet, ground 10.00...Alfalfa leaf meal, dehydrated 7.50...Soybean oil meal, solvent-processed 50.00...Dried whey 3.00...Special steamed bonemeal 1.50...Limestone, ground 0.80...Salt mixture 1.OO...D-activated animal sterol 0.12....100.00.....At the end of ten weeks the results on this diet (Diet l l ) , as compared with that containing sardine meal (Diet 23), were as follows: Diet No. 11 Percentage survival 71, Average live weight per bird, grams 144,....Growing mash consumed, per bird-day, grams 6.8 Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams) 3.8......Diet 23....Percentage survival, 80,...Avg live weight per bird, grams....145,....Growing mash consumed , per bird-day, grams...7.4...Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams)....3.9. Results were unsatisfactory when expeller-processed soybean oil meal was used in this diet to replace solvent

  7. Maternal protein restriction regulates IGF2 system in placental labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Sathishkumar, Kunju Reddiar; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena; Li, Xilong; Wu, Guoyao; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    This study was to test the hypothesis that altered IGF2 system in the placental labyrinth zone (LZ) impairs feto-placental growth in response to maternal protein restriction. Rats were fed a 20% protein diet and an isocaloric 6 % protein diet (LP) from day 1 to days 14, 18, or 21 of pregnancy. The effects of diet, gender of placenta and fetus, and day of pregnancy on placental weight, fetal weight, and expression of the IGF2 axis in the placental LZ and amino acids in maternal plasma were analyzed. Growth restriction occurred in both female and male fetuses by LP, coincident with impaired LZ growth and efficiency. The expression of Igf2, Igf2P0, Igf1r, Igf2r, Insr, Igfbp1, and Igfbp2 in placental LZ were affected by diet, gender and/or day of pregnancy. Concentrations of total essential amino acids and total nonessential amino acids were reduced and increased, respectively, in maternal plasma of LP-fed rats. These results indicate that adaptation of the IGF2 system in rat LZ occurs in a sex- and time-dependent manner in response to maternal protein restriction; however, these adaptations cannot prevent the growth restriction of both male and female fetuses during late pregnancy.

  8. How strict is galactose restriction in adults with galactosaemia? International practice.

    PubMed

    Adam, S; Akroyd, R; Bernabei, S; Bollhalder, S; Boocock, S; Burlina, A; Coote, T; Corthouts, K; Dalmau, J; Dawson, S; Defourny, S; De Meyer, A; Desloovere, A; Devlin, Y; Diels, M; Dokoupil, K; Donald, S; Evans, S; Fasan, I; Ferguson, C; Ford, S; Forga, M; Gallo, G; Grünert, S C; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M; Heidenborg, C; Jonkers, C; Lefebure, K; Luyten, K; MacDonald, A; Meyer, U; Micciche, A; Müller, E; Portnoi, P; Ripley, S; Robert, M; Robertson, L V; Rosenbaum-Fabian, S; Sahm, K; Schultz, S; Singleton, K; Sjöqvist, E; Stoelen, L; Terry, A; Thompson, S; Timmer, C; Vande Kerckhove, K; van der Ploeg, L; Van Driessche, M; van Rijn, M; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A; Vitoria, I; Voillot, C; Wenz, J; Westbrook, M; Wildgoose, J; Zweers, H

    2015-05-01

    Dietary management of 418 adult patients with galactosaemia (from 39 centres/12 countries) was compared. All centres advised lactose restriction, 6 restricted galactose from galactosides ± fruits and vegetables and 12 offal. 38% (n=15) relaxed diet by: 1) allowing traces of lactose in manufactured foods (n=13) or 2) giving fruits, vegetables and galactosides (n=2). Only 15% (n=6) calculated dietary galactose. 32% of patients were lost to dietetic follow-up. In adult galactosaemia, there is limited diet relaxation.

  9. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; de Mello, Maria Alice Roston; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2002-01-01

    Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rats (Np). Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine): leucine (L), tumor-bearing (WL) and pair-fed with leucine (Lp). Non pregnant rats (C), which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones. PMID:11955290

  10. Strength gains in obese females are unaffected by moderate dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Ballor, D L; Katch, V L

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary restriction on strength gains from whole body resistance training. Comparisons were made between diet-restricted (n = 12) and non-diet-restricted (n = 10) obese women (mean +/- SD, 36.7 +/- 7.0% fat) undergoing identical 8-week resistance training regimens. Diet-restricted subjects reduced their dietary intake by 4200 kJ/day and reduced body mass by 3.9 kg over 8 weeks. Ten-repetition maximum masses were compared between the groups on biweekly intervals. Results indicated no differences between the groups with respect to the rate or magnitude of strength gains for any of the eight exercises. Significant pre- to post-test increases in strength (p less than 0.05) were found for all eight exercises. The rate or magnitude of strength gains induced by resistance training does not appear to be affected by moderate dietary restrictions in obese females.

  11. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Leitão-Correia, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  12. Antiretroviral restriction factors.

    PubMed

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2011-12-01

    Studies of retroviruses have been instrumental in revealing the existence of an array of antiviral proteins, or restriction factors, and the mechanisms by which they function. Some restriction factors appear to specifically inhibit retrovirus replication, while others have a broader antiviral action. Here, we briefly review current understanding of the mechanisms by which several such proteins exert antiviral activity. We also discuss how retroviruses have evolved to evade or antagonize antiviral proteins, including through the action of viral accessory proteins. Restriction factors, their viral targets and antagonists have exerted evolutionary pressure on each other, resulting in specialization and barriers to cross-species transmission. Potentially, this recently revealed intrinsic system of antiviral immunity might be mobilized for therapeutic benefit.

  13. Mice that gorged during dietary restriction increased foraging related behaviors and differed in their macronutrient preference when released from restriction

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can trigger gorging behavior. We examined macronutrient choice and behavior in mice that gorged during restriction compared to restricted non-gorgers and controls. Fifty MF1 male mice were restricted to 75% of ad-libitum food intake (FI), while ten controls were fed ad-lib. Body mass (BM) and FI were measured two and 24-h after food inclusion over 14-days. ‘Gorging’ mice were defined as those which ate over 25% of their daily FI in 2-h. The top 11 gorgers and the lowest 9 gorgers, along with 10 controls, had their behavior analysed during restriction, and were then provided with an unrestricted food choice, consisting of three diets that were high in fat, protein or carbohydrate. During restriction gorgers ate on average 51% of their daily FI in the 2-h following food introduction while the non-gorgers ate only 16%. Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision. Controls and non-gorgers spent most of their time sleeping. After restriction, both gorgers and non-gorgers were hyperphagic until their lost weight was regained. All 3 groups favoured high fat food. Gorgers and non-gorgers had a significantly greater high carbohydrate diet intake than controls, and gorgers also had a significantly greater high protein diet intake than non-gorgers and controls. On unrestricted food, they did not continue to gorge, although they still had a significantly greater 2-h FI than the other groups. Elevated protein intake may play an important role in the recovery of the lost lean tissue of gorgers after restriction. PMID:26157640

  14. Diet, microbiota and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S M; Pagovich, O E; Kriegel, M A

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (the gut microbiota) influence the development of autoimmunity in rodent models. Since humans have co-evolved with commensals for millennia, it is likely that people, who are genetically predisposed to autoimmunity, harbor gut microbial communities that similarly influence the onset and/or severity of disease. Beyond the current efforts to identify such disease-promoting or -preventing commensals ("pathobionts" or "symbionts"), it will be important to determine what factors modulate them. Dietary changes are known to affect both the composition and function of the gut microbial communities, which in turn can alter the innate and adaptive immune system. In this review, we focus on the relationships between diet, microbiota, and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that the beneficial and life-prolonging effects of caloric restriction on a variety of autoimmune models including lupus might partly be mediated by its effects on the gut microbiome and associated virome, the collection of all viruses in the gut. We give recent examples of the immunomodulatory potential of select gut commensals and their products or diet-derived metabolites in murine models of arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Lastly, we summarize the published phenotypes of germ-free mouse models of lupus and speculate on any role of the diet-sensitive microbiome and virome in systemic lupus and the related antiphospholipid syndrome.

  15. The skinny on high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Wendy; Hyson, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    Short-term studies of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets have shown weight loss and improvements in plasma lipid profiles. Studies of greater than 6 months' duration, however, have failed to show continued benefit of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors compared with conventional diets. Without concurrent weight loss and caloric restriction, these diets offer no additional benefit to lipids or body weight over other weight-loss regimens. In fact, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets may add additional risk to individuals with cardiovascular disease due to their high fat and cholesterol content combined with decreased intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other nutrients related to cardiovascular risk. In addition, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets have been implicated in other risks, including impaired renal, bone, and gastrointestinal health.

  16. Neuroaesthetics: range and restrictions.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) should be commended for highlighting tensions between scientific aesthetics and art history. The question of how each tradition can learn from the other is timely. While I am sympathetic to their views, their diagnosis of the problem appears exaggerated and their solution partial. They underestimate the reach of scientific aesthetics while failing to identify its inherent restrictions. PMID:23507092

  17. Low-carbohydrate diets: what are the potential short- and long-term health implications?

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Shane A; Crowe, Timothy C

    2003-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss are receiving a lot of attention of late. Reasons for this interest include a plethora of low-carbohydrate diet books, the over-sensationalism of these diets in the media and by celebrities, and the promotion of these diets in fitness centres and health clubs. The re-emergence of low-carbohydrate diets into the spotlight has lead many people in the general public to question whether carbohydrates are inherently 'bad' and should be limited in the diet. Although low-carbohydrate diets were popular in the 1970s they have resurged again yet little scientific fact into the true nature of how these diets work or, more importantly, any potential for serious long-term health risks in adopting this dieting practice appear to have reached the mainstream literature. Evidence abounds that low-carbohydrate diets present no significant advantage over more traditional energy-restricted, nutritionally balanced diets both in terms of weight loss and weight maintenance. Studies examining the efficacy of using low-carbohydrate diets for long-term weight loss are few in number, however few positive benefits exist to promote the adoption of carbohydrate restriction as a realistic, and more importantly, safe means of dieting. While short-term carbohydrate restriction over a period of a week can result in a significant loss of weight (albeit mostly from water and glycogen stores), of serious concern is what potential exists for the following of this type of eating plan for longer periods of months to years. Complications such as heart arrhythmias, cardiac contractile function impairment, sudden death, osteoporosis, kidney damage, increased cancer risk, impairment of physical activity and lipid abnormalities can all be linked to long-term restriction of carbohydrates in the diet. The need to further explore and communicate the untoward side-effects of low-carbohydrate diets should be an important public health message from nutrition professionals

  18. Caffeine in the diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  19. Diet and Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested in covering the latest ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

  20. Low-carb diets, fasting and euphoria: Is there a link between ketosis and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)?

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence links the initial phase of fasting or a low-carbohydrate diet with feelings of well-being and mild euphoria. These feelings have often been attributed to ketosis, the production of ketone bodies which can replace glucose as an energy source for the brain. One of these ketone bodies, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), is an isomer of the notorious drug of abuse, GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate). GHB is also of interest in relation to its potential as a treatment for alcohol and opiate dependence and narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. Here I hypothesize that, the mild euphoria often noted with fasting or low-carbohydrate diets may be due to shared actions of BHB and GHB on the brain. Specifically, I propose that BHB, like GHB, induces mild euphoria by being a weak partial agonist for GABA(B) receptors. I outline several approaches that would test the hypothesis, including receptor binding studies in cultured cells, perception studies in trained rodents, and psychometric testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. These and other studies investigating whether BHB and GHB share common effects on brain chemistry and mood are timely and warranted, especially when considering their structural similarities and the popularity of ketogenic diets and GHB as a drug of abuse. PMID:17011713

  1. Diets for Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519

  2. Longevity and diet. Myth or pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-12-01

    Longevity is a very complex phenomenon, because many environmental, behavioral, socio-demographic and dietary factors influence the physiological pathways of aging and life-expectancy. Nutrition has been recognized to have an important impact on overall mortality and morbidity; and its role in extending life expectancy has been the object of extensive scientific research. This paper reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms that potentially link aging with diet and the scientific evidence supporting the anti-aging effect of the traditional Mediterranean diet, as well as of some specific foods. The diet and several of its components have additionally been shown to have beneficial effects on the co-morbidities typical of elderly populations. Furthermore, the epigenetic effects of diet on the aging process - through calorie restriction and the consumption of foods like red wine, orange juice, probiotics and prebiotics - have attracted scientific interest. Some, such as dark chocolate, red wine, nuts, beans, avocados are being promoted as anti-aging foods, due to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Finally, an important moderator in the relationship between diet, longevity and human health remains the socio-economic status of individual, as a healthy diet, due to its higher cost, is closely related to higher financial and educational status.

