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Sample records for resume95 nordic field

  1. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  2. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  3. Growing seasons of Nordic mountain birch in northernmost Europe as indicated by long-term field studies and analyses of satellite images.

    PubMed

    Shutova, E; Wielgolaski, F E; Karlsen, S R; Makarova, O; Berlina, N; Filimonova, T; Haraldsson, E; Aspholm, P E; Flø, L; Høgda, K A

    2006-11-01

    The phenophases first greening (bud burst) and yellowing of Nordic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp.tortuosa, also called B. p. ssp. czerepanovii) were observed at three sites on the Kola Peninsula in northernmost Europe during the period 1964-2003, and at two sites in the trans-boundary Pasvik-Enare region during 1994-2003. The field observations were compared with satellite images based on the GIMMS-NDVI dataset covering 1982-2002 at the start and end of the growing season. A trend for a delay of first greening was observed at only one of the sites (Kandalaksha) over the 40 year period. This fits well with the delayed onset of the growing season for that site based on satellite images. No significant changes in time of greening at the other sites were found with either field observations or satellite analyses throughout the study period. These results differ from the earlier spring generally observed in other parts of Europe in recent decades. In the coldest regions of Europe, e.g. in northern high mountains and the northernmost continental areas, increased precipitation associated with the generally positive North Atlantic Oscillation in the last few decades has often fallen as snow. Increased snow may delay the time of onset of the growing season, although increased temperature generally causes earlier spring phenophases. Autumn yellowing of birch leaves tends towards an earlier date at all sites. Due to both later birch greening and earlier yellowing at the Kandalaksha site, the growing season there has also become significantly shorter during the years observed. The sites showing the most advanced yellowing in the field throughout the study period fit well with areas showing an earlier end of the growing season from satellite images covering 1982-2002. The earlier yellowing is highly correlated with a trend at the sites in autumn for earlier decreasing air temperature over the study period, indicating that this environmental factor is important also for

  4. Nordic teleradiology development.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, J; Sund, T; Rinde, E; Stoermer, J; Kormano, M; Heinilä, J; Yliaho, J; Ahonen, J

    1992-05-01

    In the Nordic countries there are several reasons why teleradiology has been an interesting topic of research during the last years. The distances in rural areas are long, and radiology expert service is not available in every health centre which is able to provide X-rays. Also, the telecommunication network is on a very advanced level in the Nordic countries. The staff is well educated and they are used to operating with computers. This all means that the infrastructure to develop and use systems like teleradiology exists. This paper describes two separate systems developed in Norway and Finland. Their development has been in many respects the same. The common hardware and software features, as well as the differences and the clinical experiences, are discussed in this paper.

  5. Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan

    2016-05-01

    Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way.

  6. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  7. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessa, V. M.; Nieminen, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The present issue of Physica Scripta contains the Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science. This meeting was held in Tampere, Finland 18-20 August, 1982. The original motivation for the conference was to bring together the various Nordic research groups engaged in surface science and related activities. However, soon after the initial announcement the conference attracted considerable interest also beyond the Nordic area, and it eventually obtained a truly international character: more than half of the 150 participants came from non-Nordic countries. At least to some extent this reflects the high international esteem of surface physics and chemistry in the Nordic area, which hosts some of the strongest research centers in this exciting and important branch of science. The conference provided an opportunity to exchange information in this rapidly moving field, to establish new contacts and strengthen old ones. It showed that there certainly is scope for increased collaboration between various groups, both within the Nordic countries and also more internationally. The opinion was expressed by several participants that this conference was a particularly successful one, both in scientific content and in format. It is the hope of the organizers of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science that this would serve as an incentive to consider having this kind of meetings on a more or less regular basis, as an established event in the Nordic surface science community. The cross-disciplinary nature of surface science is clearly reflected in these proceedings. The topics discussed range from those close to more traditional condensed matter spectroscopy through physical chemistry to biology. The formidable array of sophisticated techniques developed for surface investigations is given ample attention, but nevertheless the proceedings also show the trend towards more problem-oriented instead of technique-oriented emphasis. The proceedings are organized in accordance

  8. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  9. The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in…

  10. Changing health inequalities in the Nordic countries?

    PubMed

    Lahelma, E; Lundberg, O; Manderbacka, K; Roos, E

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries, referring here to Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, have often been viewed as a group of countries with many features in common, such as geographical location, history, culture, religion, language, and economic and political structures. It has also been habitual to refer to a "Nordic model" of welfare states comprising a large public sector, active labour market policies, high costs for social welfare as well as high taxes, and a general commitment to social equality. Recent research suggests that much of this "Nordicness" appears to remain despite the fact that the Nordic countries have experienced quite different changes during the 1980s and 1990s. How this relates to changes in health inequalities is in the focus of this supplement. PMID:11482792

  11. Towards a new era in fetal medicine in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Sitras, Vasilis

    2016-08-01

    Fetal medicine is a subspecialty of obstetrics investigating the development, growth and disease of the human fetus. The advances in fetal imaging (ultrasonography, MRI) and molecular diagnostic techniques, together with the possibility of intervention in utero, make fetal medicine an important, rapidly developing field within women's healthcare. Therefore, a variety of specialists, such as neonatologists, pediatric cardiologists, medical geneticists, radiologists and pediatric surgeons, are necessary to adjunct in the diagnosis and treatment of the fetus as a patient. In this commentary, we provide a description of some organizational and educational aspects of fetal medicine in the Nordic countries, using examples of the management of specific conditions such as aneuploidy screening, red cell allo-immunization and fetal interventions. Clearly, there are several cultural, legal, organizational and practical differences between the Nordic countries; these are not necessarily negative, given the high standards of care in all Nordic countries. The scope of the newly founded Nordic Network of Fetal Medicine is to enhance cooperation in clinical practice, education and research between the participant countries. Hopefully, this initiative will find the necessary political and economic support from the national authorities and bring a new era in the field of fetal medicine in the Nordic region. PMID:27124273

  12. A System of Oceanic Reanalysis (SOR) fot the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnyushkov, A.

    2009-04-01

    A system of oceanic reanalysis of the Nordic seas (Norwegian, Greenland and Barents seas) directed to the investigations of long period changes in the oceanic climate of the Arctic sub-polar seas was developed. The system of oceanic reanalysys (SOR) includes hybrid coordinate 22-th level ocean model HYCOM [Bleck,2002] and modern oceanographic data assimilation technique based on spectral nudging method. A series of test experiments was carried out and optimal parameters for assimilation routine were choused. These parameters take into account the accuracy of spatial restoring by means objective analysis procedure and phase distortion in modeling fields during monotonous assimilation of monthly distributions. On the basis of modeling results a set of monthly mean hydrological distributions of thermohaline parameters was created for the Nordic seas that was used for climatic field compilations on the standard levels for period 1957-1990. The data of reanalysis system projections allow us to restore the information about structure and dynamic of oceanographic fields for the periods and areas with a small number of direct measurements, for example East-Greenland currents area, north and north-east parts of the Barents sea. A series of additional experiments with SOR were performed directed to the simple assimilation of sea ice concentration data. A significant improvement of the system of objectively analyzed field preparation was done during 2008 including additional validation procedure of gridded arrays with using the direct data of oceanographic stations. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 07-05-00393).

  13. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  14. Nordic in Nature: Friluftsliv and Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the question of whether a relationship exists between the Nordic cultural idea of friluftsliv and the psychological construct of environmental connectedness (EC). This quantitative study employed a correlational design with existing data from the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey. Results indicate that there…

  15. Financing Higher Education in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Geir

    1996-01-01

    The higher education systems and financing mechanisms in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland are described. In each, enrollment and productivity, in terms of student flow, are important financing factors. A new budget model developed for Norway is outlined, and efforts to create a cooperative community for higher education in the Nordic countries…

  16. Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musial, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

  17. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  18. Milestones in the development of Nordic general practice*

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The common history and development of Nordic family medicine is important and interesting. This paper looks back on the aspects and factors influencing academic family medicine in the Nordic countries and especially the central position of the Nordic Congresses and the Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. The importance of pioneers and bringing people together is emphasized. More than 30 years of Nordic academic family medicine has indeed had an incredible impact and has initiated development from only a few people to become world leading. PMID:23336114

  19. Nordic Walking Practice Might Improve Plantar Pressure Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Morey-Klapsing, G.; Encarnacion-Martinez, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nordic walking (NW), characterized by the use of two walking poles, is becoming increasingly popular (Morgulec-Adamowicz, Marszalek, & Jagustyn, 2011). We studied walking pressure patterns of 20 experienced and 30 beginner Nordic walkers. Plantar pressures from nine foot zones were measured during trials performed at two walking speeds (preferred…

  20. Equality, Inclusion and Marketization of Nordic Education: Introductory Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a Nordic model of education is sometimes used to refer to the considerable similarities of education reforms and systems of the five Nordic countries (i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) during the second half of the 20th century--reforms that aimed at social justice, equality and cohesion not least by providing…

  1. Learning for the Workplace: Nordic and Canadian Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Gail, Ed.

    This book contains 21 papers from the Nordic-Canadian Learning for the Workplace Conference, which was held in Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland in June 1995. The following papers are included: "Introduction to the Nordic-Canadian Learning for the Workplace Conference" (Olli-Pekka Heinonen); "Conference Design and Process" (Diane Abbey-Livingston); "From…

  2. The School of Tomorrow - Nordic Network of Educational Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    This paper describes the Nordic "School of Tomorrow" network of educational buildings. It is commonly agreed among the Nordic countries that no one optimal school exists, but that there are many suitable architectural answers. The Network, established in 2000, meets once a year to exchange and discuss knowledge, experience, and ideas concerning…

  3. EDITORIAL The 23rd Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 23rd Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Sveinn; Sveinbjörnsson, Einar

    2010-12-01

    A Nordic Semiconductor Meeting is held every other year with the venue rotating amongst the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of these meetings remains 'original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems'. Reports on industrial activity have usually featured. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. Proceedings from these events are regularly published as a topical issue of Physica Scripta. All of the papers in this topical issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the high scientific standards and quality of the series. This meeting of the 23rd Nordic Semiconductor community, NSM 2009, was held at Háskólatorg at the campus of the University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 14-17 June 2009. Support was provided by the University of Iceland. Almost 50 participants presented a broad range of topics covering semiconductor materials and devices as well as related material science interests. The conference provided a forum for Nordic and international scientists to present and discuss new results and ideas concerning the fundamentals and applications of semiconductor materials. The meeting aim was to advance the progress of Nordic science and thus aid in future worldwide technological advances concerning technology, education, energy and the environment. Topics Theory and fundamental physics of semiconductors Emerging semiconductor technologies (for example III-V integration on Si, novel Si devices, graphene) Energy and semiconductors Optical phenomena and optical devices MEMS and sensors Program 14 June Registration 13:00-17:00 15 June Meeting program 09:30-17:00 and Poster Session I 16 June Meeting program 09:30-17:00 and Poster Session II 17 June Excursion and dinner

  4. EDITORIAL: The 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    This Topical Issue contains works presented at the 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (21NSM) held at Sundvolden, Norway, 18-19 August 2005. The institutions supporting 21NSM were: University of Oslo, SINTEF, the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment and Vestfold University College. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting has become an international forum that has been held every other year in a relay fashion in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of the meeting has been on original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems. Reports on industrial activity have usually been featured at the meetings. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. For the last five meetings the proceedings have been printed in a dedicated volume of Physica Scripta in the Topical Issue series. The papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the expected high standards of the series. The range of topics covered by this volume is broad, reflecting the call for papers; most of the papers have an element of materials science and the largest portion of these deal with other semiconductor materials other than silicon. The 21NSM was supported by the following sponsors: Renewable Energy Corporation (REC), EMF III-V Innovations (EMF), and the Nordic Research Board (NordForsk). Terje G Finstad Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway Andrej Y Kuznetsov and Bengt G Svensson Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Norway

  5. Recent health policy initiatives in Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Saltman, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Health care systems in Sweden, Finland, and Denmark are in the midst of substantial organizational reconfiguration. Although retaining their tax-based single source financing arrangements, they have begun experiments that introduce a limited measure of competitive behavior in the delivery of health services. The emphasis has been on restructuring public operated hospitals and health centers into various forms of public firms, rather than on the privatization of ownership of institutions. If successful, the reforms will enable these Nordic countries to combine their existing macroeconomic controls with enhanced microeconomic efficiency, effectiveness, and responsiveness to patients. PMID:10122003

  6. [Scandinavian eugenics: Nordic historians provide new approaches].

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Patrick

    2004-10-01

    Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underpriviledged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favour in the middle of the sixties. PMID:15461971

  7. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, A.; Ferrari, R.; Mork, K. A.

    2015-08-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in-situ data from five bio-optical floats released above the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. This bloom behavior may be explained by realizing that photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters in a dormant stage in winter, only to be awaken by a photoperiodic trigger. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. Thus more precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  8. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  9. Nordic Medical Birth Registers in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Gissler, M; Louhiala, P; Hemminki, E

    1997-02-01

    This review discusses the use of Nordic Medical Birth Registers (MBRs) in epidemiological studies, paying special attention to the topics that have been investigated and to other data sources that increase the usefulness of MBRs. We divided the reviewed studies into four groups according to the data sources on which they were based: (1) studies using MBR data only; (2) studies combining maternal or paternal background information, obtained from other data sources, with MBR data; (3) studies combining MBR data with subsequent outcome information on newborns; and (4) studies using information about consecutive pregnancies and generations. Our review shows that MBRs are good sources for studying the following topics: maternal biological and obstetric background; interventions and health care during pregnancy and birth; newborns' short-term outcome; and the relations between these factors. In addition, the usefulness of MBRs increases when the data they contain are combined with data from other sources. We found that data from more than twenty different sources have been linked with MBR data in the Nordic counties. As time passes, national MBRs become a useful source of information for studies on consecutive pregnancies or generations. In addition, the associations between pregnancy, delivery, perinatal health and long-term outcome can be studied by using an MBR as the basic data source.

  10. Body Composition and Somatotype of Male and Female Nordic Skiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)

  11. Perspectives on Dental Education in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the state of dental education and current developments at Nordic dental schools. Discusses similarities and differences in the institutional circumstances of the schools, including demands on the schools, their educational philosophies, and the educational system and its regulation. (EV)

  12. Nordic exchange of students and climate change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsson, A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the end of 2010 and until the summer of 2011 two upper secondary schools in Höyanger, Norway and Ronneby, Sweden had the possibility to take part in a project called Nordplus junior. The main aims of the program are: • To promote Nordic languages and culture and mutual Nordic-Baltic linguistic and cultural understanding. • To contribute to the development of quality and innovation in the educational systems for life-long learning in the participating countries by means of educational cooperation, development projects, exchanges and networking. • To support, develop, draw benefit from and spread innovative products and processes in education through systematic exchange of experiences and best practice. • To strengthen and develop Nordic educational cooperation and contribute to the establishment of a Nordic-Baltic educational area. The students did research on climate change and the impact on local and regional areas. Many questions had to be answered, giving an explanation to what happens if the climate changes. Questions related to Höyanger, Norway What happens to life in Norwegian fiords? Which attitudes do youngsters and adults have about climate change and what actions do they take? What does a rise in sea level mean for Höyanger? How are different tourist attractions affected in western Norway? Questions related to Ronneby, Sweden How is the regional fauna and flora affected? What will happen to agriculture and forestry? What do adults and youngsters know about consequences of a possible climate change? What happens to the people of Ronneby if the sea level rises? Are there any positive outcomes if the climate changes? Conclusions In Norwegian fiords there could be benefits because fish are growing faster in the winter because of an increased temperature. At the same time there could be an imbalance in the ecosystem because of a change in the living ranges of different species. Most of the young boys and girls in Höyanger, Norway were

  13. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  14. Nordic meals: methodological notes on a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, J; Kjaernes, U; Pipping Ekström, M; L'orange Fürst, E; Gronow, J; Holm, L

    1999-02-01

    This article discusses some methodological aspects of the project "Eating and Modern Everyday Life. A Comparative Survey of Nordic Countries". Data were collected in April 1997 with computer assisted telephone interviews in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Questionnaires included a record of the informant's eating on the day before the interview, attitudes related to current food discourses, socio-demographic information and a few open-ended questions. The emphasis was on social and cultural aspects of eating. One aim of this study is to investigate whether regular meals are substituted by irregular eating patterns. In order to avoid any predefined meal concepts the questionnaire therefore focused on eating events. The reconstruction of data is based on a model called the eating system. The model has three dimensions: the eating pattern (the rhythm and the number of eating events, the alternations of hot and cold eating events), the meal format (the composition of the main course, the sequence of the whole meal) and the social organization of eating (where and with whom people are eating, who did the cooking). Some preliminary results are presented suggesting that the questionnaire and the analytical model suit the purpose of studying modernization through the field of food. PMID:9989916

  15. Climate impacts of parameterized Nordic Sea overflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Briegleb, Bruce P.

    2010-11-01

    A new overflow parameterization (OFP) of density-driven flows through ocean ridges via narrow, unresolved channels has been developed and implemented in the ocean component of the Community Climate System Model version 4. It represents exchanges from the Nordic Seas and the Antarctic shelves, associated entrainment, and subsequent injection of overflow product waters into the abyssal basins. We investigate the effects of the parameterized Denmark Strait (DS) and Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) overflows on the ocean circulation, showing their impacts on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and the North Atlantic climate. The OFP is based on the Marginal Sea Boundary Condition scheme of Price and Yang (1998), but there are significant differences that are described in detail. Two uncoupled (ocean-only) and two fully coupled simulations are analyzed. Each pair consists of one case with the OFP and a control case without this parameterization. In both uncoupled and coupled experiments, the parameterized DS and FBC source volume transports are within the range of observed estimates. The entrainment volume transports remain lower than observational estimates, leading to lower than observed product volume transports. Due to low entrainment, the product and source water properties are too similar. The DS and FBC overflow temperature and salinity properties are in better agreement with observations in the uncoupled case than in the coupled simulation, likely reflecting surface flux differences. The most significant impact of the OFP is the improved North Atlantic Deep Water penetration depth, leading to a much better comparison with the observational data and significantly reducing the chronic, shallow penetration depth bias in level coordinate models. This improvement is due to the deeper penetration of the southward flowing Deep Western Boundary Current. In comparison with control experiments without the OFP, the abyssal ventilation rates increase in the North

  16. 77 FR 20100 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR... the vessel NORDIC STAR is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sailing excursions and...

  17. The story about theater organizations, the public's approval, and the actors' identity formation in Nordic disability theater.

    PubMed

    Gjærum, Rikke Gürgens; Ineland, Jens; Sauer, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    Nordic disability theater is a relatively new and interesting field of disability research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the field of disability theater in a Nordic context. The article is based on a comparative analysis from 3 research projects conducted in Sweden and Norway. The projects used qualitative methods and were analyzed from different theoretical perspectives. Interviews were conducted at 4 different disability theaters involving actors with hearing impairments, intellectual disabilities, physical disabilities, and mental disabilities. The aim of this article is to illustrate how the organizational settings reflect different goals and aims at the political and artistic levels. The authors will also address the relationship between the theaters and the public opinion and media. Finally, they will illustrate in what way organization, recognition, and public approval play an important role for the actors' identity formation and sense of belonging. PMID:21104515

  18. European Plate Observing System - the Arctic dimension and the Nordic collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakan, K.; Heikkinen, P.; Juhlin, C.; Thybo, H.; Vogfjord, K.

    2012-04-01

    strong motion networks monitor seismic activity and hazard in the North Atlantic. Vigorous volcanic activity along the plate boundary in Iceland and associated hazards are monitored by the Icelandic, seismic, geodetic, meteorological and hydrological networks. Recent eruptions, like the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions have demonstrated the far-reaching hazard to aviation caused by volcanic eruptions in Iceland. The high-sensitivity seismic and geodetic networks of Sweden monitor isostatic rebound of Fennoscandia. In this context, the varied Nordic monitoring networks provide a significant contribution to the main objectives of EPOS. There are already existing links with the other ESFRI initiatives where strong Nordic participation is established, such as SIOS and EMSO. As such EPOS provides the necessary platform to collaborate and develop an important Nordic dimension in the European Research Area. There is a long tradition of collaboration at the governmental level between the Nordic countries, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. Within the fields of research and education, the Nordic Ministries have a dedicated program, where research networks are being promoted. Recently a Nordic collaborative network in seismology, "NordQuake" (coordinated by Denmark) was established within this program. This collaboration which is now formalized and supported by the Nordic Ministries is based on a cooperation which was initiated more than 40 years ago, where annual Nordic Seminars in seismology (previously on detection seismology) was the central element. EPOS Nordic collaboration, building upon a long lasting history, has a significant potential for synergy effects in the region and therefore represents an important dimension within EPOS. Nordic EPOS Team: Lars Ottemöller (UiB), Mathilde B. Sørensen (UiB), Louise W. Bjerrum (UiB), Conrad Lindholm (Norsar), Halfdan Kjerulf (SK), Amir Kaynia (NGI), Valerie Maupin (UiO), Tor Langeland (CMR), Joerg Ebbing (NGU), John

  19. Climate, Water and Renewable Energy in the Nordic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snorrason, A.; Jonsdottir, J. F.

    2004-05-01

    Climate and Energy (CE) is a new Nordic research project with funding from Nordic Energy Research (NEFP) and the Nordic energy sector. The project has the objective of a comprehensive assessment of the impact of climate variability and change on Nordic renewable energy resources including hydropower, wind power, bio-fuels and solar energy. This will include assessment of the power production of the hydropower dominated Nordic energy system and its sensitivity and vulnerability to climate change on both temporal and spatial scales; assessment of the impacts of extremes including floods, droughts, storms, seasonal patterns and variability. Within the CE project several thematic groups work on specific issues of climatic change and their impacts on renewable energy. A primary aim of the CE climate group is to supply a standard set of common scenarios of climate change in northern Europe and Greenland, based on recent global and regional climate change experiments. The snow and ice group has chosen glaciers from Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden for an analysis of the response of glaciers to climate changes. Mass balance and dynamical changes, corresponding to the common scenario for climate changes, will be modelled and effects on glacier hydrology will be estimated. Preliminary work with dynamic modelling and climate scenarios shows a dramatic response of glacial runoff to increased temperature and precipitation. The statistical analysis group has reported on the status of time series analysis in the Nordic countries. The group has selected and quality controlled time series of stream flow to be included in the Nordic component of the database FRIEND. Also the group will collect information on time series for other variables and these series will be systematically analysed with respect to trend and other long-term changes. Preliminary work using multivariate analysis on stream flow and climate variables shows strong linkages with the long term atmospheric

  20. Democracy, Caring and Competence: Values Perspectives in ECEC Curricula in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Purola, Anna-Maija; Johansson, Eva Marianne; Broström, Stig; Emilson, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how Nordic Early Childhood Education and Care policies frame values education in preschools with a special focus on the values of democracy, caring and competence. The study is part of a larger Nordic project, "Values education in Nordic preschools: Basis of education for tomorrow," the aim of which is…

  1. Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kjaerheim, K

    1999-01-01

    Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries benefits from certain structural advantages, including the existence of computerized population registries, national cancer registries with high-quality data on cancer incidence, and a personal identification number for each inhabitant. This article outlines the utilization of this research infrastructure in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, together with research examples from the different countries. Future research on occupational cancer in this region requires that national legislation on electronic handling of sensitive personal information should not be stricter than the European Union Directive on individual protection with regard to personal data. A personal identification number is essential both for keeping up the high quality of data of the registers and for the high quality of the process of linking the different data sources together. Although previous occupational research has focused on male workers, a broader approach is needed in the future, including a study of how cancer risk in women may be affected by occupational activity and the question of possible cancer risk in offspring of men and women exposed to workplace carcinogens. PMID:10350505

  2. Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Science and Technology Education: The Challenge of the Future (Karlslunde Strand, Denmark, May 8-12, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thulstrup, Erik W., Ed.

    The Nordic Conference of 1985 was convened for the purpose of fostering cooperation between science and technology educators within different fields and at different levels, with approximately 40 science and technology educators from Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, India, the United States, and Yugoslavia participating. This report contains 27…

  3. Foodborne cryptosporidiosis: is there really more in Nordic countries?

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lucy J; Chalmers, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Most waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis are reported from the USA, and in Europe from the UK. However, since 2000 reports of foodborne cryptosporidiosis seem to be skewed towards Nordic countries, although consumers in these countries are apparently less concerned about microbiological contamination of food than consumers elsewhere. Possible reasons for this unexpected geographical distribution might include prolonged survival of oocysts in the Nordic climate, greater exposure due to elevated consumption of higher-risk products (possibly including imported foods), and better outbreak investigation and reporting. Although the risk of foodborne cryptosporidiosis is probably underestimated globally, we suggest that the next outbreak is no more likely to be in a Nordic country than anywhere else.

  4. The Nordic diet and cognition--The DR's EXTRA Study.

    PubMed

    Männikkö, Reija; Komulainen, Pirjo; Schwab, Ursula; Heikkilä, Harri M; Savonen, Kai; Hassinen, Maija; Hänninen, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of dementia associated with ageing populations has stimulated interest in identifying modifiable lifestyle factors that could prevent cognitive impairment. One such potential preventive lifestyle factor is the Nordic diet that has been shown to reduce the risk of CVD; however, its effect on cognition has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to estimate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of the baseline Nordic diet with cognitive function at baseline and after a 4-year follow-up in a population-based random sample (n 1140 women and men, age 57-78 years) as secondary analyses of the Finnish Dose-Responses to Exercise Training study. The Nordic diet score was created based on reported dietary components in 4-d food records. Cognition was assessed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). The baseline Nordic diet score had been positively associated with Verbal Fluency (β 0.08 (95% CI 0.00, 0.16), P = 0.039) and Word List Learning (β 0.06 (95% CI 0.01, 0.10), P = 0.022) at 4 years but not with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease total score (CERAD-TS) or MMSE at 4 years, after adjustment for baseline cognitive scores, demographic factors and health-related factors. After excluding individuals with impaired cognition at baseline, the baseline Nordic diet score had also been positively associated with the CERAD-TS (β 0.10 (95% CI 0.00, 0.20), P = 0.042) and MMSE (β 0.03 (95% CI 0.00, 0.06), P = 0.039) at 4 years. These associations disappeared after further adjustment for energy intake. In conclusion, the Nordic diet might have a positive association with cognition in individuals with normal cognition.

  5. Climate, Water and Energy in the Nordic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snorrason, A.; Jonsdottir, J. F.

    2003-04-01

    In light of the recent IPCC Climate Change Assessment and recent progress made in meteorological and hydrological modelling, the directors of the Nordic hydrological institutes (CHIN) initiated a research project "Climate, Water and Energy" (CWE) with funding from the Nordic Energy Research and the Nordic Council of Ministers focusing on climatic impact assessment in the energy sector. Climatic variability and change affect the hydrological systems, which in turn affect the energy sector, this will increase the risk associated with the development and use of water resources in the Nordic countries. Within the CWE project four thematic groups work on this issue of climatic change and how changes in precipitation and temperature will have direct influences on runoff. A primary aim of the CWE climate group is to derive a common scenario or a "best-guess" estimate of climate change in northern Europe and Greenland, based on recent regional climate change experiments and representing the change from 1990 to 2050 under the IPCC SRES B2 emission scenario. A data set, along with the most important information for using the scenario is available at the project web site. The glacier group has chosen 8 glaciers from Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden for an analysis of the response of glaciers to climate changes. Mass balance and dynamical changes, corresponding to the common scenario for climate changes, will be modelled and effects on glacier hydrology will be estimated. The long time series group has reported on the status of time series analysis in the Nordic countries. The group will select and quality control time series of stream flow to be included in the Nordic component of the database FRIEND. Also the group will collect information on time series for other variables and these series will be systematically analysed with respect to trend and other long-term changes. The hydrological modelling group has reported on "Climate change impacts on water resources in the

  6. Research on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries: a literature review, 1986-2008.

    PubMed

    Torp, Steffen; Eklund, Leena; Thorpenberg, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Workplace health promotion may include approaches focusing on behavioral change among employees and approaches with a holistic system-oriented thinking aiming at changing the physical, social and organizational factors of a setting. This literature review aimed to identify studies on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), to describe when, where and how the studies were performed and to further analyze the use of settings approaches and empowerment processes. Using scientific literature databases, we found 1809 hits when searching for Nordic studies published from 1986 to 2008 with the search term health promotion. Of these, 116 studies were related to workplace health promotion and 33 included interventions. We used content analysis to analyze the abstracts of all articles and the full articles of the intervention studies. Most studies were performed in Sweden and Finland. The focus was mainly on behavioral change rather than on holistic health promotion as defined by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This was especially obvious for the intervention studies. In addition to the intervention studies using non-settings approaches with top-down driven behavioral change, we identified studies with participatory settings approaches aimed at changing the setting. We categorized relatively few studies as having a non-participatory settings approach. The studies aiming specifically at improving employees' empowerment were evenly distributed between the categories market-oriented persuasion of empowerment, therapeutic empowerment and empowerment as a liberal management strategy. More studies on workplace health promotion using empowering and participatory settings approaches are needed in the Nordic countries, and a more theory-based approach towards this research field is needed.

  7. Academisation of Nursing Education in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laiho, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Nursing Science represents a new academic discipline in the Nordic Countries. The article focuses on the academisation of nursing education and the development of nursing to a specific discipline in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The education of nurses has developed within the national framework of each country, but not within a national…

  8. Hourly wind power variations in the Nordic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holttinen, Hannele

    2005-04-01

    Studies of the effects that wind power production imposes on the power system involve assessing the variations of large-scale wind power production over the whole power system area. Large geographical spreading of wind power will reduce variability, increase predictability and decrease the occasions with near zero or peak output. In this article the patterns and statistical properties of large-scale wind power production data are studied using the data sets available for the Nordic countries. The existing data from Denmark give the basis against which the data collected from the other Nordic countries are benchmarked. The main goal is to determine the statistical parameters describing the reduction of variability in the time series for the different areas in question. The hourly variations of large-scale wind power stay 91%-94% of the time within +/-5% of installed capacity in one country, and for the whole of the Nordic area 98% of the time. For the Nordic time series studied, the best indicator of reduced variability in the time series was the standard deviation of the hourly variations. According to the Danish data, it is reduced to less than 3% from a single site value of 10% of capacity. Copyright

  9. A Nordic Perspective on Early Childhood Education and Care Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karila, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…

  10. Degree Mobility from the Nordic Countries: Background and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke

    2013-01-01

    Full-degree mobility from Western countries is a topic that has been little researched. Existing literature tends to be normative; mobility is seen as an advantage per se. In this article it is questioned whether mobility is an advantage when investigating degree mobility and employability of students from the Nordic countries. Results show that…

  11. Special Protective Legislation for Women in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Ruth

    1980-01-01

    In the first of three articles in this issue on special protective legislation for women workers, the author explains that the Nordic countries are generally opposed to protection on the basis of sex. Reviewing work environment and equal opportunity legislation, the arguments for and against special protection are presented. (SK)

  12. Different Images of Science at Nordic Science Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsson, Eva; Jakobsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Science centres aim to present science in ways that will attract visitors and enhance public interest in, and knowledge of, science. But what images and different aspects of science are visitors confronted with at Nordic science centres? This study aims to explore the different aspects of science that are displayed and the ways in which these…

  13. Multilingual Policies and Multilingual Education in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Mikaela; Björklund, Siv; Sjöholm, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    This article presents some aspects of multilingualism and multilingual education in the Nordic countries, drawing upon experiences from the project "Network for Researchers of Multilingualism and Multilingual Education, RoMME" (2011-2013), where Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are represented. The aim is to briefly present and…

  14. Taking Space to the Classroom in the Nordic Countries- Challenges and Opportunites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebricher, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Space-related Education (NAROM) has a mandate to teach about space and space technology in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, via the Nordic European Space Education Resources Office (ESERO). The geographical distances in the Nordic countries make it difficult for any one entity such as NAROM to coordinate teaching comprehensively. Identification, delegation of responsibility and support to local teachers is therefore paramount. An important tool in this respect is advanced teacher training which employs flexible teaching methods. This paper is a discussion of how flexible teaching is implemented within Nordic ESERO's advanced teacher training.

  15. Summary of third Nordic symposium on digital pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Cross-disciplinary and cross-sectorial collaboration is a key success factor for turning the promise of digital pathology into actual clinical benefits. The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, among stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the third NDP symposium in Linkφping, Sweden. The Nordic experiences, including several hospitals using whole-slide imaging for substantial parts of their primary reviews, formed a fertile base for discussions among the 190 NDP attendees originating from 15 different countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on adoption and validation aspects of clinical digital pathology use. PMID:27141318

  16. Environmental services provided from riparian forests in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Per; Laurén, Ari; Finér, Leena; Ring, Eva; Koivusalo, Harri; Saetersdal, Magne; Weslien, Jan-Olov; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Högbom, Lars; Laine, Jukka; Hansen, Karin

    2010-12-01

    Riparian forests (RF) growing along streams, rivers and lakes comprise more than 2% of the forest area in the Nordic countries (considering a 10 m wide zone from the water body). They have special ecological functions in the landscape. They receive water and nutrients from the upslope areas, are important habitats for biodiversity, have large soil carbon stores, but may emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than the uplands. In this article, we present a review of the environmental services related to water protection, terrestrial biodiversity, carbon storage and greenhouse gas dynamics provided by RF in the Nordic countries. We discuss the benefits and trade-offs when leaving the RF as a buffer against the impacts from upland forest management, in particular the impacts of clear cutting. Forest buffers are effective in protecting water quality and aquatic life, and have positive effects on terrestrial biodiversity, particularly when broader than 40 m, whereas the effect on the greenhouse gas exchange is unclear. PMID:21141775

  17. Assessing the role of GPs in Nordic health care systems.

    PubMed

    Quaye, Randolph K

    2016-05-01

    Purpose This paper examines the changing role of general practitioners (GPs) in Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. It aims to explore the "gate keeping" role of GPs in the face of current changes in the health care delivery systems in these countries. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from existing literature, interviews with GPs, hospital specialists and representatives of Danish regions and Norwegian Medical Association. Findings The paper contends that in all these changes, the position of the GPs in the medical division of labor has been strengthened, and patients now have increased and broadened access to choice. Research limitations/implications Health care cost and high cancer mortality rates have forced Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark to rethink their health care systems. Several attempts have been made to reduce health care cost through market reform and by strenghtening the position of GPs. The evidence suggests that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to achieve this goal. Sweden is not far behind. The paper has limitations of a small sample size and an exclusive focus on GPs. Practical implications Anecdotal evidence suggests that physicians are becoming extremely unhappy. Understanding the changing status of primary care physicians will yield valuable information for assessing the effectiveness of Nordic health care delivery systems. Social implications This study has wider implications of how GPs see their role as potential gatekeepers in the Nordic health care systems. The role of GPs is changing as a result of recent health care reforms. Originality/value This paper contends that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to strengthen the position of GPs.

  18. Conservation genetics of Nordic carnivores: lessons from zoos.

    PubMed

    Laikre, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from genetic studies of Nordic carnivore populations bred in captivity. The conservation genetic implications of those results for the management of wild populations of the same species are discussed. Inbreeding depression has been documented in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), and lynx (Lynx lynx) populations held in Nordic zoos. The characters negatively affected by inbreeding include litter size (brown bear and wolf), longevity (lynx and wolf), female reproduction, and weight (wolf). In addition, hereditary defects caused by single autosomal alleles occur in the wolf and brown bear populations. These deleterious alleles cause blindness (wolf) and albinism (brown bear) in the homozygous state. The amount of inbreeding depression observed in Nordic carnivores are similar to that documented in other species. The captive populations have the same genetic background as the current wild ones and inbreeding depression is therefore a potential threat to wild carnivore populations in Sweden. This threat is presently not being adequately recognized in the management of these species. Frequently occurring misunderstandings regarding the kind of conclusions that can be drawn from the presented genetic observations are also discussed.

  19. EDITORIAL: The Third Nordic Symposium on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecseli, Hans; Trulsen, Jan

    2006-02-01

    The Third Nordic Symposium on Plasma Physics was organized at Lysebu, Oslo, Norway on 4 7 October 2004, under the auspices of the Norwegian Centre for Advanced Study (CAS). The arrangement was preceded by two similar meetings organized at the Risø National Laboratory in Denmark by one of us (HP): Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas, 13 16 August 1985, and The Second Nordic Symposium on Nonlinear Phenomena in Plasmas and Related Topics, 8 12 August 1988. The proceedings from these two previous meetings were published as Physica Scripta Reprint Series No. 2, and RS 16 (with a few copies still being available). The idea of `Nordic' in the title of this latest meeting was interpreted somewhat liberally, by including also scientific organizations in northern Germany, where a collaboration facing Nordic countries comes naturally, and indeed has solid historical roots pointing also to ongoing activities. We hope that this series of meetings can continue, suggesting that the interval should be kept to a minimum of three years to ensure that all participants present new results. (We hope not to have to wait 16 years until next time, though!) The aim of our meetings is to stimulate collaboration among plasma physicists by creating a forum where the participants can exchange ideas and seek inspiration under relaxed conditions. We have the distinct impression that the meeting was very successful in this respect. Many Nordic institutes have widespread international collaborations, and we were happy to welcome also foreign representatives for some of these activities. Altogether 28 contributed talks were presented by 30 participants. The abstracts of all talks were distributed at the meeting. The present proceedings cover a selection of the contributions. One participant had to cancel, but the contribution is included in these proceedings. All the papers have been refereed according to the usual standards of the journal We, the organizers, thank CAS for the generous financial support

  20. Maternal and infant characteristics: differences and similarities between the Nordic countries and the US

    PubMed Central

    Löfling, Lukas; Bröms, Gabriella; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Kieler, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Background Data from the Nordic health care registers have been of great value in perinatal epidemiological research. It has been assumed that findings from the Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) are applicable to other populations as well, including the population of the US. Objective To describe and compare maternal and infant characteristics between the Nordic and the American populations as recorded in the official statistics. Materials and methods This population-based study included data on all females who gave birth and their infants in the Nordic countries and the US. The data were obtained from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the official statistics data for the Nordic countries. The data from all six countries included births from 2006 to 2010. Results The mean maternal age at delivery was lower in the US than in the Nordic countries (27.5 vs 30.3 years). Cesarean sections (32.2% vs 17.9%), low birth weight (8.2% vs 4.8%), and preterm birth (12.3% vs 5.9%) were more common in the US than in the Nordic countries. Smoking during early pregnancy was slightly less common in the US compared with Nordic countries (9.8% vs 11.2%). Restricting the data from the US to females with a university degree, characteristics such as age at delivery, birth weight, and preterm deliveries were more in alignment with the Nordic data. Conclusion There are differences in some key maternal and neonatal characteristics between the Nordic countries and the US. However, some characteristics are related to socioeconomic status, suggesting that the Nordic data seem to be applicable to the part of the population in the US with a higher socioeconomic status. PMID:27536160

  1. Reconstructions of Nordic Teachers: Reform Policies and Teachers' Work during the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlgren, Ingrid; Klette, Kirsti

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how the restructuring of educational systems in Nordic countries affects teachers' working conditions. It is based on results from the project "Restructuring in Education: Reform policy and teacher professionalism in different Nordic contexts" in which the construction of the "New Teacher" in Nordic…

  2. The Current State and Developments in Higher Education in Gerontology in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Heidi; Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Parkatti, Terttu; Heikkinen, Eino

    2012-01-01

    The growing size of the older population challenges not only researchers but also higher education in gerontology. On the basis of an online survey the authors describe the situation of Nordic higher education in gerontology in 2008 and 2009 and also give some good examples of Nordic- and European-level collaboration. The survey results showed…

  3. Interpreting Values in the Daily Practices of Nordic Preschools: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Johansson, Eva; Estola, Eila; Emilson, Anette; Einarsdóttir, Johanna; Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how practitioners interpreted educational practices from the perspective of values in Nordic preschools. Drawing data from group interviews in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), practitioners reflected on an observational episode about children dressing for outdoor play in a Swedish preschool.…

  4. Institutional Autonomy and Academic Freedom in the Nordic Context--Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokkala, Terhi; Bladh, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Owing to their common history, similarities in language and culture, long traditions in political collaboration and the shared Nordic societal model, an assumption is often made that the operational and regulatory context of universities is similar in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In this article, we…

  5. Social Change and Adult Education Research--Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1990/91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkoping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Education and Psychology.

    This yearbook contains papers that provide the reader with a general idea of the aspects and issues that interest Nordic researchers today and how they approach these problems. To provide a more uniform picture of the status of adult education in the different Nordic countries, four brief general surveys begin the book: "Adult Education Research…

  6. Education for Internationalism at the Nordic School for Adult Education in Geneva 1931-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Internationalism in the interwar era carried different meaning for different groups. A Nordic school for adult education, with the aim of raising the "international citizenship proficiency" of the Nordic peoples, was established in Geneva in 1931, through cooperation between representatives of international organisations and adult educationists.…

  7. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  8. Toxicity considerations when revising the Nordic nutrition recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B

    1998-02-01

    The Nordic countries have issued common nutrition recommendations since 1980. In connection with the 3rd revision, a joint working group of nutritionists and toxicologists assessed the toxicology of selected trace elements. Values for upper limits of intake were established for iron, zinc, iodine and selenium. The safety factors between the lowest intakes at which adverse effects had been reported and the suggested upper limits of intake were small. In the toxicological evaluation of upper safe intake levels of essential trace elements, interactions between trace elements as well as long-term exposure to moderately elevated trace element intakes have to be considered. PMID:9478028

  9. 394delTT: a Nordic cystic fibrosis mutation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M; Anvret, M; Claustres, M; Eiken, H G; Eiklid, K; Schaedel, C; Stolpe, L; Tranebjaerg, L

    1994-02-01

    In a systematic screening for mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator among Danish cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, we identified a mutation in exon 3 (394delTT); this mutation was found to be relatively common in Denmark. We therefore screened for 394delTT in Sweden and Norway, where it turned out to be the second most frequent mutation, accounting for 4% of all CF mutations. It also occurs with a high frequency in Finland, but has not been found in larger surveys of mutations in the CFTR gene. Thus, 394delTT seems to be a specific Nordic CF mutation.

  10. NORDHOM - a Nordic collaboration to homogenize long-term climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, Erik; Carlund, Thomas; Laapas, Mikko; Aalto, Juha; Drebs, Achim; Lundstad, Elin; Motrøen Gjelte, Herdis; Vint, Kairi

    2015-04-01

    High-quality instrumental climate records are crucial for analysis of climate variability. Long-term climate series are however often affected by inhomogeneities (artificial shifts) due to changes in measurement conditions (relocations, instrumentation, change in environment, etc.). To deal with this problem homogenization procedures have been developed for detecting and adjusting inhomogeneities. The climate services at the Nordic NMHSs have a long profound tradition in cooperation on activities of common interest. One successful activity within this collaboration was establishing the North Atlantic Climatological Dataset (NACD) in the 1990s. The NACD data set (1890-) was later continued as the Nordic Climate Dataset (NkDS). Since the mid-1990s there have been little systematic homogenization efforts at the Nordic NMHSs. It was agreed at an expert meeting within the "Nordic Framework for Climate services (NFCS)" in 2012, to establish a NFCS-project NORDHOM: "Nordic collaboration on long-term homogeneous climate data records". The ongoing activities in NORDHOM are to establish common methods for homogeneity testing and adjustment for inhomogeneities, homogenize long Nordic temperature and precipitation series, and update the Nordic Climate Dataset. We are now summarizing what we have achieved during the first phase (2013-2014) of the project and have an outlook what will follow during the second phase (2015-2016). There will also be some examples from each participating country in the collaboration.

  11. The NORDIC WIND TUNNEL­ -- a very large turbulence research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnik, Martin; George, William K.; Karlsson, Rolf I.; Johansson, T. Gunnar

    2001-11-01

    Many ideas in turbulence theory have never truly been tested because of the absence of large and long enough research facilities with low background turbulence. A separation of turbulence scales, energy/dissipation, of 10^5 or larger is required -- while still resolving the smallest scales with the smallest technically feasible probes (>10μm). Experiments in a large research wind tunnel are needed. Such a facility has been proposed at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. The Nordic Wind Tunnel has a test section length of 40 m, cross section after contraction 3 m x 3 m, maximum free stream speed 40 m/s and a free stream turbulence u'/U of 0.01%. The planned wind tunnel will be wide enough to remove the effect of side walls on the energetic turbulence scales, fast and large enough to get the necessary high Reynolds numbers, yet still resolve the dissipative scales and long enough and with low enough background disturbances to obtain the necessary downstream development times. For a model of the wind tunnel see http://www.tfd.chalmers.se/trl/windtunnel/ The Nordic Wind Tunnel will be made available to turbulence researchers worldwide, expressions of interest are hereby solicited.

  12. Alcohol problems among suicide attempters in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A S; Bille-Brahe, U; Hjelmeland, H; Jensen, B; Ostamo, A; Salander-Renberg, E; Wasserman, D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether and how the number of suicide attempters with alcohol problems and their drinking habits differ between the Nordic areas under study. Problem-drinkers were defined as persons who themselves felt that they had an alcohol problem. The analyses were based on data collected at five Nordic research centers participating in the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide, namely: Helsinki (Finland); Umeå and Stockholm (Sweden); Słr-Trłndelag (Norway); and Odense (Denmark). The results showed that the frequency of problem-drinking among suicide attempters differed markedly between the areas under study; the Finnish male and the Danish female suicide attempters included the highest proportions of self-identified problem-drinkers. The pattern of drinking among the suicide attempters also differed between the areas. The analyses indicate that the point when alcohol becomes a problem to somebody, especially to a degree that it increases the risk of suicidal behavior, not only depends on how much and how often the person drinks alcohol; the prevailing drinking pattern, the attitudes towards drinking alcohol, and the level of social control are also important factors to take into consideration when relations between alcohol and suicidal behavior are under study. PMID:9018904

  13. Water masses and 129I distribution in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfimov, Vasily; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The application of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 as a tracer of water circulation in the oceans has provided interesting information with respect to sources and mixing of different water masses. We here present results of 129I distribution in water profiles located in the Nordic Seas and use the isotope to fingerprint water masses in the region. The samples were collected by the US research vessel Knorr in May-June 2002. 129I signatures along the Norwegian Sea reflect a mixing of 129I-rich surface water along the Scandinavian continental slope and 129I-poor North Atlantic surface water. These two water masses become less segregated along the Fram Strait where apparent 129I enrichment penetrates the return Arctic flow into the East Greenland Current. The 129I data further suggest existence of a water mass that is not entirely labeled with respect to origin at the Denmark Strait bottom water. This water parcel probably originates from the Iceland Sea. 129I data also shed light on the major deep water outflow from the Nordic Seas located at the Faeroe Bank Channel.

