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Sample records for resume95 nordic field

  1. Medical coverage of winter Nordic sports: an overview from the field.

    PubMed

    Gaul, Lawrence W

    2010-01-01

    Traveling with sports teams requires flexibility and a wide range of knowledge, as well as problem-solving abilities. Dominating the medical types of problems in the Nordic sports are the respiratory illnesses, especially asthma and upper respiratory infections (URI). Additionally, the team physician must have an awareness of antidoping issues. This overview highlights many of the issues encountered traveling domestically as well as internationally with high-level Nordic teams. Helpful links are included to facilitate the care of all levels of athletes. Additionally, a few side issues such as altitude illness and minor trauma are mentioned.

  2. History of the Nordic psychiatric cooperation.

    PubMed

    von Knorring, Lars

    2012-03-01

    The Nordic countries include Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden as well the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Svalbard and Åland. The countries share much common history as well as common traits in their respective societies. As early as 1906, a Scandinavian Psychiatric Association was suggested. The first Nordic Psychiatric Congress was held in Copenhagen 1913. After the First World War, at the 6th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Stockholm 1935, a Nordic Psychiatric Association was founded and it was decided that a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry should be founded. After the Second World War, at the 8th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Copenhagen 1946, the Nordic Psychiatric Association was terminated. At this time, the most important task of the Association, to found a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, had been achieved. After 1946, there has been a close cooperation between the Nordic countries but no common Nordic Psychiatric Association. Today, the Nordic Psychiatric Cooperation is active and ongoing. The 30th Nordic Psychiatric Congress is scheduled to be held in Tromsö, in 2012. The Nordic Journal of Psychiatry is publishing its 64 th volume. The Journal is indexed in the important international databases and the impact factor is increasing. The Joint Committee of the Nordic psychiatric associations has established itself as the owner of the Journal and the organizer of the congresses. There are also a series of Nordic cooperations in a series of different fields, such as the Scandinavian Societies of Biological Psychiatry, the Scandinavian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (SCNP), the bi-annual Nordic Psychoanalytical Congresses, the Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, the Nordic Association of Psychiatric Epidemiology, NAPE, and so on.

  3. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  4. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    PubMed

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015.

  5. Growing seasons of Nordic mountain birch in northernmost Europe as indicated by long-term field studies and analyses of satellite images.

    PubMed

    Shutova, E; Wielgolaski, F E; Karlsen, S R; Makarova, O; Berlina, N; Filimonova, T; Haraldsson, E; Aspholm, P E; Flø, L; Høgda, K A

    2006-11-01

    The phenophases first greening (bud burst) and yellowing of Nordic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp.tortuosa, also called B. p. ssp. czerepanovii) were observed at three sites on the Kola Peninsula in northernmost Europe during the period 1964-2003, and at two sites in the trans-boundary Pasvik-Enare region during 1994-2003. The field observations were compared with satellite images based on the GIMMS-NDVI dataset covering 1982-2002 at the start and end of the growing season. A trend for a delay of first greening was observed at only one of the sites (Kandalaksha) over the 40 year period. This fits well with the delayed onset of the growing season for that site based on satellite images. No significant changes in time of greening at the other sites were found with either field observations or satellite analyses throughout the study period. These results differ from the earlier spring generally observed in other parts of Europe in recent decades. In the coldest regions of Europe, e.g. in northern high mountains and the northernmost continental areas, increased precipitation associated with the generally positive North Atlantic Oscillation in the last few decades has often fallen as snow. Increased snow may delay the time of onset of the growing season, although increased temperature generally causes earlier spring phenophases. Autumn yellowing of birch leaves tends towards an earlier date at all sites. Due to both later birch greening and earlier yellowing at the Kandalaksha site, the growing season there has also become significantly shorter during the years observed. The sites showing the most advanced yellowing in the field throughout the study period fit well with areas showing an earlier end of the growing season from satellite images covering 1982-2002. The earlier yellowing is highly correlated with a trend at the sites in autumn for earlier decreasing air temperature over the study period, indicating that this environmental factor is important also for

  6. Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan

    2016-05-01

    Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way.

  7. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  8. Nordic criteria for reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, H K

    1995-08-01

    Scientific criteria for assessment of the reproductive toxicity of chemicals have been proposed by a Nordic group of experts and regulatory representatives. The criteria take into account the results of clinical studies as well as of experimental research. The criteria should be useful in, for example, product control and labeling and planning of a safe work environment. The proposed Nordic criteria and examples of the assessment of the reproductive toxicity of some chemicals are presented.

  9. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessa, V. M.; Nieminen, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The present issue of Physica Scripta contains the Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science. This meeting was held in Tampere, Finland 18-20 August, 1982. The original motivation for the conference was to bring together the various Nordic research groups engaged in surface science and related activities. However, soon after the initial announcement the conference attracted considerable interest also beyond the Nordic area, and it eventually obtained a truly international character: more than half of the 150 participants came from non-Nordic countries. At least to some extent this reflects the high international esteem of surface physics and chemistry in the Nordic area, which hosts some of the strongest research centers in this exciting and important branch of science. The conference provided an opportunity to exchange information in this rapidly moving field, to establish new contacts and strengthen old ones. It showed that there certainly is scope for increased collaboration between various groups, both within the Nordic countries and also more internationally. The opinion was expressed by several participants that this conference was a particularly successful one, both in scientific content and in format. It is the hope of the organizers of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science that this would serve as an incentive to consider having this kind of meetings on a more or less regular basis, as an established event in the Nordic surface science community. The cross-disciplinary nature of surface science is clearly reflected in these proceedings. The topics discussed range from those close to more traditional condensed matter spectroscopy through physical chemistry to biology. The formidable array of sophisticated techniques developed for surface investigations is given ample attention, but nevertheless the proceedings also show the trend towards more problem-oriented instead of technique-oriented emphasis. The proceedings are organized in accordance

  10. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  11. Breaking the Nordic Defense Deadlock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    War weariness in the aftermath of the Great War , the perceived weak- ness of Soviet Russia and Germany, the forming of the League of Nations and...superpowers 14 and the old great powers in Europe. According to one argument: Nordic identity politics and Cold War value promo- tion in the...gives the Russians great advantages in preparation for waging large- scale war . The Russian exercises have developed in quality as well as quantity

  12. The Nordic seas: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drange, Helge; Dokken, Trond; Furevik, Tore; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Berger, Wolfgang; Nesje, Atle; Arild Orvik, Kjell; Skagseth, Øystein; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Østerhus, Svein

    The aim of this overview paper is to provide a brief synthesis of the five review papers contained in the monograph. Prevailing southwesterly winds, oceanic flow patterns, and oceanic summer heat storage make the temperatures of the Nordic Seas region 10—20°C above the mean temperature of locations at similar latitudes. The combination of the large heat import from the south plus the polar location implies that the region is prone to natural climate variations and is particularly vulnerable for external forcings. Indeed, proxy data for the Holocene epoch reveal large, high-frequency climate fluctuations, as well as long-term variations spanning the "Medieval Warm Period" and the "Little Ice Age". In phase with a strengthening of the westerly winds since the 1960s, several oceanic key variables show trends unprecedented in available instrumental records, some of which extend back 50—100 years. State-of-the-art climate models indicate that several of the changes may be linked to increased forcing of greenhouse gases and are therefore likely to be sustained or even amplified in the future. Furthermore, the marine cycling of carbon, and through that the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, is closely linked to the climate state of the region. The Nordic Seas region is, as one of few ocean locations, a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide throughout the year. With the rapid developments in data acquisition, computational resources, and societal concerns for climate change and environmental issues, the review papers give an updated account of the present knowledge of the complex climate states of the Nordic Seas and how the Nordic Seas influence the climate outside the region.

  13. The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in…

  14. North Atlantic Nordic Seas exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Østerhus, S.

    2000-02-01

    The northeastern part of the North Atlantic is unique in the sense that it is much warmer in the surface than other ocean areas at similar latitudes. The main reason for this is the large northward transport of heat that extends to high latitudes and crosses the Greenland-Scotland Ridge to enter the Nordic Seas and the Arctic. There the warm Atlantic water is converted to colder water masses that return southwards over the ridge partly as surface outflows and partly as overflows through the deep passages across the ridge. In this paper, the state of knowledge on the exchanges especially across the eastern part of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge is reviewed based on results from the ICES NANSEN (North Atlantic-Norwegian Sea Exchanges) project, from the Nordic WOCE project and from other sources. The accumulated evidence allows us to describe the exchanges in fair detail; the origins of the waters, the patterns of their flow towards and over the ridge and their ultimate fate. There is also increasing information on temporal variations of the exchanges although dynamical changes are still not well understood. Quantitative estimates for the volume transport of most of the overflow branches seem reasonably well established, and transport measurements of the Atlantic inflows to the Nordic Seas are approaching acceptable levels of confidence which allows preliminary budgets to be presented. The deep overflows are driven by pressure gradients set up by the formation of deep and intermediate water. The dominance of deep overflows over surface outflows in the water budget argues that this thermohaline forcing also dominates over direct wind stress and estuarine forcing in driving the Atlantic water inflow across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, while wind stress seems to influence the characteristics and distribution of the Atlantic water north of the ridge.

  15. Changing health inequalities in the Nordic countries?

    PubMed

    Lahelma, E; Lundberg, O; Manderbacka, K; Roos, E

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries, referring here to Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, have often been viewed as a group of countries with many features in common, such as geographical location, history, culture, religion, language, and economic and political structures. It has also been habitual to refer to a "Nordic model" of welfare states comprising a large public sector, active labour market policies, high costs for social welfare as well as high taxes, and a general commitment to social equality. Recent research suggests that much of this "Nordicness" appears to remain despite the fact that the Nordic countries have experienced quite different changes during the 1980s and 1990s. How this relates to changes in health inequalities is in the focus of this supplement.

  16. Towards a new era in fetal medicine in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Sitras, Vasilis

    2016-08-01

    Fetal medicine is a subspecialty of obstetrics investigating the development, growth and disease of the human fetus. The advances in fetal imaging (ultrasonography, MRI) and molecular diagnostic techniques, together with the possibility of intervention in utero, make fetal medicine an important, rapidly developing field within women's healthcare. Therefore, a variety of specialists, such as neonatologists, pediatric cardiologists, medical geneticists, radiologists and pediatric surgeons, are necessary to adjunct in the diagnosis and treatment of the fetus as a patient. In this commentary, we provide a description of some organizational and educational aspects of fetal medicine in the Nordic countries, using examples of the management of specific conditions such as aneuploidy screening, red cell allo-immunization and fetal interventions. Clearly, there are several cultural, legal, organizational and practical differences between the Nordic countries; these are not necessarily negative, given the high standards of care in all Nordic countries. The scope of the newly founded Nordic Network of Fetal Medicine is to enhance cooperation in clinical practice, education and research between the participant countries. Hopefully, this initiative will find the necessary political and economic support from the national authorities and bring a new era in the field of fetal medicine in the Nordic region.

  17. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  18. Genotypic diversity and migration patterns of Phytophthora infestans in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Sjöholm, Lina; Andersson, Björn; Högberg, Nils; Widmark, Anna-Karin; Yuen, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    In this study we investigated the genotypic diversity and the migration patterns of Phytophthora infestans in the Nordic countries. Isolates of P. infestans from outbreaks in 43 fields sampled in 2008 were collected using stratified sampling with country, field, and disease foci as the different strata. Microsatellites were used as markers to determine the genotypic variation in the sampled material. The results show a high genotypic variation of P. infestans in the Nordic countries with most of the genotypes found only once among the collected isolates. The major part of the genotypic variation was observed within the fields, with low differentiation between the fields. The observed low association of alleles among loci is consistent with frequent sexual reproduction of P. infestans in the Nordic countries. Coalescence analyses did not support a single common population for the four countries, thus indicating some degree of geographic differentiation. The analyses of migration patterns showed differing levels of gene flow among the Nordic countries. No correlation between migration rates and geographical distance could be seen. This could be explained by different degrees of genetic similarity between the pathogen populations in the different countries.

  19. Nordic in Nature: Friluftsliv and Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the question of whether a relationship exists between the Nordic cultural idea of friluftsliv and the psychological construct of environmental connectedness (EC). This quantitative study employed a correlational design with existing data from the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey. Results indicate that there…

  20. Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musial, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

  1. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  2. Community dentistry in Nordic dental schools.

    PubMed

    Riordan, P J; Widström, E

    1984-12-01

    Approximately a decade after the first plans for the teaching of community dentistry were made in the Nordic countries, a questionnaire survey of Nordic dental schools was conducted to find out to what extent community dentistry subjects had been introduced in undergraduate curricula. Replies were received from the 12 dental schools in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. These schools admitted 915 students in 1982-83. Seven had a department of community dentistry, and at least two others had plans to start one. About 100 h of teaching were given on community dentistry subjects during the 5-yr course of study, mostly on the traditional subjects of epidemiology, statistics, law and ethics. In some schools health education and other behavioral sciences subjects received a large amount of curriculum time. Decisionmaking theory and political science were not reported taught at any school. Three departments had attached clinics, with widely differing functions. The Nordic textbook in community dentistry was widely used, and separate examinations were held in community dentistry at most schools. Full-time postgraduate courses were offered at three schools. Although schools in all four countries expected the number of dental students to decrease in coming years, several schools expected community dentistry to expand with regard to curriculum time and staff, in keeping with trends in other countries.

  3. Nordic School of Public Health NHV and its legacy in global health.

    PubMed

    Krettek, Alexandra; Karlsson, Leena Eklund; Toan, Tran Khanh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the legacy of the Nordic School of Public Health NHV (NHV) in global health. We delineate how this field developed at NHV and describe selected research and research training endeavours with examples from Vietnam and Nepal as well as long-term teaching collaborations such as BRIMHEALTH (Baltic RIM Partnership for Public HEALTH) in the Baltic countries and Arkhangelsk International School of Public Health in Russia.

  4. Equality, Inclusion and Marketization of Nordic Education: Introductory Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a Nordic model of education is sometimes used to refer to the considerable similarities of education reforms and systems of the five Nordic countries (i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) during the second half of the 20th century--reforms that aimed at social justice, equality and cohesion not least by providing…

  5. Nordic Walking Practice Might Improve Plantar Pressure Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Morey-Klapsing, G.; Encarnacion-Martinez, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nordic walking (NW), characterized by the use of two walking poles, is becoming increasingly popular (Morgulec-Adamowicz, Marszalek, & Jagustyn, 2011). We studied walking pressure patterns of 20 experienced and 30 beginner Nordic walkers. Plantar pressures from nine foot zones were measured during trials performed at two walking speeds (preferred…

  6. Learning for the Workplace: Nordic and Canadian Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Gail, Ed.

    This book contains 21 papers from the Nordic-Canadian Learning for the Workplace Conference, which was held in Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland in June 1995. The following papers are included: "Introduction to the Nordic-Canadian Learning for the Workplace Conference" (Olli-Pekka Heinonen); "Conference Design and Process" (Diane…

  7. EDITORIAL: The 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    This Topical Issue contains works presented at the 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (21NSM) held at Sundvolden, Norway, 18-19 August 2005. The institutions supporting 21NSM were: University of Oslo, SINTEF, the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment and Vestfold University College. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting has become an international forum that has been held every other year in a relay fashion in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of the meeting has been on original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems. Reports on industrial activity have usually been featured at the meetings. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. For the last five meetings the proceedings have been printed in a dedicated volume of Physica Scripta in the Topical Issue series. The papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the expected high standards of the series. The range of topics covered by this volume is broad, reflecting the call for papers; most of the papers have an element of materials science and the largest portion of these deal with other semiconductor materials other than silicon. The 21NSM was supported by the following sponsors: Renewable Energy Corporation (REC), EMF III-V Innovations (EMF), and the Nordic Research Board (NordForsk). Terje G Finstad Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway Andrej Y Kuznetsov and Bengt G Svensson Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Norway

  8. Recent health policy initiatives in Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Saltman, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Health care systems in Sweden, Finland, and Denmark are in the midst of substantial organizational reconfiguration. Although retaining their tax-based single source financing arrangements, they have begun experiments that introduce a limited measure of competitive behavior in the delivery of health services. The emphasis has been on restructuring public operated hospitals and health centers into various forms of public firms, rather than on the privatization of ownership of institutions. If successful, the reforms will enable these Nordic countries to combine their existing macroeconomic controls with enhanced microeconomic efficiency, effectiveness, and responsiveness to patients. PMID:10122003

  9. Proceedings of 16th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting Held in Laugarvatn, Iceland on 12-15 June 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-10

    46 Multichamber processor for small semiconductor laboratories - the first results. R. Punkkinen, H. Ihantola, K...meetings in the field. First , it has the purpose of promoting Nordic cooperation in the international field of semiconductor physics. Research in the fields...Meeting is often the first conference of international character that graduate stu- dents attend in order to present a paper of poster. Third, there is

  10. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, A.; Ferrari, R.; Mork, K. A.

    2015-08-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in-situ data from five bio-optical floats released above the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. This bloom behavior may be explained by realizing that photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters in a dormant stage in winter, only to be awaken by a photoperiodic trigger. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. Thus more precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  11. [Scandinavian eugenics: Nordic historians provide new approaches].

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Patrick

    2004-10-01

    Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underpriviledged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favour in the middle of the sixties.

  12. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  13. Nordic Seas nutrients data in CARINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsson, J.; Olsen, A.

    2010-09-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been assembled and the collection merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), the Atlantic (ATL) and the Southern Ocean (SO). With the adjustments, the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004) and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates, and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas is the collective term for the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution presents an account of the quality control of the nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and silicate) data from the Nordic Seas in CARINA. Out of the 35 cruises from the Nordic Seas included in CARINA, 33 had nutrients data. The nitrate data from 4 of these appeared to be of so poor quality that they should not be used, for phosphate this number is 7 and for silicate it is 3. We also recommend that the nitrate data from 4 of the cruises should be adjusted, for phosphate and silicate only data from one cruise should be adjusted. The final data appears consistent to 5% based on evaluation of deep data. For nitrate this corresponds to 0.6 μmol kg-1, and for phosphate and silicate it corresponds to 0.04 and 0.6 μmol kg-1, respectively.

  14. Nordic Seas nutrients data in CARINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsson, J.; Olsen, A.

    2010-03-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e.~the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), the Atlantic (ATL) and the Southern Ocean (SO). With the adjustments, the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004) and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates, and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas is the collective term for the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution presents an account of the quality control of the nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and silicate) data from the Nordic Seas in CARINA. Out of the 35 cruises from the Nordic Seas included in CARINA, 33 had nutrients data. The nitrate data from 4 of these appeared to be of so poor quality that they should not be used, for phosphate this number is 7 and for silicate it is 3. We also recommend that the nitrate data from 4 of the cruises should be adjusted, for phosphate and silicate only data from one cruise should be adjusted. The final data appears consistent to 5% based on evaluation of deep data. For nitrate this corresponds to 0.6 μmol kg-1, and for phosphate and silicate it corresponds to 0.04 and 0.6 μmol kg-1, respectively.

  15. Perspectives on Dental Education in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the state of dental education and current developments at Nordic dental schools. Discusses similarities and differences in the institutional circumstances of the schools, including demands on the schools, their educational philosophies, and the educational system and its regulation. (EV)

  16. Body Composition and Somatotype of Male and Female Nordic Skiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)

  17. Nordic exchange of students and climate change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsson, A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the end of 2010 and until the summer of 2011 two upper secondary schools in Höyanger, Norway and Ronneby, Sweden had the possibility to take part in a project called Nordplus junior. The main aims of the program are: • To promote Nordic languages and culture and mutual Nordic-Baltic linguistic and cultural understanding. • To contribute to the development of quality and innovation in the educational systems for life-long learning in the participating countries by means of educational cooperation, development projects, exchanges and networking. • To support, develop, draw benefit from and spread innovative products and processes in education through systematic exchange of experiences and best practice. • To strengthen and develop Nordic educational cooperation and contribute to the establishment of a Nordic-Baltic educational area. The students did research on climate change and the impact on local and regional areas. Many questions had to be answered, giving an explanation to what happens if the climate changes. Questions related to Höyanger, Norway What happens to life in Norwegian fiords? Which attitudes do youngsters and adults have about climate change and what actions do they take? What does a rise in sea level mean for Höyanger? How are different tourist attractions affected in western Norway? Questions related to Ronneby, Sweden How is the regional fauna and flora affected? What will happen to agriculture and forestry? What do adults and youngsters know about consequences of a possible climate change? What happens to the people of Ronneby if the sea level rises? Are there any positive outcomes if the climate changes? Conclusions In Norwegian fiords there could be benefits because fish are growing faster in the winter because of an increased temperature. At the same time there could be an imbalance in the ecosystem because of a change in the living ranges of different species. Most of the young boys and girls in Höyanger, Norway were

  18. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessa, Markus

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (NSM20). The Meeting was held in Tampere on August 25 through August 27, 2003, hosted by the Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT). NSM20 provided a truly international forum for the discussion of the state-of-the-art semiconductor physics, technology, and industry in Scandinavia, and highlighted selected results achieved elsewhere in the world. While the earlier meetings the first held in the 1960's and since then every other year on rotating basis in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden focused on silicon technologies, the Tampere Meeting was concerned more than ever with optoelectronics, which has become an unexpectedly strong field of research and industry in Northern Europe. An excellent array of keynote speakers provided the audience with the latest developments in all the main fields of the Meeting and together with other speakers fostered new ideas that have the potential for further advancement of these strategic sciences and technologies. There were over 100 registered participants, presenting a total of 100 scientific contributions. From these contributions 62 manuscripts were accepted for publication in the Proceedings, representing all the key areas of the Meeting. There was the largest number of industrial sponsors of any Nordic Semiconductor Meeting, which was a remarkable thing in the current world economic cycle. In fact, the organization of NSM20 would not have been possible without the support from ORC, IEEE Finland Section, Institute of Physics of TUT, Chroma Technology Corp. (USA), Coherent Tutcore Oy (Finland), Europractice c/o YOLE Development (France), EV Group GmbH (Austria), Instrumentti Mattila Oy (Finland), FAB Support Ab (Sweden), Keithley Instruments Inc. (UK), Modulight Inc. (Finland), Nokia Oyj (Finland), Oxford Instruments GmbH (Germany), Oy SV Vacuumservice Ab (Finland), Scandinavian Airlines Systems

  19. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  20. EDITORIAL: The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páll Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Uhrenfeldt, Christian

    2012-03-01

    A Nordic Semiconductor Meeting is held every other year with the venue rotating amongst the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of these meetings remains 'original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems'. Reports on industrial activity have usually featured. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. Proceedings from these events are regularly published as a Topical Issue of Physica Scripta. All of the papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the high scientific standards and quality of the series. This 24th meeting of the Nordic Semiconductor community, NSM 2011, was held at Fuglsøcentret, close to Aarhus, Denmark, 19-22 June 2011. Support was provided by the Carlsberg Foundation, Danfysik and the semiconductor group at Aarhus University. Over 30 participants presented a broad range of topics covering semiconductor materials and devices as well as related material science interests. The conference provided a forum for Nordic and international scientists to present and discuss new results and ideas concerning the fundamentals and applications of semiconductor materials. The aim of the meeting was to advance the progress of Nordic science and thus aid in future worldwide technological advances concerning technology, education, energy and the environment. The 25th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting will be organized in June 2013 in Finland, chaired by Dr Filip Tuomisto, Aalto University. A Nordic Summer School on Semiconductor Science will be organized in connection with the conference (just before), chaired by Dr Jonatan Slotte, Aalto University. Information on these events can be found at physics.aalto.fi/nsm2013. List of participants Søren Vejling

  1. 77 FR 20100 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR... the vessel NORDIC STAR is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sailing excursions and...

  2. European Plate Observing System - the Arctic dimension and the Nordic collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakan, K.; Heikkinen, P.; Juhlin, C.; Thybo, H.; Vogfjord, K.

    2012-04-01

    strong motion networks monitor seismic activity and hazard in the North Atlantic. Vigorous volcanic activity along the plate boundary in Iceland and associated hazards are monitored by the Icelandic, seismic, geodetic, meteorological and hydrological networks. Recent eruptions, like the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions have demonstrated the far-reaching hazard to aviation caused by volcanic eruptions in Iceland. The high-sensitivity seismic and geodetic networks of Sweden monitor isostatic rebound of Fennoscandia. In this context, the varied Nordic monitoring networks provide a significant contribution to the main objectives of EPOS. There are already existing links with the other ESFRI initiatives where strong Nordic participation is established, such as SIOS and EMSO. As such EPOS provides the necessary platform to collaborate and develop an important Nordic dimension in the European Research Area. There is a long tradition of collaboration at the governmental level between the Nordic countries, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. Within the fields of research and education, the Nordic Ministries have a dedicated program, where research networks are being promoted. Recently a Nordic collaborative network in seismology, "NordQuake" (coordinated by Denmark) was established within this program. This collaboration which is now formalized and supported by the Nordic Ministries is based on a cooperation which was initiated more than 40 years ago, where annual Nordic Seminars in seismology (previously on detection seismology) was the central element. EPOS Nordic collaboration, building upon a long lasting history, has a significant potential for synergy effects in the region and therefore represents an important dimension within EPOS. Nordic EPOS Team: Lars Ottemöller (UiB), Mathilde B. Sørensen (UiB), Louise W. Bjerrum (UiB), Conrad Lindholm (Norsar), Halfdan Kjerulf (SK), Amir Kaynia (NGI), Valerie Maupin (UiO), Tor Langeland (CMR), Joerg Ebbing (NGU), John

  3. Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kjaerheim, K

    1999-01-01

    Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries benefits from certain structural advantages, including the existence of computerized population registries, national cancer registries with high-quality data on cancer incidence, and a personal identification number for each inhabitant. This article outlines the utilization of this research infrastructure in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, together with research examples from the different countries. Future research on occupational cancer in this region requires that national legislation on electronic handling of sensitive personal information should not be stricter than the European Union Directive on individual protection with regard to personal data. A personal identification number is essential both for keeping up the high quality of data of the registers and for the high quality of the process of linking the different data sources together. Although previous occupational research has focused on male workers, a broader approach is needed in the future, including a study of how cancer risk in women may be affected by occupational activity and the question of possible cancer risk in offspring of men and women exposed to workplace carcinogens. PMID:10350505

  4. Meridional Overturning Exchange with the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Osterhus, S.

    2004-12-01

    The flow of Atlantic water towards the Arctic crosses the Greenland-Scotland Ridge in three current branches. By the heat that it carries along, it keeps the subarctic regions abnormally warm and by its import of salt, it helps maintain a high salinity and hence high density in the surface waters as a precondition for thermohaline ventilation. In mid 1990's an extensive monitoring program for all three branches was lunched as a Nordic contribution to WOCE and is still going on. The western branch, the Irminger Current, has been monitored by means of traditional current meters moorings on a section crossing the current northwest of Iceland. A number of ADCPs have been moored on a section going north from the Faroes, crossing the Faroes Current. The eastern branch, the Continental Slope Current, is monitored by ADCPs moorings across the Faroe-Shetland Channel. CTD observations from research vessels along all the current meter sections are obtained on seasonal basis. Here we present for the first time the results from all the branches and offer numbers for the Atlantic water transport as well as seasonal and interannual variations. In addition we offer numbers for the dense overflowe trough the faroe Bank Channel.

  5. Democracy, Caring and Competence: Values Perspectives in ECEC Curricula in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Purola, Anna-Maija; Johansson, Eva Marianne; Broström, Stig; Emilson, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how Nordic Early Childhood Education and Care policies frame values education in preschools with a special focus on the values of democracy, caring and competence. The study is part of a larger Nordic project, "Values education in Nordic preschools: Basis of education for tomorrow," the aim of which is…

  6. Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Science and Technology Education: The Challenge of the Future (Karlslunde Strand, Denmark, May 8-12, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thulstrup, Erik W., Ed.

    The Nordic Conference of 1985 was convened for the purpose of fostering cooperation between science and technology educators within different fields and at different levels, with approximately 40 science and technology educators from Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, India, the United States, and Yugoslavia participating. This report contains 27…

  7. Summary of avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J H; Andersen, A; Dreyer, L; Pukkala, E; Tryggvadottir, L; Gerhardsson de Verdier, M; Winther, J F

    1997-01-01

    An overview is given of the most important known causes of cancer in the five Nordic countries and the resulting number of cancers that are potentially avoidable. The main causes include active and passive smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to asbestos and other occupational carcinogens, solar and ionizing radiation, obesity, human papillomavirus infection in the female genital tract and infection with Helicobacter pylori. The organs most commonly affected are those of the respiratory system, the upper digestive tract and stomach, skin, the lower urinary tract and the uterine cervix. Annually, more than 18,000 cancers in men and 11,000 in women in the Nordic populations could be avoided by eliminating exposure to known carcinogens which is equivalent to 33% and 20% of all cancers arising in men and women, respectively, around the year 2000. Smoking habits account for a little more than half of these avoidable cases. Estimates of avoidable cancers are given for each Nordic country, separately.

  8. The Nordic diet and cognition--The DR's EXTRA Study.

    PubMed

    Männikkö, Reija; Komulainen, Pirjo; Schwab, Ursula; Heikkilä, Harri M; Savonen, Kai; Hassinen, Maija; Hänninen, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of dementia associated with ageing populations has stimulated interest in identifying modifiable lifestyle factors that could prevent cognitive impairment. One such potential preventive lifestyle factor is the Nordic diet that has been shown to reduce the risk of CVD; however, its effect on cognition has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to estimate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of the baseline Nordic diet with cognitive function at baseline and after a 4-year follow-up in a population-based random sample (n 1140 women and men, age 57-78 years) as secondary analyses of the Finnish Dose-Responses to Exercise Training study. The Nordic diet score was created based on reported dietary components in 4-d food records. Cognition was assessed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). The baseline Nordic diet score had been positively associated with Verbal Fluency (β 0.08 (95% CI 0.00, 0.16), P = 0.039) and Word List Learning (β 0.06 (95% CI 0.01, 0.10), P = 0.022) at 4 years but not with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease total score (CERAD-TS) or MMSE at 4 years, after adjustment for baseline cognitive scores, demographic factors and health-related factors. After excluding individuals with impaired cognition at baseline, the baseline Nordic diet score had also been positively associated with the CERAD-TS (β 0.10 (95% CI 0.00, 0.20), P = 0.042) and MMSE (β 0.03 (95% CI 0.00, 0.06), P = 0.039) at 4 years. These associations disappeared after further adjustment for energy intake. In conclusion, the Nordic diet might have a positive association with cognition in individuals with normal cognition.

  9. Research on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries: a literature review, 1986-2008.

    PubMed

    Torp, Steffen; Eklund, Leena; Thorpenberg, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Workplace health promotion may include approaches focusing on behavioral change among employees and approaches with a holistic system-oriented thinking aiming at changing the physical, social and organizational factors of a setting. This literature review aimed to identify studies on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), to describe when, where and how the studies were performed and to further analyze the use of settings approaches and empowerment processes. Using scientific literature databases, we found 1809 hits when searching for Nordic studies published from 1986 to 2008 with the search term health promotion. Of these, 116 studies were related to workplace health promotion and 33 included interventions. We used content analysis to analyze the abstracts of all articles and the full articles of the intervention studies. Most studies were performed in Sweden and Finland. The focus was mainly on behavioral change rather than on holistic health promotion as defined by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This was especially obvious for the intervention studies. In addition to the intervention studies using non-settings approaches with top-down driven behavioral change, we identified studies with participatory settings approaches aimed at changing the setting. We categorized relatively few studies as having a non-participatory settings approach. The studies aiming specifically at improving employees' empowerment were evenly distributed between the categories market-oriented persuasion of empowerment, therapeutic empowerment and empowerment as a liberal management strategy. More studies on workplace health promotion using empowering and participatory settings approaches are needed in the Nordic countries, and a more theory-based approach towards this research field is needed.

  10. Multilingual Policies and Multilingual Education in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Mikaela; Björklund, Siv; Sjöholm, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    This article presents some aspects of multilingualism and multilingual education in the Nordic countries, drawing upon experiences from the project "Network for Researchers of Multilingualism and Multilingual Education, RoMME" (2011-2013), where Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are represented. The aim is to briefly present and…

  11. Degree Mobility from the Nordic Countries: Background and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke

    2013-01-01

    Full-degree mobility from Western countries is a topic that has been little researched. Existing literature tends to be normative; mobility is seen as an advantage per se. In this article it is questioned whether mobility is an advantage when investigating degree mobility and employability of students from the Nordic countries. Results show that…

  12. Academisation of Nursing Education in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laiho, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Nursing Science represents a new academic discipline in the Nordic Countries. The article focuses on the academisation of nursing education and the development of nursing to a specific discipline in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The education of nurses has developed within the national framework of each country, but not within a national…

  13. A Nordic Perspective on Early Childhood Education and Care Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karila, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…

  14. Deglacial subsurface injections of Atlantic water into the Nordic Seas and its effect on interglacial climate development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, H. A.

    2012-04-01

    Using multi-proxy sediment records from two distant sites in the North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas, surface and bottom water changes were investigated over the past 135 ka with special emphasis on the last and present interglacial (Eemian and Holocene). The two interglacials exhibit a very similar developing structure during each preceding deglaciation (TI and TII) in the Nordic Seas by showing a pronounced cold-warm-cold variability. Like TI, also TII experienced a Younger-Dryas-like cold reversal (YDII), a preceding Bølling/Allerød-like (B/AII) and a H-event (H11). But unlike TI, the cold events during TII were associated with intermittent invasions of an Atlantic faunal component (Beella megastoma) which underscores a northward penetration of mid-latitude waters at the subsurface leaving a vertical water mass structure in the North which differed from that of TI. Very likely, this difference also affected the subsequent oceanic development because the main interglacials that followed not only reveal a regional antiphase, intra-interglacial behavior of peak ocean warmth between each other, they also verify strong contrasts in surface ocean hydrography. Moreover, colder Eemian than Holocene temperatures are noted in the Nordic Seas, and vice versa in the North Atlantic. A reduced intensity of Atlantic ocean heat transfer to the Arctic is therefore inferred for the Eemian, thus arguing for a reassessment of current Arctic paleoclimate models and a better reconciliation with empirical field data.