  3. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shireesh; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M. Todd; Baxa, Ulrich; Tam, Joseph; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We measured the effects of a diet in which d-β-hydroxybutyrate-(R)-1,3 butanediol monoester [ketone ester (KE)] replaced equicaloric amounts of carbohydrate on 8-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice. Diets contained equal amounts of fat, protein, and micronutrients. The KE group was fed ad libitum, whereas the control (Ctrl) mice were pair-fed to the KE group. Blood d-β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the KE group were 3-5 times those reported with high-fat ketogenic diets. Voluntary food intake was reduced dose dependently with the KE diet. Feeding the KE diet for up to 1 mo increased the number of mitochondria and doubled the electron transport chain proteins, uncoupling protein 1, and mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in IBAT of the KE group was twice that in IBAT of the Ctrl group. Plasma leptin levels of the KE group were more than 2-fold those of the Ctrl group and were associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activity to IBAT. The KE group exhibited 14% greater resting energy expenditure, but the total energy expenditure measured over a 24-h period or body weights was not different. The quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index was 73% higher in the KE group. These results identify KE as a potential antiobesity supplement.—Srivastava, S., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T. Baxa, U., Tam, J., Niu, G., Chen, X., Clarke, K., Veech, R. L. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. PMID:22362892

  4. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  5. Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet: Insights From the PREDIMED Study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Miguel A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Ros, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) multicenter, randomized, primary prevention trial assessed the long-term effects of the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on clinical events of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We randomized 7447 men and women at high CVD risk into three diets: MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), MeDiet supplemented with nuts, and control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). No energy restriction and no special intervention on physical activity were applied. We observed 288 CVD events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke or CVD death) during a median time of 4.8years; hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% CI, 0.53-0.91) for the MeDiet+EVOO and 0.70 (CI, 0.53-0.94) for the MeDiet+nuts compared to the control group. Respective hazard ratios for incident diabetes (273 cases) among 3541 non-diabetic participants were 0.60 (0.43-0.85) and 0.82 (0.61-1.10) for MeDiet+EVOO and MeDiet+nuts, respectively versus control. Significant improvements in classical and emerging CVD risk factors also supported a favorable effect of both MeDiets on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, inflammation, oxidative stress, and carotid atherosclerosis. In nutrigenomic studies beneficial effects of the intervention with MedDiets showed interactions with several genetic variants (TCF7L2, APOA2, MLXIPL, LPL, FTO, M4CR, COX-2, GCKR and SERPINE1) with respect to intermediate and final phenotypes. Thus, the PREDIMED trial provided strong evidence that a vegetable-based MeDiet rich in unsaturated fat and polyphenols can be a sustainable and ideal model for CVD prevention. PMID:25940230

  6. Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet: Insights From the PREDIMED Study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Miguel A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Ros, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) multicenter, randomized, primary prevention trial assessed the long-term effects of the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on clinical events of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We randomized 7447 men and women at high CVD risk into three diets: MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), MeDiet supplemented with nuts, and control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). No energy restriction and no special intervention on physical activity were applied. We observed 288 CVD events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke or CVD death) during a median time of 4.8years; hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% CI, 0.53-0.91) for the MeDiet+EVOO and 0.70 (CI, 0.53-0.94) for the MeDiet+nuts compared to the control group. Respective hazard ratios for incident diabetes (273 cases) among 3541 non-diabetic participants were 0.60 (0.43-0.85) and 0.82 (0.61-1.10) for MeDiet+EVOO and MeDiet+nuts, respectively versus control. Significant improvements in classical and emerging CVD risk factors also supported a favorable effect of both MeDiets on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, inflammation, oxidative stress, and carotid atherosclerosis. In nutrigenomic studies beneficial effects of the intervention with MedDiets showed interactions with several genetic variants (TCF7L2, APOA2, MLXIPL, LPL, FTO, M4CR, COX-2, GCKR and SERPINE1) with respect to intermediate and final phenotypes. Thus, the PREDIMED trial provided strong evidence that a vegetable-based MeDiet rich in unsaturated fat and polyphenols can be a sustainable and ideal model for CVD prevention.

  7. License restrictions at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.R.

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  8. Understanding the implications of adopting the Atkins' diet.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Ian

    Obesity-associated co-morbidities cost the UK at least 0.5 bn Pound a year in NHS treatment, and many adults in the UK are trying to lose weight. Dr Atkins' Diet Revolution focuses on the consumption of proteins and fats as primary calorie and energy sources, while severely restricting carbohydrates. However, this contradicts conventional advice, which advocates a low-fat diet and exercise for weight reduction.

  9. Low-carbohydrate diets and performance.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Haub, Mark D

    2007-07-01

    Athletes are continually searching for means to optimize their performance. Within the past 20 years, athletes and scientists have reported or observed that consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet may improve performance. The original theories explaining the purported benefits centered on the fact that fat oxidation increases, thereby "sparing" muscle glycogen. More recent concepts that explain the plausibility of the ergogenicity of low-carbohydrate, or high-fat, diets on exercise performance pertain to an effect similar to altitude training. We and others have observed that although fat oxidation may be increased, the ability to maintain high-intensity exercise (above the lactate threshold) seems to be compromised or at least indifferent when compared with consumption of more carbohydrate. That said, clinical studies clearly demonstrate that ad libitum low-carbohydrate diets elicit greater decreases in body weight and fat than energy-equivalent low-fat diets, especially over a short duration. Thus, although low-carbohydrate and high-fat diets appear detrimental or indifferent relative to performance, they may be a faster means to achieve a more competitive body composition.

  10. Vegetarian diet: panacea for modern lifestyle diseases?

    PubMed

    Segasothy, M; Phillips, P A

    1999-09-01

    We review the beneficial and adverse effects of vegetarian diets in various medical conditions. Soybean-protein diet, legumes, nuts and soluble fibre significantly decrease total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Diets rich in fibre and complex carbohydrate, and restricted in fat, improve control of blood glucose concentration, lower insulin requirement and aid in weight control in diabetic patients. An inverse association has been reported between nut, fruit, vegetable and fibre consumption, and the risk of coronary heart disease. Patients eating a vegetarian diet, with comprehensive lifestyle changes, have had reduced frequency, duration and severity of angina as well as regression of coronary atherosclerosis and improved coronary perfusion. An inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke has been suggested. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, especially spinach and collard green, was associated with a lower risk of age-related ocular macular degeneration. There is an inverse association between dietary fibre intake and incidence of colon and breast cancer as well as prevalence of colonic diverticula and gallstones. A decreased breast cancer risk has been associated with high intake of soy bean products. The beneficial effects could be due to the diet (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, fibre, complex carbohydrate, antioxidant vitamins, flavanoids, folic acid and phytoestrogens) as well as the associated healthy lifestyle in vegetarians. There are few adverse effects, mainly increased intestinal gas production and a small risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  11. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2015-06-15

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  12. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2015-06-15

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction.

  13. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Kilkus, Jennifer M.; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-hour profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet, and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Methods Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24-hours during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Results Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep (p<0.01). Overall, sleep restriction did not alter leptin or pancreatic polypeptide profiles. Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in total calories from snacks by 328 ± 140 Kcal (p=0.03), primarily from carbohydrates (p=0.02). The increase in evening ghrelin during sleep restriction was correlated with higher consumption of calories from sweets (r=0.48, p=0.04). Conclusions Sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep significantly increases ghrelin levels. The increase in ghrelin is associated with more consumption of calories. Elevated ghrelin may be a mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased food intake and the development of obesity. PMID:26467988

  14. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Anthony; Bernstein, Richard K; Dahlqvist, Annika; Draznin, Boris; Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J; Gleed, Amy; Jacobs, David B; Larson, Gabriel; Lustig, Robert H; Manninen, Anssi H; McFarlane, Samy I; Morrison, Katharine; Nielsen, Jørgen Vesti; Ravnskov, Uffe; Roth, Karl S; Silvestre, Ricardo; Sowers, James R; Sundberg, Ralf; Volek, Jeff S; Westman, Eric C; Wood, Richard J; Wortman, Jay; Vernon, Mary C

    2008-01-01

    Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. Experiments are summarized showing that carbohydrate-restricted diets are at least as effective for weight loss as low-fat diets and that substitution of fat for carbohydrate is generally beneficial for risk of cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome. PMID:18397522

  15. Prescription diets for rabbits.

    PubMed

    Proença, Laila Maftoum; Mayer, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Dietary management can be used with drug therapy for the successful treatment of many diseases. Therapeutic nutrition is well-recognized in dogs and cats and is beginning to increase among other pet species, including rabbits. The nutritional component of some rabbit diseases (eg, urolithiasis) is not completely understood, and the clinician should evaluate the use of prescription diets based on the scientific literature and individual needs. Long-term feeding trials are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of prescription diets in rabbits. Prescription diets are available for selected diseases in rabbits, including diets for immediate-term, short-term, and long-term management. PMID:25155667

  16. Protein oxidation associated with aging is reduced by dietary restriction of protein or calories.

    PubMed Central

    Youngman, L D; Park, J Y; Ames, B N

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of unrepaired oxidative damage products may be a major factor in cellular aging. Both oxidative lesions in DNA and oxidatively damaged proteins have been shown to accumulate during aging. The accumulation of oxidized proteins in Fischer 344 rats was compared for animals consuming protein-restricted and calorically restricted diets--both of which have been shown to extend lifespan. Rats were fed diets restricted in either protein (5% or 10% of the diet as compared with the normal 20% casein), or calories (25% or 40% less than normal), or total diet (40% less than normal). In addition, some of the rats fed a diet providing 5% or 20% protein were irradiated twice weekly (125 rads per exposure; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy). The level of oxidative damage to proteins (protein carbonyls) was determined in rats sacrificed at various times. The oxidative damage to proteins increased with aging and with radiation. Either protein or calorie restriction markedly inhibited the accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins. Protein restriction reduced the accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins during the oxidative stress of chronic irradiation. PMID:1409611

  17. Dietary protein and lifespan across the metamorphic boundary: protein-restricted larvae develop into short-lived adults.

    PubMed

    Runagall-McNaull, A; Bonduriansky, R; Crean, A J

    2015-06-29

    Restriction of nutrients in the adult diet extends lifespan across a diverse range of species, but less is known about the long-term effects of developmental dietary restriction. In particular, it is not known whether adult lifespan is influenced by developmental caloric restriction or macronutrient balance. We used the nutritional geometry approach to independently manipulate protein and carbohydrate contents of the larval diet in the neriid fly, Telostylinus angusticollis, and measured adult lifespan. We found that adult male and female lifespan was shortest when larvae were fed a protein restricted diet. Thus, protein restriction in the larval diet has the opposite effect of protein restriction in the adult diet (which prolongs life in this species and across a wide range of taxa). Adult lifespan was unaffected by larval dietary carbohydrate. These patterns persisted after controlling for larval diet effects on adult body size. We propose that larval and adult protein sources are used for distinct metabolic tasks: during development, dietary protein is used to build a durable soma that enhances adult lifespan, although excessive protein consumption partially reverses this effect.