  14. Energy expenditure and comfort during Nordic walking with different pole lengths.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst A; Smith, Gerald

    2009-07-01

    Energy expenditure and comfort for Nordic walking with self-selected and 7.5-cm shorter poles and ordinary walking were measured during uphill (12 degrees ), downhill (12 degrees ), and horizontally. Twelve (11 women and 1 man) Nordic walking practitioners participated (mean +/- SEM: 171.5 +/- 1.5 cm, 67.0 +/- 2.7 kg, 50.6 +/- 2.4 years, and maximal oxygen uptake of 43.4 +/- 2.8 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Energy expenditure was calculated from oxygen uptake and comfort was self-rated. Differences in physiological responses between the 3 locomotion types at each slope were first analyzed by a 1-way analysis of variance. In case of significance, Student's paired samples 2-tailed t-test was applied twice to test for differences between the 2 pole lengths and between Nordic walking (with self-selected pole length) and ordinary walking. The corresponding differences in comfort were evaluated by a Wilcoxon matched pairs test. The relative exercise intensity during Nordic walking with self-selected pole length ranged between approximately 44 and 87% of the maximal oxygen uptake across the different slopes. For comparison, it ranged between approximately 29 and 80% during ordinary walking. Uphill Nordic walking with short poles compared with poles of self-selected length caused 3% greater energy expenditure. Notwithstanding, comfort was similar. Horizontally and downhill energy expenditure and comfort were similar between pole lengths. Compared with ordinary walking, Nordic walking required as much as 67% greater energy expenditure. Comfort was similar for ordinary and Nordic walking for each slope. In conclusion, shorter poles caused greater energy expenditure during uphill Nordic walking, whereas comfort was similar to poles of self-selected length. The substantially enhanced energy expenditure of Nordic walking compared with previous studies reflects the vigorous technique used here.

  15. Nordic Walking and chronic low back pain: design of a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis; Manniche, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Background Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism. Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether there is a difference in compliance between persons receiving supervised Nordic Walking and persons doing unsupervised Nordic Walking. Methods One hundred and fifty patients with low back pain for at least eight weeks and referred to a specialized secondary sector outpatient back pain clinic are included in the study. After completion of the standard back centre treatment patients are randomized into one of three groups: A) Nordic Walking twice a week for eight weeks under supervision of a specially trained instructor; B) Unsupervised Nordic Walking for eight weeks after one training session with an instructor; C) A one hour motivational talk including advice to stay active. Outcome measures are pain, function, overall health, cardiovascular ability and activity level. Results No

  16. Multidisciplinary Management of Mastocytosis: Nordic Expert Group Consensus.

    PubMed

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Dybedal, Ingunn; Gülen, Theo; Kristensen, Thomas K; Møller, Michael B; Ackermann, Leena; Sääf, Maria; Karlsson, Maria A; Agertoft, Lone; Brixen, Kim; Hermann, Pernille; Stylianou, Eva; Mortz, Charlotte G; Torfing, Trine; Havelund, Troels; Sander, Birgitta; Bergström, Anna; Bendix, Marie; Garvey, Lene H; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Valent, Peter; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nilsson, Gunnar; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hägglund, Hans

    2016-06-15

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases defined by an increased number and accumulation of mast cells, and often also by signs and symptoms of mast cell activation. Disease subtypes range from indolent to rare aggressive forms. Mastocytosis affects people of all ages and has been considered rare; however, it is probably underdiagnosed with potential severe implications. Diagnosis can be challenging and symptoms may be complex and involve multiple organ-systems. In general it is advised that patients should be referred to centres with experience in the disease offering an individualized, multidisciplinary approach. We present here consensus recommendations from a Nordic expert group for the diagnosis and general management of patients with mastocytosis.

  17. PREFACE: The 6th Nordic Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Vaagen, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    After an unintended time gap of five years, the series of regular Nordic meetings on nuclear physics was continued with the 6th Nordic Meeting, August 10-15, 1989. The site was Utgarden in the outskirts of Kopervik, the administration center for the Saga island of Karmøy on the west-coast of Norway. Utgarden, a "peoples high-school'' with a kitchen, housing facility and a neighboring modern gymnasium with fine lecture halls, proved to be an inexpensive and adequate site for the meeting. From the time of the Vikings, the sound between Karmøyy and the mainland has been a vital part of the way to the north. Mobility and international orientation is still a signature of an area where today essential parts of Norway's oil- and metal industry are located. The conference program included a session on nuclear physics in industry and society, with contributed talks from a number of companies and technology/research institutions, which also sponsored the meeting. Lunch visits to Hydro's aluminium plant on Karmøy or alternatively to Statoil's gas terminal on the mainland, were included in the program. The scientific program gives a cross section of nuclear physics activities in which researchers from the Nordic countries are involved nowadays. The spectrum is rich, and the emphasis has shifted to higher energies than was the case five years ago. We appreciate the possibility to present this overview in a separate volume of Physica Scripta. The present issue covers nearly all the talks given at the meeting. The order deviates, however, somewhat from that of the conference program. The organizing committee tried to encourage in various ways the participation of young physicists; this effort was truely rewarded. The young participants put their imprint on the activities in the lecture halls and even more on the soccer arena. The meeting was sponsored by The University of Bergen, The Nordic Accelerator Committee, NORDITA, The Norwegian Research Council for Science and the

  18. Overview of the Nordic Seas CARINA data and salinity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Are; Key, Robert; Jeansson, Emil; Falck, E.; Olafsson, J.; Van Heuven, S.; Skjelvan, I.; Omar, A.M.; Olsson, K.A.; Anderson, L.G.; Jutterström, S.; Rey, F.; Johannessen, T.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Bullister, J.L.; Pfeil, B.; Lin, X.; Kozyr, Alexander; Schirnick, C.; Tanhua, T.; Wallace, D.W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), the Atlantic (ATL) and the Southern Ocean (SO).With the adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004) and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas include the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution provides an overview of the CARINA data from the Nordic Seas and summaries the findings of the QC of the salinity data. One cruise had salinity data that were of questionable quality, and these have been removed from the data product. An evaluation of the consistency of the quality controlled salinity data suggests that they are consistent to at least 0.005.

  19. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Steentoft, A; Teige, B; Ceder, G; Vuori, E; Kristinsson, J; Simonsen, K W; Holmgren, P; Wethe, G; Kaa, E

    2001-11-15

    The study includes medicolegally examined fatal poisonings among drug addicts in 1997 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the results are compared to a similar investigation from 1991. A common definition of "drug addict" was applied by the participating countries. The highest death rate by poisoning in drug addicts was observed in Denmark, where it was 6.54 per 10(5)inhabitants, followed by Norway with 6.35, Sweden with 2.21, Finland with 1.63 and Iceland with 1.20 per 10(5)inhabitants. All countries showed a higher death rate in 1997 than in 1991. For all countries the distribution of deaths according to geographical regions showed a decreasing number of drug deaths in the metropolitan area and an increasing number in other cities. Heroin/morphine dominated as the cause of death and was responsible for about 90% of the cases in Norway. In Sweden and Denmark, however, heroin/morphine caused only about 70% of the fatal poisonings. About 30% of the fatal poisonings in Denmark and Sweden were caused by other group I drugs, in Denmark mainly methadone and in Sweden mainly propoxyphene. Apart from two cases in Sweden methadone deaths were not seen in the other Nordic countries. In Finland heroin/morphine deaths have increased from about 10% in 1991 to about 40% in 1997. Forty-four percent of the fatal poisonings in Finland were caused by other group I drugs, mainly codeine and propoxyphene. The two fatal poisonings in Iceland were caused by carbon monoxide. Only few deaths in this investigation were caused by amphetamine and cocaine. A widespread use of alcohol, cannabis and benzodiazepines, especially diazepam, was seen in all the countries. PMID:11731199

  20. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-28

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  1. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  2. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene. PMID:26507275

  3. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene. PMID:26507275

  4. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    These are Proceedings of the Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Mathematics, held August 25-26, 1989, at Lahti (Finland). The Symposium belongs to an annual series of Meetings, the first one of which was arranged in 1987 at Lund (Sweden) and the second one in 1988 at Kolle-Kolle near Copenhagen (Denmark). Although these Symposia have thus far been essentially Nordic events, their international character has increased significantly; the trend is vividly reflected through contributions in the present Topical Issue. The interdisciplinary nature of Computational Science is central to the activity; this fundamental aspect is also responsible, in an essential way, for its rapidly increasing impact. Crucially important to a wide spectrum of superficially disparate fields is the common need for extensive - and often quite demanding - computational modelling. For such theoretical models, no closed-form (analytical) solutions are available or they would be extremely difficult to find; hence one must rather resort to the Art of performing computational investigations. Among the unifying features in the computational research are the methods of simulation employed; methods which frequently are quite closely related with each other even for faculties of science that are quite unrelated. Computer simulation in Natural Sciences is presently apprehended as a discipline on its own right, occupying a broad region somewhere between the experimental and theoretical methods, but also partially overlapping with and complementing them. - Whichever its proper definition may be, the computational approach serves as a novel and an extremely versatile tool with which one can equally well perform "pure" experimental modelling and conduct "computational theory". Computational studies that have earlier been made possible only through supercomputers have opened unexpected, as well as exciting, novel frontiers equally in mathematics (e.g., fractals

  5. An isopycnal view of the Nordic Seas hydrography with focus on properties of the Lofoten Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossby, T.; Ozhigin, Vladimir; Ivshin, Victor; Bacon, Sheldon

    2009-11-01

    Few basins in the world exhibit such a wide range of water properties as those of the Nordic Seas with cold freshwaters from the Arctic in the western basins and warm saline waters from the Atlantic in the eastern basins. In this study we present a 50-year hydrographic climatology of the Nordic Seas in terms of depth and temperature patterns on four upper ocean specific volume anomaly surfaces. This approach allows us to better distinguish between change due to variations along such surfaces and change due to depth variations of the stratified water column. Depth variations indicate changes in the mass field while property variations along isopycnals give insight into isopycnal advection and mixing, as well as diapycnal processes. We find that the warmest waters on each surface are found in the north, close to where the isopycnal outcrops, a clear indication of downward mixing of the warmer, more saline waters on shallower isopycnals due to convective cooling at the surface. These saline waters come from the Norwegian Atlantic Slope Current by means of a very high level of eddy activity in the Lofoten Basin. The isopycnal analyses further show that the principal water mass boundary between the waters of Arctic origin in the west and Atlantic waters in the east aligns quite tightly with the Jan Mayen, Mohn, Knipovich Ridge system suggesting little cross-ridge exchange. Instead, the main routes of exchange between the eastern and western basins appear to be limited to the northern and southern ends of ridge system: Atlantic waters into the Greenland Sea in the Fram St and Artic waters into the southern Norwegian Sea just north of the Iceland-Faroe Ridge. Analysis of a representative isopycnal in the main pycnocline shows it to be stable over time with only small variations with season (except where it outcrops in winter in the Greenland and Iceland Seas). However, two very cold winters, 1968-1969, led to greater than average heat losses across the entire Lofoten

  6. Work-related cancer in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A; Barlow, L; Engeland, A; Kjaerheim, K; Lynge, E; Pukkala, E

    1999-01-01

    This report presents 20 years' of cancer incidence data by occupational group for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 10 million people aged 25-64 years at the time of the 1970 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the 1 million incident cancer cases diagnosed among these people during the subsequent 20 years. The project was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identification numbers used in all the Nordic countries. In the 1970 censuses, information on occupation for each economically active member of the household was provided in free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerized in the statistical offices. Norway, Sweden, and Finland used the Nordic Classification of Occupations, while Denmark used a national coding scheme. However, all the data could be reclassified into 53 occupational groups and 1 group of economically inactive persons. Person-years at risk were accumulated from 1 January 1971 until the date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 1987 in Denmark, 1989 in Sweden, 1990 in Finland, and 1991 in Norway. The 4 countries all had nationwide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. All incident cancer cases during the individual risk periods were included in the analysis. Despite minor differences between the countries, the International Classification of Diseases, 7th revision, formed the core basis for the diagnostic coding in all 4 countries. For the present study the incident cancer cases have been classified into 35 broad diagnostic groups. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, gender, and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the age-, gender-, and period-specific person-years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result has been presented as a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), defined as the observed

  7. Work-related cancer in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A; Barlow, L; Engeland, A; Kjaerheim, K; Lynge, E; Pukkala, E

    1999-01-01

    This report presents 20 years' of cancer incidence data by occupational group for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 10 million people aged 25-64 years at the time of the 1970 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the 1 million incident cancer cases diagnosed among these people during the subsequent 20 years. The project was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identification numbers used in all the Nordic countries. In the 1970 censuses, information on occupation for each economically active member of the household was provided in free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerized in the statistical offices. Norway, Sweden, and Finland used the Nordic Classification of Occupations, while Denmark used a national coding scheme. However, all the data could be reclassified into 53 occupational groups and 1 group of economically inactive persons. Person-years at risk were accumulated from 1 January 1971 until the date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 1987 in Denmark, 1989 in Sweden, 1990 in Finland, and 1991 in Norway. The 4 countries all had nationwide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. All incident cancer cases during the individual risk periods were included in the analysis. Despite minor differences between the countries, the International Classification of Diseases, 7th revision, formed the core basis for the diagnostic coding in all 4 countries. For the present study the incident cancer cases have been classified into 35 broad diagnostic groups. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, gender, and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the age-, gender-, and period-specific person-years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result has been presented as a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), defined as the observed

  8. Genetic conditions of joint Nordic genetic evaluations of lifetime competition performance in warmblood sport horses.

    PubMed

    Viklund, Å; Furre, S; Eriksson, S; Vangen, O; Philipsson, J

    2015-08-01

    Breeding programmes for warmblood sport horses are similar in the Nordic countries Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway, and stallions of same origin are used. The aim was to investigate whether a joint Nordic genetic evaluation based on lifetime competition performance is feasible and beneficial for breeding competitive sport horses in the Nordic countries. Results for almost 45,000 horses in show jumping and 30,000 horses in dressage were available. The larger populations in Sweden and Denmark contributed with 85% of the results. Heritabilities and genetic correlations between performances in the different countries were estimated, and comparisons of accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBVs) and number of stallions with EBVs based on national or joint data were studied. The heritabilities ranged between 0.25 and 0.42 for show jumping and between 0.14 and 0.55 for dressage. The genetic correlations between competition performances in the Nordic countries were estimated to 0.63-1.00. EBVs based on joint data increased accuracies for EBVs for stallions by 38-81% and increased the number of available stallions with EBVs by 40-288%, compared to EBVs based on national data only. A joint Nordic genetic evaluation for sport horses is recommended.

  9. Effects of a Flexibility and Relaxation Programme, Walking, and Nordic Walking on Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, I.; Mehnert, S.; Leone, P.; Kaps, M.; Oechsner, M.; Engelhardt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) progress despite optimized medical treatment. The present study investigated the effects of a flexibility and relaxation programme, walking, and Nordic walking (NW) on walking speed, stride length, stride length variability, Parkinson-specific disability (UPDRS), and health-related quality of life (PDQ 39). 90 PD patients were randomly allocated to the 3 treatment groups. Patients participated in a 6-month study with 3 exercise sessions per week, each lasting 70 min. Assessment after completion of the training showed that pain was reduced in all groups, and balance and health-related quality of life were improved. Furthermore, walking, and Nordic walking improved stride length, gait variability, maximal walking speed, exercise capacity at submaximal level, and PD disease-specific disability on the UPDRS in addition. Nordic walking was superior to the flexibility and relaxation programme and walking in improving postural stability, stride length, gait pattern and gait variability. No significant injuries occurred during the training. All patients of the Nordic walking group continued Nordic walking after completing the study. PMID:21603199

  10. Ethical aspects of registry-based research in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Håberg, Siri E; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Lafolie, Pierre; Zoega, Helga; Sarkkola, Catharina; von Kraemer, Stephanie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Nørgaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    National health care registries in the Nordic countries share many attributes, but different legal and ethical frameworks represent a challenge to promoting effective joint research. Internationally, there is a lack of knowledge about how ethical matters are considered in Nordic registry-based research, and a lack of knowledge about how Nordic ethics committees operate and what is needed to obtain an approval. In this paper, we review ethical aspects of registry-based research, the legal framework, the role of ethics review boards in the Nordic countries, and the structure of the ethics application. We discuss the role of informed consent in registry-based research and how to safeguard the integrity of study participants, including vulnerable subjects and children. Our review also provides information on the different government agencies that contribute registry-based data, and a list of the major health registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Both ethical values and conditions for registry-based research are similar in the Nordic countries. While Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have chosen different legal frameworks, these differences can be resolved through mutual recognition of ethical applications and by harmonizing the different systems, likely leading to increased collaboration and enlarged studies. PMID:26648756

  11. Early Pliocene Nordic Seas Palaeoceanography - Relation with Ocean Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Schepper, S.; Schreck, M.; Beck, K. M.; Mangerud, G.; Matthiessen, J. J.; Risebrobakken, B.

    2014-12-01

    In the northern high latitude oceans, organic-walled phytoplankton is often the only microfossil group present in the sediment record that can be used for palaeoceanographic and palaeoenvironmental studies. Recently collected dinoflagellate cyst and acritarch records from the Norwegian and Iceland Seas reveal a wide-scale, major assemblage turnover including extinction of several taxa, disappearance of heterotrophic species and decrease in productivity around 4.5 Ma. These changes can most likely be attributed to a reorganization of the ocean circulation and can be interpreted as the establishment of a more modern-like Norwegian Atlantic Current and proto-East Greenland Current. The timing at around 4.5 Ma corresponds favorably to the shoaling of the Central American Seaway and northward flow of Pacific water via the Bering Strait into the North Atlantic, the latter being evidenced by the first arrival of Pacific molluscs in the Iceland (Tjörnes section). The changes in ocean circulation are not restricted to the Nordic Seas, with increased sediment accumulation at several North Atlantic drifts (e.g. Gloria and Eirik drifts) also illustrating important changes in the North Atlantic deep-water circulation.

  12. Overview of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from a Nordic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brolund, Alma

    2014-01-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are increasing rapidly worldwide. E. coli producing CTX-M type ESBLs are the most common clinically encountered. The majority of E. coli ESBL infections are represented by urinary tract infections, but they can also cause severe infections, for example, in the blood stream and central nervous system. Since E. coli is a common colonizer of the normal gut microbiota, increasing prevalence of ESBL-producing strains is particularly worrisome. Once disseminated in the community, containment of this resistance type will be challenging. The driver of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) is debated. Some suggest that the ESBL genes were introduced to particularly successful bacterial clones. Others imply that very successful plasmids drive the rapid dissemination. More research and epidemiological studies of strain types, plasmids and mobile genetic elements are needed for these questions to be answered. In order to combat, or at least slow down, the worrisome trend of increasing numbers of EPE more knowledge is also needed on persistence of EPE in carriers as well as better understanding of how antibiotic treatment and other risk factors affect persistence and further dissemination. This review aims at giving an overview of this global problem from a Nordic perspective. PMID:25317262

  13. Nordic Sea Level - Analysis of PSMSL RLR Tide Gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole

    2015-04-01

    Tide gauge data from the Nordic region covering a period of time from 1920 to 2000 are evaluated. 63 stations having RLR data for at least 40 years have been used. Each tide gauge data record was averaged to annual averages after the monthly average seasonal anomalies were removed. Some stations lack data, especially before around 1950. Hence, to compute representative sea level trends for the 1920-2000 period a procedure for filling in estimated sea level values in the voids, is needed. To fill in voids in the tide gauge data records a reconstruction method was applied that utilizes EOF.s in an iterative manner. Subsequently the trends were computed. The estimated trends range from about -8 mm/year to 2 mm/year reflecting both post-glacial uplift and sea level rise. An evaluation of the first EOFs show that the first EOF clearly describes the trends in the time series. EOF #2 and #3 describe differences in the inter-annual sea level variability with-in the Baltic Sea and differences between the Baltic and the North Atlantic / Norwegian seas, respectively.

  14. Determinations of performance and mechanical efficiency in nordic skiing.

    PubMed Central

    Niinimaa, V.; Shephard, R. J.; Dyon, M.

    1979-01-01

    Determinants of performance and mechanical efficiency of effort have been made on a group of ten male nordic skiers, all participants in the University of Toronto ski-team. The oxygen intake at the maximum attainable speed of skiing on a level course averaged 89.6 percent of the maximum oxygen intake observed during uphill treadmill running; the latter (average 63.9 ml.kg-1 min-1) may be compared with values greater than 80 ml.kg1 min-1 for international competitors. Maximum heart rates and respiratory gas exchange ratios were generally lower during skiing than running, and it is suggested that the maximum oxygen intake attained during skiing is limited by the individual's skill. In support of this the more experienced skiers were able to reach close to 100 percent of the treadmill maximum oxygen intake during level skiing. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the skiing speed sustained over a one-hour period was related to experience of skiing, maximum oxygen intake, and the percentage of body fat. Assuming a dynamic friction coefficient of 0.075, a drag area of 0.7 m2 and a drag coefficient of 1.0, the gross mechanical efficiency of the university-class skier averaged a little under 20 percent, with a net efficiency of 21.3 percent. PMID:465911

  15. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  16. Cross-Border Collaboration in History among Nordic Students: A Case Study about Creating Innovative ICT Didactic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd Vea; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, Rene B.

    2014-01-01

    Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education), the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history.…

  17. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    These are Proceedings of the Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Mathematics, held August 25-26, 1989, at Lahti (Finland). The Symposium belongs to an annual series of Meetings, the first one of which was arranged in 1987 at Lund (Sweden) and the second one in 1988 at Kolle-Kolle near Copenhagen (Denmark). Although these Symposia have thus far been essentially Nordic events, their international character has increased significantly; the trend is vividly reflected through contributions in the present Topical Issue. The interdisciplinary nature of Computational Science is central to the activity; this fundamental aspect is also responsible, in an essential way, for its rapidly increasing impact. Crucially important to a wide spectrum of superficially disparate fields is the common need for extensive - and often quite demanding - computational modelling. For such theoretical models, no closed-form (analytical) solutions are available or they would be extremely difficult to find; hence one must rather resort to the Art of performing computational investigations. Among the unifying features in the computational research are the methods of simulation employed; methods which frequently are quite closely related with each other even for faculties of science that are quite unrelated. Computer simulation in Natural Sciences is presently apprehended as a discipline on its own right, occupying a broad region somewhere between the experimental and theoretical methods, but also partially overlapping with and complementing them. - Whichever its proper definition may be, the computational approach serves as a novel and an extremely versatile tool with which one can equally well perform "pure" experimental modelling and conduct "computational theory". Computational studies that have earlier been made possible only through supercomputers have opened unexpected, as well as exciting, novel frontiers equally in mathematics (e.g., fractals

  18. The air-sea transformation and diapycnal overturning circulation within the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachsen, P. E.; Nøst, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    Air-sea flux climatologies and reanalyzes show that the bulk of the oceanic heat and buoyancy loss over the Nordic Seas takes place over interior regions not easily accessible by the time-mean large-scale currents. Eddy transport of heat and buoyancy, from the boundary currents and into the deep basins, is thought to be a key mechanism. Here we use gridded observations, theory and a modern parametrization of eddy transport to quantify the buoyancy budget of this region. The calculations confirm that mean currents are unable to explain the air-sea transformation that takes place over the interior basins of the Nordic Seas and that eddy transport instead dominates. The parametrization of eddy transport also suggests a significant overturning cell between the eastern and western parts of the Nordic Seas. This cell is, however, unaccounted for in the remaining data sets studied here.

  19. Large-scale wind power integration in Norway and impact on damping in the Nordic grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrøm, Espen; Norheim, Ian; Uhlen, Kjetil

    2005-07-01

    The Nordic energy market is in need of new power generation capacity. Norway is today in shortage of electrical energy, and the hydropower-based system must rely on importing electrical power from its neighbours in a normal year of hydro inflow. One solution to this problem is to invest in new generation capacity, e.g. by integrating more wind power into the Norwegian grid. The Norwegian government has announced that 1000 MW of wind power will be installed in Norway by 2010, corresponding to an eventual energy production of approximately 3 TWh year-1. This article investigates the impact of wind power integration in Norway on the damping of interarea mode oscillations in the Nordic grid. The impact on the interarea mode oscillations is tested for various types of generators. Results from computer analyses of a simplified yet realistic equivalent of the Nordic power system are used to compute the interarea mode oscillations. Copyright

  20. Physiological Responses Associated with Nordic-walking training in Systolic Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Latosik, Ewelina; Zubrzycki, Igor Z.; Ossowski, Zbigniew; Bojke, Olgierd; Clarke, Anna; Wiacek, Magdalena; Trabka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Loss of physical strength and hypertension are among the most pronounced detrimental factors accompanying aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a supervised 8-week Nordic-walking training program on systolic blood pressure in systolic-hypertensive postmenopausal women. This study was a randomized control trial on a sample of 24 subjects who did not take any hypertension medications. There was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in lower and upper-body strength in the group following Nordic-walking training. There was a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol. The obtained results indicate that an 8-week Nordic-walking program may be efficiently employed for counteracting systolic hypertension through a direct abatement of systolic blood pressure and an increase of maximal aerobic capacity. PMID:25713659

  1. Changes in the strength of the Nordic Seas Overflows over the past 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffa-Sanchez, Paola; Hall, Ian R.; Thornalley, David J. R.; Barker, Stephen; Stewart, Connor

    2015-09-01

    The Nordic Seas Overflows constitute the densest component of the deep limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Changes in the vigour of the overflows may have had important climatic effects in the past and may also have in the future. Yet, evidence for multidecadal to millennial changes in the deep limb of the AMOC and their potential relationship to North Atlantic climate variability during the Holocene remains weakly constrained. Here we present grain size data, as a proxy for near-bottom current speed, from sub-decadal to decadally resolved sediment cores located in the direct pathway of the two Nordic Overflows east and west of Iceland, the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW), respectively. The results show no clear relationship between reconstructed changes in the vigour of the Nordic Overflows and the well-known periods of centennial-scale climate variability recorded in the North Atlantic region. However, well-defined millennial-scale trends are found in both of the overflow strength records over the last 3000 years, which were possibly related to hydrographic reorganizations in the Nordic Seas, driven by the decrease in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation over the Neoglacial period. A comparison between the near-bottom flow speed reconstructions from ISOW and DSOW suggests an anti-phased relationship between the Nordic Seas Overflows east and west of Iceland over the last 3000 years. This feature has been observed in climate models potentially as a result of shifts in the deep water formation sites as a response to changes in atmospheric patterns over the Nordic Seas.

  2. Nordic Experiences: Participants' Expectations and Experiences of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahikainen, Katariina; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish high school students' and teachers' perceptions of the effects of short-term Nordic study abroad programs in which they had participated. The data presented were based on a "mixed-methods strategy." The data set consisted of responses from 158 students and 92 teachers to a…

  3. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond--Current Trends in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tossebro, Jan; Bonfils, Inge S.; Teittinen, Antti; Tideman, Magnus; Traustadottir, Rannveig; Vesala, Hannu T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss recent developments in services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Nordic countries. They note that all of the countries saw important reforms during the 1990s, regarding both deinstitutionalization and decentralization. However, they posit that the litmus test of the reforms is not what happens during reform…

  4. Younger Children in ECEC: Focus on the National Steering Documents in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hännikäinen, Maritta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the national steering documents on early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, with the focus on children up to the age of three, posing the question: What do these documents tell us about ECEC for younger children in the Nordic early childhood settings?…

  5. Low-frequency Pliocene climate variability in the eastern Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Andersson, Carin; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2016-09-01

    The Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma) is often described as a relatively stable climatic period, with warm temperatures characterizing high latitudes. New suborbital resolved stable isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 642B in the eastern Nordic Seas document that the Pliocene was not a stable period characterized by one climate. Rather, seven distinct climate phases, each lasting between 150,000 and 400,000 years, are identified and characterized in the time interval 5.1-3.1 Ma. Four of the transitions between the defined climate phases occurred close to an eccentricity minimum and a minimum in amplitude of change for Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, while two occurred around an eccentricity maximum and a maximum in amplitude in insolation change. Hence, a low-frequency response of the Nordic Seas to insolation forcing is indicated. In addition, paleogeographic and related paleoceanographic changes, expansion of the Arctic sea ice cover, and onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation were important factors behind the evolving Pliocene low-frequency variability in the eastern Nordic Seas. It is likely that the identified climate phases and transitions are important beyond the Nordic Seas, due to their association with changes to both insolation and paleogeography. However, a strong and variable degree of diagenetic calcite overgrowth is documented for the planktic foraminifera, especially influencing the planktic δ18O results; the absolute values and amplitude of change cannot be taken at face value.

  6. Innovative Pedagogical Practice with ICT in Three Nordic Countries--Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottestad, G.

    2010-01-01

    Three Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland and Norway, participated in the IEA SITES 2006 study. All the three countries have launched huge policy and investment programmes to promote digital literacy and readiness for the information age. In relation to the remarkable Finnish Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, it is…

  7. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  8. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1992/93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.

    This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies within the…

  9. Participation in Job-Related Lifelong Learning among Well-Educated Employees in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Nissinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore participation in job-related lifelong learning (LLL) among well-educated mature workers and compare it across four Nordic countries. Although this group generally is very active in LLL, the centrality of knowledge work in society, rapid pace of skills-renewal and rising learning demands for all…

  10. Source Apportionment of the Summer Time Carbonaceous Aerosol at Nordic Rural Background Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the present study, natural and anthropogenic sources of particulate organic carbon (OCp) and elemental carbon (EC) have been quantified based on weekly filter samples of PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter <10µ collected at four Nordic rural backgro...

  11. An Air of Sharing. A Format of Open Interviewing in a Joint Nordic Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, P. L.; Borsheim, A.; Lindesjoo, E.; Solvhjelm, C.; Liuhanen, A-M.

    2007-01-01

    The five Nordic countries and their respective quality assurance agencies have convened annually for over a decade to exchange experiences and discuss issues concerning quality assurance in higher education. In recent years this has resulted in a regional network for the quality assurance agencies (NOQA). During this period, methodological issues…

  12. Imported tungiasis in a Finnish journalist: the first case reported from the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Jalava-Karvinen, Päivi; Marttila, Harri; Talve, Lauri; Rantakokko-Jalava, Kaisu; Jokiranta, Sakari; Kotilainen, Pirkko

    2008-03-01

    Tungiasis is a parasitic infection widely spread in tropical Africa and in South and Central America. Only a few cases involving travellers have been reported from Europe, and none from the Nordic countries. We report a case of tungiasis in a Finnish journalist returning from Uganda. In this era of increasing intercontinental travel it is important that all physicians are aware of tungiasis.

  13. Re-evaluating high-latitude warming in the Pliocene Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Daniel; Smith, Yvonne; Dolan, Aisling

    2016-04-01

    The Pliocene warm period was generally been seen as stable warm climate with global temperatures of 2-3K above pre-industrial and significant polar amplification. Northern Hemisphere ice has been reconstructed to be restricted to the high altitude areas of Greenland and global reconstructions of sea surface temperatures show an especially strong warming in the Nordic Seas, most often attributed to increased ocean heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean. Here we present climate model results that show that the strongest warming recorded in the Nordic Seas and Arctic is forced by changes in orbital forcing and palaeogeographic changes. Of particular importance is the presence of a sub-aerial landmass in the Barents Sea region, which has subsequently been eroded by Pleistocene glaciation. While climate models can produce strong warming signals in the Nordic Seas, a new iceberg modelling study showing that through much of the Pliocene the conditions in the Nordic Seas were suitable for the presence of significant quantities of icebergs. The locations of IRD records also raises the possibility of significant glaciations in places previously considered to be ice free in the Pliocene.

  14. Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Mathematics Teaching (NORMA-94) Lahti 1994. Research Report 141.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

    This report contains papers from the Nordic Conference on Mathematics Teaching (NORMA-94). The first three papers are plenary talks aimed at giving the participants an opportunity to form a coherent view of the new theories of learning. The themes of the paper sessions addressed a variety of topics on different levels from elementary school to…

  15. Nordic Research on Text and Discourse. NORDTEXT Symposium (Espoo, Finland, May 10-13, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeberg, Ann-Charlotte, Ed.; And Others

    Papers presented at the 1990 Symposium of the Nordic Research Group for Theoretical and Applied Text Linguistics include the following: "Success Concepts" (Enkvist); "Reconciling the Psychological with the Linguistic in Accounts of Text Comprehension" (Garrod); "Particles as Fundaments of Discourse Structuring" (Fernandez-Vest); "Macrostructure in…

  16. A Nordic Approach to Early Childhood Education (ECE) and Socially Endangered Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Bente

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I examine the Nordic model, i.e. a child-centred and holistic approach, in order to discuss Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a key policy instrument for fighting social inequality. Since 1999 it has been an important goal for the Danish government to ensure equal opportunities for all by starting with early intervention. This is…

  17. Physical Activity of Depressed Patients and Their Motivation to Exercise: Nordic Walking in Family Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…

  18. The effects of Nordic and general walking on depression disorder patients' depression, sleep, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Doo; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for the elderly with depression. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with depression were randomly selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group which performed Nordic walking, and a control group, which performed normal walking. [Methods] Both groups practiced their respective walking exercise for 50 minutes per day, three times a week for eight weeks. To compare the effects of the intervention, psychological factors using the Beck depression inventory and sleep quality was assessed using the Korean version Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Skeletal muscle mass, fat free mass, body mass index, body fat percentage, and basal metabolism were estimated three times by a body composition analyzer, before the intervention, four weeks after the intervention, and eight weeks after the intervention. [Results] There was a significant difference in depression with a main effect of time in both groups. There was also a significant difference in sleep in over time and interaction. The differences over time between the two groups were significant for depression, sleep, and skeletal muscle mass. [Conclusion] The results suggests that Nordic walking has a positive effect on depression and sleeping disorders of the elderly, suggesting that Nordic walking based exercise programs should be developed for the elderly who suffer from depression or a sleeping disorder. PMID:26357429

  19. Decadal-scale Holocene climate variability in the Nordic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koc, N.; Andersen, C.; Andrews, J.; Jennings, A.

    2003-04-01

    Sea-surface temperatures (SST) at decadal resolution have been reconstructed from core MD 95-2011, core MD 99-2269 and core BS88-6-5A based on diatom transfer functions. Core MD 95-2011 is located on the Vöring Plateau (66^o58.18N; 07^o38.36E, 1050 m water depth) along the main axis of the northward flowing warm Atlantic water. It is, therefore, in an ideal position to monitor changes in the northward heat flux to northwestern Europe. Core MD 99-2269 is located in the deep Hunafloi trough, off N Iceland (66^o37.53N; 20^o51.16W, 365 m water depth). Today the core lies under the influence of the Irminger current, but it also may be influenced by the cold East Greenland current (EGC) as the Polar front migrates eastward. Core BS88-6-5A is located on the East Greenland shelf (67^o07.54N; 30^o54.26W, 707 m water depth) and is influenced by the EGC. The cores has been dated by AMS C-14 and Pb 210 isotope profiles. SST variations are estimated by means of 3 different diatom transfer function methods. Results indicate a division of the Holocene into three periods and a climate development in step with the decreasing Northern Hemisphere insolation. However, regional differences between the surface currents occur regarding both timing and magnitude of changes. Superimposed on the general Holocene cooling trend there is a high frequency SST variability, which is in the order of 1--1.5 degrees C for the Vöring Plateau and the East Greenland shelf, and 2.5--3 degrees C for the North Iceland shelf. There is clear evidence for late Holocene climatic events such as the "Little Ice Age" and the "Medieval Warm Period". Timing of late Holocene climatic events at the eastern versus western Nordic Seas will be discussed.

  20. Changes in winter warming events in the Nordic Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Isaksen, Ketil; Haugen, Jan Erik; Bjerke, Jarle Werner; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In recent years winter warming events are frequently reported from Arctic areas. Extraordinarily warm weather episodes, occasionally combined with intense rainfall, cause severe ecological disturbance and great challenges for Arctic infrastructure. For example, the formation of ground ice due to winter rain or melting prevents reindeer from grazing, leads to vegetation browning, and impacts soil temperatures. The infrastructure may be affected by avalanches and floods resulting from intense snowmelt. The aim of our analysis is to study changes in warm spells during winter in the Nordic Arctic Region, here defined as the regions in Norway, Sweden and Finland north of the Arctic circle (66.5°N), including the Arctic islands Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Within this study area we have selected the longest available high quality observation series with daily temperature and precipitation. For studying future climate we use available regionally downscaled scenarios. We analyse three time periods: 1) the past 50-100 years, 2) the present (last 15 years, 2000-2014) and 3) the future (next 50-100 years). We define an extended winter season (October-April) and further divide it into three subseasons: 1) Early winter (October and November), 2) Mid-winter (December, January and February) and 3) Late-winter (March and April). We identify warm spells using two different classification criteria: a) days with temperature above 0°C (the melting temperature); and b) days with temperature in excess of the 90th percentile of the 1985-2014 temperature for each subseason. Both wet and dry warm spells are analysed. We compare the results for the mainland stations (maritime and inland stations) with the Arctic islands. All stations have very high frequency of warm weather events in the period 1930-1940s and for the last 15 years (2000-2014). For the most recent period the largest increase in number of warm spells are observed at the northernmost stations. We also find a continuation of this

  1. Effects of Nordic Walking Compared to Conventional Walking and Band-Based Resistance Exercise on Fitness in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M.; Rogers, Michael E.; Rogers, Nicole L.; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day−1 (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week−1 (NW and CW) or 2 day·week−1 (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key Points Nordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults. Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not. Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking. Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults. PMID:24149147

  2. eSACP - a new Nordic initiative towards developing statistical climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Thejll, Peter; Drews, Martin; Guttorp, Peter; Venälainen, Ari; Uotila, Petteri; Benestad, Rasmus; Mesquita, Michel d. S.; Madsen, Henrik; Fox Maule, Cathrine

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic research council NordForsk has recently announced its support for a new 3-year research initiative on "statistical analysis of climate projections" (eSACP). eSACP will focus on developing e-science tools and services based on statistical analysis of climate projections for the purpose of helping decision-makers and planners in the face of expected future challenges in regional climate change. The motivation behind the project is the growing recognition in our society that forecasts of future climate change is associated with various sources of uncertainty, and that any long-term planning and decision-making dependent on a changing climate must account for this. At the same time there is an obvious gap between scientists from different fields and between practitioners in terms of understanding how climate information relates to different parts of the "uncertainty cascade". In eSACP we will develop generic e-science tools and statistical climate services to facilitate the use of climate projections by decision-makers and scientists from all fields for climate impact analyses and for the development of robust adaptation strategies, which properly (in a statistical sense) account for the inherent uncertainty. The new tool will be publically available and include functionality to utilize the extensive and dynamically growing repositories of data and use state-of-the-art statistical techniques to quantify the uncertainty and innovative approaches to visualize the results. Such a tool will not only be valuable for future assessments and underpin the development of dedicated climate services, but will also assist the scientific community in making more clearly its case on the consequences of our changing climate to policy makers and the general public. The eSACP project is led by Thordis Thorarinsdottir, Norwegian Computing Center, and also includes the Finnish Meteorological Institute, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, the Technical University of Denmark

  3. The DMRT3 'Gait keeper' mutation affects performance of Nordic and Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Jäderkvist, K; Andersson, L S; Johansson, A M; Árnason, T; Mikko, S; Eriksson, S; Andersson, L; Lindgren, G

    2014-10-01

    In a previous study it was shown that a nonsense mutation in the DMRT3 gene alters the pattern of locomotion in horses and that this mutation has a strong positive impact on trotting performance of Standardbreds. One aim of this study was to test if racing performance and trotting technique in the Nordic (Coldblood) trotters are also influenced by the DMRT3 genotype. Another aim was to further investigate the effect of the mutation on performance in Standardbreds, by using a within-family analysis and genotype-phenotype correlations in a larger horse material than in the previous study. We genotyped 427 Nordic trotters and 621 Standardbreds for the DMRT3 nonsense mutation and a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with it. In Nordic trotters, we show that horses homozygous for the DMRT3 mutation (A) had significantly higher EBV for trotting performance traits than heterozygous (CA) or homozygous wild-type (CC) horses (P = 0.001). Furthermore, AA homozygotes had a higher proportion of victories and top 3 placings than horses heterozygous or homozygous wild-type, when analyzing performance data for the period 3 to 6 yr of age (P = 0.06 and P = 0.05, respectively). Another finding in the Nordic trotters was that the DMRT3 mutation influenced trotting technique (P = 2.1 × 10(-8)). Standardbred horses homozygous AA had significantly higher EBV for all traits than horses with at least 1 wild-type allele (CA and CC; P = 1.6 × 10(-16)). In a within-family analysis of Standardbreds, we found significant differences in several traits (e.g., earnings, P = 0.002; number of entered races, P = 0.004; and fraction of offspring that entered races, P = 0.002) among paternal half-sibs with genotype AA or CA sired by a CA stallion. For most traits, we found significant differences at young ages. For Nordic trotters, most of the results were significant at 3 yr of age but not for the older ages, and for the Standardbreds most of the results for the ages 3 to 5 were significant. For

  4. The DMRT3 'Gait keeper' mutation affects performance of Nordic and Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Jäderkvist, K; Andersson, L S; Johansson, A M; Árnason, T; Mikko, S; Eriksson, S; Andersson, L; Lindgren, G

    2014-10-01

    In a previous study it was shown that a nonsense mutation in the DMRT3 gene alters the pattern of locomotion in horses and that this mutation has a strong positive impact on trotting performance of Standardbreds. One aim of this study was to test if racing performance and trotting technique in the Nordic (Coldblood) trotters are also influenced by the DMRT3 genotype. Another aim was to further investigate the effect of the mutation on performance in Standardbreds, by using a within-family analysis and genotype-phenotype correlations in a larger horse material than in the previous study. We genotyped 427 Nordic trotters and 621 Standardbreds for the DMRT3 nonsense mutation and a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with it. In Nordic trotters, we show that horses homozygous for the DMRT3 mutation (A) had significantly higher EBV for trotting performance traits than heterozygous (CA) or homozygous wild-type (CC) horses (P = 0.001). Furthermore, AA homozygotes had a higher proportion of victories and top 3 placings than horses heterozygous or homozygous wild-type, when analyzing performance data for the period 3 to 6 yr of age (P = 0.06 and P = 0.05, respectively). Another finding in the Nordic trotters was that the DMRT3 mutation influenced trotting technique (P = 2.1 × 10(-8)). Standardbred horses homozygous AA had significantly higher EBV for all traits than horses with at least 1 wild-type allele (CA and CC; P = 1.6 × 10(-16)). In a within-family analysis of Standardbreds, we found significant differences in several traits (e.g., earnings, P = 0.002; number of entered races, P = 0.004; and fraction of offspring that entered races, P = 0.002) among paternal half-sibs with genotype AA or CA sired by a CA stallion. For most traits, we found significant differences at young ages. For Nordic trotters, most of the results were significant at 3 yr of age but not for the older ages, and for the Standardbreds most of the results for the ages 3 to 5 were significant. For

  5. Relationship between Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test of volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutilová, Kateřina; Prikryl, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Various volcanic rocks contribute significantly to the production of crushed stone in the Czech Republic. When used for road surfacing, results of Los Angeles attrition test (LA value below 25 or 30 depending on the mode of use) together with polished stone value are required. In the recent study, we have focused on the search for possible correlation between results obtained by Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test, a test widely employed in Scandinavia. For the experimental study, a set of volcanic rocks from 36 active quarries was used. The rocks under study represent range of volcanic rocks from ultrabasic to acid members, formed form Neoproterozoic to Tertiary. The most favourable results of Los Angeles attrition test (i.e. the lowest LA values) were obtained for basalts (range of values 9.4-19.4) and spilites (range of values 8.4-14.9) which are in fact Neoproterozoic to Late Palaeozoic basalts affected by low grade metamorphism. Nordic abrasion test exhibited much broader range of values (6.4 to 36.9) with average value at 15.2 for basalts, resulting in weak coefficient of determination (0.19). . On contrary, narrow range of values from Nordic abrasion test of spilites (7.2-15.9), very similar to the range of LA values, is reflect in higher coefficient of determination (0.56). On contrary, the least favourable properties (LA values 12.3-29.2, Nordic abrasion 16.8-43.3) have been observed for a group of basic to intermediate rocks classified in older literature as melaphyres and diabases (ranging from basalts to trachyndesites and/or trachybasalts) of Palaeozoic age. However, in this specific group of volcanic rocks, the highest coefficient of determination (0.89) between both tests has been achieved. For volcanic rocks exhibiting acid composition (rhyolites and quartz porphyry), coefficient of determination between LA values (15.1-19.3) and Nordic abrasion test (7.3-21.9) is weak (0.42). The weakest relationship between LA values (14

  6. Liver transplantation in the Nordic countries – An intention to treat and post-transplant analysis from The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry 1982–2013

    PubMed Central

    Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjøro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E.; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Friman, Styrbjörn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Höckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim and background. The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. Materials and methods. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Results. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 2004–2013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. Conclusion. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR). PMID:25959101

  7. School meal provision, health, and cognitive function in a Nordic setting – the ProMeal-study: description of methodology and the Nordic context

    PubMed Central

    Waling, Maria; Olafsdottir, Anna S.; Lagström, Hanna; Wergedahl, Hege; Jonsson, Bert; Olsson, Cecilia; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Holthe, Asle; Talvia, Sanna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Background School meals, if both nutritious and attractive, provide a unique opportunity to improve health equality and public health. Objective To describe the study rationale, data collection, and background of participants in the study ‘Prospects for promoting health and performance by school meals in Nordic countries’ (ProMeal). The general aim was to determine whether overall healthiness of the diet and learning conditions in children can be improved by school lunches, and to capture the main concerns regarding school lunches among children in a Nordic context. Design A cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study was performed in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden on pupils (n=837) born in 2003. Results In total 3,928 pictures of school lunches were taken to capture pupils’ school lunch intake. A mean of 85% of all parents responded to a questionnaire about socioeconomic background, dietary intake, and habitual physical activity at home. Cognitive function was measured on one occasion on 93% of the pupils during optimal conditions with a Stroop and a Child Operation Span test. A mean of 169 pupils also did an Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test after lunch over 3 days. In total, 37,413 10-sec observations of classroom learning behavior were performed. In addition, 753 empathy-based stories were written and 78 focus groups were conducted. The pupils had high socioeconomic status. Conclusions This study will give new insights into which future interventions are needed to improve pupils’ school lunch intake and learning. The study will provide valuable information for policy making, not least in countries where the history of school meals is shorter than in some of the Nordic countries. PMID:27514723

  8. Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anja; Egeberg, Rikke; Halkjær, Jytte; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-04-01

    Health-promoting effects of the Mediterranean diet have been in focus for decades, whereas less interest has been given to existing healthy dietary habits within other Western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a food index based on traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects and relate this to all-cause mortality in a cohort of Danes. Detailed information about diet, lifestyle, and anthropometry was provided by 57,053 Danes aged 50-64 y. During 12 y of follow-up, 4126 of the cohort participants died. A healthy Nordic food index, consisting of traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects (fish, cabbages, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables), was extracted and associated with mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) with 95% CI were used to associate the index to mortality. In an adjusted model, a 1-point higher index score was associated with a significantly lower MRR for both men [0.96 (0.92-0.99)] and women [0.96 (0.92-1.00)] (P = 0.03). When the index components were evaluated separately, whole grain rye bread intake was the factor most consistently associated with lower mortality in men. In conclusion, an index based on traditional healthy Nordic foods was found to be related to lower mortality among middle-aged Danes, in particular among men. This study indicates that traditional, healthy food items should be considered before public recommendations for major dietary changes are made. PMID:21346102

  9. On model differences and skill in predicting sea surface temperature in the Nordic and Barents Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehaug, H. R.; Matei, D.; Eldevik, T.; Lohmann, K.; Gao, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The Nordic Seas and the Barents Sea is the Atlantic Ocean's gateway to the Arctic Ocean, and the Gulf Stream's northern extension brings large amounts of heat into this region and modulates climate in northwestern Europe. We have investigated the predictive skill of initialized hindcast simulations performed with three state-of-the-art climate prediction models within the CMIP5-framework, focusing on sea surface temperature (SST) in the Nordic Seas and Barents Sea, but also on sea ice extent, and the subpolar North Atlantic upstream. The hindcasts are compared with observation-based SST for the period 1961-2010. All models have significant predictive skill in specific regions at certain lead times. However, among the three models there is little consistency concerning which regions that display predictive skill and at what lead times. For instance, in the eastern Nordic Seas, only one model has significant skill in predicting observed SST variability at longer lead times (7-10 years). This region is of particular promise in terms of predictability, as observed thermohaline anomalies progress from the subpolar North Atlantic to the Fram Strait within the time frame of a couple of years. In the same model, predictive skill appears to move northward along a similar route as forecast time progresses. We attribute this to the northward advection of SST anomalies, contributing to skill at longer lead times in the eastern Nordic Seas. The skill at these lead times in particular beats that of persistence forecast, again indicating the potential role of ocean circulation as a source for skill. Furthermore, we discuss possible explanations for the difference in skill among models, such as different model resolutions, initialization techniques, and model climatologies and variance.