  15. Statistical characteristics of polar lows over the Nordic Seas based on satellite passive microwave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, J. E.; Zabolotskikh, E. V.; Bobylev, L. P.; Chapron, B.

    2016-12-01

    In this study polar lows over the Nordic Seas for the period of 1995-2008 have been detected and studied using the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data. A new methodology for polar low detection and monitoring based on the analysis of the total atmospheric water vapor content (WVC) fields retrieved from SSM/I was used. Lifetimes, diameters, translation speeds, distances traveled, and intensities were estimated for the detected polar lows using SSM/I WVC, sea surface wind speed fields and infrared imagery. Over the Norwegian and Barents Seas, the polar low activity was found to be almost equal. A positive tendency in the total number of polar lows for the time period of 1995-2008 was detected.

  16. Temporal and spatial variability of the sea surface salinity in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furevik, Tore; Bentsen, Mats; Drange, Helge; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Korablev, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, the temporal and spatial variability of the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the Nordic Seas is investigated. The data include a Russian hydrographical database for the Nordic Seas and daily to weekly observations of salinity at Ocean Weather Station Mike (OWSM) (located at 66°N, 2°E in the Norwegian Sea). In addition, output from a medium-resolution version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), forced with daily National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data, is used to complement the analysis of the temporal and spatial fields constructed from the observational data sets. The Nordic Seas show a strong seasonal variability in the vertical density stratification and the mixed layer (ML) depth, with a weak stratification and a several hundred meters deep ML during winter and a well-defined shallow ML confined to the upper few tens of meters during summer. The seasonal variability strongly influences the strength of the high-frequency variability and to what extent subsurface anomalies are isolated from the surface. High-frequency variability has been investigated in terms of standard deviation of daily SSS, calculated for the different months of the year. From observations at OWSM, typical winter values range from 0.03 to 0.04 psu and summer values range from 0.06 to 0.07 psu. Results from the model simulation show that highest variability is found in frontal areas and in areas with strong stratification and lowest variability in the less stratified areas in the central Norwegian Sea and south of Iceland. Investigation of the interannual variability over the last 50 years shows a marked freshening of the Atlantic Water in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Moreover, the strength of the southern sector of the Polar front, as defined by the 34.8-35.0 psu isohalines along the western boundary of the inflowing Atlantic Water, undergoes significant interannual variability

  17. Summary of third Nordic symposium on digital pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Cross-disciplinary and cross-sectorial collaboration is a key success factor for turning the promise of digital pathology into actual clinical benefits. The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, among stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the third NDP symposium in Linkφping, Sweden. The Nordic experiences, including several hospitals using whole-slide imaging for substantial parts of their primary reviews, formed a fertile base for discussions among the 190 NDP attendees originating from 15 different countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on adoption and validation aspects of clinical digital pathology use. PMID:27141318

  18. Environmental services provided from riparian forests in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Per; Laurén, Ari; Finér, Leena; Ring, Eva; Koivusalo, Harri; Saetersdal, Magne; Weslien, Jan-Olov; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Högbom, Lars; Laine, Jukka; Hansen, Karin

    2010-12-01

    Riparian forests (RF) growing along streams, rivers and lakes comprise more than 2% of the forest area in the Nordic countries (considering a 10 m wide zone from the water body). They have special ecological functions in the landscape. They receive water and nutrients from the upslope areas, are important habitats for biodiversity, have large soil carbon stores, but may emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than the uplands. In this article, we present a review of the environmental services related to water protection, terrestrial biodiversity, carbon storage and greenhouse gas dynamics provided by RF in the Nordic countries. We discuss the benefits and trade-offs when leaving the RF as a buffer against the impacts from upland forest management, in particular the impacts of clear cutting. Forest buffers are effective in protecting water quality and aquatic life, and have positive effects on terrestrial biodiversity, particularly when broader than 40 m, whereas the effect on the greenhouse gas exchange is unclear.

  19. Taking Space to the Classroom in the Nordic Countries- Challenges and Opportunites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebricher, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Space-related Education (NAROM) has a mandate to teach about space and space technology in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, via the Nordic European Space Education Resources Office (ESERO). The geographical distances in the Nordic countries make it difficult for any one entity such as NAROM to coordinate teaching comprehensively. Identification, delegation of responsibility and support to local teachers is therefore paramount. An important tool in this respect is advanced teacher training which employs flexible teaching methods. This paper is a discussion of how flexible teaching is implemented within Nordic ESERO's advanced teacher training.

  20. Full journal publication of abstracts presented at the Nordic Congress of General Practice in 2009 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Petersen, Kristine; Vinther, Siri; Sandholdt, Håkon; Siersma, Volkert; Andersen, John Sahl

    2017-01-01

    abstracts accepted for oral or poster presentation at two consecutive Nordic Congresses of General Practice were published as full text articles within 36 months. Future congress committees could address this aspect in order to increase the visibility of and accessibility to research within the field of general practice. PMID:28277049

  1. Assessing the role of GPs in Nordic health care systems.

    PubMed

    Quaye, Randolph K

    2016-05-03

    Purpose This paper examines the changing role of general practitioners (GPs) in Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. It aims to explore the "gate keeping" role of GPs in the face of current changes in the health care delivery systems in these countries. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from existing literature, interviews with GPs, hospital specialists and representatives of Danish regions and Norwegian Medical Association. Findings The paper contends that in all these changes, the position of the GPs in the medical division of labor has been strengthened, and patients now have increased and broadened access to choice. Research limitations/implications Health care cost and high cancer mortality rates have forced Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark to rethink their health care systems. Several attempts have been made to reduce health care cost through market reform and by strenghtening the position of GPs. The evidence suggests that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to achieve this goal. Sweden is not far behind. The paper has limitations of a small sample size and an exclusive focus on GPs. Practical implications Anecdotal evidence suggests that physicians are becoming extremely unhappy. Understanding the changing status of primary care physicians will yield valuable information for assessing the effectiveness of Nordic health care delivery systems. Social implications This study has wider implications of how GPs see their role as potential gatekeepers in the Nordic health care systems. The role of GPs is changing as a result of recent health care reforms. Originality/value This paper contends that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to strengthen the position of GPs.

  2. Summary of the 4th Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange across stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. In 2016, the 4th NDP installment took place in Linköping, Sweden, promoting development and collaboration in digital pathology for the benefit of routine care advances. This article summarizes the symposium, gathering 170 attendees from 13 countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on integrated diagnostics aspects, in particular radiology-pathology collaboration. PMID:28382222

  3. Conservation genetics of Nordic carnivores: lessons from zoos.

    PubMed

    Laikre, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from genetic studies of Nordic carnivore populations bred in captivity. The conservation genetic implications of those results for the management of wild populations of the same species are discussed. Inbreeding depression has been documented in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), and lynx (Lynx lynx) populations held in Nordic zoos. The characters negatively affected by inbreeding include litter size (brown bear and wolf), longevity (lynx and wolf), female reproduction, and weight (wolf). In addition, hereditary defects caused by single autosomal alleles occur in the wolf and brown bear populations. These deleterious alleles cause blindness (wolf) and albinism (brown bear) in the homozygous state. The amount of inbreeding depression observed in Nordic carnivores are similar to that documented in other species. The captive populations have the same genetic background as the current wild ones and inbreeding depression is therefore a potential threat to wild carnivore populations in Sweden. This threat is presently not being adequately recognized in the management of these species. Frequently occurring misunderstandings regarding the kind of conclusions that can be drawn from the presented genetic observations are also discussed.

  4. Uncritical and unbalanced coverage of synthetic biology in the Nordic press.

    PubMed

    Ancillotti, Mirko; Holmberg, Niklas; Lindfelt, Mikael; Eriksson, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Synthetic biology will probably have a high impact on a variety of fields, such as healthcare, environment, biofuels, agriculture, and so on. A driving theme in European research policy is the importance of maintaining public legitimacy and support. Media can influence public attitudes and are therefore an important object of study. Through qualitative content analysis, this study investigates the press coverage of synthetic biology in the major Nordic countries between 2009 and 2014. The press coverage was found to be event-driven and there were striking similarities between countries when it comes to framing, language use, and treated themes. Reporters showed a marked dependence on their sources, mainly scientists and stakeholders, who thus drives the media agenda. The media portrayal was very positive, with an optimistic look at future benefits and very little discussion of possible risks.

  5. Maternal and infant characteristics: differences and similarities between the Nordic countries and the US

    PubMed Central

    Löfling, Lukas; Bröms, Gabriella; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Kieler, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Background Data from the Nordic health care registers have been of great value in perinatal epidemiological research. It has been assumed that findings from the Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) are applicable to other populations as well, including the population of the US. Objective To describe and compare maternal and infant characteristics between the Nordic and the American populations as recorded in the official statistics. Materials and methods This population-based study included data on all females who gave birth and their infants in the Nordic countries and the US. The data were obtained from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the official statistics data for the Nordic countries. The data from all six countries included births from 2006 to 2010. Results The mean maternal age at delivery was lower in the US than in the Nordic countries (27.5 vs 30.3 years). Cesarean sections (32.2% vs 17.9%), low birth weight (8.2% vs 4.8%), and preterm birth (12.3% vs 5.9%) were more common in the US than in the Nordic countries. Smoking during early pregnancy was slightly less common in the US compared with Nordic countries (9.8% vs 11.2%). Restricting the data from the US to females with a university degree, characteristics such as age at delivery, birth weight, and preterm deliveries were more in alignment with the Nordic data. Conclusion There are differences in some key maternal and neonatal characteristics between the Nordic countries and the US. However, some characteristics are related to socioeconomic status, suggesting that the Nordic data seem to be applicable to the part of the population in the US with a higher socioeconomic status. PMID:27536160

  6. Institutional Autonomy and Academic Freedom in the Nordic Context--Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokkala, Terhi; Bladh, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Owing to their common history, similarities in language and culture, long traditions in political collaboration and the shared Nordic societal model, an assumption is often made that the operational and regulatory context of universities is similar in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In this article, we…

  7. The Current State and Developments in Higher Education in Gerontology in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Heidi; Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Parkatti, Terttu; Heikkinen, Eino

    2012-01-01

    The growing size of the older population challenges not only researchers but also higher education in gerontology. On the basis of an online survey the authors describe the situation of Nordic higher education in gerontology in 2008 and 2009 and also give some good examples of Nordic- and European-level collaboration. The survey results showed…

  8. Social Change and Adult Education Research--Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1990/91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkoping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Education and Psychology.

    This yearbook contains papers that provide the reader with a general idea of the aspects and issues that interest Nordic researchers today and how they approach these problems. To provide a more uniform picture of the status of adult education in the different Nordic countries, four brief general surveys begin the book: "Adult Education…

  9. Education for Internationalism at the Nordic School for Adult Education in Geneva 1931-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Internationalism in the interwar era carried different meaning for different groups. A Nordic school for adult education, with the aim of raising the "international citizenship proficiency" of the Nordic peoples, was established in Geneva in 1931, through cooperation between representatives of international organisations and adult…

  10. Interpreting Values in the Daily Practices of Nordic Preschools: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Johansson, Eva; Estola, Eila; Emilson, Anette; Einarsdóttir, Johanna; Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how practitioners interpreted educational practices from the perspective of values in Nordic preschools. Drawing data from group interviews in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), practitioners reflected on an observational episode about children dressing for outdoor play in a Swedish preschool.…

  11. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  12. 'Ergonomics in the Nordic European countries--a historical perspective': paper presented at IEA 2000/HFES 2000 Congress. International Ergonomics Association.

    PubMed

    Ivergård, T; Landstad, B

    2000-11-01

    The Nordic Ergonomic Society was founded more than 30 years ago to represent Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark. Recently Iceland has also been included. The Nordic Ergonomics Society has, to a large extent, traditionally been oriented towards work in the area of physiology, and a large number of its members have backgrounds within such areas as work physiology, physiotherapy and rehabilitation. However, from its inception the society has had members who are experienced within, such fields as work psychology, design, engineering and occupational health and safety. Over the last decade we have also had new members from such areas as work sociology, organizational psychology, leadership, training, information technology and cybernetics. Members have been concerned mainly with the application and practice of ergonomics. The number of members involved in research has also increased over the years. The principal areas of application for such research have been within industry and government.

  13. Measuring currents between North Atlantic and Nordic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-06-01

    The fluxes of water from the North Atlantic to the Nordic seas provide a measure of the water that flows into and out of the global ocean as part of the meridional overturning circulation. The meridional overturning circulation, which carries warm water in the Atlantic from the tropics northward and brings cold dense water back southward, is a key part of global ocean circulation and a strong influence on climate; some research has suggested that the meridional overturning circulation could slow down as the global climate warms. Using an acoustic Doppler current profiler mounted in the high seas ferry Norröna to repeatedly measure the currents in the Faroe-Shetland Channel and over the Iceland-Faroe Ridge, Rossby and Flagg report on 3 years of weekly measurements that provide a new, accurate measure of the exchange of water between the North Atlantic and Nordic seas. The observations will be useful in understanding the meridional overturning circulation. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL051269, 2012)

  14. Proposal for common Nordic epidemiological terms and definitions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Skov, Robert; Gudlaugsson, Olafur; Hardardottir, Hjordis; Harthug, Stig; Jakobsen, Trond; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Peltonen, Reijo; Tveten, Yngvar; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Ahrén, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The recent increase in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in all the Nordic countries prompted the Scandinavian Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (SSAC) to create the 'SSAC Working Party on MRSA' with the objective to identify methods to keep the invasive MRSA infections in the Nordic countries below 1%. The lack of common definitions was recognized as a major obstacle for a joint Nordic effort to combat MRSA. The aim of this publication is to present proposals for epidemiological definitions of individual cases, for how to report MRSA frequency per country, and for communication of MRSA strain characteristics between the countries.

  15. Response of the Denmark Strait overflow to Nordic Seas heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Sinha, Bablu; Blaker, Adam T.

    2008-09-01

    The impact of extreme Nordic Seas heat loss on Denmark Strait (DS) dense water transport is examined in (1) control runs of the Hadley Centre HadCM3 and HadGEM1 coupled climate models and (2) perturbation experiments with the fast coupled model FORTE that allow heat flux effects to be isolated from wind stress. All three models show an approximately linear increase in southward DS transport of cold dense water with increasing Nordic Seas winter heat loss in the range -80 to -250 Wm-2. The propagation of the cold anomaly from the Nordic Seas source along a trajectory through the DS and into the Irminger Basin is also examined. A common response time is found with the strongest decrease in DS temperature occurring within 8-12 months of the heat loss signal. Our results show that Nordic Seas heat loss must be considered in addition to other processes in understanding DS variability.

  16. The current state and developments in higher education in gerontology in the nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Heidi; Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Parkatti, Terttu; Heikkinen, Eino

    2012-01-01

    The growing size of the older population challenges not only researchers but also higher education in gerontology. On the basis of an online survey the authors describe the situation of Nordic higher education in gerontology in 2008 and 2009 and also give some good examples of Nordic- and European-level collaboration. The survey results showed that gerontological education was given in every Nordic country, in 31 universities and 60 other higher education institutions. Although separate aging-related courses and modules were relatively numerous, programs for majors were relatively few. Networking in the Nordic region offers a good example on how to further develop higher education in gerontology. Emphasis should be put on strengthening networking on the European and trans-Atlantic levels.

  17. Measurement Properties of the Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Roe, C; Myhre, K; Marchand, G H; Lau, B; Leivseth, G; Bautz-Holter, E

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPS Nordic) and the domains of demand, control and support. The Rasch analysis (RUMM 2030) was based on responses from 226 subjects with back pain who completed the QPS Nordic dimensions of demand, control, and social support (30 items) at one year follow up. The Rasch analysis revealed disordered thresholds in a total of 25 of the 30 items. The domains of demand, control and support fit the Rasch model when analyzed separately. The demand domain was well targeted, whereas patients with current neck and back pain had lower control and higher support than reflected by the questions. Two items revealed DIF by gender, otherwise invariance to age, gender, occupation and sick-leave was documented. The demand, control support domains of QPS Nordic comprised unidimensional constructs with adequate measurement properties.

  18. Nordic Walking and chronic low back pain: design of a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis; Manniche, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Background Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism. Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether there is a difference in compliance between persons receiving supervised Nordic Walking and persons doing unsupervised Nordic Walking. Methods One hundred and fifty patients with low back pain for at least eight weeks and referred to a specialized secondary sector outpatient back pain clinic are included in the study. After completion of the standard back centre treatment patients are randomized into one of three groups: A) Nordic Walking twice a week for eight weeks under supervision of a specially trained instructor; B) Unsupervised Nordic Walking for eight weeks after one training session with an instructor; C) A one hour motivational talk including advice to stay active. Outcome measures are pain, function, overall health, cardiovascular ability and activity level. Results No

  19. Multidisciplinary Management of Mastocytosis: Nordic Expert Group Consensus.

    PubMed

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Dybedal, Ingunn; Gülen, Theo; Kristensen, Thomas K; Møller, Michael B; Ackermann, Leena; Sääf, Maria; Karlsson, Maria A; Agertoft, Lone; Brixen, Kim; Hermann, Pernille; Stylianou, Eva; Mortz, Charlotte G; Torfing, Trine; Havelund, Troels; Sander, Birgitta; Bergström, Anna; Bendix, Marie; Garvey, Lene H; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Valent, Peter; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nilsson, Gunnar; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hägglund, Hans

    2016-06-15

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases defined by an increased number and accumulation of mast cells, and often also by signs and symptoms of mast cell activation. Disease subtypes range from indolent to rare aggressive forms. Mastocytosis affects people of all ages and has been considered rare; however, it is probably underdiagnosed with potential severe implications. Diagnosis can be challenging and symptoms may be complex and involve multiple organ-systems. In general it is advised that patients should be referred to centres with experience in the disease offering an individualized, multidisciplinary approach. We present here consensus recommendations from a Nordic expert group for the diagnosis and general management of patients with mastocytosis.

  20. PREFACE: The 6th Nordic Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Vaagen, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    After an unintended time gap of five years, the series of regular Nordic meetings on nuclear physics was continued with the 6th Nordic Meeting, August 10-15, 1989. The site was Utgarden in the outskirts of Kopervik, the administration center for the Saga island of Karmøy on the west-coast of Norway. Utgarden, a "peoples high-school'' with a kitchen, housing facility and a neighboring modern gymnasium with fine lecture halls, proved to be an inexpensive and adequate site for the meeting. From the time of the Vikings, the sound between Karmøyy and the mainland has been a vital part of the way to the north. Mobility and international orientation is still a signature of an area where today essential parts of Norway's oil- and metal industry are located. The conference program included a session on nuclear physics in industry and society, with contributed talks from a number of companies and technology/research institutions, which also sponsored the meeting. Lunch visits to Hydro's aluminium plant on Karmøy or alternatively to Statoil's gas terminal on the mainland, were included in the program. The scientific program gives a cross section of nuclear physics activities in which researchers from the Nordic countries are involved nowadays. The spectrum is rich, and the emphasis has shifted to higher energies than was the case five years ago. We appreciate the possibility to present this overview in a separate volume of Physica Scripta. The present issue covers nearly all the talks given at the meeting. The order deviates, however, somewhat from that of the conference program. The organizing committee tried to encourage in various ways the participation of young physicists; this effort was truely rewarded. The young participants put their imprint on the activities in the lecture halls and even more on the soccer arena. The meeting was sponsored by The University of Bergen, The Nordic Accelerator Committee, NORDITA, The Norwegian Research Council for Science and the

  1. Different incidences of knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    NiemeläInen, Mika J; MäKelä, Keijo T; Robertsson, Otto; W-Dahl, Annette; Furnes, Ove; Fenstad, Anne M; Pedersen, Alma B; Schrøder, Henrik M; Huhtala, Heini; Eskelinen, Antti

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose The annual number of total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) has increased worldwide in recent years. To make projections regarding future needs for primaries and revisions, additional knowledge is important. We analyzed and compared the incidences among 4 Nordic countries Patients and methods Using Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) data from 4 countries, we analyzed differences between age and sex groups. We included patients over 30 years of age who were operated with TKA or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) during the period 1997–2012. The negative binomial regression model was used to analyze changes in general trends and in sex and age groups. Results The average annual increase in the incidence of TKA was statistically significant in all countries. The incidence of TKA was higher in women than in men in all 4 countries. It was highest in Finland in patients aged 65 years or more. At the end of the study period in 2012, Finland’s total incidence was double that of Norway, 1.3 times that of Sweden and 1.4 times that of Denmark. The incidence was lowest in the youngest age groups (< 65 years) in all 4 countries. The proportional increase in incidence was highest in patients who were younger than 65 years. Interpretation The incidence of knee arthroplasty steadily increased in the 4 countries over the study period. The differences between the countries were considerable, with the highest incidence in Finland. Patients aged 65 years or more contributed to most of the total incidence of knee arthroplasty. PMID:28056570

  2. Overview of the Nordic Seas CARINA data and salinity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Are; Key, Robert; Jeansson, Emil; Falck, E.; Olafsson, J.; Van Heuven, S.; Skjelvan, I.; Omar, A.M.; Olsson, K.A.; Anderson, L.G.; Jutterström, S.; Rey, F.; Johannessen, T.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Bullister, J.L.; Pfeil, B.; Lin, X.; Kozyr, Alexander; Schirnick, C.; Tanhua, T.; Wallace, D.W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), the Atlantic (ATL) and the Southern Ocean (SO).With the adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004) and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas include the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution provides an overview of the CARINA data from the Nordic Seas and summaries the findings of the QC of the salinity data. One cruise had salinity data that were of questionable quality, and these have been removed from the data product. An evaluation of the consistency of the quality controlled salinity data suggests that they are consistent to at least 0.005.

  3. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-28

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  4. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  5. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene. PMID:26507275

  6. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  7. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    These are Proceedings of the Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Mathematics, held August 25-26, 1989, at Lahti (Finland). The Symposium belongs to an annual series of Meetings, the first one of which was arranged in 1987 at Lund (Sweden) and the second one in 1988 at Kolle-Kolle near Copenhagen (Denmark). Although these Symposia have thus far been essentially Nordic events, their international character has increased significantly; the trend is vividly reflected through contributions in the present Topical Issue. The interdisciplinary nature of Computational Science is central to the activity; this fundamental aspect is also responsible, in an essential way, for its rapidly increasing impact. Crucially important to a wide spectrum of superficially disparate fields is the common need for extensive - and often quite demanding - computational modelling. For such theoretical models, no closed-form (analytical) solutions are available or they would be extremely difficult to find; hence one must rather resort to the Art of performing computational investigations. Among the unifying features in the computational research are the methods of simulation employed; methods which frequently are quite closely related with each other even for faculties of science that are quite unrelated. Computer simulation in Natural Sciences is presently apprehended as a discipline on its own right, occupying a broad region somewhere between the experimental and theoretical methods, but also partially overlapping with and complementing them. - Whichever its proper definition may be, the computational approach serves as a novel and an extremely versatile tool with which one can equally well perform "pure" experimental modelling and conduct "computational theory". Computational studies that have earlier been made possible only through supercomputers have opened unexpected, as well as exciting, novel frontiers equally in mathematics (e.g., fractals

  8. Time-resolved Polarimetry of the Superluminous SN 2015bn with the Nordic Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloudas, Giorgos; Maund, Justyn R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Pursimo, Tapio; Hsiao, Eric; Malesani, Daniele; Patat, Ferdinando; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Sollerman, Jesper; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2017-03-01

    We present imaging polarimetry of the superluminous supernova SN 2015bn, obtained over nine epochs between ‑20 and +46 days with the Nordic Optical Telescope. This was a nearby, slowly evolving Type I superluminous supernova that has been studied extensively and for which two epochs of spectropolarimetry are also available. Based on field stars, we determine the interstellar polarization in the Galaxy to be negligible. The polarization of SN 2015bn shows a statistically significant increase during the last epochs, confirming previous findings. Our well-sampled imaging polarimetry series allows us to determine that this increase (from ∼0.54% to ≳1.10%) coincides in time with rapid changes that took place in the optical spectrum. We conclude that the supernova underwent a “phase transition” at around +20 days, when the photospheric emission shifted from an outer layer, dominated by natal C and O, to a more aspherical inner core, dominated by freshly nucleosynthesized material. This two-layered model might account for the characteristic appearance and properties of Type I superluminous supernovae.

  9. Changes in the vigour of the Nordic Overflows over the last 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffa Sanchez, P.; Hall, I. R.; Thornalley, D. J.; Barker, S.

    2014-12-01

    In today's North Atlantic, warm tropical surface waters flow northwards into the Nordic Seas where they cool and sink to form deep south-flowing currents. This deepwater formation process is a major contributor to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and is of great importance to the climate system as it distributes nutrients, heat and gasses throughout the world's oceans. The Nordic Overflows are the deep waters that flow southwards over the submarine Greenland-Scotland Ridge and are the densest waters of the deep limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Changes in the vigour of these overflows may have had important climatic effects in the past and possibly in the future. Yet, evidence for multidecadal to millennial changes in the deep limb of the AMOC and their potential relationship to North Atlantic climate variability during our current interglacial is still scarce. Here we present grain size data (a current speed proxy) from sub to decadally resolved sediment cores located in the direct pathway of the two Nordic Overflows east and west of Iceland, the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW), respectively. The results do not show a clear relationship between changes in the vigour of the Nordic Overflows and the well-known periods of centennial-scale climate variability recorded in the North Atlantic region. However, clear millennial-scale trends are found in both of the overflow strength records over the last 3000 years, possibly related to hydrographic reorganisations in the Nordic Seas driven by Northern Hemisphere insolation changes over the Neoglacial. A comparison between the near-bottom flow speed reconstructions from ISOW and DSOW suggest an antiphased relationship between the Nordic Overflows east and west of Iceland over the last 3000 years, a feature that has been observed in climate models as a result of shifts in atmospheric patterns over the Nordic Seas.

  10. Ethical aspects of registry-based research in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Håberg, Siri E; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Lafolie, Pierre; Zoega, Helga; Sarkkola, Catharina; von Kraemer, Stephanie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Nørgaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    National health care registries in the Nordic countries share many attributes, but different legal and ethical frameworks represent a challenge to promoting effective joint research. Internationally, there is a lack of knowledge about how ethical matters are considered in Nordic registry-based research, and a lack of knowledge about how Nordic ethics committees operate and what is needed to obtain an approval. In this paper, we review ethical aspects of registry-based research, the legal framework, the role of ethics review boards in the Nordic countries, and the structure of the ethics application. We discuss the role of informed consent in registry-based research and how to safeguard the integrity of study participants, including vulnerable subjects and children. Our review also provides information on the different government agencies that contribute registry-based data, and a list of the major health registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Both ethical values and conditions for registry-based research are similar in the Nordic countries. While Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have chosen different legal frameworks, these differences can be resolved through mutual recognition of ethical applications and by harmonizing the different systems, likely leading to increased collaboration and enlarged studies. PMID:26648756

  11. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy--time for Nordic cooperation!

    PubMed

    Gjesdal, Knut

    2008-12-01

    This editorial discusses arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) with respect to diagnosis and organisation of patient care. Two papers in the current issue are commented upon. Aneq and coworkers present a long-term echocardiographic study on ARVC patients. Baseline changes were seldom diagnostic, but over years, changes in right ventricular structure and function occurred; the most consistent being increasing diameter of the right ventricular outflow tract. Haapalaita and coworkers used body surface ECG, comparing right and left ventricular types of ECG. The duration of electrical systole (QT-end) and the dispersion of the action potentials (QT peak-end) was longer in the right-sided compared to the left-sided leads in ARVC, at variance from in healthy controls, and the shortening effect of autonomic manoeuvres that activate sympathetic tone, was much more marked on the right side, compatible with the tendency of arrhythmias to occur under stress. An initiative to create a Nordic registry on ARVC has come from Denmark. This is highly welcomed; our individual institutions are too small to gain the experience needed for optimal patient care.

  12. 14C Concentrations in the Northern Atlantic and Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, M.-J.; Grootes, P. M.; Erlenkeuser, H.

    2003-04-01

    We report here more than 450 new Δ14C results from water samples from the North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas measured at the Leibniz-Labor, Christian-Albrechts Universität, Kiel, using accelerator mass spectrometry. The water samples were collected during three cruises of the RV Meteor: M36 in 1996 (65 measurements, 6 stations), M39 in 1997 (217 measurements, 11 stations) and M50 in 2001 (189 measurements, 10 stations). These results are compared to those of previous sampling campaigns: GEOSECS (1972) and TTO (1981) and of samples obtained from previous cruises of the RV Meteor (M18 in 1991 and M30 in 1994) measured by decay counting at the Institut für Umweltphysik in Heidelberg. Several stations from the cruise M50 are located along the WOCE A02 line from the western entrance of the English Channel to the tip of Newfoundland/Grand Banks. This transect also analysed during the M30 (1994) campaign provides the evolution of the penetration of atmospheric bomb 14C into these waters over a seven year period. Other samples were taken in the Labrador Sea, and North and South of Iceland. Comparison with CFC measurements, for some of the stations, also provides an insight in the penetration of both tracers into the ocean.

  13. The Nordic WOCE trawl-resistant ADCP system

    SciTech Connect

    Osterhus, S.; Hansen, B.

    1995-09-01

    In the Nordic WOCE programme 10 Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP`s) will be deployed between Greenland and Scotland. Three of these deployments will be in very heavily fished areas, and a special system has been developed to reduce the risk of interaction between the rig and fishing gear. The system consists of a buoyant instrument package and a protecting platform which will remain on the bottom. The instrument package is a stainless steel frame containing a 150 kHz RDI ADCP with a 90{degree} adapter, an acoustic release, an ARGOS transmitter and sufficient flotation to give the instrument pacakge a net buoyancy of 180 kg. The protecting platform has the form of a truncated pyramid with sides sloping 45{degree} made of steel. During operation the instrument package is attached to the protecting frame by rods in the two ends around which the instrument package may rotate freely. If the system is turned upside down, the instrument package is designed to turn to an operational orientation and it can be released in this condition. To ensure acceptable tilt and stable bottom conditions a deployment frame has been developed with tiltmeter and video camera attached. A prototype of the system was deployed in October 1994.

  14. Cross-Border Collaboration in History among Nordic Students: A Case Study about Creating Innovative ICT Didactic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd Vea; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, Rene B.

    2014-01-01

    Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education), the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history.…

  15. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  16. The impact of Nordic adult education ideas on the development of a democratic society in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teresevičienė, Margarita; Trepulė, Elena; Trečiokienė, Edita

    2017-02-01

    This article analyses the role of the cooperation with and the influence of the Nordic countries on the development of a democratic society in Lithuania through adult education since the reinstatement of its independence from Soviet regime in March 1990 to the present. The authors focus on three main areas: (1) the training of Lithuanian adult educators; (2) the establishment and development of NGOs; and (3) the implications for a Lithuanian policy of adult education. Within the framework of Nordic-Baltic cooperation established among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8) in 1992, Lithuanian adult educators seized the opportunity to visit Scandinavian institutions and projects. Experiencing Nordic adult education ideas has resulted in a marked shift in Lithuanian adult educators' values, methodology and careers; and in the establishment of a series of very influential umbrella associations as well as hundreds of NGOs in Lithuania which work with adults and support functioning democratic values in society. This shift is related to the civic responsibility and active participation growing out of the bottom-up approaches of group work, cooperation, discussions and learning circles which are so inherent in the Nordic tradition of adult education. The internalisation of new democratic values was more complicated than expected for many Lithuanian politicians, adult educators and NGO leaders in terms of how political decisions were perceived and implemented. Furthermore, the influence of the Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education may also be traced in adult education policy implications in Lithuania. Some changes in the policies of contemporary Lithuania have not been successful and even failed to promote a democratic society.

  17. Provisioning of Safe Train Control in Nordic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Harold ‘Bud'

    The safety of train traffic is a vital societal function. During the mid-1970s, the availability of inexpensive microprocessors and electronic components led to the first computer-based systems solution to this critical function. Sweden was the first country in the world to develop and deploy a computer-based solution for Automatic Train Control (ATC). The major suppliers Ericsson Signal Systems and ITT Standard Radio developed solutions for both of the functions required; namely the track to train transmission system as well as the onboard system. Both system functions have been further developed by companies that have taken over ownership of these system products; namely, Bombardier, respectively Ansaldo. In the original delivery to the Swedish Railways (SJ), Ericsson Signal delivered the track-to-train transmission system; whereas, Standard Radio the onboard system for SJ trains and Ericsson Signal delivered the onboard system for the Stockholm Local Traffic (SL) trains. We describe the functions provided by both systems; however, we place focus upon the unique properties of the Standard Radio onboard system that has had a stable architecture for over twenty-eight years. The two track-to-train transmission systems delivered by Bombardier and Ansaldo are compatible; in Norway, both suppliers have delivered their products for both of the functions. Further, the X2000 and Öresund bridge trains that travel between Sweden and Denmark utilize the Ansaldo onboard and track to train transmission products in combination with a Siemens system. In addition to the details of the Swedish ATC solution, a brief historical perspective of train control as well as the implementation of train control in the other Nordic countries is provided. The need for a holistic view of train control is cited in examining two actual train accidents in Sweden and Norway. Finally, we discuss the movements toward a European Rail Traffic Management System standard in respect to interoperability

  18. Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean CFC data in CARINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeansson, E.; Olsson, K. A.; Tanhua, T.; Bullister, J. L.