  18. Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Wathsala S; Skidmore, Paula Ml; O'Brien, Leigh; Wilkinson, Tim J; Gearry, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the published clinical studies concerning the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using restriction of Fermentable Oligosaccharide, Disaccharide, Monosaccharide, and Polyols in the diet (low FODMAP diet). In recent years, the data supporting low FODMAP diet for the management of IBS symptoms have emerged, including several randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and other observational studies. Unlike most dietary manipulations tried in the past to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS, all studies on low FODMAP diet have consistently shown symptomatic benefits in the majority of patients with IBS. However, dietary adherence by the patients and clear dietary intervention led by specialized dietitians appear to be vital for the success of the diet. Up to 86% of patients with IBS find improvement in overall gastrointestinal symptoms as well as individual symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, and flatulence following the diet. FODMAP restriction reduces the osmotic load and gas production in the distal small bowel and the proximal colon, providing symptomatic relief in patients with IBS. Long-term health effects of a low FODMAP diet are not known; however, stringent FODMAP restriction is not recommended owing to risks of inadequate nutrient intake and potential adverse effects from altered gut microbiota. In conclusion, the evidence to date strongly supports the efficacy of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of IBS. Further studies are required to understand any potential adverse effects of long-term restriction of FODMAPs. PMID:27382323

  19. Medicare's Search for Effective Obesity Treatments: Diets Are Not the Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Traci; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Westling, Erika; Lew, Ann-Marie; Samuels, Barbra; Chatman, Jason

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems have increased sharply in the past 2 decades. New revisions to Medicare policy will allow funding for obesity treatments of proven efficacy. The authors review studies of the long-term outcomes of calorie-restricting diets to assess whether dieting is an effective treatment for obesity.…

  20. Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date

    PubMed Central

    Nanayakkara, Wathsala S; Skidmore, Paula ML; O’Brien, Leigh; Wilkinson, Tim J; Gearry, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the published clinical studies concerning the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using restriction of Fermentable Oligosaccharide, Disaccharide, Monosaccharide, and Polyols in the diet (low FODMAP diet). In recent years, the data supporting low FODMAP diet for the management of IBS symptoms have emerged, including several randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and other observational studies. Unlike most dietary manipulations tried in the past to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS, all studies on low FODMAP diet have consistently shown symptomatic benefits in the majority of patients with IBS. However, dietary adherence by the patients and clear dietary intervention led by specialized dietitians appear to be vital for the success of the diet. Up to 86% of patients with IBS find improvement in overall gastrointestinal symptoms as well as individual symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, and flatulence following the diet. FODMAP restriction reduces the osmotic load and gas production in the distal small bowel and the proximal colon, providing symptomatic relief in patients with IBS. Long-term health effects of a low FODMAP diet are not known; however, stringent FODMAP restriction is not recommended owing to risks of inadequate nutrient intake and potential adverse effects from altered gut microbiota. In conclusion, the evidence to date strongly supports the efficacy of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of IBS. Further studies are required to understand any potential adverse effects of long-term restriction of FODMAPs. PMID:27382323

  1. Successful treatment of POLG-related mitochondrial epilepsy with antiepileptic drugs and low glycaemic index diet.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Mika H; Päivärinta, Markku; Jääskeläinen, Satu; Majamaa, Kari

    2012-12-01

    Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease associated with mutations of the mitochondrial polymerase γ (POLG). Prognosis of mitochondrial epilepsy is often poor and there are few reports of successful treatment of POLG-related epilepsy. We describe a 26-year-old woman who experienced severe headache during a three-day period, followed by symptoms of visual flashing, speech difficulty, and generalised seizures. EEG recording showed non-convulsive status epilepticus (left occipital area) and brain MRI revealed parieto-occipital T2-hyperintensities. Visual aura and aphasia persisted despite antiepileptic medication with phenytoin, oxcarbazepine, and levetiracetam. Mitochondrial disorder was clinically suspected and a homozygous c.2243G>C mutation (p.Trp748Ser) was discovered in the POLG1 gene. The patient was then set on a low glycaemic index treatment (LGIT) variant of the ketogenic diet, after which the headaches, aphasia, and visual aura progressively improved and disappeared. She returned home two weeks after onset of symptoms and has not had further seizures. She continues to receive levetiracetam monotherapy and LGIT. We conclude that, at least for this patient, the combination of three antiepileptic drugs and LGIT is effective and well tolerated as treatment for severe episodes of POLG-related mitochondrial epilepsy.

  2. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role.

  3. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats. PMID:26110252

  4. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-11

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  5. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  6. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20-40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  7. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive composition: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Leffel, Timothy; Lauter, Miriam; Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the brain mechanisms underlying language processing has implicated the left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) as a central region for the composition of simple phrases. Because these studies typically present their critical stimuli without contextual information, the sensitivity of LATL responses to contextual factors is unknown. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we employed a simple question-answer paradigm to manipulate whether a prenominal adjective or determiner is interpreted restrictively, i.e., as limiting the set of entities under discussion. Our results show that the LATL is sensitive to restriction, with restrictive composition eliciting higher responses than non-restrictive composition. However, this effect was only observed when the restricting element was a determiner, adjectival stimuli showing the opposite pattern, which we hypothesise to be driven by the special pragmatic properties of non-restrictive adjectives. Overall, our results demonstrate a robust sensitivity of the LATL to high level contextual and potentially also pragmatic factors. PMID:25379512

  8. [Diet treatment of hyperliproteinemias].

    PubMed

    Louis, J; Antoine, J M; Pointel, J P; Debry, G; Drouin, P

    1983-04-01

    The authors mention the previous conditions to the prescription of a diet for primary hyperlipoproteinemia: definition of the metabolic disease and of its nutritional dependance, precise knowledge of earlier nutritional uses, demonstration of vascular risk factor linked to the hyperlipoproteinemia, i.e. obesity which always requires a hypocaloric diet. A low cholesterol and saturated fatty acid diet reduces by 10% the cholesterolemia, and sometimes exempts from use of medical drugs in moderate hypercholesterolemia. The exceptional hyperchylomicronemia are reduced by drastic reduction of the lipid fraction of the diet, which is compensated by use of MCT. The dietetic treatment of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia depends on their nutritional dependance: an alcohol dependance implies a complete suppression of alcoholic drinks. A glucid dependance implies the suppression of simple carbohydrates and a reduction of the glucidic fraction of the diet. PMID:6346241

  9. Vegetarian diets and children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged < or = 5 y and can lead to imparied growth. Diets that have a high content of phytate and other modifiers of mineral absorption are associated with an increased prevalence of rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a real hazard in unsupplemented or unfortified vegan and vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  10. DIET at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  11. Vegetarian diets, chronic diseases and longevity.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E

    2008-01-01

    Vegetarians form a non-homogenous group consisting of semivegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs and fish), lacto-ovo vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs) and vegans (plant food only). According to pure vegetarian ideologists, people consuming vegetarian diet have better health and live longer than nonvegetarians, because persons consuming milk, dairy products, meat, eggs and fish are at health risk. In fact the most healthy people in Europe are inhabitants of Iceland, Switzerland and Scandinavia, consuming great amounts of food of animal origin. Meta-analysis of several prospective studies showed no significant differences in the mortality caused by colorectal, stomach, lung, prostate or breast cancers and stroke between vegetarians and "health-conscious" nonvegetarians. In vegetarians, a decrease of ischemic heart disease mortality was observed probably due to lower total serum cholesterol levels, lower prevalence of obesity and higher consumption of antioxidants. Very probably, an ample consumption of fruits and vegetables and not the exclusion of meat make vegetarians healthful. Now, the largest cohort study of diet and health on more than half million of persons, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, will bring new data on the relationships between diet, lifestyle and environmental factors and the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Vegetarianism is a form of food restriction; and in our overfed society, food restriction is a plus unless it results in a nutritional deficiency (Fig. 1, Tab. 2, Ref. 18). PMID:19166134

  12. Dietary therapy is the best option for refractory nonsurgical epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Felton, Elizabeth A; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-09-01

    Ketogenic diet therapies for epilepsy have been described since the fifth century and published in scientific literature since the early 1900s. Since that time, the diet's popularity has waxed and waned as newer drugs and other treatments have been introduced. However, in recent years, dietary therapy for epilepsy has been increasingly accepted by physicians and desired by patients as an alternative to new drugs and neurostimulation. The introduction of less restrictive versions of the classic ketogenic diet, such as the modified Atkins diet (MAD), have led to increased numbers of adult patients with refractory epilepsy who are initiating dietary treatment. Approximately half of adults and children who start a ketogenic diet have a >50% seizure reduction, which is impressive given that these patients typically have medically refractory epilepsy. We believe that ketogenic dietary treatment is the best option for children and adults with refractory nonsurgical epilepsy due to its efficacy, rapid seizure reduction, synergistic effects with other antiseizure treatments, known and treatable side effects, potential to treat comorbid medical conditions, and worldwide availability.

  13. Traveler’s diarrhea diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - traveler's diarrhea; Diarrhea - traveler's - diet; Gastroenteritis - traveler's ... sick because their bodies are used to the bacteria. You can lower your ... diarrhea diet is to make your symptoms better and prevent ...

  14. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Art Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  15. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss.

  16. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss. PMID:26384657

  17. Induction of ketosis in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets depends on the relative abundance of dietary fat and protein.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Menhofer, Dominik; Kirchner, Henriette; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Müller, Timo D; Stock, Peggy; Hempel, Madlen; Stemmer, Kerstin; Pfluger, Paul T; Kienzle, Ellen; Christ, Bruno; Tschöp, Matthias H; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets (LC-HFDs) in rodent models have been implicated with both weight loss and as a therapeutic approach to treat neurological diseases. LC-HFDs are known to induce ketosis; however, systematic studies analyzing the impact of the macronutrient composition on ketosis induction and weight loss success are lacking. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed for 4 wk either a standard chow diet or one of three different LC-HFDs, which only differed in the relative abundance of fat and protein (percentages of fat/protein in dry matter: LC-75/10; LC-65/20; LC-55/30). We subsequently measured body composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), analyzed blood chemistry and urine acetone content, evaluated gene expression changes of key ketogenic and gluconeogenic genes, and measured energy expenditure (EE) and locomotor activity (LA) during the first 4 days and after 3 wk on the respective diets. Compared with chow, rats fed with LC-75/10, LC-65/20, and LC-55/30 gained significantly less body weight. Reductions in body weight were mainly due to lower lean body mass and paralleled by significantly increased fat mass. Levels of β-hydroxybutyate were significantly elevated feeding LC-75/10 and LC-65/20 but decreased in parallel to reductions in dietary fat. Acetone was about 16-fold higher with LC-75/10 only (P < 0.001). In contrast, rats fed with LC-55/30 were not ketotic. Serum fibroblast growth factor-21, hepatic mRNA expression of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-lyase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β were increased with LC-75/10 only. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase was downregulated by 50-70% in LC-HF groups. Furthermore, EE and LA were significantly decreased in all groups fed with LC-HFDs after 3 wk on the diets. In rats, the absence of dietary carbohydrates per se does not induce ketosis. LC-HFDs must be high in fat

  18. Caloric restriction and exercise "mimetics'': Ready for prime time?

    PubMed

    Handschin, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Exercise and diet are powerful interventions to prevent and ameliorate various pathologies. The development of pharmacological agents that confer exercise- or caloric restriction-like phenotypic effects is thus an appealing therapeutic strategy in diseases or even when used as life-style and longevity drugs. Such so-called exercise or caloric restriction "mimetics" have so far mostly been described in pre-clinical, experimental settings with limited translation into humans. Interestingly, many of these compounds activate related signaling pathways, most often postulated to act on the common downstream effector peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle. In this review, resveratrol and other exercise- and caloric restriction "mimetics" are discussed with a special focus on feasibility, chances and limitations of using such compounds in patients as well as in healthy individuals. PMID:26658171

  19. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  20. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    PubMed Central

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-01-01

    Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction. PMID:16700901

  1. Use of the modified Atkins diet in Lennox Gastaut syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet; Gulati, Sheffali; Sankhyan, Naveen; Agarwala, Anuja