  10. Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anja; Egeberg, Rikke; Halkjær, Jytte; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-04-01

    Health-promoting effects of the Mediterranean diet have been in focus for decades, whereas less interest has been given to existing healthy dietary habits within other Western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a food index based on traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects and relate this to all-cause mortality in a cohort of Danes. Detailed information about diet, lifestyle, and anthropometry was provided by 57,053 Danes aged 50-64 y. During 12 y of follow-up, 4126 of the cohort participants died. A healthy Nordic food index, consisting of traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects (fish, cabbages, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables), was extracted and associated with mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) with 95% CI were used to associate the index to mortality. In an adjusted model, a 1-point higher index score was associated with a significantly lower MRR for both men [0.96 (0.92-0.99)] and women [0.96 (0.92-1.00)] (P = 0.03). When the index components were evaluated separately, whole grain rye bread intake was the factor most consistently associated with lower mortality in men. In conclusion, an index based on traditional healthy Nordic foods was found to be related to lower mortality among middle-aged Danes, in particular among men. This study indicates that traditional, healthy food items should be considered before public recommendations for major dietary changes are made.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Saxe, Henrik; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND) based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%–25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000–94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND’s emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed. PMID:26133129

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Saxe, Henrik; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-06-30

    Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND) based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%-25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000-94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND's emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed.

  13. Frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, in ski jumping and Nordic combined.

    PubMed

    Stillhard, Angela; Buschor, Cornel; Krastl, Gabriel; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, among ski jumpers and Nordic combined athletes. It also examines the level of knowledge regarding tooth protection and tooth rescue boxes in this population. Of the 465 sportswomen and sportsmen who took part in the study, 230 (62.5%) of the 368 ski jumpers and 56 (56.5%) of the 97 Nordic combined athletes had sustained an injury. In both disciplines injury was most likely among professionals. The survey participants reported injuries to the limbs (n = 216), head and lips (n = 273 and n = 253, respectively), torso or spine (n = 249), teeth (n = 246), nose (n = 229) and jaw (n = 26). Dental injuries were more common among professionals than either amateur or junior ski jumpers, whereas, among the Nordic combined athletes, juniors were most likely to sustain a dental injury. Overall, the frequency of dental injury was significantly (p = 0.019) higher among adults 12.7% (n = 234) than junior athletes 6.1% (n = 212). The level of awareness of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes varied between countries. The high injury rate recorded in this study demonstrates that ski jumping contains a considerable risk of injury, including tooth damage. Consequently, it seems reasonable to inform skiing organisations, trainers and athletes about the potential benefits of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes in order to reduce the risk of dental injury. PMID:26345232

  14. Frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, in ski jumping and Nordic combined.

    PubMed

    Stillhard, Angela; Buschor, Cornel; Krastl, Gabriel; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, among ski jumpers and Nordic combined athletes. It also examines the level of knowledge regarding tooth protection and tooth rescue boxes in this population. Of the 465 sportswomen and sportsmen who took part in the study, 230 (62.5%) of the 368 ski jumpers and 56 (56.5%) of the 97 Nordic combined athletes had sustained an injury. In both disciplines injury was most likely among professionals. The survey participants reported injuries to the limbs (n = 216), head and lips (n = 273 and n = 253, respectively), torso or spine (n = 249), teeth (n = 246), nose (n = 229) and jaw (n = 26). Dental injuries were more common among professionals than either amateur or junior ski jumpers, whereas, among the Nordic combined athletes, juniors were most likely to sustain a dental injury. Overall, the frequency of dental injury was significantly (p = 0.019) higher among adults 12.7% (n = 234) than junior athletes 6.1% (n = 212). The level of awareness of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes varied between countries. The high injury rate recorded in this study demonstrates that ski jumping contains a considerable risk of injury, including tooth damage. Consequently, it seems reasonable to inform skiing organisations, trainers and athletes about the potential benefits of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes in order to reduce the risk of dental injury.

  15. What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study

    PubMed Central

    Adamsson, Viola; Reumark, Anna; Cederholm, Tommy; Vessby, Bengt; Risérus, Ulf; Johansson, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Background A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR). Design The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. PMID:22761599

  16. Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries. PMID:23386671

  17. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among People with Multiple Sclerosis in the Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, L.; Nicolajsen, P. H.; Pedersen, E.; Kant, M.; Fredrikson, S.; Verhoef, M.; Meyrowitsch, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. The aim of the study was to describe and compare (1) the types and prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Nordic countries; (2) the types of conventional treatments besides disease-modifying medicine for MS that were used in combination with CAM treatments; (3) the types of symptoms/health issues addressed by use of CAM treatments. Methods. An internet-based questionnaire was used to collect data from 6455 members of the five Nordic MS societies. The response rates varied from 50.9% in Norway to 61.5% in Iceland. Results. A large range of CAM treatments were reported to be in use in all five Nordic countries. Supplements of vitamins and minerals, supplements of oils, special diet, acupuncture, and herbal medicine were among the CAM treatment modalities most commonly used. The prevalence of the overall use of CAM treatments within the last twelve months varied from 46.0% in Sweden to 58.9% in Iceland. CAM treatments were most often used in combination with conventional treatments. The conventional treatments that were most often combined with CAM treatment were prescription medication, physical therapy, and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. The proportion of CAM users who reported exclusive use of CAM (defined as use of no conventional treatments besides disease-modifying medicine for MS) varied from 9.5% in Finland to 18.4% in Norway. In all five Nordic countries, CAM treatments were most commonly used for nonspecific/preventative purposes such as strengthening the body in general, improving the body's muscle strength, and improving well-being. CAM treatments were less often used for the purpose of improving specific symptoms such as body pain, problems with balance, and fatigue/lack of energy. Conclusions. A large range of CAM treatments were used by individuals with MS in all Nordic countries. The most commonly reported rationale for CAM treatment use focused on

  18. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  19. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age. PMID:26785760

  20. Drama and Theatre in a Nordic Curriculum Perspective--A Challenged Arts Subject Used as a Learning Medium in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österlind, Eva; Østern, Anna-Lena; Thorkelsdóttir, Rannveig Björk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Nordic curriculum perspective on drama and theatre in education ranging from preschool to upper secondary education and cultural schools. Underlined in the Nordic welfare model is an equity, inclusive and democracy perspective, which guarantees free access to compulsory education and to upper secondary…

  1. Plants as De-Worming Agents of Livestock in the Nordic Countries: Historical Perspective, Popular Beliefs and Prospects for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Waller, PJ; Bernes, G; Thamsborg, SM; Sukura, A; Richter, SH; Ingebrigtsen, K; Höglund, J

    2001-01-01

    Preparations derived from plants were the original therapeutic interventions used by man to control diseases (including parasites), both within humans and livestock. Development of herbal products depended upon local botanical flora with the result that different remedies tended to develop in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, in some instances, the same or related plants were used over wide geographic regions, which also was the result of communication and/or the importation of plant material of high repute. Thus, the Nordic countries have an ancient, rich and diverse history of plant derived anthelmintic medications for human and animal use. Although some of the more commonly used herbal de-wormers were derived from imported plants, or their products, many are from endemic plants or those that thrive in the Scandinavian environment. With the advent of the modern chemotherapeutic era, and the discovery, development and marketing of a seemingly unlimited variety of highly efficacious, safe synthetic chemicals with very wide spectra of activities, herbal remedies virtually disappeared from the consciousness – at least in the Western world. This attitude is now rapidly changing. There is a widespread resurgence in natural product medication, driven by major threats posed by multi-resistant pest, or disease, organisms and the diminishing public perceptions that synthetic chemicals are the panacea to health and disease control. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the depth of historical Nordic information available on herbal de-wormers, with emphasis on livestock and to provide some insights on potentially rewarding areas of "re-discovery" and scientific evaluation in this field. PMID:11455900

  2. Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991.

    PubMed

    Steentoft, A; Teige, B; Holmgren, P; Vuori, E; Kristinsson, J; Kaa, E; Wethe, G; Ceder, G; Pikkarainen, J; Simonsen, K W

    1996-01-12

    The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of 'drug addict' was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 10(5) inhabitants was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with only four deaths. The main difference between the countries was found in the number of fatal poisonings. The distribution according to geographical regions showed that about half of all drug addict deaths occurred in the metropolitan areas. Of the capitals, the greatest number of fatal poisonings per 10(5) inhabitants was seen in Oslo, followed by Copenhagen with a similar number, Stockholm with only the half, and Helsinki with a quarter. Heroin/morphine dominated as cause of death in fatal poisonings in Norway and Sweden. In Denmark, heroin/morphine caused about half of the fatal poisonings only, and nearly one third of the fatal poisonings was caused by methadone. Except for two cases in Sweden, methadone deaths were not seen in the other Nordic countries. Amphetamine caused one tenth of the fatal poisonings in Sweden. In Finland only one tenth of the deaths were caused by heroin/morphine and more by codeine, ethylmorphine and different drugs and poisons not classified in Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961 or the International Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971. A widespread use of alcohol, cannabis and benzodiazepines, diazepam especially, was seen in all the countries. PMID:8675131

  3. Holocene Sea Surface Conditions in the Nordic Seas According to Dinocyst Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nieuwenhove, N.; Baumann, A.; Bonnet, S.; Matthiessen, J. J.; de Vernal, A.; Bauch, H. A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Holocene evolution of the upper ocean in the Nordic Seas is assessed based on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of 16 dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) records retrieved from the warm and saline Atlantic Domain in the east, across the seasonally sea-ice covered Arctic Domain, to the Arctic-outflow influenced Polar Domain in the west. First signs of interglacial conditions are observed from ~11.5 ka BP onwards in the Atlantic Domain, and expanded time-transgressively westward, with deglacial processes appearing to have persisted ~2 kyr longer in the west. No clear peak warming can be observed in the dinocyst data during the interval that is generally considered to correspond to the Holocene climatic optimum, and the disparity between the dinocyst and other phytoplankton records suggests a pronounced seasonality at that time. A slightly freshened upper ocean appears to have facilitated seasonal sea ice formation even at the Vøring Plateau. Despite the strongly contrasting environmental conditions across the Nordic Seas, a basin-wide uniform change in the assemblage compositions is seen between ~7 and 6.1 ka BP, and appears to be linked to the establishment of the modern surface circulation pattern. Potential density estimates for the surface water close to modern convection sites reveals values that would imply an increased likeliness of dense enough surface waters to permit sinking from that time onwards. The changes in the Nordic Seas appear to follow a similar reorganisation in the Labrador Sea and the onset of strong winter convection there. Finally, a gradual eastward expansion of the Arctic Domain can be observed from ~4.5 ka BP onwards, with a delayed consequent reaction of the Atlantic-sourced water inflow at the Vøring Plateau showing a slight recovery of cool taxa from ~2.4 ka BP onwards.

  4. The Nordic energy market model an electricity power exchange across national borders

    SciTech Connect

    Randen, H.; Andersen, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    As a first step towards a Nordic Power Exchange the Swedish and the Norwegian electricity market were merged into one free trade area. Norwegian and Swedish participants trade on equal terms on the market. Finnish and Danish participants trade on special terms towards the common Norwegian-Swedish free trade area. Finland will be included in the free trade area in 1998. Nord Pool is responsible for two markets. The Spot Market is the Nordic market for physical delivery power. In this market participants trade power contracts for next-day delivery. A price is determined for each hour based on bids and offer from the participants. The Spot Market serves as reference price for Nord Pool's Futures and Forward Market and reference price in the bilateral wholesale market. The Futures and Forward Markets are financial markets for price hedging and risk management. Through these market the participants can hedge purchase and sale of power within a time horizon of up to three years. In the bilateral wholesale market there is a high trade activity of financial contracts that are standardized in the same manner as Nord Pools forwards. Nord Pool has therefore established a clearing service where contracts that are traded on bilateral basis can be cleared through Nord Pool and with Nord Pool as counterpart. More than 200 participants from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and England trade through Nord Pool. A general goal is to develop the market to include all four nordic countries in one common free trade area in close co-operation with the power business in the countries. There are different conditions for competition in the four countries, and much coordinating work is therefore still left to be done.

  5. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen. PMID:26311794

  6. The association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet and diet quality

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Stea, Tonje Holte; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Andersen, Lene Frost; Berntsen, Sveinung; Bere, Elling

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported a positive association between scoring on healthy Nordic diet scales and the intake of healthy foods and nutrients, and also with higher intake of meat, sweets, cakes, and energy in general. These studies have used the same food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) responses for constructing the diet score as for calculating intakes of foods and nutrients. Thus, it is not clear whether the coexistence of healthy and less healthy dietary aspects among adherers to Nordic diets would occur even though separate methods were applied for exploring these relations. Objective To assess the association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND), derived from an FFQ, and diet quality, determined from two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Design In total, 65 parents of toddlers in Southern Norway answered the NND FFQ and two 24-h dietary recall interviews. NND adherence was determined from the FFQ and categorized into low, medium, and high adherence. The two 24-h recalls provided data for the intake of specific foods and nutrients, selected on the basis of the Norwegian food-based guidelines as an indicator of a healthy diet. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for assessing differences in food and nutrient intake across NND groups. Results High NND adherence derived from FFQ was associated with a high intake of fruits (p=0.004) and fiber (p=0.02), and a low intake of meat (p=0.004) and margarines (p=0.05), derived from recalls. A larger proportion of high NND adherers (68%) complied with the national dietary recommendation targeting meat intake compared with low NND adherers (29%) (p=0.04). Conclusion The present study showed that higher NND adherence measured with FFQ was associated with a higher intake of selected healthy foods and nutrients, measured with recalls. However, a higher intake of meat, sweets, and energy, as earlier reported, was not observed. PMID:27257844

  7. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen.

  8. TELE-X and its role in a future operational Nordic satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lars

    In the middle of 1987 it is planned to launch TELE-X, the first Nordic telecommunications satellite. The Swedish-Norwegian company NOTELSAT (Nordic Telecommunications Satellite Corporation) will be responsible for the operation of the TELE-X system. Via the experimental TELE-X satellite the Nordic countries will get access to direct broadcasting of two TV-programs and at least four digital sound programs in stereo by use of two transponders in the 12.2 to 12.5 GHz band. The programs are planned to be composed of nationally produced programs in Norway. Sweden and Finland. By means of distributing these programs via satellite they will reach up to 4 times as many viewers and listernes as presently in the terrestrial national systems. The basic motivations for exchanging programs are to strengthen the cultural ties between the Nordic countries and to give the individuals more freedom in the choice of programs. Another goal is to give the public a better sound and picture quality than can be achieved today. These quality improvements shall be met by using small receiver parabolas of less than 1 m in diameter. Contributing to the improved quality is the choice of the C-MAC (Multiplexed Analoque Components) modulation system. TELE-X is a multipurpose satellite which besides the two TV-transponders will have two transponders for data/video communication in the frequency band 12.5 to 12.75 GHz. The choice of system for data and video is based on the philosophy of thin-route traffic between small and low cost earth stations (1.8 to 2.5 m) placed directly at the subscribers premises. The system includes an advanced Data/Video Control Station which automatically connects the traffic stations with standarized transmission speeds up to 2 Mbps. The system which is based on the SCPC/DAMA method can be expanded up to 5000 traffic stations. Numerous data/video applications will be investigated in the initial experimental phase of the project which also will be used for market

  9. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries in 2012.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K Wiese; Edvardsen, H M E; Thelander, G; Ojanperä, I; Thordardottir, S; Andersen, L V; Kriikku, P; Vindenes, V; Christoffersen, D; Delaveris, G J M; Frost, J

    2015-03-01

    This report is a follow-up to a study on fatal poisoning in drug addicts conducted in 2012 by a Nordic working group. Here we analyse data from the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Data on sex, number of deaths, places of death, age, main intoxicants and other drugs detected in the blood were recorded. National data are presented and compared between the Nordic countries and with data from similar studies conducted in 1991, 1997, 2002 and 2007. The death rates (number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) increased in drug addicts in Finland, Iceland and Sweden but decreased in Norway compared to the rates in earlier studies. The death rate was stable in Denmark from 1991 to 2012. The death rate remained highest in Norway (5.79) followed by Denmark (5.19) and Iceland (5.16). The differences between the countries diminished compared to earlier studies, with death rates in Finland (4.61) and Sweden (4.17) approaching the levels in the other countries. Women accounted for 15-27% of the fatal poisonings. The median age of the deceased drug addicts was still highest in Denmark, and deaths of addicts >45 years old increased in all countries. Opioids remained the main cause of death, but medicinal opioids like methadone, buprenorphine, fentanyl and tramadol mainly replaced heroin. Methadone was the main intoxicant in Denmark and Sweden, whereas heroin/morphine caused the most deaths in Norway. Finland differed from the other Nordic countries in that buprenorphine was the main intoxicant with only a few heroin/morphine and methadone deaths. Deaths from methadone, buprenorphine and fentanyl increased immensely in Sweden compared to 2007. Poly-drug use was widespread in all countries. The median number of drugs per case varied from 4 to 5. Heroin/morphine, medicinal opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepines and alcohol were the main abused drugs. However, less widely used drugs, like gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), methylphenidate

  10. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries in 2012.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K Wiese; Edvardsen, H M E; Thelander, G; Ojanperä, I; Thordardottir, S; Andersen, L V; Kriikku, P; Vindenes, V; Christoffersen, D; Delaveris, G J M; Frost, J

    2015-03-01

    This report is a follow-up to a study on fatal poisoning in drug addicts conducted in 2012 by a Nordic working group. Here we analyse data from the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Data on sex, number of deaths, places of death, age, main intoxicants and other drugs detected in the blood were recorded. National data are presented and compared between the Nordic countries and with data from similar studies conducted in 1991, 1997, 2002 and 2007. The death rates (number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) increased in drug addicts in Finland, Iceland and Sweden but decreased in Norway compared to the rates in earlier studies. The death rate was stable in Denmark from 1991 to 2012. The death rate remained highest in Norway (5.79) followed by Denmark (5.19) and Iceland (5.16). The differences between the countries diminished compared to earlier studies, with death rates in Finland (4.61) and Sweden (4.17) approaching the levels in the other countries. Women accounted for 15-27% of the fatal poisonings. The median age of the deceased drug addicts was still highest in Denmark, and deaths of addicts >45 years old increased in all countries. Opioids remained the main cause of death, but medicinal opioids like methadone, buprenorphine, fentanyl and tramadol mainly replaced heroin. Methadone was the main intoxicant in Denmark and Sweden, whereas heroin/morphine caused the most deaths in Norway. Finland differed from the other Nordic countries in that buprenorphine was the main intoxicant with only a few heroin/morphine and methadone deaths. Deaths from methadone, buprenorphine and fentanyl increased immensely in Sweden compared to 2007. Poly-drug use was widespread in all countries. The median number of drugs per case varied from 4 to 5. Heroin/morphine, medicinal opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepines and alcohol were the main abused drugs. However, less widely used drugs, like gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), methylphenidate

  11. Drastic changes in the Nordic Seas oceanic circulation and deepwater formation in a Pliocene context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoux, Camille; Zhang, Zhongshi; De Schepper, Stijn; Li, Camille; Nisancioglu, Kerim; Risebrobakken, Bjorg

    2016-04-01

    The Nordic Seas are a major area of deepwater formation, thus playing a crucial role in the global oceanic circulation. In the recent years a cooling and freshening of the Norwegian Sea has been observed (Blindheim et al., 2000), highlighting potential changes in this area linked to climate change. Here, we use climate simulations of the mid-Pliocene warm period with the NorESM-L model. This period is considered to be the last interval when Earth experienced temperatures higher than today for a sustained period of time, in equilibrium with CO2 concentrations similar to present-day and a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet. We find that oceanic circulation in the Nordic Seas is drastically modified. The strength of the East Greenland Current is reduced, which implies less Arctic water going to the North Atlantic from the west of the Fram strait, which creates a compensating outflow current from the east of the Fram Strait to the North Atlantic along the Voring plateau (coast of Norway). The Norwegian Atlantic current is shifted westward, meaning that there is increased Atlantic water influence in the Greenland Sea, which becomes much warmer, and increased Arctic influence along Norway, which becomes colder than present. Circulation becomes anticyclonic instead of cyclonic. Circulation in the subpolar gyre is strongly reduced, together with deepwater formation on average both in the Irminger Sea and the Nordic Seas. Convection sites in the Nordic Seas shift from the eastern part to the western part. Sensitivity experiments show that these changes are not reproduced in other Pliocene contexts, such as when CO2 is low (280 ppm) or when Barents Sea is turned to land, suggesting that the ultimate driver of these changes is higher CO2. When Barents Sea is land, which was the reality of the Pliocene, circulation and sea-surface temperature show a good agreement with reconstructions from marine proxies (De Schepper et al., 2015). This means that NorESM-L is able to properly

  12. Soviet Nordic nuclear-weapon free-zone proposal. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsden, C.A.

    1990-06-01

    This thesis examines the Soviet proposal and its ramifications for the United States and the West. The central theme running through each Soviet proposal has been removal of American nuclear guarantees. Preservation of US national security interests and hence US ability to extend its forward defense would be gravely threatened by such a NWFZ. However, unilateral agreement on a NWFZ is unlikely by the anticipated members of the Nordic NWFZ the US, USSR, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. The US has military installations in Iceland and Greenland and banning of nuclear weapons during wartime is inconceivable. The question then arises as to which nation or groups of nations will dominate and which will acquiesce. Inevitably the debate breaks down to a tug of war between the two superpowers. It is really the politics surrounding the nuclear weapons that is the heart of the nuclear-free-zone debate. Changing world politics demand that the West develop a unified strategy toward the USSR. Through NATO it must preserve its vital economic political and military objectives in the Northern Flank. Flexible naval forces and strong political and economic ties to the governments of the nations bordering the Baltic are essential. Strong NATO naval forces operating in the Baltic Sea must be seen as guarantors of the West's strategic aims and interests. A Nordic NWFZ would prevent this.

  13. Hearing among 75-year-old people in three Nordic localities: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Anne; Era, Pertti; Henrichsen, Jorgen; Rosenhall, Ulf; Sorri, Martti; Heikkinen, Eino

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare auditory functions and to analyse the prevalence of hearing impairment and the relationship of self-reported hearing disability with audiometric test results among 75-year-old people in three Nordic localities. The representative samples came from Glostrup, Denmark (n = 571), Göteborg, Sweden (n =450), and Jyväskylä, Finland (n =388). The median pure-tone thresholds were rather similar in all three populations. The prevalence of moderate hearing impairment varied between 26% and 34% in men, and between 17% and 23% in women. The corresponding figures in the prevalence of self-reported hearing difficulties were 41%-57%, and 28%-37%. The self-reported difficulties were broadly in accordance with the audiometric test results, but there also were individuals with conflicting results. It is concluded that the prevalence of hearing impairment in the three Nordic localities is fairly similar. To assess hearing disorders in elderly people, both audiometry and self-report data are needed. PMID:16238180

  14. Nordic adolescents' school lunch patterns and their suggestions for making healthy choices at school easier.

    PubMed

    Kainulainen, Kristiina; Benn, Jette; Fjellström, Christina; Palojoki, Päivi

    2012-08-01

    This article examines Nordic adolescents' school lunch patterns and their perceptions of how making healthy choices at school could be easier. Analysis is based on a quantitative data-set collected between 2006 and 2007 as part of a Nordic research project. The sample of 1539 respondents consisted of 14-17 year old adolescents from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. The number of adolescents regularly eating either a packed lunch or a hot school lunch differed between countries and statistically significant differences were found between girls' and boys' school lunch patterns in the Swedish and Finnish data. Results suggest that adolescents have an understanding of what is healthy, but that school resources do not always support their ability to make healthy choices. Adolescents' own suggestions for improvement imply that more attention should be paid to building a healthy school food environment. An important future challenge is trying to involve school health care personnel and aligning classroom activities more coherently with adolescents' eating patterns during the school day. PMID:22445774

  15. Silica dust and lung cancer: results from the Nordic occupational mortality and cancer incidence registers

    SciTech Connect

    Lynge, E.; Kurppa, K.; Kristofersen, L.; Malker, H.; Sauli, H.

    1986-10-01

    Autopsy studies of the relationship between silicosis and lung cancer have been mainly negative; but recent epidemiologic studies have indicated a positive association, and an excess lung cancer risk has been observed in some occupational groups with exposure to silica dust. For the further shedding of light on the possible association between silica dust and lung cancer, analysis was made on mortality and cancer incidence data available in census-based record linkage studies from the Nordic countries for males in occupational groups with potential exposure to silica dust. The study showed an excess lung cancer risk for foundry workers in all the Nordic countries and for miners in Sweden. These results were consistent with findings from previous in-depth epidemiologic studies. The lung cancer risk did not differ significantly from that of the respective national populations for males working in excavation; stone quarries; sand and gravel pits; and glass, porcelain, ceramic, and tile manufacture. Stonecutters, who are probably not exposed to known lung carcinogens at the workplace but in some places to high concentrations of silica dust, showed a significant excess lung cancer risk in both Finland and Denmark. Excess lung cancer risks furthermore were seen for Finish miners, for Finnish males in excavation work, and for Danish glassworkers.

  16. Modelling ocean acidification in the Nordic and Barents Seas in present and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skogen, Morten D.; Olsen, Are; Børsheim, Knut Yngve; Sandø, Anne Britt; Skjelvan, Ingunn

    2014-03-01

    An ecosystem model, NORWECOM.E2E including a module for the carbonate system, has been used to investigate the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change on the ocean's acid-base state in the Nordic and Barents Seas. Using the 20C3M control run and the A1B emission scenario, a downscaling of the GISS-AOM global climate model has been used to force the ecosystem model for a reference (1981-2000) and a future climate (2046-2065) simulation respectively. The simulations demonstrate how the saturation state of seawater with respect to aragonite will evolve, with a shoaling of the saturation horizon of approximately 1200 m in the Nordic Seas, and a large increase in area extent of under saturated surface waters. The simulated pH change in the surface water is - 0.19 from 2000 to 2065, while the model estimates an almost doubling of the CO2 air-sea flux in the Barents Sea increasing the uptake from 23 to 37 gC m- 2 yr- 1. The main driver for the modelled changes in surface fCO2 is the change in DIC, with only minor contributions from temperature, salinity and total alkalinity.

  17. Bootstrap study of genome-enabled prediction reliabilities using haplotype blocks across Nordic Red cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Cuyabano, B C D; Su, G; Rosa, G J M; Lund, M S; Gianola, D

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the accuracy of genome-enabled prediction models using individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or haplotype blocks as covariates when using either a single breed or a combined population of Nordic Red cattle. The main objective was to compare predictions of breeding values of complex traits using a combined training population with haplotype blocks, with predictions using a single breed as training population and individual SNP as predictors. To compare the prediction reliabilities, bootstrap samples were taken from the test data set. With the bootstrapped samples of prediction reliabilities, we built and graphed confidence ellipses to allow comparisons. Finally, measures of statistical distances were used to calculate the gain in predictive ability. Our analyses are innovative in the context of assessment of predictive models, allowing a better understanding of prediction reliabilities and providing a statistical basis to effectively calibrate whether one prediction scenario is indeed more accurate than another. An ANOVA indicated that use of haplotype blocks produced significant gains mainly when Bayesian mixture models were used but not when Bayesian BLUP was fitted to the data. Furthermore, when haplotype blocks were used to train prediction models in a combined Nordic Red cattle population, we obtained up to a statistically significant 5.5% average gain in prediction accuracy, over predictions using individual SNP and training the model with a single breed.

  18. Safety evaluation of some wild plants in the New Nordic Diet.

    PubMed

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2012-12-01

    One of the dietary components in the New Nordic Diet, is plants from the wild countryside. However, these may have a high content of bioactive components, some of which could be toxic in larger quantities. The objective of this paper is to outline a strategy for safety evaluation of wild plants not covered in current food compositional databases and to apply the method for selected plants used in the New Nordic Diet recipes. Four examples of typical wild edible plants were evaluated (stinging nettle, sorrel, chickweed and common lambsquarters), and based on substantial equivalence with known food plants the majority of the bioactive components reported were within the range experienced when eating or drinking typical food stuffs. For most compounds the hazards could be evaluated as minor. The only precaution found was for common lambsquarters because of its presumed high level of oxalic acid. It is concluded that a substance-by-substance evaluation of intake by equivalence to common foods is a useful and efficient strategy to evaluate the safety of newly introduced wild edible plants. Further evaluation and better compositional analyses are warranted before a daily consumption of significant amounts of wild edible plants can be generally regarded as safe.

  19. Campylobacters: the most common bacterial enteropathogens in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Rautelin, H; Hänninen, M L

    2000-10-01

    Campylobacters have been known as important human pathogens since the late 1970s. Campylobacter jejuni and coli are the most common bacterial enteropathogens in the developed countries. During the past years an increasing incidence of campylobacteriosis has been reported in many developed countries. C. jejuni is the most common Campylobacter species while C. coli accounts for about 5-10% of the cases. Although the genome of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 strain was sequenced recently, the exact pathogenetic mechanisms are still not known. Furthermore, there are no reliable animal models available. The epidemiology of this common infection is not well understood; however, eating and handling poultry, contaminated drinking water, and contact with pet animals have been recognized as important risk factors. Most of the cases are sporadic although large water-borne outbreaks have also been reported. Discriminatory typing methods are helpful in tracing the sources and transmission routes. In addition to traditional serotyping, genotyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, have been developed. As Campylobacter infections probably precede Guillan-Barré syndrome in many cases, a great interest has lately been focused on the possible triggering mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.

  20. Bringing Ideals into Dialogue with Practices: On the Principles and Practices of the Nordic Network for Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnerman, Karin; Salo, Petri; Furu, Eli Moksnes; Lund, Torbjørn; Olin, Anette; Jakhelln, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present the Nordic Network for Action Research, established in 2004. We describe how the network has explored, bridged and nurtured the inherent action research dynamics of ideology and methodology. This has been done through an understanding anchored in educational traditions, and by focus on three important ideal-shaping…

  1. Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since 1950.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B; Turrell, W R; Østerhus, S

    2001-06-21

    The overflow of cold, dense water from the Nordic seas, across the Greenland-Scotland ridge and into the Atlantic Ocean is the main source for the deep water of the North Atlantic Ocean. This flow also helps drive the inflow of warm, saline surface water into the Nordic seas. The Faroe Bank channel is the deepest path across the ridge, and the deep flow through this channel accounts for about one-third of the total overflow. Previous work has demonstrated that the overflow has become warmer and less saline over time. Here we show, using direct measurements and historical hydrographic data, that the volume flux of the Faroe Bank channel overflow has also decreased. Estimating the volume flux conservatively, we find a decrease by at least 20 per cent relative to 1950. If this reduction in deep flow from the Nordic seas is not compensated by increased flow from other sources, it implies a weakened global thermohaline circulation and reduced inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic seas.

  2. Strategies for Internationalization of Higher Education. A Case Study--the Nordic Centre at Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtermann, Sigrid

    1996-01-01

    The Nordic Centre at Fudan University (China) links it with Norwegian universities, and has resulted in: a new Norwegian School of Management program; a Chinese-Norwegian dictionary; short credit courses on Scandinavian affairs for Chinese students; language courses and examinations for Norwegian students of Chinese; establishment of a library on…

  3. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from Nordic Countries. A Workshop Report: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Cliff, Ed.

    In September 1973, 22 North Americans visited Scandinavia for the purpose of improving those processes that result in the admissions and academic placement of Nordic students in the educational institutions of the United States and Canada. This report describes the major findings of the United States and Canadian admissions officers and foreign…

  4. Information Resources Management. Nordic Conference on Information and Documentation (6th, Helsinki, Finland, August 19-22, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samfundet for Informationstjanst i Finland, Helsinki.

    The 54 conference papers compiled in this proceedings include plenary addresses; reviews of Nordic databases; and discussions of documents, systems, services, and products as they relate to information resources management (IRM). Almost half of the presentations are in English: (1) "What Is Information Resources Management?" (Forest Woody Horton);…

  5. Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since 1950.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B; Turrell, W R; Østerhus, S

    2001-06-21

    The overflow of cold, dense water from the Nordic seas, across the Greenland-Scotland ridge and into the Atlantic Ocean is the main source for the deep water of the North Atlantic Ocean. This flow also helps drive the inflow of warm, saline surface water into the Nordic seas. The Faroe Bank channel is the deepest path across the ridge, and the deep flow through this channel accounts for about one-third of the total overflow. Previous work has demonstrated that the overflow has become warmer and less saline over time. Here we show, using direct measurements and historical hydrographic data, that the volume flux of the Faroe Bank channel overflow has also decreased. Estimating the volume flux conservatively, we find a decrease by at least 20 per cent relative to 1950. If this reduction in deep flow from the Nordic seas is not compensated by increased flow from other sources, it implies a weakened global thermohaline circulation and reduced inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic seas. PMID:11418852

  6. Persistent Intermediate Water Warming during Cold Stadials in the SE Nordic Seas during the Last 65 Kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, T. L.; Ezat, M.; Groeneveld, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the Nordic seas, conversion of inflowing warm Atlantic surface water to deep cold water through convection is closely linked with climate. During the last glacial period climate underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, consisting of warm interstadials and cold stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-d18O record from the Nordic seas in order to reconstruct the ocean circulation on DO timescales. The record confirms that modern-like convection took place in the Nordic seas during interstadials with cold bottom water temperatures (BWT) close to modern temperatures. The results show gradual and pronounced BWT increases by 2-5 °C during stadials indicating a stop or near-stop in convection. The BWT peaks are followed by an abrupt drop in temperature at the onset of interstadials indicating the abrupt start of convection and renewed generation of cold deep water. The rise in BWT during stadials confirms earlier interpretations of subsurface inflow of warm Atlantic water below a halocline reaching >1.2 km water depth. The results suggest that warm Atlantic Water never ceased to flow into the Nordic seas during the glacial period with inflow at the surface during the Holocene and warm interstadials switching to subsurface and intermediate inflow during cold stadials. Our results suggest that it is the vertical shifts in the position of the warm Atlantic Water that cause the abrupt surface warmings.

  7. Libraries and National Development (Final Report of the Third Afro-Nordic Library Conference, Finland, September 3-7 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Contained in this collection of presentations from the third Afro-Nordic Library Conference are a foreword describing the objectives of the meeting and 14 papers: "From Oral Tradition to Literary Writing: The Awakening of National Awareness," by Heikki Kirkinen; "African Library Systems," by L. E. Samarasinghe; "Planning of Library…

  8. Exploring Democracy: Nordic Music Teachers' Approaches to the Development of Immigrant Students' Musical Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsen, Sidsel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a multi-sited ethnographic study was taken as a point of departure for exploring how Nordic music teachers, who work in multicultural environments, understand the development of their students' musical agency. The study was based on theories developed within general sociology and the sociology of music, as well as in previous…

  9. The Nordic Model in Education: Education as Part of the Political System in the Last 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telhaug, Alfred Oftedal; Medias, Odd Asbjorn; Aasen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes, analyses and discusses the development of the Nordic school model in three phases of the post-war period, viewed in the light of the development of the political system throughout the period and in comparison with the development of the school system in the western world in this period. The "classical period" from 1945…

  10. Genetic parameters for dry matter intake in primiparous Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey cows in the first half of lactation.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Løvendahl, P; Mäntysaari, P; Berglund, B

    2016-09-01

    Dry matter intake (DMI) is a key component of feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters of DMI over the first 24 lactation weeks in 3 dairy cattle breeds: Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey. In total, 1,656 primiparous cows (717 Holstein, 663 Nordic Red, and 276 Jersey) from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden were studied. For each breed, variance components, heritability, and repeatability for weekly DMI were estimated in 6 consecutive periods of the first 24 lactation weeks based on a repeatability animal model. Genetic correlations for DMI between different lactation periods were estimated using bivariate models. Based on our results, Holstein and Nordic Red cows had similar DMI at the beginning of lactation, but later in lactation Holstein cows had a slightly higher DMI than Nordic Red cows. In comparison, Jersey cows had a significantly lower DMI than the other 2 breeds within the first 24 lactation weeks. Heritability estimates for DMI ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 in Holsteins, 0.25 to 0.41 in Nordic Red, and 0.17 to 0.42 in Jerseys within the first 24 lactation weeks. Genetic and phenotypic variances for DMI varied along lactation within each breed and tended to be higher in the middle of lactation than at the beginning of the lactation. High genetic correlations were noted for DMI in lactation wk 5 to 24 in all 3 breeds, whereas DMI at early lactation (lactation wk 1 to 4) tended to be genetically different from DMI in the middle of lactation. The 3 breeds in this study might differ in their genetic variances for DMI, but the differences were not statistically significant in most of the studied periods. Breed differences for the genetic variance tended to be more obvious than for heritability. The potential breed differences in genetic variation for DMI should be considered in a future study using feed intake information from multiple breeds. PMID:27372581

  11. Genetic parameters for dry matter intake in primiparous Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey cows in the first half of lactation.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Løvendahl, P; Mäntysaari, P; Berglund, B

    2016-09-01

    Dry matter intake (DMI) is a key component of feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters of DMI over the first 24 lactation weeks in 3 dairy cattle breeds: Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey. In total, 1,656 primiparous cows (717 Holstein, 663 Nordic Red, and 276 Jersey) from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden were studied. For each breed, variance components, heritability, and repeatability for weekly DMI were estimated in 6 consecutive periods of the first 24 lactation weeks based on a repeatability animal model. Genetic correlations for DMI between different lactation periods were estimated using bivariate models. Based on our results, Holstein and Nordic Red cows had similar DMI at the beginning of lactation, but later in lactation Holstein cows had a slightly higher DMI than Nordic Red cows. In comparison, Jersey cows had a significantly lower DMI than the other 2 breeds within the first 24 lactation weeks. Heritability estimates for DMI ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 in Holsteins, 0.25 to 0.41 in Nordic Red, and 0.17 to 0.42 in Jerseys within the first 24 lactation weeks. Genetic and phenotypic variances for DMI varied along lactation within each breed and tended to be higher in the middle of lactation than at the beginning of the lactation. High genetic correlations were noted for DMI in lactation wk 5 to 24 in all 3 breeds, whereas DMI at early lactation (lactation wk 1 to 4) tended to be genetically different from DMI in the middle of lactation. The 3 breeds in this study might differ in their genetic variances for DMI, but the differences were not statistically significant in most of the studied periods. Breed differences for the genetic variance tended to be more obvious than for heritability. The potential breed differences in genetic variation for DMI should be considered in a future study using feed intake information from multiple breeds.

  12. Including different groups of genotyped females for genomic prediction in a Nordic Jersey population.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Madsen, P; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Su, G; Byskov, K; Jensen, J

    2015-12-01

    Including genotyped females in a reference population (RP) is an obvious way to increase the RP in genomic selection, especially for dairy breeds of limited population size. However, the incorporation of these females must be conducted cautiously because of the potential preferential treatment of the genotyped cows and lower reliabilities of phenotypes compared with the proven pseudo-phenotypes of bulls. Breeding organizations in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden have implemented a female-genotyping project with the possibility of genotyping entire herds using the low-density (LD) chip. In the present study, 5 scenarios for building an RP were investigated in the Nordic Jersey population: (1) bulls only, (2) bulls with females from the LD project, (3) bulls with females from the LD project plus non-LD project females genotyped before their first calving, (4) bulls with females from the LD project plus non-LD project females genotyped after their first calving, and (5) bulls with all genotyped females. The genomically enhanced breeding value (GEBV) was predicted for 8 traits in the Nordic total merit index through a genomic BLUP model using deregressed proof (DRP) as the response variable in all scenarios. In addition, (daughter) yield deviation and raw phenotypic data were studied as response variables for comparison with the DRP, using stature as a model trait. The validation population was formed using a cut-off birth year of 2005 based on the genotyped Nordic Jersey bulls with DRP. The average increment in reliability of the GEBV across the 8 traits investigated was 1.9 to 4.5 percentage points compared with using only bulls in the RP (scenario 1). The addition of all the genotyped females to the RP resulted in the highest gain in reliability (scenario 5), followed by scenario 3, scenario 2, and scenario 4. All scenarios led to inflated GEBV because the regression coefficients are less than 1. However, scenario 2 and scenario 3 led to less bias of genomic predictions

  13. The common objectives of the European Nordic countries and the role of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Christopher; Giannopapa, Christina; Vaudo, Ersilia

    2016-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty two Member States with common goals of engaging in European space activities. However, the various Member States have a variety of governance structures, strategic priorities regarding space and other sectorial areas depending on their cultural and geopolitical aspirations. The Nordic countries, namely Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have similarities which result often in common geopolitical and cultural aspects. These in turn shape their respective priorities and interests in setting up their policies in a number of sectorial areas like shipping and fisheries, energy, immigration, agriculture, security and defence, infrastructures, climate change and the Arctic. Space technology, navigation, earth observation, telecommunication and integrated applications can assist the Nordic countries in developing, implementing and monitoring policies of common interest. This paper provides an in-depth overview and a comprehensive assessment of these common interests in policy areas where space can provide support in their realisation. The first part provides a synthesis of the Nordic countries respective priorities through analysing their government programmes and plans. The priorities are classified according to the six areas of sustainability: energy, environment and climate change, transport, knowledge and innovation, natural resources (fisheries, agriculture, forestry, mining, etc), and security and external relations. Although the national strategies present different national perspectives, at the same time, there are a number of similarities when it comes to overall policy objectives in a number of areas such as the Arctic and climate change. In other words, even though the Arctic plays a different role in each country's national context and there are clear differences as regards geography, access to resources and security policies, the strategies display common general interest in sustainable development and management of

  14. Characteristics of Glucose Metabolism in Nordic and South Asian Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Erik Fink; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in people of South Asian ethnicity than in people of Western European origin. To investigate the source of these differences, we compared insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, glucose and lipid metabolism in South Asian and Nordic subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods Forty-three Nordic and 19 South Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes were examined with intra-venous glucose tolerance test, euglycemic clamp including measurement of endogenous glucose production, indirect calorimetry measuring glucose and lipid oxidation, and dual x-ray absorptiometry measuring body composition. Results Despite younger mean ± SD age (49.7±9.4 vs 58.3±8.3 years, p = 0.001), subjects of South Asian ethnicity had the same diabetes duration (9.3±5.5 vs 9.6±7.0 years, p = 0.86), significantly higher median [inter-quartile range] HbA1c (8.5 [1.6] vs 7.3 [1.6] %, p = 0.024) and lower BMI (28.7±4.0 vs 33.2±4.7 kg/m2, p<0.001). The South Asian group exhibited significantly higher basal endogenous glucose production (19.1 [9.1] vs 14.4 [6.8] µmol/kgFFM⋅min, p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between the groups in total glucose disposal (39.1±20.4 vs 39.2±17.6 µmol/kgFFM⋅min, p = 0.99) or first phase insulin secretion (AUC0–8 min: 220 [302] vs 124 [275] pM, p = 0.35). In South Asian subjects there was a tendency towards positive correlations between endogenous glucose production and resting and clamp energy expenditure. Conclusions Subjects of South Asian ethnicity with type 2 diabetes, despite being younger and leaner, had higher basal endogenous glucose production, indicating higher hepatic insulin resistance, and a trend towards higher use of carbohydrates as fasting energy substrate compared to Nordic subjects. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the observed differences in prevalence of type 2 diabetes between the ethnic groups. PMID:24391858

  15. Short communication: Improving accuracy of predicting breeding values in Brazilian Holstein population by adding data from Nordic and French Holstein populations.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Lund, M S; Zhang, Q; Costa, C N; Ducrocq, V; Su, G

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the improvement of prediction reliabilities for 3 production traits in Brazilian Holsteins that had no genotype information by adding information from Nordic and French Holstein bulls that had genotypes. The estimated across-country genetic correlations (ranging from 0.604 to 0.726) indicated that an important genotype by environment interaction exists between Brazilian and Nordic (or Nordic and French) populations. Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian genotyped bulls were greatly increased by including data of Nordic and French bulls, and a 2-trait single-step genomic BLUP performed much better than the corresponding pedigree-based BLUP. However, only a minor improvement in prediction reliabilities was observed in nongenotyped Brazilian cows. The results indicate that although there is a large genotype by environment interaction, inclusion of a foreign reference population can improve accuracy of genetic evaluation for the Brazilian Holstein population. However, a Brazilian reference population is necessary to obtain a more accurate genomic evaluation. PMID:27040784

  16. Short communication: Improving accuracy of predicting breeding values in Brazilian Holstein population by adding data from Nordic and French Holstein populations.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Lund, M S; Zhang, Q; Costa, C N; Ducrocq, V; Su, G

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the improvement of prediction reliabilities for 3 production traits in Brazilian Holsteins that had no genotype information by adding information from Nordic and French Holstein bulls that had genotypes. The estimated across-country genetic correlations (ranging from 0.604 to 0.726) indicated that an important genotype by environment interaction exists between Brazilian and Nordic (or Nordic and French) populations. Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian genotyped bulls were greatly increased by including data of Nordic and French bulls, and a 2-trait single-step genomic BLUP performed much better than the corresponding pedigree-based BLUP. However, only a minor improvement in prediction reliabilities was observed in nongenotyped Brazilian cows. The results indicate that although there is a large genotype by environment interaction, inclusion of a foreign reference population can improve accuracy of genetic evaluation for the Brazilian Holstein population. However, a Brazilian reference population is necessary to obtain a more accurate genomic evaluation.