    2010-02-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters have been retrieved from a large number of cruises and collected into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). These data have been merged into three sets of files, one for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), the Atlantic (ATL) and the Southern Ocean (SO). The first part of the CARINA database consists of three files, one for each CARINA region, containing the original, non-adjusted cruise data sets, including data quality flags for each measurement. These data have then been subject to rigorous quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the second part of the CARINA data product. This consists of three files, one for each CARINA region, which contain adjustments to the original data values based on recommendations from the CARINA QC procedures, along with calculated and interpolated values for some missing parameters. Here we present an overview of the QC of the CFC data for the AMS region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113, as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The Arctic Mediterranean Seas is comprised of the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. For the secondary QC of the CFCs we used a combination of tools, including the evaluation of depth profiles and CFC ratios, surface saturations and a crossover analysis. This resulted in a multiplicative adjustment of data from some cruises, while other data were flagged to be of questionable quality, which excluded them from the final data product.

  19. Younger Children in ECEC: Focus on the National Steering Documents in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hännikäinen, Maritta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the national steering documents on early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, with the focus on children up to the age of three, posing the question: What do these documents tell us about ECEC for younger children in the Nordic early childhood settings?…

  20. Re-evaluating high-latitude warming in the Pliocene Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Daniel; Smith, Yvonne; Dolan, Aisling

    2016-04-01

    The Pliocene warm period was generally been seen as stable warm climate with global temperatures of 2-3K above pre-industrial and significant polar amplification. Northern Hemisphere ice has been reconstructed to be restricted to the high altitude areas of Greenland and global reconstructions of sea surface temperatures show an especially strong warming in the Nordic Seas, most often attributed to increased ocean heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean. Here we present climate model results that show that the strongest warming recorded in the Nordic Seas and Arctic is forced by changes in orbital forcing and palaeogeographic changes. Of particular importance is the presence of a sub-aerial landmass in the Barents Sea region, which has subsequently been eroded by Pleistocene glaciation. While climate models can produce strong warming signals in the Nordic Seas, a new iceberg modelling study showing that through much of the Pliocene the conditions in the Nordic Seas were suitable for the presence of significant quantities of icebergs. The locations of IRD records also raises the possibility of significant glaciations in places previously considered to be ice free in the Pliocene.

  1. Low-frequency Pliocene climate variability in the eastern Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Andersson, Carin; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2016-09-01

    The Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma) is often described as a relatively stable climatic period, with warm temperatures characterizing high latitudes. New suborbital resolved stable isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 642B in the eastern Nordic Seas document that the Pliocene was not a stable period characterized by one climate. Rather, seven distinct climate phases, each lasting between 150,000 and 400,000 years, are identified and characterized in the time interval 5.1-3.1 Ma. Four of the transitions between the defined climate phases occurred close to an eccentricity minimum and a minimum in amplitude of change for Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, while two occurred around an eccentricity maximum and a maximum in amplitude in insolation change. Hence, a low-frequency response of the Nordic Seas to insolation forcing is indicated. In addition, paleogeographic and related paleoceanographic changes, expansion of the Arctic sea ice cover, and onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation were important factors behind the evolving Pliocene low-frequency variability in the eastern Nordic Seas. It is likely that the identified climate phases and transitions are important beyond the Nordic Seas, due to their association with changes to both insolation and paleogeography. However, a strong and variable degree of diagenetic calcite overgrowth is documented for the planktic foraminifera, especially influencing the planktic δ18O results; the absolute values and amplitude of change cannot be taken at face value.

  2. Nordic Children's Conceptualizations of Healthy Eating in Relation to School Lunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Linda; Talvia, Sanna; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Arnfjörð, Unnur Björk; Hörnell, Agneta; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Wergedahl, Hege; Lagström, Hanna; Waling, Maria; Olsson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Pupils' perspective should be better taken into account when developing nutrition education at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore Nordic children's perspectives on the healthiness of meals in the context of school lunches. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 78 focus group discussions were conducted with 10-11-year-old…

  3. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  4. Source Apportionment of the Summer Time Carbonaceous Aerosol at Nordic Rural Background Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the present study, natural and anthropogenic sources of particulate organic carbon (OCp) and elemental carbon (EC) have been quantified based on weekly filter samples of PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter <10µ collected at four Nordic rural backgro...

  5. Troubling Gender Equality: Revisiting Gender Equality Work in the Famous Nordic Model Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The…

  6. Innovative Pedagogical Practice with ICT in Three Nordic Countries--Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottestad, G.

    2010-01-01

    Three Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland and Norway, participated in the IEA SITES 2006 study. All the three countries have launched huge policy and investment programmes to promote digital literacy and readiness for the information age. In relation to the remarkable Finnish Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, it is…

  7. Social Science Data Bases and Data Banks in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Mogens

    The author's comments and questions about an earlier study by NORDINFO (Nordic Council for Scientific Information) of databases and data banks in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are organized into four sections: (1) surveying databases and data banks, (2) approaches to computerized information services, (3) the present state of development in…

  8. Participation in Job-Related Lifelong Learning among Well-Educated Employees in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Nissinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore participation in job-related lifelong learning (LLL) among well-educated mature workers and compare it across four Nordic countries. Although this group generally is very active in LLL, the centrality of knowledge work in society, rapid pace of skills-renewal and rising learning demands for all…

  9. Exploring Democracy: Nordic Music Teachers' Approaches to the Development of Immigrant Students' Musical Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsen, Sidsel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a multi-sited ethnographic study was taken as a point of departure for exploring how Nordic music teachers, who work in multicultural environments, understand the development of their students' musical agency. The study was based on theories developed within general sociology and the sociology of music, as well as in previous…

  10. Nordic Research on Text and Discourse. NORDTEXT Symposium (Espoo, Finland, May 10-13, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeberg, Ann-Charlotte, Ed.; And Others

    Papers presented at the 1990 Symposium of the Nordic Research Group for Theoretical and Applied Text Linguistics include the following: "Success Concepts" (Enkvist); "Reconciling the Psychological with the Linguistic in Accounts of Text Comprehension" (Garrod); "Particles as Fundaments of Discourse Structuring"…

  11. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1992/93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.

    This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies…

  12. Physical Activity of Depressed Patients and Their Motivation to Exercise: Nordic Walking in Family Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…

  13. Assessment Theory and Practice of Students' Outcomes in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysne, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In the latest decades assessment in education has become a very controversial issue in many western countries, and especially so in the Nordic countries, where the controversy became most passionate in Norway. It was really not a debate about whether or not formal marks should be used in communication of educational outcomes for the individual…

  14. Individual and Collective Rights Expressed in Educator and Child Interactions in Nordic Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, E.; Emilson, A.; Röthle, M.; Puroila, A.-M.; Broström, S.; Einarsdóttir, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on rights and gender in educator and child interactions in Nordic preschools. The research questions are as follows: What kinds of rights are communicated in the interactions and how? What kind of gender patterns can be identified? Rights refer to entitlements related to the early childhood education context, given or claimed by…

  15. Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Mathematics Teaching (NORMA-94) Lahti 1994. Research Report 141.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

    This report contains papers from the Nordic Conference on Mathematics Teaching (NORMA-94). The first three papers are plenary talks aimed at giving the participants an opportunity to form a coherent view of the new theories of learning. The themes of the paper sessions addressed a variety of topics on different levels from elementary school to…

  16. Nordic Experiences: Participants' Expectations and Experiences of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahikainen, Katariina; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish high school students' and teachers' perceptions of the effects of short-term Nordic study abroad programs in which they had participated. The data presented were based on a "mixed-methods strategy." The data set consisted of responses from 158 students and 92 teachers to a specifically…

  17. [Health care systems in the Nordic countries--more similarities than differences?].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, I S; Pedersen, K M

    2000-06-30

    The aim of this paper is to explore similarities and differences of the Nordic health care systems. The analysis is based on a three-part model involving patients, providers and the financing third party. In all Nordic countries, about 80% of the funding come from public sources. In Iceland, central government is providing most of the health care services, while the county councils are central in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In Finland, the municipalities are providing most of the health care. Salary is the only payment system for general practitioners in Iceland, while it is used for some GPs in Finland, Norway and Sweden. Capitation in combination with service fees is used for all Danish GPs and the majority of the Finnish, while various fee-for-service systems are used for the others. All Nordic countries had global hospital budgeting in the 1980s; since then, Finland, Norway and Sweden have implemented others systems, predominantly combinations of diagnosis-related group financing and global budgets. The amounts of resources devoted to health care are about the same in all five countries whether measured by the proportion of GDP devoted to health care, or by hospital beds or doctor/patient ratios. In monetary terms, Denmark, Iceland and Norway spend more than Finland and Sweden. Despite similar amounts of resources, they are quite differently used across the countries. Differences of a factor of two or more are observed for hip operations, gal bladder operations and pharmaceuticals. Danes and Finns are very satisfied with their health care system; the Swedes are not. All the Nordic countries have increased patient co-payments during the 1990s. Finnish patients may pay an extra free to get a one-bed room. Finland also has the greatest number of private hospitals. Despite all these differences, the Nordic health care systems are quite similar when seen in a global perspective.

  18. High-resolution satellite-derived ocean surface winds in the Nordic-Barents seas region: Implications for ocean modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Bourassa, M. A.; Hughes, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution (0.25°) ocean surface wind velocity data derived from satellite observations are used to analyze winds in the Nordic-Barents seas during 2007-2008. For the analysis, a Cross-Calibrated, Multi-Platform (CCMP), multi-instrument ocean surface wind velocity data set is utilized. The product has been developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) within Making Earth Science data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program. A variational method was used to combine wind measurements derived from satellite-born active and passive remote sensing instruments. In the objective procedure, winds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Operational Analysis (DS111.1) were used as the background fields. The ocean surface wind fields are compared with those derived from the National Centers for Environmental Protection/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis. The NCEP/NCAR fields are commonly used to provide atmospheric forcing for Arctic Ocean models. The utility of using high-resolution winds in the ocean modeling is discussed. In particular, air-sea heat fluxes estimated from the two wind data sets are compared. It is anticipated that wind fields with higher spatial and temporal resolution will better resolve small-scale, short-lived atmospheric systems. As an example, the ice free region in the Nordic and Barents seas is frequently impacted by very intense cyclones known as “polar lows” with wind speeds near to or above gale force. A polar low forms over the sea and predominantly during the winter months. The size of these cyclones varies greatly from 100 to 1000 km. Presumably small-scale cyclones are misrepresented or not resolved in the NCAR fields leading to biases in the air-sea flux calculations in the ocean models. Inaccurate estimates of the air-sea fluxes eventually lead to biases in the Arctic Ocean model solutions.

  19. Effects of nordic walking compared to conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Rogers, Nicole L; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day(-1) (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week(-1) (NW and CW) or 2 day·week(-1) (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key PointsNordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults.Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not.Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking.Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults.

  20. eSACP - a new Nordic initiative towards developing statistical climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Thejll, Peter; Drews, Martin; Guttorp, Peter; Venälainen, Ari; Uotila, Petteri; Benestad, Rasmus; Mesquita, Michel d. S.; Madsen, Henrik; Fox Maule, Cathrine

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic research council NordForsk has recently announced its support for a new 3-year research initiative on "statistical analysis of climate projections" (eSACP). eSACP will focus on developing e-science tools and services based on statistical analysis of climate projections for the purpose of helping decision-makers and planners in the face of expected future challenges in regional climate change. The motivation behind the project is the growing recognition in our society that forecasts of future climate change is associated with various sources of uncertainty, and that any long-term planning and decision-making dependent on a changing climate must account for this. At the same time there is an obvious gap between scientists from different fields and between practitioners in terms of understanding how climate information relates to different parts of the "uncertainty cascade". In eSACP we will develop generic e-science tools and statistical climate services to facilitate the use of climate projections by decision-makers and scientists from all fields for climate impact analyses and for the development of robust adaptation strategies, which properly (in a statistical sense) account for the inherent uncertainty. The new tool will be publically available and include functionality to utilize the extensive and dynamically growing repositories of data and use state-of-the-art statistical techniques to quantify the uncertainty and innovative approaches to visualize the results. Such a tool will not only be valuable for future assessments and underpin the development of dedicated climate services, but will also assist the scientific community in making more clearly its case on the consequences of our changing climate to policy makers and the general public. The eSACP project is led by Thordis Thorarinsdottir, Norwegian Computing Center, and also includes the Finnish Meteorological Institute, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, the Technical University of Denmark

  1. The new nordic diet – consumer expenditures and economic incentives estimated from a controlled intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that a healthy diet with high emphasis on nutritious, low-energy components such as fruits, vegetables, and seafood tends to be more costly for consumers. Derived from the ideas from the New Nordic Cuisine – and inspired by the Mediterranean diet, the New Nordic Diet (NND) has been developed as a palatable, healthy and sustainable diet based on products from the Nordic region. The objective of the study is to investigate economic consequences for the consumers of the NND, compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD). Methods Combine quantity data from a randomized controlled ad libitum dietary 6 month intervention for central obese adults (18–65 years) and market retail price data of the products consumed in the intervention. Adjust consumed quantities to market price incentives using econometrically estimated price elasticities. Results Average daily food expenditure of the ADD as represented in the unadjusted intervention (ADD-i) amounted to 36.02 DKK for the participants. The daily food expenditure in the unadjusted New Nordic Diet (NND-i) costs 44.80 DKK per day per head, and is hence about 25% more expensive than the Average Danish Diet (or about 17% when adjusting for energy content of the diet). Adjusting for price incentives in a real market setting, the estimated cost of the Average Danish Diet is reduced by 2.50 DKK (ADD-m), compared to the unadjusted ADD-i diet, whereas the adjusted cost of the New Nordic Diet (NND-m) is reduced by about 3.50 DKK, compared to the unadjusted NND-i. The distribution of food cost is however much more heterogeneous among consumers within the NND than within the ADD. Conclusion On average, the New Nordic Diet is 24–25 per cent more expensive than an Average Danish Diet at the current market prices in Denmark (and 16–17 per cent, when adjusting for energy content). The relatively large heterogeneity in food costs in the NND suggests that it is possible to compose an NND where the cost

  2. School meal provision, health, and cognitive function in a Nordic setting – the ProMeal-study: description of methodology and the Nordic context

    PubMed Central

    Waling, Maria; Olafsdottir, Anna S.; Lagström, Hanna; Wergedahl, Hege; Jonsson, Bert; Olsson, Cecilia; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Holthe, Asle; Talvia, Sanna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Background School meals, if both nutritious and attractive, provide a unique opportunity to improve health equality and public health. Objective To describe the study rationale, data collection, and background of participants in the study ‘Prospects for promoting health and performance by school meals in Nordic countries’ (ProMeal). The general aim was to determine whether overall healthiness of the diet and learning conditions in children can be improved by school lunches, and to capture the main concerns regarding school lunches among children in a Nordic context. Design A cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study was performed in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden on pupils (n=837) born in 2003. Results In total 3,928 pictures of school lunches were taken to capture pupils’ school lunch intake. A mean of 85% of all parents responded to a questionnaire about socioeconomic background, dietary intake, and habitual physical activity at home. Cognitive function was measured on one occasion on 93% of the pupils during optimal conditions with a Stroop and a Child Operation Span test. A mean of 169 pupils also did an Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test after lunch over 3 days. In total, 37,413 10-sec observations of classroom learning behavior were performed. In addition, 753 empathy-based stories were written and 78 focus groups were conducted. The pupils had high socioeconomic status. Conclusions This study will give new insights into which future interventions are needed to improve pupils’ school lunch intake and learning. The study will provide valuable information for policy making, not least in countries where the history of school meals is shorter than in some of the Nordic countries. PMID:27514723

  3. Liver transplantation in the Nordic countries – An intention to treat and post-transplant analysis from The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry 1982–2013

    PubMed Central

    Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjøro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E.; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Friman, Styrbjörn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Höckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim and background. The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. Materials and methods. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Results. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 2004–2013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. Conclusion. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR). PMID:25959101

  4. The Nordic Tradition of Caring Science: The Works of Three Theorists.

    PubMed

    Arman, Maria; Ranheim, Albertine; Rydenlund, Kenneth; Rytterström, Patrik; Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2015-10-01

    The Nordic tradition of caring science has had a significant influence on healthcare research, healthcare education and clinical development in the Nordic countries from 1990 to the present. Theoretical contributions from the professors and scientists Katie Eriksson, Kari Martinsen and Karin Dahlberg form the basis for this paper. The tradition has established a paradigm of ethics, ontology and epistemology for the caring science domain. Short introductions present the scientific background of Eriksson, Martinsen, and Dahlberg, and show how interpretive teamwork has led to the formation of an intertwining of the essential qualities of the theories. The synthesis emphasizes caring science as a human science, and views caring as a natural phenomenon where the patient's world, vulnerability, health, and suffering are primary. In the art and act of caring, relationships and dialogue are essential; they provide parameters where caring becomes visible in its absence.

  5. Nordic eHealth indicators: organisation of research, first results and plan for the future.

    PubMed

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi; Hardardottir, Gudrun Audur; Jerlvall, Lars; Kangas, Maarit; Koch, Sabine; Nøhr, Christian; Pehrsson, Thomas; Reponen, Jarmo; Walldius, Åke; Vimarlund, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    eHealth indicator and benchmarking activities are rapidly increasing nationally and internationally. The work is rarely based on a transparent methodology for indicator definition. This article describes first results of testing an indicator methodology for defining eHealth indicators, which was reported at the Medical Informatics Europe conference in 2012. The core elements of the methodology are illustrated, demonstrating validation of each of them in the context of Nordic eHealth Indicator work. Validation proved the importance of conducting each of the steps of the methodology, with several scientific as well as practical outcomes. The article is based on a report to be published by the Nordic Council of Ministers [4].

  6. Dietary fiber and the glycemic index: a background paper for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012

    PubMed Central

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Sonestedt, Emily; Laaksonen, David E.; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review recent data on dietary fiber (DF) and the glycemic index (GI), with special focus on studies from the Nordic countries regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. In this study, recent guidelines and scientific background papers or updates on older reports on DF and GI published between 2000 and 2011 from the US, EU, WHO, and the World Cancer Research Fund were reviewed, as well as prospective cohort and intervention studies carried out in the Nordic countries. All of the reports support the role for fiber-rich foods and DF as an important part of a healthy diet. All of the five identified Nordic papers found protective associations between high intake of DF and health outcomes; lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, colorectal and breast cancer. None of the reports and few of the Nordic papers found clear evidence for the GI in prevention of risk factors or diseases in healthy populations, although association was found in sub-groups, e.g. overweight and obese individuals and suggestive for prevention of type 2 diabetes. It was concluded that DF is associated with decreased risk of different chronic diseases and metabolic conditions. There is not enough evidence that choosing foods with low GI will decrease the risk of chronic diseases in the population overall. However, there is suggestive evidence that ranking food based on their GI might be of use for overweight and obese individuals. Issues regarding methodology, validity and practicality of the GI remain to be clarified. PMID:23538683

  7. Stick Together: A Nordic Walking Group Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Maarten J; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M M; Ranke, Gemma M C; Vermeulen, Henricus M; Van der Heijden, Joke; Nortier, Johan W R; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2015-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection and axillary radiation as part of breast cancer treatment often result in arm and shoulder morbidity and limitations in daily functioning. Over and above the general benefits for cardiorespiratory fitness, Nordic Walking particularly targets at the muscles of the upper extremities and shoulder. This may increase shoulder range of motion and lead to a reduction in functional limitations. The aim of this study was to offer a Nordic Walking intervention to women after treatment for breast cancer and to investigate changes in subjective well-being and shoulder function. Three supervised Nordic Walking courses were organized (2009-2011). The intervention consisted of ten weekly 1-hour sessions focusing on upper body strength and condition. In total, 28 women participated in one of the cohorts. Results showed that after 10 weeks, patients' vitality had improved, whereas perceived shoulder symptom severity and limitations in daily activities had decreased. Goniometric data indicated that range of motion (forward flexion, abduction, and external rotation) of the affected shoulder improved significantly within 10 weeks of training. Group interviews at 6 months follow-up confirmed that patients had appreciated the physical and psychosocial benefits of the intervention. These benefits outweighed the practical disadvantages. Patient selection, assessment and training should take place under (para-)medical supervision and group instructors should have the knowledge and skills to work with a group of recent cancer survivors. Results from this explorative study suggest that Nordic Walking is a feasible and potentially valuable tool in the rehabilitation of patients with breast cancer.

  8. On model differences and skill in predicting sea surface temperature in the Nordic and Barents Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehaug, H. R.; Matei, D.; Eldevik, T.; Lohmann, K.; Gao, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The Nordic Seas and the Barents Sea is the Atlantic Ocean's gateway to the Arctic Ocean, and the Gulf Stream's northern extension brings large amounts of heat into this region and modulates climate in northwestern Europe. We have investigated the predictive skill of initialized hindcast simulations performed with three state-of-the-art climate prediction models within the CMIP5-framework, focusing on sea surface temperature (SST) in the Nordic Seas and Barents Sea, but also on sea ice extent, and the subpolar North Atlantic upstream. The hindcasts are compared with observation-based SST for the period 1961-2010. All models have significant predictive skill in specific regions at certain lead times. However, among the three models there is little consistency concerning which regions that display predictive skill and at what lead times. For instance, in the eastern Nordic Seas, only one model has significant skill in predicting observed SST variability at longer lead times (7-10 years). This region is of particular promise in terms of predictability, as observed thermohaline anomalies progress from the subpolar North Atlantic to the Fram Strait within the time frame of a couple of years. In the same model, predictive skill appears to move northward along a similar route as forecast time progresses. We attribute this to the northward advection of SST anomalies, contributing to skill at longer lead times in the eastern Nordic Seas. The skill at these lead times in particular beats that of persistence forecast, again indicating the potential role of ocean circulation as a source for skill. Furthermore, we discuss possible explanations for the difference in skill among models, such as different model resolutions, initialization techniques, and model climatologies and variance.

  9. Evolution of the central Nordic Seas over the last 20 thousand years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesiński, M. M.; Bauch, H. A.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Kandiano, E. S.

    2015-08-01

    The deep and surface water paleoceanographic evolution of the central Nordic Seas over the last 20 thousand years was reconstructed using various micropaleontological, isotopic and lithological proxy data. These show a high spatial and temporal complexity of the oceanic circulation when compared with other records from the region. During early deglaciation a collapse of ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas released large amounts of freshwater that affected both the surface and bottom water circulation and significantly contributed to Heinrich stadial 1. During the Younger Dryas, the central Nordic Seas were affected by a last major freshwater plume which probably originated from the Arctic Ocean. When major ice rafting had ceased around 11 ka subsurface temperatures started to rise. However, Atlantic Water advection and subsurface temperatures reached their maximum in the central Nordic Seas later than along the eastern continental margin. That spatio-temporal offset is explained by a gradual re-routing and westward expansion of the Atlantic Water flow during times when the Greenland Sea gyre system became more steadily established. In the Greenland Basin, the Holocene thermal maximum ended c. 5.5 ka, and time-coeveal with an increase in sea-ice export from the Arctic. In the Lofoten Basin the cooling occurred later, after 4 ka, and together with a weakening of the overturning processes. The Neoglacial cooling was reached c. 3 ka, together with low solar irradiance, expanding sea ice and a slight decrease in deep convection. At c. 2 ka subsurface temperatures began to rise again due to an increasing influence of Atlantic Waters.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Saxe, Henrik; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND) based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%–25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000–94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND’s emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed. PMID:26133129

  11. What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study

    PubMed Central

    Adamsson, Viola; Reumark, Anna; Cederholm, Tommy; Vessby, Bengt; Risérus, Ulf; Johansson, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Background A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR). Design The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. PMID:22761599

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Saxe, Henrik; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-06-30

    Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND) based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%-25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000-94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND's emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed.

  13. Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: A collective story of Estonian adult educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jõgi, Larissa; Karu, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    Adult Education has many values, including experiences and co-operation among people, and the fact that adult education is full of stories from adult educators, which can help to understand trends in the past and developments in the present. Established in 1991 as part of a more general regional cooperation among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8), Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education has been mutually enriching and has resulted in the growth of a professional network. The cooperation has led participants through a time of new sources of values, knowledge and contacts, socialisation and transformation, inspiration and challenges, which has influenced their experiences and professional identities. This paper is based on the results of a study entitled "Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: Experience and stories" and focuses on the experiences and professional identities of two generations of Estonian adult educators. The empirical data for the study were collected using narrative-biographical interviews. The paper discusses two research questions: (1) What is the perception and influence of experiences for adult educators? and (2) How have their experiences influenced the professional identity of adult educators?

  14. Wind-driven Variability of the Atlantic Water Transport to the Nordic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiayan

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge (GISR) is a major barrier for oceanic heat transport from the Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. The mean transport is believed to be driven by the buoyancy forcing, i.e., the northward transport of the Atlantic Ocean water is drawn into the Nordic Seas to compensate the southward overflow transport across the GISR. Seasonal to decadal variability, however, is strongly affected by the wind stress in both the Atlantic Ocean and the Nordic Seas. In this study, analyses of both in situ and satellite observations, data-assimilated model products and numerical modeling experiments are used to elucidate the key forcing mechanisms and processes. It is found that transport is enhanced when the wind-stress curl is anomalously positive over the GISR area and in the subpolar North Atlantic Basin. The wind-stress curl inside the Nordic Sea also exerts a strong influence on the transport over the GISR through its impacts on the East Greenland Current and on the overflow transport. Our analyses indicate that the wind-stress forcing is a main mechanism for season-to-decadal variability of the transport cross the GISR.

  15. Estimation of polar low characteristics for the Nordic Seas for 1995-2008 using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Julia; Chapron, Bertrand; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Leonid Bobylev, Mr

    identified on satellite passive microwave imagery by fields of means of analysis of atmospheric water vapour fields using a new approach. This approach consists of two stages. During the first stage the total atmospheric water vapor fields are calculated from passive microwave measurements using precise retrieval Neural Network Algorithms (Bobylev et al., 2010). During the second stage the vortex structures are detected in these fields, and polar lows are identified and tracked. Based on this approach, were estimated polar low characteristics in the Nordic seas for the period of 1995 - 2008. All polar lows have been identified for this period on SSM/I imagery. Other satellite data, such as QuikSCAT SeaWinds, NOAA AVHRR were used as additional information for polar low parameter retrieval and analysis.

  16. Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries. PMID:23386671

  17. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among People with Multiple Sclerosis in the Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, L.; Nicolajsen, P. H.; Pedersen, E.; Kant, M.; Fredrikson, S.; Verhoef, M.; Meyrowitsch, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. The aim of the study was to describe and compare (1) the types and prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Nordic countries; (2) the types of conventional treatments besides disease-modifying medicine for MS that were used in combination with CAM treatments; (3) the types of symptoms/health issues addressed by use of CAM treatments. Methods. An internet-based questionnaire was used to collect data from 6455 members of the five Nordic MS societies. The response rates varied from 50.9% in Norway to 61.5% in Iceland. Results. A large range of CAM treatments were reported to be in use in all five Nordic countries. Supplements of vitamins and minerals, supplements of oils, special diet, acupuncture, and herbal medicine were among the CAM treatment modalities most commonly used. The prevalence of the overall use of CAM treatments within the last twelve months varied from 46.0% in Sweden to 58.9% in Iceland. CAM treatments were most often used in combination with conventional treatments. The conventional treatments that were most often combined with CAM treatment were prescription medication, physical therapy, and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. The proportion of CAM users who reported exclusive use of CAM (defined as use of no conventional treatments besides disease-modifying medicine for MS) varied from 9.5% in Finland to 18.4% in Norway. In all five Nordic countries, CAM treatments were most commonly used for nonspecific/preventative purposes such as strengthening the body in general, improving the body's muscle strength, and improving well-being. CAM treatments were less often used for the purpose of improving specific symptoms such as body pain, problems with balance, and fatigue/lack of energy. Conclusions. A large range of CAM treatments were used by individuals with MS in all Nordic countries. The most commonly reported rationale for CAM treatment use focused on

  18. Comparison of magnetic activity in Greenland and Nordic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peitso, P.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Stolle, C.; Berthou Lauritsen, N.; Matzka, J.

    2014-04-01

    We will examine geomagnetic activity from Greenland and IMAGE magnetic observations. Geomagnetic activity maps for the Greenland and IMAGE magnetic field measurements will be produced. The maps will be produced separately for the different months where the seasonal variation will be examined. We will compare geomagnetic conditions during winter and summer separately to examine in detail the differences and similarities. The Greenland magnetic field measurements will be used to estimate the geomagnetic field variation between Svalbard and northernmost tip of Norway, where we lack magnetic measurements due to the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Magnitude and origin of the anthropogenic CO2 increase and 13C Suess effect in the Nordic seas since 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Johannessen, Truls; Ninnemann, Ulysses; Brown, Kelly R.; Olsson, K. Anders; Olafsson, Jon; Nondal, Gisle; KivimäE, Caroline; Kringstad, Solveig; Neill, Craig; Olafsdottir, Solveig

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluates the anthropogenic changes of CO2 (ΔCant) and δ13C (Δδ13Cant) in the Nordic seas, the northern limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, that took place between 1981 and 2002/2003. The changes have been determined by comparing data obtained during the Transient Tracers in the Ocean, North Atlantic Study (TTO-NAS) with data obtained during the Nordic seas surveys of R/V Knorr in 2002 and R/V G.O. Sars in 2003 using an extended multilinear regression approach. The estimated Δδ13Cant and ΔCant and their relationship to each other and to water mass distribution suggest that the Polar Water entering the Nordic seas from the north is undersaturated with respect to the present atmospheric anthropogenic CO2 levels and promotes a local uptake of Cant within the Nordic seas. In contrast, the Atlantic Water entering from the south appears equilibrated. It carries with it anthropogenic carbon which will be sequestered at depth as the water overturns. This preequilibration leaves no room for further uptake of Cant in the parts of the Nordic seas dominated by Atlantic Water. The upper ocean pCO2 in these regions appears to have increased at a greater rate than the atmospheric pCO2 over the last 2 decades; this is reconcilable with a large lateral advective supply of Cant.

  20. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  1. Drama and Theatre in a Nordic Curriculum Perspective--A Challenged Arts Subject Used as a Learning Medium in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österlind, Eva; Østern, Anna-Lena; Thorkelsdóttir, Rannveig Björk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Nordic curriculum perspective on drama and theatre in education ranging from preschool to upper secondary education and cultural schools. Underlined in the Nordic welfare model is an equity, inclusive and democracy perspective, which guarantees free access to compulsory education and to upper secondary…

  2. A cold and fresh ocean surface in the Nordic Seas during MIS 11: Significance for the future ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandiano, Evgenia S.; Meer, Marcel T. J.; Bauch, Henning A.; Helmke, Jan; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Paleoceanographical studies of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 have revealed higher-than-present sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North Atlantic and in parts of the Arctic but lower-than-present SSTs in the Nordic Seas, the main throughflow area of warm water into the Arctic Ocean. We resolve this contradiction by complementing SST data based on planktic foraminiferal abundances with surface salinity changes using hydrogen isotopic compositions of alkenones in a core from the central Nordic Seas. The data indicate the prevalence of a relatively cold, low-salinity, surface water layer in the Nordic Seas during most of MIS 11. In spite of the low-density surface layer, which was kept buoyant by continuous melting of surrounding glaciers, warmer Atlantic water was still propagating northward at the subsurface thus maintaining meridional overturning circulation. This study can help to better constrain the impact of continuous melting of Greenland and Arctic ice on high-latitude ocean circulation and climate.

  3. Measuring cost efficiency in the Nordic Hospitals—a cross-sectional comparison of public hospitals in 2002

    PubMed Central

    Häkkinen, Unto; Peltola, Mikko; Magnussen, Jon; Anthun, Kjartan S.; Kittelsen, Sverre; Roed, Annette; Olsen, Kim; Medin, Emma; Rehnberg, Clas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hospital care in four Nordic countries: Norway, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. Using national discharge registries and cost data from hospitals, cost efficiency in the production of somatic hospital care was calculated for public hospitals. Data were collected using harmonised definitions of inputs and outputs for 184 hospitals and data envelopment analysis was used to calculate Farrell efficiency estimates for the year 2002. Results suggest that there were marked differences in the average hospital efficiency between Nordic countries. In 2002, average efficiency was markedly higher in Finland compared to Norway and Sweden. This study found differences in cost efficiency that cannot be explained by input prices or differences in coding practices. More analysis is needed to reveal the causes of large efficiency disparities between Nordic hospitals. PMID:20680466

  4. Second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood or adolescence. Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H; Garwicz, S; Hertz, H; Jonmundsson, G; Langmark, F; Lanning, M; Lie, S O; Moe, P J; Møller, T; Sankila, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the relative risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm in people with a diagnosis of cancer in childhood and adolescence. DESIGN--Register based follow up study. SETTING--Populations of Nordic countries. SUBJECTS--30,880 people under the age of 20 with a first malignant neoplasm diagnosed during the period 1943-87. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relative and attributable risks of second malignant neoplasms by type of first cancer, age at first diagnosis, calendar period, sex, and country. Expected figures were based on the appropriate national incidence rates for cancer. RESULTS--247 cases of second malignant neoplasms were observed in 238 patients, yielding a relative risk for cancer of 3.6 (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 4.1). The risk changed significantly from 2.6 in people first diagnosed during the 1940s and 1950s to 6.9 among cohort members included in the late 1970s and 1980s. Increases were observed for most types of cancer. Highest levels of the relative risk were seen during the 10 years immediately after first malignant diagnosis. The incidence of second malignant neoplasms attributable to the first cancer and associated treatments, however, showed a consistent rise throughout the 45 years of follow up. CONCLUSION--The estimated risks for a second malignant neoplasm were significantly lower than those found in most large hospital based studies but compatible with the results from a similar population based study in the United Kingdom. Extent of risk and cancer pattern were similar among the Nordic countries and are believed to be representative for a large part of the European population. PMID:8251777

  5. Plants as de-worming agents of livestock in the Nordic countries: historical perspective, popular beliefs and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Waller, P J; Bernes, G; Thamsborg, S M; Sukura, A; Richter, S H; Ingebrigtsen, K; Höglund, J

    2001-01-01

    Preparations derived from plants were the original therapeutic interventions used by man to control diseases (including parasites), both within humans and livestock. Development of herbal products depended upon local botanical flora with the result that different remedies tended to develop in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, in some instances, the same or related plants were used over wide geographic regions, which also was the result of communication and/or the importation of plant material of high repute. Thus, the Nordic countries have an ancient, rich and diverse history of plant derived anthelmintic medications for human and animal use. Although some of the more commonly used herbal de-wormers were derived from imported plants, or their products, many are from endemic plants or those that thrive in the Scandinavian environment. With the advent of the modern chemotherapeutic era, and the discovery, development and marketing of a seemingly unlimited variety of highly efficacious, safe synthetic chemicals with very wide spectra of activities, herbal remedies virtually disappeared from the consciousness--at least in the Western world. This attitude is now rapidly changing. There is a widespread resurgence in natural product medication, driven by major threats posed by multi-resistant pest, or disease, organisms and the diminishing public perceptions that synthetic chemicals are the panacea to health and disease control. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the depth of historical Nordic information available on herbal de-wormers, with emphasis on livestock and to provide some insights on potentially rewarding areas of "re-discovery" and scientific evaluation in this field.