    2015-04-01

    There is scanty data regarding the efficacy and tolerability of the modified Atkins diet in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. This study was a retrospective review of children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome treated with the modified Atkins diet from May 2009 and March 2011. The diet was initiated in those children who persisted to have daily seizures despite the use of at least 3 appropriate antiepileptic drugs. Twenty-five children were started on a modified Atkins diet, restricting carbohydrate intake to 10 g/d. After 3 months, 2 patients were seizure-free, and 10/25 children had >50% reduction in seizure frequency. At 6 months, of 11 patients on the diet, 3 were seizure free and 8 had >50% reduction in seizure frequency. At 1 year, all 9 children on diet had >50% reduction in seizure frequency. The side effects of the diet were mild. The modified Atkins diet was found to be effective and well tolerated in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  2. Metabolic effects of very low calorie weight reduction diets.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, L J; Bistrian, B R; Young, V R; Blackburn, G L; Matthews, D E

    1984-01-01

    A randomized comparison trial of two very low calorie weight reduction diets was carried out for 5 or 8 wk in 17 healthy obese women. One diet provided 1.5 g protein/kg ideal body weight; the other provided 0.8 g protein/kg ideal body weight plus 0.7 g carbohydrate/kg ideal body weight. The diets were isocaloric (500 kcal). Amino acid metabolism was studied by means of tracer infusions of L-[1-13C]leucine and L-[15N]alanine. After 3 wk of adaptation to the diets, nitrogen balance was zero for the 1.5 g protein diet but -2 g N/d for the 0.8 g protein diet. Postabsorptive plasma leucine and alanine flux decreased from base line by an equal extent with both diets by approximately 20 and 40%, respectively. It was concluded that protein intakes at the level of the recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g/kg) are not compatible with nitrogen equilibrium when the energy intake is severely restricted, and that nitrogen balance is improved by increasing the protein intake above that level. Basal rates of whole body nitrogen turnover are relatively well maintained, compared with total fasting, at both protein intakes. However, turnover in the peripheral compartment, as evidenced by alanine flux, may be markedly diminished with either diet. PMID:6707202

  3. Restricting retrotransposons: a review.

    PubMed

    Goodier, John L

    2016-01-01

    Retrotransposons have generated about 40 % of the human genome. This review examines the strategies the cell has evolved to coexist with these genomic "parasites", focussing on the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons of humans and mice. Some of the restriction factors for retrotransposition, including the APOBECs, MOV10, RNASEL, SAMHD1, TREX1, and ZAP, also limit replication of retroviruses, including HIV, and are part of the intrinsic immune system of the cell. Many of these proteins act in the cytoplasm to degrade retroelement RNA or inhibit its translation. Some factors act in the nucleus and involve DNA repair enzymes or epigenetic processes of DNA methylation and histone modification. RISC and piRNA pathway proteins protect the germline. Retrotransposon control is relaxed in some cell types, such as neurons in the brain, stem cells, and in certain types of disease and cancer, with implications for human health and disease. This review also considers potential pitfalls in interpreting retrotransposon-related data, as well as issues to consider for future research. PMID:27525044

  4. Short-Term Preoperative Calorie and Protein Restriction Is Feasible in Healthy Kidney Donors and Morbidly Obese Patients Scheduled for Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jongbloed, Franny; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; Klaassen, René A.; Beekhof, Piet; van Steeg, Harry; Dor, Frank J. M. F.; van der Harst, Erwin; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and protein-restricted diet in two patient populations. Methods. In this pilot study, 30 live kidney donors and 38 morbidly obese patients awaiting surgery were randomized into three groups: a restricted diet group, who received a synthetic liquid diet with 30% fewer calories and 80% less protein for five consecutive days; a group who received a synthetic diet containing the daily energy requirements (DER); and a control group. Feasibility was assessed using self-reported discomfort, body weight changes, and metabolic parameters in blood samples. Results. Twenty patients (71%) complied with the restricted and 13 (65%) with the DER-diet. In total, 68% of the patients reported minor discomfort that resolved after normal eating resumed. The mean weight loss on the restricted diet was significantly greater (2.4 kg) than in the control group (0 kg, p = 0.002), but not in the DER-diet (1.5 kg). The restricted diet significantly reduced levels of serum urea and plasma prealbumin (PAB) and retinol binding protein (RBP). Conclusions. A short-term preoperative calorie- and protein-restricted diet is feasible in kidney donors and morbidly obese patients. Compliance is high and can be objectively measured via changes in urea, PAB, and RBP levels. These results demonstrate that this diet can be used to study the effects of dietary restriction on surgery-induced oxidative stress in a clinical setting. PMID:27213441

  5. Antiretroviral restriction factors in mice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Smita; Rein, Alan

    2014-11-26

    One of the most exciting areas in contemporary retrovirus research is the discovery of "restriction factors". These are cellular proteins that act after virus entry to inhibit infection by or replication of retroviruses (and other viruses and intracellular pathogens). We briefly discuss here three antiretroviral restriction factors in mice: Fv1, APOBEC3, and tetherin, touching on both biological and molecular aspects of these restriction systems.

  6. Physiological responses of the adult male collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae), to severe dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Greene, L W; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic and hormonal responses of eight adult male collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) to an ad libitum diet intake, or 25% of an ad libitum intake, were examined. Blood samples for hematological, serum-biochemical and hormonal profiles were collected at three week intervals during the nine week experiment starting 4 August 1983. Males fed on the restricted diet lost an average of 26% of their body weight during the trial, compared to a slight weight gain for those fed ad libitum. Characteristics of the red and white blood cell populations were not influenced by diet intake, with the exception of mean corpuscular volume, which was consistently lower amongst males fed on the restricted diet. Restricted food intake resulted in significantly elevated serum values for urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen:creatinine, urea index, alpha globulin:beta globulin, gamma globulin:albumin, nonesterified fatty acids, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase isozymes (LD1 and LD2). Restricted food intake resulted in significantly lowered serum values for total alpha globulin, alpha-1 globulin, total beta globulin, beta-1 globulin, beta-2 globulin, glucose, triglycerides, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, copper and triiodothyronine. Serum levels of creatinine, total protein, albumin, alpha-2 globulin, uric acid, total bilirubin, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphorus, calcium:phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and thyroxine were unaffected by diet intake level. Semen evaluation indicated spermatogenesis was not affected by dietary restriction despite reductions in scrotal circumference and ejaculate gel volume. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower among males fed on the restricted diet after nine weeks. These data suggest male libido might be depressed during poor range conditions, while maintenance of spermatogenesis might permit them to take immediate advantage of improved

  7. Calorie restriction aggravated cortical and trabecular bone architecture in ovariectomy-induced estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyejin; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Han Sung; Choue, Ryowon

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that calorie restriction (CR) and estrogen deficiency (ovariectomy [OVX]) would aggravate bone biomarkers and structural parameters in rats. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to sham-operated groups and fed either an ad libitum diet (SHAM-AL) or a CR diet (SHAM-CR); ovariectomy-operated groups were fed an ad libitum diet (OVX-AL) or a CR diet (OVX-CR). For 8 weeks, the OVX-AL and SHAM-AL groups were fed the same diet, whereas CR groups were fed a diet containing 50% fewer calories. Bone-related biomarkers and structural parameters (OC; deoxypyridinoline [DPD]; N-terminal telopeptide, NTx; architecture and mineralization; and microcomputed tomography images) were analyzed at the end of the experiment. The serum OC levels of calorie-restricted groups (SHAM-CR and OVX-CR) were significantly lower than those of the AL groups (SHAM-AL and OVX-AL) (P < .05). Urinary DPD levels of calorie-restricted and ovariectomized groups were higher than those of their counterparts (P < .05), whereas urinary NTx levels of calorie-restricted groups were higher than those of AL groups (P < .05). In regard to trabecular bone, the calorie-restricted and ovariectomized groups had lower values of bone volume to total volume, trabecular number, and bone mineral density, but higher values of trabecular separation than those of their counterparts (P < .05). Regarding cortical bone, the calorie-restricted groups had reduced values of bone volume, mean polar moment of inertia, and cortical thickness compared to the AL groups (P < .05). In conclusion, severe CR with or without OVX during the growth period in rats is equally detrimental to bone; CR has detrimental effects on trabecular and cortical bone; and estrogen deficiency only had an effect on trabecular bone.

  8. Calorie restriction and methionine restriction in control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production by the transsulfuration pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R.

    2015-01-01

    H2S is a gas easily identified by its distinctive odor. Although environmental exposure to H2S has been viewed alternately as therapeutic or toxic through the centuries, H2S has recently regained recognition for its numerous beneficial biological effects. Most experiments documenting such benefits, including improved glucose tolerance, increased stress resistance, and even lifespan extension, are based on exposure of experimental organisms to exogenous sources of H2S. However, appreciation is growing for the importance of H2S produced endogenously by the evolutionary conserved transsulfuration pathway (TSP) in health and longevity. Recent data implicate H2S produced by the TSP in pleiotropic benefits of dietary restriction (DR), or reduced nutrient/energy intake without malnutrition. DR, best known as the most reliable way to extend lifespan in a wide range of experimental organisms, includes various regimens aimed at either reducing overall calorie intake (calorie restriction, intermittent/ every-other-day fasting) or reducing particular nutrients such as protein or the essential amino acid, methionine (methionine restriction), with overlapping functional benefits on stress resistance, metabolic fitness and lifespan. Here we will review the small but growing body of literature linking the TSP to the functional benefits of DR in part through the production of endogenous H2S, with an emphasis on regulation of the TSP and H2S production by diet and mechanisms of beneficial H2S action. PMID:25523462

  9. Calorie restriction and methionine restriction in control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production by the transsulfuration pathway.

    PubMed

    Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R

    2015-08-01

    H2S is a gas easily identified by its distinctive odor. Although environmental exposure to H2S has been viewed alternately as therapeutic or toxic through the centuries, H2S has recently regained recognition for its numerous beneficial biological effects. Most experiments documenting such benefits, including improved glucose tolerance, increased stress resistance, and even lifespan extension, are based on exposure of experimental organisms to exogenous sources of H2S. However, appreciation is growing for the importance of H2S produced endogenously by the evolutionary conserved transsulfuration pathway (TSP) in health and longevity. Recent data implicate H2S produced by the TSP in pleiotropic benefits of dietary restriction (DR), or reduced nutrient/energy intake without malnutrition. DR, best known as the most reliable way to extend lifespan in a wide range of experimental organisms, includes various regimens aimed at either reducing overall calorie intake (calorie restriction, intermittent/every-other-day fasting) or reducing particular nutrients such as protein or the essential amino acid, methionine (methionine restriction), with overlapping functional benefits on stress resistance, metabolic fitness and lifespan. Here we will review the small but growing body of literature linking the TSP to the functional benefits of DR in part through the production of endogenous H2S, with an emphasis on regulation of the TSP and H2S production by diet and mechanisms of beneficial H2S action.

  10. Calorie restriction and methionine restriction in control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production by the transsulfuration pathway.