  17. Life cycle assessment of biofuel production from brown seaweed in Nordic conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Boldrin, Alessio; Karakashev, Dimitar B; Holdt, Susan L; Angelidaki, Irini; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The use of algae for biofuel production is expected to play an important role in securing energy supply in the next decades. A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) and an energy analysis of seaweed-based biofuel production were carried out in Nordic conditions to document and improve the sustainability of the process. Two scenarios were analyzed for the brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata), namely, biogas production (scenario 1) and bioethanol+biogas production (scenario 2). Potential environmental impact categories under investigation were Global Warming, Acidification and Terrestrial Eutrophication. The production of seaweed was identified to be the most energy intensive step. Scenario 1 showed better performance compared to scenario 2 for all impact categories, partly because of the energy intensive bioethanol separation process and the consequently lower overall efficiency of the system. For improved environmental performance, focus should be on optimization of seaweed production, bioethanol distillation, and management of digestate on land.

  18. Nordic walking--is it suitable for patients with fractured vertebra?

    PubMed

    Wendlova, J

    2008-01-01

    This article brings the biomechanical analysis of sport--Nordic walking--for patients with osteoporotic fractured vertebrae and shows that it is suitable for them. Based on the biomechanical model of skeletal load we have developed a method of walking movement for patients, different from the method of walking movement for healthy people. And so came into being the "first sport" for patients with osteoporotic fractures. They can go for regular walks in easy terrains outdoors with friends and family, and so be liberated from social isolation. It requires only one-off financial costs of buying the poles and special footwear (Tab. 7, Fig. 3, Ref. 14). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18814434

  19. Deconstruction of Nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose.

    PubMed

    Eta, Valerie; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2016-01-20

    Nordic hardwood (Betula pendula) was fractionated in a batch autoclave equipped with a custom-made SpinChem(®) rotating bed reactor, at 120 °C using CO2 and CS2-based switchable ionic liquids systems. Analyses of the non-dissolved wood after treatment showed that 64 wt% of hemicelluloses and 70 wt% of lignin were removed from the native wood. Long processing periods or successive short-time treatments using fresh SILs further decreased the amount of hemicelluloses and lignin in the non-dissolved fraction to 12 and 15 wt%, respectively. The cellulose-rich fraction was partially dissolved in an organic superbase and an ionic liquid system for further derivatization. Homogeneous acylation of the dissolved cellulose in the presence or absence of catalyst resulted in cellulose acetates with variable degree of substitution (DS), depending on the treatment conditions. By varying the reaction conditions, the cellulose acetate with the desired DS could be obtained under mild conditions.

  20. A dynamic model of Nordic diagonal stride skiing, with a literature review of cross country skiing.

    PubMed

    Moxnes, John F; Hausken, Kjell

    2009-10-01

    The forces during the kicking phase in Nordic diagonal stride skiing are described by differential equations and the results are compared with experiments. The difference between static and dynamic friction, interacting with characteristics of the skier such as weight, velocity and the kicking force's angle with the terrain, are essential for high-velocity diagonal striding. Analytical results for relationships between glide length, friction and kicking force are shown. Aerodynamic drag and gravity are accounted for. A propulsion force based on the Hill (1970) equation for muscle contraction velocity and activation is constructed. The model shows a feasible tool for studying the effects of ski stiffness, the kicking force and the amount of waxing during diagonal stride skiing.

  1. Socioeconomic differences in children's use of physician services in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsson, M; Kunst, A; Kohler, L; Mackenbach, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between socioeconomic factors and the use of physician services among children and whether variations of the level of co-payment are correlated with different levels of inequalities in health services use. Design: Description of the socioeconomic differences in the use of health care using data from countrywide postal surveys to parents. Setting: The five Nordic countries in 1996. Subjects: Samples of 15 000 children aged 2–17 years: 3000 children at random, from the national registry in each country. Main outcome measure: Odds ratios of use of GP, specialist, and hospital services between children according to the educational level of both parents and the disposable income of the family, for all countries together and for each country separately. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, sex, urbanisation grade, and health status. Results: There was little difference in the use of GP services according to socioeconomic factors. Parents from lower socioeconomic groups used telephone services of physicians less than parents from the higher groups and children of lower socioeconomic groups were seen less often by specialists. The reverse was true for hospitalisation of the children. The differential use of those three types of services was more marked in Denmark, Finland and Norway than in Iceland and Sweden. When controlled for other socioeconomic factors, the largest differences were observed according to the education of the mother. Conclusion: The specialist services and use of telephone services for children in the Nordic countries do not meet the criteria of equal use for equal need whereas the GP services and hospital services do to some extent. The education of the mother is a more important determinant than income for the use of each service. PMID:11854341

  2. Childhood diabetes in the Nordic countries: a comparison of quality registries.

    PubMed

    Hanberger, Lena; Birkebaek, Niels; Bjarnason, Ragnar; Drivvoll, Ann Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Thorsson, Arni V; Samuelsson, Ulf

    2014-07-01

    In 2008 a Nordic collaboration was established between the quality registries in Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden to improve quality of care for children with diabetes. This study aimed to describe those registries and confirm that the registry variables are comparable. Selected variables were used to demonstrate outcome measurements. The organization of the registries and methodology are described. Cross-sectional data for patients between birth and 14.9 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus in 2009 (n = 6523) from 89 centers were analyzed. Variables were age, gender, and diabetic ketoacidosis at onset, together with age, gender, HbA1c, insulin regimen, and severe hypoglycemia at follow-up in 2009. All 4 registries use a standardized registration at the onset of diabetes and at follow-up, conducted at the local pediatric diabetes centers. Methods for measuring HbA1c varied as did methods of registration for factors such as hypoglycemia. No differences were found between the outcomes of the clinical variables at onset. Significant variations were found at follow-up for mean HbA1c, the proportion of children with HbA1c < 57 mmol/mol (NGSP/DCCT 7.4%), (range 15-31%), the proportion with insulin pumps (range 34-55%), and the numbers with severe hypoglycemia (range 5.6-8.3/100 patient years). In this large unselected population from 4 Nordic countries, a high proportion did not reach their treatment target, indicating a need to improve the quality of pediatric diabetes care. International collaboration is needed to develop and harmonize quality indicators and offers possibilities to study large geographic populations, identify problems, and share knowledge. PMID:24876421

  3. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Nordic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Pia; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Hansson, Katarina; Hakola, Hannele; Vestenius, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Long-term atmospheric monitoring data (1994-2011) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assembled from a rural site in southern Sweden, Råö, and a remote, sub-Arctic site in Finland, Pallas. The concentration levels, congener profiles, seasonal and temporal trends, and projections were evaluated in order to assess the status of POPs in the Scandinavian atmosphere. Our data include atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), altogether comprising a selection of 27 different compounds. The atmospheric POP levels were generally higher in the south, closer to the sources (primary emissions) of the pollutants. The levels of low-chlorinated PCBs and chlordanes were equal at the two sites, and one of the studied POPs, α-HCH, showed higher levels in the north than in the south. Declining temporal trends in the atmospheric concentrations for the legacy POPs - PCBs (2-4% per year), HCHs (6-7% per year), chlordanes (3-4% per year) and DTTs (2-5% per year) - were identified both along Sweden's west coast and in the sub-Arctic area of northern Finland. Most of PAHs did not show any significant long-term trends. The future projections for POP concentrations suggest that in Scandinavia, low-chlorinated PCBs and p,p‧-DDE will remain in the atmospheric compartment the longest (beyond 2030). HCH's and PCB180 will be depleted from the Nordic atmosphere first, before 2020, whereas chlordanes and rest of the PCBs will be depleted between the years 2020 and 2025. PCBs tend to deplete sooner and chlordanes later from the sub-Arctic compared to the south of Sweden. This study demonstrates that the international bans on legacy POPs have successfully reduced the concentrations of these particular substances in the Nordic atmosphere. However, the most long-lived compounds may continue in the atmospheric cycle for another couple of decades.

  4. Characteristics of the Nordic Seas overflows in a set of Norwegian Earth System Model experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2016-08-01

    Global ocean models with an isopycnic vertical coordinate are advantageous in representing overflows, as they do not suffer from topography-induced spurious numerical mixing commonly seen in geopotential coordinate models. In this paper, we present a quantitative diagnosis of the Nordic Seas overflows in four configurations of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) family that features an isopycnic ocean model. For intercomparison, two coupled ocean-sea ice and two fully coupled (atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice) experiments are considered. Each pair consists of a (non-eddying) 1° and a (eddy-permitting) 1/4° horizontal resolution ocean model. In all experiments, overflow waters remain dense and descend to the deep basins, entraining ambient water en route. Results from the 1/4° pair show similar behavior in the overflows, whereas the 1° pair show distinct differences, including temperature/salinity properties, volume transport (Q), and large scale features such as the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The volume transport of the overflows and degree of entrainment are underestimated in the 1° experiments, whereas in the 1/4° experiments, there is a two-fold downstream increase in Q, which matches observations well. In contrast to the 1/4° experiments, the coarse 1° experiments do not capture the inclined isopycnals of the overflows or the western boundary current off the Flemish Cap. In all experiments, the pathway of the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water is misrepresented: a major fraction of the overflow proceeds southward into the West European Basin, instead of turning westward into the Irminger Sea. This discrepancy is attributed to excessive production of Labrador Sea Water in the model. The mean state and variability of the Nordic Seas overflows have significant consequences on the response of the AMOC, hence their correct representations are of vital importance in global ocean and climate modelling.

  5. External quality assessment of serum hormone determinations in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Ruokonen, A; Leskinen, E; Nyberg, A; Vihko, R

    1984-01-01

    Since 1979 the Nordic Clinical Chemistry Project (NORDKEM) has organized four external quality assessment surveys of serum hormone determinations in the five Nordic countries. Charcoal-stripped control sera with weighed additions of the following hormones have been used: thyrotropin, human placental lactogen, prolactin, estriol, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and, in the fourth survey, progesterone. Human serum was usually used but in the first survey the serum matrix for the protein hormones was calf serum. In three years no systematic improvement in the coefficients of variation of the results has occurred. The change from calf serum to human serum also had no major effects on the results. Percentage coefficients of bias usually varied on both sides of the true value, but at low hormone concentrations the results were almost always positively biased. It is therefore useful to know the true hormone concentrations of the control samples because all-laboratory means are relatively often biased from these. Variation produced by different methods of calculation of the radioimmunoassay results and the influence of outlying standard points on these data processing routines were studied in the third survey. It is possible that sometimes the variation produced by different methods of calculation is one of the main components of the total variation in external quality assessment of RIA. There were no major differences between the performance of computerized or manual calculation methods. The influence of different calibration standards on serum thyroxine determination was studied in the fourth survey. Of the total coefficient of variation (10.8% to 17.0%) the component of variation produced by different thyroxine calibration standards was 0.8% to 4.6%. In conclusion, standardization of the data processing methods and further standardization of assay reagents are urgently needed to give possibilities to identify more subtle differences in

  6. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksson, Ulf; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Olsen, Anja; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Background : Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective : The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI). The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design : The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29-49 years at baseline (1991-1992). The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results : Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI), but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions : Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI. PMID:25773303

  7. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Lynge, Elsebeth; Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur Kolbrun; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kjaerheim, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    We present up to 45 years of cancer incidence data by occupational category for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 15 million people aged 30-64 years in the 1960, 1970, 1980/1981 and/or 1990 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the 2.8 million incident cancer cases diagnosed in these people in a follow-up until about 2005. The study was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identity codes used in all the Nordic countries. In the censuses, information on occupation for each person was provided through free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerised in the statistical offices. For the present study, the original occupational codes were reclassified into 53 occupational categories and one group of economically inactive persons. All Nordic countries have a nation-wide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. For the present study the incident cancer cases were classified into 49 primary diagnostic categories. Some categories have been further divided according to sub-site or morphological type. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, sex, age, period and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the stratum specific person years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result was presented as a standardised incidence ratio, SIR, defined as the observed number of cases divided by the expected number. For all cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), the study showed a wide variation among men from an SIR of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.95) in domestic assistants to 1.48 (1.43-1.54) in waiters. The occupations with the highest SIRs also included workers producing beverage and tobacco, seamen and chimney sweeps. Among women, the SIRs varied from 0.58 (0.37-0.87) in seafarers to 1.27 (1.19-1.35) in tobacco workers. Low

  8. Multilocus Sequence Typing Identifies Epidemic Clones of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Duchaud, Eric; Nicolas, Pierre; Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone; Aspán, Anna; Jansson, Eva; Colquhoun, Duncan J.; Wiklund, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD), which affects a variety of freshwater-reared salmonid species. A large-scale study was performed to investigate the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum in the four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Multilocus sequence typing of 560 geographically and temporally disparate F. psychrophilum isolates collected from various sources between 1983 and 2012 revealed 81 different sequence types (STs) belonging to 12 clonal complexes (CCs) and 30 singleton STs. The largest CC, CC-ST10, which represented almost exclusively isolates from rainbow trout and included the most predominant genotype, ST2, comprised 65% of all isolates examined. In Norway, with a shorter history (<10 years) of BCWD in rainbow trout, ST2 was the only isolated CC-ST10 genotype, suggesting a recent introduction of an epidemic clone. The study identified five additional CCs shared between countries and five country-specific CCs, some with apparent host specificity. Almost 80% of the singleton STs were isolated from non-rainbow trout species or the environment. The present study reveals a simultaneous presence of genetically distinct CCs in the Nordic countries and points out specific F. psychrophilum STs posing a threat to the salmonid production. The study provides a significant contribution toward mapping the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum globally and support for the existence of an epidemic population structure where recombination is a significant driver in F. psychrophilum evolution. Evidence indicating dissemination of a putatively virulent clonal complex (CC-ST10) with commercial movement of fish or fish products is strengthened. PMID:24561585

  9. Interannual to Decadal Variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and Adjacent Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multi-year warm events where temperature anomalies at 100m depth exceed 0.4oC, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for four years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  10. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems: implications for coastal management and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Christoffer; Baden, Susanne; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Dromph, Karsten; Fredriksen, Stein; Gustafsson, Camilla; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Möller, Tiia; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Olesen, Birgit; Olsen, Jeanine; Pihl, Leif; Rinde, Eli

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina, along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km2 eelgrass (maximum >2100 km2), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified area of eelgrass in Western Europe.Eelgrass meadows in the low salinity Baltic Sea support the highest diversity (4–6 spp.) of angiosperms overall, but eelgrass productivity is low (<2 g dw m-2 d-1) and meadows are isolated and genetically impoverished. Higher salinity areas support monospecific meadows, with higher productivity (3–10 g dw m-2 d-1) and greater genetic connectivity. The salinity gradient further imposes functional differences in biodiversity and food webs, in particular a decline in number, but increase in biomass of mesograzers in the Baltic.Significant declines in eelgrass depth limits and areal cover are documented, particularly in regions experiencing high human pressure. The failure of eelgrass to re-establish itself in affected areas, despite nutrient reductions and improved water quality, signals complex recovery trajectories and calls for much greater conservation effort to protect existing meadows.The knowledge base for Nordic eelgrass meadows is broad and sufficient to establish monitoring objectives across nine national borders. Nevertheless, ensuring awareness of their vulnerability remains challenging. Given the areal extent of Nordic eelgrass systems and the ecosystem services they provide, it is crucial to further develop incentives for protecting them. © 2014 The Authors. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26167100

  11. Exploring Muscle Activation during Nordic Walking: A Comparison between Conventional and Uphill Walking

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Bacchi, Elisabetta; Figard-Fabre, Hélène; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) owes much of its popularity to the benefits of greater energy expenditure and upper body engagement than found in conventional walking (W). Muscle activation during NW is still understudied, however. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in muscle activation and physiological responses between NW and W in level and uphill walking conditions. Nine expert Nordic Walkers (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; BMI 24.2±1.8 kg/m2) performed 5-minute treadmill trials of W and NW at 4 km/h on inclines of 0% and 15%. The electromyographic activity of seven upper body and five leg muscles and oxygen consumption (VO2) were recorded and pole force during NW was measured. VO2 during NW was 22.3% higher at 0% and only 6.9% higher at 15% than during W, while upper body muscle activation was 2- to 15-fold higher under both conditions. Lower body muscle activation was similarly increased during NW and W in the uphill condition, whereas the increase in erector spinae muscle activity was lower during NW than W. The lack of a significant increase in pole force during uphill walking may explain the lower extra energy expenditure of NW, indicating less upper body muscle activation to lift the body against gravity. NW seemed to reduce lower back muscle contraction in the uphill condition, suggesting that walking with poles may reduce effort to control trunk oscillations and could contribute to work production during NW. Although the difference in extra energy expenditure between NW and W was smaller in the uphill walking condition, the increased upper body muscle involvement during exercising with NW may confer additional benefit compared to conventional walking also on uphill terrains. Furthermore, people with low back pain may gain benefit from pole use when walking uphill. PMID:26418339

  12. Interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; HäKkinen, Sirpa

    2011-11-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multiyear warm events where temperature anomalies at 100 m depth exceed 0.4°C, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for 4 years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  13. Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjánsdóttir, Ása G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Background In preparing the fifth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), the scientific basis of specific food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was evaluated. Objective A systematic review (SR) was conducted to update the NNR evidence based on the association between the consumption of potatoes, berries, whole grains, milk and milk products, and red and processed meat, and the risk of major diet-related chronic diseases. Design The SR was based on predefined research questions and eligibility criteria for independent duplicate study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality and applicability. We considered scientific data from prospective observational studies and intervention studies, published since year 2000, targeting the general adult population. Studies of meat and iron status included children, adolescents, and women of childbearing age. Results Based on 7,282 abstracts, 57 studies met the quality criteria and were evidence graded. The data were too limited to draw any conclusions regarding: red and processed meat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and iron status; potatoes and berries regarding any study outcomes; and dairy consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer and CVD. However, dairy consumption seemed unlikely to increase CVD risk (moderate-grade evidence). There was probable evidence (moderate-grade) for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD, and suggestive evidence (low-grade) for colorectal cancer and for dairy consumption being associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of prostate cancer. The WCRF/AICR concludes that red and processed meat is a convincing cause of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Probable (moderate) evidence was only observed for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD. We identified a clear need for high-quality nutritional epidemiological and intervention studies and for studies of foods of the Nordic diet

  14. Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/Ca from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezat, M.; Rasmussen, T. L.; Groeneveld, J.

    2013-12-01

    Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/Ca from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr Mohamed M. Ezat1,2*, Tine L. Rasmussen1, Jeroen Groeneveld3 1 CAGE - Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, and Department of Geology, University of Tromsø, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway. 2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. 3 Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Klagenfurter Strasse, 28359, Bremen, Germany. * e-mail: mohamed.ezat@uit.no The climate during the last glacial period underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events of warm interstadials and cold stadials. DO events are manifested in marine and continental records in the circum-North Atlantic region and throughout the globe. Several studies suggest a crucial role of the Nordic seas in regulating the climate during the last glacial period. Previous studies from the Nordic seas revealed low benthic δ18O values during stadials and high values during interstadials. The causes of the depletions in benthic 18O during stadials are highly debated. Sinking of isotope depleted-brines formed due to sea ice production has previously been proposed. Another explanation has indicated warming of the intermediate water in the Nordic seas based on the finding of warm water benthic foraminiferal species during stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-based bottom water temperature (BWT) record from the Nordic seas that, along with other proxies, aims to resolve the hydrographic changes at intermediate water depth on DO timescale during the last 65 kyr. The results show pronounced and gradual BWT increases during all cold stadials followed by an abrupt drop to modern-like BWT at interstadials onsets. The increase in BWT, caused by the subsurface inflow of warm Atlantic intermediate water, substantially contributed to the halocline collapse and onset of interstadial conditions throughout complex ocean-sea ice

  15. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p < 0.0004). A 1-point increment in the healthy Nordic food index was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality: 6% (3-9%), cancer mortality: 5% (1-9%) and mortality from other causes: 16% (8-22%). When examining the diet components individually, only wholegrain bread and apples/pears were significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. We observed no effect-modification by smoking status, BMI or age at baseline. The present study encourages adherence to a healthy Nordic food index, and warrants further investigation of the strong association with non-cancer, non-cardiovascular and non-injury/suicide deaths. PMID:25784368

  16. Patterns of finasteride use in the male populations of four Nordic countries: A cross-national drug utilization study.

    PubMed

    Kjærulff, T M; Ersbøll, A K; Green, A; Emneus, M; Pukkala, E; Bolin, K; Stavem, K; Iversen, P; Brasso, K; Hallas, J; Thygesen, L C

    2016-06-01

    Objective Finasteride 5 mg is a drug used to treat prostate hyperplasia. Little is known about its pattern of usage. This cross-national analysis of individual-level data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was undertaken to appraise its usage and describe cross-national differences. Materials and methods Individual-level data from nationwide prescription registers in Denmark (1995-2009), Finland (1997-2010), Norway (2004-2009) and Sweden (July 2005-2011) were used to examine cross-national finasteride utilization patterns in the adult male population (≥15 years). The study presents period prevalences, incidence rates, waiting time distributions and Lorenz curves. Results During the study period, 295,620 men had at least one prescription redemption of finasteride 5 mg, and there were approximately 3 million dispensing events of finasteride prescriptions in the four Nordic countries. Different patterns of finasteride use were observed among the four Nordic countries. The period prevalence was markedly higher in Finland and Sweden than in Denmark and Norway. In 2009, period prevalences were 18.2/1000 males in Finland and 12.0/1000 males in Sweden compared to 6.7/1000 males in Norway and 4.9/1000 males in Denmark. Incidence rates of finasteride use for Finland, Norway and Sweden were about three times that for Denmark in 2008-2009. Long-term use of finasteride was found in all four Nordic countries with a high ratio between prevalent and incident users. Conclusion Despite resemblances regarding political systems and healthcare services in the Nordic countries, differences in finasteride utilization were found across Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. PMID:26901820

  17. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p < 0.0004). A 1-point increment in the healthy Nordic food index was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality: 6% (3-9%), cancer mortality: 5% (1-9%) and mortality from other causes: 16% (8-22%). When examining the diet components individually, only wholegrain bread and apples/pears were significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. We observed no effect-modification by smoking status, BMI or age at baseline. The present study encourages adherence to a healthy Nordic food index, and warrants further investigation of the strong association with non-cancer, non-cardiovascular and non-injury/suicide deaths.

  18. The National Resource Library for Science and Technology in Sweden: A Nordic model of cooperating technology libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagar, Gunnar

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this presentation is to give a state-of-the-art report on the present situation of Nordic technology libraries, to elaborate on a plan for national resource libraries in Sweden, and to share how the Royal Institute of Technology Library in Stockholm (KTHB) has fostered a network of cooperating libraries in order to optimize government funding for the system of resource libraries.

  19. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients. PMID:27190455

  20. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients.

  1. Sensitivity of the North Atlantic Ocean Circulation to an abrupt change in the Nordic Sea overflow in a high resolution global coupled climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Delworth, Thomas L.; Rosati, Anthony; Anderson, Whit G.; Dixon, Keith W.; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Zeng, Fanrong

    2011-12-01

    The sensitivity of the North Atlantic Ocean Circulation to an abrupt change in the Nordic Sea overflow is investigated for the first time using a high resolution eddy-permitting global coupled ocean-atmosphere model (GFDL CM2.5). The Nordic Sea overflow is perturbed through the change of the bathymetry in GFDL CM2.5. We analyze the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) adjustment process and the downstream oceanic response to the perturbation. The results suggest that north of 34°N, AMOC changes induced by changes in the Nordic Sea overflow propagate on the slow tracer advection timescale, instead of the fast Kelvin wave timescale, resulting in a time lead of several years between subpolar and subtropical AMOC changes. The results also show that a stronger and deeper-penetrating Nordic Sea overflow leads to stronger and deeper AMOC, stronger northward ocean heat transport, reduced Labrador Sea deep convection, stronger cyclonic Northern Recirculation Gyre (NRG), westward shift of the North Atlantic Current (NAC) and southward shift of the Gulf Stream, warmer sea surface temperature (SST) east of Newfoundland and colder SST south of the Grand Banks, stronger and deeper NAC and Gulf Stream, and stronger oceanic eddy activities along the NAC and the Gulf Stream paths. A stronger/weaker Nordic Sea overflow also leads to a contracted/expanded subpolar gyre (SPG). This sensitivity study points to the important role of the Nordic Sea overflow in the large scale North Atlantic ocean circulation, and it is crucial for climate models to have a correct representation of the Nordic Sea overflow.

  2. Vinflunine treatment in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer: A Nordic retrospective multicenter analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmsten, Karin; Dohn, Line; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Shah, Carl-Henrik; Jäderling, Fredrik; Pappot, Helle; Ullén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, vinflunine was introduced as a second-line treatment to be used after the failure of platinum therapy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). The present study investigated the administered vinflunine to patients with mUC in standard clinical practice with the aim of evaluating treatment patterns, response, survival parameters and side-effects. Data were collected retrospectively from the first 100 mUC patients treated with vinflunine at three Nordic cancer centers associated with the Nordic Urothelial Cancer Oncology Group. The overall response rate was 23% and complete response was observed in one patient. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 2.8 (range, 0.5–34.3) and 6.3 (range, 0.3–39.7) months, respectively. An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 2 was present in 20% of the patients, and those patients exhibited significantly shorter mOS (4.1 vs. 7.0 months, P=0.001) and a significantly higher degree of grade 3/4 toxicity (P=0.026) compared with ECOG PS 0–1 patients. Furthermore, patients without visceral metastases had significantly longer mOS than patients with visceral metastases (10.6 vs. 6.0 months, P=0.008). The median number of cycles of vinflunine was 3 (range, 1–28). The current data confirms that vinflunine is an active agent for second-line treatment in an unselected clinical cohort of patients with mUC. ECOG PS and presence of visceral metastases were significant prognostic parameters. In particular, patients with ECOG PS 2 receiving vinflunine had a shorter mOS and a higher frequency of severe toxicity, and, thus, should be treated with caution. Furthermore, the present study observed large inter-individual differences in radiological response and OS, indicating the need for further development of improved patient selection tools to optimize vinflunine treatment in platinum-refractory mUC patients. PMID:27446429

  3. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Klaus; Salmenhaara, Seppo; Backe, Steinar; Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan; Callander, Clas; Efraimsson, Henrik; Andersson, Inga; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2007-07-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and

  4. Across-country test-day model evaluations for Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lidauer, Martin H; Pösö, Jukka; Pedersen, Jørn; Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Per; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Nielsen, Ulrik S; Eriksson, Jan-Åke; Johansson, Kjell; Pitkänen, Timo; Strandén, Ismo; Aamand, Gert P

    2015-02-01

    Three random regression models were developed for routine genetic evaluation of Danish, Finnish, and Swedish dairy cattle. Data included over 169 million test-day records with milk, protein, and fat yield observations from over 8.7 million dairy cows of all breeds. Variance component analyses showed significant differences in estimates between Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey, but only small to moderate differences within a breed across countries. The obtained variance component estimates were used to build, for each breed, their own set of covariance functions. The covariance functions describe the animal effects on milk, protein, and fat yields of the first 3 lactations as 9 different traits, assuming the same heritabilities and a genetic correlation of unity across countries. Only 15, 27, and 7 eigenfunctions with the largest eigenvalues were used to describe additive genetic animal effects and nonhereditary animal effects across lactations and within later lactations, respectively. These reduced-rank covariance functions explained 99.0 to 99.9% of the original variances but reduced the number of animal equations to be solved by 44%. Moderate rank reduction for nonhereditary animal effects and use of one-third-smaller measurement error correlations than obtained from variance component estimation made the models more robust against extreme observations. Estimation of the genetic levels of the countries' subpopulations within a breed was found sensitive to the way the breed effects were modeled, especially for the genetically heterogeneous Nordic Red Cattle. Means to ensure that only additive genetic effects entered the estimated breeding values were to describe the crossbreeding effects by fixed and random cofactors and the calving age effect by an age × breed proportion interaction, and to model phantom parent groups as random effects. To ensure that genetic variances were the same across the 3 countries in breeding value estimation, as suggested by the

  5. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment. PMID:22874538

  6. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.

  7. Genetic diversity of allozymes in turnip (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa) from the Nordic area.

    PubMed

    Persson, K; Fält, A S; von Bothmer, R

    2001-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships based on isozymes were studied in 31 accessions of turnip (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa). The material included varieties, elite stocks, landraces and older turnip of slash-and-burn type from the Nordic area. A total of 9 isozyme loci and 26 alleles were studied. The isozyme systems were ACO, DIA, GPI, GOT, PGM, PGD and SKD. The level of heterozygosity was reduced in the landraces, but it was high for the variety group 'Ostersundom'. Turnip has a higher genetic variation than other crops within B. rapa and than in other species with the same breeding system. The genetic diversity showed that 18.7% of the genetic variation was within the accessions, and the total H tau value was 0.358. Gpi-I and Pgd-I showed the lowest variation compared with the other loci. The cluster analysis revealed five clusters, with one main cluster including 25 of the 31 accessions. The dendrogram indicated that the variety group 'Ostersundom' clustered together whereas the variety group 'Bortfelder' was associated with country of origin. The landraces were spread in different clusters. The 'slash-and-burn' type of turnip belonged to two groups.

  8. Krafting an agreement: Negotiations to reduce pollution from the Nordic pulp industry, 1985--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, M.R.

    1996-05-01

    International environmental accords frequently contain obligations that may be easily satisfied by their signatories. Observers have speculated why it is in a state`s interests to sign agreements that lack strict conditions, but policy analysts lack a coherent model explaining how such agreements are formalized. Knowledge, values, and authority are key forces that elucidate how environmental accords are developed with provisions that are easily executable. This dissertation examines the formulation of Helsinki Commission recommendations to reduce emissions of organochlorines from Nordic kraft pulp mills. The kraft pulp industry, the largest industrial pollution emitter to the Baltic Sea, is also a crucial foreign exchange earner for both Sweden and Finland. Hence, Swedes and Finns were the most active participants in regional negotiations to reduce organochlorine emissions. Key variable analysis explains how obstacles in various regional negotiations were overcome, and how parties constructed a recommendation with obligations that could be easily accommodated. The two sides never agreed about the level of risk posed by organochlorines in the marine environment. This problem influenced the strictness of pollution limits specified in the final agreement. But, the parties overcame formidable obstacles in the negotiations, including: (1) concerns about costs to industry and competitive disadvantages in the pulp and paper sector; (2) disagreement about technologies to combat the problem; and (3) domestic rule-making schedules that were out of sync.

  9. Dietary intake and thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers during different training periods.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M; Rehunen, S; Gref, C G; Laakso, J T; Lehto, J; Ruokonen, I; Himberg, J J

    1992-12-01

    This study evaluated how different training periods affect dietary intake and biochemical indices of thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers. Subjects were 17 skiers and 39 controls, ages 18-38 yrs. Dietary data were collected by 7-day food records at 3-month intervals. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to indicate magnitude of seasonal changes. Energy intake for the year (28 food record days) was 3,802 kcal/day (CV 19.1%) in male skiers, 2,754 kcal/day (CV 3.7%) in male controls, 2,812 kcal/day (CV 9.1%) in female skiers, and 2,013 kcal/day (CV 5.9%) in female controls. CVs for thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc intake were 14.1-23.9% (male skiers), 2.9-15.0% (male controls), 4.8-24.5% (female skiers), and 4.3-11.5% (female controls). Seasonal changes in energy, carbohydrate, and micronutrient intakes reflected energy expenditure in male endurance athletes particularly. Erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficients and serum ferritin and zinc concentrations did not differ between skiers and controls. Seasonal variations in these biochemical indices of nutritional status were of the same magnitude in skiers and controls, despite large changes in skiers' physical activity.

  10. Nordic Lightning Information System: Thunderstorm climate of Northern Europe for the period 2002-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Enno, Sven-Erik; Haapalainen, Jussi

    2014-03-01

    A 10-year statistics (2002-2011) of the Nordic Lightning Information System (NORDLIS) are presented. NORDLIS is a joined lightning location network between Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia, comprising in 2011 of 32 lightning location sensors. Our data set contains a total of 4,121,649 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. We show the regional and temporal distribution of lightning in Northern Europe during the study period. Our results indicate that the average annual ground flash density values are greatest in Southern Sweden, Baltic countries and Western Finland. The average number of thunderstorm days is largest in the Baltic countries and Southwestern Sweden, and the annual number of ground flashes has varied during the study period from 250,000 to 620,000. The largest observed daily number of ground flashes is 51,500, and the largest daily ground flash density is about 5 CGs km- 2; this has occurred in southern Sweden in July 2003. The average daily number of ground flashes peaks in mid-July-early-August. Cold season (October-April) thunderstorms occur frequently over the North Sea west of Norway and in the west coast of Denmark. Our results also show that an intense thunderstorm may occur practically anywhere in the Northern Europe except for certain maritime and mountain areas.

  11. [Comparison of kinematic and kinetic parameters between the locomotion patterns in nordic walking, walking and running].

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, F I; Michel, K J; Schwarz, J; Krabbe, B

    2006-03-01

    Based on a higher cardio-pulmonary and cardio-vascular benefit and a promised reduction of mechanical load of the musculoskeletal system Nordic Walking (NW) shows an increased market potential. The present study should investigate whether there are biomechanical differences between the locomotion patterns NW, walking and running. Moreover possible resultant load differences should be determined. Eleven subjects, who were already experienced with the NW-technique, participated in this experiment. The kinematic data were collected using two high-speed camera systems from posterior and from lateral at the same time. Simultaneously the ground reaction forces were recorded. The kinematic and the kinetic data reveal differences between the three analyzed locomotion patterns. For NW as well as walking the mechanical load of the lower extremity is lower compared to running. None of the kinematic parameters suggest a "physiological benefit" of NW compared to walking. Moreover NW shows higher vertical and horizontal forces during landing. Exclusively the lower vertical force peak during push off indicates a lower mechanical load for NW in comparison to walking. Consequently it is questionable is NW -- based on its promised "biomechanical benefits" compared to walking -- should be still recommended for overweight people and for people with existing musculoskeletal problems of the lower limb.

  12. Inverse dynamic analysis of the lower extremities during nordic walking, walking, and running.

    PubMed

    Stief, Felix; Kleindienst, Frank I; Wiemeyer, Josef; Wedel, Florian; Campe, Sebastian; Krabbe, Berthold

    2008-11-01

    Compared with walking (W), Nordic walking (NW) exhibits greater cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular benefits. Some authors conjecture that compared with W or running (R), NW imposes smaller mechanical loads on the musculoskeletal system. The purpose of the current study was to quantify any differences in joint loading of the lower extremities among NW, W, and R. Fifteen experienced adults participated. Kinematic and force measurements were combined using an inverse dynamics approach to yield joint moments. The results showed no biomechanical benefit of NW. Instead, NW involved greater knee joint loading just after heel strike compared with W. This was due to the longer steps and the higher sole angle during the first part of the stance phase. The sagittal and frontal plane moments were smaller for NW compared with R, but in the transverse plane, the ankle moments were greater in NW than in W or R. Based on these results, NW is not recommended as an exercise for persons who seek to reduce biomechanical loading of the lower extremities.

  13. Genetic diversity of allozymes in turnip (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa) from the Nordic area.

    PubMed

    Persson, K; Fält, A S; von Bothmer, R

    2001-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships based on isozymes were studied in 31 accessions of turnip (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa). The material included varieties, elite stocks, landraces and older turnip of slash-and-burn type from the Nordic area. A total of 9 isozyme loci and 26 alleles were studied. The isozyme systems were ACO, DIA, GPI, GOT, PGM, PGD and SKD. The level of heterozygosity was reduced in the landraces, but it was high for the variety group 'Ostersundom'. Turnip has a higher genetic variation than other crops within B. rapa and than in other species with the same breeding system. The genetic diversity showed that 18.7% of the genetic variation was within the accessions, and the total H tau value was 0.358. Gpi-I and Pgd-I showed the lowest variation compared with the other loci. The cluster analysis revealed five clusters, with one main cluster including 25 of the 31 accessions. The dendrogram indicated that the variety group 'Ostersundom' clustered together whereas the variety group 'Bortfelder' was associated with country of origin. The landraces were spread in different clusters. The 'slash-and-burn' type of turnip belonged to two groups. PMID:11525064

  14. Human epididymis protein 4 reference limits and natural variation in a Nordic reference population.

    PubMed

    Bolstad, Nils; Øijordsbakken, Miriam; Nustad, Kjell; Bjerner, Johan

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study are to establish reference limits for human epididymis protein 4, HE4, and investigate factors influencing HE4 levels in healthy subjects. HE4 was measured in 1,591 samples from the Nordic Reference Interval Project Bio-bank and Database biobank, using the manual HE4 EIA (Fujirebio) for 802 samples and the Architect HE4 (Abbott) for 792 samples. Reference limits were calculated using the statistical software R. The influence of donor characteristics such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, and creatinine on HE4 levels was investigated using a multivariate model. The study showed that age is the main determinant of HE4 in healthy subjects, corresponding to 2% higher HE4 levels at 30 years (compared to 20 years), 9% at 40 years, 20% at 50 years, 37% at 60 years, 63% at 70 years, and 101% at 80 years. HE4 levels are 29% higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. In conclusion, HE4 levels in healthy subjects are associated with age and smoking status. Age-dependent reference limits are suggested.

  15. Costs and Quality at the Hospital Level in the Nordic Countries.

    PubMed

    Kittelsen, Sverre A C; Anthun, Kjartan S; Goude, Fanny; Huitfeldt, Ingrid M S; Häkkinen, Unto; Kruse, Marie; Medin, Emma; Rehnberg, Clas; Rättö, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This article develops and analyzes patient register-based measures of quality for the major Nordic countries. Previous studies show that Finnish hospitals have significantly higher average productivity than hospitals in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway and also a substantial variation within each country. This paper examines whether quality differences can form part of the explanation and attempts to uncover quality-cost trade-offs. Data on costs and discharges in each diagnosis-related group for 160 acute hospitals in 2008-2009 were collected. Patient register-based measures of quality such as readmissions, mortality (in hospital or outside), and patient safety indices were developed and case-mix adjusted. Productivity is estimated using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis. Results indicate that case-mix adjustment is important, and there are significant differences in the case-mix adjusted performance measures as well as in productivity both at the national and hospital levels. For most quality indicators, the performance measures reveal room for improvement. There is a weak but statistical significant trade-off between productivity and inpatient readmissions within 30 days but a tendency that hospitals with high 30-day mortality also have higher costs. Hence, no clear cost-quality trade-off pattern was discovered. Patient registers can be used and developed to improve future quality and cost comparisons. PMID:26633873

  16. Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Stigell, Erik; Schantz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year. PMID:26690193

  17. Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerke, Jarle W.; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Arild Høgda, Kjell; Malnes, Eirik; Jepsen, Jane U.; Lovibond, Sarah; Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Tømmervik, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The release of cold temperature constraints on photosynthesis has led to increased productivity (greening) in significant parts (32-39%) of the Arctic, but much of the Arctic shows stable (57-64%) or reduced productivity (browning, <4%). Summer drought and wildfires are the best-documented drivers causing browning of continental areas, but factors dampening the greening effect of more maritime regions have remained elusive. Here we show how multiple anomalous weather events severely affected the terrestrial productivity during one water year (October 2011-September 2012) in a maritime region north of the Arctic Circle, the Nordic Arctic Region, and contributed to the lowest mean vegetation greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) recorded this century. Procedures for field data sampling were designed during or shortly after the events in order to assess both the variability in effects and the maximum effects of the stressors. Outbreaks of insect and fungal pests also contributed to low greenness. Vegetation greenness in 2012 was 6.8% lower than the 2000-11 average and 58% lower in the worst affected areas that were under multiple stressors. These results indicate the importance of events (some being mostly neglected in climate change effect studies and monitoring) for primary productivity in a high-latitude maritime region, and highlight the importance of monitoring plant damage in the field and including frequencies of stress events in models of carbon economy and ecosystem change in the Arctic. Fourteen weather events and anomalies and 32 hypothesized impacts on plant productivity are summarized as an aid for directing future research.

  18. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010

    PubMed Central

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen Pagh, Trine; Augustine, Lilly; Ojala, Kristiina; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries. Methods The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002–2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002–2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006–2009/2010 for both sweet and soft

  19. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  20. Changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic countries between 1997 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Holm, Lotte; Lauridsen, Drude; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Gronow, Jukka; Niva, Mari; Mäkelä, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    How have eating patterns changed in modern life? In public and academic debate concern has been expressed that the social function of eating may be challenged by de-structuration and the dissolution of traditions. We analyzed changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic countries over the period 1997-2012. We focused on three interlinked processes often claimed to be distinctive of modern eating: delocalization of eating from private households to commercial settings, individualization in the form of more eating alone, and informalization, implying more casual codes of conduct. We based the analysis on data from two surveys conducted in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1997 and 2012. The surveys reported in detail one day of eating in representative samples of adult populations in the four countries (N = 4823 and N = 8242). We compared data regarding where, with whom, and for how long people ate, and whether parallel activities took place while eating. While Nordic people's primary location for eating remained the home and the workplace, the practices of eating in haste, and while watching television increased and using tablets, computers and smartphones while eating was frequent in 2012. Propensity to eat alone increased slightly in Denmark and Norway, and decreased slightly in Sweden. While such practices vary with socio-economic background, regression analysis showed several changes were common across the Nordic populations. However, the new practice of using tablets, computers, and smartphones while eating was strongly associated with young age. Further, each of the practices appeared to be related to different types of meal. We conclude that while the changes in the social organization of eating were not dramatic, signs of individualization and informalization could be detected. PMID:27131417

  1. Expert Nordic perspectives on the potential of novel inhalers to overcome unmet needs in the management of obstructive lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Løkke, Anders; Ahlbeck, Lars; Bjermer, Leif; Mortensen, Jann; Østrem, Anders; Pasternack, Iris; Safioti, Guilherme; Torvinen, Saku

    2015-01-01

    The effective self-management of obstructive lung disease is dependent upon the patient achieving good inhaler technique. However, many current inhalers are complicated to use, which may lead to handling difficulties. These difficulties can cause clinically relevant errors, whereby pharmacotherapy fails to achieve adequate lung deposition and therapeutic effect. In this report, the potential of novel inhaler devices to overcome unmet needs in the management of obstructive lung disease is considered by a panel of Nordic experts. The panel concludes that innovative inhalers can contribute to good disease management and better use of healthcare resources. PMID:26689215

  2. [Tuberculosis a threat again. Multiresistance in the Baltic States and in Russia; Nordic countries initiate cooperation to prevent transmission].

    PubMed

    Rutqvist, A; Boman, G; Ekdahl, K; Hoffner, S; Julander, I; Larsson, L O; Ridell, M

    2000-11-29

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has more than doubled in the Baltic States during the last decade and is now 10-15 times higher than in Sweden. It is also a serious problem in Russia. Strains resistant to one or several of the anti-tuberculous drugs are common as is multi-drug resistance (MDR), i.e. strains resistant to the two most effective drugs rifampicin and isoniazid. MDR-TB is very difficult to treat; the mortality rate is high. Initiatives have been taken in the Nordic countries in order to help to control and improve the situation by way of supportive measures. PMID:11187376

  3. Expert Nordic perspectives on the potential of novel inhalers to overcome unmet needs in the management of obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Løkke, Anders; Ahlbeck, Lars; Bjermer, Leif; Mortensen, Jann; Østrem, Anders; Pasternack, Iris; Safioti, Guilherme; Torvinen, Saku

    2015-01-01

    The effective self-management of obstructive lung disease is dependent upon the patient achieving good inhaler technique. However, many current inhalers are complicated to use, which may lead to handling difficulties. These difficulties can cause clinically relevant errors, whereby pharmacotherapy fails to achieve adequate lung deposition and therapeutic effect. In this report, the potential of novel inhaler devices to overcome unmet needs in the management of obstructive lung disease is considered by a panel of Nordic experts. The panel concludes that innovative inhalers can contribute to good disease management and better use of healthcare resources.

  4. Home care patients in four Nordic capitals - predictors of nursing home admission during one-year followup.

    PubMed

    Sørbye, Liv W; Hamran, Torunn; Henriksen, Nils; Norberg, Astrid

    2010-03-24

    The aim was to predict nursing home admission (NHA) for home care patients after a 12-month follow-up study. This Nordic study is derived from the aged in home care (AdHOC) project conducted in 2001-2003 with patients at 11 sites in Europe. The participants in the cohort study were randomly selected individuals, aged 65 years or older, receiving homecare in Oslo, Stockholm, Copenhagen, and Reykjavik. The Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (version 2.0) was used. Epidemiological and medical characteristics of patients and service utilization were recorded for 1508 home care patients (participation rate 74%). In this sample 75% were female. The mean age was 82.1 (6.9) years for men and 84.0 (6.6) for women. The most consistent predictor of NHA was receiving skilled nursing procedures at baseline (help with medication and injections, administration or help with oxygen, intravenous, catheter and stoma care, wounds and skin care) (adjusted odds ratio = 3.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.7-7.8; P < 0.001). In this Nordic material, stronger emphasizing on higher qualified nurses in a home care setting could prevent or delay NHA.

  5. Systematic Literature Review on ICF From 2001 to 2013 in the Nordic Countries Focusing on Clinical and Rehabilitation Context.

    PubMed

    Maribo, Thomas; Petersen, Kirsten S; Handberg, Charlotte; Melchiorsen, Hanne; Momsen, Anne-Mette H; Nielsen, Claus V; Leonardi, Matilde; Labriola, Merete

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic review on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) used in the Nordic countries from 2001 through 2013, describing and quantifying the development in utilization of ICF, and describe the extent to which the different components of the ICF have been used. A search was conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycInfo. Papers from Nordic countries were included if ICF was mentioned in title or abstract. Papers were assigned to one of eight categories covering the wide rehabilitation area; furthermore, area of focus was assigned. Use of ICF components and intervention were coded in papers categorized as "clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts" or "non-clinical contexts". One hundred seventy papers were included, of these 99 papers were from the categories "clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts" or "non-clinical contexts". Forty-two percent of the 170 included papers were published in the period 2011 - 2013. There was an increase in ICF-relevant papers from 2001 to 2013, especially in the categories "clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts" and "non-clinical contexts". The most represented focus areas were neurology, musculoskeletal, and work-related areas. All five or at least four ICF components were mentioned in the results or discussions in most papers, and activity was most frequently mentioned.