  6. Plants as De-Worming Agents of Livestock in the Nordic Countries: Historical Perspective, Popular Beliefs and Prospects for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Waller, PJ; Bernes, G; Thamsborg, SM; Sukura, A; Richter, SH; Ingebrigtsen, K; Höglund, J

    2001-01-01

    Preparations derived from plants were the original therapeutic interventions used by man to control diseases (including parasites), both within humans and livestock. Development of herbal products depended upon local botanical flora with the result that different remedies tended to develop in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, in some instances, the same or related plants were used over wide geographic regions, which also was the result of communication and/or the importation of plant material of high repute. Thus, the Nordic countries have an ancient, rich and diverse history of plant derived anthelmintic medications for human and animal use. Although some of the more commonly used herbal de-wormers were derived from imported plants, or their products, many are from endemic plants or those that thrive in the Scandinavian environment. With the advent of the modern chemotherapeutic era, and the discovery, development and marketing of a seemingly unlimited variety of highly efficacious, safe synthetic chemicals with very wide spectra of activities, herbal remedies virtually disappeared from the consciousness – at least in the Western world. This attitude is now rapidly changing. There is a widespread resurgence in natural product medication, driven by major threats posed by multi-resistant pest, or disease, organisms and the diminishing public perceptions that synthetic chemicals are the panacea to health and disease control. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the depth of historical Nordic information available on herbal de-wormers, with emphasis on livestock and to provide some insights on potentially rewarding areas of "re-discovery" and scientific evaluation in this field. PMID:11455900

  7. The association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet and diet quality

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Stea, Tonje Holte; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Andersen, Lene Frost; Berntsen, Sveinung; Bere, Elling

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported a positive association between scoring on healthy Nordic diet scales and the intake of healthy foods and nutrients, and also with higher intake of meat, sweets, cakes, and energy in general. These studies have used the same food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) responses for constructing the diet score as for calculating intakes of foods and nutrients. Thus, it is not clear whether the coexistence of healthy and less healthy dietary aspects among adherers to Nordic diets would occur even though separate methods were applied for exploring these relations. Objective To assess the association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND), derived from an FFQ, and diet quality, determined from two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Design In total, 65 parents of toddlers in Southern Norway answered the NND FFQ and two 24-h dietary recall interviews. NND adherence was determined from the FFQ and categorized into low, medium, and high adherence. The two 24-h recalls provided data for the intake of specific foods and nutrients, selected on the basis of the Norwegian food-based guidelines as an indicator of a healthy diet. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for assessing differences in food and nutrient intake across NND groups. Results High NND adherence derived from FFQ was associated with a high intake of fruits (p=0.004) and fiber (p=0.02), and a low intake of meat (p=0.004) and margarines (p=0.05), derived from recalls. A larger proportion of high NND adherers (68%) complied with the national dietary recommendation targeting meat intake compared with low NND adherers (29%) (p=0.04). Conclusion The present study showed that higher NND adherence measured with FFQ was associated with a higher intake of selected healthy foods and nutrients, measured with recalls. However, a higher intake of meat, sweets, and energy, as earlier reported, was not observed. PMID:27257844

  8. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen.

  9. Drastic changes in the Nordic Seas oceanic circulation and deepwater formation in a Pliocene context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoux, Camille; Zhang, Zhongshi; De Schepper, Stijn; Li, Camille; Nisancioglu, Kerim; Risebrobakken, Bjorg

    2016-04-01

    The Nordic Seas are a major area of deepwater formation, thus playing a crucial role in the global oceanic circulation. In the recent years a cooling and freshening of the Norwegian Sea has been observed (Blindheim et al., 2000), highlighting potential changes in this area linked to climate change. Here, we use climate simulations of the mid-Pliocene warm period with the NorESM-L model. This period is considered to be the last interval when Earth experienced temperatures higher than today for a sustained period of time, in equilibrium with CO2 concentrations similar to present-day and a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet. We find that oceanic circulation in the Nordic Seas is drastically modified. The strength of the East Greenland Current is reduced, which implies less Arctic water going to the North Atlantic from the west of the Fram strait, which creates a compensating outflow current from the east of the Fram Strait to the North Atlantic along the Voring plateau (coast of Norway). The Norwegian Atlantic current is shifted westward, meaning that there is increased Atlantic water influence in the Greenland Sea, which becomes much warmer, and increased Arctic influence along Norway, which becomes colder than present. Circulation becomes anticyclonic instead of cyclonic. Circulation in the subpolar gyre is strongly reduced, together with deepwater formation on average both in the Irminger Sea and the Nordic Seas. Convection sites in the Nordic Seas shift from the eastern part to the western part. Sensitivity experiments show that these changes are not reproduced in other Pliocene contexts, such as when CO2 is low (280 ppm) or when Barents Sea is turned to land, suggesting that the ultimate driver of these changes is higher CO2. When Barents Sea is land, which was the reality of the Pliocene, circulation and sea-surface temperature show a good agreement with reconstructions from marine proxies (De Schepper et al., 2015). This means that NorESM-L is able to properly

  10. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries in 2012.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K Wiese; Edvardsen, H M E; Thelander, G; Ojanperä, I; Thordardottir, S; Andersen, L V; Kriikku, P; Vindenes, V; Christoffersen, D; Delaveris, G J M; Frost, J

    2015-03-01

    This report is a follow-up to a study on fatal poisoning in drug addicts conducted in 2012 by a Nordic working group. Here we analyse data from the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Data on sex, number of deaths, places of death, age, main intoxicants and other drugs detected in the blood were recorded. National data are presented and compared between the Nordic countries and with data from similar studies conducted in 1991, 1997, 2002 and 2007. The death rates (number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) increased in drug addicts in Finland, Iceland and Sweden but decreased in Norway compared to the rates in earlier studies. The death rate was stable in Denmark from 1991 to 2012. The death rate remained highest in Norway (5.79) followed by Denmark (5.19) and Iceland (5.16). The differences between the countries diminished compared to earlier studies, with death rates in Finland (4.61) and Sweden (4.17) approaching the levels in the other countries. Women accounted for 15-27% of the fatal poisonings. The median age of the deceased drug addicts was still highest in Denmark, and deaths of addicts >45 years old increased in all countries. Opioids remained the main cause of death, but medicinal opioids like methadone, buprenorphine, fentanyl and tramadol mainly replaced heroin. Methadone was the main intoxicant in Denmark and Sweden, whereas heroin/morphine caused the most deaths in Norway. Finland differed from the other Nordic countries in that buprenorphine was the main intoxicant with only a few heroin/morphine and methadone deaths. Deaths from methadone, buprenorphine and fentanyl increased immensely in Sweden compared to 2007. Poly-drug use was widespread in all countries. The median number of drugs per case varied from 4 to 5. Heroin/morphine, medicinal opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepines and alcohol were the main abused drugs. However, less widely used drugs, like gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), methylphenidate

  11. [Recreational or professional participants in Nordic skiing. Differences in injury patterns and severity of injuries].

    PubMed

    Ketterl, R

    2014-01-01

    A total of 441 Nordic skiing injuries were observed and analysed for a period of two winter seasons. The data showed that athletes in squads (0.02/1000 days) or professional clubs (0.09/1000 days) have lower injury risks compared to those doing Nordic skiing in their leisure time (0.51/1000 days). Amongst recreational athletes, women (0.65/1000 days) sustain trauma more frequently than men (0.40/1000 days). In professional athletes, the upper limb is commonly injured, whereas there are fewer head and trunk injuries. Furthermore the injured in this group are younger and have less severe injuries. Recreational athletes more often injure their lower limb and 20 % have injuries to the head and trunk. Those injured in this group are older and have a higher percentage of overweight people, are not well trained and have more severe or complex injuries compared to professionals.

  12. Heat and freshwater budgets of the Nordic seas computed from atmospheric reanalysis and ocean observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segtnan, O. H.; Furevik, T.; Jenkins, A. D.

    2011-11-01

    The heat and freshwater budgets of the Nordic seas are computed from atmospheric reanalysis data and ocean observations, mainly taken during the period 1990-1999. The total heat loss is 198 TW and the freshwater gain 52 mSv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), with residuals equal to 1 TW and 3 mSv, respectively. Budgets are also computed for three subregions within the Nordic seas: the Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and the Greenland/Iceland Sea. Without accounting for transfer of heat and freshwater across the Arctic Front, which separates the Greenland/Iceland Sea from the Norwegian Sea, the residuals of the heat and freshwater budgets range from -36 TW to 34 TW and from -16 mSv to 19 mSv, respectively. To close the budgets of all subregions cross-frontal fluxes of -35 TW and 17 mSv, caused either by eddy shedding along the Arctic Front or ocean currents not accounted for, must be included. Combined with observations of the average temperature and salinity on both sides of the Arctic Front these values indicate a rate of cross-frontal water exchange of approximately 4 Sv. The most intense water mass modifications occur in the Norwegian Sea, where ocean heat loss and freshwater input are equal to 119 TW and 41 mSv, respectively.

  13. Relationship between literacy skills and self-reported health in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Lundetræ, Kjersti; Gabrielsen, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated the association between literacy skills and self-reported health among Danish (n = 7284), Finnish (n = 5454), Norwegian (n = 4942) and Swedish (n = 4555) participants aged 16–65 years. Methods: Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between literacy skills and self-reported health after adjusting for sex, age and educational level. Results: Nordic participants aged 16–65 years with literacy skills at the lowest level reported sub-optimal health more often (28–37%) than those with literacy skills at the highest level (7–9%). After adjusting for sex, age and educational level, the likelihood of reporting sub-optimal health was 1.99–3.24 times as high for those with literacy skills at the lowest level as for those with literacy skills at the highest level. Conclusions: These results suggest that poor literacy skills increase the likelihood of experiencing poor health in the Nordic countries, even after controlling for educational level. PMID:27670908

  14. Effect of Nordic Walking training on iron metabolism in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Kortas, Jakub; Prusik, Katarzyna; Flis, Damian; Prusik, Krzysztof; Ziemann, Ewa; Leaver, Neil; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite several, well-documented pro-healthy effects of regular physical training, its influence on body iron stores in elderly people remains unknown. At the same time, body iron accumulation is associated with high risk of different morbidities. Purpose We hypothesized that Nordic Walking training would result in pro-healthy changes in an elderly group of subjects by reducing body iron stores via shifts in iron metabolism-regulating proteins. Methods Thirty-seven women aged 67.7±5.3 years participated in this study. They underwent 32 weeks of training, 1-hour sessions three times a week, between October 2012 and May 2013. Fitness level, blood morphology, CRP, vitamin D, ferritin, hepcidin, and soluble Hjv were assessed before and after the training. Results The training program caused a significant decrease in ferritin, which serves as a good marker of body iron stores. Simultaneously, the physical cardiorespiratory fitness had improved. Furthermore, blood hepcidin was positively correlated with the ferritin concentration after the training. The concentration of blood CRP dropped, but the change was nonsignificant. The applied training resulted in a blood Hjv increase, which was inversely correlated with the vitamin D concentration. Conclusion Overall the Nordic Walking training applied in elderly people significantly reduced blood ferritin concentration, which explains the observed decrease in body iron stores. PMID:26664101

  15. Management of patients with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Haugaa, Kristina H.; Bundgaard, Henning; Edvardsen, Thor; Eschen, Ole; Gilljam, Thomas; Hansen, Jim; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Platonov, Pyotr G.; Svensson, Anneli; Svendsen, Jesper H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract> Objectives. Diagnostics of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are complex, and based on the 2010 Task Force document including different diagnostic modalities. However, recommendations for clinical management and follow-up of patients with ARVC and their relatives are sparse. This paper aims to give a practical overview of management strategies, risk stratification, and selection of appropriate therapies for patients with ARVC and their family members. Design. This paper summarizes follow-up and treatment strategies in ARVC patients in the Nordic countries. The author group represents cardiologists who are actively involved in the Nordic ARVC Registry which was established in 2009, and contains prospectively collected clinical data from more than 590 ARVC patients from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Results. Different approaches of management and follow-up are required in patients with definite ARVC and in genetic-mutation-positive family members. Furthermore, ARVC patients with and without implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) require different follow-up strategies. Conclusion. Careful follow-up is required in patients with ARVC diagnosis to evaluate the need of anti-arrhythmic therapy and ICD implantation. Mutation-positive family members should be followed regularly for detection of early disease and risk stratification of ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:26395672

  16. Safety evaluation of some wild plants in the New Nordic Diet.

    PubMed

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2012-12-01

    One of the dietary components in the New Nordic Diet, is plants from the wild countryside. However, these may have a high content of bioactive components, some of which could be toxic in larger quantities. The objective of this paper is to outline a strategy for safety evaluation of wild plants not covered in current food compositional databases and to apply the method for selected plants used in the New Nordic Diet recipes. Four examples of typical wild edible plants were evaluated (stinging nettle, sorrel, chickweed and common lambsquarters), and based on substantial equivalence with known food plants the majority of the bioactive components reported were within the range experienced when eating or drinking typical food stuffs. For most compounds the hazards could be evaluated as minor. The only precaution found was for common lambsquarters because of its presumed high level of oxalic acid. It is concluded that a substance-by-substance evaluation of intake by equivalence to common foods is a useful and efficient strategy to evaluate the safety of newly introduced wild edible plants. Further evaluation and better compositional analyses are warranted before a daily consumption of significant amounts of wild edible plants can be generally regarded as safe.

  17. Soviet Nordic nuclear-weapon free-zone proposal. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsden, C.A.

    1990-06-01

    This thesis examines the Soviet proposal and its ramifications for the United States and the West. The central theme running through each Soviet proposal has been removal of American nuclear guarantees. Preservation of US national security interests and hence US ability to extend its forward defense would be gravely threatened by such a NWFZ. However, unilateral agreement on a NWFZ is unlikely by the anticipated members of the Nordic NWFZ the US, USSR, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. The US has military installations in Iceland and Greenland and banning of nuclear weapons during wartime is inconceivable. The question then arises as to which nation or groups of nations will dominate and which will acquiesce. Inevitably the debate breaks down to a tug of war between the two superpowers. It is really the politics surrounding the nuclear weapons that is the heart of the nuclear-free-zone debate. Changing world politics demand that the West develop a unified strategy toward the USSR. Through NATO it must preserve its vital economic political and military objectives in the Northern Flank. Flexible naval forces and strong political and economic ties to the governments of the nations bordering the Baltic are essential. Strong NATO naval forces operating in the Baltic Sea must be seen as guarantors of the West's strategic aims and interests. A Nordic NWFZ would prevent this.

  18. An open data repository and a data processing software toolset of an equivalent Nordic grid model matched to historical electricity market data.

    PubMed

    Vanfretti, Luigi; Olsen, Svein H; Arava, V S Narasimham; Laera, Giuseppe; Bidadfar, Ali; Rabuzin, Tin; Jakobsen, Sigurd H; Lavenius, Jan; Baudette, Maxime; Gómez-López, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    This article presents an open data repository, the methodology to generate it and the associated data processing software developed to consolidate an hourly snapshot historical data set for the year 2015 to an equivalent Nordic power grid model (aka Nordic 44), the consolidation was achieved by matching the model׳s physical response w.r.t historical power flow records in the bidding regions of the Nordic grid that are available from the Nordic electricity market agent, Nord Pool. The model is made available in the form of CIM v14, Modelica and PSS/E (Siemens PTI) files. The Nordic 44 model in Modelica and PSS/E were first presented in the paper titled "iTesla Power Systems Library (iPSL): A Modelica library for phasor time-domain simulations" (Vanfretti et al., 2016) [1] for a single snapshot. In the digital repository being made available with the submission of this paper (SmarTSLab_Nordic44 Repository at Github, 2016) [2], a total of 8760 snapshots (for the year 2015) that can be used to initialize and execute dynamic simulations using tools compatible with CIM v14, the Modelica language and the proprietary PSS/E tool are provided. The Python scripts to generate the snapshots (processed data) are also available with all the data in the GitHub repository (SmarTSLab_Nordic44 Repository at Github, 2016) [2]. This Nordic 44 equivalent model was also used in iTesla project (iTesla) [3] to carry out simulations within a dynamic security assessment toolset (iTesla, 2016) [4], and has been further enhanced during the ITEA3 OpenCPS project (iTEA3) [5]. The raw, processed data and output models utilized within the iTesla platform (iTesla, 2016) [4] are also available in the repository. The CIM and Modelica snapshots of the "Nordic 44" model for the year 2015 are available in a Zenodo repository.

  19. Libraries and National Development (Final Report of the Third Afro-Nordic Library Conference, Finland, September 3-7 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Contained in this collection of presentations from the third Afro-Nordic Library Conference are a foreword describing the objectives of the meeting and 14 papers: "From Oral Tradition to Literary Writing: The Awakening of National Awareness," by Heikki Kirkinen; "African Library Systems," by L. E. Samarasinghe; "Planning…

  20. Large-scale atmospheric circulation variability and its impacts on the Nordic seas ocean climate: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furevik, Tore; Nilsen, J. Even Ø.

    The large-scale atmospheric circulation and its impacts on the Nordic Seas ocean climate are reviewed. The dominant factors for the atmospheric variability are the Icelandic low and the Azores high, determining the strength of the westerlies. From the '60s to the '90s, the atmospheric circulation shifted from record weak to record strong westerlies, and the storm tracks moved further northeast into the Nordic Seas. The reasons for this shift have most likely been forcing from the tropical ocean in combination with internal processes in the atmosphere. Associated with this low-frequency shift are changes in the atmospheric momentum, heat, and freshwater forcing of the ocean. Both local processes and advective anomalies have played active roles in the substantial changes observed in the Nordic Seas' circulation and hydrography over the same period. These include a reduction in the deep-water formation, a warming of the water going into the Arctic, and a freshening and probable reduction of the overflow water. The strengthening of the westerlies is concurrent in time with a strong increase in global mean temperatures, and we speculate that the changes in the atmospheric circulation are tied to the increased greenhouse gas forcing through a variety of forcing mechanisms. If so, the observed changes in the Nordic Seas ocean climate are likely to be amplified, and our perceptions of what constitutes normal oceanic conditions will be further challenged in the years to come.

  1. Persistent Intermediate Water Warming during Cold Stadials in the SE Nordic Seas during the Last 65 Kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, T. L.; Ezat, M.; Groeneveld, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the Nordic seas, conversion of inflowing warm Atlantic surface water to deep cold water through convection is closely linked with climate. During the last glacial period climate underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, consisting of warm interstadials and cold stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-d18O record from the Nordic seas in order to reconstruct the ocean circulation on DO timescales. The record confirms that modern-like convection took place in the Nordic seas during interstadials with cold bottom water temperatures (BWT) close to modern temperatures. The results show gradual and pronounced BWT increases by 2-5 °C during stadials indicating a stop or near-stop in convection. The BWT peaks are followed by an abrupt drop in temperature at the onset of interstadials indicating the abrupt start of convection and renewed generation of cold deep water. The rise in BWT during stadials confirms earlier interpretations of subsurface inflow of warm Atlantic water below a halocline reaching >1.2 km water depth. The results suggest that warm Atlantic Water never ceased to flow into the Nordic seas during the glacial period with inflow at the surface during the Holocene and warm interstadials switching to subsurface and intermediate inflow during cold stadials. Our results suggest that it is the vertical shifts in the position of the warm Atlantic Water that cause the abrupt surface warmings.

  2. The Nordic Model in Education: Education as Part of the Political System in the Last 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telhaug, Alfred Oftedal; Medias, Odd Asbjorn; Aasen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes, analyses and discusses the development of the Nordic school model in three phases of the post-war period, viewed in the light of the development of the political system throughout the period and in comparison with the development of the school system in the western world in this period. The "classical period" from…

  3. Bringing Ideals into Dialogue with Practices: On the Principles and Practices of the Nordic Network for Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnerman, Karin; Salo, Petri; Furu, Eli Moksnes; Lund, Torbjørn; Olin, Anette; Jakhelln, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present the Nordic Network for Action Research, established in 2004. We describe how the network has explored, bridged and nurtured the inherent action research dynamics of ideology and methodology. This has been done through an understanding anchored in educational traditions, and by focus on three important ideal-shaping…

  4. Information Resources Management. Nordic Conference on Information and Documentation (6th, Helsinki, Finland, August 19-22, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samfundet for Informationstjanst i Finland, Helsinki.

    The 54 conference papers compiled in this proceedings include plenary addresses; reviews of Nordic databases; and discussions of documents, systems, services, and products as they relate to information resources management (IRM). Almost half of the presentations are in English: (1) "What Is Information Resources Management?" (Forest…

  5. "Don't We Have a Storyline?" Negotiating Devising Strategy in a Nordic-Baltic Teacher Education Programme's Artistic Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Torunn Bakken; Paulsen, Anne Synnøve; Ødemotland, Siv

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the process of devising strategy in an intercultural Baltic-Nordic setting. Sixty teacher education participants collaborated on an interdisciplinary artistic production based on Norwegian folk beliefs and wights through an intensive, week-long program called Nordplus. Using this as a case study, we explored how the…

  6. Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since 1950.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B; Turrell, W R; Østerhus, S

    2001-06-21

    The overflow of cold, dense water from the Nordic seas, across the Greenland-Scotland ridge and into the Atlantic Ocean is the main source for the deep water of the North Atlantic Ocean. This flow also helps drive the inflow of warm, saline surface water into the Nordic seas. The Faroe Bank channel is the deepest path across the ridge, and the deep flow through this channel accounts for about one-third of the total overflow. Previous work has demonstrated that the overflow has become warmer and less saline over time. Here we show, using direct measurements and historical hydrographic data, that the volume flux of the Faroe Bank channel overflow has also decreased. Estimating the volume flux conservatively, we find a decrease by at least 20 per cent relative to 1950. If this reduction in deep flow from the Nordic seas is not compensated by increased flow from other sources, it implies a weakened global thermohaline circulation and reduced inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic seas.

  7. Millennial-scale variability in Atlantic water advection to the Nordic Seas derived from Holocene coccolith concentration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, J.; Grelaud, M.; Solignac, S.; Andrews, J. T.; Moros, M.; Jansen, E.

    2010-05-01

    Abundance patterns of coccolith species in two Holocene marine cores retrieved off Norway and northern Iceland are indicative of millennial-scale modulations in the flow of the main (Norwegian Atlantic Current) and secondary (North Iceland Irminger Current) branches of the North Atlantic Drift to the Nordic Seas. Long-term trends in coccolith abundance changes reflect major Holocene steps in Atlantic Water transfer to the Nordic Seas at orbital scale with important constraints on the convective activity of the Nordic Seas that leads to the formation of the precursor water mass of North Atlantic Deep Water. Millennial-scale Holocene episodes of increased advection of Atlantic waters off Norway are associated with enhanced winter precipitation over Scandinavia, increased sea-salt fluxes over Greenland, and strengthened wind over Iceland, thereby suggesting a common atmospheric forcing: the location and intensity of the westerlies and the associated changes in mid- to high-latitude pressure gradients. Our biotic data indicate an opposite pattern of Atlantic water inflow at suborbital scale between the western (Denmark) and eastern (Iceland-Scotland) straits of the northern Atlantic throughout the Holocene. This, as supported by present observational and simulated data, further highlights the role of atmospheric oscillations in the recent history of the North Atlantic-Nordic Seas water mass exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. Such atmospheric processes are thought to explain the observed coupling between periods of excess export of arctic sea-ice to the Nordic Seas and intervals of maximum inflow of Atlantic water to the Norwegian Sea throughout the last 11 000 years.

  8. Results From The Nordic Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers In Sweden 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morten Thorseth, Trond; Kjeldstad, Berit; Johnsen, Bjørn; Blumthaler, Mario; Lakkala, Kaisa; Slaper, Harry

    Fourteen spectroradiometers measuring ultraviolet radiation participated in a Nordic intercomparison in Halmstad, Sweden, 10-15 June, 2000. Measurements were performed at both clear and cloudy conditions. Protocols and tools for analysing measurements were much the same as in previous large campaigns (Bais et al. 2001, Kjeldstad et al. 1997), for instance two days were blind day measurements, establishment of a common reference, homogenisation of the instruments to a common slit width, wavelength corrections. Results showed that most of the instruments were stable in UVB during clear sky with standard deviations of the mean less than +/-1% (3 of the instruments). A small diurnal variation could be observed at low solar elevations (after 1600 UTC, below s.z.a 60°) for the single monochromator instruments, but these instruments were not corrected for a deviation from an ideal cosine response prior to submission. To sum up at clear sky conditions at maximum s.z.a of 36°, all instruments except one agreed within 10% within the wavelength range 300- 325 nm, which is a great improvement from the previous Nordic campaign (Kjeldstad et al. 1997) were many of the same instruments also participated. Most of the instruments agreed now within 5%. The same result could be found for stable cloud cover. At scattered cloud conditions synchronisation of the instruments became a critical factor and comparison were more difficult. Diurnal variation between different instruments will be presented for the whole measuring period. Bais, A.F., B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas. 2001 The SUSPEN intercomparis on of ultraviolet spectroradiometers. J. Geophysical Research 106, d12. 12509-12525 Kjeldstad, B., B. Johnsson, and

  9. The common objectives of the European Nordic countries and the role of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Christopher; Giannopapa, Christina; Vaudo, Ersilia

    2016-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty two Member States with common goals of engaging in European space activities. However, the various Member States have a variety of governance structures, strategic priorities regarding space and other sectorial areas depending on their cultural and geopolitical aspirations. The Nordic countries, namely Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have similarities which result often in common geopolitical and cultural aspects. These in turn shape their respective priorities and interests in setting up their policies in a number of sectorial areas like shipping and fisheries, energy, immigration, agriculture, security and defence, infrastructures, climate change and the Arctic. Space technology, navigation, earth observation, telecommunication and integrated applications can assist the Nordic countries in developing, implementing and monitoring policies of common interest. This paper provides an in-depth overview and a comprehensive assessment of these common interests in policy areas where space can provide support in their realisation. The first part provides a synthesis of the Nordic countries respective priorities through analysing their government programmes and plans. The priorities are classified according to the six areas of sustainability: energy, environment and climate change, transport, knowledge and innovation, natural resources (fisheries, agriculture, forestry, mining, etc), and security and external relations. Although the national strategies present different national perspectives, at the same time, there are a number of similarities when it comes to overall policy objectives in a number of areas such as the Arctic and climate change. In other words, even though the Arctic plays a different role in each country's national context and there are clear differences as regards geography, access to resources and security policies, the strategies display common general interest in sustainable development and management of

  10. Characteristics of Glucose Metabolism in Nordic and South Asian Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Erik Fink; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in people of South Asian ethnicity than in people of Western European origin. To investigate the source of these differences, we compared insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, glucose and lipid metabolism in South Asian and Nordic subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods Forty-three Nordic and 19 South Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes were examined with intra-venous glucose tolerance test, euglycemic clamp including measurement of endogenous glucose production, indirect calorimetry measuring glucose and lipid oxidation, and dual x-ray absorptiometry measuring body composition. Results Despite younger mean ± SD age (49.7±9.4 vs 58.3±8.3 years, p = 0.001), subjects of South Asian ethnicity had the same diabetes duration (9.3±5.5 vs 9.6±7.0 years, p = 0.86), significantly higher median [inter-quartile range] HbA1c (8.5 [1.6] vs 7.3 [1.6] %, p = 0.024) and lower BMI (28.7±4.0 vs 33.2±4.7 kg/m2, p<0.001). The South Asian group exhibited significantly higher basal endogenous glucose production (19.1 [9.1] vs 14.4 [6.8] µmol/kgFFM⋅min, p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between the groups in total glucose disposal (39.1±20.4 vs 39.2±17.6 µmol/kgFFM⋅min, p = 0.99) or first phase insulin secretion (AUC0–8 min: 220 [302] vs 124 [275] pM, p = 0.35). In South Asian subjects there was a tendency towards positive correlations between endogenous glucose production and resting and clamp energy expenditure. Conclusions Subjects of South Asian ethnicity with type 2 diabetes, despite being younger and leaner, had higher basal endogenous glucose production, indicating higher hepatic insulin resistance, and a trend towards higher use of carbohydrates as fasting energy substrate compared to Nordic subjects. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the observed differences in prevalence of type 2 diabetes between the ethnic groups. PMID:24391858

  11. Nordisk ophthalmologisk tidsskrift 1889-1892: the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology - a forerunner of Acta Ophthalmologica.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Niels

    2012-06-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century several ophthalmological journals appeared (Germany, England, France, United States). In the northern countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) an initiative lead to 'Nordisk ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift' published in the scandinavian languages in the years 1889-92. The 'driving force' behind the journal was the first professor in Ophthalmology in Copenhagen, Dr. Edmund Hansen Grut. The purpose with this presentation is to give the background for the rise and fall of the journal which was an attempt to promote Nordic Ophthalmology. The authors turned out, however, to be mainly those involved as editors. The journal never gained broad acceptance and it simply stopped in 1892, without any closing remarks. In spite of its short life the journal should be remembered for the very first publication on the arcuate scotoma, the Bjerrum scotoma from 1889. Although shortlived the initiative was not in vain, as can be read in the preface to the very first volume of Acta ophthalmologica.

  12. Distribution of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Nordic Uranium Tailings Deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M.

    1987-01-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria are present within the top 2 m (but not always at the surface) and near the water table-capillary fringe of the vegetated Nordic uranium deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. They are distributed uniformly in the top 0.5 m of unvegetated tailings. The locations of these bacteria correlate with zones of pyrite oxidation as delineated in previous studies by the formation of soluble iron and sulfate. Heterotrophic bacteria are also present in the tailings, with greatest concentrations at the surface and near the water table-capillary fringe. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in the soil and peat at the base of the tailings. The results of this study suggest that the establishment of vegetation directly upon the tailings surface does not arrest bacterial pyrite oxidation. PMID:16347328

  13. Modelling the circulation and deep water formation in the Labrador Sea: sensitivity to Nordic Sea exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czeschel, L.; Böning, C. W.

    2003-04-01

    Using an eddy-permitting model of the North Atlantic Ocean (part of the FLAME hierarchy) we investigate the impact of variable freshwater fluxes on the circulation, deep convection and the mixing between the boundary currents and the interior of the Labrador Sea. In this study, we use different forcing functions at the northern boundary (70N) to simulate variable freshwater (heat) exchanges with the Nordic Seas. In contrast to restoring to a climatology in a sponge layer, model versions with a prescribed streamfunction in an open boundary formulation give a better agreement with observational estimates of the circulation in this area. Varying the strength of the streamfunction at the northern boundary leads to fluctuations in the transport of the western boundary currents (East/West Greenland Current and Labrador Current) and thus to different freshwater budgets in the Labrador Sea.

  14. Deconstruction of Nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose.

    PubMed

    Eta, Valerie; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2016-01-20

    Nordic hardwood (Betula pendula) was fractionated in a batch autoclave equipped with a custom-made SpinChem(®) rotating bed reactor, at 120 °C using CO2 and CS2-based switchable ionic liquids systems. Analyses of the non-dissolved wood after treatment showed that 64 wt% of hemicelluloses and 70 wt% of lignin were removed from the native wood. Long processing periods or successive short-time treatments using fresh SILs further decreased the amount of hemicelluloses and lignin in the non-dissolved fraction to 12 and 15 wt%, respectively. The cellulose-rich fraction was partially dissolved in an organic superbase and an ionic liquid system for further derivatization. Homogeneous acylation of the dissolved cellulose in the presence or absence of catalyst resulted in cellulose acetates with variable degree of substitution (DS), depending on the treatment conditions. By varying the reaction conditions, the cellulose acetate with the desired DS could be obtained under mild conditions.