    PubMed

    Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R

    2015-08-01

    H2S is a gas easily identified by its distinctive odor. Although environmental exposure to H2S has been viewed alternately as therapeutic or toxic through the centuries, H2S has recently regained recognition for its numerous beneficial biological effects. Most experiments documenting such benefits, including improved glucose tolerance, increased stress resistance, and even lifespan extension, are based on exposure of experimental organisms to exogenous sources of H2S. However, appreciation is growing for the importance of H2S produced endogenously by the evolutionary conserved transsulfuration pathway (TSP) in health and longevity. Recent data implicate H2S produced by the TSP in pleiotropic benefits of dietary restriction (DR), or reduced nutrient/energy intake without malnutrition. DR, best known as the most reliable way to extend lifespan in a wide range of experimental organisms, includes various regimens aimed at either reducing overall calorie intake (calorie restriction, intermittent/every-other-day fasting) or reducing particular nutrients such as protein or the essential amino acid, methionine (methionine restriction), with overlapping functional benefits on stress resistance, metabolic fitness and lifespan. Here we will review the small but growing body of literature linking the TSP to the functional benefits of DR in part through the production of endogenous H2S, with an emphasis on regulation of the TSP and H2S production by diet and mechanisms of beneficial H2S action. PMID:25523462

  11. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    PubMed

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  12. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  13. Dietary fat type and energy restriction interactively influence plasma leptin concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, M C; Jones, P J

    1998-08-01

    To investigate whether dietary fat source and energy restriction interactively influence plasma leptin levels and its association of leptin with insulin action, rats were fed diets containing either fish, safflower oil, or beef tallow (20% wt/wt) for 10 weeks. Groups of rats consumed each diet ad libitum or at 85% or 70% of ad libitum energy intake in a design that held fat intake constant. Graded levels of energy restriction caused body weight to decrease (P < 0.001) differently according to the dietary fat provided. Plasma leptin concentrations were 60% higher (P < 0.05) in the groups fed fish oil and safflower oil ad libitum compared with those in the beef tallow group, despite smaller perirenal fat mass and fat cell size in the fish oil-fed animals. Energy restriction resulted in a 62% decrease (P < 0.05) in leptin levels in fish oil- and safflower oil-fed rats, whereas no changes were observed in beef tallow-fed animals. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the fish oil group fed ad libitum compared with those in the two other diet groups. These data demonstrate a hyperleptinemic effect in animals consuming diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid, which can be normalized to the level of saturated fat consumption by mild energy restriction. Thus, dietary fatty acid composition, independent of adipose tissue mass, is an important determinant of circulating leptin level in diet-induced obesity.

  14. [Why an accurate diet for employees].

    PubMed

    Baccolo, T P; Gagliardi, D; Marchetti, M R

    2010-01-01

    A study leaded in 2005 by the ILO on diet habits in different countries pointed out that poor diet at the workplace (leading to malnutrition or overweight and obesity) costs up to 20% & in lost productivity. Obesity is a major cause for absenteeism and can modify physiologic and immune responses to neurotoxins and chemical agents. Obese subjects show a higher risk to develop cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, due to exposure to vibrations, etc; quite often these workers are discriminated, are more sensitive to work-related stress and might experience a reduced self-esteem. Obesity can cause relevant working handicaps linked to reduction of agility, to early fatigue and to difficulties in identifying and use of suitable PPE. As a consequence, obese workers show a higher rate of work accidents and may receive some restrictions in the fitness assessment carried out by the occupational health physician during periodical examinations. PMID:21438227

  15. Health Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Where Should New Research Go?

    PubMed Central

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Aebersold, Karin; Conlon, Beth; Isasi, Carmen R.; Ostrovsky, Natania W.

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the metabolic effects of restricting carbohydrate intake in weight and diabetes management. However, the American Diabetes Association has noted that weight and metabolic improvements can be achieved with low carbohydrate, low fat (implicitly higher carbohydrate), or a Mediterranean style diet (usually an intermediate level of carbohydrate). Our paper addresses variability in the definition for low or restricted carbohydrate, the effects of carbohydrate restriction on diabetes-related health outcomes, strategies for restricting carbohydrate intake, and potential genetic variability in response to dietary carbohydrate restriction. Issues for future research are also addressed. PMID:23266565

  16. The effects of dietary protein restriction on chorda tympani nerve taste responses and terminal field organization.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J E; Hill, D L

    2008-11-19

    Prenatal dietary sodium restriction produces profound developmental effects on rat functional taste responses and formation of neural circuits in the brainstem. Converging evidence indicates that the underlying mechanisms for these effects are related to a compromised nutritional state and not to direct stimulus-receptor interactions. We explored whether early malnourishment produces similar functional and structural effects to those seen following dietary sodium restriction by using a protein deficient, sodium replete diet. To determine if early dietary protein-restriction affects the development of the peripheral gustatory system, multi-fiber neurophysiological recordings were made from the chorda tympani nerve and anterograde track tracing of the chorda tympani nerve into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) was accomplished in rats fed a protein-restricted or a control diet (6% and 20%, respectively). The dietary regimens began on embryonic day 7 and continued until rats were used for neurophysiological recordings (postnatal days (P) 35-50) or for chorda tympani terminal field labeling (P40-50). Responses to a concentration series of NaCl, sodium acetate, KCl, and to 0.50 M sucrose, 0.03 M quinine-HCl, and 0.01 N HCl revealed attenuated responses (30-60%) to sodium-specific stimuli in rats fed the 6% protein diet compared with those fed the 20% protein diet. Responses to all other stimuli were similar between groups. Terminal field volumes were nearly twofold larger in protein-restricted rats compared with controls, with the differences located primarily in the dorsal-caudal zone of the terminal field. These results are similar to the results seen previously in rats fed a sodium-restricted diet throughout pre- and postnatal development, suggesting that dietary sodium- and protein-restriction share similar mechanisms in altering gustatory development.

  17. Controversies in Veterinary Nephrology: Renal Diets Are Indicated for Cats with International Renal Interest Society Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 2 to 4: The Con View.

    PubMed

    Scherk, Margie A; Laflamme, Dottie P

    2016-11-01

    Renal diets typically incorporate protein and phosphorus restriction, supplement with potassium and Omega-3 fatty acids, and address metabolic acidosis. Compared to "maintenance" diets, these modifications appear to benefit cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is limited data in cats justifying the specific amounts of the nutrients used in these diets, and there is little evidence supporting protein restriction in cats with CKD. Energy intake, maintenance of body weight, and muscle and body condition need to be addressed, and may take precedence over special diets. Further research is needed to better define optimum diets for cats with CKD. PMID:27593575

  18. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    PubMed

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  19. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  20. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    PubMed

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  1. Ant workers die young and colonies collapse when fed a high-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Dussutour, A.; Simpson, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    A key determinant of the relationship between diet and longevity is the balance of protein and carbohydrate in the diet. Eating excess protein relative to carbohydrate shortens lifespan in solitary insects. Here, we investigated the link between high-protein diet and longevity, both at the level of individual ants and colonies in black garden ants, Lasius niger. We explored how lifespan was affected by the dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and the duration of exposure to a high-protein diet. We show that (i) restriction to high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets decreased worker lifespan by up to 10-fold; (ii) reduction in lifespan on such diets was mainly due to elevated intake of protein rather than lack of carbohydrate; and (iii) only one day of exposure to a high-protein diet had dire consequences for workers and the colony, reducing population size by more than 20 per cent. PMID:22357267

  2. Diet for Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... discuss these guidelines with a physical therapist and nutritionist familiar with movement disorders. Ataxia is a complex ... fiber to your diet with your physician or nutritionist, ask them if you might also benefit by ...

  3. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and Sensitivities Celiac Disease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Prostatitis Constipation ... Dr. Shorter completed the first validated, systematic food sensitivity questionnaire on IC and diet. Revised Tuesday, April ...

  4. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the "bad" stuff. But the truth is, the human body is designed to purify itself. Detox diets vary. ... fat or fat-free milk or yogurt). The human body is designed to purify itself. You can help ...

  5. Diet - clear liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... It includes things such as: Clear broth Tea Cranberry juice Jell-O Popsicles This diet is easier ... such as grape juice, filtered apple juice, and cranberry juice Soup broth (bouillon or consommé) Clear sodas, ...

  6. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  7. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  8. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number ...

  9. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... scarring of your liver (cirrhosis). For people with liver disease, even a small amount of alcohol can make ... time. Eating an unhealthy diet can lead to liver disease. For example, a person who eats a lot ...

  10. Children's Restrictive Disclosure to Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Sliz, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Children's restrictive disclosure to friends, which is a facet of intimate friendship, was investigated. It was found that children in kindergarten, second, and fourth grade showed restrictive disclosure to friends, and that greater disclosure of positive personal information to friends than to nonfriends was exhibited with age. (PCB)

  11. Diet and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gotto, Antonio M.; Scott, Lynne W.; Foreyt, John P.

    1984-01-01

    The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ease the task. PMID:6523862

  12. Appetoff: another diet fad.

    PubMed

    Beckerich, M J

    1989-12-01

    Appetoff diet patches were diet aids introduced to the public in 1987 and removed from the market in 1988 by the FDA for reasons of fraud. The ingredients were supposedly homeopathic concentrations of plant and mineral products. Although 91.6% of persons in this study who used the product for at least 1 week reported weight loss and mild side effects, no active ingredients could be detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  13. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  14. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease. PMID:24264226

  15. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  16. Effect of nine diets on xenobiotic transporters in livers of mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Cui, Julia Yue; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2015-01-01

    1. Lifestyle diseases are often caused by inappropriate nutrition habits and attempted to be treated by polypharmacotherapy. Therefore, it is important to determine whether differences in diet affect the disposition of drugs. Xenobiotic transporters in the liver are essential in drug disposition. 2. In the current study, mice were fed one of nine diets for 3 weeks. The mRNAs of 23 known xenobiotic transporters in livers of mice were quantified by microarray analysis, and validated by branched DNA assay. The mRNAs of 15 transporters were altered by at least one diet. Diet-restriction (10) and the atherogenic diet (10) altered the expression of the most number of transporters, followed by western diet (8), high-fat diet (4), lab chow (2), high-fructose diet (2) and EFA-deficient diet (2), whereas the low n-3 FA diet had no effect on these transporters. Seven of the 11 xenobiotic transporters in the Slc family, three of four in the Abcb family, two of four in the Abcc family and all three in the Abcg family were changed significantly. 3. This first comprehensive study indicates that xenobiotic transporters are altered by diet, and suggests there are likely diet-drug interactions due to changes in the expression of drug transporters.

  17. Caloric restriction augments radiation efficacy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Anthony D.; Simone, Brittany A.; Palazzo, Juan; Savage, Jason E.; Sano, Yuri; Dan, Tu; Jin, Lianjin; Champ, Colin E.; Zhao, Shuping; Lim, Meng; Sotgia, Frederica; Camphausen, Kevin; Pestell, Richard G.; Mitchell, James B.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Simone, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary modification such as caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to decrease tumor initiation and progression. We sought to determine if nutrient restriction could be used as a novel therapeutic intervention to enhance cytotoxic therapies such as radiation (IR) and alter the molecular profile of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which displays a poor prognosis. In two murine models of TNBC, significant tumor regression is noted with IR or diet modification, and a greater regression is observed combining diet modification with IR. Two methods of diet modification were compared, and it was found that a daily 30% reduction in total calories provided more significant tumor regression than alternate day feeding. At the molecular level, tumors treated with CR and IR showed less proliferation and more apoptosis. cDNA array analysis demonstrated the IGF-1R pathway plays a key role in achieving this physiologic response, and multiple members of the IGF-1R pathway including IGF-1R, IRS, PIK3ca and mTOR were found to be downregulated. The innovative use of CR as a novel therapeutic option has the potential to change the biology of tumors and enhance the opportunity for clinical benefit in the treatment of patients with TNBC. PMID:23708519

  18. Diet needs of patients referred to home health.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, J T; Singer, G R

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the dietary needs of patients referred to home health care. The charts of 812 patients taken for care by the Visiting Nurse Association of Chicago (VNA) were reviewed for the physician's diet order, number of restrictions, diagnoses, age, height, weight, and fee source. More than half of the patients had therapeutic diets ordered by their physicians. A quarter of the patients with therapeutic diets had two or more dietary modifications. An audit process was developed as a reliability check of the authors' determination of the appropriateness of the diet. Review of the charts by registered dietitians (R.D.s) showed that three-fourths of the patients appeared to need therapeutic diets. Forty-seven percent might have benefited from a different diet. More than half of the patients for whom the R.D.s recommended a special diet needed two or more modifications. This emphasizes the need for the R.D. to develop a system for monitoring the dietary requirements of all patients referred to home health care. It further underscores the need for collaboration between physician and dietitian. The registered dietitian who works in home health care agencies serving diverse age groups needs to be a generalist prepared to develop a plan for the total nutrition treatment of persons throughout the life cycle.