  6. The integration of gender in medical research and education-obstacles and possibilities from a Nordic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Research on women's issues in medicine was developed in the Nordic countries from the beginning of the 1980s. The theoretical developments led to a change of concepts from women's health to gender research, within which the structurally organised relations between men and women are analysed. Over the last decades, gender research has slowly been established in medical faculties, as a result of a strong political commitment for increased research and integration of gender issues in the university curriculum in Sweden. The government has made substantial investments in order to stimulate gender research and education in different disciplines, with special focus on medicine. Academic medicine has responded to this development with different strategies, including resistance and redefining concepts. Gender research has slowly become integrated into both research and teaching within Nordic academic medicine, although the pathway has not been easy. Gender research has had political support but there is a risk of backlash. Medical students' reactions to gender education can be compared with academic medicine's reactions towards gender research. Obstacles and possibilities are described in relation to teaching gender in schools of medicine. Most important is to recognise the risks for increased gender stereotypes and increased essentialism among the students, unless gender is taught from a theoretical perspective. PMID:12956218

  7. Ambiguity of the embryo protection in the Human Rights and Biomedicine Convention: experiences from the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Walin, Laura

    2007-07-01

    Until 1998 research on in vitro human embryos concentrated on the issues related to assisted reproduction. The situation changed dramatically when the first scientific report on the laboratory culture of human embryonic stem cells was published. This scientific breakthrough with new therapeutic promises put human embryo into a new, more vulnerable position. Combined with creation of embryos via somatic cell nuclear transfer, it inveigles into mass production of embryos, first for scientific purposes, but later perhaps for the healing of people. This article examines the efficacy of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine in protecting embryos in this new era of embryo research. The interpretative latitude of Article 18 of the Convention is demonstrated, and legislation in three Nordic countries with highly variable approach to embryo research regulation is analysed. I examine how this divergence is possible in the light of the Convention text. In the end, potential reasons for variation in regulation in the otherwise similar Nordic countries are discussed, as well as under what conditions harmonisation of regulation on embryo research, a highly value-charged matter, could be possible at the European level.

  8. Systematic Literature Review on ICF From 2001 to 2013 in the Nordic Countries Focusing on Clinical and Rehabilitation Context

    PubMed Central

    Maribo, Thomas; Petersen, Kirsten S.; Handberg, Charlotte; Melchiorsen, Hanne; Momsen, Anne-Mette H.; Nielsen, Claus V.; Leonardi, Matilde; Labriola, Merete

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic review on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) used in the Nordic countries from 2001 through 2013, describing and quantifying the development in utilization of ICF, and describe the extent to which the different components of the ICF have been used. A search was conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycInfo. Papers from Nordic countries were included if ICF was mentioned in title or abstract. Papers were assigned to one of eight categories covering the wide rehabilitation area; furthermore, area of focus was assigned. Use of ICF components and intervention were coded in papers categorized as “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” or “non-clinical contexts”. One hundred seventy papers were included, of these 99 papers were from the categories “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” or “non-clinical contexts”. Forty-two percent of the 170 included papers were published in the period 2011 - 2013. There was an increase in ICF-relevant papers from 2001 to 2013, especially in the categories “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” and “non-clinical contexts”. The most represented focus areas were neurology, musculoskeletal, and work-related areas. All five or at least four ICF components were mentioned in the results or discussions in most papers, and activity was most frequently mentioned. PMID:26668676

  9. Mechanical Degradation of Aggregate by the Los Angeles-, the Micro-Deval- and the Nordic Test Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erichsen, E.; Ulvik, A.; Sævik, K.

    2011-05-01

    The quality of aggregate used as buildings materials is defined by European Standard test methods. According to the agreement within the European Economic Area, each individual country decides test methods of current interest. Among the Nordic countries, the Los Angeles-, micro-Deval- and the Nordic test are the most common methods used to decide the mechanical properties of the aggregate. The three test methods are all drum test where the degradation of the material occur by rotation between the test material and steel balls together with, or without water. The mechanical test methods are empirical and are believed to express either resistance to fragmentation or wearing. The results of this study show that analysing the particle size distribution of a material after the drum testing give indication of which type and degree of degradation the test material is exposed to. Knowledge of the type of degradation for the test methods is important compared to the understanding of the real breakdown of the aggregate for instance used in road construction.

  10. An assessment of the added value from data assimilation on modelled Nordic Seas hydrography and ocean transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Vidar S.; Hjøllo, Solfrid S.; Skogen, Morten D.; Svendsen, Einar; Wehde, Henning; Bertino, Laurent; Counillon, Francois; Chevallier, Matthieu; Garric, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    The Nordic Seas is a hotspot both in terms of climate related processes, such as Atlantic-Arctic heat exchange, and natural marine resources. A sustainable management of the marine resources within the Nordic Seas, including the co-existence between fisheries and petroleum industries, requires detailed information on the state of the ocean within an operational framework and beyond what is obtainable from observations only. Numerical ocean models applying data assimilation techniques are utilized to address this need. Subsequently, comprehensive comparisons between model results and observations are required in order to assess the model performance. Here, we apply a set of objective statistics to quantitatively assess the added value of data assimilation in numerical ocean models that are currently used operationally. The results indicate that the inclusion of data assimilation improves the model performance both in terms of hydrographic properties and volume and heat transports. Furthermore, we find that increasing the resolution towards eddy resolving resolution performs similarly to coarser resolution models applying data assimilation in shelf areas.

  11. Sensitivity of free tropospheric carbon monoxide to atmospheric weather states and their persistency: an observational assessment over the Nordic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. A.; Devasthale, A.

    2014-04-01

    Among various factors that influence the long-range transport of pollutants in the free troposphere (FT), the prevailing atmospheric weather states probably play the most important role in governing characteristics and efficacy of such transport. The weather states, such as a particular wind pattern, cyclonic or anticyclonic conditions etc, and their degree of persistency determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the final fate of the pollutants. This is especially true in the case of Nordic countries, where baroclinic disturbances and associated weather fronts primarily regulate local meteorology, in contrast to the lower latitudes where convective paradigm plays similar important role. Furthermore, the long-range transport of pollutants in the FT has significant contribution to the total column burden over the Nordic countries. However, there is insufficient knowledge on the large-scale co-variability of pollutants in the FT and atmospheric weather states based solely on observational data over this region. The present study attempts to quantify and understand this statistical co-variability while providing relevant meteorological background. To that end, we select eight weather states that predominantly occur over the Nordic countries and three periods of their persistency (3 days, 5 days, and 7 days), thus providing in total 24 cases to investigate sensitivity of free tropospheric carbon monoxide, an ideal tracer for studying pollutant transport, to these selected weather states. The eight states include four dominant wind directions (namely, NW, NE, SE and SW), cyclonic and anticyclonic conditions, and the enhanced positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). For our sensitivity analysis, we use recently released Version 6 retrievals of CO at 500 hPa from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Aqua satellite covering 11 yr period from September 2002 through August 2013 and winds from the ECMWF's ERA-Interim project to

  12. Sensitivity of free tropospheric carbon monoxide to atmospheric weather states and their persistency: an observational assessment over the Nordic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. A.; Devasthale, A.

    2014-11-01

    Among various factors that influence the long-range transport of pollutants in the free troposphere (FT), the prevailing atmospheric weather states probably play the most important role in governing characteristics and efficacy of such transport. The weather states, such as a particular wind pattern, cyclonic or anticyclonic conditions, and their degree of persistency determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the final fate of the pollutants. This is especially true in the case of Nordic countries, where baroclinic disturbances and associated weather fronts primarily regulate local meteorology, in contrast to the lower latitudes where a convective paradigm plays a similarly important role. Furthermore, the long-range transport of pollutants in the FT has significant contribution to the total column burden over the Nordic countries. However, there is insufficient knowledge on the large-scale co-variability of pollutants in the FT and atmospheric weather states based solely on observational data over this region. The present study attempts to quantify and understand this statistical co-variability while providing relevant meteorological background. To that end, we select eight weather states that predominantly occur over the Nordic countries and three periods of their persistency (3 days, 5 days, and 7 days), thus providing in total 24 cases to investigate sensitivity of free tropospheric carbon monoxide, an ideal tracer for studying pollutant transport, to these selected weather states. The eight states include four dominant wind directions (namely, NW, NE, SE and SW), cyclonic and anticyclonic conditions, and the enhanced positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). For our sensitivity analysis, we use recently released Version 6 retrievals of CO at 500 hPa from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Aqua satellite covering the 11-year period from September 2002 through August 2013 and winds from the ECMWF's ERA

  13. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners' attitudes towards keeping horses in groups.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Christensen, J W; Hyyppä, S; Jansson, H; Jørgensen, G H M; Ladewig, J; Mejdell, C M; Norling, Y; Rundgren, M; Särkijärvi, S; Søndergaard, E; Keeling, L J

    2015-09-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is available about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners' attitudes toward keeping horses in groups. Horse owners in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were approached using a web-based questionnaire, which was translated into 4 languages and distributed online via equestrian forums, organizations, and social media. The number of respondents was 3,229, taking care of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority of respondents (86%) strongly agreed that group housing benefits horse welfare and that it is important for horses to have the company of conspecifics (92%). Nevertheless, not all horses were kept in groups, showing that attitudes toward group housing may not necessarily reflect current management. The risk of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling group-kept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest that the majority of horses have the possibility to freely interact with other horses, either as fulltime members of a group during 24 h/d or during turnout. Future research should

  14. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  15. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners' attitudes towards keeping horses in groups.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Christensen, J W; Hyyppä, S; Jansson, H; Jørgensen, G H M; Ladewig, J; Mejdell, C M; Norling, Y; Rundgren, M; Särkijärvi, S; Søndergaard, E; Keeling, L J

    2015-09-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is available about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners' attitudes toward keeping horses in groups. Horse owners in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were approached using a web-based questionnaire, which was translated into 4 languages and distributed online via equestrian forums, organizations, and social media. The number of respondents was 3,229, taking care of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority of respondents (86%) strongly agreed that group housing benefits horse welfare and that it is important for horses to have the company of conspecifics (92%). Nevertheless, not all horses were kept in groups, showing that attitudes toward group housing may not necessarily reflect current management. The risk of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling group-kept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest that the majority of horses have the possibility to freely interact with other horses, either as fulltime members of a group during 24 h/d or during turnout. Future research should

  16. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  17. Why might regional vaccinology networks fail? The case of the Dutch-Nordic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Blume, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed an attempt to develop and clinically test a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the developing world, undertaken by public health institutions from the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland: the Dutch Nordic Consortium (DNC), between 1990 and 2000. Our review shows that the premature termination of the project was due less to technological and scientific challenges and more to managerial challenges and institutional policies. Various impeding events, financial and managerial challenges gradually soured the initially enthusiastic collaborative spirit until near the end the consortium struggled to complete the minimum objectives of the project. By the end of 1998, a tetravalent prototype vaccine had been made that proved safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 trials in adults and toddlers in Finland. The planned next step, to test the vaccine in Asia in infants, did not meet approval by the local authorities in Vietnam nor later in the Philippines and the project eventually stopped.The Dutch DNC member, the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) learned important lessons, which subsequently were applied in a following vaccine technology transfer project, resulting in the availability at affordable prices for the developing world of a conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b. We conclude that vaccine development in the public domain with technology transfer as its ultimate aim requires major front-end funding, committed leadership at the highest institutional level sustained for many years and a competent recipient-manufacturer, which needs to be involved at a very early stage of the development.At the national level, RIVM's policy to consolidate its national manufacturing task through securing a key global health position in support of a network of public vaccine manufacturers proved insufficiently supported by the relevant ministries of the Dutch government. Difficulties to keep up with high costs, high

  18. Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero; Aspholm, Rafael; Auvinen, Anssi; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hrafnkelsson, Jón; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tveten, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence of cancer among male airline pilots in the Nordic countries, with special reference to risk related to cosmic radiation. Design Retrospective cohort study, with follow up of cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Participants 10 032 male airline pilots, with an average follow up of 17 years. Main outcome measures Standardised incidence ratios, with expected numbers based on national cancer incidence rates; dose-response analysis using Poisson regression. Results 466 cases of cancer were diagnosed compared with 456 expected. The only significantly increased standardised incidence ratios were for skin cancer: melanoma 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.0), non-melanoma 2.1 (1.7 to 2.8), basal cell carcinoma 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2). The relative risk of skin cancers increased with the estimated radiation dose. The relative risk of prostate cancer increased with increasing number of flight hours in long distance aircraft. Conclusions This study does not indicate a marked increase in cancer risk attributable to cosmic radiation, although some influence of cosmic radiation on skin cancer cannot be entirely excluded. The suggestion of an association between number of long distance flights (possibly related to circadian hormonal disturbances) and prostate cancer needs to be confirmed. What is already known on this topicAirline pilots are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and other potentially carcinogenic elementsIn the studies published so far, dose-response patterns have not been characterisedWhat this study addsNo marked risk of cancer attributable to cosmic radiation is observed in airline pilotsA threefold excess of skin cancers is seen among pilots with longer careers, but the influence of recreational exposure to ultraviolet light cannot be quantifiedA slight increase in risk of prostate cancer with increasing number of long haul flights suggests a need

  19. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport

  20. Paired microfossil evidence for a delayed development of fully marine surface water conditions in the Nordic seas during the Last interglacial (MIS 5e)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nieuwenhove, N.; Bauch, H. A.; Kandiano, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and foraminiferal records of sediment cores from The Vøring and Iceland Plateau and south of the Fram Strait were used to reconstruct the evolution of the surface circulation in the Nordic seas during the last interglacial (Marine Isotopic Stage or MIS 5e). The location of the cores, under the modern pathway of the warm Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) and within the mixing zone of the NwAC and the cold East Greenland Current (EGC), allows to reconstruct the spreading of inflowing North Atlantic surface waters across the Nordic seas during the climate progression of MIS 5e. The microfossil records, supported by stable isotope and IRD data, reveal that during the first ~6000 years of MIS 5e a more pronounced stratification and seasonality existed in the eastern Nordic seas, presumably as a result of long-lasting deglacial effects. Thus, the northward heat flux was reduced during this time in this area. It was only during late MIS 5e, and when IRD-input into the eastern Nordic seas had come to a halt, that the northward flow of warm Atlantic water masses intensified so that interglacial conditions became also eminent in the surface waters south of the Fram Strait. Our data further suggest that the stronger NwAC of late MIS 5e entailed an intensification of the EGC. While this brought comparatively colder conditions towards the Iceland Plateau it was also the only time when proper, that is fully marine, warm interglacial surface conditions co-existed in the eastern Nordic seas.

  1. Dynamical downscaling of warming scenarios with NEMO-Nordic setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Matthias; Almroth Rosell, Elin; Anderson, Helén; Axell, Lars; Dieterich, Christain; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Hieronymus, Jenny; Karlsson, Bengt; Liu, Ye; Meier, Markus; Pemberton, Per; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea and Baltic Sea constitute one of the most complex and challenging areas in the world. The oceanographic setting ranges from quasi open ocean conditions in the northern North Sea to more brackish conditions in the Baltic Sea which is also affected by sea ice in winter. The two seas are connected by narrow straits which sporadically allow the important inflow of salt and oxygen rich bottom waters into the Baltic Sea. For this, the high resolution regional model NEMO-Nordic has recently been developed. Here, the model is applied on hindcast simulations and used to downscale several climate warming scenarios. The model can be interactively coupled to the regional atmosphere model RCA4 by exchanging air sea fluxes of mass and energy (Wang et al., 2015). Comparison with well established models and newly compiled observational data sets (Bersch et al., 2013) indicates NEMO-Nordic performs well on climate relevant time scales. Emphasis is laid on thermal dynamics. Hindcast simulations demonstrate that simulated winter temperatures in the Baltic Sea can benefit from interactive air sea coupling by allowing interactive feedback loops to take place between the ocean and the atmosphere (Gröger et al. 2015). Likewise, a more realistic dynamical behaviour makes the interactive coupled model suitable for dynamic downscaling of climate warming scenarios. Depending on the driving global climate model and IPCC representative concentration pathway scenario NEMO-Nordic shows an average warming of the North Sea between 2 and 4 K at the end of the 21st century. However the warming pattern is spatially inhomogeneous showing strong east west gradients. Involved processes such as circulation changes and changes in radiative forcing will be discussed. Bersch, M., Gouretski, V., Sadikni, R., Hinrichs, I., 2013. Hydrographic climatology of the North Sea and surrounding regions. Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, University of Hamburg, www

  2. Vatnajökull meltwater discharge variability: a Holocene climate sensor in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striberger, J.; Björck, S.; Ingólfsson, Ó.; Kjær, K.; Sandgren, P.; Snowball, I.

    2009-04-01

    The Holocene glacial history of Vatnajökull and its many outlet glaciers is rather poorly known, even though it is one of the largest ice caps outside Antarctica and Greenland. Vatnajökull is positioned in the centre of the Nordic Seas, the region for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and it is influenced by humid-bearing cyclone systems from the southwest. Thus, it can be regarded as a sensor for a combination of different climatic driven processes. Lake Lögurinn (53 km2, 20 m a.s.l), situated northeast of Vatnajökull, is part of the drainage system of Eyjabakkajökull, one of the most conspicuous surging outlet glaciers of the ice cap. In addition to glacial meltwater, the lake also receives discharge from rivers that drain non-glaciated catchments. The mix of glacial and non-glacial suspension makes the sediments suitable for analyses of how the fluvial regime has varied over time and how this relates to meltwater discharge, fluvial discharge and general changes in climate and hydrology. A total of 17.8 m of sediment was obtained from the central part of the northernmost sub-basin in Lake Lögurinn at water depths of 38 and 16 m, respectively. The sediments are laminated in most parts of the sequence. 137Cs analyses of the surface core have confirmed that the laminated couplets are varves. Tephra horizons have been used as time markers throughout the sediments, and X-ray fluorescence and X-ray analyses as well as visual observations have been used in order to identify varves in the uppermost 3.8 m of the sequence. This section covers the time period AD 1262-2005. The sediment contains 610 varves for the periods AD 1262-1476 and AD 1603-2005 (a total of 618 years). A significant change in sedimentation rate is observed between AD 1477-1602 (from 5.9 mm/yr to 1.2 mm/yr). For this period only 18 varves are found. This abrupt change is likely related to a lower discharge rate, or to more turbulent conditions in the lake. The sedimentation rate of the

  3. Dissolved organic carbon distribution and origin in the Nordic Seas: Exchanges with the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amon, Rainer M. W.; BudéUs, Gereon; Meon, Benedikt

    2003-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and in situ fluorescence were measured along with hydrographic parameters in the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas (Nordic Seas). Surface (<100 m) concentrations of DOC ranged from 60 to 118 μM with elevated values in the East Greenland Current (EGC) which transports water from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic. EGC surface waters also showed a pronounced fluorescence maximum between 30 and 120 m depth in all EGC sections indicating the abundance of Arctic river derived DOC in this current. Based on fluorescence we estimated that 20-50% of the annual river discharge to the Arctic Ocean was exported in the EGC. The fluorescence maximum was typically associated with salinity around 33 and temperatures below -1°C which are characteristic of surface and upper halocline water in the Arctic Ocean. The elevated fluorescence in this water mass suggests a strong Eurasian shelf component and also suggests that in situ fluorescence could be used to trace Eurasian shelf water in the central Arctic Ocean. DOC concentrations in the Nordic Sea basins (>1000 m) were relatively high (˜50 μM DOC) compared with other ocean basins indicating active vertical transport of DOC in this region on decadal timescales. Based on existing vertical transport estimates and 15 μM of semilabile DOC we calculated an annual vertical net DOC export of 3.5 Tg C yr-1 in the Greenland Sea and about 36 Tg C yr-1 for the entire Arctic Mediterranean Sea (AMS) including the Greenland-Scotland Ridge overflow. It appears that physical processes play a determining role for the distribution of DOC in the AMS.

  4. Water mass transformation in the deep basins of the Nordic Seas: Analyses of heat and freshwater budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latarius, K.; Quadfasel, D.

    2016-08-01

    In the Arctic Mediterranean a transformation of Atlantic Water, flowing in near the surface, into overflow water, which leaves the area at depth, takes place. For this transformation the Nordic Seas are of particular importance, as they are largely ice-free and thus heat loss to the atmosphere during winter is strong. Since 2001 Argo-type profiling float measurements have been carried out in the region and enable the observation of hydrography during the whole year. The measurements concentrate on the deep basins, the Norwegian Basin, Lofoten Basin, Greenland Sea and Icelandic Plateau. They are analysed with special emphasis on the seasonal cycle in hydrography. Based on the mean seasonal cycle of temperature and salinity and atmospheric fluxes from reanalysis products for the first decade of this century heat and freshwater budgets are calculated. The residuum in the budgets gives the lateral exchange of water between the inner basins and the boundary current, circumnavigating the whole area. This lateral exchange is identified with the contribution of the deep basins to the water mass transformation within the Nordic Seas. Budget calculations, using atmospheric flux data from NCEP with corrections for high latitudes, yield a contribution of 18% to the total temperature decrease and 6% to the total salinity decrease in the Arctic Mediterranean, although the basins account for only 4% of the total area. The density increase nearly exclusively takes place in the eastern basins, whereas the Greenland Sea plays an important role in matching the temperature and salinity characteristic of the overflow water. An increasing amount of freshwater in the surface layer will have only minor effects on the strength of the overflows across the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge.

  5. Temporal variation in coat colour (genotypes) supports major changes in the Nordic cattle population after Iron Age.

    PubMed

    Niemi, M; Sajantila, A; Vilkki, J

    2016-08-01

    Variation in coat colour genotypes of archaeological cattle samples from Finland was studied by sequencing 69 base pairs of the extension locus (melanocortin 1-receptor, MC1R) targeting both a transition and a deletion defining the three main alleles, such as dominant black (E(D) ), wild type (E(+) ) and recessive red (e). The 69-bp MC1R sequence was successfully analysed from 23 ancient (1000-1800 AD) samples. All three main alleles and genotype combinations were detected with allele frequencies of 0.26, 0.17 and 0.57 for E(D) , E(+) and e respectively. Recessive red and dominant black alleles were detected in both sexes. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first ancient DNA study defining all three main MC1R alleles. Observed MC1R alleles are in agreement with calculated phenotype frequencies from historical sources. The division of ancient Finnish cattle population into modern Finnish breeds with settled colours was dated to the 20th century. From the existing genotyped populations in Europe (43 breeds, n = 2360), the closest match to ancient MC1R genotype frequencies was with the Norwegian native multicoloured breeds. In combined published genotype data of ancient (n = 147) and genotypes and phenotypes of modern Nordic cattle (n = 738), MC1R allele frequencies showed temporal changes similar to neutral mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal haplotypes analysed earlier. All three markers indicate major change in genotypes in Nordic cattle from the Late Iron Age to the Medieval period followed by slower change through the historical periods until the present. PMID:27297978

  6. Short communication: genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and extent of negative energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the genetic parameters for feed intake, milk production, and energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle from an experimental data set. The data were collected at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland Rehtijärvi experimental farm in 4 feeding trials between 1998 and 2008, and included lactation wk 2 to 30 for 291 Nordic Red nucleus heifers descending from 72 different sires. The studied traits included weekly averages for energy-corrected milk yield (ECM, kg/d), dry matter intake (kg/d), body weight (BW, kg), body condition score (BCS, score 1 to 5), and energy balance (EB, MJ of metabolizable energy/d). The data were analyzed with both fixed and random regression models. The heritabilities of ECM and BCS were moderate to high and remained fairly constant over the entire lactation period, whereas the heritabilities of BW and EB were the highest in early lactation (0.47 and 0.37, respectively) and declined later on. The heritabilities of DMI were highest (0.33) around lactation wk 5 and again at lactation wk 30, and were somewhat lower at the beginning of the lactation and in the middle period. The genetic correlations between the traits differed considerably between early and later lactation periods, especially for the trait pairs ECM-dry matter intake, ECM-EB, BW-EB, and BCS-EB, being negative or close to zero in lactation wk 2 to 5 but turning moderate to strong and positive by lactation wk 10. The results suggest that the lactating cows express their genetic potential for feed intake and energy utilization most clearly between lactation wk 2 to 10. The best candidate trait for selection might be EB in lactation wk 2 to 5 because it has a moderate heritability and is not genetically correlated with BW or BCS in that period.

  7. Field Test Results of Using a Nacelle-Mounted Lidar for Improving Wind Energy Capture by Reducing Yaw Misalignment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Scholbrock, A.; Wright, A.

    2014-11-01

    Presented at the Nordic Wind Power Conference on November 5, 2014. This presentation describes field-test campaigns performed at the National Wind Technology Center in which lidar technology was used to improve the yaw alignment of the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) 2 and CART3 wind turbines. The campaigns demonstrated that whether by learning a correction function to the nacelle vane, or by controlling yaw directly with the lidar signal, a significant improvement in power capture was demonstrated.

  8. An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Paukkunen, Juho; Berg, Alexander; Soon, Villu; Ødegaard, Frode; Rosa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The Chrysididae are a group of cleptoparasitic and parasitoid aculeate wasps with a large number of rare and endangered species. The taxonomy of this group has long been confusing due to the similarity of species and extensive intraspecific variation. We present for the first time a comprehensive dichotomous key for all 74 species found in the Nordic and Baltic countries. In addition to diagnostic characters, information on the distribution and biology of each species is also presented. A new species, Chrysis borealis Paukkunen, Ødegaard & Soon, sp. n. is described on the basis of specimens collected from Fennoscandia. Chrysis gracillima Förster, 1853 is recorded as new to the Nordic and Baltic countries. PMID:26798322

  9. An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Paukkunen, Juho; Berg, Alexander; Soon, Villu; Ødegaard, Frode; Rosa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The Chrysididae are a group of cleptoparasitic and parasitoid aculeate wasps with a large number of rare and endangered species. The taxonomy of this group has long been confusing due to the similarity of species and extensive intraspecific variation. We present for the first time a comprehensive dichotomous key for all 74 species found in the Nordic and Baltic countries. In addition to diagnostic characters, information on the distribution and biology of each species is also presented. A new species, Chrysis borealis Paukkunen, Ødegaard & Soon, sp. n. is described on the basis of specimens collected from Fennoscandia. Chrysis gracillima Förster, 1853 is recorded as new to the Nordic and Baltic countries.

  10. An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Paukkunen, Juho; Berg, Alexander; Soon, Villu; Ødegaard, Frode; Rosa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Chrysididae are a group of cleptoparasitic and parasitoid aculeate wasps with a large number of rare and endangered species. The taxonomy of this group has long been confusing due to the similarity of species and extensive intraspecific variation. We present for the first time a comprehensive dichotomous key for all 74 species found in the Nordic and Baltic countries. In addition to diagnostic characters, information on the distribution and biology of each species is also presented. A new species, Chrysis borealis Paukkunen, Ødegaard & Soon, sp. n. is described on the basis of specimens collected from Fennoscandia. Chrysis gracillima Förster, 1853 is recorded as new to the Nordic and Baltic countries. PMID:26798322

  11. Effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness and self-assessment of the quality of health of women of the perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health. Material and methods Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions. Results A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001). Conclusions A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health. PMID:26327897

  12. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. PMID:26506373

  13. Does Nordic walking improves the postural control and gait parameters of women between the age 65 and 74: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kocur, Piotr; Wiernicka, Marzena; Wilski, Maciej; Kaminska, Ewa; Furmaniuk, Lech; Maslowska, Marta Flis; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effect of 12-weeks Nordic walking training on gait parameters and some elements of postural control. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-seven women aged 65 to 74 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into a Nordic Walking group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, 3 times a week for 75 minutes) and a control group. In both study groups, a set of functional tests were conducted at the beginning and at the end of the study: the Forward Reach Test (FRT) and the Upward Reach Test (URT) on a stabilometric platform, and the analysis of gait parameters on a treadmill. [Results] The NW group showed improvements in: the range of reach in the FRT test and the URT test in compared to the control group. The length of the gait cycle and gait cycle frequency also showed changes in the NW group compared to the control group. [Conclusion] A 12-week NW training program had a positive impact on selected gait parameters and may improve the postural control of women aged over 65 according to the results selected functional tests.

  14. Effect of heavy strength training on muscle thickness, strength, jump performance, and endurance performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Kojedal, Oystein; Losnegard, Thomas; Kvamme, Bent; Raastad, Truls

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplemental heavy strength training on muscle thickness and determinants of performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes. Seventeen well-trained Nordic Combined athletes were assigned to either usual training supplemented with heavy strength training (STR; n = 8) or to usual training without heavy strength training (CON; n = 9). The strength training performed by STR consisted of one lower-body exercise and two upper-body exercises [3-5 repetition maximum (RM) sets of 3-8 repetitions], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. Architectural changes in m. vastus lateralis, 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, squat jump (SJ) height, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), work economy during submaximal treadmill skate rollerskiing, and performance in a 7.5-km rollerski time trial were measured before and after the intervention. STR increased 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, muscle thickness, and SJ performance more than CON (p < 0.05). There was no difference between groups in change in work economy. The two groups showed no changes in total body mass, VO(2max), or time-trial performance. In conclusion, 12 weeks of supplemental strength training improved determinants of performance in Nordic Combined by improving the athletes' strength and vertical jump ability without increasing total body mass or compromising the development of VO(2max).

  15. Does Nordic walking improves the postural control and gait parameters of women between the age 65 and 74: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Kocur, Piotr; Wiernicka, Marzena; Wilski, Maciej; Kaminska, Ewa; Furmaniuk, Lech; Maslowska, Marta Flis; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effect of 12-weeks Nordic walking training on gait parameters and some elements of postural control. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-seven women aged 65 to 74 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into a Nordic Walking group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, 3 times a week for 75 minutes) and a control group. In both study groups, a set of functional tests were conducted at the beginning and at the end of the study: the Forward Reach Test (FRT) and the Upward Reach Test (URT) on a stabilometric platform, and the analysis of gait parameters on a treadmill. [Results] The NW group showed improvements in: the range of reach in the FRT test and the URT test in compared to the control group. The length of the gait cycle and gait cycle frequency also showed changes in the NW group compared to the control group. [Conclusion] A 12-week NW training program had a positive impact on selected gait parameters and may improve the postural control of women aged over 65 according to the results selected functional tests. PMID:26834341

  16. Analysis of sea ice and phytoplankton biomarkers in marine sediments from the Nordic Seas - a calibration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro Rodriguez, A.; Cabedo Sanz, P.; Belt, S.; Brown, T.; Knies, J.; Husum, K.; Giraudeau, J.

    2012-04-01

    The work presented here is part of the Changing Arctic and SubArctic Environment program (EU CASE) which is an Initial Training Network (ITN) on climate change and marine environment and is an interdisciplinary project focussing on biological proxies. One of these proxies is the sea ice diatom biomarker IP25 which is a highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkene synthesised by some Arctic sea-ice diatoms and has been shown to be a specific, stable and sensitive proxy measure of Arctic sea ice when detected in underlying sediments (Belt et al., 2007). The current study focuses on two key elements: (1) An analytical calibration of IP25 isolated from marine sediments and purified using a range of chromatographic methods was conducted in order to improve the quantification of this biomarker in sediment extracts. (2) Analysis of >30 near-surface sediments from the Nordic Seas was carried out to quantify biomarkers previously suggested as indicators of open-water phytoplankton (brassicasterol) (Müller et al., 2011) and sea-ice (IP25) conditions (Belt et al., 2010). The outcomes of the biomarker analyses were used to make comparisons between proxy data and known sea ice conditions in the study area derived from satellite record over the last 20 years. The results of this study should inform longer timescale reconstructions of sea ice conditions in the Nordic sea in the future. Belt, S.T., Massé, G., Rowland. S.J., Poulin. M., Michel. C., LeBlanc. B., (2007). A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice : IP25 . Organic Geochemistry 38 (16-27). Belt, S. T., Vare, L. L., Massé, G., Manners, H. R., Price, J. C., MacLachlan, S. E., Andrews, J. T. & Schmidt, S. (2010) 'Striking similarities in temporal changes to spring sea ice occurrence across the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago over the last 7000 years', Quaternary Science Reviews, 29 (25-26), pp. 3489-3504. Müller, J., Wagner, A., Fahl, K., Stein, R., Prange, M., & Lohmann, G. (2011). Towards quantitative sea ice

  17. Influence of home-based telemonitored Nordic walking training on autonomic nervous system balance in heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, Teodor; Piotrowski, Walerian; Piotrowicz, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rehabilitation positively affects the modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). There are no papers evaluating the influence of Nordic walking training (NW) on ANS activity among chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. The aim of study was to assess the influence of NW on ANS activity measured by heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) in CHF patients and its correlation with physical capacity improvement measured by peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2 [ml/kg/min]) in the cardiopulmonary exercise treadmill test (CPET). Material and methods The study group comprised 111 CHF patients (NYHA class II–III; ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 40%). Patients were randomized (2 : 1) to 8-week NW (five times weekly) at 40–70% of maximal heart rate (training group – TG) (n = 77), or to a control group (CG) (n = 34). The effectiveness of NW was assessed by changes (delta (Δ)) in peak VO2, HRV and HRT as a result of comparing these parameters from the beginning and the end of the programme. Results Eventually, 36 TG patients and 15 CG patients were eligible for HRV and HRT analysis. In the TG low/high frequency ratio (LF/HF) decreased (1.9 ±1.11 vs. 1.7 ±0.63, p = 0.0001) and peak VO2 increased (16.98 ±4.02 vs. 19.70 ±4.36 ml/kg/min, p < 0.0001). Favourable results in CG were not observed. The differences between TG and CG were significant: Δpeak VO2 (p = 0.0081); ΔLF/HF (p = 0.0038). An inverse correlation was found between the decrease in ΔLF/HF and the increase in Δpeak VO2 (R = –0.3830, p = 0.0211) only in the TG. Heart rate variability did not change significantly in either group. Conclusions Nordic walking positively affects the parasympathetic-sympathetic balance in CHF patients, which correlates with the improvement in Δpeak VO2. No significant influence of NW on HRT was observed. PMID:26788081

  18. Vitamin D – a systematic literature review for the 5th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Brustad, Magritt; Meyer, Haakon E.; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2013-01-01

    Background The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. Objectives The overall aim was to review recent scientific data on the requirements and health effects of vitamin D and to report it to the NNR5 Working Group, who is responsible for updating the current dietary reference values valid in the Nordic countries. Methods The electronic databases MEDLINE and Swemed were searched. We formulated eight questions which were used for the search. The search terms related to vitamin D status and intake and different health outcomes as well as to the effect of different vitamin D sources on vitamin D status. The search was done in two batches, the first covering January 2000–March 2010 and the second March 2009–February 2011. In the first search, we focused only on systematic literature reviews (SLRs) and in the second on SLRs and randomized control trials (RCTs) published after March 2009. Furthermore, we used snowballing for SLRs and IRCTs published between February 2011 and May 2012. The abstracts as well as the selected full-text papers were evaluated in pairs. Results We found 1,706 studies in the two searches of which 28 studies were included in our review. We found 7 more by snowballing, thus 35 papers were included in total. Of these studies, 31 were SLRs and 4 were RCTs. The SLRs were generally of good or fair quality, whereas that of the included studies varied from good to poor. The heterogeneity of the studies included in the SLRs was large which made it difficult to interpret the results and provide single summary statements. One factor increasing the heterogeneity is the large variation in the assays used for assessing 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OH)D], the marker of vitamin D status. The SLRs we have reviewed conclude that the evidence for a protective effect of vitamin D is only conclusive

  19. Early and treatment-related deaths in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia in the Nordic countries: 1984-2003.

    PubMed

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Möttönen, Merja; Glosli, Heidi; Jónmundsson, Guðmundur K; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Hasle, Henrik

    2010-12-01

    Despite major improvements in the cure rate of childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 5-15% of patients still die from treatment-related complications. In a historical prospective cohort study, we analysed the frequency, clinical features and risk factors for early deaths (ED) and treatment-related deaths (TRD) in 525 children included in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO)-AML-84, -88 and -93 trials. Seventy patients (13%) died before starting treatment or from treatment-related complications. The death rate rose from 11% in NOPHO-AML-84 to 29% in -88, but then fell to 8% in -93. Sixteen patients (3%) died within the first 2 weeks, mainly from bleeding or leucostasis. Hyperleucocytosis, age <2 or ≥10 years were risk factors. After day 15, 10% of patients died from treatment-related complications with infection as the main cause of death. Risk factors were age <2 or ≥10 years and treatment according to the NOPHO-AML-88 protocol. The number of EDs and TRDs in AML is high. Therefore optimal antifungal prophylaxis is essential, and studies on the benefit of antibacterial prophylaxis and individual risk factors for ED and TRD are needed.

  20. Role of solar UVB irradiance and smoking in cancer as inferred from cancer incidence rates by occupation in Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiance and vitamin D reduce the risk of incidence and death for many types of cancer. However, most of that evidence comes from midlatitude regions, where solar UVB doses are generally high in summer. Data on cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by sex and 54 occupation categories based on 1.4 million male and 1.36 million female cancer cases for 1961–2005 in the five Nordic countries provide the basis for an ecological study of the role of solar UVB in the risk of many types of cancer at high latitudes. Lip cancer SIRs less lung cancer SIRs for men was the best index of solar UVB dose, which was weakly inversely correlated with both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) SIRs. Lung cancer SIRs were used as the index of the effects of smoking. For men, the UVB index was significantly inversely correlated with 14 types of internal cancer—bladder, breast, colon, gallbladder, kidney, laryngeal, liver, lung, oral, pancreatic, pharyngeal, prostate, rectal and small intestine cancer. For women, the same UVB index was inversely correlated with bladder, breast and colon cancer. These results generally agree with findings from other studies. These results provide more support for the UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis and suggest that widespread fear of chronic solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance may be misplaced. PMID:22928078

  1. Sea surface density gradients in the Nordic Seas during the Holocene as revealed by paired microfossil and isotope proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Bauch, Henning A.; Vernal, Anne

    2016-03-01

    We attempt to assess the Holocene surface-subsurface seawater density gradient on millennial time scale based on the reconstruction of potential density (σθ) by combining data from dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and planktic foraminiferal (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s)) stable oxygen isotopes (δ18Oc). Following several calibration exercises, the likeliness of favorable seasonal preconditioning to open ocean convection is evaluated. The reconstructed σθ values reveal unfavorable conditions for vertical convection in the western Nordic Seas prior to ~7-6.5 ka B.P., with a westward increase and persistence of surface water buoyancy. Active overturning became more likely after 6.5 ka B.P. as suggested by a reduced and recurrently inverted vertical σθ gradient, while intermittent eastward spreading of lower density surface waters continued to modulate the area of potential overturning. Despite some reservation regarding the accuracy of the σθ values reconstructed, the documentation of relative changes of σθ gradients through time and space is suggested as a helpful tool for the appraisal of past overturning likeliness.

  2. Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Lund, M S

    2013-12-01

    A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL.

  3. On the flow of Atlantic water and temperature anomalies in the Nordic Seas toward the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafik, L.; Nilsson, J.; Skagseth, Å.; Lundberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    The climatic conditions over the Arctic Ocean are strongly influenced by the inflow of warm Atlantic water conveyed by the Norwegian Atlantic Slope Current (NwASC). Based on sea surface height (SSH) data from altimetry, we develop a simple dynamical measure of the NwASC transport to diagnose its spatio-temporal variability. This supports a dynamical division of the NwASC into two flow regimes; the Svinøy Branch (SvB) in the southern Norwegian Sea, and the Fram Strait Branch (FSB) west of Spitsbergen. The SvB transport is well correlated with the SSH and atmospheric variability within the Nordic Seas, factors that also affect the inflow to the Barents Sea. In contrast, the FSB is influenced by regional atmospheric conditions around Svalbard and northern Barents Sea. Using a composite analysis, we further relate anomalous strong SvB flow events to temperature fluctuations along the core of Atlantic water. A warm composite anomaly is found to propagate northward, with a tendency to amplify enroute, after these events. A roughly 12 months delayed temperature signal is identified in the FSB. However, also in the Lofoten Basin interior a delayed temperature signal is found, which appears to originate from the NwASC. This study suggests that hydrographic anomalies both upstream from the North Atlantic, and locally generated in the Norwegian Sea, are important for the oceanic heat and salt transport that eventually enters into the Arctic.

  4. Decadal predictability of extreme fresh water export events from the Arctic Ocean into the Nordic Seas and subpolar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmith, Torben; Olsen, Steffen M.; Ringgaard, Ida M.; May, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Abrupt fresh water releases originating in the Arctic Ocean have been documented to affect ocean circulation and climate in the North Atlantic area. Therefore, in this study, we investigate prospects for predicting such events up to one decade ahead. This is done in a perfect model setup by a combination of analyzing a 500 year control experiment and dedicated ensemble experiment aimed at predicting selected 10 year long segments of the control experiment. The selected segments are characterized by a large positive or negative trend in the total fresh water content in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis of the components (liquid fresh water and sea ice) reveals that they develop in a near random walk manner. From this we conclude that the main mechanism is integration of fresh water in the Beaufort Gyre through Ekman pumping from the randomly varying atmosphere. Therefore, the predictions from the ensemble experiments are on average not better than a damped persistence predictions. By running two different families of ensemble predictions, one starting from the 'observed' ocean globally, and one starting from climatology in the Arctic Ocean and from the observed ocean elsewhere, we conclude that the former outperforms the latter for the first few years as regards liquid fresh water and for the first year as regards sea ice. Analysis of the model experiments in terms of the fresh water export from the Arctic Ocean into Nordic seas and the subpolar North Atlantic reveals a very modest potential for predictability.

  5. Identification and evaluation of computer models for predicting environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals and veterinary products in the Nordic environment.

    PubMed

    Wajsman, David; Rudén, Christina

    2006-01-01

    According to European Union Council directive 2001/83, an application for the marketing authorization of a medicinal product shall be accompanied by an environmental risk assessment, including an exposure assessment. Computerized exposure models constitute an important tool in predicting environmental exposure to substances yet to be introduced on the market. This paper reports the process of identifying appropriate exposure models for estimating PECs (Predicted Environmental Concentrations) for pharmaceuticals and veterinary products, focusing on emissions to Swedish aquatic and terrestrial environments via water and sludge from sewage treatment plants. From a large number of information sources, a set of 181 potentially relevant exposure models was identified. A process of scrutinizing and testing these models resulted in a final selection of two models, namely SimpleTreat 3.1 that is used to estimate distribution and elimination of chemicals in sewage treatment plants (resulting in a PEC), and VetPec, suited for veterinary products, that estimates PEC in soil (including pore water), groundwater, and surface water. It is concluded that there is still potential for further development of exposure model(s) specifically designed for pharmaceutical emissions to the Nordic environment and climate. Furthermore, increased regulatory data requirements would facilitate the use of existing models, and improve the quality of the output data from these models. PMID:16030525

  6. A survey of social support for exercise and its relationship to health behaviours and health status among endurance Nordic skiers

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Paul J; Wang, Zhen; Beebe, Timothy J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Regular exercise is a key component of obesity prevention and 48% of Americans do not meet minimum guidelines for weekly exercise. Social support has been shown to help individuals start and maintain exercise programmes. We evaluated social support among endurance athletes and explored the relationship between social support for exercise, health behaviours and health status. Design Survey. Setting The largest Nordic ski race in North America. Participants 5433 past participants responded to an online questionnaire. Outcome measures Social support, health behaviours and health status. Results The mean overall support score was 32.1 (SD=16.5; possible range=−16.0 to 88.0). The most common forms of social support were verbal such as discussing exercise, invitations to exercise and celebrating the enjoyment of exercise. We found that an increase of 10 points in the social support score was associated with a 5 min increase in weekly self-reported exercise (5.02, 95% CI 3.63 to 6.41). Conclusions Physical activity recommendations should incorporate the importance of participation in group activities, especially those connected to strong fitness cultures created by community and competitive events. PMID:27338876

  7. Shorter adult stature increases the impact of risk factors for cognitive impairment: a comparison of two Nordic twin cohorts.

    PubMed

    Laitala, Venla S; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Koskenvuo, Markku; Räihä, Ismo; Rinne, Juha O; Christensen, Kaare; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed the association between mean height and old age cognition in two Nordic twin cohorts with different childhood living conditions. The cognitive performance of 4720 twin individuals from Denmark (mean age 81.6 years, SD = 4.59) and Finland (mean age 74.4 years, SD = 5.26) was measured using validated cognitive screens. Taller height was associated with better cognitive performance in Finland (beta-estimates 0.18 SD/10cm, p value < .001, for men and 0.13 SD, p = .008, for women), but this association was not significant in Denmark (beta-estimates 0.0093 SD, p value = .16, for men and 0.0075 SD, p value = .016, for women) when adjusted for age and education/social class. Among Finnish participants higher variability of cognitive performance within shorter height quintiles was observed. Analysis using gene-environment interaction models showed that environmental factors exerted a greater impact on cognitive performance in shorter participants, whereas in taller participants' it was explained mainly by genetic factors. Our results suggest that shorter participants with childhood adversity are more vulnerable to environmental risk factors for cognitive impairment. PMID:22506310

  8. Evaluation of Explosive Power Performance in Ski Jumpers and Nordic Combined Competitive Athletes: A 19-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Between 1992 and 2010, a total of 334 males participated in this study that assessed the differences and relationships between anthropometric variables and lower limb muscle strength in young and adult ski jumpers (n = 207) and Nordic combined (NC, n = 127) athletes. All athletes completed a maximal vertical jump from an in-run position and a maximal relative isometric force (MRIF) of the knee extensor measurement in a laboratory setting. The body mass index (BMI) in young competitors was lower than in adult groups (NC: p < 0.001; ski jumping [SJ]: p < 0.001). Similarly, the MRIF in both limbs was lower for both disciplines in the groups of young competitors. The vertical jump height (VJH) was lower for young competitors than for adults (NC: p ≤ 0.05; SJ: p < 0.001). When comparing SJ and NC athletes, BMI was lower in SJ athletes. In addition, the adult SJ competitors exhibited greater values of bilateral MRIF (p ≤ 0.05) and VJH (p < 0.01). There was a strong positive correlation in MRIF between the left and right lower limbs (p < 0.001) for all groups of SJ and NC athletes; therefore, it was determined to be sufficient to measure the MRIF on a single limb. Application of the new training methods (e.g., less emphasis on maximum resistance exercises) resulted in improved explosive power in ski jumpers even at lower-body weights. These changes are in accordance with the change in ski jump techniques.