  15. Temporal and regional trends in the secondary sex ratio: The Nordic experience.

    PubMed

    Fellman, Johan

    2015-12-01

    The sex ratio (SR) at birth, also known as the secondary sex ratio, is defined as the number of males per 100 females and approximates 106. According to the literature, the SR shows notable heterogeneity and attempts have been made to identify factors influencing it, but comparisons demand large data sets. Attempts to identify associations between SRs and stillbirth rates (SBRs) have yielded inconsistent results. A common pattern observed in different countries is that during the first half of the twentieth century, the SR showed increasing trends, but during the second half, the trend decreased. Secular increases are thought to be caused by improved socio-economic conditions. The recent downward trends have been attributed to new reproductive hazards. Similar findings have been made in the Nordic countries. Factors affecting the SR within families remain poorly understood. Although these factors have an effect on family data, they have not been identified in large.

  16. Life cycle assessment of biofuel production from brown seaweed in Nordic conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Boldrin, Alessio; Karakashev, Dimitar B; Holdt, Susan L; Angelidaki, Irini; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The use of algae for biofuel production is expected to play an important role in securing energy supply in the next decades. A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) and an energy analysis of seaweed-based biofuel production were carried out in Nordic conditions to document and improve the sustainability of the process. Two scenarios were analyzed for the brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata), namely, biogas production (scenario 1) and bioethanol+biogas production (scenario 2). Potential environmental impact categories under investigation were Global Warming, Acidification and Terrestrial Eutrophication. The production of seaweed was identified to be the most energy intensive step. Scenario 1 showed better performance compared to scenario 2 for all impact categories, partly because of the energy intensive bioethanol separation process and the consequently lower overall efficiency of the system. For improved environmental performance, focus should be on optimization of seaweed production, bioethanol distillation, and management of digestate on land.

  17. Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjánsdóttir, Ása G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Background In preparing the fifth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), the scientific basis of specific food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was evaluated. Objective A systematic review (SR) was conducted to update the NNR evidence based on the association between the consumption of potatoes, berries, whole grains, milk and milk products, and red and processed meat, and the risk of major diet-related chronic diseases. Design The SR was based on predefined research questions and eligibility criteria for independent duplicate study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality and applicability. We considered scientific data from prospective observational studies and intervention studies, published since year 2000, targeting the general adult population. Studies of meat and iron status included children, adolescents, and women of childbearing age. Results Based on 7,282 abstracts, 57 studies met the quality criteria and were evidence graded. The data were too limited to draw any conclusions regarding: red and processed meat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and iron status; potatoes and berries regarding any study outcomes; and dairy consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer and CVD. However, dairy consumption seemed unlikely to increase CVD risk (moderate-grade evidence). There was probable evidence (moderate-grade) for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD, and suggestive evidence (low-grade) for colorectal cancer and for dairy consumption being associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of prostate cancer. The WCRF/AICR concludes that red and processed meat is a convincing cause of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Probable (moderate) evidence was only observed for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD. We identified a clear need for high-quality nutritional epidemiological and intervention studies and for studies of foods of the Nordic diet

  18. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Lynge, Elsebeth; Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur Kolbrun; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kjaerheim, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    We present up to 45 years of cancer incidence data by occupational category for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 15 million people aged 30-64 years in the 1960, 1970, 1980/1981 and/or 1990 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the 2.8 million incident cancer cases diagnosed in these people in a follow-up until about 2005. The study was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identity codes used in all the Nordic countries. In the censuses, information on occupation for each person was provided through free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerised in the statistical offices. For the present study, the original occupational codes were reclassified into 53 occupational categories and one group of economically inactive persons. All Nordic countries have a nation-wide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. For the present study the incident cancer cases were classified into 49 primary diagnostic categories. Some categories have been further divided according to sub-site or morphological type. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, sex, age, period and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the stratum specific person years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result was presented as a standardised incidence ratio, SIR, defined as the observed number of cases divided by the expected number. For all cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), the study showed a wide variation among men from an SIR of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.95) in domestic assistants to 1.48 (1.43-1.54) in waiters. The occupations with the highest SIRs also included workers producing beverage and tobacco, seamen and chimney sweeps. Among women, the SIRs varied from 0.58 (0.37-0.87) in seafarers to 1.27 (1.19-1.35) in tobacco workers. Low

  19. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Nordic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Pia; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Hansson, Katarina; Hakola, Hannele; Vestenius, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Long-term atmospheric monitoring data (1994-2011) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assembled from a rural site in southern Sweden, Råö, and a remote, sub-Arctic site in Finland, Pallas. The concentration levels, congener profiles, seasonal and temporal trends, and projections were evaluated in order to assess the status of POPs in the Scandinavian atmosphere. Our data include atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), altogether comprising a selection of 27 different compounds. The atmospheric POP levels were generally higher in the south, closer to the sources (primary emissions) of the pollutants. The levels of low-chlorinated PCBs and chlordanes were equal at the two sites, and one of the studied POPs, α-HCH, showed higher levels in the north than in the south. Declining temporal trends in the atmospheric concentrations for the legacy POPs - PCBs (2-4% per year), HCHs (6-7% per year), chlordanes (3-4% per year) and DTTs (2-5% per year) - were identified both along Sweden's west coast and in the sub-Arctic area of northern Finland. Most of PAHs did not show any significant long-term trends. The future projections for POP concentrations suggest that in Scandinavia, low-chlorinated PCBs and p,p‧-DDE will remain in the atmospheric compartment the longest (beyond 2030). HCH's and PCB180 will be depleted from the Nordic atmosphere first, before 2020, whereas chlordanes and rest of the PCBs will be depleted between the years 2020 and 2025. PCBs tend to deplete sooner and chlordanes later from the sub-Arctic compared to the south of Sweden. This study demonstrates that the international bans on legacy POPs have successfully reduced the concentrations of these particular substances in the Nordic atmosphere. However, the most long-lived compounds may continue in the atmospheric cycle for another couple of decades.

  20. An assessment of the test–retest reliability of the New Nordic Diet score

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Bere, Elling

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in the New Nordic Diet (NND) as a potentially health promoting, environmentally friendly, and palatable regional diet. Also, dietary scores are gaining ground as a complementary approach for examining relations between dietary patterns and various health outcomes. A score assessing adherence to the NND has earlier been published, yet not tested for reliability. Objective To assess the test–retest reliability of the NND score in a sample of parents of toddlers, residing in Southern Norway. Design A questionnaire survey was completed on two occasions, approximately 14 days apart, by 67 parents of toddlers [85% females, mean age 34 years (SD=5.3 years)]. The NND score was constructed from 24 items and comprised 10 subscales that summarize meal pattern and intake of typical Nordic foods. Each subscale was dichotomized by the median and assigned values of ‘0’ or ‘1’. Adding the subscales yielded a score ranging from 0 to 10, which was further trichotomized. Test–retest reliability of the final NND score and individual subscales was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, respectively. Additionally, cross tabulation and kappa measure of agreement (k) were used to assess the test–retest agreement of classification into the NND score, and the subscales. Results Test–retest correlations of the NND score and subscales were r=0.80 (Pearson) and r=0.54–0.84 (Spearman), respectively, all p<0.001. There were 69% (k=0.52) and 67–88% (k=0.32–0.76) test–retest correct classification of the trichotomized score and the dichotomized subscales, respectively. Conclusion The NND score and the 10 subscales appear to have acceptable test–retest reliability when tested in a sample of parents of toddlers. PMID:26268707

  1. Interannual to Decadal Variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and Adjacent Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multi-year warm events where temperature anomalies at 100m depth exceed 0.4oC, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for four years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  2. Exploring Muscle Activation during Nordic Walking: A Comparison between Conventional and Uphill Walking

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Bacchi, Elisabetta; Figard-Fabre, Hélène; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) owes much of its popularity to the benefits of greater energy expenditure and upper body engagement than found in conventional walking (W). Muscle activation during NW is still understudied, however. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in muscle activation and physiological responses between NW and W in level and uphill walking conditions. Nine expert Nordic Walkers (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; BMI 24.2±1.8 kg/m2) performed 5-minute treadmill trials of W and NW at 4 km/h on inclines of 0% and 15%. The electromyographic activity of seven upper body and five leg muscles and oxygen consumption (VO2) were recorded and pole force during NW was measured. VO2 during NW was 22.3% higher at 0% and only 6.9% higher at 15% than during W, while upper body muscle activation was 2- to 15-fold higher under both conditions. Lower body muscle activation was similarly increased during NW and W in the uphill condition, whereas the increase in erector spinae muscle activity was lower during NW than W. The lack of a significant increase in pole force during uphill walking may explain the lower extra energy expenditure of NW, indicating less upper body muscle activation to lift the body against gravity. NW seemed to reduce lower back muscle contraction in the uphill condition, suggesting that walking with poles may reduce effort to control trunk oscillations and could contribute to work production during NW. Although the difference in extra energy expenditure between NW and W was smaller in the uphill walking condition, the increased upper body muscle involvement during exercising with NW may confer additional benefit compared to conventional walking also on uphill terrains. Furthermore, people with low back pain may gain benefit from pole use when walking uphill. PMID:26418339

  3. The Iceland-Faroe inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic Seas [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Østerhus, S.; Hátún, H.; Kristiansen, R.; Larsen, K. M. H.

    2003-12-01

    The flow of Atlantic water between Iceland and the Faroe Islands is one of three current branches flowing from the Atlantic Ocean into the Nordic Seas across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. By the heat that it carries along, it keeps the subarctic regions abnormally warm and by its import of salt, it helps maintain a high salinity and hence density in the surface waters as a precondition for thermohaline ventilation. From 1997 to 2001, a number of ADCPs have been moored on a section going north from the Faroes, crossing the inflow. Combining these measurements with decade-long CTD observations from research vessel cruises along this section, we compute the fluxes of water (volume), heat, and salt. For the period June 1997-June 2001, we found the average volume flux of Atlantic water to be 3.5±0.5 Sv (1 Sv=10 6 m 3·s -1). When compared to recent estimates of the other branches, this implies that the Iceland-Faroe inflow is the strongest branch in terms of volume flux, transporting 47% of the total Atlantic inflow to the Arctic Mediterranean (Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean with shelf areas). If all of the Atlantic inflow were assumed to be cooled to 0 °C, before returning to the Atlantic, the Iceland-Faroe inflow carries a heat flux of 124±15 TW (1 TW=10 12 W), which is about the same as the heat carried by the inflow through the Faroe-Shetland Channel. The Iceland-Faroe Atlantic water volume flux was found to have a negligible seasonal variation and to be remarkably stable with no reversals, even on daily time scales. Out of a total of 1348 daily flux estimates, not one was directed westwards towards the Atlantic.

  4. The Iceland-Faroe inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Osterhus, S.; Hatun, H.

    2003-04-01

    The flow of Atlantic water between Iceland and the Faroe Islands is one of three current branches flowing from the Atlantic into the Nordic Seas across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. By the heat that it carries along, it keeps the subarctic regions abnormally warm and by its import of salt, it helps maintain a high salinity and hence density in the surface waters as a precondition for thermohaline ventilation. From 1997 to 2001, a number of ADCPs have been moored on a section going north from the Faroes, crossing the inflow. Combining these measurements with decade-long CTD observations from research vessel cruises along this section, we compute the fluxes of water (volume), heat, and salt. For the period June 1997 to June 2001, we found the average volume flux of Atlantic water to be 3.5 ± 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 10^6 m^3 x s-1), which makes this the branch with the largest volume flux according to recent estimates. This water was found to carry a heat flux of 125 ± 15 TW (1 TW = 1012 W), referenced to 0oC and a salt flux of 125 ± 15 kilotonnes per second. The Iceland-Faroe Atlantic water volume flux was found to have a negligible seasonal variation. Budget estimates and simple models indicate that thermohaline ventilation in the Arctic Mediterranean can drive most of the Atlantic inflow to the Nordic Seas and for the Iceland-Faroe branch, at least, the stability of the observed flux verifies that this is indeed the dominant forcing mechanism.

  5. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems: implications for coastal management and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Christoffer; Baden, Susanne; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Dromph, Karsten; Fredriksen, Stein; Gustafsson, Camilla; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Möller, Tiia; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Olesen, Birgit; Olsen, Jeanine; Pihl, Leif; Rinde, Eli

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina, along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km2 eelgrass (maximum >2100 km2), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified area of eelgrass in Western Europe.Eelgrass meadows in the low salinity Baltic Sea support the highest diversity (4–6 spp.) of angiosperms overall, but eelgrass productivity is low (<2 g dw m-2 d-1) and meadows are isolated and genetically impoverished. Higher salinity areas support monospecific meadows, with higher productivity (3–10 g dw m-2 d-1) and greater genetic connectivity. The salinity gradient further imposes functional differences in biodiversity and food webs, in particular a decline in number, but increase in biomass of mesograzers in the Baltic.Significant declines in eelgrass depth limits and areal cover are documented, particularly in regions experiencing high human pressure. The failure of eelgrass to re-establish itself in affected areas, despite nutrient reductions and improved water quality, signals complex recovery trajectories and calls for much greater conservation effort to protect existing meadows.The knowledge base for Nordic eelgrass meadows is broad and sufficient to establish monitoring objectives across nine national borders. Nevertheless, ensuring awareness of their vulnerability remains challenging. Given the areal extent of Nordic eelgrass systems and the ecosystem services they provide, it is crucial to further develop incentives for protecting them. © 2014 The Authors. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26167100

  6. Multilocus Sequence Typing Identifies Epidemic Clones of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Duchaud, Eric; Nicolas, Pierre; Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone; Aspán, Anna; Jansson, Eva; Colquhoun, Duncan J.; Wiklund, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD), which affects a variety of freshwater-reared salmonid species. A large-scale study was performed to investigate the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum in the four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Multilocus sequence typing of 560 geographically and temporally disparate F. psychrophilum isolates collected from various sources between 1983 and 2012 revealed 81 different sequence types (STs) belonging to 12 clonal complexes (CCs) and 30 singleton STs. The largest CC, CC-ST10, which represented almost exclusively isolates from rainbow trout and included the most predominant genotype, ST2, comprised 65% of all isolates examined. In Norway, with a shorter history (<10 years) of BCWD in rainbow trout, ST2 was the only isolated CC-ST10 genotype, suggesting a recent introduction of an epidemic clone. The study identified five additional CCs shared between countries and five country-specific CCs, some with apparent host specificity. Almost 80% of the singleton STs were isolated from non-rainbow trout species or the environment. The present study reveals a simultaneous presence of genetically distinct CCs in the Nordic countries and points out specific F. psychrophilum STs posing a threat to the salmonid production. The study provides a significant contribution toward mapping the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum globally and support for the existence of an epidemic population structure where recombination is a significant driver in F. psychrophilum evolution. Evidence indicating dissemination of a putatively virulent clonal complex (CC-ST10) with commercial movement of fish or fish products is strengthened. PMID:24561585

  7. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems: implications for coastal management and conservation.

    PubMed

    Boström, Christoffer; Baden, Susanne; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Dromph, Karsten; Fredriksen, Stein; Gustafsson, Camilla; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Möller, Tiia; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Olesen, Birgit; Olsen, Jeanine; Pihl, Leif; Rinde, Eli

    2014-06-01

    This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina, along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km(2) eelgrass (maximum >2100 km(2)), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified area of eelgrass in Western Europe.Eelgrass meadows in the low salinity Baltic Sea support the highest diversity (4-6 spp.) of angiosperms overall, but eelgrass productivity is low (<2 g dw m(-2) d(-1)) and meadows are isolated and genetically impoverished. Higher salinity areas support monospecific meadows, with higher productivity (3-10 g dw m(-2) d(-1)) and greater genetic connectivity. The salinity gradient further imposes functional differences in biodiversity and food webs, in particular a decline in number, but increase in biomass of mesograzers in the Baltic.Significant declines in eelgrass depth limits and areal cover are documented, particularly in regions experiencing high human pressure. The failure of eelgrass to re-establish itself in affected areas, despite nutrient reductions and improved water quality, signals complex recovery trajectories and calls for much greater conservation effort to protect existing meadows.The knowledge base for Nordic eelgrass meadows is broad and sufficient to establish monitoring objectives across nine national borders. Nevertheless, ensuring awareness of their vulnerability remains challenging. Given the areal extent of Nordic eelgrass systems and the ecosystem services they provide, it is crucial to further develop incentives for protecting them. © 2014 The Authors. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Characteristics of the Nordic Seas overflows in a set of Norwegian Earth System Model experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2016-08-01

    Global ocean models with an isopycnic vertical coordinate are advantageous in representing overflows, as they do not suffer from topography-induced spurious numerical mixing commonly seen in geopotential coordinate models. In this paper, we present a quantitative diagnosis of the Nordic Seas overflows in four configurations of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) family that features an isopycnic ocean model. For intercomparison, two coupled ocean-sea ice and two fully coupled (atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice) experiments are considered. Each pair consists of a (non-eddying) 1° and a (eddy-permitting) 1/4° horizontal resolution ocean model. In all experiments, overflow waters remain dense and descend to the deep basins, entraining ambient water en route. Results from the 1/4° pair show similar behavior in the overflows, whereas the 1° pair show distinct differences, including temperature/salinity properties, volume transport (Q), and large scale features such as the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The volume transport of the overflows and degree of entrainment are underestimated in the 1° experiments, whereas in the 1/4° experiments, there is a two-fold downstream increase in Q, which matches observations well. In contrast to the 1/4° experiments, the coarse 1° experiments do not capture the inclined isopycnals of the overflows or the western boundary current off the Flemish Cap. In all experiments, the pathway of the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water is misrepresented: a major fraction of the overflow proceeds southward into the West European Basin, instead of turning westward into the Irminger Sea. This discrepancy is attributed to excessive production of Labrador Sea Water in the model. The mean state and variability of the Nordic Seas overflows have significant consequences on the response of the AMOC, hence their correct representations are of vital importance in global ocean and climate modelling.

  9. Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/Ca from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezat, M.; Rasmussen, T. L.; Groeneveld, J.

    2013-12-01

    Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/Ca from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr Mohamed M. Ezat1,2*, Tine L. Rasmussen1, Jeroen Groeneveld3 1 CAGE - Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, and Department of Geology, University of Tromsø, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway. 2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. 3 Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Klagenfurter Strasse, 28359, Bremen, Germany. * e-mail: mohamed.ezat@uit.no The climate during the last glacial period underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events of warm interstadials and cold stadials. DO events are manifested in marine and continental records in the circum-North Atlantic region and throughout the globe. Several studies suggest a crucial role of the Nordic seas in regulating the climate during the last glacial period. Previous studies from the Nordic seas revealed low benthic δ18O values during stadials and high values during interstadials. The causes of the depletions in benthic 18O during stadials are highly debated. Sinking of isotope depleted-brines formed due to sea ice production has previously been proposed. Another explanation has indicated warming of the intermediate water in the Nordic seas based on the finding of warm water benthic foraminiferal species during stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-based bottom water temperature (BWT) record from the Nordic seas that, along with other proxies, aims to resolve the hydrographic changes at intermediate water depth on DO timescale during the last 65 kyr. The results show pronounced and gradual BWT increases during all cold stadials followed by an abrupt drop to modern-like BWT at interstadials onsets. The increase in BWT, caused by the subsurface inflow of warm Atlantic intermediate water, substantially contributed to the halocline collapse and onset of interstadial conditions throughout complex ocean-sea ice

  10. The National Resource Library for Science and Technology in Sweden: A Nordic model of cooperating technology libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagar, Gunnar

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this presentation is to give a state-of-the-art report on the present situation of Nordic technology libraries, to elaborate on a plan for national resource libraries in Sweden, and to share how the Royal Institute of Technology Library in Stockholm (KTHB) has fostered a network of cooperating libraries in order to optimize government funding for the system of resource libraries.

  11. Adherence to the Baltic Sea diet consumed in the Nordic countries is associated with lower abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, Noora; Kaartinen, Niina E; Schwab, Ursula; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu

    2013-02-14

    Due to differences in food cultures, dietary quality measures, such as the Mediterranean Diet Score, may not be easily adopted by other countries. Recently, the Baltic Sea Diet Pyramid was developed to illustrate healthy choices for the diet consumed in the Nordic countries. We assessed whether the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) based on the Pyramid is associated with a decreased risk of obesity and abdominal obesity. The population-based cross-sectional study included 4720 Finns (25-74 years) from the National FINRISK 2007 study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, ratio of PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat (percentage of energy), and alcohol. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured and BMI values were calculated. In a multivariable model, men in the highest v. lowest BSDS quintile were more likely to have normal WC (OR 0·48, 95 % CI 0·29, 0·80). In women, this association was similar but not significant (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·09). The association appeared to be stronger in younger age groups (men: OR 0·23, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·62; women: OR 0·17, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·58) compared with older age groups. Nordic cereals and alcohol were found to be the most important BSDS components related to WC. No association was observed between the BSDS and BMI. The present study suggests that combination of Nordic foods, especially cereals and moderate alcohol consumption, is likely to be inversely associated with abdominal obesity.

  12. Acute effects of walking with Nordic poles in persons with mild to moderate low-back pain

    PubMed Central

    REVORD, LANDON P; LOMOND, KAREN V; LOUBERT, PETER V; HAMMER, ROGER L

    2016-01-01

    Regular walking with or without Nordic poles is effective over time at reducing discomfort in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP). Nordic pole use increases balance and stability, distributes weight through the arms and torso, and decreases loading of the spine and lower limbs. The purpose of this study was to determine if Nordic poles would reduce perceived acute discomfort while self-paced walking in individuals with LBP. We also examined whether walking with or without poles increased heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) or speed of movement. Subjects included 20 adults (12 males, 8 females; mean age of 45.1±16.3) who were experiencing LBP of at least six months’ duration (Oswestry Disability Index (ODI): mean 17 ± 8%, range 6–36% indicating minimal to moderate disability) with no current active flare-up. Participants walked a predetermined dirt-path course (805 m or 0.5 mi) with and without poles in randomized order. Data were analyzed using a 2 X 2 repeated measures ANOVA (Condition X Time), where Condition was poles vs no poles and Time was pre- and post-walk. HR and RPE increased significantly from walking the course, whereas pain did not change. There were also no differences between walking with or without poles for pain (ODI Sec #1: 0.2 points, p=0.324), HR (4 bpm, p=0.522) and RPE (0 points, p=0.759). The mean course time (sec) was slower with poles: 617±87 vs 566±65 (p<0.001). Unexpectedly, there was a noticeable drop in pain following the warm up which was done using poles (0.9 points, p<0.001). Nordic pole use is well tolerated in those with current back pain and can be encouraged, however it cannot be recommended as a superior method of addressing acute symptoms when walking. PMID:27990219

  13. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients. PMID:27190455

  14. Nitrogen concentrations and losses from agricultural streams in the Nordic and Baltic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, Per; Bechmann, Marianne; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Iital, Arvo; Kyllmar, Katarina; Koskiaho, Jari; Lagzdins, Ainis; Povilaitis, Arvydas

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of long-term trends is one of the key objectives in most national water quality monitoring programmes. It is for example essential that we know how long it can take to detect the response in agricultural streams to changes in agriculture and implemented measures, because such information is needed to allow environmental authorities and decision and policy makers to establish realistic goals. Thus, long-term monitoring data is the key to cover future management needs and demands such as implementation of various EU-Directives (e.g., WFD, the Nitrates Directive). This paper in a uniform fashion examines the levels and temporal trends of nitrogen concentrations and losses in streams draining agricultural catchment areas in the Nordic and Baltic countries. 35 catchments (range 0.1-33km2) in Norway (9), Denmark (5), Sweden (8), Finland (4), Estonia (3), Latvia (3) and Lithuania (3) were selected for the study. Most of these catchments are part of national water quality monitoring programmes and initially selected to represent the major crops, soil types and climatic conditions in each country. The longest time series where 23 years (1988-2010) while the shortest one was 10 years (2002-2011). The reasons for these identified trends and no-trends will be discussed during the oral presentation in relation to land use, agricultural management and implementation of mitigation measures. Furthermore, the difference in mean level concentrations and losses will be discussed in relation to differences in climate, land use and agricultural management Overall the results show that agricultural catchments in the Nordic and Baltic countries exhibit different levels of nitrogen concentrations and losses, with a large interannual variability in all catchments. For example, the overall range in annual long-term mean TN losses was 6-102 kg N ha-1. Nearly one third of the investigated agricultural catchments showed statistically significant downward trends in nitrogen losses or

  15. Vinflunine treatment in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer: A Nordic retrospective multicenter analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmsten, Karin; Dohn, Line; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Shah, Carl-Henrik; Jäderling, Fredrik; Pappot, Helle; Ullén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, vinflunine was introduced as a second-line treatment to be used after the failure of platinum therapy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). The present study investigated the administered vinflunine to patients with mUC in standard clinical practice with the aim of evaluating treatment patterns, response, survival parameters and side-effects. Data were collected retrospectively from the first 100 mUC patients treated with vinflunine at three Nordic cancer centers associated with the Nordic Urothelial Cancer Oncology Group. The overall response rate was 23% and complete response was observed in one patient. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 2.8 (range, 0.5–34.3) and 6.3 (range, 0.3–39.7) months, respectively. An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 2 was present in 20% of the patients, and those patients exhibited significantly shorter mOS (4.1 vs. 7.0 months, P=0.001) and a significantly higher degree of grade 3/4 toxicity (P=0.026) compared with ECOG PS 0–1 patients. Furthermore, patients without visceral metastases had significantly longer mOS than patients with visceral metastases (10.6 vs. 6.0 months, P=0.008). The median number of cycles of vinflunine was 3 (range, 1–28). The current data confirms that vinflunine is an active agent for second-line treatment in an unselected clinical cohort of patients with mUC. ECOG PS and presence of visceral metastases were significant prognostic parameters. In particular, patients with ECOG PS 2 receiving vinflunine had a shorter mOS and a higher frequency of severe toxicity, and, thus, should be treated with caution. Furthermore, the present study observed large inter-individual differences in radiological response and OS, indicating the need for further development of improved patient selection tools to optimize vinflunine treatment in platinum-refractory mUC patients. PMID:27446429

  16. Completeness of metabolic disease recordings in Nordic national databases for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Espetvedt, M N; Wolff, C; Rintakoski, S; Lind, A; Østerås, O

    2012-06-01

    The four Nordic countries Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE) all have national databases where diagnostic events in dairy cows are recorded. Comparing and looking at differences in disease occurrence between countries may give information on factors that influence disease occurrence, optimal diseases control and treatment strategies. For such comparisons to be valid, the data in these databases should be standardised and of good quality. The objective of the study presented here was to assess the quality of metabolic disease recordings, primarily milk fever and ketosis, in four Nordic national databases. Completeness of recording figures of database registrations at two different levels was chosen as a measure of data quality. Firstly, completeness of recording of all disease events on a farm regardless of veterinary involvement, called 'Farmer observed completeness', was determined. Secondly, completeness of recording of veterinary treated disease events only, called 'Veterinary treated completeness', was determined. To collect data for calculating these completeness levels a simple random sample of herds was obtained in each country. Farmers who were willing to participate, recorded for 4 months in 2008, on a purpose made registration form, any observed illness in cows, regardless of veterinary involvement. The number of participating herds was 105, 167, 179 and 129 in DK, FI, NO and SE respectively. In total these herds registered 247, 248, 177 and 218 metabolic events for analysis in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. Data from national databases were subsequently extracted, and the two sources of data were matched to find the proportion, or completeness, of diagnostic events registered by farmers that also existed in national databases. Matching was done using a common diagnostic code system and allowed for a discrepancy of 7 days for registered date of the event. For milk fever, the Farmer observed completeness was 77%, 67%, 79% and 79

  17. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.

  18. Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Stigell, Erik; Schantz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year. PMID:26690193

  19. Characterization of Light Non-Methane Hydrocarbons, Surface Water DOC, and Aerosols over the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, E. D.; Ariya, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    Whole air, size-fractionated marine aerosols, and surface ocean water DOC were sampled together during June-July 2004 on the Nordic seas, in order to explore factors leading to the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the sea surface and their transfer to the atmosphere. High site-to-site variability in 19 non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations suggests highly variable, local sources for these compounds. Acetone, C5 and C6 hydrocarbons, and dimethylsulfide were identified in the seawater samples using solid-phase microextraction/GC-MS. The aerosols were analysed by SEM-EDX and contained primarily inorganic material (sea salt, marine sulfates, and carbonates) and little organic matter. However, a culturable bacterium was isolated from the large (9.9 - 18 μ m) fraction at one site, and identified as Micrococcus luteus. We will discuss the implication of these results on potential exchange processes at the ocean-atmosphere interface and the impact of bioaerosols in transferring marine organic carbon to atmospheric organic carbon.

  20. What Do IT-People Know about the Nordic History of Computers and User Interfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    This paper reports a preliminary, empirical exploration of what IT-people know about the history of computers and user interfaces. The principal motivation for the study is that the younger generations such as students in IT seem to know very little about these topics. The study employed a free association method administered as email. Eight students and four researchers participated, between 26-34 and 48-64 years of age, respectively. Responses totaled 222 and we analyzed and categorized them. First, the Nordic touch was extremely limited. Secondly, the knowledge of both students and researchers seems heavily based on personal experience so that the researchers know much more about the earlier days of computing and interfaces. Thirdly, there is a tendency amongst the students to conceptualize the history of computers in interface features and concepts. Hence, the interface seems to become the designation or even the icon for the computer. In other words, one of the key focal points in the area of human-computer interaction: to makethe computer as suchinvisible seems to have been successful.

  1. Cancer prevalence in United States, Nordic Countries, Italy, Australia, and France: an analysis of geographic variability

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, E; De Angelis, R; Buzzoni, C; Mariotto, A; Storm, H; Colonna, M; Zanetti, R; Serraino, D; Michiara, M; Cirilli, C; Iannelli, A; Mazzoleni, G; Sechi, O; Sanoja Gonzalez, M E; Guzzinati, S; Capocaccia, R; Dal Maso, L

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to quantitatively assess the geographic heterogeneity of cancer prevalence in selected Western Countries and to explore the associations between its determinants. Methods: For 20 cancer sites, 5-year cancer prevalence, incidence, and survival were observed and age standardised for the mid 2000s in the United States, Nordic European Countries, Italy, Australia, and France. Results: In Italy, 5-year crude prevalence for all cancers was 1.9% in men and 1.7% in women, while it was ∼1.5% in all other countries and sexes. After adjustment for the different age distribution of the populations, cancer prevalence in the United States was higher (20% in men and 10% in women) than elsewhere. For all cancers combined, the geographic heterogeneities were limited, though relevant for specific cancers (e.g., prostate, showing >30% higher prevalence in the United States, or lung, showing >50% higher prevalence in USA women than in other countries). For all countries, the correlations between differences of prevalence and differences of incidence were >0.9, while prevalence and survival were less consistently correlated. Conclusion: Geographic differences and magnitude of crude cancer prevalence were more strongly associated with incidence rates, influenced by population ageing, than with survival rates. These estimates will be helpful in allocating appropriate resources. PMID:23799856

  2. Krafting an agreement: Negotiations to reduce pollution from the Nordic pulp industry, 1985--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, M. R.

    1996-05-01

    International environmental accords frequently contain obligations that may be easily satisfied by their signatories. Observers have speculated why it is in a state`s interests to sign agreements that lack strict conditions, but policy analysts lack a coherent model explaining how such agreements are formalized. Knowledge, values, and authority are key forces that elucidate how environmental accords are developed with provisions that are easily executable. This dissertation examines the formulation of Helsinki Commission recommendations to reduce emissions of organochlorines from Nordic kraft pulp mills. The kraft pulp industry, the largest industrial pollution emitter to the Baltic Sea, is also a crucial foreign exchange earner for both Sweden and Finland. Hence, Swedes and Finns were the most active participants in regional negotiations to reduce organochlorine emissions. Key variable analysis explains how obstacles in various regional negotiations were overcome, and how parties constructed a recommendation with obligations that could be easily accommodated. The two sides never agreed about the level of risk posed by organochlorines in the marine environment. This problem influenced the strictness of pollution limits specified in the final agreement. But, the parties overcame formidable obstacles in the negotiations, including: (1) concerns about costs to industry and competitive disadvantages in the pulp and paper sector; (2) disagreement about technologies to combat the problem; and (3) domestic rule-making schedules that were out of sync.

  3. Effects of Nordic walking training on functional parameters in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, E P; Franzoni, L T; Cubillos, D M; de Oliveira Fagundes, A; Carvalho, A R; Oliveira, H B; Pantoja, P D; Schuch, F B; Rieder, C R; Martinez, F G; Peyré-Tartaruga, L A

    2017-03-01

    We compare the effects of Nordic walking training (NW) and Free walk (FW) on functional parameters (motor symptoms, balance) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go at Self-selected Speed - TUGSS, and at forced speed, TUGFS; Self-selected Walking Speed, SSW; locomotor rehabilitation index, LRI) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The study included 33 patients with clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PD, and staging between 1 and 4 in the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y) randomized into two groups: NW (N = 16) and FW (N = 17) for 6 weeks. Baseline characteristics were compared trough a one-way ANOVA. Outcomes were analyzed using the Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE) with a Bonferroni post-hoc. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.20.0. Improvements in UPDRS III (P < 0.001), balance scores (P < 0.035), TUGSS distance (P < 0.001), TUGFS distance (P < 0.001), SSW (P < 0.001), and LRI (P < 0.001) were found for both groups. However, the NW group showed significant differences (P < 0.001) when compared to the FW group for the functional mobility. We conclude the NW improves functional parameters and walking mobility demonstrating that NW is as effective as the FW, including benefits for FW on the functional mobility of people with PD.