  19. Allergenicity of common foods restricted in respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Sharman, J; Kumar, L; Singh, S

    2000-10-01

    Although hypersensitivity to foods is often linked to exacerbations of symptoms of respiratory allergy, no such information is available regarding the foods traditionally considered to play a probable etiological role in respiratory allergy in India, which are in fact quite different from the ones implicated in the West. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the practice of withholding certain common foods by parents and practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine (i.e. Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine) in children suffering from respiratory allergy had any scientific basis or explanation as judged by modern techniques of investigation. Skin prick tests were performed on 64 children with symptoms pertaining to respiratory allergy (32 each in study and control group) using crude antigenic food extracts. Oral food challenges were administered to children to confirm or rule out allergenicity of food (s) incriminated on the basis of the clinical history and/or a positive skin test. Parental history of food restriction alone, in absence of positive skin prick test was of little value in predicting a positive response to the food challenges (1 challenge positive out of 77 based on food restriction: 1.29%). Only 27.02% and 18.75% of positive skin tests were found to be clinically significant in study and control groups respectively. Traditionally, food beliefs were upheld in only 12.5% children for immediate onset clinical reactions (with 5.31% of the foods restricted in their diet) and 9.37% children for delayed onset clinical reactions (with 3.19% of the foods restricted in their diet). The present study shows that even though food restriction is a common practice in patients with respiratory allergy in India, objective documentation of Type I reactions due to these foods cannot be obtained in a majority of such children. PMID:11105420

  20. AGU Sonar Data Restriction Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Council accepted the report of the panel set up in February to study the issue of restriction by the U.S. Navy of access to high-resolution sonar data for the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Panel chairman John Bossier announced that “the Navy has acted in the best interests of the nation” in lifting the restriction order. Only two areas, egress routes to two submarine bases (see “Navy Defines Areas Under Sonar Ban,” in News, this issue), remain restricted.Panel members were Bruce Douglas, Alexander Malahoff, Donald Piepgras, Paul Richards, David Smith and Manik Talwani.

  1. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Adlercreutz, H; Mousavi, Y; Höckerstedt, K

    1992-01-01

    It is a general opinion that the Western diet plays a significant role in increasing the risk of breast cancer in the Western World. Recently some likely mechanisms involved in increasing the risk have been disclosed. It has been found that a Western-type diet elevates plasma levels of sex hormones and decreases the sex hormone binding globulin concentration, increasing the availability of these steroids for peripheral tissues. The same diet results in low formation by intestinal bacteria of mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phyotestrogens from plant precursors. These diphenolic compounds seem to affect hormone metabolism and production and cancer cell growth by many different mechanisms making them strong candidates for a role as cancer protective substances. The sex hormone pattern found in connection with a Western-type diet combined with low lignan and isoflavonoid excretion was found particularly in postmenopausal breast cancer patients and omnivores living in high-risk areas, and to a lesser degree in areas with less risk. However, the pattern observed was not entirely due to diet.

  2. Calorie Restriction Increases P-Glycoprotein and Decreases Intestinal Absorption of Digoxin in Mice.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Helen J; Klaassen, Curtis D; Csanaky, Iván L

    2016-03-01

    There is wide variation in how patients respond to therapeutics. Factors that contribute to pharmacokinetic variations include disease, genetics, drugs, age, and diet. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of calorie restriction on the expression of Abcb1a in the intestine and whether calorie restriction can alter the absorption of an Abcb1a substrate (i.e., digoxin) in mice. Ten-week-old C57BL/6 mice were given either an ad libitum diet or a 25% calorie-restricted diet for 3 weeks. To determine digoxin absorption, mice were administered [(3)H]-labeled digoxin by oral gavage. Blood and intestine with contents were collected at 1, 2, 4, and 12 hours after digoxin administration. Concentrations of [(3)H]-digoxin in plasma and tissues were determined by liquid scintillation. Calorie restriction decreased plasma digoxin concentrations (about 60%) at 1, 2, and 4 hours after administration. Additionally, digoxin concentrations in the small intestine of calorie-restricted mice were elevated at 4 and 12 hours after administration. Furthermore, calorie restriction increased Abcb1a transcripts in the duodenum (4.5-fold) and jejunum (12.5-fold). To confirm a role of Abcb1a in the altered digoxin pharmacokinetics induced by calorie restriction, the experiment was repeated in Abcb1a/b-null mice 4 hours after drug administration. No difference in intestine or plasma digoxin concentrations were observed between ad libitum-fed and calorie-restricted Abcb1a/b-null mice. Thus, these findings support the hypothesis that calorie restriction increases intestinal Abcb1a expression, leading to decreased absorption of digoxin in mice. Because Abcb1a transports a wide variety of therapeutics, these results may be of important clinical significance.

  3. Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular health: Teachings of the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Martínez, José A; Corella, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study was designed to assess the long-term effects of the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) without any energy restriction on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) as a multicenter, randomized, primary prevention trial in individuals at high risk. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 diet groups: 1) MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO); 2) MeDiet supplemented with nuts; and 3) control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). After 4.8 y, 288 major CVD events occurred in 7447 participants; crude hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.91) for the MeDiet + EVOO and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.94) for the MeDiet + nuts compared with the control group. Respective hazard ratios for incident diabetes (273 cases) among 3541 participants without diabetes were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.85) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.10) compared with the control group. After 1-y follow-up, participants in the MeDiet + nuts group showed a significant 13.7% reduction in prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared with reductions of 6.7% and 2.0% in the MeDiet + EVOO and control groups, respectively. Analyses of intermediate markers of cardiovascular risk demonstrated beneficial effects of the MeDiets on blood pressure, lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, inflammation, oxidative stress, and carotid atherosclerosis, as well as on the expression of proatherogenic genes involved in vascular events and thrombosis. Nutritional genomics studies demonstrated interactions between a MeDiet and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein plasma (CETP), and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene polymorphisms. The PREDIMED study results demonstrate that a high-unsaturated fat and antioxidant-rich dietary pattern such as the MeDiet is a useful tool in the prevention of CVD. PMID:24829485

  4. Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular health: Teachings of the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Martínez, José A; Corella, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study was designed to assess the long-term effects of the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) without any energy restriction on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) as a multicenter, randomized, primary prevention trial in individuals at high risk. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 diet groups: 1) MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO); 2) MeDiet supplemented with nuts; and 3) control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). After 4.8 y, 288 major CVD events occurred in 7447 participants; crude hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.91) for the MeDiet + EVOO and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.94) for the MeDiet + nuts compared with the control group. Respective hazard ratios for incident diabetes (273 cases) among 3541 participants without diabetes were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.85) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.10) compared with the control group. After 1-y follow-up, participants in the MeDiet + nuts group showed a significant 13.7% reduction in prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared with reductions of 6.7% and 2.0% in the MeDiet + EVOO and control groups, respectively. Analyses of intermediate markers of cardiovascular risk demonstrated beneficial effects of the MeDiets on blood pressure, lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, inflammation, oxidative stress, and carotid atherosclerosis, as well as on the expression of proatherogenic genes involved in vascular events and thrombosis. Nutritional genomics studies demonstrated interactions between a MeDiet and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein plasma (CETP), and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene polymorphisms. The PREDIMED study results demonstrate that a high-unsaturated fat and antioxidant-rich dietary pattern such as the MeDiet is a useful tool in the prevention of CVD.

  5. Adaptive contraction of diet breadth affects sexual maturation and specific nutrient consumption in an extreme generalist omnivore.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2015-04-01

    Animals balance their intake of specific nutrients, but little is known about how they do so when foraging in an environment with toxic resources and whether toxic foods promote adaptations that affect life history traits. In German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations, glucose aversion has evolved in response to glucose-containing insecticidal baits. We restricted newly eclosed glucose-averse (GA) and wild-type (WT) female cockroaches to nutritionally defined diets varying in protein-to-carbohydrate (P : C) ratio (3 : 1, 1 : 1, or 1 : 3) or gave them free choice of the 3 : 1 and 1 : 3 diets, with either glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source. We measured consumption of each diet over 6 days and then dissected the females to measure the length of basal oocytes in their ovaries. Our results showed significantly lower consumption by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also lower fructose intake by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to high fructose diets or given choice of fructose-containing diets. Protein intake was regulated tightly regardless of carbohydrate intake, except by GA cockroaches restricted to glucose-containing diets. Oocyte growth was completely suppressed in GA females restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also significantly slower in GA than in WT females restricted to fructose-containing diets. Our findings suggest that GA cockroaches have adapted to reduced diet breadth through endocrine adjustments which reduce requirements for energetic fuels. Our study illustrates how an evolutionary change in the chemosensory system may affect the evolution of other traits that govern animal life histories.

  6. Diet and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Samir P.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in skin cancer and aging of the skin. In others, dermatological disease may be linked to systemic disease, and dietary changes may affect health outcomes, as in psoriasis. Lastly, systemic medications prescribed for dermatological disease, such as steroids, are known to raise the risk of other diseases, and dietary change may reduce this risk. PMID:25053983

  7. Obesity-Related Hormones and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized Trial of Diet plus Either Strength or Aerobic Training versus Diet Alone in Overweight Participants

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Ochner, Christopher N; Dambkowski, Carl L; Hashim, Sami A

    2014-01-01

    There is debate about the additive effects of exercise in conjunction with diet to treat obesity, and not much is known about the differential effects of strength versus aerobic training. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of diet plus strength training, diet plus aerobic training, or diet only on metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. Eighty-one overweight and obese participants completed the 8-week intervention. All participants received an energy-restrictive formula diet with an energy content based on 70% of measured resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants assigned to an exercise group trained 3 days/week under supervision. Anthropometrics and fasting hormones were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Mean weight loss (8.5 ± 4.3kg SD) did not differ between groups nor did reductions in BMI or body fat, although the diet plus strength training group showed marginally greater lean mass retention. There were significant improvements in the values and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decreases in insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, which did not vary between groups. For men, testosterone increased significantly more in the diet plus aerobic training as compared to the other groups. As compared to diet alone, the addition of strength or aerobic training did not improve changes in BMI, body fat or metabolic risk factors although the diet plus strength training group showed a trend toward preservation of lean mass, and the diet plus aerobic group in men resulted in increased testosterone concentrations. PMID:25599089

  8. Dietary Restrictions in Dialysis Patients: Is There Anything Left to Eat?

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Brown, Amanda; Chen, Joline L. T.; Kamgar, Mohammad; Lau, Wei-Ling; Moradi, Hamid; Rhee, Connie M.; Streja, Elani; Kovesdy, Csaba P.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of dietary restrictions are imposed traditionally and uniformly on maintenance dialysis patients, whereas there is very little data to support their benefits. Recent studies indicate that dietary restrictions of phosphorus may lead to worse survival and poorer nutritional status. Restricting dietary potassium may deprive dialysis patients of heart-healthy diets and lead to intake of more atherogenic diets. There is little data about the survival benefits of dietary sodium restriction, and limiting fluid intake may inherently lead to lower protein and calorie consumption, when in fact dialysis patients often need higher protein intake to prevent and correct protein-energy wasting. Restricting dietary carbohydrates in diabetic dialysis patients may not be beneficial in those with burnt-out diabetes. Dietary fat including omega-3 fatty acids may be important caloric sources and should not be restricted. Data to justify other dietary restrictions related to calcium, vitamins and trace elements are scarce and often contradictory. The restriction of eating during hemodialysis treatment is likely another incorrect practice that may worsen hemodialysis induced hypoglycemia and nutritional derangements. We suggest careful relaxation of most dietary restrictions and adoption of a more balanced and individualized approach, thereby easing some of these overzealous restrictions that have not been proven to offer major advantages to patients and their outcomes and which may in fact worsen patients’ quality of life and satisfaction. This manuscript critically reviews the current paradigms and practices of recommended dietary regimens in dialysis patients including those related to dietary protein, carbohydrate, fat, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and calcium, and discusses the feasibility and implications of adherence to ardent dietary restrictions. PMID:25649719