  9. Intercultural Blended Design Considerations: A Case Study of a Nordic-Baltic Course in Autism Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kack, Annika; Roll-Pettersson, Lise; Alai-Rosales, Shahla S.; Hoium, Kari; Mannikko-Barbutiu, Sirkku; Fors, Uno G. H.

    2014-01-01

    Specialized educational programs previously unavailable to many students are now accessible to students spread throughout the world. In particular, this globalization presents new opportunities and challenges for universities educating professionals in the field of autism treatment. The aim of the present case study is to analyse the experiences…

  10. New Nordic Diet versus Average Danish Diet: A Randomized Controlled Trial Revealed Healthy Long-Term Effects of the New Nordic Diet by GC-MS Blood Plasma Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco; Acar, Evrim; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Dragsted, Lars O; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-06-01

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD) in blood plasma and reveals associations between metabolic changes and health beneficial effects of the NND including weight loss. A total of 145 individuals completed the intervention and blood samples were taken along with clinical examinations before the intervention started (week 0) and after 12 and 26 weeks. The plasma metabolome was measured using GC-MS, and the final metabolite table contained 144 variables. Significant and novel metabolic effects of the diet, resulting weight loss, gender, and intervention study season were revealed using PLS-DA and ASCA. Several metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects, higher levels of vaccenic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic, and N-aspartic acids and 1,5-anhydro-d-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and whole grain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state. PMID:27146725

  11. A permanent N2O sink in the Nordic Seas and its strength and possible variability over the past four decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Liyang; Chen, Liqi; Zhang, Jiexia; Yan, Jinpei; Li, Yuhong; Wu, Man

    2016-08-01

    Nordic Seas have been assumed to be a net sink of the ozone-depleting greenhouse gas N2O. However, few studies have been conducted in this region. N2O profile data obtained during the 5th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition demonstrate that the N2O distribution pattern in the Nordic Seas differs from that of most other oceans. N2O sink characteristics of this region are confirmed by the undersaturation of N2O in the water column. Distributions of N2O in three subbasins of the Nordic Seas vary in the upper 1000 m but are homogenous below 1000 m due to a shared origin in the Greenland Basin (GB). Air-sea exchange and vertical convection are thought to be dominant factors in N2O distribution in the GB, resulting in a distribution pattern that correlates significantly with the atmospheric mixing ratio variation over the past 40 years. Although recent studies have shown that weakened convection and/or enhanced Arctic outflow below the mid-depth have occurred, our results show that these variations have yet to significantly affect the above relationship. The distribution could be considered a "historical record" that can be used to evaluate the air-to-sea flux over the past 40 years in the GB. The annual amount of N2O absorbed by the GB is ˜0.016-0.029 Tg N, which is equal to 0.4-0.8% of the world ocean emissions. This amount should not be simply neglected because it is absorbed by a region that accounts for only 0.03% of the world ocean area.

  12. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Ygil, Karin H; Thorsen, Anne V; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-09-14

    A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·47)), legumes (22 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·40)), herbs (175 (95 % CI 2·36, 3·20)), fresh berries (48 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·94)), nuts and seeds (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·38)), lean fish and fish products (47 (95 % CI 1·31, 1·66)), fat fish and fish products (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·37)) and potatoes (129 (95 % CI 2·05, 2·56)). Furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by NND school meals. In conclusion, this study showed that the children increased their intake of NND signature foods, and, furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes of NND signature foods when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the NND principles. PMID:26202439

  13. New insights into the timing, triggers and emplacement processes of prodigious submarine landslides in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talling, Peter; Pope, Ed; Hunt, James; Allin, Joshua; Cartigny, Matthieu; Long, David; Mozzato, Alessandro; Stanford, Jennifer; Tappin, David; Watts, Camilla

    2015-04-01

    Submarine landslides can generate tsunamis with the potential to cause severe damage. This is illustrated by the huge (> 3,000 cubic km) Storegga landslide offshore Norway that occurred 8,200 years ago, and which produced a tsunami that ran up surrounding coastlines for up to 20m. Here we report on a 1 month research cruise on the RV Pelagia in July 2014 to the Nordic Seas, which collected 88 sediment cores totalling more than 500m, together with over 7,000 square km of swath bathymetry. The overall aim of this research expedition was to better understand the tsunami risk from large submarine landslides in the Nordic Seas. This includes a better understanding of the timing and frequency of submarine landslides, factors that potentially trigger or precondition slope failure, and the manner in which landslides are emplaced. Much of the expedition was then devoted to understanding the age and emplacement mechanism of the ~900 cubic km Traenadjupet landslide, located to the north of the Storegga Slide. This included sampling and mapping of the main Traenadjupet Slide, four lobes froming the distal Traenadjupet Slide deposit. A newly discovered debris flow deposit with large blocks was found to continue from the most westerly of these lobes, and it was mapped to its termination. If the previously established age of ~4ka for the Traenadjupet Slide is correct, then it does not appear to produced a major tsunami (unlike the Storegga Slide). Indeed, the morphology of the Traenadjupet Slide suggests much slower emplacement than the Storegga Slide, which would be consistent with such a lack of major tsunami. Turbidites in cores from the deep-water Lofoten Basin will help to understand the frequency and character of faster moving slope failures around the basin margin. Cores were collected from the Lofoten Contourite Drift located next to the Traenadjupet Slide, and these contouritic sediment may provide a paleoceanographic record that can be compared to slide timing, in order

  14. Hamstring Fatigue and Muscle Activation Changes During Six Sets of Nordic Hamstring Exercise in Amateur Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul W M; Lovell, Ric; Knox, Michael F; Brennan, Scott L; Siegler, Jason C

    2015-11-01

    The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a bodyweight movement commonly prescribed to increase eccentric hamstring strength and reduce the incidence of strain injury in sport. This study examined hamstring fatigue and muscle activation responses throughout 6 sets of 5 repetitions of the NHE. Ten amateur-level soccer players performed a single session of 6 sets of 5 repetitions of NHE. Maximal eccentric and concentric torque output (in newton meters) was measured after every set. Hamstrings electromyograms (EMG) were measured during all maximal contractions and exercise repetitions. Hamstring maximal eccentric torque was reduced throughout the range of motion after only a single set of NHE between 7.9 and 17.1% (p ≤ 0.05), with further reductions in subsequent sets. Similarly, maximal concentric torque reductions between 7.8 and 17.2% were observed throughout the range of motion after 1 set of NHE (p ≤ 0.05). During the descent phase of the NHE repetitions, hamstring muscle activity progressively increased as the number of sets performed increased. These increases were observed in the first half of the range of motion. During the ascent phase, biceps femoris muscle activity but not medial hamstrings was reduced from the start of exercise during latter sets of repetitions. These data provide unique insight into the extent of fatigue induced from a bodyweight only exercise after a single set of 5 repetitions. Strength and conditioning coaches need to be aware of the speed and extent of fatigue induced from NHE, particularly in practical settings in which this exercise is now prescribed before sport-specific training sessions (i.e., the FIFA-11 before soccer training). PMID:25886019

  15. Development of high-density SNP genotyping arrays for white spruce (Picea glauca) and transferability to subtropical and nordic congeners.

    PubMed

    Pavy, Nathalie; Gagnon, France; Rigault, Philippe; Blais, Sylvie; Deschênes, Astrid; Boyle, Brian; Pelgas, Betty; Deslauriers, Marie; Clément, Sébastien; Lavigne, Patricia; Lamothe, Manuel; Cooke, Janice E K; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Beaulieu, Jean; Isabel, Nathalie; Mackay, John; Bousquet, Jean

    2013-03-01

    High-density SNP genotyping arrays can be designed for any species given sufficient sequence information of high quality. Two high-density SNP arrays relying on the Infinium iSelect technology (Illumina) were designed for use in the conifer white spruce (Picea glauca). One array contained 7338 segregating SNPs representative of 2814 genes of various molecular functional classes for main uses in genetic association and population genetics studies. The other one contained 9559 segregating SNPs representative of 9543 genes for main uses in population genetics, linkage mapping of the genome and genomic prediction. The SNPs assayed were discovered from various sources of gene resequencing data. SNPs predicted from high-quality sequences derived from genomic DNA reached a genotyping success rate of 64.7%. Nonsingleton in silico SNPs (i.e. a sequence polymorphism present in at least two reads) predicted from expressed sequenced tags obtained with the Roche 454 technology and Illumina GAII analyser resulted in a similar genotyping success rate of 71.6% when the deepest alignment was used and the most favourable SNP probe per gene was selected. A variable proportion of these SNPs was shared by other nordic and subtropical spruce species from North America and Europe. The number of shared SNPs was inversely proportional to phylogenetic divergence and standing genetic variation in the recipient species, but positively related to allele frequency in P. glauca natural populations. These validated SNP resources should open up new avenues for population genetics and comparative genetic mapping at a genomic scale in spruce species.

  16. Substantiating Appropriate Motion Capture Techniques for the Assessment of Nordic Walking Gait and Posture in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Christopher M; Nantel, Julie

    2016-05-12

    Nordic walking (NW) has become a safe and simple form of exercise in recent years, and in studying this gait pattern, various data collection techniques have been employed, each with positives and negatives. The aim was to determine the effect of NW on older adult gait and posture and to determine optimal use of different data collection systems in both short and long duration analysis. Gait and posture during NW and normal walking were assessed in 17 healthy older adults (age: 69 ± 7.3). Participants performed two trials of 6 Minute Walk Tests (6MWT) (1 with poles (WP) and 1 without poles (NP)) and 6 trials of a 5m walk (3 WP and 3 NP). Motion was recorded using two systems, a 6-sensor accelerometry system and an 8-camera 3-dimensional motion capture system, in order to quantify spatial-temporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters. With both systems, participants demonstrated increased stride length and double support and decreased gait speed and cadence WP compared to NP (p <0.05). Also, with motion capture, larger single support time was found WP (p <0.05). With 3-D capture, smaller hip power generation and moments of force were found at heel contact and pre-swing as well as smaller knee power absorption at heel contact, pre-swing, and terminal swing WP compared to NP, when assessed over one cycle (p <0.05). Also, WP yielded smaller moments of force at heel contact and terminal swing along with larger moments at mid-stance of a gait cycle (p <0.05). No changes were found for posture. NW seems appropriate for promoting a normal gait pattern in older adults. Three-dimensional motion capture should primarily be used during short duration gait analysis (i.e. single gait cycle), while accelerometry systems should be primarily employed in instances requiring longer duration analysis such as during the 6MWT.

  17. Fish status survey of Nordic lakes: effects of acidification, eutrophication and stocking activity on present fish species composition.

    PubMed

    Tammi, Jouni; Appelberg, Magnus; Beier, Ulrika; Hesthagen, Trygve; Lappalainen, Antti; Rask, Martti

    2003-03-01

    The status of fish populations in 3821 lakes in Norway, Sweden and Finland was assessed in 1995-1997. The survey lakes were chosen by stratified random sampling from all (126 482) Fennoscandian lakes > or = 0.04 km2. The water chemistry of the lakes was analyzed and information on fish status was obtained by a postal inquiry. Fish population losses were most frequent in the most highly acidified region of southern Norway and least common in eastern Fennoscandia. According to the inquiry results, the number of lost stocks of brown trout (Salmo trutta), roach (Rutilus rutilus), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) was estimated to exceed 10000. The number of stocks of these species potentially affected by the low alkalinity of lake water was estimated to exceed 11000. About 3300 lakes showed high total phosphorus (> 25 microg L(-1)) and cyprinid dominance in eastern Fennoscandia, notably southwestern Finland. This survey did not reveal any extinction of fish species due to eutrophication. One-third of the lakes had been artificially stocked with at least one new species, most often brown trout, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus s.l.), Arctic char, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), pike-perch (Stizostedion lucioperca), grayling (Thymallus thymallus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), tench (Tinca tinca) and European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). The number of artificially manipulated stocks of these species in Fennoscandian lakes was estimated to exceed 52000. Hence, the number of fish species occurring in Nordic lakes has recently been changed more by stockings than by losses of fish species through environmental changes such as acidification.

  18. Substantiating Appropriate Motion Capture Techniques for the Assessment of Nordic Walking Gait and Posture in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Christopher M; Nantel, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Nordic walking (NW) has become a safe and simple form of exercise in recent years, and in studying this gait pattern, various data collection techniques have been employed, each with positives and negatives. The aim was to determine the effect of NW on older adult gait and posture and to determine optimal use of different data collection systems in both short and long duration analysis. Gait and posture during NW and normal walking were assessed in 17 healthy older adults (age: 69 ± 7.3). Participants performed two trials of 6 Minute Walk Tests (6MWT) (1 with poles (WP) and 1 without poles (NP)) and 6 trials of a 5m walk (3 WP and 3 NP). Motion was recorded using two systems, a 6-sensor accelerometry system and an 8-camera 3-dimensional motion capture system, in order to quantify spatial-temporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters. With both systems, participants demonstrated increased stride length and double support and decreased gait speed and cadence WP compared to NP (p <0.05). Also, with motion capture, larger single support time was found WP (p <0.05). With 3-D capture, smaller hip power generation and moments of force were found at heel contact and pre-swing as well as smaller knee power absorption at heel contact, pre-swing, and terminal swing WP compared to NP, when assessed over one cycle (p <0.05). Also, WP yielded smaller moments of force at heel contact and terminal swing along with larger moments at mid-stance of a gait cycle (p <0.05). No changes were found for posture. NW seems appropriate for promoting a normal gait pattern in older adults. Three-dimensional motion capture should primarily be used during short duration gait analysis (i.e. single gait cycle), while accelerometry systems should be primarily employed in instances requiring longer duration analysis such as during the 6MWT. PMID:27214263

  19. Evaluating the environmental fate of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the Nordic environment using a dynamic multimedia model.

    PubMed

    Krogseth, Ingjerd S; Breivik, Knut; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) raise concerns due to their potential for persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport and adverse effects. An understanding of their environmental fate remains limited, partly due to the complexity of the mixture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a mechanistic, integrated, dynamic environmental fate and bioaccumulation multimedia model (CoZMoMAN) can reconcile what is known about environmental emissions and human exposure of SCCPs in the Nordic environment. Realistic SCCP emission scenarios, resolved by formula group, were estimated and used to predict the composition and concentrations of SCCPs in the environment and the human food chain. Emissions at the upper end of the estimated range resulted in predicted total concentrations that were often within a factor of 6 of observations. Similar model performance for a complex group of organic contaminants as for the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls strengthens the confidence in the CoZMoMAN model and implies a relatively good mechanistic understanding of the environmental fate of SCCPs. However, the degree of chlorination predicted for SCCPs in sediments, fish, and humans was higher than observed and poorly established environmental half-lives and biotransformation rate constants contributed to the uncertainties in the predicted composition and ∑SCCP concentrations. Improving prediction of the SCCP composition will also require better constrained estimates of the composition of SCCP emissions. There is, however, also large uncertainty and lack of coherence in the existing observations, and better model-measurement agreement will require improved analytical methods and more strategic sampling. More measurements of SCCP levels and compositions in samples from background regions are particularly important.

  20. Food and nutrition policies of Nordic countries: how have they been developed and what evidence substantiates the development of these policies?

    PubMed

    Kjaernes, Unni

    2003-05-01

    The present paper addresses the emergence and development of Nordic food and nutrition policies, with some reference to the types of nutrition policies characteristic of other North European countries. Nutrition programmes aimed at dietary change have a long history of public responsibility in several Nordic and North European countries. The extent of involvement, the orientation and (indication of) success have, however, varied considerably between countries. First, different types of policies are characterised by their choice of programmes and measures, e.g. information campaigns v. market regulation or catering and public services. Second, the distinctions are associated not only with programmes, but also with the status and validity of nutritional advice and dietary guidelines in public policy making. Third, when focusing on how and on what grounds the governments have developed nutrition policies, it is evident that while more or less the same participants and issues are involved, their roles and relationships may be different. In this case the role and involvement of nutritional expertise and scientific arguments in various countries will be discussed. Finally, nutrition policies may entail conflicts of interest, particularly when health concerns are confronted with food industry and agricultural interests. This situation is quite evident in the question of animal fat. The present paper addresses how these issues have been dealt with quite differently in various countries. PMID:14506905

  1. The Influence of Greenland melt water on the temporal and spatial response of the Holocene Thermal Maximum in the Nordic Seas: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschek, M.; Renssen, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the early-to-mid Holocene a period of relatively warm climate, known as the Holocene thermal maximum (HTM, 11-5 kyr BP), has been associated with the orbitally-forced northern hemisphere summer insolation maximum at approximately 10 kyr BP. Although the HTM is orbitally forced, the spatial and temporal response of its climate signature is diverse. At 9 kyr BP remnants of glacial ice sheets, most importantly the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), modified the climate of the North Atlantic region by freshening the ocean surface through melt water discharge, and by altering the surface albedo and topography. A previous climate modelling study (Renssen et al. 2009) has shown that the LIS delayed the HTM in the Nordic Seas by up to 3000 years. We extend this approach by introducing another source of melt water in the early Holocene, the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). The GIS was likely up to 25% larger (at 9 kyr BP) in volume than at present-day (Vinther et al. 2009, Peltier, 2004) and is therefore potentially an important regional contributor to climate change in the Nordic Seas. We present here simulations performed with the LOVECLIM1.2 global ocean-atmosphere-vegetation model. These simulations seek to highlight the spatial and temporal impact of GIS melting on the early Holocene climate, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST). Several sensitivity experiments with fixed 9 kyr BP forcings were performed for different Greenland melt water fluxes to test model and climate sensitivity. These melt water fluxes range from 0 to 52 mSv. The sensitivity experiments show that GIS melting considerably influences sea surface conditions around the southern part of Greenland, and that 13 to 26 mSv of GIS melting, in a combination with the LIS background melting, agrees better in that region with proxy-based SST reconstructions. In a further step, transient simulations exhibit the long term (9 to 0 kyr BP) impact of GIS melting on the development of the Holocene climate. Transient

  2. Stress and Stressors in Parenting a Developmentally Delayed Child at Different Life Stages: A Cross-Sectional Nordic Study with a Representative Sample of Nonhandicapped Children. Research Report 165.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hautamaki, Airi

    This booklet reports the findings of a study that focused on the well-being and lifestyle of 479 families of children (ages 2-17) with Down syndrome (DS) in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland. A comparative study of families of typical children in the Nordic countries was also done. The results of the study indicate that bringing up a…

  3. A dietary biomarker approach captures compliance and cardiometabolic effects of a healthy Nordic diet in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Matti; Magnusdottir, Ola K; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landberg, Rikard; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Brader, Lea; Hermansen, Kjeld; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hukkanen, Janne; Savolainen, Markku J; Dragsted, Lars O; Schwab, Ursula; Paananen, Jussi; Uusitupa, Matti; Åkesson, Björn; Thorsdottir, Inga; Risérus, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of compliance with dietary interventions is necessary to understand the observed magnitude of the health effects of the diet per se. To avoid reporting bias, different dietary biomarkers (DBs) could be used instead of self-reported data. However, few studies investigated a combination of DBs to assess compliance and its influence on cardiometabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were to use a combination of DBs to assess compliance and to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet (ND) influences cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with high apparent compliance compared with the whole study population. From a recently conducted isocaloric randomized trial, SYSDIET (Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies), in 166 individuals with metabolic syndrome, several DBs were assessed to reflect different key components of the ND: canola oil (serum phospholipid α-linolenic acid), fatty fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], vegetables (plasma β-carotene), and whole grains (plasma alkylresorcinols). High-fat dairy intake (expectedly low in the ND) was reflected by serum pentadecanoic acid. All participants with biomarker data (n = 154) were included in the analyses. Biomarkers were combined by using a biomarker rank score (DB score) and principal component analysis (PCA). The DB score was then used to assess compliance. During the intervention, median concentrations of alkylresorcinols, α-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA were >25% higher in the ND individuals than in the controls (P < 0.05), whereas median concentrations of pentadecanoic acid were 14% higher in controls (P < 0.05). Median DB score was 57% higher in the ND than in controls (P < 0.001) during the intervention, and participants were ranked similarly by DB score and PCA score. Overall, estimates of group difference in cardiometabolic effects generally appeared to be greater among compliant participants than in the whole study

  4. Optical observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Nordic Optical Telescope. Comet activity before the solar conjunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaprudin, B.; Lehto, H. J.; Nilsson, K.; Pursimo, T.; Somero, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Schulz, R.

    2015-11-01

    Context. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is a short-period Jupiter-family comet that was chosen as a target for the Rosetta mission by the European Space Agency (ESA). Monitoring of 67P with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT; La Palma, Spain) intends to aid this mission by providing ground-based reference information about the overall activity of the target and its astrometric position before the rendezvous. One motivation for our observations was to monitor sudden major increases in activity because they might have affected the Rosetta mission planning. None were observed. Ground-based photometric observations register the global activity of the comet, while the Rosetta spacecraft mostly measures local events. These data combined can lead to new insights into the comet behavior. Aims: The aim of this work is to perform the photometric and the astrometric monitoring of comet 67P with the NOT and to compare the results with the latest predictions for its position and activity. A new method of fitting extended-source components to the target surface brightness distribution was developed and applied to the data to estimate the size and contribution of the coma to the total brightness of the target. Methods: Comet 67P was monitored by the NOT in service mode during the period between 12.5.2013 and 11.11.2014. The very first observations were performed in the V band alone, but in the latest observations, the R band was used as well to estimate the color and nature of activity of the target. We applied a new method for estimating the coma size by deconvolving the point spread function profile from the image, which used Markov chain Monte Carlo and Bayesian statistics. This method will also be used for coma size estimations in further observations after the solar conjunction of 67P. Results: Photometric magnitudes in two colors were monitored during the period of observations. At the end of April 2014, the beginning of activity was observed. In late September 2014, a

  5. Complementary impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation and oceanic heat anomalies in the Nordic seas on the wintertime climate variability in middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichtholz, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing evidence that Arctic sea ice anomalies influence mid-latitude weather and climate through coupled changes in the polar jet stream, planetary waves and storm tracks. In particular, the wintertime atmospheric conditions over Eurasia are sensitive to disturbances of sea ice cover in the Barents Sea. Our previous studies, based on a lagged regression analysis between oceanic observations and atmospheric (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data in the period 1982-2006, indicate that more than 70 % of the interannual variance of the total wintertime sea ice area in the Nordic (Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian and Barents) seas region can be explained by Atlantic water temperature (AWT) anomalies at the entrance to the Barents Sea in the preceding summer. When brought to the surface, oceanic heat anomalies influence not only the sea ice cover in the Nordic seas but also the local atmospheric conditions up to the tropopause level. The sea ice and atmospheric anomalies persist in winter because of a feedback between oceanically-driven wind anomalies and wind-driven AWT anomalies. A question is whether remote effects of sea ice anomalies in the Nordic seas are modulated by interannual variability in oceanic forcing. Here we show, using the same oceanic and atmospheric datasets as in the previous studies, that the summertime AWT anomalies are indeed significant precursors of a large-scale wintertime atmospheric variability. In particular, positive AWT anomalies precede predominantly westerly wind anomalies in high latitudes and easterly wind anomalies in middle latitudes. The mid-latitude wind anomalies, while being generally equivalent barotropic in the upper troposphere, have a strong low-level baroclinic contribution over Eurasia. The near-surface easterly wind anomalies in this area are locally deflected southward, maintaining cold spots near orography. As at the same time a strong warm anomaly is forced over the Barents and Greenland Seas, the lower

  6. Associations of adherence to the New Nordic Diet with risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Øverby, Nina C; Engel, Stephanie M; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker E; Haugen, Margaretha; Bere, Elling

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are serious complications of pregnancy and leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Dietary factors might be associated with these adverse outcomes. We investigated whether adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND) was associated with preeclampsia and preterm delivery risks in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants were recruited from all over Norway during the period 1999-2008. A previously constructed diet score assessing meal frequency, and the consumption of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water, was used to assess NND adherence. Associations between NND adherence and the outcomes were estimated in adjusted multivariate logistic regression models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 72,072 women was included in the study. High versus low NND adherence was associated with lower risk of total preeclampsia (OR 0.86; 95 % CI 0.78-0.95) and early preeclampsia (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.52-0.96). High compared with low NND adherence was associated with a lower risk of spontaneous preterm delivery among nulliparous women (OR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), whereas multiparous women with high NND adherence had a marginally significant higher risk of preterm delivery (OR 1.24; 95 % CI 1.00-1.53). High NND adherence was associated with a lower relative risk of preeclampsia and of spontaneous preterm delivery among nulliparous women; however, among multiparous women there was a higher relative risk of preterm delivery. PMID:25193741

  7. Measurements of the stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Northeastern Atlantic and Nordic Seas during summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, M. P.; Achterberg, E. P.; Griffiths, A. M.; McDonald, A.; Boyce, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in seawater was measured in samples collected during two cruises in the Northeastern Atlantic and Nordic Seas from June to August 2012. One cruise was part of the UK Ocean Acidification research programme, and the other was a repeat hydrographic transect of the Extended Ellett Line. In combination with measurements made of various other variables on these and other cruises, these data can be used to constrain the anthropogenic component of DIC in the interior ocean, and also assist in determining the influence of biological carbon uptake on surface ocean carbonate chemistry. The measurements have been processed, quality-controlled and submitted to an in-preparation global compilation of seawater δ13CDIC data, and are available from the British Oceanographic Data Centre. The observed δ13CDIC values fall in a range from -0.58 to +2.37‰, relative to the Vienna Peedee Belemnite standard. From duplicate samples collected during both cruises, the precision for the 552 results is 0.07‰, which is similar to other published studies of this kind. Data doi:10.5285/09760a3a-c2b5-250b-e053-6c86abc037c0 (Northeastern Atlantic), doi:10.5285/09511dd0-51db-0e21-e053-6c86abc09b95 (Nordic Seas).

  8. The Nordic model

    SciTech Connect

    Lauen, E.

    1997-05-01

    Many reasons can be given for opening up the electricity market. There are many countries now dealing with deregulation, and it is important to understand the different political framework within which deregulation works. It is hoped the final result in the different countries will end with the same result - a more efficient and customer-friendly system. But the transition period might be quite different. The Norwegian approach was somewhat different. With Norway`s ruling social democratic party, privatization was not on the agenda. But the government regarded it as a problem that Norwegian generators for several years had been forced to develop expensive hydropower projects. With the current price levels, new hydropower projects would never get a satisfactory return on the investments. The reason for this was that the pricing was based on average cost of old and new plants. To make this even worse, the power intensive industry wanted to expand and needed more electricity, according to those in industry. The only problem was that industry was able to pay neither the incremental cost for new plants nor the average cost. Thus, pricing, developing of new capacity and actual disposal of electricity were in the hands of politicians. And as in many other countries the industry had few incentives to reduce costs. To solve these problems, the government started a process in 1987 to let the end-users meet the market price and allow end-users` price signals to go back to the generators when these generators made decisions on whether or not to build new generating capacity. The end-users were given the freedom to choose a supplier, and through the price signals they were given an opportunity to choose energy conservation and other sources of energy instead of electricity. The conclusion was to open the market and let all customers have access to the competitive market.

  9. Visual field

    MedlinePlus

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam : This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  10. Measurements of the stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the northeastern Atlantic and Nordic Seas during summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, M. P.; Achterberg, E. P.; Griffiths, A. M.; McDonald, A.; Boyce, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in seawater was measured in a batch process for 552 samples collected during two cruises in the northeastern Atlantic and Nordic Seas from June to August 2012. One cruise was part of the UK Ocean Acidification research programme, and the other was a repeat hydrographic transect of the Extended Ellett Line. In combination with measurements made of other variables on these and other cruises, these data can be used to constrain the anthropogenic component of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the interior ocean, and to help to determine the influence of biological carbon uptake on surface ocean carbonate chemistry. The measurements have been processed, quality-controlled and submitted to an in-preparation global compilation of seawater δ13CDIC data, and are available from the British Oceanographic Data Centre. The observed δ13CDIC values fall in a range from -0.58 to +2.37 ‰, relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite standard. The mean of the absolute differences between samples collected in duplicate in the same container type during both cruises and measured consecutively is 0.10 ‰, which corresponds to a 1σ uncertainty of 0.09 ‰, and which is within the range reported by other published studies of this kind. A crossover analysis was performed with nearby historical δ13CDIC data, indicating that any systematic offsets between our measurements and previously published results are negligible. Data doi:10.5285/09760a3a-c2b5-250b-e053-6c86abc037c0 (northeastern Atlantic), doi:10.5285/09511dd0-51db-0e21-e053-6c86abc09b95 (Nordic Seas).

  11. Nordic veterinarians' threshold for medical treatment of dairy cows, influence on disease recording and medicine use: mild clinical mastitis as an example.

    PubMed

    Espetvedt, Mari N; Rintakoski, Simo; Wolff, Cecilia; Lind, Ann-Kristina; Lindberg, Ann; Virtala, Anna-Maija K

    2013-10-01

    National databases for dairy cows in the four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have been found to capture varying proportions of disease events on farm. A variation in the thresholds of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment may be a reason for this. Studying these thresholds may increase the understanding of prudent use of antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic veterinarians, on a between country-level, vary in their intention to start medical treatment of a dairy cow with mild clinical mastitis, on the same day as making the diagnosis. The threshold for initiating treatment was quantified as an intention score. Secondary, underlying behavioural components of the intention score was studied within each country. A social psychology model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), was used to design a questionnaire that was distributed to 1047 veterinarians in cattle practice in the four countries during autumn 2010. The response rate was around 50% in all the countries, and 543 observations were retained for analysis. The between-country differences in intention were tested with one-way analysis of variance. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the proportion of variability in intention explained by the three behavioural components, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The Spearman rank correlations between specific beliefs about the behaviour and intention scores were estimated to find beliefs of high influence on the decision to treat or not. Intention scores differed between all countries (p<0.05) except between NO and SE (p=0.06). The mean intention scores were 0.71, 0.42, 0.58 and 0.50 in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. As measured by the adjusted R(2) in linear regression models, the underlying behavioural components of the TPB explained 0.37, 0.41, 0.40 and 0.48 of the variation in intention scores in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. Attitude was the

  12. Mental health problems and social resource factors among bullied children in the Nordic countries: a population based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bjereld, Ylva; Daneback, Kristian; Gunnarsdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Petzold, Max

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated internalising and externalising mental health problems among bullied-, unclear if bullied- and not bullied children aged 4-16 in the Nordic countries, and identified resource factors to bullied children's mental health. Data comes from the cross-sectional NordChild survey 2011 and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, including 6,214 children in the analyses. Mental health problems were most prevalent among children parent-reported as bullied (29.2-44.3 %), followed by children with unclear status if bullied (13.0-25.6 %) and not bullied children (5.3-7.9 %). Externalising problems were more prevalent in all groups except among bullied girls aged 7-16, where internalising problems were more prevalent. Ten potential resource factors to bullied children's mental health were analyzed, finding that (1) children with at least three close friends had higher odds to be mentally healthy than children with fewer close friends and (2) bullied boys had higher odds to be mentally healthy if they regularly practiced sport.

  13. The influence of a ten-week Nordic walking training-rehabilitation program on the level of lipids in blood in overweight and obese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Hagner-Derengowska, Magdalena; Kałużny, Krystian; Hagner, Wojciech; Kochański, Bartosz; Plaskiewicz, Anna; Borkowska, Alina; Bronisz, Agata; Budzyński, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a ten-week Nordic Walking (NW) rehabilitation program on chosen anthropometric parameters and the level of basic lipids in overweight and obese postmenopausal women’s blood. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 32 women aged 50–68 (average: 59.7 ± 5.9 years). The study was carried out following a non-randomized model and entailed NW rehabilitation 5 times a week, which lasted for 10 weeks, as well as a low-calorie 1,500 kcal diet. The therapeutic results of the study were measured through changes in anthropometric and biochemical parameters. The results were subjected to a statistical analysis. [Results] After 10 weeks of NW rehabilitation it was observed that participants lost weight and their body mass index dropped. Additionally, whereas levels of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides dropped, and the level of HDL increased. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation carried out according to the NW model resulted in statistically significant changes in basic lipids in blood which, considerably increased the percentage of persons who achieved the recommended level of blood lipids. Obese persons were characterised by a smaller rehabilitation weight loss. More intense workouts and cooperation with a dietician are required. PMID:26644639

  14. The magnetic field and the evolution of element spots on the surface of the HgMn eclipsing binary ARAur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Savanov, I.; Ilyin, I.; González, J. F.; Korhonen, H.; Lehmann, H.; Schöller, M.; Granzer, T.; Weber, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Hartmann, M.; Tkachenko, A.

    2010-10-01

    The system ARAur is a young late B-type double-lined eclipsing binary with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity. We applied the Doppler imaging method to reconstruct the distribution of Fe and Y over the surface of the primary using spectroscopic time series obtained in 2005 and from 2008 October to 2009 February. The results show a remarkable evolution of the element distribution and overabundances. Measurements of the magnetic field with the moment technique using several elements reveal the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred gauss in both stellar components and a quadratic field of the order of 8kG on the surface of the primary star. Based on observations obtained at the 2.56-m Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, the Karl-Schwarzschild-Observatorium in Tautenburg and the STELLA robotic telescope on Tenerife. E-mail: shubrig@aip.de

  15. Cumulative evidence for MS as a neural network disconnection syndrome consistent with cognitive impairment mechanisms and the confounding role of fatigue and depression-outlook from the Fourth Nordic MS symposium.

    PubMed

    van Ettinger-Veenstra, H

    2016-09-01

    The Fourth Nordic MS symposium served as a platform to present an overview over the rise and impact of cognitive impairment in people with MS, from early stages on, impairing their quality of life. After discussing MS and cognitive impairment symptoms, a review on the pathophysiology underlying cognitive impairment was given, followed by a talk on neuroimaging highlighting cortical reorganization in MS-affected brains. As a conclusion, therapy and treatment options were discussed. The symposium presented several cutting-edge research studies providing or testing working models that appear successful in predicting and explaining cognitive impairment in MS, such as the disconnection syndrome. PMID:27580899

  16. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-01

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil.

  17. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjun; Roswall, Nina; Ström, Peter; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-12-28

    Dietary patterns, which represent a broader picture of food and nutrient consumption, have gained increasing interest over the last decades. In a cohort design, we followed 27 544 women aged 29-49 years from baseline in 1991-1992. We collected data from an FFQ at baseline and body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) data both at baseline and at follow-up in 2003. We calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS, ranging from 0 to 9) and the Nordic diet score (NDS, ranging from 0 to 6). We used linear regression to examine the association between MDS and NDS (exposures) with subsequent BW change (ΔBW) and WC change (ΔWC) (outcomes) both continuously and categorically. Higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with ΔBW. The multivariable population average increment in BW was 0·03 kg (95 % CI -0·03, 0·09) per 1-point increase in MDS and 0·04 kg (95 % CI -0·02, 0·10) per 1-point increase in NDS. In addition, higher adherence to the MDS was not associated with ΔWC, with the multivariable population average increment per 1-point increase in MDS being 0·05 cm (95 % CI -0·03, 0·13). Higher adherence to the NDS was not significantly associated with gain in WC when adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with changes in average BW or WC in the present cohort followed for 12 years.

  18. Birth Weight in Relation to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adolescence and Adulthood: Meta-Analysis of Results from 13 Nordic Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars; Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Bengtsson, Calle; Canoy, Dexter; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eriksson, Marit; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lissner, Lauren; Nilsen, Tom I.; Osler, Merete; Overvad, Kim; Rasmussen, Finn; Salonen, Minna K.; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prenatal life exposures, potentially manifested as altered birth size, may influence the later risk of major chronic diseases through direct biologic effects on disease processes, but also by modifying adult behaviors such as physical activity that may influence later disease risk. Methods/Principal Findings We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific analyses. Birth weight showed a reverse U-shaped association with later LTPA; within the range of normal weight the association was negligible but weights below and above this range were associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA. Compared with the reference category (3.26–3.75 kg), the birth weight categories of 1.26–1.75, 1.76–2.25, 2.26–2.75, and 4.76–5.25 kg, had odds ratios of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.94), 0.72 (0.59, 0.88), 0.89 (0.79, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.50, 0.86), respectively. The shape and strength of the birth weight-LTPA association was virtually independent of sex, age, gestational age, educational level, concurrent body mass index, and smoking. Conclusions/Significance The association between birth weight and undertaking LTPA is very weak within the normal birth weight range, but both low and high birth weights are associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA, which hence may be a mediator between prenatal influences and later disease risk. PMID:20016780

  19. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, perceived exertion, and integrated electromyogram of the lower and upper extremities during level and Nordic walking on a treadmill

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize responses in oxygen uptake ( V·O2), heart rate (HR), perceived exertion (OMNI scale) and integrated electromyogram (iEMG) readings during incremental Nordic walking (NW) and level walking (LW) on a treadmill. Ten healthy adults (four men, six women), who regularly engaged in physical activity in their daily lives, were enrolled in the study. All subjects were familiar with NW. Each subject began walking at 60 m/min for 3 minutes, with incremental increases of 10 m/min every 2 minutes up to 120 m/min V·O2 , V·E and HR were measured every 30 seconds, and the OMNI scale was used during the final 15 seconds of each exercise. EMG readings were recorded from the triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles. V·O2 was significantly higher during NW than during LW, with the exception of the speed of 70 m/min (P < 0.01). V·E and HR were higher during NW than LW at all walking speeds (P < 0.05 to 0.001). OMNI scale of the upper extremities was significantly higher during NW than during LW at all speeds (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the iEMG reading for the VL was lower during NW than during LW at all walking speeds, while the iEMG reading for the BF and GA muscles were significantly lower during NW than LW at some speeds. These data suggest that the use of poles in NW attenuates muscle activity in the lower extremities during the stance and push-off phases, and decreases that of the lower extremities and increase energy expenditure of the upper body and respiratory system at certain walking speeds. PMID:23406834

  20. Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Reports the results of a field trip to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields generated by electronic devices in the home, in cars, at work, outside, and in places people visit during the day. Found that a person gets more intense exposure while working at a computer than by living next to an electrical substation. (MDH)

  1. Arun field

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, C.F. Jr.; Abdullah, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Arun field is a giant gas-condensate field operated by Mobil and Pertamina with over 20,000 acres of closure at the top of the Arun reservoir. A middle-shelf patch reef complex of early to middle Miocene age is the producing facies at the Arun field. About 1,100 ft of porous limestones, encased in shales, create a stratigraphic trap for overpressure hydrocarbons. Three main carbonate lithologies were encountered during the examination of over 4,300 ft of core; (1) a reef facies consisting of vuggy, coral encrusting, red-algal boundstones, (2) a near-reef facies consisting of foraminiferal, mixed-skeletal packstones with gravel-size coral fragments, and (3) an interreef lagoonal facies consisting of benthonic-foram packstones. Twenty-two species of corals have been identified from Arun reef facies; major reef-forming coals, listed in order of decreasing abundance, are Porites cf P. Lutes, Cyphastrea microphthalma, Astreopora myriophthalma, Styloconiella gunetheri, Porites solida, and Acropora ssp. The Arun reef is comprised of limestones (with minor amounts of dolomite). No shale beds occur in the sequence, and all carbonate facies are in communication. A pervasive microporosity, occurring throughout the Arun Limestone, results from meteoric alteration of original carbonate mud to form a microrhombic porosity that accounts for about three-fourths of the field's total porosity.

  2. Health behaviors in elderly people. A 5-year follow-up of 75-year-old people living in three Nordic localities. Smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and healthy eating, and attitudes to their importance.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Agnes N; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Maria, Aijö

    2002-06-01

    Few studies about health behavior among elderly persons in the Nordic countries are available, and our knowledge about longitudinal changes is especially limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of selected health behaviors as reported at age 75 years in Finland, Sweden and Denmark together with answers regarding attitudes to such habits, and study longitudinal changes between 75 and 80 years. The study population included 499 men and 704 women born in 1914/15 and examined in 1989/90 in Jyväskylä (Finland), Göteborg (Sweden), and Glostrup (Denmark). Survivors were re-examined in 1994/95. A self-administered validated questionnaire developed from the Danish Nationwide Health Surveys was given to the participants during a home visit and checked when the subjects came to the laboratory examination. The Danes had the highest proportion of smokers and persons with daily alcoholic beverage consumption and the smallest proportion of healthy eaters, but the Swedes had the most sedentary life-style. Women had the healthiest life-style. Between ages 75 and 80 years, the proportion of participants who tried to improve their health decreased, but there was no change in believing the importance of one's own effort in maintaining health. The free-time physical activity decreased, but there was no change in the attitude towards physical activity. There were major cross-national differences among the three Nordic localities, but the health behaviors were rather stable, though the proportion of participants who tried to improve their health decreased. Not more than 60 to 70% of the subjects believed that their own efforts are important to health.

  3. Timing and mechanisms of surface and intermediate water circulation changes in the Nordic Seas over the last 10,000 cal years: a view from the North Iceland shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, J.; Jennings, A. E.; Andrews, J. T.

    2004-11-01

    The North Iceland shelf bears essential components of the present surface and intermediate circulation of the northern North Atlantic. Instrumental and historical data give evidence of the sensitivity of this domain to broad, regional-scale oceanic and atmospheric anomalies. Our investigation of the paleohydrological variability off Northern Iceland throughout the last 10 000 cal yr suggests that atmospheric forcing alone, through combined changes in strength of the wind stress curl and sea-level atmospheric pressure pattern over the Nordic Seas, is sufficient to explain the recorded changes in origins and dynamics of surface and intermediate water masses. Our biotic proxies, coccoliths and benthic foraminifera, were extracted from a giant piston core (MD99-2269) collected in a shelf trough where sediment accumulated at an excess rate of 2 m/kyr. The mid-Holocene from 6.5 to 3.5 cal kyr BP was a time of peaked carbonate production and subsequent sedimentation, and strong water-column stratification with a thick layer of cold-fresh Arctic surface water overlapping an enhanced flow of Irminger/Atlantic Intermediate water. Applying conditions triggering present-time carbonate plankton blooms in the studied area, we infer that a lowered cyclonic activity associated with decreased winter storms and reduced production of Arctic Intermediate Water in the Iceland Sea were conductive of the recorded mid-Holocene water column structure. The opposite situation (warm Atlantic surface water, low vertically-integrated inflow of Irminger water, abutment of Arctic Intermediate water in deep shelf troughs) characterized the early Holocene as well as a shorter late Holocene period centred at 2 cal kyr BP. The Little Ice Age (ca. 0.2-0.6 cal kyr BP) and a short event at around 3 cal kyr BP stand as times of extreme advection of polar waters and extended sea-ice development. A comparison of the recorded long-term Holocene evolution of water column structure off Northern Iceland with

  4. Beyond Field Education: Leadership of Field Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Mindy R.; Sodhi, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of the field director's role outside of field education, specifically in the following 3 areas of leadership: (1) curricular, (2) programmatic, and (3) institutional. A survey was conducted to explore the field director's input targeted in these areas beyond prescribed field education tasks. The…

  5. Third-party rights and risks: a forum on informed consent of persons affected by the study of human subjects--conditions, experiences, and concerns in a Nordic country.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T I

    2001-01-01

    In Denmark, health research using personal information can be conducted only with permission from a regional scientific ethical committee and the national Data Protection Office. There are no rules applying to the rights and risks of third parties. In this article, the implications for third-party rights and risks of the type and level of involvement of the subjects are discussed from a Danish point of view. Particular emphasis is put on the current conditions, experiences, and concerns with regard to use of already registered personal information, which in the Nordic countries offers unique opportunities for large-scale, longitudinal, population-based studies also involving third parties. These opportunities have recently been challenged by a European Community Directive, with which all member states must comply, requiring informed consent on every transaction of personal data, but through a political process, it was possible to obtain a series of amendments allowing the special register-based research to continue. Crucial arguments favoring the amendments were that no damage has been observed so far and that such research has no interest in the individual data, only in the statistical distributions and associations. Finally, the article suggests that the rights and risks of third parties might be considered on the basis of use: third-party information provided by the subject only as a source of such information distinct from use of the information as an integral part of the subjects' information about themselves and their lives.

  6. High-resolution screening combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of potential health-promoting constituents in sea aster and searocket--new Nordic food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Schmidt, Jeppe S; Wiese, Stefanie; Staerk, Dan

    2013-09-11

    Sea aster (Aster tripolium L.) and searocket (Cakile maritima Scop.), potential ingredients in the New Nordic Diet, were analyzed by high-resolution radical scavenging and high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition assays. Results from the two bioactivity profiles were used to guide subsequent structural analysis toward constituents with potential health-promoting effects. Structural analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction and automated tube transfer nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that is, HPLC-HRMS-SPE-ttNMR. High-resolution mass spectrometry together with detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional proton detected NMR experiments enabled unambiguous assignment of the targeted analytes. This revealed a series of caffeoyl esters (1, 2, 5), flavonoid glycosides (3, 4, 6, 11-15), flavonoids (7-9), sinapate esters (10, 16, 17), and sinapinic acid (18) associated with radical scavenging and/or α-glucosidase inhibition. In vitro assays implemented in this study showed that sea aster holds potential as a future functional food ingredient for lowering postprandial blood glucose level for diabetics, but further investigations are needed to prove the effect in vivo.

  7. Internal split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat; ,Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  8. Equality in Language Learning. Proceedings of the Nordic Conference of Applied Linguistics, (5th, Jyvaskyla, Finland, June 4-7, 1987). AFinLA Series No. 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.

    Papers presented at the conference on applied linguistics include the following: "Speaking of Grammars: Is Big Beautiful?" (Jan Svartvik); "A Sociosemiotic View of the Grasp of Language at Reality: The Lexical Field 'Aesthetic Judgment'" (Wolfgang Kuhlwein); "Language as a Target and Instrument of the Educational Process in a Multilingual Setting"…

  9. Information Sharing in the Field of Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilerot, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on an extensive research project which aimed at exploring information sharing activities in a scholarly context. The paper presents and synthesises findings from a literature review and three qualitative case studies. The empirical setting is a geographically distributed Nordic network of design scholars. Method:…

  10. Which is the better proxy for paleo-current strength: Sortable-silt mean size (SS>¯) or sortable-silt mean grain diameter (dSS)? A case study from the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegzes, Andrea D.; Jansen, Eystein; Telford, Richard J.