  4. Organic farming in the Nordic countries--animal health and production.

    PubMed

    Thamsborg, S M

    2001-01-01

    Organic farming (or ecological agriculture) is of growing importance in the agricultural sector worldwide. In the Nordic countries, 1-10% of the arable land was in organic production in 1999. Organic farming can be seen as an approach to agriculture where the aim is to create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural production systems. Principles like nutrient recycling, prevention rather than treatment and the precautionary principle are included in aims and standards. Animal welfare is another hallmark of organic livestock production but despite this, several studies have indicated severe health problems e.g. in organic poultry production in Denmark. Also the quality of animal food products in relation to human health, particularly the risk of zoonotic infections, has been debated. For these reasons there is a need for improvement of production methods and animal health status. Vets play an important role in this development through work in clinical practice and in research. On-farm consultancy should be tailored to the individual farmers needs, and the practitioner should be willing to take up new ideas and when needed, to enter a critical dialogue in relation to animal welfare. Better base line data on animal health and food safety in organic food systems are needed.

  5. Approaches for integrated assessment of ecological and eutrophication status of surface waters in Nordic Countries.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jesper H; Aroviita, Jukka; Carstensen, Jacob; Friberg, Nikolai; Johnson, Richard K; Kauppila, Pirkko; Lindegarth, Mats; Murray, Ciarán; Norling, Karl

    2016-10-01

    We review approaches and tools currently used in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) for integrated assessment of 'ecological status' sensu the EU Water Framework Directive as well as assessment of 'eutrophication status' in coastal and marine waters. Integration principles for combining indicators within biological quality elements (BQEs) and combining BQEs into a final-integrated assessment are discussed. Specific focus has been put on combining different types of information into indices, since several methods are currently employed. As a consequence of the variety of methods used, comparisons across both BQEs and water categories (river, lakes and coastal waters) can be difficult. Based on our analyses, we conclude that some principles and methods for integration can be critical and that a harmonised approach should be developed. Further, we conclude that the integration principles applied within BQEs are critical and in need of harmonisation if we want a better understanding of potential transition in ecological status between surface water types, e.g. when riverine water enters a downstream lake or coastal water body.

  6. A Bayesian analysis of trends in ozone sounding data series from 9 Nordic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Bo; Jepsen, Nis; Larsen, Niels; Korsholm, Ulrik S.

    2016-04-01

    Ozone soundings from 9 Nordic stations have been homogenized and interpolated to standard pressure levels. The different stations have very different data coverage; the longest period with data is from the end of the 1980ies to 2013. We apply a model which includes both low-frequency variability in form of a polynomial, an annual cycle with harmonics, the possibility for low-frequency variability in the annual amplitude and phasing, and either white noise or AR1 noise. The fitting of the parameters is performed with a Bayesian approach not only giving the posterior mean values but also credible intervals. We find that all stations agree on an well-defined annual cycle in the free troposphere with a relatively confined maximum in the early summer. Regarding the low-frequency variability we find that Scoresbysund, Ny Aalesund, and Sodankyla show similar structures with a maximum near 2005 followed by a decrease. However, these results are only weakly significant. A significant change in the amplitude of the annual cycle was only found for Ny Aalesund. Here the peak-to-peak amplitude changes from 0.9 to 0.8 mhPa between 1995-2000 and 2007-2012. The results are shown to be robust to the different settings of the model parameters (order of the polynomial, number of harmonics in the annual cycle, type of noise, etc). The results are also shown to be characteristic for all pressure levels in the free troposphere.

  7. Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerke, Jarle W.; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Arild Høgda, Kjell; Malnes, Eirik; Jepsen, Jane U.; Lovibond, Sarah; Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Tømmervik, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The release of cold temperature constraints on photosynthesis has led to increased productivity (greening) in significant parts (32-39%) of the Arctic, but much of the Arctic shows stable (57-64%) or reduced productivity (browning, <4%). Summer drought and wildfires are the best-documented drivers causing browning of continental areas, but factors dampening the greening effect of more maritime regions have remained elusive. Here we show how multiple anomalous weather events severely affected the terrestrial productivity during one water year (October 2011-September 2012) in a maritime region north of the Arctic Circle, the Nordic Arctic Region, and contributed to the lowest mean vegetation greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) recorded this century. Procedures for field data sampling were designed during or shortly after the events in order to assess both the variability in effects and the maximum effects of the stressors. Outbreaks of insect and fungal pests also contributed to low greenness. Vegetation greenness in 2012 was 6.8% lower than the 2000-11 average and 58% lower in the worst affected areas that were under multiple stressors. These results indicate the importance of events (some being mostly neglected in climate change effect studies and monitoring) for primary productivity in a high-latitude maritime region, and highlight the importance of monitoring plant damage in the field and including frequencies of stress events in models of carbon economy and ecosystem change in the Arctic. Fourteen weather events and anomalies and 32 hypothesized impacts on plant productivity are summarized as an aid for directing future research.

  8. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010

    PubMed Central

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen Pagh, Trine; Augustine, Lilly; Ojala, Kristiina; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries. Methods The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002–2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002–2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006–2009/2010 for both sweet and soft

  9. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  10. Changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic countries between 1997 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Holm, Lotte; Lauridsen, Drude; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Gronow, Jukka; Niva, Mari; Mäkelä, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    How have eating patterns changed in modern life? In public and academic debate concern has been expressed that the social function of eating may be challenged by de-structuration and the dissolution of traditions. We analyzed changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic countries over the period 1997-2012. We focused on three interlinked processes often claimed to be distinctive of modern eating: delocalization of eating from private households to commercial settings, individualization in the form of more eating alone, and informalization, implying more casual codes of conduct. We based the analysis on data from two surveys conducted in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1997 and 2012. The surveys reported in detail one day of eating in representative samples of adult populations in the four countries (N = 4823 and N = 8242). We compared data regarding where, with whom, and for how long people ate, and whether parallel activities took place while eating. While Nordic people's primary location for eating remained the home and the workplace, the practices of eating in haste, and while watching television increased and using tablets, computers and smartphones while eating was frequent in 2012. Propensity to eat alone increased slightly in Denmark and Norway, and decreased slightly in Sweden. While such practices vary with socio-economic background, regression analysis showed several changes were common across the Nordic populations. However, the new practice of using tablets, computers, and smartphones while eating was strongly associated with young age. Further, each of the practices appeared to be related to different types of meal. We conclude that while the changes in the social organization of eating were not dramatic, signs of individualization and informalization could be detected.

  11. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  12. Decline of physiologic training effects during the competitive season in members of the U.S. Nordic ski team.

    PubMed

    Hanson, J S

    1975-01-01

    Various physiologic parameters were examined during submaximal and maximal treadmill exercise in nine members of the U.S. Nordic Ski Team prior to and following three months of on-snow ski training. In addition, four of this group were re-tested at the conclusion of the competitive skiing season. Results indicate a perceptible increase in training effect during the fall and early winter before starting on the European race circuit with subsequent decline in this effect as measured in the spring. It is suggested that this latter phenomenon occurs at least in part due to lack of adequate training time during the period of long-distance travel and racing.

  13. Sensitivity of lake ice regimes to climate change in the Nordic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebre, S.; Boissy, T.; Alfredsen, K.

    2014-08-01

    A one-dimensional process-based multi-year lake ice model, MyLake, was used to simulate lake ice phenology and annual maximum lake ice thickness for the Nordic region comprising Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries. The model was first tested and validated using observational meteorological forcing on a candidate lake (Lake Atnsjøen) and using downscaled ERA-40 reanalysis data set. To simulate ice conditions for the contemporary period of 1961-2000, the model was driven by gridded meteorological forcings from ERA-40 global reanalysis data downscaled to a 25 km resolution using the Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA). The model was then forced with two future climate scenarios from the RCA driven by two different general circulation models (GCMs) based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B. The two climate scenarios correspond to two future time periods namely the 2050s (2041-2070) and the 2080s (2071-2100). To take into account the influence of lake morphometry, simulations were carried out for four different hypothetical lake depths (5 m, 10 m, 20 m, 40 m) placed at each of the 3708 grid cells. Based on a comparison of the mean predictions in the future 30-year periods with the control (1961-1990) period, ice cover durations in the region will be shortened by 1 to 11 weeks in 2041-2070, and 3 to 14 weeks in 2071-2100. Annual maximum lake ice thickness, on the other hand, will be reduced by a margin of up to 60 cm by 2041-2070 and up to 70 cm by 2071-2100. The simulated changes in lake ice characteristics revealed that the changes are less dependent on lake depths though there are slight differences. The results of this study provide a regional perspective of anticipated changes in lake ice regimes due to climate warming across the study area by the middle and end of this century.

  14. Nordic Myeloma Study Group, the first 15 years: scientific collaboration and improvement of patient care.

    PubMed

    Hippe, Erik; Westin, Jan; Wislöff, Finn

    2005-03-01

    The accomplishments of the Nordic Myeloma Study Group (NMSG) during its first 15 yr are briefly surveyed, together with a discussion of principles guiding the group's clinical trials and of problems that need to be addressed in coming years. The group has so far carried out 12 clinical trials, comprising more than 2500 patients, spanning from minor phase II to large randomised phase III trials. At the time of writing, two randomised trials are running (comparing two doses of i.v. pamidronate, and melphalan-prednisone (MP) vs. MP-thalidomide to elderly patients). The group has strived for a simple organisation with much responsibility delegated to regional coordinators (Denmark 3, Norway 5, Sweden 5). With regard to trial design, the group has considered it important that studies are based on sound scientific questions, are simple to handle for the participants, population based, investigator initiated, include quality of life and health resources assessment as end-points, and can be used as basis for diverse scientific spin-off projects. Like other clinical trial groups, NMSG faces a number of challenges in coming years. The financial situation for independent investigator-initiated trials is far from satisfactory, especially with regard to the resource-consuming implementation of more stringent good clinical practice rules and ethical committee demands. NMSG has also encountered increasing difficulties in recruiting patients to recent trials, partly because of problems related to participating physicians (lack of support, laborious paper work, insufficient credit for participation). Solutions to these problems have to be found if industry-independent clinical trial groups are to survive.

  15. Fractional condensation of pyrolysis vapors produced from Nordic feedstocks in cyclone pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, Ann-Christine; Iisa, Kristiina; Sandström, Linda; Ben, Haoxi; Pilath, Heidi; Deutch, Steve; Wiinikka, Henrik; Öhrman, Olov G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a complex mixture of different chemical compounds with a wide range of molecular weights and boiling points. Due to its complexity, an efficient fractionation of the oil may be a more promising approach of producing liquid fuels and chemicals than treating the whole oil. In this work a sampling system based on fractional condensation was attached to a cyclone pyrolysis pilot plant to enable separation of the produced pyrolysis vapors into five oil fractions. The sampling system was composed of cyclonic condensers and coalescing filters arranged in series. The objective was to characterize the oil fractions produced from three different Nordic feedstocks and suggest possible applications. The oil fractions were thoroughly characterized using several analytical techniques including water content; elemental composition; heating value, and chemical compound group analysis using solvent fractionation, quantitative 13C NMR and 1H NMR and GC x GC - TOFMS. The results show that the oil fractions significantly differ from each other both in chemical and physical properties. The first fractions and the fraction composed of aerosols were highly viscous and contained larger energy-rich compounds of mainly lignin-derived material. The middle fraction contained medium-size compounds with relatively high concentration of water, sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbonyls and acids and finally the last fraction contained smaller molecules such as water, aldehydes, ketones and acids. However, the properties of the respective fractions seem independent on the studied feedstock types, i.e. the respective fractions produced from different feedstock are rather similar. This promotes the possibility to vary the feedstock depending on availability while retaining the oil properties. Possible applications of the five fractions vary from oil for combustion and extraction of the pyrolytic lignin in the early fractions to extraction of sugars from the early and middle fractions, and

  16. Supervised and non-supervised Nordic walking in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a single blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Active approaches including both specific and unspecific exercise are probably the most widely recommended treatment for patients with chronic low back pain but it is not known exactly which types of exercise provide the most benefit. Nordic Walking - power walking using ski poles - is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe that has been shown to improve cardiovascular metabolism. Until now, no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to back pain. Methods A total of 151 patients with low back and/or leg pain of greater than eight weeks duration were recruited from a hospital based outpatient back pain clinic. Patients continuing to have pain greater than three on the 11-point numeric rating scale after a multidisciplinary intervention were included. Fifteen patients were unable to complete the baseline evaluation and 136 patients were randomized to receive A) Nordic walking supervised by a specially trained instructor twice a week for eight weeks B) One-hour instruction in Nordic walking by a specially trained instructor followed by advice to perform Nordic walking at home as much as they liked for eight weeks or C) Individual oral information consisting of advice to remain active and about maintaining the daily function level that they had achieved during their stay at the backcenter. Primary outcome measures were pain and disability using the Low Back Pain Rating Scale, and functional limitation further assessed using the Patient Specific Function Scale. Furthermore, information on time off work, use of medication, and concurrent treatment for their low back pain was collected. Objective measurements of physical activity levels for the supervised and unsupervised Nordic walking groups were performed using accelerometers. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results No mean differences were found between the three groups in relation to any of the outcomes

  17. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin, prolactin and gonadotropins in male athletes after an international nordic ski race.

    PubMed

    Mougin, C; Henriet, M T; Baulay, A; Haton, D; Berthelay, S; Gaillard, R C

    1988-01-01

    Plasma beta-endorphin, prolactin (PRL), FSH and LH were measured in 17 volunteer male subjects at rest and under the stress caused by a long-distance nordic ski race. The race induced increased levels of beta-endorphin and PRL in all skiers. The changes in PRL with exercise were significantly related to the changes in beta-endorphin (r = 0.69, p less than 0.001). Furthermore, the highly trained skiers training over 150 km.week-1 of nordic ski showed consistently higher post-exercise beta-endorphin and PRL levels than the moderately trained skiers who trained for 20 km.week-1. In addition the race induced slight falls in FSH and LH; however plasma gonadotropin levels did not show any correlation with plasma beta-endorphin concentrations and did not differ between the two groups of skiers. These results suggest that endogenous opioid peptides may modulate PRL secretion in heavy exercise, since they are of minor importance in the release of FSH and LH in such a situation. The observations also suggest that the degree of previous training and the exercise intensity do seem to be responsible for the hormonal changes.

  18. A modified Nordic prediction model of road traffic noise in a Taiwanese city with significant motorcycle traffic.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Wei-Ting; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2012-08-15

    A prediction model was developed to map road traffic noise in an area with significant motorcycle traffic in Taichung City, Taiwan. This model was modified from the Nordic prediction method by adding three types of traffic flow rates, including heavy vehicles, light vehicles, and motorcycles, as well as local traffic speeds and road characteristics to the calculating equations. The parameters that were input into the equations include traffic flow, vehicle speed, distance from the center of the road, height of the road surface, position and height of the barriers, thickness of the barriers, location of the receiver relative to the surrounding road surface or barriers, reflecting vertical surfaces, type of ground, and height of the buildings. The model was validated by comparing the measured noise levels at 42 sampling sites close to main roads with the predicted values. A significant correlation was found between the predicted and measured noise levels (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.75, p<0.001). The deviation between the predicted and measured noise levels within the range of ±3.5 A-weighted decibel (dB(A)) was 90.5%. The mean difference between the predicted and measured noise levels was 0.9±2.1 dB(A). The modified Nordic prediction model is therefore applicable to estimate the noise exposure in this urban environment in Taiwan.

  19. Assessment of diet-related GHG emissions using the environmental hourglass approach for the Mediterranean and new Nordic diets.

    PubMed

    Ulaszewska, Maria M; Luzzani, Gloria; Pignatelli, Sonia; Capri, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    Food production and preparation affect the environment in many ways, with effects on greenhouse gases, use of land, biodiversity, etc. The impact is influenced by consumer demand and eating habits. Two different recommended dietary models were considered, the Mediterranean Diet and the New Nordic Diet, with quantitative analysis of GHG emissions through LCA. An environmental hourglass (EH) approach based on LCA was introduced to help translate health-promoting dietary recommendations that consider regional circumstances and cultural diversity into practical eating habits, to promote sustainable and environmentally friendly consumption. Using the environmental hourglass approach, we examined whether dietary choices based on nutritional recommendations can minimise certain negative effects on the food production environment. Using two examples of health-enhancing, regionally-oriented and culturally appropriate dietary patterns - the Mediterranean Diet and the New Nordic Diet - we showed that consumption of high protein foods has a similar and comparable environmental impact to fruit and vegetable consumption. The results of this work may provide a starting point for integrated policy addressing issues related to the healthy diet of the population, aware food choices and sustainable agriculture.

  20. Along-shelf hydrographic anomalies in the Nordic Seas (1960-2011): locally generated or advective signals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Vidar S.; Gusdal, Yvonne; Vikebø, Frode B.

    2014-07-01

    The northward flow of warm and saline Atlantic Water through the eastern Nordic Seas sustains a spring-bloom ecosystem that hosts some of the world's largest commercial fish stocks. Abrupt climatic changes, or changes beyond species-specific thresholds, may have severe effects on species abundance and distribution. Here, we utilize a numerical ocean model hindcast to explore the similarities and differences between large-scale anomalies, such as great salinity anomalies, and along-shelf hydrographic anomalies of regional origin, which represent abrupt changes at subannual time scales. The large-scale anomalies enter the Nordic Seas to the south and propagate northward at a speed one order of magnitude less than the Atlantic Water current speed. On the contrary, wind-generated along-shelf anomalies appear simultaneously along the Norwegian continental shelf and propagate northward at speeds associated with topographically trapped Kelvin waves. This process involves changes in the vertical extent of the Atlantic Water along the continental slope. Such a dynamic oceanic response both affects thermal habitats and has the potential to ventilate shelf waters by modifying the cross-shelf transport of nutrients and key prey items for early stages of fish.

  1. Systematic Literature Review on ICF From 2001 to 2013 in the Nordic Countries Focusing on Clinical and Rehabilitation Context

    PubMed Central

    Maribo, Thomas; Petersen, Kirsten S.; Handberg, Charlotte; Melchiorsen, Hanne; Momsen, Anne-Mette H.; Nielsen, Claus V.; Leonardi, Matilde; Labriola, Merete

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic review on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) used in the Nordic countries from 2001 through 2013, describing and quantifying the development in utilization of ICF, and describe the extent to which the different components of the ICF have been used. A search was conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycInfo. Papers from Nordic countries were included if ICF was mentioned in title or abstract. Papers were assigned to one of eight categories covering the wide rehabilitation area; furthermore, area of focus was assigned. Use of ICF components and intervention were coded in papers categorized as “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” or “non-clinical contexts”. One hundred seventy papers were included, of these 99 papers were from the categories “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” or “non-clinical contexts”. Forty-two percent of the 170 included papers were published in the period 2011 - 2013. There was an increase in ICF-relevant papers from 2001 to 2013, especially in the categories “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” and “non-clinical contexts”. The most represented focus areas were neurology, musculoskeletal, and work-related areas. All five or at least four ICF components were mentioned in the results or discussions in most papers, and activity was most frequently mentioned. PMID:26668676

  2. An assessment of the added value from data assimilation on modelled Nordic Seas hydrography and ocean transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Vidar S.; Hjøllo, Solfrid S.; Skogen, Morten D.; Svendsen, Einar; Wehde, Henning; Bertino, Laurent; Counillon, Francois; Chevallier, Matthieu; Garric, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    The Nordic Seas is a hotspot both in terms of climate related processes, such as Atlantic-Arctic heat exchange, and natural marine resources. A sustainable management of the marine resources within the Nordic Seas, including the co-existence between fisheries and petroleum industries, requires detailed information on the state of the ocean within an operational framework and beyond what is obtainable from observations only. Numerical ocean models applying data assimilation techniques are utilized to address this need. Subsequently, comprehensive comparisons between model results and observations are required in order to assess the model performance. Here, we apply a set of objective statistics to quantitatively assess the added value of data assimilation in numerical ocean models that are currently used operationally. The results indicate that the inclusion of data assimilation improves the model performance both in terms of hydrographic properties and volume and heat transports. Furthermore, we find that increasing the resolution towards eddy resolving resolution performs similarly to coarser resolution models applying data assimilation in shelf areas.

  3. Ambiguity of the embryo protection in the Human Rights and Biomedicine Convention: experiences from the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Walin, Laura

    2007-07-01

    Until 1998 research on in vitro human embryos concentrated on the issues related to assisted reproduction. The situation changed dramatically when the first scientific report on the laboratory culture of human embryonic stem cells was published. This scientific breakthrough with new therapeutic promises put human embryo into a new, more vulnerable position. Combined with creation of embryos via somatic cell nuclear transfer, it inveigles into mass production of embryos, first for scientific purposes, but later perhaps for the healing of people. This article examines the efficacy of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine in protecting embryos in this new era of embryo research. The interpretative latitude of Article 18 of the Convention is demonstrated, and legislation in three Nordic countries with highly variable approach to embryo research regulation is analysed. I examine how this divergence is possible in the light of the Convention text. In the end, potential reasons for variation in regulation in the otherwise similar Nordic countries are discussed, as well as under what conditions harmonisation of regulation on embryo research, a highly value-charged matter, could be possible at the European level.

  4. The integration of gender in medical research and education-obstacles and possibilities from a Nordic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Research on women's issues in medicine was developed in the Nordic countries from the beginning of the 1980s. The theoretical developments led to a change of concepts from women's health to gender research, within which the structurally organised relations between men and women are analysed. Over the last decades, gender research has slowly been established in medical faculties, as a result of a strong political commitment for increased research and integration of gender issues in the university curriculum in Sweden. The government has made substantial investments in order to stimulate gender research and education in different disciplines, with special focus on medicine. Academic medicine has responded to this development with different strategies, including resistance and redefining concepts. Gender research has slowly become integrated into both research and teaching within Nordic academic medicine, although the pathway has not been easy. Gender research has had political support but there is a risk of backlash. Medical students' reactions to gender education can be compared with academic medicine's reactions towards gender research. Obstacles and possibilities are described in relation to teaching gender in schools of medicine. Most important is to recognise the risks for increased gender stereotypes and increased essentialism among the students, unless gender is taught from a theoretical perspective.

  5. Non-communicable diseases and the social determinants of health in the Nordic countries: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Balaj, Mirza; Huijts, Tim; McNamara, Courtney L; Stornes, Per; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-03-01

    Comparative studies examining non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and determinants of health in the Nordic countries are scarce, outdated and focus only on a limited range of NCDs and health determinants. This study is the first to present a comprehensive overview of the distribution of social and behavioural determinants of health and of physical and mental NCDs in the Nordic population. We examined regional, country and gender differences for 17 health outcomes and 20 determinants of health. We use data from the 7th wave of the European Social Survey. All results were age-standardised by weighting up or down the unstandardized (crude) prevalence rates for five year age groups in each country to a common standard. We present pooled estimates for the combined regional samples as well as country-specific results for the Nordic region. Overall, the population of the Nordic region reported among the highest prevalence for one or both genders in 10 out of 17 health outcomes. Despite being the region with the highest prevalence for most health outcomes, overall self-rated health levels tend to be better in the Nordic region. Similarly, we found that the Nordic countries adhere to a healthier lifestyle and have better access to health care. Future studies should consider investigating further the association between health outcomes and determinants of health and how they are distributed in the Nordic societies.

  6. Why might regional vaccinology networks fail? The case of the Dutch-Nordic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Blume, Stuart

    2016-07-07

    We analyzed an attempt to develop and clinically test a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the developing world, undertaken by public health institutions from the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland: the Dutch Nordic Consortium (DNC), between 1990 and 2000. Our review shows that the premature termination of the project was due less to technological and scientific challenges and more to managerial challenges and institutional policies. Various impeding events, financial and managerial challenges gradually soured the initially enthusiastic collaborative spirit until near the end the consortium struggled to complete the minimum objectives of the project. By the end of 1998, a tetravalent prototype vaccine had been made that proved safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 trials in adults and toddlers in Finland. The planned next step, to test the vaccine in Asia in infants, did not meet approval by the local authorities in Vietnam nor later in the Philippines and the project eventually stopped.The Dutch DNC member, the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) learned important lessons, which subsequently were applied in a following vaccine technology transfer project, resulting in the availability at affordable prices for the developing world of a conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b. We conclude that vaccine development in the public domain with technology transfer as its ultimate aim requires major front-end funding, committed leadership at the highest institutional level sustained for many years and a competent recipient-manufacturer, which needs to be involved at a very early stage of the development.At the national level, RIVM's policy to consolidate its national manufacturing task through securing a key global health position in support of a network of public vaccine manufacturers proved insufficiently supported by the relevant ministries of the Dutch government. Difficulties to keep up with high costs, high

  7. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  8. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners' attitudes towards keeping horses in groups.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Christensen, J W; Hyyppä, S; Jansson, H; Jørgensen, G H M; Ladewig, J; Mejdell, C M; Norling, Y; Rundgren, M; Särkijärvi, S; Søndergaard, E; Keeling, L J

    2015-09-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is available about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners' attitudes toward keeping horses in groups. Horse owners in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were approached using a web-based questionnaire, which was translated into 4 languages and distributed online via equestrian forums, organizations, and social media. The number of respondents was 3,229, taking care of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority of respondents (86%) strongly agreed that group housing benefits horse welfare and that it is important for horses to have the company of conspecifics (92%). Nevertheless, not all horses were kept in groups, showing that attitudes toward group housing may not necessarily reflect current management. The risk of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling group-kept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest that the majority of horses have the possibility to freely interact with other horses, either as fulltime members of a group during 24 h/d or during turnout. Future research should

  9. Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero; Aspholm, Rafael; Auvinen, Anssi; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hrafnkelsson, Jón; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tveten, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence of cancer among male airline pilots in the Nordic countries, with special reference to risk related to cosmic radiation. Design Retrospective cohort study, with follow up of cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Participants 10 032 male airline pilots, with an average follow up of 17 years. Main outcome measures Standardised incidence ratios, with expected numbers based on national cancer incidence rates; dose-response analysis using Poisson regression. Results 466 cases of cancer were diagnosed compared with 456 expected. The only significantly increased standardised incidence ratios were for skin cancer: melanoma 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.0), non-melanoma 2.1 (1.7 to 2.8), basal cell carcinoma 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2). The relative risk of skin cancers increased with the estimated radiation dose. The relative risk of prostate cancer increased with increasing number of flight hours in long distance aircraft. Conclusions This study does not indicate a marked increase in cancer risk attributable to cosmic radiation, although some influence of cosmic radiation on skin cancer cannot be entirely excluded. The suggestion of an association between number of long distance flights (possibly related to circadian hormonal disturbances) and prostate cancer needs to be confirmed. What is already known on this topicAirline pilots are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and other potentially carcinogenic elementsIn the studies published so far, dose-response patterns have not been characterisedWhat this study addsNo marked risk of cancer attributable to cosmic radiation is observed in airline pilotsA threefold excess of skin cancers is seen among pilots with longer careers, but the influence of recreational exposure to ultraviolet light cannot be quantifiedA slight increase in risk of prostate cancer with increasing number of long haul flights suggests a need

  10. Dynamical downscaling of warming scenarios with NEMO-Nordic setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Matthias; Almroth Rosell, Elin; Anderson, Helén; Axell, Lars; Dieterich, Christain; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Hieronymus, Jenny; Karlsson, Bengt; Liu, Ye; Meier, Markus; Pemberton, Per; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea and Baltic Sea constitute one of the most complex and challenging areas in the world. The oceanographic setting ranges from quasi open ocean conditions in the northern North Sea to more brackish conditions in the Baltic Sea which is also affected by sea ice in winter. The two seas are connected by narrow straits which sporadically allow the important inflow of salt and oxygen rich bottom waters into the Baltic Sea. For this, the high resolution regional model NEMO-Nordic has recently been developed. Here, the model is applied on hindcast simulations and used to downscale several climate warming scenarios. The model can be interactively coupled to the regional atmosphere model RCA4 by exchanging air sea fluxes of mass and energy (Wang et al., 2015). Comparison with well established models and newly compiled observational data sets (Bersch et al., 2013) indicates NEMO-Nordic performs well on climate relevant time scales. Emphasis is laid on thermal dynamics. Hindcast simulations demonstrate that simulated winter temperatures in the Baltic Sea can benefit from interactive air sea coupling by allowing interactive feedback loops to take place between the ocean and the atmosphere (Gröger et al. 2015). Likewise, a more realistic dynamical behaviour makes the interactive coupled model suitable for dynamic downscaling of climate warming scenarios. Depending on the driving global climate model and IPCC representative concentration pathway scenario NEMO-Nordic shows an average warming of the North Sea between 2 and 4 K at the end of the 21st century. However the warming pattern is spatially inhomogeneous showing strong east west gradients. Involved processes such as circulation changes and changes in radiative forcing will be discussed. Bersch, M., Gouretski, V., Sadikni, R., Hinrichs, I., 2013. Hydrographic climatology of the North Sea and surrounding regions. Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, University of Hamburg, www

  11. Reversal of the 1960s to 1990s freshening trend in the northeast North Atlantic and Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, N. Penny; Hughes, S. L.; Bacon, S.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Hansen, B.; Lavín, A.; Loeng, H.; Mork, K. A.; Østerhus, S.; Sherwin, T.; Walczowski, W.

    2008-02-01

    Hydrographic time series in the northeast North Atlantic and Nordic Seas show that the freshening trend of the 1960s-1990s has completely reversed in the upper ocean. Since the 1990s temperature and salinity have rapidly increased in the Atlantic Inflow from the eastern subpolar gyre to the Fram Strait. In 2003-2006 salinity values reached the previous maximum last observed around 1960, and temperature values exceeded records. The mean properties of the Atlantic Inflow decrease northwards, but variations seen in the eastern subpolar gyre at 57°N persist with the same amplitude and pattern along the pathways to Fram Strait. Time series correlations and extreme events suggest a time lag of 3-4 years over that distance. This estimate allows predictions to be made; the temperature of Atlantic water in the Fram Strait may start to decline in 2007 or 2008, salinity a year later, but both will remain high at least until 2010.

  12. Vatnajökull meltwater discharge variability: a Holocene climate sensor in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striberger, J.; Björck, S.; Ingólfsson, Ó.; Kjær, K.; Sandgren, P.; Snowball, I.

    2009-04-01

    The Holocene glacial history of Vatnajökull and its many outlet glaciers is rather poorly known, even though it is one of the largest ice caps outside Antarctica and Greenland. Vatnajökull is positioned in the centre of the Nordic Seas, the region for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and it is influenced by humid-bearing cyclone systems from the southwest. Thus, it can be regarded as a sensor for a combination of different climatic driven processes. Lake Lögurinn (53 km2, 20 m a.s.l), situated northeast of Vatnajökull, is part of the drainage system of Eyjabakkajökull, one of the most conspicuous surging outlet glaciers of the ice cap. In addition to glacial meltwater, the lake also receives discharge from rivers that drain non-glaciated catchments. The mix of glacial and non-glacial suspension makes the sediments suitable for analyses of how the fluvial regime has varied over time and how this relates to meltwater discharge, fluvial discharge and general changes in climate and hydrology. A total of 17.8 m of sediment was obtained from the central part of the northernmost sub-basin in Lake Lögurinn at water depths of 38 and 16 m, respectively. The sediments are laminated in most parts of the sequence. 137Cs analyses of the surface core have confirmed that the laminated couplets are varves. Tephra horizons have been used as time markers throughout the sediments, and X-ray fluorescence and X-ray analyses as well as visual observations have been used in order to identify varves in the uppermost 3.8 m of the sequence. This section covers the time period AD 1262-2005. The sediment contains 610 varves for the periods AD 1262-1476 and AD 1603-2005 (a total of 618 years). A significant change in sedimentation rate is observed between AD 1477-1602 (from 5.9 mm/yr to 1.2 mm/yr). For this period only 18 varves are found. This abrupt change is likely related to a lower discharge rate, or to more turbulent conditions in the lake. The sedimentation rate of the

  13. A Detailed Radiometric Chronological Framework for Nordic Seas Ocean-Ice Sheet Interactions Spanning 50-150 Ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendryen, J.; Edwards, R. L.; Haflidason, H.; Cheng, H.; Grasmo, K. J.; Sejrup, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Chronological control of sedimentary deposits is a key to do paleoclimatic interpretations of proxy records and to compare them with records from other archives. Beyond the reach of radiocarbon dating there are however few options for developing chronological control. We present a detailed radiometrical-based chronological framework of a Norwegian Sea core archive that records ocean-ice sheet interactions in the Nordic Seas covering the time span 50-150 ka BP. The chronology is based on a detailed multi-proxy and multi-archive alignment of high resolution records from the Norwegian Sea and precisely radiometric dated speleothem δ18O record from both China and the Alps. This approach utilizes the close and well documented millennial and multi-centennial scale coupling between the North Atlantic climate variability (recorded in the Norwegian Sea records, the Greenland ice cores and in the Alpine speleothems) and the Asian Monsoon system recorded in the Chinese speleothem δ18O. One intriguing feature of the Norwegian Sea record is that it often is more similar to the Chinese speleothem records than to the Greenland ice core records. The alignment is aided by a tephrostratigraphic link to the Greenland ice cores which provide an independent test of the age model and alignment. Uncertainties are addressed by Bayesian age-depth modeling. The radiometric-based age model and the quantified uncertainties enable an independent comparison between the Nordic Seas ocean-ice sheet interaction and other absolutely dated records such as U/Th dated sea-level indices and orbital parameters. This improves our ability to interpret the ocean-ice sheet interactions of the polar north in a global context over this time span that comprises a glacial-interglacial cycle.