  9. Dietary restrictions in healing among speakers of Iquito, an endangered language of the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical research was carried out with speakers of Iquito, a critically endangered Amazonian language of the Zaparoan family. The study focused on the concept of "dieting" (siyan++ni in Iquito), a practice involving prohibitions considered necessary to the healing process. These restrictions include: 1) foods and activities that can exacerbate illness, 2) environmental influences that conflict with some methods of healing (e.g. steam baths or enemas) and 3) foods and activities forbidden by the spirits of certain powerful medicinal plants. The study tested the following hypotheses: H1 - Each restriction will correlate with specific elements in illness explanatory models and H2 - Illnesses whose explanatory models have personalistic elements will show a greater number and variety of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Methods The work was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the Alto Nanay region of Peru. In structured interviews, informants gave explanatory models for illness categories, including etiologies, pathophysiologies, treatments and dietary restrictions necessary for 49 illnesses. Seventeen botanical vouchers for species said to have powerful spirits that require diets were also collected. Results All restrictions found correspond to some aspect of illness explanatory models. Thirty-five percent match up with specific illness etiologies, 53% correspond to particular pathophysiologies, 18% correspond with overall seriousness of the illness and 18% are only found with particular forms of treatment. Diets based on personalistic reasoning have a significantly higher average number of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Conclusions Dieting plays a central role in healing among Iquito speakers. Specific prohibitions can be explained in terms of specific aspects of illness etiologies, pathophysiologies and treatments. Although the Amazonian literature contains few studies focusing on dietary proscriptions

  10. Effect of various diets on the expression of phase-I drug-metabolizing enzymes in livers of mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Cui, Julia Yue; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2015-01-01

    1. Previous studies have shown that diets can alter the metabolism of drugs; however, it is difficult to compare the effects of multiple diets on drug metabolism among different experimental settings. Phase-I-related genes play a major role in the biotransformation of pro-drugs and drugs. 2. In the current study, effects of nine diets on the mRNA expression of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes in livers of mice were simultaneously investigated. Compared to the AIN-93M purified diet (control), 73 of the 132 critical phase-I drug-metabolizing genes were differentially regulated by at least one diet. Diet restriction produced the largest number of changed genes (51), followed by the atherogenic diet (27), high-fat diet (25), standard rodent chow (21), western diet (20), high-fructose diet (5), EFA deficient diet (3) and low n-3 FA diet (1). The mRNAs of the Fmo family changed most, followed by Cyp2b and 4a subfamilies, as well as Por (from 1121- to 21-fold increase of theses mRNAs). There were 59 genes not altered by any of these diets. 3. The present results may improve the interpretation of studies with mice and aid in determining effective and safe doses for individuals with different nutritional diets.

  11. Annual Fasting; the Early Calories Restriction for Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Solat; Barzgari, Zahra; Saliani, Negar; Saeedi, Nazli; Barzegari, Abolfazl

    2012-01-01

    Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF) before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation. PMID:23678462

  12. Effect of high fat, fiber and caloric restriction on rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D.; Van Sant, J.; Butler, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female rats given 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were placed on diets of control fat (CF-4.5%) or high fat (HF-20%) with either control fiber (6%) or high fiber (FB-12%). A 60% reduction in the CF diet was used to study the effects of caloric restriction on tumorigenesis. Results showed that HF diets had a shorter latency period than CF rats. The respective average number of tumors per rat and tumor volume were 7.3 +/- 1.3 and 23694 mm/sup 2/ for rats on a HF diet and 5.1+/-1.1 and 9144 mm/sup 3/ for CF rats. Addition of high fiber to the diets reduced the tumor incidence from 95% to 70% in the CF group but did not reduce the incidence in HF group. Although tumor number was reduced to 3.7+/-1.5 in CF+FB rats, the tumor volumes were not reduced (8950 mm/sup 3/). Rats fed HF+FB did not have fewer tumors (7.0+/-1.1), but did show a 53% reduction in tumor load. The estrogen dependent enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was not affected by dietary levels of fat, which suggests that the promotional effects of fat may not be through estrogen stimulation. None of the caloric restricted rats had tumors 12 weeks post-DMBA. These restricted rats all had significantly elevated levels of serum corticosterone.

  13. Metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function during acute nutrient restriction of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of acute nutritional restriction on metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function of heifers was determined in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 14-mo-old heifers were fed a diet supplying 1.2 × maintenance energy requirements (1.2M). After 10 d, heifers were fed 1.2M or were res...

  14. Ovine maternal nutrient restriction from mid to late gestation decreases heptic progesterone inactivating enzyme activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have shown increased concentrations of progesterone and decreased liver weight in mid to late pregnant ewes provided a nutrient restricted vs. adequate diet. This alteration in peripheral progesterone could be due to increased synthesis and/or decreased clearance of progesterone. There...

  15. Caloric Restriction Normalizes Obesity-Induced Alterations on Regulators of Skeletal Muscle Growth Signaling.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Cory M; Li, Ji; Williamson, David L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the impact of caloric restriction on high fat diet-induced alterations on regulators of skeletal muscle growth. We hypothesized that caloric restriction would reverse the negative effects of high fat diet-induced obesity on REDD1 and mTOR-related signaling. Following an initial 8 week period of HF diet-induced obesity, caloric restriction (CR ~30 %) was employed while mice continued to consume either a low (LF) or high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Western analysis of skeletal muscle showed that CR reduced (p < 0.05) the obesity-related effects on the lipogenic protein, SREBP1. Likewise, CR reduced (p < 0.05) the obesity-related effects on the hyperactivation of mTORC1 and ERK1/2 signaling to levels comparable to the LF mice. CR also reduced (p < 0.05) obesity-induced expression of negative regulators of growth, REDD1 and cleaved caspase 3. These findings have implications for on the reversibility of dysregulated growth signaling in obese skeletal muscle, using short-term caloric restriction. PMID:27289530

  16. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  17. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST.

  18. The Relationship between Reading Beauty and Fashion Magazines and the Use of Pathogenic Dieting Methods among Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michelle M.; Brown, Lora Beth

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading women's fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among 502 high school females. Reading these magazines does influence a female's decision to restrict calories or take diet pills. Further research is needed to examine factors that are antecedent to reading the magazines to…

  19. Renal response to restricted protein intake in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bending, J J; Dodds, R A; Keen, H; Viberti, G C

    1988-12-01

    Proteinuria in diabetes is associated with progressive glomerular damage. We studied the effects of 3-wk dietary protein restriction on proteinuria and renal function in 10 insulin-dependent diabetic men with diabetic nephropathy. Patients were randomly assigned by a crossover design to 40-g low-protein diet (LPD) or usual-protein diet (UPD). Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were measured by inulin and p-aminohippurate clearance at the end of each period under conditions of sustained euglycemia. Total calorie intake, body weight, serum albumin and total protein concentrations, hematocrit, blood pressure, and glucose control were similar during the two diets. Achieved protein intake was 46 +/- 3 g/day during LPD and 81 +/- 4 g/day during UPD (P less than .001). Urinary urea appearance and plasma urea were significantly lower on LPD. Median total urinary protein was reduced from 3.9 g/day (range 0.5-12.3) on UPD to 2.4 (range 0.2-9.0) on LPD (P less than .006), and there was a significant fall in the median fractional clearance of albumin from 2.0 x 10(-4) (range 0.1-90.9) on UPD to 1.0 x 10(-4) (range 0.1-51.4) on LPD and IgG from 2.1 x 10(-5) (range 0.2-238) to 1.5 x 10(-5) (range 0.1-77) (P less than .006 and P less than .02, respectively). The reabsorption rate of beta 2-microglobulin was similar on the two diets and glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and filtration fraction remained unchanged. Thus, short-term dietary protein restriction reduces diabetic proteinuria independently of blood glucose or systemic blood pressure changes by improving glomerular permselectivity.

  20. Diet impact on mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Putti, Rosalba; Sica, Raffaella; Migliaccio, Vincenzo; Lionetti, Lillà

    2015-01-01

    Diet induced obesity is associated with impaired mitochondrial function and dynamic behavior. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles and the balance in fusion/fission is strictly associated with their bioenergetics. Fusion processes are associated with the optimization of mitochondrial function, whereas fission processes are associated with the removal of damaged mitochondria. In diet-induced obesity, impaired mitochondrial function and increased fission processes were found in liver and skeletal muscle. Diverse dietary fat sources differently affect mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics. In contrast to saturated fatty acids, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce fusion processes and improve mitochondrial function. Moreover, the pro-longevity effect of caloric restriction has been correlated with changes in mitochondrial dynamics leading to decreased cell oxidative injury. Noteworthy, emerging findings revealed an important role for mitochondrial dynamics within neuronal populations involved in central regulation of body energy balance. In conclusion, mitochondrial dynamic processes with their strict interconnection with mitochondrial bioenergetics are involved in energy balance and diet impact on metabolic tissues. PMID:25904870

  1. Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet.

    PubMed

    Clarys, Peter; Deliens, Tom; Huybrechts, Inge; Deriemaeker, Peter; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Keyzer, Willem; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Mullie, Patrick

    2014-03-24

    The number of studies comparing nutritional quality of restrictive diets is limited. Data on vegan subjects are especially lacking. It was the aim of the present study to compare the quality and the contributing components of vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Dietary intake was estimated using a cross-sectional online survey with a 52-items food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated as indicators for diet quality. After analysis of the diet questionnaire and the FFQ, 1475 participants were classified as vegans (n = 104), vegetarians (n = 573), semi-vegetarians (n = 498), pesco-vegetarians (n = 145), and omnivores (n = 155). The most restricted diet, i.e., the vegan diet, had the lowest total energy intake, better fat intake profile, lowest protein and highest dietary fiber intake in contrast to the omnivorous diet. Calcium intake was lowest for the vegans and below national dietary recommendations. The vegan diet received the highest index values and the omnivorous the lowest for HEI-2010 and MDS. Typical aspects of a vegan diet (high fruit and vegetable intake, low sodium intake, and low intake of saturated fat) contributed substantially to the total score, independent of the indexing system used. The score for the more prudent diets (vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and pesco-vegetarians) differed as a function of the used indexing system but they were mostly better in terms of nutrient quality than the omnivores.

  2. [Vegetarian diets of breastfeeding women in the light of dietary recommendations].

    PubMed

    Strucińska, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    The literature review concerning selected nutritional and health aspects of applying different vegetarian diets by breastfeeding women was presented. The only two types of vegetarian diets: lactoovo- and semi-vegetarian, when properly composed, seem to be relatively safe for mother and her child. The most threatening vegetarian diets for lactating women are those including exclusively products of plant origin (so called restricted diets: vegan or macrobiotic). The results of studies performed on mothers consuming these vegetarian diets showed deficiencies in: vitamin B12 and vitamin D (in mothers and their infants) and calcium (only in lactating women). The low intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was also characteristic in this group. Additionally the endogenous metabolism of DHA is inhibited due to high proportion of linoleic vs. linolenic acid intake. It considered that lactating women on vegetarian diet should have a greater nutritional knowledge in order to avoid deficiencies which would adversely affect mother's and her child's health.

  3. [Vegetarian diets of breastfeeding women in the light of dietary recommendations].

    PubMed

    Strucińska, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    The literature review concerning selected nutritional and health aspects of applying different vegetarian diets by breastfeeding women was presented. The only two types of vegetarian diets: lactoovo- and semi-vegetarian, when properly composed, seem to be relatively safe for mother and her child. The most threatening vegetarian diets for lactating women are those including exclusively products of plant origin (so called restricted diets: vegan or macrobiotic). The results of studies performed on mothers consuming these vegetarian diets showed deficiencies in: vitamin B12 and vitamin D (in mothers and their infants) and calcium (only in lactating women). The low intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was also characteristic in this group. Additionally the endogenous metabolism of DHA is inhibited due to high proportion of linoleic vs. linolenic acid intake. It considered that lactating women on vegetarian diet should have a greater nutritional knowledge in order to avoid deficiencies which would adversely affect mother's and her child's health. PMID:12053485

  4. [Acne and diet].