    2015-10-01

    The coarseness of the 10-63 μm terrigenous silt (i.e., sortable-silt) fraction tends to vary independently of sediment supply in current-sorted muds in the world's oceans, with coarser sediments representing relatively greater near-bottom flow speeds. Traditionally, the coarseness of this size fraction is described using an index called sortable-silt mean size (SS>¯), which is an arithmetic average calculated from the differential volume or mass distribution of grains within the 10-63 μm terrigenous silt fraction, where the relative weights of the individual size bins become increasingly disproportionate, with respect to the actual number of grains within those size bins, toward the coarse end of the size range. This not only increases the absolute value of the apparent "mean size" within the 10-63 μm terrigenous silt fraction, but it may also affect the apparent pattern of relative changes in the coarseness of the sortable-silt fraction along the core. In addition, it makes SS>¯ more prone to biases due to, for example, analytical errors. Here we present a detailed analysis of grain-size distributions over three selected Holocene time intervals from two complementary sediment cores (JM97-948/2A and MD95-2011), extracted from the center of a high-accumulation area along the flow path of the main branch of the Atlantic Inflow into the Nordic Seas and show that differential-number-based statistics, which likely better describes variations in the actual coarseness of the sortable-silt fraction, may provide a more robust alternative to SS>¯.

  11. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view. PMID:26097703

  12. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (P<0·001) in the intervention period than in the control period (medians: baseline 2·03%; intervention 1·46%; control 1·37%). In contrast, the intervention increased reading speed (0·7 sentence, P=0·009) and the number of correct sentences (1·8 sentences, P<0·001), which corresponded to 11 and 25%, respectively, of the effect of one school year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (P<0·001), indicating that the number correct improved relatively more than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials. PMID:25791747

  13. Pandemic vaccination strategies and influenza severe outcomes during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and the post-pandemic influenza season: the Nordic experience.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Julita Gil; Aavitsland, Preben; Englund, Hélène; Gudlaugsson, Ólafur; Hauge, Siri Helene; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Sigmundsdóttir, Guðrún; Tegnell, Anders; Virtanen, Mikko; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2016-04-21

    During the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, the five Nordic countries adopted different approaches to pandemic vaccination. We compared pandemic vaccination strategies and severe influenza outcomes, in seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in these countries with similar influenza surveillance systems. We calculated the cumulative pandemic vaccination coverage in 2009/10 and cumulative incidence rates of laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in 2009/10 and 2010/11. We estimated incidence risk ratios (IRR) in a Poisson regression model to compare those indicators between Denmark and the other countries. The vaccination coverage was lower in Denmark (6.1%) compared with Finland (48.2%), Iceland (44.1%), Norway (41.3%) and Sweden (60.0%). In 2009/10 Denmark had a similar cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions and deaths compared with the other countries. In 2010/11 Denmark had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions (IRR: 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-3.0) and deaths (IRR: 8.3; 95% CI: 5.1-13.5). Compared with Denmark, the other countries had higher pandemic vaccination coverage and experienced less A(H1N1)pdm09-related severe outcomes in 2010/11. Pandemic vaccination may have had an impact on severe influenza outcomes in the post-pandemic season. Surveillance of severe outcomes may be used to compare the impact of influenza between seasons and support different vaccination strategies.

  14. Successful change of treatment strategy in elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma by de-escalating induction and introducing temozolomide maintenance: results from a phase II study by the Nordic Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Pulczynski, Elisa J; Kuittinen, Outi; Erlanson, Martin; Hagberg, Hans; Fosså, Alexander; Eriksson, Mikael; Nordstrøm, Marie; Østenstad, Bjørn; Fluge, Øystein; Leppä, Sirpa; Fiirgaard, Bente; Bersvendsen, Hanne; Fagerli, Unn-Merete

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic Lymphoma Group has conducted a phase ll trial in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma patients applying an age-adjusted multi-agent immunochemotherapy regimen, which in elderly patients included temozolomide maintenance treatment. Patients aged 18-75 years were eligible. Thirty-nine patients aged 18-65 years and 27 patients aged 66-75 years were enrolled. The median age of the two age groups was 55 and 70 years, respectively. The overall response rate was 73.8% for the entire cohort: 69.9% in the younger and 80.8% in the elderly subgroup. With a median follow up of 22 months, the 2-year overall survival probability was 60.7% in patients aged 65 years or under and 55.6% in patients aged over 65 years (P=0.40). The estimated progression-free survival at two years was 33.1% (95%CI: 19.1%-47.9%) in patients aged under 65 years and 44.4% (95%CI: 25.6%-61.8%) in the elderly subgroup (P=0.74). Median duration of response was ten months in the younger subgroup, and not reached in the elderly patient subgroup (P=0.33). Four patients aged 64-75 years (6%) died from treatment-related complications. Survival in the two age groups was similar despite a de-escalation of induction treatment in patients aged over 65 years. Duration of response in elderly patients receiving maintenance temozolomide was longer than in the younger age subgroup. While toxicity during induction is still of concern, especially in the elderly patients, we conclude from these data that de-escalation of induction therapy in elderly primary central nervous system lymphoma patients followed by maintenance treatment seems to be a promising treatment strategy. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01458730). PMID:25480497

  15. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view.

  16. The clinical impact of IKZF1 deletions in paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is independent of minimal residual disease stratification in Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology treatment protocols used between 1992 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Linda; Ivanov Öfverholm, Ingegerd; Norén-Nyström, Ulrika; Zachariadis, Vasilios; Nordlund, Jessica; Sjögren, Helene; Golovleva, Irina; Nordgren, Ann; Paulsson, Kajsa; Heyman, Mats; Barbany, Gisela; Johansson, Bertil

    2015-09-01

    Paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (BCP ALL) with IKZF1 deletions (∆IKZF1) are associated with a poor outcome. However, there are conflicting data as to whether ∆IKZF1 is an independent risk factor if minimal residual disease (MRD) and other copy number alterations also are taken into account. We investigated 334 paediatric BCP ALL, diagnosed 1992-2013 and treated according to Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology ALL protocols, with known IKZF1 status based on either single nucleotide polymorphism array (N = 218) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (N = 116) analyses. ∆IKZF1, found in 15%, was associated with inferior 10-year probabilities of event-free (60% vs. 83%; P < 0·001) and overall survival (pOS; 73% vs. 89%; P = 0·001). Adjusting for known risk factors, including white blood cell (WBC) count and MRD, ∆IKZF1 was the strongest independent factor for relapse and death. ∆IKZF1 was present in 27% of cases with non-informative cytogenetics ('BCP-other') and a poor 10-year pOS was particularly pronounced in this group (58% vs. 90%; P < 0·001). Importantly, neither MRD nor WBC count predicted events in the ∆IKZF1-positive cases. Co-occurrence of pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) deletions in Xp22.33/Yp11.32 (P2RY8-CRLF2) and ∆IKZF1 increased the risk of relapse (75% vs. 30% for cases with only ∆IKZF1; P = 0·045), indicating that BCP-other ALL with both P2RY8-CRLF2 and ∆IKZF1 constitutes a particularly high-risk group.

  17. Successful change of treatment strategy in elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma by de-escalating induction and introducing temozolomide maintenance: results from a phase II study by the Nordic Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Pulczynski, Elisa J; Kuittinen, Outi; Erlanson, Martin; Hagberg, Hans; Fosså, Alexander; Eriksson, Mikael; Nordstrøm, Marie; Østenstad, Bjørn; Fluge, Øystein; Leppä, Sirpa; Fiirgaard, Bente; Bersvendsen, Hanne; Fagerli, Unn-Merete

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic Lymphoma Group has conducted a phase ll trial in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma patients applying an age-adjusted multi-agent immunochemotherapy regimen, which in elderly patients included temozolomide maintenance treatment. Patients aged 18-75 years were eligible. Thirty-nine patients aged 18-65 years and 27 patients aged 66-75 years were enrolled. The median age of the two age groups was 55 and 70 years, respectively. The overall response rate was 73.8% for the entire cohort: 69.9% in the younger and 80.8% in the elderly subgroup. With a median follow up of 22 months, the 2-year overall survival probability was 60.7% in patients aged 65 years or under and 55.6% in patients aged over 65 years (P=0.40). The estimated progression-free survival at two years was 33.1% (95%CI: 19.1%-47.9%) in patients aged under 65 years and 44.4% (95%CI: 25.6%-61.8%) in the elderly subgroup (P=0.74). Median duration of response was ten months in the younger subgroup, and not reached in the elderly patient subgroup (P=0.33). Four patients aged 64-75 years (6%) died from treatment-related complications. Survival in the two age groups was similar despite a de-escalation of induction treatment in patients aged over 65 years. Duration of response in elderly patients receiving maintenance temozolomide was longer than in the younger age subgroup. While toxicity during induction is still of concern, especially in the elderly patients, we conclude from these data that de-escalation of induction therapy in elderly primary central nervous system lymphoma patients followed by maintenance treatment seems to be a promising treatment strategy. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01458730).

  18. Electrostatic Field Invisibility Cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chuwen; Yang, Yuping; Geng, Zhaoxin; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2015-01-01

    The invisibility cloak has been drawing much attention due to its new concept for manipulating many physical fields, from oscillating wave fields (electromagnetic, acoustic and elastic) to static magnetic fields, dc electric fields, and diffusive fields. Here, an electrostatic field invisibility cloak has been theoretically investigated and experimentally demonstrated to perfectly hide two dimensional objects without disturbing their external electrostatic fields. The desired cloaking effect has been achieved via both cancelling technology and transformation optics (TO). This study demonstrates a novel way for manipulating electrostatic fields, which shows promise for a wide range of potential applications. PMID:26552343

  19. Fractal vector optical fields.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-07-15

    We introduce the concept of a fractal, which provides an alternative approach for flexibly engineering the optical fields and their focal fields. We propose, design, and create a new family of optical fields-fractal vector optical fields, which build a bridge between the fractal and vector optical fields. The fractal vector optical fields have polarization states exhibiting fractal geometry, and may also involve the phase and/or amplitude simultaneously. The results reveal that the focal fields exhibit self-similarity, and the hierarchy of the fractal has the "weeding" role. The fractal can be used to engineer the focal field. PMID:27420485

  20. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  1. Electrostatic Field Invisibility Cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Chuwen; Yang, Yuping; Geng, Zhaoxin; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2015-11-01

    The invisibility cloak has been drawing much attention due to its new concept for manipulating many physical fields, from oscillating wave fields (electromagnetic, acoustic and elastic) to static magnetic fields, dc electric fields, and diffusive fields. Here, an electrostatic field invisibility cloak has been theoretically investigated and experimentally demonstrated to perfectly hide two dimensional objects without disturbing their external electrostatic fields. The desired cloaking effect has been achieved via both cancelling technology and transformation optics (TO). This study demonstrates a novel way for manipulating electrostatic fields, which shows promise for a wide range of potential applications.

  2. Wake fields and wake field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Wilson, P.B.; Weiland, T.

    1984-12-01

    In this lecture we introduce the concepts of wake fields and wake potentials, examine some basic properties of these functions, show how they can be calculated, and look briefly at a few important applications. One such application is wake field acceleration. The wake field accelerator is capable of producing the high gradients required for future very high energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear colliders. The principles of wake field acceleration, and a brief description of experiments in progress in this area, are presented in the concluding section. 40 references, 27 figures.

  3. News Almost dry but never dull: ASE 2014 EuroPhysicsFun shows physics to Europe Institute of Physics for Africa (IOPfA) South Sudan Report October 2013 Celebrating the centenary of x-ray diffraction The Niels Bohr Institute—an EPS Historical Site Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN) 2014: inquiry-based science education in technology-rich environments Physics World Cup 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    Almost dry but never dull: ASE 2014 EuroPhysicsFun shows physics to Europe Institute of Physics for Africa (IOPfA) South Sudan Report October 2013 Celebrating the centenary of x-ray diffraction The Niels Bohr Institute—an EPS Historical Site Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN) 2014: inquiry-based science education in technology-rich environments Physics World Cup 2013

  4. News Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

  5. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  6. Field Trips. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Sally; Aronson, Susan S.; Stacey, Susan; Winbush, Olga

    2001-01-01

    Five articles highlight benefits and organization of field trips: (1) "Field Trips Promote Child Learning at Its Best"; (2) "Planning for Maximum Benefit, Minimum Risk"; (3) "Coaching Community Hosts"; (4) "The Story of a Field Trip: Trash and Its Place within Children's Learning and Community"; and (5) "Field Trip Stories and Perspectives" (from…

  7. PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kusano, K.

    2012-06-20

    Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

  8. Star-forming galaxies in low-redshift clusters: comparison of integrated properties of cluster and field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretherton, C. F.; James, P. A.; Moss, C.; Whittle, M.

    2010-12-01

    Aims: We investigate the effect of the cluster environment on the star formation properties of galaxies in 8 nearby Abell clusters. Methods: Star formation properties are determined for individual galaxies using the equivalent width of Hα+[Nii] line emission from narrow-band imaging. Equivalent width distributions are derived for each galaxy type in each of 3 environments - cluster, supercluster (outside the cluster virial radius) and field. The effects of morphological disturbance on star formation are also investigated. Results: We identify a population of early-type disk galaxies in the cluster population with enhanced star formation compared to their field counterparts. The enhanced cluster galaxies frequently show evidence of disturbance, and the disturbed galaxies show marginal evidence for a higher velocity dispersion, possibly indicative of an infalling population. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias; and with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope, which was operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  9. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Kjølbæk, Louise; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-28

    Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school

  10. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Kjølbæk, Louise; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-28

    Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school

  11. Magnetic field mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, R. M.; Stenger, F. J.

    1969-01-01

    Magnetic field mapper locates imperfections in cadmium sulphide solar cells by detecting and displaying the variations of the normal component of the magnetic field resulting from current density variations. It can also inspect for nonuniformities in other electrically conductive materials.

  12. What Are Electromagnetic Fields?

    MedlinePlus

    ... with distance from it. Conductors such as metal shield them very effectively. Other materials, such as building ... with distance from the source. Most building materials shield electric fields to some extent. Magnetic fields arise ...

  13. Planning a Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forecast for Home Economics, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The showroom of a button manufacturer was the site of a successful field trip for a New York City home economics class. Suggestions for field trip preparation are included as well as directions for making button jewelry. (EA)

  14. Dissipative Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kheirandish, F.; Amooshahi, M.

    2008-11-18

    Quantum field theory of a damped vibrating string as the simplest dissipative scalar field theory is investigated by introducing a minimal coupling method. The rate of energy flowing between the system and its environment is obtained.

  15. Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    2008-07-02

    The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced.

  16. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  17. Electric Field Imaging Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  18. Far field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  19. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  20. Magnetic field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Earlier papers1-3 in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds. This paper explains how to use an iPad and the free app MagnetMeter-3D Vector Magnetometer and Accelerometer4 (compass HD) to measure the magnetic fields.

  1. Politics of aviation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  2. Geological Field Trip Guidebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Harriet E.

    1978-01-01

    Geological field trip guidebooks, developed for use during a field trip or field conference, are considered ephemeral publications by their compilers and publishers. Too few copies are printed and little attention is paid to bibliographic format and information. These difficulties are discussed and recommendations are made to alleviate the…

  3. Introduction to field tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrowski, F.; Kuhn, M.

    2011-03-01

    Field tracing is the generalization of ray tracing and enables electromagnetic system modeling. Harmonic fields are traced through the optical system instead of ray bundles. This allows the smooth combination of different modeling techniques in different subdomains of the system, e.g. to use the rigorous spectrum-of-plane-wave operator for homogeneous media, geometrical optics to trace through a lens and finite element methods to include the effect of some scatterer. All modeling techniques have to be formulated for vectorial harmonic fields. The paper introduces the basic concepts of field tracing and derives the corresponding operator equations. Propagation in homogeneous media is of special concern in field tracing to interconnect the modeling in different subdomains of the system. A new concept for a smart propagation algorithm is presented. Because of the success of geometrical optics in ray tracing, it is reasonable to consider its application in field tracing. In this paper we discuss generalizations of geometrical optics that have been enforced by field tracing. Although the basic field tracing equations are formulated for vectorial harmonic fields, general fields can be treated by suitable decompositions into sets of harmonic modes.

  4. Magnetic Fields in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, their strength and structure in intergalactic space, their first occurrence in young galaxies, and their dynamical importance for galaxy evolution remain widely unknown. Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized radio synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 μG) and in central starburst regions (50-100 μG). Such fields are dynamically important; they can affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized radio emission traces ordered fields which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, generated from isotropic turbulent fields by compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields of 10-15 μG strength are generally found in interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered (anisotropic turbulent) fields are also observed at the inner edges of the spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Irregular galaxies host isotropic turbulent fields often of similar strength as in spiral galaxies, but only weak ordered fields. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several galaxies reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field α -Ω dynamo. So far no indications were found in external galaxies of large-scale field reversals, like the one in the Milky Way. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos

  5. Electromagnetic fields and cells.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R; Chizmadzhev, Y; Shirley-Henderson, A

    1993-04-01

    There is strong public interest in the possibility of health effects associated with exposure to extremely low frequency (elf) electromagnetic (EM) fields. Epidemiological studies suggest a probable, but controversial, link between exposure to elf EM fields and increased incidence of some cancers in both children and adults. There are hundreds of scientific studies that have tested the effects of elf EM fields on cells and whole animals. A growing number of reports show that exposure to elf EM fields can produce a large array of effects on cells. Of interest is an increase in specific transcripts in cultured cells exposed to EM fields. The interaction mechanism with cells, however, remains elusive. Evidence is presented for a model based on cell surface interactions with EM fields.

  6. Simulated workplace neutron fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoste, V.; Taylor, G.; Röttger, S.

    2011-12-01

    The use of simulated workplace neutron fields, which aim at replicating radiation fields at practical workplaces, is an alternative solution for the calibration of neutron dosemeters. They offer more appropriate calibration coefficients when the mean fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficients of the simulated and practical fields are comparable. Intensive Monte Carlo modelling work has become quite indispensable for the design and/or the characterization of the produced mixed neutron/photon fields, and the use of Bonner sphere systems and proton recoil spectrometers is also mandatory for a reliable experimental determination of the neutron fluence energy distribution over the whole energy range. The establishment of a calibration capability with a simulated workplace neutron field is not an easy task; to date only few facilities are available as standard calibration fields.

  7. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  8. Wake field accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered. (LEW)

  9. Field emission electron source

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  10. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  11. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  12. Photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

  13. Modeling Saturn's Magnetospheric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, K. K.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has now provided an excellent coverage of radial distances, local times and latitudes in Saturn's magnetosphere. The magnetic field observations from Cassini continue to provide deep insights on the structure and dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere. Two of the unexpected findings from Saturn's magnetosphere are that the current sheet of Saturn assumes a shallow saucer like shape from the forcing of the solar wind on the magnetosphere and that rotational diurnal periodicities are ubiquitous in a magnetosphere formed by an axisymmetric internal field from Saturn. We have used the comprehensive magnetic field data from Cassini to construct a versatile new model of Saturn's magnetospheric field for use in current and future data analysis. Our model consists of fully shielded modules that specify the internal spherical harmonic field of Saturn, the ring current and the magnetotail current systems and the interconnection magnetic field from the solar wind IMF. The tilt and hinging of the current sheet is introduced by using the general deformation technique [Tsyganenko, 1998]. In the new model, Saturn's current sheet field is based on Tsyganenko and Peredo [1994] formalism for disk-shaped current sheets. The shielding field from the magnetopause for the equatorial current sheet and the internal field is specified by Cartesian and cylindrical harmonics, respectively. To derive the shielding fields we use a model of the magnetopause constructed from magnetopause crossings observed by both Cassini and Voyager (Arridge et al. 2006). The model uses observations from Pioneer, Voyager and Cassini. A comparison of model field with the observations will be presented. Finally, we discuss both the applications of the new model and its further generalization using data from the proximal orbit phase of Cassini.

  14. Tips from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Rachel; Groome, Meghan; Sheppard, Keith; Stroud, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Field trips are opportunities to experience science in settings beyond the classroom. Much educational research has focused on effective ways of designing and planning field trips for optimal impact on the classroom and science curriculum. However, teachers are sometimes at a loss on how to design a trip that will enhance students' analytical…

  15. Fast focus field calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutenegger, Marcel; Geissbuehler, Matthias; Märki, Iwan; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Lasser, Theo

    2008-02-01

    We present a method for fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under the conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation, our method yields the amplitude, phase and polarization of the focus field for an arbitrary paraxial input field in the aperture of the objective. Our fast calculation method is particularly useful for engineering the point-spread function or for fast image deconvolution. We present several case studies by calculating the focus fields of high NA oil immersion objectives for various amplitude, polarization and phase distributions of the input field. In addition, the calculation of an extended polychromatic focus field generated by a Bessel beam is presented. This extended focus field is of particular interest for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography because it preserves a lateral resolution of a few micrometers over an axial distance in the millimeter range.

  16. Forrest or Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2009-01-01

    An open field--with its wildflowers, grasses, and vole tunnels--became an instant classroom. Students' senses were awakened there, and upon entering a nearby forest, they immediately detected a difference: less light and cooler air. "Why are there no grasses in the forest? Why aren't there ferns in the field?" These and other questions emerged as…

  17. Polarizable force fields.

    PubMed

    Antila, Hanne S; Salonen, Emppu

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the most common methods for including an explicit description of electronic polarization in molecular mechanics force fields: the induced point dipole, shell, and fluctuating charge models. The importance of including polarization effects in biomolecular simulations is discussed, and some of the most important achievements in the development of polarizable biomolecular force fields to date are highlighted.

  18. Diamond fiber field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B.; Coates, Don M.; Devlin, David J.; Eaton, David F.; Silzars, Aris K.; Valone, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  19. Octonic Massive Field Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Süleyman; Kekeç, Seray

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper we propose the octonic form of massive field equations based on the analogy with electromagnetism and linear gravity. Using the advantages of octon algebra the Maxwell-Dirac-Proca equations have been reformulated in compact and elegant way. The energy-momentum relations for massive field are discussed.

  20. Voices from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keilty, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention takes its form from a variety of fields. It has its obvious roots in the fields that primarily provide early intervention services--special education, allied health, and early childhood education. Early intervention also draws from public health as a coordinated approach to addressing the biological, psychological, and social…

  1. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  2. Undulator Field Integral Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-07

    The LCLS undulator field integrals must be very small so that the beam trajectory slope and offset stay within tolerance. In order to make accurate measurements of the small field integrals, a long coil will be used. This note describes the design of the coil measurement system.

  3. A Biomes Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  4. Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gail; Cooper, Garry

    The Internet field trips in this directory allow teachers to take students almost anywhere--without the usual ordeals associated with field trips. Organized by subject and cross-referenced for quick and easy access, this book leads educators and students to the most exciting, educational, and innovative Web sites on the Internet. Chapters cover…

  5. Field Trip Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to prepare for and conduct a safe and worry-free educational experience. She shares a few tips that will ensure field trips will be fun, safe, engaging, and productive. She stresses that with proper planning, field trips can be unique ways to explore the world with students.

  6. Open field lines instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzoli, R. |

    1995-09-01

    The results of some recent theoretical papers dealing with flute-like instabilities in the scrape-off layer of a tokamak with limiter configuration, where the magnetic field intersects conducting walls, are briefly recalled. Attention is then paid to the instability driven by the electron temperature gradient across the field in conjunction with the formation of the Debye sheath at the boundary, and to the effects due to the inclination of the end walls with respect to the magnetic field. When a divertor configuration is considered, important modifications are found owing to the strong deformations of the flux tubes passing near the {ital x}-point, which contrast the onset of flute-like perturbations, and to the stochasticity of field lines that can be excited by magnetic field perturbations. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. The Coriolis field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, L. Filipe; Natário, José

    2016-05-01

    We present a pedagogical discussion of the Coriolis field, emphasizing its not-so-well-understood aspects. We show that this field satisfies the field equations of the so-called Newton-Cartan theory, a generalization of Newtonian gravity that is covariant under changes of arbitrarily rotating and accelerated frames. Examples of solutions of this theory are given, including the Newtonian analogue of the Gödel universe. We discuss how to detect the Coriolis field by its effect on gyroscopes, of which the gyrocompass is an example. Finally, using a similar framework, we discuss the Coriolis field generated by mass currents in general relativity, and its measurement by the gravity probe B and LAGEOS/LARES experiments.

  8. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  9. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones.

  10. Simulation of water balance in a clayey, subsurface drained agricultural field with three-dimensional FLUSH model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsta, Lassi; Karvonen, Tuomo; Koivusalo, Harri; Paasonen-Kivekäs, Maija; Taskinen, Antti

    2013-01-01

    SummaryWater flow is a key component in the evaluation of soil erosion and nutrient loads from agricultural fields. Field cultivation is the main non-point pollution source threatening water quality of surface waters in Nordic and many other countries. Few models exist that can describe key hydrological processes in clayey soils, i.e. overland flow, preferential flow in macropores and soil shrinkage and swelling. A new three-dimensional (3-D) distributed numerical model called FLUSH is introduced in this study to simulate these processes. FLUSH describes overland flow with the diffuse wave simplification of the Saint Venant equations and subsurface flow with a dual-permeability approach using the Richards equation in both macropore and matrix pore systems. A method based on the pentadiagonal matrix algorithm solves flow in both macropore and matrix systems directly in a column of cells in the computational grid. Flow between the columns is solved with iteration accelerated with OpenMP parallelisation. The model validity is tested with data from a 3-D analytical model and a clayey subsurface drained agricultural field in southern Finland. According to the simulation results, over 99% of the drainflow originated from the macropore system and drainflow started in some cases within the same hour when precipitation started indicating preferential flow in the profile. The moisture content of the clay soil had a profound effect on runoff distribution between surface runoff and drainflow. In summer, when the soil was dry and cracked, drainflow dominated the total runoff, while in autumn, when the shrinkage crack network had swollen shut, surface runoff fraction clearly increased. Observed differences in surface runoff fraction before and after tillage indicated that the operation decreased hydraulic conductivity of the profile.

  11. THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2012-12-10

    With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

  12. Gauge fields and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  13. Remnant field detector

    DOEpatents

    Visser, Age T.

    1988-05-03

    A method apparatus for qualitatively detecting remnant magnetic fields in matched pairs of magnet cores. Equal magnitude and oppositely oriented magnetic flux is induced in the magnet cores by oppositely wound primary windings and current source. Identically wound secondary windings generate output voltages in response to the induced flux. The output voltages generated should be of equal magnitude and opposite polarity if there is no remnant field in the cores. The output voltages will be unequal which is detected if either core has a remnant field.

  14. Remnant field detector

    DOEpatents

    Visser, Age T.

    1988-01-01

    A method apparatus for qualitatively detecting remnant magnetic fields in matched pairs of magnet cores. Equal magnitude and oppositely oriented magnetic flux is induced in the magnet cores by oppositely wound primary windings and current source. Identically wound secondary windings generate output voltages in response to the induced flux. The output voltages generated should be of equal magnitude and opposite polarity if there is no remnant field in the cores. The output voltages will be unequal which is detected if either core has a remnant field.

  15. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  16. Gauge fields and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  17. Introducing electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, John

    2016-09-01

    The clear introduction of basic concepts and definitions is crucial for teaching any topic in physics. I have always found it difficult to teach fields. While searching for better explanations I hit on an approach of reading foundational texts and electromagnetic textbooks in ten year lots, ranging from 1840 to the present. By combining this with modern techniques of textual interpretation I attempt to clarify three introductory concepts: how the field is defined; the principle of superposition and the role of the electrostatic field in a circuit.

  18. Kepler Field of View

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Kepler mission will be looking continuously at over 100,000 stars in one region of the sky, in the Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The field of view is extremely large for an astronomical teles...

  19. Local Field Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrio, C.; Schnatterly, S. E.

    We review the local field problem, beginning with the pioneering work of the 19th century. We then approach the problem from a microscopic perspective and include a momentum dependence. We also offer experimental examples.

  20. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  1. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP.

  2. Algebraic Mean Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankova, T. S.; Rosensteel, G.

    1998-10-01

    Mean field theory has an unexpected group theoretic mathematical foundation. Instead of representation theory which applies to most group theoretic quantum models, Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov have been formulated in terms of coadjoint orbits for the groups U(n) and O(2n). The general theory of mean fields is formulated for an arbitrary Lie algebra L of fermion operators. The moment map provides the correspondence between the Hilbert space of microscopic wave functions and the dual space L^* of densities. The coadjoint orbits of the group in the dual space are phase spaces on which time-dependent mean field theory is equivalent to a classical Hamiltonian dynamical system. Indeed it forms a finite-dimensional Lax system. The mean field theories for the Elliott SU(3) and symplectic Sp(3,R) algebras are constructed explicitly in the coadjoint orbit framework.

  3. Field antenna handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuch, J. A.

    1984-06-01

    This handbook presents basic propagation theory, the fundamentals concerning antennas, and the design and use of tactical high frequency and very high frequency antennas. It is a field reference for basic antenna facts and a usage guide for antennas.

  4. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  5. Hyperspectral light field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Raimund; Kenda, Andreas; Tortschanoff, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    A light field camera acquires the intensity and direction of rays from a scene providing a 4D representation L(x,y,u,v) called the light field. The acquired light field allows to virtually change view point and selectively re-focus regions algorithmically, an important feature for many applications in imaging and microscopy. The combination with hyperspectral imaging provides the additional advantage that small objects (beads, cells, nuclei) can be categorised using their spectroscopic signatures. Using an inverse fluorescence microscope, a LCTF tuneable filter and a light field setup as a test-bed, fluorescence-marked beads have been imaged and reconstructed into a 4D hyper-spectral image cube LHSI(x,y,z,λ). The results demonstrate the advantages of the approach for fluorescence microscopy providing extended depth of focus (DoF) and the fidelity of hyper-spectral imaging.

  6. Crystal Field Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, D. J.; Ng, Betty

    2007-09-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Introduction; 1. Crystal field splitting mechanisms D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 2. Empirical crystal fields D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 3. Fitting crystal field parameters D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 4. Lanthanide and actinide optical spectra G. K. Liu; 5. Superposition model D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 6. Effects of electron correlation on crystal field splitting M. F. Reid and D. J. Newman; 7. Ground state splittings in S-state ions D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 8. Invariants and moments Y. Y. Yeung; 9. Semiclassical model K. S. Chan; 10. Transition intensities M. F. Reid; Appendix 1. Point symmetry D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; Appendix 2. QBASIC programs D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; Appendix 3. Accessible program packages Y. Y. Yeung, M. F. Reid and D. J. Newman; Appendix 4. Computer package CST Cz. Rudowicz; Bibliography; Index.

  7. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, William J.

    Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October 2003 to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions. If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the geomagnetic field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. Geomagnetism, the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations. It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of geomagnetism is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book. It is particularly germane in view of a broad range of geomagnetic topics that are at the forefront of today's science, including environmental magnetism, so-called ``jerks'' observed in the Earth's magnetic field, the perplexing magnetic field of Mars, improved satellite magnetic field observations, and the increasing availability of high-quality continental magnetic anomaly maps, to name only a few.

  8. Field test experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    As a part of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), a field-test program was developed to obtain solar photovoltaic (PV) module performance and endurance data. These data are used to identify the specific characteristics of module designs under various environmental conditions. The information obtained from field testing is useful to all participants in the National Photovoltaics Program, from the research planner to the life-cycle cost analyst.

  9. Collective field accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Luce, John S.

    1978-01-01

    A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a .nu./.gamma. of .about. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam.

  10. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

  11. Distillation under electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.M.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C.

    1997-11-01

    Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

  12. Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

  13. Coronal Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Haosheng

    2007-05-01

    Centuries after the birth of modern solar astronomy, the Sun's corona still keeps many of its secrets: How is it heated to a million-degree temperature? How does it harbor the cool and dense prominence gas amid the tenuous and hot atmosphere? How does it drive the energetic events that eject particles into interplanetary space with speed exceeding 1% of the speed of light? We have greatly improved our knowledge of the solar corona with decades of space X-ray and EUV coronal observations, and many theories and models were put forward to address these problems. In our current understanding, magnetic fields are undoubtedly the most important fields in the corona, shaping its structure and driving its dynamics. It is clear that the resolution of these important questions all hinge on a better understanding of the organization, evolution, and interaction of the coronal magnetic field. However, as the direct measurement of coronal magnetic field is a very challenging observational problem, most of our theories and models were not experimentally verified. Nevertheless, we have finally overcome the experimental difficulties and can now directly measure the coronal magnetic field with great accuracy. This new capability can now be used to study the static magnetic structure of the corona, and offers hope that we will, in the near future, be able to directly observe the evolution of the coronal magnetic field of energetic solar events. More importantly, it finally allows us to conduct vigorous observational tests of our theories and models. In this lecture, I will review current research activities related to the observation, interpretation, and modeling of the coronal magnetic field, and discuss how they can help us resolve some of the long standing mysteries of the solar corona.

  14. The Gorgon gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, L.J.; Sayers, M.J.; Tait, A.M. )

    1990-09-01

    The Gorgon gas field was discovered by West Australian Petroleum Pty Limited (WAPET) in 1980 with the 1 Gorgon well, and appraised by 1 North Gorgon in 1982 and 1 Central Gorgon in 1983. The gas field is situated on the North West Shelf of Western Australia, 65 km northwest of WAPET's Barrow Island oil field, itself 65 km offshore. The Gorgon gas field is at the southwestern end of the Rankin Platform, which contains several giant gas fields. Water depth at the Gorgon gas field is around 250 m. The top of the Triassic Mungaroo Formation reservoir sequence is at approximately 3,500 m subsea. Individual meander-belt sandstones are up to 50 m thick and occur either interbedded with interchannel claystones or stacked to form sand bodies up to 220 m thick. The Triassic sediments form a tilted horst sealed by Cretaceous Barrow Group shales. Gross gas columns and net gas pays in the 1 Gorgon, 1 Central Gorgon, and 1 North Gorgon wells are 409 and 106 m, 441 and 45 m, and 761 and 136 m, respectively. The field is 5 km wide and at least 30 km long. Gas reserves are estimated at 232 {times} 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}, of which around 17% is carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The reservoir sandstones have porosities of 15 to 20% and permeabilities from tens to thousands of millidarcys. Individual zones have flowed gas at rates of up to 1.06 million m{sup 3}/day through a 31.75 mm choke.

  15. Magnetic fields at uranus.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuña, M H; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1986-07-01

    The magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft revealed a strong planetary magnetic field of Uranus and an associated magnetosphere and fully developed bipolar masnetic tail. The detached bow shock wave in the solar wind supersonic flow was observed upstream at 23.7 Uranus radii (1 R(U) = 25,600 km) and the magnetopause boundary at 18.0 R(U), near the planet-sun line. A miaximum magnetic field of 413 nanotesla was observed at 4.19 R(U ), just before closest approach. Initial analyses reveal that the planetary magnetic field is well represented by that of a dipole offset from the center of the planet by 0.3 R(U). The angle between Uranus' angular momentum vector and the dipole moment vector has the surprisingly large value of 60 degrees. Thus, in an astrophysical context, the field of Uranus may be described as that of an oblique rotator. The dipole moment of 0.23 gauss R(3)(U), combined with the large spatial offset, leads to minimum and maximum magnetic fields on the surface of the planet of approximately 0.1 and 1.1 gauss, respectively. The rotation period of the magnetic field and hence that of the interior of the planet is estimated to be 17.29+/- 0.10 hours; the magnetotail rotates about the planet-sun line with the same period. Thelarge offset and tilt lead to auroral zones far from the planetary rotation axis poles. The rings and the moons are embedded deep within the magnetosphere, and, because of the large dipole tilt, they will have a profound and diurnally varying influence as absorbers of the trapped radiation belt particles.

  16. Canonical field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Setthivoine

    2015-11-01

    A new canonical field theory has been developed to help interpret the interaction between plasma flows and magnetic fields. The theory augments the Lagrangian of general dynamical systems to rigourously demonstrate that canonical helicity transport is valid across single particle, kinetic and fluid regimes, on scales ranging from classical to general relativistic. The Lagrangian is augmented with two extra terms that represent the interaction between the motion of matter and electromagnetic fields. The dynamical equations can then be re-formulated as a canonical form of Maxwell's equations or a canonical form of Ohm's law valid across all non-quantum regimes. The field theory rigourously shows that helicity can be preserved in kinetic regimes and not only fluid regimes, that helicity transfer between species governs the formation of flows or magnetic fields, and that helicity changes little compared to total energy only if density gradients are shallow. The theory suggests a possible interpretation of particle energization partitioning during magnetic reconnection as canonical wave interactions. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  17. Frontier Field Abell 370

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soifer, Tom; Capak, Peter

    2014-08-01

    After considering valuable advice from the astronomical community and broad range of open questions in galaxy evolution an advisory committee unanimously recommended HST undertake a program of six deep fields centered on strong lensing galaxy clusters in p arallel with six deep blank fields". The key science goals of these twelve new frontier fields are: 1) to reveal hitherto inaccessible populations of z = 5 - 10 galaxies thatare 10 - 50 times fainter intrinsically than any presently known. 2) to solidify our understanding of the stellar masses and star formation histories of sub-L* galaxies at the earliest times 3) to provide the first statistically meaningful morphological characterization of star forming galaxies at z > 5 4) to find z > 8 galaxies stretched out enough by cluster lensing to discern internal structure and/or magnified enough by cluster lensing for spectroscopic follow-up. Spitzer data are essential to meeting these goals because it enables mass and physical parameter estimates for the high redshift sources and differentiates between low and high redshift galaxies. As a result Spitzer has committed to observing these fields as a major DDT program. The first 4 galaxies clusters and the first 4 deep "blank fields" will be observed by Spitzer over cycles 9 and 10.

  18. Frontier Field RXCJ2248

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soifer, Tom; Capak, Peter

    2014-08-01

    After considering valuable advice from the astronomical community and broad range of open questions in galaxy evolution an advisory committee unanimously recommended HST undertake a program of six deep fields centered on strong lensing galaxy clusters in p arallel with six deep "blank fields". The key science goals of these twelve new frontier fields are: 1) to reveal hitherto inaccessible populations of z = 5 - 10 galaxies that are 10 - 50 times fainter intrinsically than any presently known. 2) to solidify our understanding of the stellar masses and star formation histories of sub-L* galaxies at the earliest times 3) to provide the first statistically meaningful morphological characterization of star forming galaxies at z > 5 4) to find z > 8 galaxies stretched out enough by cluster lensing to discern internal structure and/or magnified enough by cluster lensing for spectroscopic follow-up. Spitzer data are essential to meeting these goals because it enables mass and physical parameter estimates for the high redshift sources and differentiates between low and high redshift galaxies. As a result Spitzer has committed to observing these fields as a major DDT program. The first 4 galaxies clusters and the first 4 deep "blank fields" will be observed by Spitzer over cycles 9 and 10.

  19. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  20. Field error lottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James Elliott, C.; McVey, Brian D.; Quimby, David C.

    1991-07-01

    The level of field errors in a free electron laser (FEL) is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is use of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond convenient mechanical tolerances of ± 25 μm, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure using direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time.

  1. Field error lottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, C. James; McVey, Brian D.; Quimby, David C.

    1990-11-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement, and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of (plus minus)25(mu)m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time.

  2. Field error lottery

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. ); Quimby, D.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Spiking the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, C.; Davies, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic field intensities corresponding to virtual axial dipole moments of up to 200 ZAm2, more than twice the modern value, have been inferred from archeomagnetic measurements on artifacts dated at or shortly after 1000 BC. Anomalously high values occur in the Levant and Georgia, but not in Bulgaria. The origin of this spike is believed to lie in Earth's core: however, its spatio-temporal characteristics and the geomagnetic processes responsible for such a feature remain a mystery. We show that a localized spike in the radial magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) must necessarily contribute to the largest scale changes in Earth's surface field, namely the dipole. Even the limiting spike of a delta function at the CMB produces a minimum surface cap size of 60 degrees for a factor of two increase in paleointensity. Combined evidence from modern satellite and millennial scale field modeling suggests that the Levantine Spike is intimately associated with a strong increase in dipole moment prior to 1000 BC and likely the product of north-westward motion of concentrated near equatorial Asian flux patches like those seen in the modern field. New archeomagnetic studies are needed to confirm this interpretation. Minimum estimates of the power dissipated by the spike are comparable to independent estimates of the dissipation associated with the entire steady state geodynamo. This suggests that geomagnetic spikes are either associated with rapid changes in magnetic energy or strong Lorentz forces.

  4. Orsted Initial Field Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, N.; Holme, R.; Hulot, G.; Sabaka, T.; Neubert, T.; Toffner-Clausen, L.; Primdahl, F.; Jorgensen, J.; Leger, J.-M.; Barraclough, D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic measurements taken by the Orsted satellite during geomagnetic quiet conditions around January 1, 2000 have been used to derive a spherical harmonic model of the Earth's magnetic field for epoch 2000.0. The maximum degree and order of the model is 19 for internal, and 2 for external, source fields; however, coefficients above degree 14 may not be robust. Such detailed models exist for only one previous epoch, 1980. Achieved rms misfit is 2 nT for the scalar intensity and 4 nT for the vector components perpendicular to the magnetic field. This model is of higher detail than the IGRF 2000, which for scientific purposes related to the Orsted mission it supersedes.

  5. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  6. Electrically silent magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, B J; Wikswo, J P

    1986-01-01

    There has been a significant controversy over the past decade regarding the relative information content of bioelectric and biomagnetic signals. In this paper we present a new, theoretical example of an electrically-silent magnetic field, based on a bidomain model of a cylindrical strand of tissue generalized to include off-diagonal components in the conductivity tensors. The physical interpretation of the off-diagonal components is explained, and analytic expressions for the electrical potential and the magnetic field are found. These expressions show that information not obtainable from electrical potential measurements can be obtained from measurements of the magnetic field in systems with conductivity tensors more complicated than those previously examined. PMID:3779008

  7. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays.

  8. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.E.

    1998-03-03

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays. 11 figs.

  9. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  10. Carbohydrate force fields

    PubMed Central

    Foley, B. Lachele; Tessier, Matthew B.; Woods, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates present a special set of challenges to the generation of force fields. First, the tertiary structures of monosaccharides are complex merely by virtue of their exceptionally high number of chiral centers. In addition, their electronic characteristics lead to molecular geometries and electrostatic landscapes that can be challenging to predict and model. The monosaccharide units can also interconnect in many ways, resulting in a large number of possible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, both linear and branched. These larger structures contain a number of rotatable bonds, meaning they potentially sample an enormous conformational space. This article briefly reviews the history of carbohydrate force fields, examining and comparing their challenges, forms, philosophies, and development strategies. Then it presents a survey of recent uses of these force fields, noting trends, strengths, deficiencies, and possible directions for future expansion. PMID:25530813

  11. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength

  12. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  13. LSA field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, P.

    1979-01-01

    Degradation tests indicate that electrical degradation is not a slow monotonically increasing phenomenon as originally thought but occurs abruptly as the result of some traumatic event. This finding has led to a change in the test philosophy. A discussion of this change is presented along with a summary of degradation and failure data from all the sites and results from a variety of special tests. New instrumentation for in-field measurements are described. Field testing activity was expanded by the addition of twelve remote sites located as far away as Alaska and the Canal Zone. Descriptions of the new sites are included.

  14. MDI Synoptic Charts of Magnetic Field: Interpolation of Polar Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Hoeksema, J. T.; Zhao, X.; Larson, R. M.

    2007-05-01

    In this poster, we compare various methods for interpolation of polar field for the MDI synoptic charts of magnetic field. By examining the coronal and heliospheric magnetic field computed from the synoptic charts based on a Potential Field Source Surface model (PFSS), and by comparing the heliospheric current sheets and footpoints of open fields with the observations, we conclude that the coronal and heliospheric fields calculated from the synoptic charts are sensitive to the polar field interpolation, and a time-dependent interpolation method using the observed polar fields is the best among the seven methods investigated.

  15. The Capodimonte Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    A Window towards the Distant Universe Summary The Osservatorio Astronomico Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF) is a multi-colour imaging survey project that is opening a new window towards the distant universe. It is conducted with the ESO Wide Field Imager (WFI) , a 67-million pixel advanced camera attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). As a pilot project at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (OAC) [1], the OACDF aims at providing a large photometric database for deep extragalactic studies, with important by-products for galactic and planetary research. Moreover, it also serves to gather experience in the proper and efficient handling of very large data sets, preparing for the arrival of the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) with the 1 x 1 degree 2 OmegaCam facility. PR Photo 15a/01 : Colour composite of the OACDF2 field . PR Photo 15b/01 : Interacting galaxies in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15c/01 : Spiral galaxy and nebulous object in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15d/01 : A galaxy cluster in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15e/01 : Another galaxy cluster in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15f/01 : An elliptical galaxy in the OACDF2 field. The Capodimonte Deep Field ESO PR Photo 15a/01 ESO PR Photo 15a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 426 pix - 73k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 851 pix - 736k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3190 pix - 7.3M] Caption : This three-colour image of about 1/4 of the Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF) was obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the la Silla Observatory. It covers "OACDF Subfield no. 2 (OACDF2)" with an area of about 35 x 32 arcmin 2 (about the size of the full moon), and it is one of the "deepest" wide-field images ever obtained. Technical information about this photo is available below. With the comparatively few large telescopes available in the world, it is not possible to study the Universe to its outmost limits in all directions. Instead, astronomers try to obtain the most detailed

  16. Enforcement Field Operations Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    This manual is designed as a practical handbook for air pollution control officials. A variety of situations and tasks encountered in field operations are described and the appropriate action which should be taken is explained Topics include source detection, source inspection, recording and reporting inspections, maintaining a recording system,…

  17. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  18. Managing Field Evacuations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satz, Jay A.; McEvoy, David; Merrill, Kurt

    In the event of a debilitating injury or illness, outdoor leaders should consider four critical phases in successfully managing backcountry field evaluations. The first phase, managing the immediate scene, involves assuring scene safety, medical care of the patient, instituting the emergency response plan, and providing for the needs of uninjured…

  19. Warp Field Mechanics 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, H.

    This paper will begin with a short review of the Alcubierre warp drive metric and describes how the phenomenon might work based on the original paper. The canonical form of the metric was developed and published in [6] which provided key insight into the field potential and boost for the field which remedied a critical paradox in the original Alcubierre concept of operations. A modified concept of operations based on the canonical form of the metric that remedies the paradox is presented and discussed. The idea of a warp drive in higher dimensional space-time (manifold) will then be briefly considered by comparing the null-like geodesics of the Alcubierre metric to the Chung-Freese metric to illustrate the mathematical role of hyperspace coordinates. The net effect of using a warp drive "technology" coupled with conventional propulsion systems on an exploration mission will be discussed using the nomenclature of early mission planning. Finally, an overview of the warp field interferometer test bed being implemented in the Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory: Eagleworks (APPL:E) at the Johnson Space Center will be detailed. While warp field mechanics has not had a "Chicago Pile" moment, the tools necessary to detect a modest instance of the phenomenon are near at hand.