  14. Short communication: genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and extent of negative energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the genetic parameters for feed intake, milk production, and energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle from an experimental data set. The data were collected at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland Rehtijärvi experimental farm in 4 feeding trials between 1998 and 2008, and included lactation wk 2 to 30 for 291 Nordic Red nucleus heifers descending from 72 different sires. The studied traits included weekly averages for energy-corrected milk yield (ECM, kg/d), dry matter intake (kg/d), body weight (BW, kg), body condition score (BCS, score 1 to 5), and energy balance (EB, MJ of metabolizable energy/d). The data were analyzed with both fixed and random regression models. The heritabilities of ECM and BCS were moderate to high and remained fairly constant over the entire lactation period, whereas the heritabilities of BW and EB were the highest in early lactation (0.47 and 0.37, respectively) and declined later on. The heritabilities of DMI were highest (0.33) around lactation wk 5 and again at lactation wk 30, and were somewhat lower at the beginning of the lactation and in the middle period. The genetic correlations between the traits differed considerably between early and later lactation periods, especially for the trait pairs ECM-dry matter intake, ECM-EB, BW-EB, and BCS-EB, being negative or close to zero in lactation wk 2 to 5 but turning moderate to strong and positive by lactation wk 10. The results suggest that the lactating cows express their genetic potential for feed intake and energy utilization most clearly between lactation wk 2 to 10. The best candidate trait for selection might be EB in lactation wk 2 to 5 because it has a moderate heritability and is not genetically correlated with BW or BCS in that period.

  15. Water mass transformation in the deep basins of the Nordic Seas: Analyses of heat and freshwater budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latarius, K.; Quadfasel, D.

    2016-08-01

    In the Arctic Mediterranean a transformation of Atlantic Water, flowing in near the surface, into overflow water, which leaves the area at depth, takes place. For this transformation the Nordic Seas are of particular importance, as they are largely ice-free and thus heat loss to the atmosphere during winter is strong. Since 2001 Argo-type profiling float measurements have been carried out in the region and enable the observation of hydrography during the whole year. The measurements concentrate on the deep basins, the Norwegian Basin, Lofoten Basin, Greenland Sea and Icelandic Plateau. They are analysed with special emphasis on the seasonal cycle in hydrography. Based on the mean seasonal cycle of temperature and salinity and atmospheric fluxes from reanalysis products for the first decade of this century heat and freshwater budgets are calculated. The residuum in the budgets gives the lateral exchange of water between the inner basins and the boundary current, circumnavigating the whole area. This lateral exchange is identified with the contribution of the deep basins to the water mass transformation within the Nordic Seas. Budget calculations, using atmospheric flux data from NCEP with corrections for high latitudes, yield a contribution of 18% to the total temperature decrease and 6% to the total salinity decrease in the Arctic Mediterranean, although the basins account for only 4% of the total area. The density increase nearly exclusively takes place in the eastern basins, whereas the Greenland Sea plays an important role in matching the temperature and salinity characteristic of the overflow water. An increasing amount of freshwater in the surface layer will have only minor effects on the strength of the overflows across the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge.

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and age at onset of schizophrenia: no consistent evidence for an association in the Nordic population.

    PubMed

    Saetre, Peter; Grove, Jakob; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole; Werge, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A; Vares, Maria; Agartz, Ingrid; Terenius, Lars; Jönsson, Erik G

    2012-12-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an enzyme involved in metabolic pathways of importance for nucleotide synthesis and methylation of DNA, membranes, proteins and lipids. The MTHFR gene includes a common polymorphism (rs1801133 or C677T), which is associated with enzyme activity. The T-allele of the C677T polymorphism has been associated with earlier age at onset of schizophrenia in a Scandinavian population, although no association was found in replication attempts in other populations. Extending the study to five Nordic samples consisting of 2,198 patients with schizophrenia, including the original Scandinavian samples, there was no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and age at onset in schizophrenia. The present results do not suggest that the investigated MTHFR polymorphism has any significant influence on age at onset of schizophrenia in the Nordic population.

  17. An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Paukkunen, Juho; Berg, Alexander; Soon, Villu; Ødegaard, Frode; Rosa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Chrysididae are a group of cleptoparasitic and parasitoid aculeate wasps with a large number of rare and endangered species. The taxonomy of this group has long been confusing due to the similarity of species and extensive intraspecific variation. We present for the first time a comprehensive dichotomous key for all 74 species found in the Nordic and Baltic countries. In addition to diagnostic characters, information on the distribution and biology of each species is also presented. A new species, Chrysis borealis Paukkunen, Ødegaard & Soon, sp. n. is described on the basis of specimens collected from Fennoscandia. Chrysis gracillima Förster, 1853 is recorded as new to the Nordic and Baltic countries. PMID:26798322

  18. An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Paukkunen, Juho; Berg, Alexander; Soon, Villu; Ødegaard, Frode; Rosa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The Chrysididae are a group of cleptoparasitic and parasitoid aculeate wasps with a large number of rare and endangered species. The taxonomy of this group has long been confusing due to the similarity of species and extensive intraspecific variation. We present for the first time a comprehensive dichotomous key for all 74 species found in the Nordic and Baltic countries. In addition to diagnostic characters, information on the distribution and biology of each species is also presented. A new species, Chrysis borealis Paukkunen, Ødegaard & Soon, sp. n. is described on the basis of specimens collected from Fennoscandia. Chrysis gracillima Förster, 1853 is recorded as new to the Nordic and Baltic countries.

  19. Field Test Results of Using a Nacelle-Mounted Lidar for Improving Wind Energy Capture by Reducing Yaw Misalignment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Scholbrock, A.; Wright, A.

    2014-11-01

    Presented at the Nordic Wind Power Conference on November 5, 2014. This presentation describes field-test campaigns performed at the National Wind Technology Center in which lidar technology was used to improve the yaw alignment of the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) 2 and CART3 wind turbines. The campaigns demonstrated that whether by learning a correction function to the nacelle vane, or by controlling yaw directly with the lidar signal, a significant improvement in power capture was demonstrated.

  20. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. PMID:26506373

  1. Effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness and self-assessment of the quality of health of women of the perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health. Material and methods Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions. Results A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001). Conclusions A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health. PMID:26327897

  2. Assessment of plasma opioid peptides, beta-endorphin and met-enkephalin, at the end of an international nordic ski race.

    PubMed

    Mougin, C; Baulay, A; Henriet, M T; Haton, D; Jacquier, M C; Turnill, D; Berthelay, S; Gaillard, R C

    1987-01-01

    Plasma met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin, cortisol and lactic acid concentrations were measured in seventeen volunteer male subjects at rest and after a long-distance nordic ski race. Immediately after the race, mean plasma met-enkephalin did not show any significant change, but significant rises in beta-endorphin, cortisol and lactic acid were noted in all skiers. The change in beta-endorphin with exercise was significantly related to the change in cortisol (r = 0.68; p less than 0.001) and to the change in plasma lactic acid (r = 0.60; p less than 0.001). Furthermore, the experienced skiers training over 150 km X week-1 of nordic ski had significantly faster skiing times in this event and showed greater beta-endorphin, cortisol and lactic acid levels than the recreational skiers who trained for 20 km X week-1. Our results imply that the changes in plasma beta-endorphin depend on the intensity of exercise. However the significance of higher levels of skiing training or previous nordic ski experience in the release of beta-endorphin is expected and cannot be excluded.

  3. Does Nordic walking improves the postural control and gait parameters of women between the age 65 and 74: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Kocur, Piotr; Wiernicka, Marzena; Wilski, Maciej; Kaminska, Ewa; Furmaniuk, Lech; Maslowska, Marta Flis; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effect of 12-weeks Nordic walking training on gait parameters and some elements of postural control. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-seven women aged 65 to 74 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into a Nordic Walking group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, 3 times a week for 75 minutes) and a control group. In both study groups, a set of functional tests were conducted at the beginning and at the end of the study: the Forward Reach Test (FRT) and the Upward Reach Test (URT) on a stabilometric platform, and the analysis of gait parameters on a treadmill. [Results] The NW group showed improvements in: the range of reach in the FRT test and the URT test in compared to the control group. The length of the gait cycle and gait cycle frequency also showed changes in the NW group compared to the control group. [Conclusion] A 12-week NW training program had a positive impact on selected gait parameters and may improve the postural control of women aged over 65 according to the results selected functional tests. PMID:26834341

  4. Effect of heavy strength training on muscle thickness, strength, jump performance, and endurance performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Kojedal, Oystein; Losnegard, Thomas; Kvamme, Bent; Raastad, Truls

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplemental heavy strength training on muscle thickness and determinants of performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes. Seventeen well-trained Nordic Combined athletes were assigned to either usual training supplemented with heavy strength training (STR; n = 8) or to usual training without heavy strength training (CON; n = 9). The strength training performed by STR consisted of one lower-body exercise and two upper-body exercises [3-5 repetition maximum (RM) sets of 3-8 repetitions], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. Architectural changes in m. vastus lateralis, 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, squat jump (SJ) height, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), work economy during submaximal treadmill skate rollerskiing, and performance in a 7.5-km rollerski time trial were measured before and after the intervention. STR increased 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, muscle thickness, and SJ performance more than CON (p < 0.05). There was no difference between groups in change in work economy. The two groups showed no changes in total body mass, VO(2max), or time-trial performance. In conclusion, 12 weeks of supplemental strength training improved determinants of performance in Nordic Combined by improving the athletes' strength and vertical jump ability without increasing total body mass or compromising the development of VO(2max).

  5. Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Domellöf, Magnus; Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorstensen, Ketil

    2013-01-01

    Background The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. Objective The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the health effects of different intakes of iron, at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation), in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. Methods The initial literature search resulted in 1,076 abstracts. Out of those, 276 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Of those, 49 were considered relevant and were quality assessed (A, B, or C). An additional search on iron and diabetes yielded six articles that were quality assessed. Thus, a total of 55 articles were evaluated. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing (grade 1), probable (grade 2), suggestive (grade 3), and inconclusive (grade 4). Results There is suggestive evidence that prevention or treatment of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) improves cognitive, motoric, and behavioral development in young children, and that treatment of IDA improves attention and concentration in school children and adult women. There is insufficient evidence to show negative health effects of iron intakes in doses suggested by the NNR 4. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that normal birth weight, healthy, exclusively breast-fed infants need additional dietary iron before 6 months of life in the Nordic countries. An iron concentration of 4–8 mg/L in infant formulas seems to be safe and effective for normal birth weight infants. There is probable evidence that iron supplements (1–2 mg/kg/day) given up to 6 months of age to infants with low birth weight (<2,500 g) prevents IDA and possibly reduce the risk of behavioral problems later on. There is probable evidence that ID and IDA in

  6. Analysis of sea ice and phytoplankton biomarkers in marine sediments from the Nordic Seas - a calibration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro Rodriguez, A.; Cabedo Sanz, P.; Belt, S.; Brown, T.; Knies, J.; Husum, K.; Giraudeau, J.

    2012-04-01

    The work presented here is part of the Changing Arctic and SubArctic Environment program (EU CASE) which is an Initial Training Network (ITN) on climate change and marine environment and is an interdisciplinary project focussing on biological proxies. One of these proxies is the sea ice diatom biomarker IP25 which is a highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkene synthesised by some Arctic sea-ice diatoms and has been shown to be a specific, stable and sensitive proxy measure of Arctic sea ice when detected in underlying sediments (Belt et al., 2007). The current study focuses on two key elements: (1) An analytical calibration of IP25 isolated from marine sediments and purified using a range of chromatographic methods was conducted in order to improve the quantification of this biomarker in sediment extracts. (2) Analysis of >30 near-surface sediments from the Nordic Seas was carried out to quantify biomarkers previously suggested as indicators of open-water phytoplankton (brassicasterol) (Müller et al., 2011) and sea-ice (IP25) conditions (Belt et al., 2010). The outcomes of the biomarker analyses were used to make comparisons between proxy data and known sea ice conditions in the study area derived from satellite record over the last 20 years. The results of this study should inform longer timescale reconstructions of sea ice conditions in the Nordic sea in the future. Belt, S.T., Massé, G., Rowland. S.J., Poulin. M., Michel. C., LeBlanc. B., (2007). A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice : IP25 . Organic Geochemistry 38 (16-27). Belt, S. T., Vare, L. L., Massé, G., Manners, H. R., Price, J. C., MacLachlan, S. E., Andrews, J. T. & Schmidt, S. (2010) 'Striking similarities in temporal changes to spring sea ice occurrence across the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago over the last 7000 years', Quaternary Science Reviews, 29 (25-26), pp. 3489-3504. Müller, J., Wagner, A., Fahl, K., Stein, R., Prange, M., & Lohmann, G. (2011). Towards quantitative sea ice

  7. Effects of short-term Nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ossowski, Zbigniew Marcin; Skrobot, Wojciech; Aschenbrenner, Piotr; Cesnaitiene, Vida Janina; Smaruj, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated the positive effects of physical activity on skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength in women with osteoporosis. However, the impact of Nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 12 weeks of Nordic walking training on skeletal muscle index, muscle strength, functional mobility, and functional performance in women with low bone mass. Materials and methods The participants were 45 women, aged 63–79 years, with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The subjects were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, three times a week) or to a control group. Skeletal muscle mass and other body composition factors were measured with octapolar bioimpedance InBody 720 analyser. Knee extensor and flexor isometric muscle strength were measured using Biodex System 4 Pro™ dynamometers. This study also used a SAEHAN Digital Hand Dynamometer to measure handgrip muscle strength. The timed up-and-go test was used to measure functional mobility, and the 6-minute walk test was used to measure functional performance. Results Short-term Nordic walking training induced a significant increase in skeletal muscle mass (P=0.007), skeletal muscle index (P=0.007), strength index of the knee extensor (P=0.016), flexor (P<0.001), functional mobility (P<0.001), and functional performance (P<0.001) and a significant decrease in body mass (P=0<006), body mass index (P<0.001), and percent body fat (P<0.001) in participants. Regarding handgrip muscle strength, no improvement was registered (P=0.315). No significant changes in any of the analyzed parameters were observed in the control group. Conclusion Overall, short-term Nordic walking training induces positive changes in knee muscle strength and functional performance in women with low bone mass. This finding could be applied in clinical

  8. The effect of kinesio taping versus stretching techniques on muscle soreness, and flexibility during recovery from nordic hamstring exercise.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Tarik; Yagmur Gunes, Gokce; Dogan, Hanife; Ucar, Ilyas; Willems, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, or kinesio taping (KT) on muscle soreness and flexibility during recovery from exercise. Sixty-five females were randomly assigned to four groups: PNF stretching (n = 15), static stretching (n = 16), KT (n = 17), and control (n = 17). All participants performed nordic hamstring exercise (5 sets of 8 repetitions). In all groups, hamstring flexibility at 24 h and 48 h was not changed from baseline (p > .05). The muscle soreness was measured higher at 48 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the control group (p = .04) and at 24 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the PNF group (p < .01). No significant differences were found for intervention groups compared with control group in all measurements (p > .05). The KT application and pre-exercise stretching have no contribute to flexibility at 24 h and 48 h after exercise, but may attenuate muscle soreness.

  9. A survey of social support for exercise and its relationship to health behaviours and health status among endurance Nordic skiers

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Paul J; Wang, Zhen; Beebe, Timothy J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Regular exercise is a key component of obesity prevention and 48% of Americans do not meet minimum guidelines for weekly exercise. Social support has been shown to help individuals start and maintain exercise programmes. We evaluated social support among endurance athletes and explored the relationship between social support for exercise, health behaviours and health status. Design Survey. Setting The largest Nordic ski race in North America. Participants 5433 past participants responded to an online questionnaire. Outcome measures Social support, health behaviours and health status. Results The mean overall support score was 32.1 (SD=16.5; possible range=−16.0 to 88.0). The most common forms of social support were verbal such as discussing exercise, invitations to exercise and celebrating the enjoyment of exercise. We found that an increase of 10 points in the social support score was associated with a 5 min increase in weekly self-reported exercise (5.02, 95% CI 3.63 to 6.41). Conclusions Physical activity recommendations should incorporate the importance of participation in group activities, especially those connected to strong fitness cultures created by community and competitive events. PMID:27338876

  10. Creating their own private and public: the male homosexual life space in a Nordic city during high modernity.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, A

    1998-01-01

    In this article I describe the male homosexual life space in a Nordic city during the decades around the Second World War. It consisted almost entirely of outdoor places such as parks, public conveniencies, and streets. It included, in Delph's (1978) words, not only erotic, but also cultural and social oases, fostering an extensive and varied social life and a growing community. Most of this outdoor space was invisible to those other than the participants. It had its own differentiation of, and meanings for, "public" and "private." A poor economy, overcrowding, and the classical modern city helped shape the location and design of the male homosexual life space, as did the participation of many men who did not look upon themselves as "homosexual." During this period, and especially after the Second World War, this life space began to change in a direction pointing towards that of today, that is, towards less outdoor life and more life in homes and semipublic indoor spaces. Better economy, the rise of the welfare state, and diminished overcrowding furthered this movement. Among other things, these changes stimulated the withdrawal of men who did not see themselves as "homosexual." The transformation of the city into the spread out, suburbanized city, with segregation of various functions, contributed to the development, as did the obstruction of parks and toilets as meeting places by public authorities. The law reform of 1944, which decriminalized homosexual erotic acts between adults, was also of importance.

  11. Private property rights and selective private forest conservation: could a Nordic hybrid policy address a United States problem?

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Michael J

    2008-05-01

    Political and legal conflicts between the need for targeted private forest conservation and the continued assurance of private property rights in the U.S. presents a seemingly intractable resource management problem. Scandinavian use of habitat protection areas on private forests offers an additional tool that may be suitable for solving the historical and on-going tension found within U.S. efforts to reconcile desires to maintain lands in a forested condition while also respecting private property rights. This article presents a comparative cross-sectional policy analysis of Sweden, Finland, and the U.S., supported with a supplemental case example from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Similarities in all three countries among forest ownership patterns, use of public subsidies, and changing attitudes towards conservation are generally encouraging. Additionally, Virginia's current consideration and development of state-wide forest policies focused on forestland and open space conservation suggests both a need and an opportunity to systematically assess the applicability of the Nordic forest reserve approach to local private forest conservation. Future research at a high-resolution, and specifically at the state level, should focus on the social and political factors that would ultimately determine the viability of a forest reserve program.

  12. Nordic walking training attenuation of oxidative stress in association with a drop in body iron stores in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kortas, Jakub; Kuchta, Agnieszka; Prusik, Krzysztof; Prusik, Katarzyna; Ziemann, Ewa; Labudda, Sandra; Ćwiklińska, Agnieszka; Wieczorek, Ewa; Jankowski, Maciej; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2017-02-22

    Excess body iron accumulation and oxidative stress has been associated with ageing. Regular exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and induce some changes in iron metabolism. However, the effects of exercise on both of these parameters have been poorly investigated. In our study, 35 elderly women participated in 12 weeks of Nordic walking (NW) training (three times a week). We demonstrated that the training caused a significant reduction in malondialdehyde advanced oxidation protein products-markers of oxidative stress but had no effects on paraoxonase 1 activity. These changes were associated with the decrease of blood ferritin (99.4 ± 62.7 vs. 81.4 ± 61.7 ng/ml p < 0.05). Measurement of physical fitness revealed that the training caused a significant improvement in performance and a negative correlation between the blood ferritin and endurance test was recorded (r = -0.34, p = 0.03). In addition, a significant correlation between blood ferritin and fasting glucose level was noted. The training induced a rise of HDL cholesterol from 70.8 ± 19.3-75.3 ± 21.1, p < 0.05, whereas other lipid parameters remained unchanged. In conclusion, NW training reduced body iron stores and it was associated with lower oxidative stress and better endurance.

  13. Vitamin D – a systematic literature review for the 5th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Brustad, Magritt; Meyer, Haakon E.; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2013-01-01

    Background The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. Objectives The overall aim was to review recent scientific data on the requirements and health effects of vitamin D and to report it to the NNR5 Working Group, who is responsible for updating the current dietary reference values valid in the Nordic countries. Methods The electronic databases MEDLINE and Swemed were searched. We formulated eight questions which were used for the search. The search terms related to vitamin D status and intake and different health outcomes as well as to the effect of different vitamin D sources on vitamin D status. The search was done in two batches, the first covering January 2000–March 2010 and the second March 2009–February 2011. In the first search, we focused only on systematic literature reviews (SLRs) and in the second on SLRs and randomized control trials (RCTs) published after March 2009. Furthermore, we used snowballing for SLRs and IRCTs published between February 2011 and May 2012. The abstracts as well as the selected full-text papers were evaluated in pairs. Results We found 1,706 studies in the two searches of which 28 studies were included in our review. We found 7 more by snowballing, thus 35 papers were included in total. Of these studies, 31 were SLRs and 4 were RCTs. The SLRs were generally of good or fair quality, whereas that of the included studies varied from good to poor. The heterogeneity of the studies included in the SLRs was large which made it difficult to interpret the results and provide single summary statements. One factor increasing the heterogeneity is the large variation in the assays used for assessing 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OH)D], the marker of vitamin D status. The SLRs we have reviewed conclude that the evidence for a protective effect of vitamin D is only conclusive

  14. On the flow of Atlantic water and temperature anomalies in the Nordic Seas toward the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafik, L.; Nilsson, J.; Skagseth, Å.; Lundberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    The climatic conditions over the Arctic Ocean are strongly influenced by the inflow of warm Atlantic water conveyed by the Norwegian Atlantic Slope Current (NwASC). Based on sea surface height (SSH) data from altimetry, we develop a simple dynamical measure of the NwASC transport to diagnose its spatio-temporal variability. This supports a dynamical division of the NwASC into two flow regimes; the Svinøy Branch (SvB) in the southern Norwegian Sea, and the Fram Strait Branch (FSB) west of Spitsbergen. The SvB transport is well correlated with the SSH and atmospheric variability within the Nordic Seas, factors that also affect the inflow to the Barents Sea. In contrast, the FSB is influenced by regional atmospheric conditions around Svalbard and northern Barents Sea. Using a composite analysis, we further relate anomalous strong SvB flow events to temperature fluctuations along the core of Atlantic water. A warm composite anomaly is found to propagate northward, with a tendency to amplify enroute, after these events. A roughly 12 months delayed temperature signal is identified in the FSB. However, also in the Lofoten Basin interior a delayed temperature signal is found, which appears to originate from the NwASC. This study suggests that hydrographic anomalies both upstream from the North Atlantic, and locally generated in the Norwegian Sea, are important for the oceanic heat and salt transport that eventually enters into the Arctic.

  15. Identification and evaluation of computer models for predicting environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals and veterinary products in the Nordic environment.

    PubMed

    Wajsman, David; Rudén, Christina

    2006-01-01

    According to European Union Council directive 2001/83, an application for the marketing authorization of a medicinal product shall be accompanied by an environmental risk assessment, including an exposure assessment. Computerized exposure models constitute an important tool in predicting environmental exposure to substances yet to be introduced on the market. This paper reports the process of identifying appropriate exposure models for estimating PECs (Predicted Environmental Concentrations) for pharmaceuticals and veterinary products, focusing on emissions to Swedish aquatic and terrestrial environments via water and sludge from sewage treatment plants. From a large number of information sources, a set of 181 potentially relevant exposure models was identified. A process of scrutinizing and testing these models resulted in a final selection of two models, namely SimpleTreat 3.1 that is used to estimate distribution and elimination of chemicals in sewage treatment plants (resulting in a PEC), and VetPec, suited for veterinary products, that estimates PEC in soil (including pore water), groundwater, and surface water. It is concluded that there is still potential for further development of exposure model(s) specifically designed for pharmaceutical emissions to the Nordic environment and climate. Furthermore, increased regulatory data requirements would facilitate the use of existing models, and improve the quality of the output data from these models.

  16. Intercultural Blended Design Considerations: A Case Study of a Nordic-Baltic Course in Autism Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kack, Annika; Roll-Pettersson, Lise; Alai-Rosales, Shahla S.; Hoium, Kari; Mannikko-Barbutiu, Sirkku; Fors, Uno G. H.

    2014-01-01

    Specialized educational programs previously unavailable to many students are now accessible to students spread throughout the world. In particular, this globalization presents new opportunities and challenges for universities educating professionals in the field of autism treatment. The aim of the present case study is to analyse the experiences…

  17. Exploring the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. II. New magnetic field measurements in cluster and field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Ilyin, I.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Oskinova, L. M.; Langer, N.; González, J. F.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Briquet, M.; Magori Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Context. Theories on the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars remain poorly developed, because the properties of their magnetic field as function of stellar parameters could not yet be investigated. Additional observations are of utmost importance to constrain the conditions that are conducive to magnetic fields and to determine first trends about their occurrence rate and field strength distribution. Aims: To investigate whether magnetic fields in massive stars are ubiquitous or appear only in stars with a specific spectral classification, certain ages, or in a special environment, we acquired 67 new spectropolarimetric observations for 30 massive stars. Among the observed sample, roughly one third of the stars are probable members of clusters at different ages, whereas the remaining stars are field stars not known to belong to any cluster or association. Methods: Spectropolarimetric observations were obtained during four different nights using the low-resolution spectropolarimetric mode of FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS 2) mounted on the 8-m Antu telescope of the VLT. Furthermore, we present a number of follow-up observations carried out with the high-resolution spectropolarimeters SOFIN mounted at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and HARPS mounted at the ESO 3.6 m between 2008 and 2011. To assess the membership in open clusters and associations, we used astrometric catalogues with the highest quality kinematic and photometric data currently available. Results: The presence of a magnetic field is confirmed in nine stars previously observed with FORS 1/2: HD 36879, HD 47839, CPD-28 2561, CPD-47 2963, HD 93843, HD 148937, HD 149757, HD 328856, and HD 164794. New magnetic field detections at a significance level of at least 3σ were achieved in five stars: HD 92206c, HD 93521, HD 93632, CPD-46 8221, and HD 157857. Among the stars with a detected magnetic field, five stars belong to open clusters with high membership probability. According to

  18. Ventilation history of Nordic Seas overflows during the last (de)glacial period revealed by species-specific benthic foraminiferal 14C dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezat, Mohamed M.; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Thornalley, David J. R.; Olsen, Jesper; Skinner, Luke C.; Hönisch, Bärbel; Groeneveld, Jeroen

    2017-02-01

    Formation of deep water in the high-latitude North Atlantic is important for the global meridional ocean circulation, and its variability in the past may have played an important role in regional and global climate change. Here we study ocean circulation associated with the last (de)glacial period, using water-column radiocarbon age reconstructions in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, southeastern Norwegian Sea, and from the Iceland Basin, central North Atlantic. The presence of tephra layer Faroe Marine Ash Zone II, dated to 26.7 ka, enables us to determine that the middepth (1179 m water depth) and shallow subsurface reservoir ages were 1500 and 1100 14C years, respectively, older during the late glacial period compared to modern, suggesting substantial suppression of the overturning circulation in the Nordic Seas. During the late Last Glacial Maximum and the onset of deglaciation ( 20-18 ka), Nordic Seas overflow was weak but active. During the early deglaciation ( 17.5-14.5 ka), our data reveal large differences between 14C ventilation ages that are derived from dating different benthic foraminiferal species: Pyrgo and other miliolid species yield ventilation ages >6000 14C years, while all other species reveal ventilation ages <2000 14C years. These data either suggest subcentennial, regional, circulation changes or that miliolid-based 14C ages are biased due to taphonomic or vital processes. Implications of each interpretation are discussed. Regardless of this "enigma," the onset of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial (14.5 ka) is clearly marked by an increase in middepth Nordic Seas ventilation and the renewal of a stronger overflow.

  19. A permanent N2O sink in the Nordic Seas and its strength and possible variability over the past four decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Liyang; Chen, Liqi; Zhang, Jiexia; Yan, Jinpei; Li, Yuhong; Wu, Man

    2016-08-01

    Nordic Seas have been assumed to be a net sink of the ozone-depleting greenhouse gas N2O. However, few studies have been conducted in this region. N2O profile data obtained during the 5th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition demonstrate that the N2O distribution pattern in the Nordic Seas differs from that of most other oceans. N2O sink characteristics of this region are confirmed by the undersaturation of N2O in the water column. Distributions of N2O in three subbasins of the Nordic Seas vary in the upper 1000 m but are homogenous below 1000 m due to a shared origin in the Greenland Basin (GB). Air-sea exchange and vertical convection are thought to be dominant factors in N2O distribution in the GB, resulting in a distribution pattern that correlates significantly with the atmospheric mixing ratio variation over the past 40 years. Although recent studies have shown that weakened convection and/or enhanced Arctic outflow below the mid-depth have occurred, our results show that these variations have yet to significantly affect the above relationship. The distribution could be considered a "historical record" that can be used to evaluate the air-to-sea flux over the past 40 years in the GB. The annual amount of N2O absorbed by the GB is ˜0.016-0.029 Tg N, which is equal to 0.4-0.8% of the world ocean emissions. This amount should not be simply neglected because it is absorbed by a region that accounts for only 0.03% of the world ocean area.

  20. Cerebral sinus venous thromboses in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia - a multicentre study from the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Susanna; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Mäkipernaa, Anne; Albertsen, Birgitte K; Frisk, Tony; Tedgård, Ulf; Jónsson, Ólafur G; Pruunsild, Kaie; Gretenkort Andersson, Nadine; Winther Gunnes, Maria; Saulyte Trakymiene, Sonata; Frandsen, Thomas; Heyman, Mats; Ruud, Ellen; Helgestad, Jon

    2015-02-01

    We present a prospective multicentre cohort of 20 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT). The study covers a period of 5 years and comprises 1038 children treated according to the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL 2008 protocol. The cumulative incidence of CSVT was 2%. Sixteen of the thromboses were related to asparaginase and 16 to steroids. Most CSVTs occurred in the consolidation phase. Nearly all were treated with low molecular weight heparin without bleeding complications. Mortality related to CSVT directly or indirectly was 10%, emphasizing the importance of this complication.

  1. Evaluating the environmental fate of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the Nordic environment using a dynamic multimedia model.

    PubMed

    Krogseth, Ingjerd S; Breivik, Knut; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) raise concerns due to their potential for persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport and adverse effects. An understanding of their environmental fate remains limited, partly due to the complexity of the mixture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a mechanistic, integrated, dynamic environmental fate and bioaccumulation multimedia model (CoZMoMAN) can reconcile what is known about environmental emissions and human exposure of SCCPs in the Nordic environment. Realistic SCCP emission scenarios, resolved by formula group, were estimated and used to predict the composition and concentrations of SCCPs in the environment and the human food chain. Emissions at the upper end of the estimated range resulted in predicted total concentrations that were often within a factor of 6 of observations. Similar model performance for a complex group of organic contaminants as for the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls strengthens the confidence in the CoZMoMAN model and implies a relatively good mechanistic understanding of the environmental fate of SCCPs. However, the degree of chlorination predicted for SCCPs in sediments, fish, and humans was higher than observed and poorly established environmental half-lives and biotransformation rate constants contributed to the uncertainties in the predicted composition and ∑SCCP concentrations. Improving prediction of the SCCP composition will also require better constrained estimates of the composition of SCCP emissions. There is, however, also large uncertainty and lack of coherence in the existing observations, and better model-measurement agreement will require improved analytical methods and more strategic sampling. More measurements of SCCP levels and compositions in samples from background regions are particularly important.

  2. Development of high-density SNP genotyping arrays for white spruce (Picea glauca) and transferability to subtropical and nordic congeners.

    PubMed

    Pavy, Nathalie; Gagnon, France; Rigault, Philippe; Blais, Sylvie; Deschênes, Astrid; Boyle, Brian; Pelgas, Betty; Deslauriers, Marie; Clément, Sébastien; Lavigne, Patricia; Lamothe, Manuel; Cooke, Janice E K; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Beaulieu, Jean; Isabel, Nathalie; Mackay, John; Bousquet, Jean

    2013-03-01

    High-density SNP genotyping arrays can be designed for any species given sufficient sequence information of high quality. Two high-density SNP arrays relying on the Infinium iSelect technology (Illumina) were designed for use in the conifer white spruce (Picea glauca). One array contained 7338 segregating SNPs representative of 2814 genes of various molecular functional classes for main uses in genetic association and population genetics studies. The other one contained 9559 segregating SNPs representative of 9543 genes for main uses in population genetics, linkage mapping of the genome and genomic prediction. The SNPs assayed were discovered from various sources of gene resequencing data. SNPs predicted from high-quality sequences derived from genomic DNA reached a genotyping success rate of 64.7%. Nonsingleton in silico SNPs (i.e. a sequence polymorphism present in at least two reads) predicted from expressed sequenced tags obtained with the Roche 454 technology and Illumina GAII analyser resulted in a similar genotyping success rate of 71.6% when the deepest alignment was used and the most favourable SNP probe per gene was selected. A variable proportion of these SNPs was shared by other nordic and subtropical spruce species from North America and Europe. The number of shared SNPs was inversely proportional to phylogenetic divergence and standing genetic variation in the recipient species, but positively related to allele frequency in P. glauca natural populations. These validated SNP resources should open up new avenues for population genetics and comparative genetic mapping at a genomic scale in spruce species.