    PubMed

    Melnik, B C

    2013-04-01

    In industrialized countries acne presents as an epidemic disease of civilization affecting sebaceous follicles of adolescents and young adults, associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. "Western style" diet, characterized by high glycaemic load and increased consumption of insulinotropic milk proteins, plays an important role in acne pathogenesis. On the cellular level, nutrient-derived metabolic signals are sensed by the metabolic transcription factor FoxO1 and integrated by the regulatory kinase mTORC1. mTORC1, the central hub of protein- and lipid biosynthesis, cell growth and proliferation, is activated by insulin, IGF-1 and branched-chain essential amino acids, especially leucine. The understanding of Western diet-mediated nutrient signalling with over-activated mTORC1 offers a reasonable approach for dietary intervention in acne by lowering glycaemic load and consumption of milk and milk products. A suitable diet attenuating increased mTORC1 activity is a Palaeolithic-like diet with reduced intake of sugar, hyperglycaemic grains, milk and milk products but enriched consumption of vegetables and fish.

  5. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, George L; Copeland, Trisha; Khaodhiar, Lalita; Buckley, Rita B

    2003-03-01

    Obesity, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle-all common conditions in breast cancer patients-are likely to be associated with poor survival and poor quality of life in women with breast cancer. Diet-related factors are thought to account for about 30% of cancers in developed countries. Most studies of diet and healthcare have focused on the role of single nutrients, foods, or food groups in disease prevention or promotion. Recent cancer guidelines on nutrition and physical activity emphasize diets that promote maintenance of a healthy body weight and a prudent dietary pattern that is low in red and processed meats and high in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Except for dietary fat, few nutritional factors in adult life have been associated with breast cancer. Extensive data from animal model research, international correlations linking fat intake and breast cancer rates, and case-control studies support the hypothesis that a high-fat diet is conducive to the development of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Conflicting findings from cohort studies, however, have created uncertainty over the role of dietary fat in breast cancer growth and recurrence. Results from large-scale nutritional intervention trials are expected to resolve such issues. As new and improved data on dietary factors and patterns accumulate, dietary guidelines for cancer risk reduction will become more focused.

  6. Diet and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    McKevith, Brigid

    2005-12-01

    In the future there will be more people aged 65 years and over ('older adults'). Although the exact mechanisms underlying normal ageing are not fully understood, ageing is generally associated with an increase in chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and osteoporosis. It is becoming clear that it is possible to prevent, slow or reverse the onset of many these by modifying lifestyle factors such as diet. Studies of older adults in a range of countries have highlighted a number of areas in which dietary quality could be improved. It is important to identify dietary patterns in addition to specific dietary components that offer protection against chronic disease. The challenge in the area of diet and healthy ageing is twofold: first, there is a need to improve the diet of older adults; and second, as most chronic diseases begin earlier in life, there is a need to encourage other age groups to adapt their diet so they can enter old age in better health.

  7. Calorie Restriction in Mammals and Simple Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Mirisola, Mario G.

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which usually refers to a 20–40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well. PMID:24883306

  8. Calorie restriction in mammals and simple model organisms.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Giusi; Mirisola, Mario G

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which usually refers to a 20-40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well. PMID:24883306

  9. Discovery of 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-4-((pyrrolidine-1-sulfonamido)methyl)-5-(5-((4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)ethynyl)thiophene-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide as a novel peripherally restricted cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist with significant weight-loss efficacy in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ping; Wu, Chien-Huang; Song, Jen-Shin; Chou, Ming-Chen; Wong, Ying-Chieh; Lin, Yinchiu; Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Sadani, Amit A; Ou, Ming-Hung; Chen, Kun-Hung; Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Kuo, Po-Chu; Tseng, Chen-Tso; Chang, Kuei-Hua; Tseng, Shi-Liang; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Hung, Ming-Shiu; Shia, Kak-Shan

    2013-12-27

    After extensive synthetic efforts, we found that many structurally diverse bioisosteres could be generated via derivatizing the C-4 alkyl chain on the pyrazole ring of compound 3 (B/P = 1/33) with different electronegative groups. Especially when a sulfonamide or sulfamide moiety was added, resulting compounds exhibited not only potent CB1R activity but also a desired tPSA value over 90 Å(2), a threshold considered to possess a low probability to cross BBB, leading to the identification of compound 4 (B/P = 1/64) as a peripherally restricted CB1R antagonist. Apart from its significant weight-loss efficacy in DIO mice, compound 4 also displays 163 clean off-target profiles and is currently under development for treating obesity and the related metabolic syndrome. PMID:24224693

  10. Colonic H(+)-K(+)-ATPase in K(+) conservation and electrogenic Na(+) absorption during Na(+) restriction.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Z; Clarke, L L; Gawenis, L R; Shull, G E

    2001-12-01

    Upregulation of the colonic H(+)-K(+)- ATPase (cHKA) during hyperaldosteronism suggests that it functions in both K(+) conservation and electrogenic Na(+) absorption in the colon when Na(+)-conserving mechanisms are activated. To test this hypothesis, wild-type (cHKA(+/+)) and cHKA-deficient (cHKA(-/-)) mice were fed Na(+)-replete and Na(+)-restricted diets and their responses were analyzed. In both genotypes, Na(+) restriction led to reduced plasma Na(+) and increased serum aldosterone, and mRNAs for the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) beta- and gamma-subunits, channel-inducing factor, and cHKA were increased in distal colon. Relative to wild-type controls, cHKA(-/-) mice on a Na(+)-replete diet had elevated fecal K(+) excretion. Dietary Na(+) restriction led to increased K(+) excretion in knockout but not in wild-type mice. The amiloride-sensitive, ENaC-mediated short-circuit current in distal colon was significantly reduced in knockout mice maintained on either the Na(+)-replete or Na(+)-restricted diet. These results demonstrate that cHKA plays an important role in K(+) conservation during dietary Na(+) restriction and suggest that cHKA-mediated K(+) recycling across the apical membrane is required for maximum electrogenic Na(+) absorption. PMID:11705741

  11. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  12. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? Read This ... White House Lunch Recipes Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting OK for Kids? ...

  13. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  14. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  15. Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with hunger and weight change during 6 months of caloric restriction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the characteristics of craved foods and changes in food cravings in a long-term caloric restriction (CR) intervention in overweight women randomized to high or low glycemic load diets. Design: A randomized controlled trial of high or low glycemic load diets provided for 6 mon...

  16. Gestational protein restriction affects trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Whether and how gestational protein restriction (PR) affects placental development and function remain unknown. To test the hypothesis that PR can affect trophoblast differentiation in mid-and late pregnancy, rats were fed a 20% or an isocaloric 6% protein diet from Day 1 to 14 or 18 of pregnancy and effects of PR on trophoblast differentiation were determined by changes in expressions of marker gene(s) for trophoblast lineages. At Day 18 of pregnancy, PR increased expressions of Esrrb, Id1 andId2 (trophoblast stem cell markers), decreased expressions of Ascl2 (spongiotrophblast cell marker) and Prl2c1 (trophoblast giant cell marker), but did not alter expressions of Gjb3 and Pcdh12(glycogen cell markers) in the junctional zone (JZ). In the labyrinth zone (LZ), PR did not change expressions of Prl2b1 (trophoblast giant cell marker), Gcm1 and Syna (syncytiotrophoblast cell markers), but decrease expression of Ctsq (sinusoidal trophoblast giant cell marker). These results indicate that PR impairs the differentiation of trophoblast stem cell into spongiotrophoblast and trophoblast giant cells in JZ, and formation of sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells in LZ.

  17. Counting the calories: the role of specific nutrients in extension of life span by food restriction.

    PubMed

    Piper, Matthew D W; Mair, William; Partridge, Linda

    2005-05-01

    Reduction of food intake without malnourishment extends life span in many different organisms. The majority of work in this field has been performed in rodents where it has been shown that both restricting access to the entire diet and restricting individual dietary components can cause life-span extension. Thus, for insights into the mode of action of this intervention, it is of great interest to investigate the aspects of diet that are critical for life span extension. Further studies on the mechanisms of how food components modify life span are well suited to the model organism Drosophila melanogaster because of its short life span and ease of handling and containment. Therefore, we summarize practical aspects of implementing dietary restriction in this organism, as well as highlight the major advances already made. Delineation of the nutritional components that are critical for life-span extension will help to reveal the mechanisms by which it operates. PMID:15972601

  18. Does a vegan diet reduce risk for Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2001-09-01

    Three recent case-control studies conclude that diets high in animal fat or cholesterol are associated with a substantial increase in risk for Parkinson's disease (PD); in contrast, fat of plant origin does not appear to increase risk. Whereas reported age-adjusted prevalence rates of PD tend to be relatively uniform throughout Europe and the Americas, sub-Saharan black Africans, rural Chinese, and Japanese, groups whose diets tend to be vegan or quasi-vegan, appear to enjoy substantially lower rates. Since current PD prevalence in African-Americans is little different from that in whites, environmental factors are likely to be responsible for the low PD risk in black Africans. In aggregate, these findings suggest that vegan diets may be notably protective with respect to PD. However, they offer no insight into whether saturated fat, compounds associated with animal fat, animal protein, or the integrated impact of the components of animal products mediates the risk associated with animal fat consumption. Caloric restriction has recently been shown to protect the central dopaminergic neurons of mice from neurotoxins, at least in part by induction of heat-shock proteins; conceivably, the protection afforded by vegan diets reflects a similar mechanism. The possibility that vegan diets could be therapeutically beneficial in PD, by slowing the loss of surviving dopaminergic neurons, thus retarding progression of the syndrome, may merit examination. Vegan diets could also be helpful to PD patients by promoting vascular health and aiding blood-brain barrier transport of L-dopa. PMID:11516224

  19. Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Doshi, Sapna D; Katterman, Shawn N; Feig, Emily H

    2013-09-02

    Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate.

  20. Regional metabolic alterations in the hypothalamus of restricted rats

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly, J.L.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Alterations of intermediary and neurotransmitter metabolism in the hypothalamus of rats on restricted intakes have been documented. The rates of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) were measured in hypothalamic sites of restricted or ad libitum fed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230 g) receiving a semi-purified diet received either ad lib (AL), 3/7 of ad lib as a single meal at 1700 h (R), 3/7 of ad lib by intubation as three equally spaced meals (TF) or ad lib for 3 d followed by 4 d of starvation (S). Rats were sacrificed at 0800 h and the brains quickly removed. FAO: Two 1.0 mm slices were dissected from the hypothalamus and areas corresponding to the VMN, PVN, and DMN removed with a 20 gauge punch. An 18 gauge punch was used to remove MFB/LHA. Bilateral punches were incubated at 37 C for 2 h in Krebs-bicarb. media containing (1-/sup 14/C) palmitate (0.1 ..mu..Ci)/..mu..mole). GAD: The VMN and MFB-LHA were dissected as above. GAD activity was measured in homogenates using L-(/sup 14/C) glutamate (1 /sup +/Ci/..mu..mole) as described by Tappaz et al. (1976). Restriction significantly reduced FAO rates in the MFB/LHA. FAO rate in the VMN was not altered when restriction occurred as a single meal per day (R) but was reduced with restriction as three small meals per day (TF) or a 4 d starvation (S). No differences were noted in PVN or DMN FAO rates. GAD activity did not differ with restriction except in response to starvation in the VMN.

  1. Restriction of oral intake during labor: whither are we bound?

    PubMed

    Sperling, Jeffrey D; Dahlke, Joshua D; Sibai, Baha M

    2016-05-01

    In 1946, Dr Curtis Mendelson suggested that aspiration during general anesthesia for delivery was avoidable by restricting oral intake during labor. This suggestion proved influential, and restriction of oral intake in labor became the norm. These limitations may contribute to fear and feelings of intimidation among parturients. Modern obstetrics, especially in the setting of advances in obstetric anesthesia, does not mirror the clinical landscape of Mendelson; hence, one is left to question if his findings remain relevant or if they should inform current recommendations. The use of general anesthesia at time of cesarean delivery has seen a remarkable decline with increased use of effective neuraxial analgesia as the standard of care in modern obstetric anesthesia. While the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now endorses clear liquids during labor, current recommendations continue to suggest that solid food intake should be avoided. Recent evidence from a systematic review involving 3130 women in active labor suggests that oral intake should not be r