  20. Warp Field Mechanics 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold

    2011-01-01

    This paper will begin with a short review of the Alcubierre warp drive metric and describes how the phenomenon might work based on the original paper. The canonical form of the metric was developed and published in [6] which provided key insight into the field potential and boost for the field which remedied a critical paradox in the original Alcubierre concept of operations. A modified concept of operations based on the canonical form of the metric that remedies the paradox is presented and discussed. The idea of a warp drive in higher dimensional space-time (manifold) will then be briefly considered by comparing the null-like geodesics of the Alcubierre metric to the Chung-Freese metric to illustrate the mathematical role of hyperspace coordinates. The net effect of using a warp drive technology coupled with conventional propulsion systems on an exploration mission will be discussed using the nomenclature of early mission planning. Finally, an overview of the warp field interferometer test bed being implemented in the Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory: Eagleworks (APPL:E) at the Johnson Space Center will be detailed. While warp field mechanics has not had a Chicago Pile moment, the tools necessary to detect a modest instance of the phenomenon are near at hand.

  1. Field-Flow Fractionation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Karin D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a technique for separating samples that range over 15 orders of magnitude in molecular weight. Discusses theory, apparatus, and sample preparation techniques. Lists several types of field-flow fractionation (FFF) and their uses: sedimentation FFF, thermal FFF, flow FFF, electrical FFF, and steric FFF. (ML)

  2. Electromagnetic field in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Peter; Torok, Peter

    1998-09-01

    A linearly polarized plane wave traversing an optically transparent system rarely maintains its linear polarization. In this work we discuss two aspects of this phenomenon. First, we consider the effect of a high aperture lens on polarization. This case is of utmost importance in confocal and near field microscopy and, in general, focusing. Second, the role of the polarization in hologram reconstruction is discussed.

  3. The field representation language.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field. PMID:17434811

  4. Entanglement with classical fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.F.; Thomas, J.E.

    2004-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple classical-field optical heterodyne method which employs postselection to reproduce the polarization correlations of a four-particle entangled state. We give a heuristic argument relating this method to the measurement of multiple quantum fields by correlated homodyne detection. We suggest that using multiple classical fields and postselection, one can reproduce the polarization correlations obtained in quantum experiments which employ multiple single-photon sources and linear optics to prepare multiparticle entangled states. Our experimental scheme produces four spatially separated beams which are separately detected by mixing with four independent optical local oscillators (LO) of variable polarization. Analog multiplication of the four beat signals enables projection onto a four-particle polarization-state basis. Appropriate band pass filtering is used to produce a signal proportional to the projections of the maximally entangled four-field polarization state, H{sub 1})H{sub 2})H{sub 3})H{sub 4})+V{sub 1})V{sub 2})V{sub 3})V{sub 4}), onto the product of the four LO polarizations. Since the data from multiple observers is combined prior to postselection, this method does not constitute a test of nonlocality. However, we reproduce the polarization correlations of the 32 elements in the truth table from the quantum mechanical Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger experiments on the violation of local realism. We also demonstrate a form of classical entanglement swapping in a four-particle basis.

  5. Toroidal spiral field theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, V. B.

    1996-09-01

    A toroidal spiral field is introduced that propagates around all the objects in the universe. The nature of this field can be either gravitational or electrostatic or magnetic, and it governs the motion of the objects as well as the forces that act upon them. The topology of the toroidal spiral field is obtained when the Bertrami vortex comprised of two helical fluxes of opposite vorticity is curved into a circle. The main parameter that defines the geometry of the toroidal spiral field is the inversion radius of a sphere at which the toroidal fluxes of opposite vorticity meet. The inversion sphere is the border surface at which the matter converts into anti-matter, and at which the law of physics are inverted. The theory covers the problem of two objects orbiting each other with possible sizes ranging from an elementary particle to a black hole and to a galaxy. The equations obtained define the radii of the stationary quantum orbits which can be applied to a structure of the hydrogen atom, including its nucleus, as well as to a structure of a planetary system and a black hole. They also establish the relativistic relationships for the gravitational and inertial masses as well as for the electrical charge which are quite different than those proposed by Lorentz.

  6. Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1997-01-01

    Virtual field trips can provide experiences beyond the reach of average K-12 students. Describes multimedia products for school use: Africa Trail, Dinosaur Hunter, Louvre Museum, Magic School Bus Explores the Rainforest, and Up to the Himalayas: Kingdoms in the Clouds and provides book and Internet connections for additional learning, highlighting…

  7. Extended conformal field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    1990-08-01

    Some extended conformal field theories are briefly reviewed. They illustrate how non minimal models of the Virasoro algebra (c≥1) can become minimal with respect to a larger algebra. The accent is put on N-extended superconformal algebras, which are relevant in superstring compactification.

  8. Field of Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Richard

    2003-01-01

    When planning summer work, school athletic facility managers must address the maintenance and renovation of natural grass and synthetic fields, tennis courts, and running tracks. This article presents a guide to the simple, effective, and relatively inexpensive summer maintenance of athletic facilities in order to help extend the life of a schools…

  9. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi

    The magnetic-field characteristics in spiral galaxies are investigated, with emphasis on the Milky Way. The dynamo theory is considered, and axisymmetric spiral (ASS) and bisymmetric spiral (BSS) magnetic fields are analyzed. Toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields are discussed.

  10. Holden Crater Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    A common location for dune fields on Mars is in the basin of large craters. This dune field is located in Holden Crater at 25 degrees South atitude.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -25.5, Longitude 326.8 East (33.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. [Full-field OCT].

    PubMed

    Dubois, Arnaud; Boccara, Claude

    2006-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique for imaging of biological media with micrometer-scale resolution, whose most significant impact concerns ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990's, OCT has known a lot of improvements and sophistications. Full-field OCT is our original approach of OCT, based on white-light interference microscopy. Tomographic images are obtained by combination of interferometric images recorded in parallel by a detector array such as a CCD camera. Whereas conventional OCT produces B-mode (axially-oriented) images like ultrasound imaging, full-field OCT acquires tomographic images in the en face (transverse) orientation. Full-field OCT is an alternative method to conventional OCT to provide ultrahigh resolution images (approximately 1 microm), using a simple halogen lamp instead of a complex laser-based source. Various studies have been carried, demonstrating the performances of this technology for three-dimensional imaging of ex vivo specimens. Full-field OCT can be used for non-invasive histological studies without sample preparation. In vivo imaging is still difficult because of the object motions. A lot of efforts are currently devoted to overcome this limitation. Ultra-fast full-field OCT was recently demonstrated with unprecedented image acquisition speed, but the detection sensitivity has still to be improved. Other research directions include the increase of the imaging penetration depth in highly scattering biological tissues such as skin, and the exploitation of new contrasts such as optical birefringence to provide additional information on the tissue morphology and composition. PMID:17026940

  12. Classical higgs fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardanashvily, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    We consider a classical gauge theory on a principal fiber bundle P → X in the case where its structure group G is reduced to a subgroup H in the presence of classical Higgs fields described by global sections of the quotient fiber bundle P/H → X. We show that matter fields with the exact symmetry group H in such a theory are described by sections of the composition fiber bundle Y → P/H → X, where Y → P/H is the fiber bundle with the structure group H, and the Lagrangian of these sections is factored by virtue of the vertical covariant differential determined by a connection on the fiber bundle Y → P/H.

  13. Field site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, D. E.; Ellefsen, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Several general guidelines should be kept in mind when considering the selection of field sites for teaching remote sensing fundamentals. Proximity and vantage point are two very practical considerations. Only through viewing a broad enough area to place the site in context can one make efficient use of a site. The effects of inclement weather when selecting sites should be considered. If field work is to be an effective tool to illustrate remote sensing principles, the following criteria are critical: (1) the site must represent the range of class interest; (2) the site must have a theme or add something no other site offers; (3) there should be intrasite variation within the theme; (4) ground resolution and spectral signature distinction should be illustrated; and (5) the sites should not be ordered sequentially.

  14. Graphene field emission devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S. Raghavan, S.; Duesberg, G. S.; Pratap, R.

    2014-09-08

    Graphene field emission devices are fabricated using a scalable process. The field enhancement factors, determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, are within few hundreds and match the theoretical predictions. The devices show high emission current density of ∼10 nA μm{sup −1} at modest voltages of tens of volts. The emission is stable with time and repeatable over long term, whereas the noise in the emission current is comparable to that from individual carbon nanotubes emitting under similar conditions. We demonstrate a power law dependence of emission current on pressure which can be utilized for sensing. The excellent characteristics and relative ease of making the devices promise their great potential for sensing and electronic applications.

  15. Wake field acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  17. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  18. Mobile Field Goniospectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, J. I.; Kaasalainen, S.; Näränen, J.

    2004-05-01

    Multiangle remote sensing needs multiangle models and multiangle ground reference data. The ground data can be measured using goniometers. Many targets are in difficult terrains and hard to bring into laboratory, which makes the ground data collection more complicated We have developed several field goniometers to measure the directional and spectral reflection signatures of various targets. The heaviest of the instruments is fully manual and very robust for field work. It can be transported using a light trailer and mounted in an hour. The new very light goniometer measures the BRDF automatically in few minutes. It can be carried by two persons even large distances to difficult places. Both of these instruments use the ASD Field Spec PRO FR spectrometer with a 4m light fibre allowing optics to be mounted up and the heavy parts down. The dimensions --- arm length about 2m --- and optics (1--8 degree view angles) limit the useful spot diameter to about 3, 10 or 30cm, making the system useful for small vegetation and soil. These two wide angle goniometers are complemented by a narrow angle backscattering goniometer utilising beamsplitters to measure up to exact backscattering direction and about 15 degree around. We present BRDF and spectra for undergrowth (lichen, moss, peat, twigs) from a field campaign in August 2003, and various grasses dry and wet. We recognise significant differences in the directional pattern between different species (factors of 2-10) and varying structural properties, making the use of directional signal for remote sensing very attractive. We are working with scattering models of snow and soil, and will continue with vegetation soon.

  19. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Conformal scalar field wormholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Jonathan J.; Laflamme, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    The Euclidian Einstein equations with a cosmological constant and a conformally coupled scalar field are solved, taking the metric to be of the Robertson-Walker type. In the case Lambda = 0, solutions are found which represent a wormhole connecting two asymptotically flat Euclidian regions. In the case Lambda greater than 0, the solutions represent tunneling from a small Tolman-like universe to a large Robertson-Walker universe.

  1. Fields, Flares, And Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucheron, L.; Al-Ghraibah, Amani; McAteer, J.; Cao, H.; Jackiewicz, J.; McNamara, B.; Voelz, D.; Calabro, B.; DeGrave, K.; Kirk, M.; Madadi, A.; Petsov, A.; Taylor, G.

    2011-05-01

    Solar active regions are the source of many energetic and geo-effective events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Understanding how these complex source regions evolve and produce these events is of fundamental importance, not only to solar physics, but also to the demands of space weather forecasting. We propose to investigate the physical properties of active region magnetic fields using fractal-, gradient-, neutral line-, emerging flux-, wavelet- and general image-based techniques, and to correlate them to solar activity. The combination of these projects with solarmonitor.org and the international Max Millenium Campaign presents an opportunity for accurate and timely flare predictions for the first time. Many studies have attempted to relate solar flares to their concomitant magnetic field distributions. However, a consistent, causal relationship between the magnetic field on the photosphere and the production of solar flares is unknown. Often the local properties of the active region magnetic field - critical in many theories of activity - are lost in the global definition of their diagnostics, in effect smoothing out variations that occur on small spatial scales. Mindful of this, our overall goal is to create measures that are sensitive to both the global and the small-scale nature of energy storage and release in the solar atmosphere in order to study solar flare prediction. This set of active region characteristics will be automatically explored for discriminating features through the use of feature selection methods. Such methods search a feature space while optimizing a criterion - the prediction of a flare in this case. The large size of the datasets used in this project make it well suited for an exploration of a large feature space. This work is funded through a New Mexico State University Interdisciplinary Research Grant.

  2. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  3. Proca and electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hillion, P.; Quinnerz, S.

    1986-07-01

    In the framework of the proper orthochronous Lorentz group, the old connection is revived between the electromagnetic field characterized by a self-dual tensor and a traceless second-rank spinor obeying the Proca equation. The relationship between this spinor and the Hertz potential also considered as a self-dual tensor is emphasized. The extension of this formalism to meet the covariance under the full Lorentz group is also discussed.

  4. Crater Floor Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Our final dune image shows a small dune field inside an unnamed crater south of Nili Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 20.6, Longitude 79 East (281 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. COS NUV Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining COS NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for monitoring purpose only.The program uses the internal deuterium lamp and the MR grism G185M {at the central wavelengths 1835, 1850 and 1864 A}, as during thermal vacuum testing and SMOV4. The estimated SNR reached at the end of the program {13 hr integration during 10 orbits} is 20-25 per 3x3 pixel.

  6. Bright field illumination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A Bright Field Illumination system for inspecting a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface. The system has an illumination source placed near a first focus of an elliptical reflector. In addition, a camera facing the inspected area is placed near the illumination source and the first focus. The second focus of the elliptical reflector is located at a distance approximately twice the elliptical reflector's distance above the inspected surface. The elliptical reflector directs the light from the source onto the inspected surface. Due to the shape of the elliptical reflector, light that is specularly reflected from the inspected surface is directed into the camera is which located at the position of the reflected second focus of the ellipse. This system creates a brightly lighted background field against which damage sites appear as high contrast dark objects which can be easily detected by a person or an automated inspection system. In addition, the Bright Field Illumination system and method can be used in combination with a vision inspection system providing for multiplexed illumination and data handling of multiple kinds of surface characteristics including abrupt and gradual surface variations and differences between measured characteristics of different kinds and prior instruments.

  7. Magnetic Field Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilin, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.

  8. Field Trips: Tradition in Jeopardy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Ginger

    2011-01-01

    The school field trip: something fun, different, exciting, exhausting--a break from the school day grind. But the field trip has ramifications beyond just getting out of school for the day. For students, the field trip is to the classroom what the big game is to athletes. For museums and other attractions, the field trip is a way to cultivate…

  9. Modelling Water Flow, Heat Transport, Soil Freezing and Thawing, and Snow Processes in a Clayey, Subsurface Drained Agricultural Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsta, L.; Turunen, M.; Koivusalo, H. J.; Paasonen-Kivekäs, M.; Karvonen, T.; Taskinen, A.

    2012-12-01

    experimental field section while snow and frost depths were recorded within the experimental field section. The model was calibrated with 1994 data and validated with soil temperature and snow and frost depth data from the years 1995-1999. The main advantage of the new model was the 3-D distributed nature of the system which made it possible to simulate lateral water and heat fluxes in soil and overland flow on the field surface. Also, the possibility to simulate hydrological conditions in the experimental field continuously from 1994 to 1998 was essential because the main sediment loads in Nordic fields usually occur after snow melt and during autumn rains and the resulting runoff depends on the antecedent moisture conditions in the field. The simulation results revealed differences in soil temperatures within the field area due to the topography of the undulating field. The low lying areas were colder (up to 1 °C) during winter and also remained colder longer in the spring due to the higher water content compared to the drier, upper parts of the slopes. Repeated freezing and thawing cycles during the winter and early spring caused an ice layer to form on the soil surface which promoted generation of surface runoff. The snow cover over the field and the organic matter in the tillage layer had an insulating effect on the soil temperatures.

  10. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  11. Magnetic Field of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, J. C.; Ferguson, B.; Mozzoni, D.; Hood, L.

    2000-07-01

    An internal potential function was created using the averaged MGS vector data released by Mario Acuna for altitudes from 95 to 209 km above the Martian geoid, all longitudes, and latitudes from 87 degrees south to 78 degrees north. Even with some gaps in coverage it is found that a consistent internal potential function can be derived up to spherical harmonic terms of n = 65 using all three components of the data. Weighting the data according to the standard errors given, the model fits to 7-8 nT rms. The energy density spectrum of the harmonics is seen to peak near n = 39 with a value of 7 J/cu km and fall off to less than 0.5 J/cu km below n = 15 and above n = 55. Contour maps of the X (north) component drawn for 100 km altitude show the strongly anomalous region centered at 60 degrees S latitude and 180 degrees longitude, as well as the alternating east-west trends already observed by other groups. Maps of the other components show the anomalous region, but not the east-west trends. The dichotomy is also maintained with much weaker anomalies bounding the northern plains. The results herein as as well as those of others is limited by the sparse low-altitude data coverage as well as the accuracy of the observations in the face of significant spacecraft fields. Work by Connerney and Acuna have mitigated these sources somewhat, but the design of the spacecraft did not lend itself to accurate observations. Recent results reported by David Mitchell of the ER group have shown that the field observations are significantly influenced by the solar wind with the possibility that the present results may only reflect that portion of the internal field visible above 95 km altitude. Depending on the solar wind, the anomaly field may be shielded or distorted to produce spurious results. The spectrum we have obtained so far may only see the stronger portion of the signal with a significant weaker component hidden. Measurements of crustal anomalies versus relative ages of source

  12. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more

  13. Transverse field focused system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1986-01-01

    A transverse field focused (TFF) system for transport or acceleration of an intense sheet beam of negative ions in which a serial arrangement of a plurality of pairs of concentric cylindrical-arc electrodes is provided. Acceleration of the sheet beam can be achieved by progressively increasing the mean electrode voltage of successive electrode pairs. Because the beam is curved by the electrodes, the system can be designed to transport the beam through a maze passage which is baffled to prevent line of sight therethrough. Edge containment of the beam can be achieved by shaping the side edges of the electrodes to produce an electric force vector directed inwardly from the electrode edges.

  14. Semiclassical Coulomb field

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, J.

    2008-06-15

    The contribution of different modes of the Coulomb field to decoherence and to the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance is calculated in the one-loop approximation for nonrelativistic electron gas. The dominant contribution was found to come from the usual collective modes in the plasma, namely, the zero-sound and the plasmon oscillations. The length scale of the quantum-classical transition is found to be close to the Thomas-Fermi screening length. It is argued that the extension of these modes to the whole Fock space yields optimal pointer states.

  15. Holographic effective field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martucci, Luca; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.

  16. Aerial field guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nummedal, D.

    1978-01-01

    There are two overflights planned for the field conference; one for the Cheney-Palouse tract of the eastern channeled scabland, the other covering the coulees and basins of the western region. The approximate flight lines are indicated on the accompanying LANDSAT images. The first flight will follow the eastern margin of this large scabland tract, passing a series of loess remnants, gravel bars and excavated rock basins. The western scablands overflight will provide a review of the structurally controlled complex pattern of large-scale erosion and deposition characteristic of the region between the upper Grand Coulee (Banks Lake) and the Pasco Basin.

  17. Extreme field science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh; Hayashi, Y.; Kando, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Koga, J. K.; Kondo, K.; Kotaki, H.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Bulanov, S. S.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Rosanov, N. N.; Chen, P.; Neely, D.; Kato, Y.; Narozhny, N. B.; Korn, G.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the progress in the development of extreme light sources that will open new horizons for studying a wide range of fundamental science and astrophysics problems. The regimes of dominant radiation reaction, which completely change the electromagnetic wave-matter interaction, will be revealed, resulting in a new extremely powerful source of ultrashort high-brightness gamma-ray pulses. The possibility of abundant electron-positron pair creation via multi-photon processes and the possibility of reaching the critical field of quantum electrodynamics, which would lead to vacuum polarization and breakdown, are attracting considerable attention.

  18. Sparse field stellar photometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, N.

    The past few years have seen substantial developments in the capability of high speed measuring machines in the field of automated stellar photometry. In this review, after describing some of the limitations on photometric precision, empirical results are used to demonstrate the sort of accuracies that are possible with the UK Schmidt plate plus COSMOS/APM images-scan combination. The astronomical results obtained to date from these machines are discussed, and some consideration is given to the future role of measuring machines in stellar astronomy.

  19. Carbon sequestration strategies for crop- and grasslands evaluated in long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Improved management of grass- and croplands is a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of N fertilization, organic amendments and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks by analyzing data from long-term field experiments in Nordic countries. Increasing net primary production was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by about 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. We also quantified the effect of organic amendments on soil carbon stocks. Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely from about 15% for above-ground crop residues to about 90% for composted household waste. We also emphasize that increased soil carbon stocks not always lead to carbon sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and discuss misunderstandings related to mitigation options earlier proposed for carbon sequestration such as organic farming, manure application, residue handling or application of biochar. Finally, the consequences of different land use and management are discussed, taking into account two critical boundaries - the limited area of agricultural land on Earth and requirements to produce sufficient food, fibres and energy for a growing population.

  20. The First Chandra Field

    SciTech Connect

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cedric; Elsner, Ronald F.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Wu, Kinwah; O'Dell, Stephen L.; /NASA, Marshall

    2005-09-09

    Before the official first-light images, the Chandra X-ray Observatory obtained an X-ray image of the field to which its focal plane was first exposed. We describe this historic observation and report our study of the first Chandra field. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detected 15 X-ray sources, the brightest being dubbed ''Leon X-1'' to honor the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. Based upon our analysis of the X-ray data and spectroscopy at the European Southern Observatory (ESO; La Silla, Chile), we find that Leon X-1 is a Type-1 (unobscured) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at a redshift z = 0.3207. Leon X-1 exhibits strong Fe II emission and a broad-line Balmer decrement that is unusually flat for an AGN. Within the context of the Eigenvector-1 correlation space, these properties suggest that Leon X-1 may be a massive ({ge} 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}}) black hole, accreting at a rate approaching its Eddington limit.

  1. Measurement of radiofrequency fields

    SciTech Connect

    Leonowich, J.A.

    1992-05-01

    We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs.

  2. NFC - Narrow Field Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Gorková, S.

    2015-01-01

    We have been introducing a low-cost CCTV video system for faint meteor monitoring and here we describe the first results from 5 months of two-station operations. Our system called NFC (Narrow Field Camera) with a meteor limiting magnitude around +6.5mag allows research on trajectories of less massive meteoroids within individual parent meteor showers and the sporadic background. At present 4 stations (2 pairs with coordinated fields of view) of NFC system are operated in the frame of CEMeNt (Central European Meteor Network). The heart of each NFC station is a sensitive CCTV camera Watec 902 H2 and a fast cinematographic lens Meopta Meostigmat 1/50 - 52.5 mm (50 mm focal length and fixed aperture f/1.0). In this paper we present the first results based on 1595 individual meteors, 368 of which were recorded from two stations simultaneously. This data set allows the first empirical verification of theoretical assumptions for NFC system capabilities (stellar and meteor magnitude limit, meteor apparent brightness distribution and accuracy of single station measurements) and the first low mass meteoroid trajectory calculations. Our experimental data clearly showed the capabilities of the proposed system for low mass meteor registration and for calculations based on NFC data to lead to a significant refinement in the orbital elements for low mass meteoroids.

  3. Polar Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the initial data reduction and analysis of the magnetic field measurements of the Polar spacecraft. At this writing data for the first three years of the mission have been processed and deposited in the key parameter database. These data are also available in a variety of time resolutions and coordinate systems via a webserver at UCLA that provides both plots and digital data. The flight software has twice been reprogrammed: once to remove a glitch in the data where there were rare collisions between commands in the central processing unit and once to provide burst mode data at 100 samples per second on a regular basis. The instrument continues to function as described in the instrument paper (1.1 in the bibliography attached below). The early observations were compared with observations on the same field lines at lower altitude. The polar magnetic measurements also proved to be most useful for testing the accuracy of MHD models. WE also made important contributions to study of waves and turbulence.

  4. The Martian magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the Martian magnetic field measurements and the criticisms made of them. The measurements of the Mars 2, 3, and 5 spacecraft were interpreted by Dolginov et al. (1976, 1978) to be consistent with an intrinsic planetary magnetic moment of 2.5 times 10 to the 22nd power gauss cu cm, basing this result on the apparent size of the obstacle responsible for deflecting the solar wind and an apparent encounter of the spacecraft with the planetary field. It is shown that if the dependence of the Martian magnetic moment on the rotation rate was linear, the estimate of the moment would be far larger than reported by Dolginov et al. An upper limit of 250 km is calculated for the dynamo radius using the similarity law, compared with 500 km obtained by Dolginov et al. It is concluded that the possible strength of a Martian dynamo is below expectations, and it is likely that the Mars dynamo is not presently operative.

  5. The second heart field.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, a population of cardiac progenitor cells was identified in pharyngeal mesoderm that gives rise to a major part of the amniote heart. These multipotent progenitor cells, termed the second heart field (SHF), contribute progressively to the poles of the elongating heart tube during looping morphogenesis, giving rise to myocardium, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells. Research into the mechanisms of SHF development has contributed significantly to our understanding of the properties of cardiac progenitor cells and the origins of congenital heart defects. Here recent data concerning the regulation, clinically relevant subpopulations, evolution and lineage relationships of the SHF are reviewed. Proliferation and differentiation of SHF cells are controlled by multiple intercellular signaling pathways and a transcriptional regulatory network that is beginning to be elucidated. Perturbation of SHF development results in common forms of congenital heart defects and particular progenitor cell subpopulations are highly relevant clinically, including cells giving rise to myocardium at the base of the pulmonary trunk and the interatrial septum. A SHF has recently been identified in amphibian, fish, and agnathan embryos, highlighting the important contribution of these cells to the evolution of the vertebrate heart. Finally, SHF-derived parts of the heart share a lineage relationship with craniofacial skeletal muscles revealing that these progenitor cells belong to a broad cardiocraniofacial field of pharyngeal mesoderm. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the dynamic process of SHF deployment is likely to yield further insights into cardiac development and pathology.

  6. Statistical Physics of Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardar, Mehran

    2006-06-01

    While many scientists are familiar with fractals, fewer are familiar with the concepts of scale-invariance and universality which underly the ubiquity of their shapes. These properties may emerge from the collective behaviour of simple fundamental constituents, and are studied using statistical field theories. Based on lectures for a course in statistical mechanics taught by Professor Kardar at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this textbook demonstrates how such theories are formulated and studied. Perturbation theory, exact solutions, renormalization groups, and other tools are employed to demonstrate the emergence of scale invariance and universality, and the non-equilibrium dynamics of interfaces and directed paths in random media are discussed. Ideal for advanced graduate courses in statistical physics, it contains an integrated set of problems, with solutions to selected problems at the end of the book. A complete set of solutions is available to lecturers on a password protected website at www.cambridge.org/9780521873413. Based on lecture notes from a course on Statistical Mechanics taught by the author at MIT Contains 65 exercises, with solutions to selected problems Features a thorough introduction to the methods of Statistical Field theory Ideal for graduate courses in Statistical Physics

  7. Microwave field effect transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Ho-Chung (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Electrodes of a high power, microwave field effect transistor are substantially matched to external input and output networks. The field effect transistor includes a metal ground plane layer, a dielectric layer on the ground plane layer, a gallium arsenide active region on the dielectric layer, and substantially coplanar spaced source, gate, and drain electrodes having active segments covering the active region. The active segment of the gate electrode is located between edges of the active segments of the source and drain electrodes. The gate and drain electrodes include inactive pads remote from the active segments. The pads are connected directly to the input and output networks. The source electrode is connected to the ground plane layer. The space between the electrodes and the geometry of the electrodes extablish parasitic shunt capacitances and series inductances that provide substantial matches between the input network and the gate electrode and between the output network and the drain electrode. Many of the devices are connected in parallel and share a common active region, so that each pair of adjacent devices shares the same source electrodes and each pair of adjacent devices shares the same drain electrodes. The gate electrodes for the parallel devices are formed by a continuous stripe that extends between adjacent devices and is connected at different points to the common gate pad.

  8. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyntjes, Geert

    2002-02-01

    Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

  9. The Field Dependence/Field Independence of Information Professional Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kerry A.; White, Marilyn Domas

    1981-01-01

    Data gathered from a sample of 179 students at the College of Library and Information Science, University of Maryland, supported hypotheses relating field dependence/field independence to functional and institutional preferences and to undergraduate majors. (RBF)

  10. String theory in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Makeenko, Yuri M.; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Szabo, Richard J.

    2003-02-01

    A review of various aspects of superstrings in background electromagnetic fields is presented. Topics covered include the Born-Infeld action, spectrum of open strings in background gauge fields, the Schwinger mechanism, finite-temperature formalism and Hagedorn behaviour in external fields, Debye screening, D-brane scattering, thermodynamics of D-branes, and noncommutative field and string theories on D-branes. The electric field instabilities are emphasized throughout and contrasted with the case of magnetic fields. A new derivation of the velocity-dependent potential between moving D-branes is presented, as is a new result for the velocity corrections to the one-loop thermal effective potential.

  11. Beyond mean field theory: statistical field theory for neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Buice, Michael A; Chow, Carson C

    2014-01-01

    Mean field theories have been a stalwart for studying the dynamics of networks of coupled neurons. They are convenient because they are relatively simple and possible to analyze. However, classical mean field theory neglects the effects of fluctuations and correlations due to single neuron effects. Here, we consider various possible approaches for going beyond mean field theory and incorporating correlation effects. Statistical field theory methods, in particular the Doi–Peliti–Janssen formalism, are particularly useful in this regard. PMID:25243014

  12. Tracing Magnetic Fields by Atomic Alignment in Extended Radiation Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong; Dong, Le

    2015-05-01

    Tracing magnetic field is crucial as magnetic field plays an important role in many astrophysical processes. Earlier studies have demonstrated that ground state alignment (GSA) is an effective way to detect a weak magnetic field (1G≳ B≳ {{10}-15} G) in a diffuse medium. We explore the atomic alignment in the presence of an extended radiation field for both absorption lines and emission lines. The alignment in the circumstellar medium, binary systems, disks, and the local interstellar medium are considered in order to study the alignment in the radiation field where the pumping source has a clear geometric structure. Furthermore, the multipole expansion method is adopted to study GSA induced in the radiation field with unidentified pumping sources. We study the alignment in the dominant radiation components of the general radiation field: the dipole and quadrupole radiation field. We discuss the approximation of GSA in a general radiation field by summing the contribution from the dipole and quadrupole radiation field. We conclude that GSA is a powerful tool for detecting weak magnetic fields in the diffuse medium in general radiation fields.

  13. Stories from the field.

    PubMed

    Caine, Julie; Pokhrel, Kabi

    2011-11-01

    "Stories From the Field" is a series of short profiles of tobacco control programs and their leaders, showcasing promising technical assistance and training models in Louisiana, Puerto Rico, the Cherokee Nation, West Virginia, the Pacific Islands, and the Virgin Islands. The series illuminates key themes of collaboration with diverse stakeholders, elimination of health disparities, building tobacco control coalitions, engaging youth to reduce commercial tobacco use, sustaining tobacco control efforts, and the use of the media to raise public awareness that are highlighted in the Health Promotion Practice Supplement Theme Issue, Training and Technical Assistance: Lessons Learned to Sustain Social Norm Changes in Tobacco Control. Common tobacco control strategies bind the stories together. Local knowledge, coalition building, community involvement, innovative partnerships, and educational outreach are at the core of all of these tobacco control projects. PMID:22068583

  14. Asymmetrical field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1995-01-01

    Providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure.

  15. Asymmetrical field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  16. Squishy Physics Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Eric R.; Cianci, Gianguido; Habdas, Piotr

    2008-03-01

    Our laboratory studies soft condensed matter, which means we investigate squishy materials such as foams, emulsions, and colloidal suspensions. These materials include common things such as peanut butter, toothpaste, mayonnaise, shampoo, and shaving cream. We have conducted several field trips for grade school students, where they come to our laboratory and play with squishy materials. They do both hands-on table-top projects and also look at samples with a microscope. We have also developed some of these activities into labs appropriate for first-year college students. Our first goal for these activities is to show students that science is fun, and the second goal is to get them intrigued by the idea that there are more phases than just solids, liquids, and gases.

  17. Star field simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Star Field Simulator has been developed to serve as a source of radiation for the ASTRO Star Tracker. The star tracker and simulator are components of a motion compensation test facility located at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Preflight tests and simulations using various levels of guide stars are performed in the test facility to establish performance of the motion compensation system before being used in a flight environment. The ASTRO Star Tracker operates over a wide dynamic range of irradiance corresponding to visual stellar magnitudes of -0.8 to 8. A minimum of three simulated guide stars with variable magnitudes are needed to fully test the Star Tracker performance under simulated mission conditions.

  18. Oil field management system

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  19. [Electromagnetic fields hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Sobiczewska, Elzbieta; Szmigielski, Stanisław

    2009-01-01

    The development of industry, particularly of new technologies in communication systems, gives rise to the number and diversty of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources in the environment. These sources, including power-frequent, radiofrequent and microwaves, make human life richer, safer and easier. But at the same time, there is growing concern about possible health risks connected with EMF exposure. An increasing number of persons have recently reported on a variety of health problems induced, in their opinion, by exposure to EMF. It is important to note that EMF levels to which these individuals are exposed are generally well below the recommended exposure limits and are certainly far below those known to produce any adverse effects. These persons call themselves "electromagnetic hypersensitivity individuals" And complain about experiencing various types of non-specific symptoms, including dermatological, neurological and vegetative. In the present paper, the problem of electromagnetic hypersensitivity phenomenon is discussed based on the recently published literature.

  20. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  1. Field et Al. Redux.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J

    2013-01-01

    On 12 February 1988 (by coincidence Charles Darwin's birthday), a paper published in Science by Katherine Field, Rudy Raff, and colleagues presented the first credible molecular analysis of metazoan phylogeny based on sequences from the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU). Here I examine the main conclusions reached in this manuscript. I reconstitute their dataset and, by recompiling software available in 1988, I consider how they might have achieved a more accurate tree. I show how three common methods to avoid systematic error - more data, careful taxon sampling and superior models of evolution - overcome the errors that exist in the original paper. This approach illustrates the basis of some of the major advances of the past 25 years resulting in our current understanding of animal phylogeny.

  2. Sparse field stellar photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, N.

    The past few years have seen substantial developments in the capability of high speed measuring machines in the field of automated stellar photometry. However, it is only very recently that these machines have started to make any impact on stellar astronomy, and even now their potential is scarcely being exploited. In this review, after describing some of the limitations on photometric precision, empirical results are used to demonstrate the sort of accuracies that are possible with the UK Schmidt plate plus COSMOS/APM images-scan combination. The astronomical results obtained to date from these machines are discussed, and some consideration is given to the future role of measuring machines in stellar astronomy.

  3. Crustal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Ravat, D.; Frawley, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Cosmos 49, Polar Orbit Geophysical Observatory (POGO) (Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (OGO-2, 4 and 6)) and Magsat have been the only low-earth orbiting satellites to measure the crustal magnetic field on a global scale. These missions revealed the presence of long- wavelength (> 500 km) crustal anomalies predominantly located over continents. Ground based methods were, for the most part, unable to record these very large-scale features; no doubt due to the problems of assembling continental scale maps from numerous smaller surveys acquired over many years. Questions arose as to the source and nature of these long-wave length anomalies. As a result there was a great stimulant given to the study of the magnetic properties of the lower crust and upper mantle. Some indication as to the nature of these deep sources has been provided by the recent results from the deep crustal drilling programs. In addition, the mechanism of magnetization, induced or remanent, was largely unknown. For computational ease these anomalies were considered to result solely from induced magnetization. However, recent results from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), a magnetometer-bearing mission to Mars, have revealed crustal anomalies with dimensions similar to the largest anomalies on Earth. These Martian features could only have been produced by remanent magnetization, since Mars lacks an inducing field. The origin of long-wavelength crustal anomalies, however, has not been completely determined. Several large crustal magnetic anomalies (e.g., Bangui, Kursk, Kiruna and Central Europe) will be discussed and the role of future satellite magnetometer missions (Orsted, SUNSAT and Champ) in their interpretation evaluated.

  4. Frontier Field Supernova Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, Steven

    2014-10-01

    The Frontier Fields program presents an extraordinary opportunity for the detection of high redshift supernovae (SNe). The combination of very deep imaging in each epoch with the added boost from gravitational lensing magnification will provide the means to detect both Type Ia SNe (SNIa) and core collapse SNe (CC SNe) out to z~3. We propose to capitalize on this unique new asset by processing and searching all of the Frontier Field data, and then triggering ToO follow-up observations for SNe of interest.We expect to discover ~20 new SNe over the entire 3-year program, including ~5 SNIa at z>1.5 and ~6 with strong lensing magnification. These samples are small but special: the high-z SNIa set has unique leverage for testing SNIa progenitor models through the delay time distribution; the lensed SNIa offer a chance to validate cluster mass models by directly measuring the lensing magnification. We will also be able to extend CCSN rate measurements for the first time beyond z~1, and our search will open up the small but exciting possibility of catching a truly rare event such as a multiply imaged SN or a superluminous SN at z>4.This follow-up program provides the color and light curve information necessary to unlock the science potential of these SNe. It is also designed for high efficiency: broad-band photometry and ground-based spectroscopy will be used to classify and characterize most of the SNe. For a small "New Frontier" sub-set comprising the SNIa candidates at never-before-seen redshifts, we will employ a novel medium band IR imaging strategy. All told, this program will classify and characterize all SNe of interest with just 60 orbits across 3 cycles.

  5. Frontier Field Supernova Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, Steven

    2013-10-01

    The Frontier Fields program presents an extraordinary opportunity for the detection of high redshift supernovae (SNe). The combination of very deep imaging in each epoch with the added boost from gravitational lensing magnification will provide the means to detect both Type Ia SNe (SNIa) and core collapse SNe (CC SNe) out to z~3. We propose to capitalize on this unique new asset by processing and searching all of the Frontier Field data, and then triggering ToO follow-up observations for SNe of interest.We expect to discover ~20 new SNe over the entire 3-year program, including ~5 SNIa at z>1.5 and ~6 with strong lensing magnification. These samples are small but special: the high-z SNIa set has unique leverage for testing SNIa progenitor models through the delay time distribution; the lensed SNIa offer a chance to validate cluster mass models by directly measuring the lensing magnification. We will also be able to extend CCSN rate measurements for the first time beyond z~1, and our search will open up the small but exciting possibility of catching a truly rare event such as a multiply imaged SN or a superluminous SN at z>4.This follow-up program provides the color and light curve information necessary to unlock the science potential of these SNe. It is also designed for high efficiency: broad-band photometry and ground-based spectroscopy will be used to classify and characterize most of the SNe. For a small "New Frontier" sub-set comprising the SNIa candidates at never-before-seen redshifts, we will employ a novel medium band IR imaging strategy. All told, this program will classify and characterize all SNe of interest with just 60 orbits across 3 cycles.

  6. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions or the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. Injection of nutrient stimulates the growth and metabolism of reservoir bacteria, which produces beneficial products to enhance oil recovery. Sometimes, chemical treatments are used to clean or condition injection water. Such a chemical treatment has been initiated by Sullivan and Company at the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit. The unit injection water was treated with a mixture of water, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, and three proprietary chemicals. To determine if the chemicals would have an impact on the pilot, it was important to determine the effects of the chemical additives on the growth and metabolism of the bacteria from wells in this field. Two types of media were used: a mineral salts medium with molasses and nitrate, and this medium with 25 ppm of the treatment chemicals added. Samples were collected anaerobically from each of two wells, 1A-9 and 7-2. A sample from each well was inoculated and cultured in the broth tubes of molasses-nitrate medium with and without the chemicals. Culturing temperature was 35{degrees}C. Absorbance, pressure and cell number were checked to determine if the chemicals affected the growth and metabolism of bacteria in the brine samples. 12 figs.

  7. Imploding scalar fields

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.D.

    1996-09-01

    Static spherically symmetric uncoupled scalar space{endash}times have no event horizon and a divergent Kretschmann singularity at the origin of the coordinates. The singularity is always present so that nonstatic solutions have been sought to see if the singularities can develop from an initially singular free space{endash}time. In flat space{endash}time the Klein{endash}Gordon equation {D`Alembertian}{var_phi}=0 has the nonstatic spherically symmetric solution {var_phi}={sigma}({ital v})/{ital r}, where {sigma}({ital v}) is a once differentiable function of the null coordinate {ital v}. In particular, the function {sigma}({ital v}) can be taken to be initially zero and then grow, thus producing a singularity in the scalar field. A similar situation occurs when the scalar field is coupled to gravity via Einstein{close_quote}s equations; the solution also develops a divergent Kretschmann invariant singularity, but it has no overall energy. To overcome this, Bekenstein{close_quote}s theorems are applied to give two corresponding conformally coupled solutions. One of these has positive ADM mass and has the following properties: (i) it develops a Kretschmann invariant singularity, (ii) it has no event horizon, (iii) it has a well-defined source, (iv) it has well-defined junction condition to Minkowski space{endash}time, and (v) it is asymptotically flat with positive overall energy. This paper presents this solution and several other nonstatic scalar solutions. The properties of these solutions which are studied are limited to the following three: (i) whether the solution can be joined to Minkowski space{endash}time, (ii) whether the solution is asymptotically flat, (iii) and, if so, what the solutions{close_quote} Bondi and ADM masses are. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Magnetic field perturbartions in closed-field-line systems with zero toroidal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mauel, M; Ryutov, D; Kesner, J

    2003-12-02

    In some plasma confinement systems (e.g., field-reversed configurations and levitated dipoles) the confinement is provided by a closed-field-line poloidal magnetic field. We consider the influence of the magnetic field perturbations on the structure of the magnetic field in such systems and find that the effect of perturbations is quite different from that in the systems with a substantial toroidal field. In particular, even infinitesimal perturbations can, in principle, lead to large radial excursions of the field lines in FRCs and levitated dipoles. Under such circumstances, particle drifts and particle collisions may give rise to significant neoclassical transport. Introduction of a weak regular toroidal magnetic field reduces radial excursions of the field lines and neoclassical transport.

  9. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  10. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Iziumov, Iu G; Izvekov, E I; Nepomniashchikh, V A

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior.

  11. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Iziumov, Iu G; Izvekov, E I; Nepomniashchikh, V A

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior. PMID:25438567

  12. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior. PMID:25508098

  13. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  14. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  15. On Pfaffian Random Point Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargin, V.

    2014-02-01

    We study Pfaffian random point fields by using the Moore-Dyson quaternion determinants. First, we give sufficient conditions that ensure that a self-dual quaternion kernel defines a valid random point field, and then we prove a CLT for Pfaffian point fields. The proofs are based on a new quaternion extension of the Cauchy-Binet determinantal identity. In addition, we derive the Fredholm determinantal formulas for the Pfaffian point fields which use the quaternion determinant.

  16. VELETA 2002 Field Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alados-Arboledas, L.; Veleta2002 Team

    2003-04-01

    Depletion of the Earth's ozone layer is considered responsible of an increase in the solar ultraviolet irradiance incoming at surface level (WMO, 1998). For this reason, it is important to know the amount of ultraviolet radiation received by plants and animal organisms to evaluate the potential impact of increased UV radiation on biological systems. During recent years several studies has investigated the differences in UV radiation between places located at different altitude. Depending on the choice of the experimental area altitudinal gradients in erythemal UV have been reported ranging from 0.08 to 0.40 at different regions. Rather high altitudinal gradients were obtained when the studies have been undertaken at sites with important tropospheric pollution or when snow cover was present in the high-level sites. In this sense, it seems of interest to study these altitudinal gradients including comprehensive observations of the environmental conditions relevant to the incoming UV irradiance in order to separate the different contributions to this altitudinal effect. This paper presents the field campaign VELETA2002 (eValuation of the Effects of eLevation and aErosols on the ultravioleT rAdiation), developed during the month of July 2002 in the area of Sierra Nevada (Spain). This field campaign was designed to obtain experimental data on elevation and atmospheric aerosol effects on the solar ultraviolet irradiance. For this purpose a set of radiometers and spectroradiometers has been installed at both slopes of Sierra Nevada Massif, from coastal to inland locations. The field stations include Motril, a coastal location at sea level, Pitres (1200 m a.s.l.) located in the South slope of Sierra Nevada Massif, the Veleta Peak (3398 m a.s.l.), Las Sabinas (2200 m a.s.l.) located on the north slope of the mountain range and Armilla (680 m a.s.l.) located in the valley. The principal feature of the locations is that they provide a strong altitudinal gradient considering

  17. Relation between near field and far field acoustic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bies, D. A.; Scharton, T. D.

    1974-01-01

    Several approaches to the problem of determining the far field directivity of an acoustic source located in a reverberant environment, such as a wind tunnel, are investigated analytically and experimentally. The decrease of sound pressure level with distance is illustrated; and the spatial extent of the hydrodynamic and geometric near fields, the far field, and the reverberant field are described. A previously-prosposed analytical technique for predicting the far field directivity of the acoustic source on the basis of near field data is investigated. Experiments are conducted with small acoustic sources and an analysis is performed to determine the variation with distance from the source of the directionality of the sound field. A novel experiment is conducted in which the sound pressure measured at various distances from an acoustic driver located in the NASA Ames 40 x 80 ft wind tunnel is crosscorrelated with the driver excitation voltage.

  18. Magnetic fields in the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1983-08-01

    Descriptive models for the dynamo processes that generate magnetic fields around celestial objects are reviewed. Magnetic fields are produced, along with an electric current, when a conductor is moved perpendicularly through a magnetic field, so long as the resulting current is fed back into the conductor to amplify the current and field. In MHD theory, the lines of force of the magnetic field travel with the conducting fluid. A weak current or field must be present initially to generate the field. Planets have molten cores and stars have ionized gases to act as the conductors, and all space has sufficient gas with free electrons. The rotations of the planets, stars, and galaxy enhance the magnetic fields. Convective patterns have been characterized in the earth's molten core because of anomalies observed in the magnetic field at the surface. It has been shown that the faster a planet rotates, the more powerful its magnetic field is. However, fluid motions will produce fields only if the fluid motion is helical. The exact mechanism in stars could be primordial magnetism trapped during formation. However, in galaxies, the Biermann battery effect, wherein free electrons move along the surfaces of stars, could create enough of a field for the amplification process to proceed.

  19. Dynamos and cosmic magnetic fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulsrud, R.; Cowley, S. C.; Gruzinov, A. V.; Sudan, R. N.

    1997-04-01

    This paper discusses the origin of the galactic magnetic field. The theory of the mean field dynamo in the interstellar medium is reviewed and shown to be flawed because it ignores the strong amplification of small-scale magnetic fields. An alternative origin is offered. It is proposed that the galactic fields are created in the protogalaxy by protogalactic turbulence. It is shown that they are first created from zero by the turbulence through the Biermann battery mechanism. The resulting weak seed fields are then amplified by the dynamo action of the protogalactic turbulence up to a field strength adequate for a primordial field origin of the galactic magnetic field. It is suggested that the amplification of the small-scale fields, that are a problem for the interstellar origin, are suppressed in the protogalaxy by collisionless processes that act on scales smaller than the mean free path. Since the relative size of the mean free path is quite large in the protogalaxy, the dynamo would generate only large-scale fields. After compression this field could become the galactic field. It is possible that no further amplification of it need occur in the interstellar medium.

  20. Computer Based Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth F.; Hosticka, Alice; Schriver, Martha; Bedell, Jackie

    This paper discusses computer based virtual field trips that use technologies commonly found in public schools in the United States. The discussion focuses on the advantages of both using and creating these field trips for an instructional situation. A virtual field trip to Cumberland Island National Seashore, St. Marys, Georgia is used as a point…