  3. Integrating databases for research on health and performance in small animals and horses in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Egenvall, Agneta; Nødtvedt, Ane; Roepstorff, Lars; Bonnett, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In a world of limited resources, using existing databases in research is a potentially cost-effective way to increase knowledge, given that correct and meaningful results are gained.Nordic examples of the use of secondary small animal and equine databases include studies based on data from tumour registries, breeding registries, young horse quality contest results, competition data, insurance databases, clinic data, prescription data and hunting ability tests. In spite of this extensive use of secondary databases, integration between databases is less common. The aim of this presentation is to briefly review key papers that exemplify different ways of utilizing data from multiple sources, to highlight the benefits and limitations of the approaches, to discuss key issues/challenges that must be addressed when integrating data and to suggest future directions. Data from pedigree databases have been individually merged with competition data and young horse quality contest data, and true integration has also been done with canine insurance data and with equine clinical data. Data have also been merged on postal code level; i.e. insurance data were merged to a digitized map of Sweden and additional meteorological information added. In addition to all the data quality and validity issues inherent in the use of a single database, additional obstacles arise when combining information from several databases. Loss of individuals due to incorrect or mismatched identifying information can be considerable. If there are any possible biases affecting whether or not individuals can be properly linked, misinformation may result in a further reduction in power. Issues of confidentiality may be more difficult to address across multiple databases. For example, human identity information must be protected, but may be required to ensure valid merging of data. There is a great potential to better address complex issues of health and disease in companion animals and horses by integrating

  4. Trends in childhood leukaemia in the Nordic countries in relation to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    PubMed Central

    Darby, S. C.; Olsen, J. H.; Doll, R.; Thakrar, B.; Brown, P. D.; Storm, H. H.; Barlow, L.; Langmark, F.; Teppo, L.; Tulinius, H.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To obtain further information about the risks of childhood leukaemia after exposure to ionising radiation at low doses and low dose rates before or after birth or to the father's testes shortly before conception. DESIGN--Observational study of trends in incidence of childhood leukaemia in relation to estimated radiation exposures due to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing during the 1950s and 1960s. SETTING--Nordic countries. SUBJECTS--Children aged under 15 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incidence rates of leukaemia by age at diagnosis, sex, country, and calendar year of diagnosis or year of birth; exposure category; relation between leukaemia and exposure for children aged 0-14 and 0-4 separately. RESULTS--During the high fallout period the average estimated dose equivalent to the fetal red bone marrow was around 140 mu Sv and the average annual testicular dose 140 mu Sv. There was little evidence of increased incidence of leukaemia among children born in these years. Doses to the red bone marrow of a child after birth were higher, and during the high exposure period children would have been subjected to an additional dose equivalent of around 1500 mu Sv, similar to doses received by children in several parts of central and eastern Europe owing to the Chernobyl accident and about 50% greater than the annual dose equivalent to the red bone marrow of a child from natural radiation. leukaemia incidence and red marrow dose was not related overall, but rates of leukaemia in the high exposure period were slightly higher than in the surrounding medium exposure period (relative risk for ages 0-14: 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.14; for ages 0-4: 1.11, 1.00 to 1.24). CONCLUSIONS--Current predicted risks of childhood leukaemia after exposure to radiation are not greatly underestimated for low dose rate exposures. PMID:1586779

  5. Microsatellite diversity of the Nordic type of goats in relation to breed conservation: how relevant is pure ancestry?

    PubMed

    Lenstra, J A; Tigchelaar, J; Biebach, I; Hallsson, J H; Kantanen, J; Nielsen, V H; Pompanon, F; Naderi, S; Rezaei, H-R; Saether, N; Ertugrul, O; Grossen, C; Camenisch, G; Vos-Loohuis, M; van Straten, M; de Poel, E A; Windig, J; Oldenbroek, K

    2017-02-01

    In the last decades, several endangered breeds of livestock species have been re-established effectively. However, the successful revival of the Dutch and Danish Landrace goats involved crossing with exotic breeds and the ancestry of the current populations is therefore not clear. We have generated genotypes for 27 FAO-recommended microsatellites of these landraces and three phenotypically similar Nordic-type landraces and compared these breeds with central European, Mediterranean and south-west Asian goats. We found decreasing levels of genetic diversity with increasing distance from the south-west Asian domestication site with a south-east-to-north-west cline that is clearly steeper than the Mediterranean east-to-west cline. In terms of genetic diversity, the Dutch Landrace comes next to the isolated Icelandic breed, which has an extremely low diversity. The Norwegian coastal goat and the Finnish and Icelandic landraces are clearly related. It appears that by a combination of mixed origin and a population bottleneck, the Dutch and Danish Land-races are separated from the other breeds. However, the current Dutch and Danish populations with the multicoloured and long-horned appearance effectively substitute for the original breed, illustrating that for conservation of cultural heritage, the phenotype of a breed is more relevant than pure ancestry and the genetic diversity of the original breed. More in general, we propose that for conservation, the retention of genetic diversity of an original breed and of the visual phenotype by which the breed is recognized and defined needs to be considered separately.

  6. Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-06-01

    Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI₁) or from the current data (REI₂). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI₁, 0.30 for REI₂, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI₁: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI₁: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI₁ was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI₁: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation.

  7. Variability of Atlantic inflow to the Arctic Ocean from summer hydrographic observations in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Walczowski, Waldemar; Fahrbach, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    Before reaching the Arctic Ocean, warm and salty water masses, originating from the North Atlantic, pass the eastern rims of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and continue farther to the north through Fram Strait. During its northward advection the Atlantic water (AW) is continuously transformed and its temperature, salinity and heat content changes significantly. A part of the AW heat is released to the atmosphere while a major share is lost due to lateral exchanges and mixing with adjacent water masses. This study addresses summer-to-summer variability, transformation, and circulation patterns of the Atlantic water in the region between the northern Norway and northern Fram Strait. We will present results of the long-term summer measurements in the Norwegian-Atlantic and West Spitsbergen Currents, carried in 1996-2013 by Institute of Oceanology PAS, and compare them to continuous observations from the moored array maintained by Alfred Wegener Institute in the northern Fram Strait, to estimate the impact of seasonal variations on long-term changes in the AW properties. Significant variability over different time scales has been observed in the properties of the AW over the studied period with the warmest AW inflow in late 90s and 2005-2006 and a significant positive trend in AW salinity. Time series of temperature and salinity at the standard hydrographic section at 76°30'N reveal a presence of three 5-6 years long cycles. Spatial distributions of AW properties and geostrophic velocities in the studied region show alternating phases of intensified AW inflow into the Barents Sea and periods of increased northward volume and heat transport through Fram Strait. Using available reanalysis data and meteorological measurements from Svalbard area we will attempt to explain possible links between observed changes and atmospheric forcing. The hydrographic measurements, continued by IO PAS for nearly two decades in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait, have been strongly

  8. Implant survival of the most common cemented total hip devices from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association database

    PubMed Central

    Junnila, Mika; Laaksonen, Inari; Eskelinen, Antti; Pulkkinen, Pekka; Ivar Havelin, Leif; Furnes, Ove; Marie Fenstad, Anne; Pedersen, Alma B; Overgaard, Søren; Kärrholm, Johan; Garellick, Göran; Malchau, Henrik; Mäkelä, Keijo T

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose According to previous Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) data, the 10-year implant survival of cemented total hip arthroplasties (THAs) is 94% in patients aged 65–74 and 96% in patients aged 75 or more. Here we report a brand-level comparison of cemented THA based on the NARA database, which has not been done previously. Patients and methods We determined the rate of implant survival of the 9 most common cemented THAs in the NARA database. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis with 95% CI to study implant survival at 10 and 15 years, and Cox multiple regression to assess survival and hazard ratios (HRs), with revision for any reason as endpoint and with adjustment for age, sex, diagnosis, and femoral head material. Results Spectron EF THA (89.9% (CI: 89.3–90.5)) and Elite THA (89.8% (CI: 89.0–90.6)) had the lowest 10-year survivorship. Lubinus (95.7% survival, CI: 95.5–95.9), MS 30 (96.6%, CI: 95.8–97.4), and C-stem THA (95.8%, CI: 94.8–96.8) had a 10-year survivorship of at least 95%. Lubinus (revision risk (RR) = 0.77, CI: 0.73–0.81), Müller (RR =0.83, CI: 0.70–0.99), MS-30 (RR =0.73, CI: 0.63–0.86), C-stem (RR =0.70, CI: 0.55–0.90), and Exeter Duration THA (RR =0.84, CI: 0.77–0.90) had a lower risk of revision than Charnley THA, the reference implant. Interpretation The Spectron EF THA and the Elite THA had a lower implant survival than the Charnley, Exeter, and Lubinus THAs. Implant survival of the Müller, MS 30, CPT, and C-stem THAs was above the acceptable limit for 10-year survival. PMID:27550058

  9. Complementary impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation and oceanic heat anomalies in the Nordic seas on the wintertime climate variability in middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichtholz, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing evidence that Arctic sea ice anomalies influence mid-latitude weather and climate through coupled changes in the polar jet stream, planetary waves and storm tracks. In particular, the wintertime atmospheric conditions over Eurasia are sensitive to disturbances of sea ice cover in the Barents Sea. Our previous studies, based on a lagged regression analysis between oceanic observations and atmospheric (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data in the period 1982-2006, indicate that more than 70 % of the interannual variance of the total wintertime sea ice area in the Nordic (Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian and Barents) seas region can be explained by Atlantic water temperature (AWT) anomalies at the entrance to the Barents Sea in the preceding summer. When brought to the surface, oceanic heat anomalies influence not only the sea ice cover in the Nordic seas but also the local atmospheric conditions up to the tropopause level. The sea ice and atmospheric anomalies persist in winter because of a feedback between oceanically-driven wind anomalies and wind-driven AWT anomalies. A question is whether remote effects of sea ice anomalies in the Nordic seas are modulated by interannual variability in oceanic forcing. Here we show, using the same oceanic and atmospheric datasets as in the previous studies, that the summertime AWT anomalies are indeed significant precursors of a large-scale wintertime atmospheric variability. In particular, positive AWT anomalies precede predominantly westerly wind anomalies in high latitudes and easterly wind anomalies in middle latitudes. The mid-latitude wind anomalies, while being generally equivalent barotropic in the upper troposphere, have a strong low-level baroclinic contribution over Eurasia. The near-surface easterly wind anomalies in this area are locally deflected southward, maintaining cold spots near orography. As at the same time a strong warm anomaly is forced over the Barents and Greenland Seas, the lower

  10. Associations of adherence to the New Nordic Diet with risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Øverby, Nina C; Engel, Stephanie M; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker E; Haugen, Margaretha; Bere, Elling

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are serious complications of pregnancy and leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Dietary factors might be associated with these adverse outcomes. We investigated whether adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND) was associated with preeclampsia and preterm delivery risks in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants were recruited from all over Norway during the period 1999-2008. A previously constructed diet score assessing meal frequency, and the consumption of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water, was used to assess NND adherence. Associations between NND adherence and the outcomes were estimated in adjusted multivariate logistic regression models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 72,072 women was included in the study. High versus low NND adherence was associated with lower risk of total preeclampsia (OR 0.86; 95 % CI 0.78-0.95) and early preeclampsia (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.52-0.96). High compared with low NND adherence was associated with a lower risk of spontaneous preterm delivery among nulliparous women (OR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), whereas multiparous women with high NND adherence had a marginally significant higher risk of preterm delivery (OR 1.24; 95 % CI 1.00-1.53). High NND adherence was associated with a lower relative risk of preeclampsia and of spontaneous preterm delivery among nulliparous women; however, among multiparous women there was a higher relative risk of preterm delivery.

  11. A novel phosphorylation site mutation in profilin 1 revealed in a large screen of US, Nordic, and German amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia cohorts.

    PubMed

    Ingre, Caroline; Landers, John E; Rizik, Naji; Volk, Alexander E; Akimoto, Chizuru; Birve, Anna; Hübers, Annemarie; Keagle, Pamela J; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Press, Rayomand; Andersen, Peter Munch; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2013-06-01

    Profilin 1 is a central regulator of actin dynamics. Mutations in the gene profilin 1 (PFN1) have very recently been shown to be the cause of a subgroup of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we performed a large screen of US, Nordic, and German familial and sporadic ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTLD) patients for PFN1 mutations to get further insight into the spectrum and pathogenic relevance of this gene for the complete ALS/FTLD continuum. Four hundred twelve familial and 260 sporadic ALS cases and 16 ALS/FTLD cases from Germany, the Nordic countries, and the United States were screened for PFN1 mutations. Phenotypes of patients carrying PFN1 mutations were studied. In a German ALS family we identified the novel heterozygous PFN1 mutation p.Thr109Met, which was absent in controls. This novel mutation abrogates a phosphorylation site in profilin 1. The recently described p.Gln117Gly sequence variant was found in another familial ALS patient from the United States. The ALS patients with mutations in PFN1 displayed spinal onset motor neuron disease without overt cognitive involvement. PFN1 mutations were absent in patients with motor neuron disease and dementia, and in patients with only FTLD. We provide further evidence that PFN1 mutations can cause ALS as a Mendelian dominant trait. Patients carrying PFN1 mutations reported so far represent the "classic" ALS end of the ALS-FTLD spectrum. The novel p.Thr109Met mutation provides additional proof-of-principle that mutant proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics can cause motor neuron degeneration. Moreover, this new mutation suggests that fine-tuning of actin polymerization by phosphorylation of profilin 1 might be necessary for motor neuron survival.

  12. Measurements of the stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Northeastern Atlantic and Nordic Seas during summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, M. P.; Achterberg, E. P.; Griffiths, A. M.; McDonald, A.; Boyce, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in seawater was measured in samples collected during two cruises in the Northeastern Atlantic and Nordic Seas from June to August 2012. One cruise was part of the UK Ocean Acidification research programme, and the other was a repeat hydrographic transect of the Extended Ellett Line. In combination with measurements made of various other variables on these and other cruises, these data can be used to constrain the anthropogenic component of DIC in the interior ocean, and also assist in determining the influence of biological carbon uptake on surface ocean carbonate chemistry. The measurements have been processed, quality-controlled and submitted to an in-preparation global compilation of seawater δ13CDIC data, and are available from the British Oceanographic Data Centre. The observed δ13CDIC values fall in a range from -0.58 to +2.37‰, relative to the Vienna Peedee Belemnite standard. From duplicate samples collected during both cruises, the precision for the 552 results is 0.07‰, which is similar to other published studies of this kind. Data doi:10.5285/09760a3a-c2b5-250b-e053-6c86abc037c0 (Northeastern Atlantic), doi:10.5285/09511dd0-51db-0e21-e053-6c86abc09b95 (Nordic Seas).

  13. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.; Korhonen, H.; Schöller, M.; Savanov, I.; Arlt, R.; Castelli, F.; Lo Curto, G.; Briquet, M.; Dall, T. H.

    2012-11-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15 G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims: We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD 65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD 19400, using FORS 2 installed at the VLT. We also give new measurements of the eclipsing system AR Aur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity, which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Methods: We downloaded from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) archive the publically available HARPS spectra for eight HgMn stars and one normal and one superficially normal B-type star obtained in 2010. Out of this sample, three HgMn stars belong to spectroscopic double-lined systems. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS and SOFIN spectra allowed us to study the presence of the longitudinal magnetic field, the crossover effect, and quadratic magnetic fields. Results for the HgMn star HD 65949 and the PGa star HD 19400 are based on a linear regression analysis of low-resolution spectra obtained with FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode. Results: Our measurements of the magnetic field with the moment technique using spectral lines of several elements separately reveal the presence of a weak longitudinal magnetic field, a quadratic magnetic field, and the

  14. An Okinawan-based Nordic diet improves anthropometry, metabolic control, and health-related quality of life in Scandinavian patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Gassan; Höglund, Peter; Roth, Bodil; Larsson, Ewa; Sjöberg, Trygve; Wohlfart, Björn; Steen, Stig; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2016-01-01

    Background Our hypothesis was that a modified diet would improve blood glucose control with beneficial impact on weight management and overall health in established diabetes. Objective This prospective interventional study investigated the clinical effect of an Okinawan-based Nordic diet on anthropometry, metabolic control, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Scandinavian type 2 diabetes patients. Design Food was prepared and delivered to 30 type 2 diabetes patients. Clinical information along with data on HRQoL, blood samples, and urine samples were collected during 12 weeks of diet interventions, with follow-up 16 weeks after diet completion. Results After 12 weeks of dietary intervention, a reduction in body weight (7%) (p<0.001), body mass index (p<0.001), and waist circumference (7.0 cm) (p<0.001) was seen. Improved levels of proinsulin (p=0.005), insulin (p=0.011), and fasting plasma glucose (p<0.001) were found already after 2 weeks; these improved levels remained after 12 weeks when lowered levels of C-peptide (p=0.015), triglycerides (p=0.009), total cholesterol (p=0.001), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p=0.041) were also observed. Insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was lowered throughout the study, with a 20% reduction in hemoglobin A1c levels (p<0.001) at week 12, despite reduced anti-diabetes treatment. Lowered systolic blood pressure (9.6 mmHg) (p<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (2.7 mmHg) (p<0.001), and heart and respiratory rates (p<0.001) were accompanied by decreased cortisol levels (p=0.015) and improvement in HRQoL. At follow-up, increased levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were found (p=0.003). Conclusion This interventional study demonstrates a considerable improvement of anthropometric and metabolic parameters and HRQoL in Scandinavian type 2 diabetes patients when introducing a modified Okinawan-based Nordic diet, independently of exercise or other interventions. Through

  15. Measurements of the stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the northeastern Atlantic and Nordic Seas during summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, M. P.; Achterberg, E. P.; Griffiths, A. M.; McDonald, A.; Boyce, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in seawater was measured in a batch process for 552 samples collected during two cruises in the northeastern Atlantic and Nordic Seas from June to August 2012. One cruise was part of the UK Ocean Acidification research programme, and the other was a repeat hydrographic transect of the Extended Ellett Line. In combination with measurements made of other variables on these and other cruises, these data can be used to constrain the anthropogenic component of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the interior ocean, and to help to determine the influence of biological carbon uptake on surface ocean carbonate chemistry. The measurements have been processed, quality-controlled and submitted to an in-preparation global compilation of seawater δ13CDIC data, and are available from the British Oceanographic Data Centre. The observed δ13CDIC values fall in a range from -0.58 to +2.37 ‰, relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite standard. The mean of the absolute differences between samples collected in duplicate in the same container type during both cruises and measured consecutively is 0.10 ‰, which corresponds to a 1σ uncertainty of 0.09 ‰, and which is within the range reported by other published studies of this kind. A crossover analysis was performed with nearby historical δ13CDIC data, indicating that any systematic offsets between our measurements and previously published results are negligible. Data doi:10.5285/09760a3a-c2b5-250b-e053-6c86abc037c0 (northeastern Atlantic), doi:10.5285/09511dd0-51db-0e21-e053-6c86abc09b95 (Nordic Seas).

  16. Visual field

    MedlinePlus

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam : This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  17. Assessing membrane fouling and the performance of pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to treat real municipal wastewater during winter season in Nordic regions.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Khum; Ncibi, Mohamed Chaker; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the performance of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to treat real municipal wastewater was assessed at low temperatures (7 to 20°C) in Nordic regions. First, the effect of low temperatures on membrane fouling was evaluated by monitoring trans-membrane pressure. A significant membrane fouling was observed when the sludge temperature inside the MBR unit was below 10°C with a 75% permeability drop, thus indicating high deterioration of the membrane performance at low temperatures. Moreover, increasing values of sludge volume index (SVI) during low temperatures showed high deterioration of sludge settleability. As for the pollution removal, MBR achieved high performances primarily for pathogens and emerging micropollutants. The average log reductions of 1.82, 3.02, and 1.94 log units were achieved for norovirus GI, norovirus GII, and adenoviruses, respectively. Among the four trace organic compounds (TrOCs), the average removal efficiencies of bisoprolol, diclofenac and bisphenol A were 65%, 38%, and >97%, respectively. However, carbamazepine was not efficiently removed (-89% to 28%). Regarding trace metals, an average removal of >80% was achieved for Cd, Pb, and V. For the rest of the metals, the removal capacities were between 30 and 60%.

  18. Evidence that delayed subbottom temperature response to end-Glacial warming postponed hydrate dissociation and mass wasting until the early and mid-Holocene along Nordic Basin margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, P. R.; Jung, W.

    2001-12-01

    Incorporating both late/post-Glacial bottom-water warming and eustatic sealevel rise into a MH (methane hydrate) stability model explains why at least some major submarine landslides (e.g., the Storegga Slide, Norwegian margin) may have been triggered by MH dissociation during the early or middle Holocene, not during the lowest sealevels of the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum, 18-20 ka). In the case of the giant Storegga slide on the Norwegian margin, failure (8.15 ka; Haflidason, H., H. P. Sejrup, P. Bryn, and P. Lien, The Storegga Slide; Chronology and Flow Mechanism, EUG XI Abstracts, p. 740, 2001) may have been initiated either below the upper slope or under the shelf (for fresh porewater, especially with 1 or 2 % admixed ethane). The stability relations show that MH could have formed AFTER the low sealevels of the LGM, but BEFORE significant warming at MH levels. At water depths below ca. 800m, persistent low bottom water temperatures in the Nordic Seas allowed the sea level rise to thicken the MH stability zone over time, ruling out deepwater Holocene initiation of failure. However, mass wasting on the upper continental slope may have been triggered in many mid to high-latitude seas where the effect of post-Glacial ocean warming overcame the MH-stabilizing effects of eustat

  19. Nordic biological specimen banks as basis for studies of cancer causes and control--more than 2 million sample donors, 25 million person years and 100,000 prospective cancers.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, Eero; Andersen, Aage; Berglund, Göran; Gislefoss, Randi; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hallmans, Göran; Jellum, Egil; Jousilahti, Pekka; Knekt, Paul; Koskela, Pentti; Kyyrönen, P Pentti; Lenner, Per; Luostarinen, Tapio; Löve, Arthur; Ogmundsdóttir, Helga; Stattin, Pär; Tenkanen, Leena; Tryggvadóttir, Laufey; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wadell, Göran; Widell, Anders; Lehtinen, Matti; Dillner, Joakim

    2007-01-01

    The Nordic countries have a long tradition of large-scale biobanking and comprehensive, population-based health data registries linkable on unique personal identifiers, enabling follow-up studies spanning many decades. Joint Nordic biobank-based studies provide unique opportunities for longitudinal molecular epidemiological research. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the possibilities for such joint studies, by describing some of the major Nordic biobank cohorts with a standardised calculation of the cancer incidence in these cohorts. Altogether two million donors have since 1966 donated more than four million biological samples, stored at -20 degrees C to -135 degrees C, to 17 biobank cohorts in Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. As a result of joint database handling principles, the accuracy of personal identifiers and completeness of follow-up for vital status in all participating biobanks was improved. Thereafter, the cancer incidence was determined using follow-up through the national cancer registries. Biobanks based on random samples of population typically showed slightly lower cancer incidence rates than the general population, presumably due to better participation rates among health-conscious subjects. On the other hand, biobanks including samples for viral screening or clinical testing showed 1.5 to 2.1 fold increased incidence of cancer. This excess was very high immediately after sampling, but for some cancer sites remained elevated for years after clinical sampling. So far, more than 100 000 malignant neoplasms have occurred after sample donation, and the annual increase of the cancer cases in these cohorts is about 10 000. The estimates on the population-representativity of the biobanks will assist in interpretation of generalizability of results of future studies based on these samples, and the systematic tabulations of numbers of cancer cases will serve in study power estimations. The present paper summarizes optimal study designs

  20. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, perceived exertion, and integrated electromyogram of the lower and upper extremities during level and Nordic walking on a treadmill.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Koji; Kawamura, Mami; Tomita, Hisato; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2013-02-13

    The purpose of this study was to characterize responses in oxygen uptake ( V·O(2)), heart rate (HR), perceived exertion (OMNI scale) and integrated electromyogram (iEMG) readings during incremental Nordic walking (NW) and level walking (LW) on a treadmill. Ten healthy adults (four men, six women), who regularly engaged in physical activity in their daily lives, were enrolled in the study. All subjects were familiar with NW. Each subject began walking at 60 m/min for 3 minutes, with incremental increases of 10 m/min every 2 minutes up to 120 m/min V·O(2), V·(E) and HR were measured every 30 seconds, and the OMNI scale was used during the final 15 seconds of each exercise. EMG readings were recorded from the triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles. V·O(2) was significantly higher during NW than during LW, with the exception of the speed of 70 m/min (P < 0.01). V·E and HR were higher during NW than LW at all walking speeds (P < 0.05 to 0.001). OMNI scale of the upper extremities was significantly higher during NW than during LW at all speeds (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the iEMG reading for the VL was lower during NW than during LW at all walking speeds, while the iEMG reading for the BF and GA muscles were significantly lower during NW than LW at some speeds. These data suggest that the use of poles in NW attenuates muscle activity in the lower extremities during the stance and push-off phases, and decreases that of the lower extremities and increase energy expenditure of the upper body and respiratory system at certain walking speeds.

  1. Restrictions in Mg/Ca-Paleotemperature Estimations in High-Latitude Bottom Waters: Evidence from the Fram Strait and the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Marchitto, T. M., Jr.; Not, C.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Husum, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mg to Ca ratios of the benthic foraminifer species Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi provide a great potential for reconstructing bottom water temperatures, especially from the lower end of the temperature range between 0 and 6°C (Tisserand et al., 2013). A set of core top samples from the Fram Strait and the Norwegian margin have been studied for Mg/Ca ratios in C. wuellerstorfi in order to establish a calibration relationship to the environmental conditions. In this part of the northern North Atlantic the bottom water temperature range between -0.5 and -1°C. For the calibration to modern water mass conditions, modern oceanographic data from both existing conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts and the World Ocean Data Base 2013 (Boyer et al., 2013) have been used. Benthic Mg/Ca ratios are relatively high suggesting a preference of C. wuellerstorfi to incorporate Mg below 0°C. Although no correlation has been found to existing temperature calibrations, the data are in line with earlier Mg/Ca data from C. wuellerstorfi in the area (Martin et al., 2002; Elderfield et al., 2006). The carbonate ion effect is most likely a main cause for the relatively high Mg/Ca ratios found in core top samples from the Fram Strait and the Nordic Seas, however, other factors may influence the values as well. Holocene records of benthic trace metal/Ca ratios from the eastern Fram Strait display trends similar to those found in other proxy indicators, despite the difficulties to constrain a temperature calibration for this low temperature range. In particular, the benthic B/Ca and Li/Ca records resemble trends in Holocene planktic foraminifer assemblages, suggesting to be influenced by environmental factors such as the carbonate ion effect consistent for the entire water column.

  2. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-07

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil.

  3. Postulation of rust resistance genes in Nordic spring wheat genotypes and identification of widely effective sources of resistance against the Australian rust flora.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Mandeep; Bansal, Urmil; Lillemo, Morten; Miah, Hanif; Bariana, Harbans

    2016-11-01

    Wild relatives, landraces and cultivars from different geographical regions have been demonstrated as the sources of genetic variation for resistance to rust diseases. This study involved assessment of diversity for resistance to three rust diseases among a set of Nordic spring wheat cultivars. These cultivars were tested at the seedling stage against several pathotypes of three rust pathogens in the greenhouse. All stage stem rust resistance genes Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr12, Sr15, Sr17, Sr23 and Sr30, and leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16 and Lr20 were postulated either singly or in different combinations among these cultivars. A high proportion of cultivars were identified to carry linked rust resistance genes Sr15 and Lr20. Although 51 cultivars showed variation against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) pathotypes used in this study, results were not clearly contrasting to enable postulation of stripe rust resistance genes in these genotypes. Stripe rust resistance gene Yr27 was postulated in four cultivars and Yr1 was present in cultivar Zebra. Cultivar Tjalve produced low stripe rust response against all Pst pathotypes indicating the presence either of a widely effective resistance gene or combination of genes with compensating pathogenic specificities. Several cultivars carried moderate to high level of APR to leaf rust and stripe rust. Seedling stem rust susceptible cultivar Aston exhibited moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response, whereas other cultivars belonging to this class were rated moderately susceptible or higher. Molecular markers linked with APR genes Yr48, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57, Lr68 and Sr2 detected the presence of these genes in some genotypes.

  4. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjun; Roswall, Nina; Ström, Peter; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-12-28

    Dietary patterns, which represent a broader picture of food and nutrient consumption, have gained increasing interest over the last decades. In a cohort design, we followed 27 544 women aged 29-49 years from baseline in 1991-1992. We collected data from an FFQ at baseline and body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) data both at baseline and at follow-up in 2003. We calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS, ranging from 0 to 9) and the Nordic diet score (NDS, ranging from 0 to 6). We used linear regression to examine the association between MDS and NDS (exposures) with subsequent BW change (ΔBW) and WC change (ΔWC) (outcomes) both continuously and categorically. Higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with ΔBW. The multivariable population average increment in BW was 0·03 kg (95 % CI -0·03, 0·09) per 1-point increase in MDS and 0·04 kg (95 % CI -0·02, 0·10) per 1-point increase in NDS. In addition, higher adherence to the MDS was not associated with ΔWC, with the multivariable population average increment per 1-point increase in MDS being 0·05 cm (95 % CI -0·03, 0·13). Higher adherence to the NDS was not significantly associated with gain in WC when adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with changes in average BW or WC in the present cohort followed for 12 years.

  5. Prevalence and diversity of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F in honey produced in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nevas, Mari; Lindström, Miia; Hautamäki, Kirsi; Puoskari, Satu; Korkeala, Hannu

    2005-11-25

    A total of 294 honey samples produced in Denmark, Norway and Sweden were studied for the presence of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F by using a multiplex-PCR method. The samples consisted of honeycombs taken directly from beehives, and extracted honey representing several hives or apiaries. The prevalence of C. botulinum showed a significant variation between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the proportions of positive samples being 26%, 10% and 2%, respectively. The major serotype detected was type B. When analysed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using restriction enzyme SacII, the 24 strains isolated produced eight different PFGE patterns. At a similarity level of 95%, four clusters were produced, three of which contained 20 of the 24 analysed strains. One of the clusters included isolates from both Denmark and Norway.

  6. Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Reports the results of a field trip to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields generated by electronic devices in the home, in cars, at work, outside, and in places people visit during the day. Found that a person gets more intense exposure while working at a computer than by living next to an electrical substation. (MDH)

  7. Arun field

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, C.F. Jr.; Abdullah, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Arun field is a giant gas-condensate field operated by Mobil and Pertamina with over 20,000 acres of closure at the top of the Arun reservoir. A middle-shelf patch reef complex of early to middle Miocene age is the producing facies at the Arun field. About 1,100 ft of porous limestones, encased in shales, create a stratigraphic trap for overpressure hydrocarbons. Three main carbonate lithologies were encountered during the examination of over 4,300 ft of core; (1) a reef facies consisting of vuggy, coral encrusting, red-algal boundstones, (2) a near-reef facies consisting of foraminiferal, mixed-skeletal packstones with gravel-size coral fragments, and (3) an interreef lagoonal facies consisting of benthonic-foram packstones. Twenty-two species of corals have been identified from Arun reef facies; major reef-forming coals, listed in order of decreasing abundance, are Porites cf P. Lutes, Cyphastrea microphthalma, Astreopora myriophthalma, Styloconiella gunetheri, Porites solida, and Acropora ssp. The Arun reef is comprised of limestones (with minor amounts of dolomite). No shale beds occur in the sequence, and all carbonate facies are in communication. A pervasive microporosity, occurring throughout the Arun Limestone, results from meteoric alteration of original carbonate mud to form a microrhombic porosity that accounts for about three-fourths of the field's total porosity.

  8. High-resolution screening combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of potential health-promoting constituents in sea aster and searocket--new Nordic food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Schmidt, Jeppe S; Wiese, Stefanie; Staerk, Dan

    2013-09-11

    Sea aster (Aster tripolium L.) and searocket (Cakile maritima Scop.), potential ingredients in the New Nordic Diet, were analyzed by high-resolution radical scavenging and high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition assays. Results from the two bioactivity profiles were used to guide subsequent structural analysis toward constituents with potential health-promoting effects. Structural analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction and automated tube transfer nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that is, HPLC-HRMS-SPE-ttNMR. High-resolution mass spectrometry together with detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional proton detected NMR experiments enabled unambiguous assignment of the targeted analytes. This revealed a series of caffeoyl esters (1, 2, 5), flavonoid glycosides (3, 4, 6, 11-15), flavonoids (7-9), sinapate esters (10, 16, 17), and sinapinic acid (18) associated with radical scavenging and/or α-glucosidase inhibition. In vitro assays implemented in this study showed that sea aster holds potential as a future functional food ingredient for lowering postprandial blood glucose level for diabetics, but further investigations are needed to prove the effect in vivo.

  9. Beyond Field Education: Leadership of Field Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Mindy R.; Sodhi, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of the field director's role outside of field education, specifically in the following 3 areas of leadership: (1) curricular, (2) programmatic, and (3) institutional. A survey was conducted to explore the field director's input targeted in these areas beyond prescribed field education tasks. The…

  10. Successful change of treatment strategy in elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma by de-escalating induction and introducing temozolomide maintenance: results from a phase II study by the Nordic Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Pulczynski, Elisa J; Kuittinen, Outi; Erlanson, Martin; Hagberg, Hans; Fosså, Alexander; Eriksson, Mikael; Nordstrøm, Marie; Østenstad, Bjørn; Fluge, Øystein; Leppä, Sirpa; Fiirgaard, Bente; Bersvendsen, Hanne; Fagerli, Unn-Merete

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic Lymphoma Group has conducted a phase ll trial in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma patients applying an age-adjusted multi-agent immunochemotherapy regimen, which in elderly patients included temozolomide maintenance treatment. Patients aged 18-75 years were eligible. Thirty-nine patients aged 18-65 years and 27 patients aged 66-75 years were enrolled. The median age of the two age groups was 55 and 70 years, respectively. The overall response rate was 73.8% for the entire cohort: 69.9% in the younger and 80.8% in the elderly subgroup. With a median follow up of 22 months, the 2-year overall survival probability was 60.7% in patients aged 65 years or under and 55.6% in patients aged over 65 years (P=0.40). The estimated progression-free survival at two years was 33.1% (95%CI: 19.1%-47.9%) in patients aged under 65 years and 44.4% (95%CI: 25.6%-61.8%) in the elderly subgroup (P=0.74). Median duration of response was ten months in the younger subgroup, and not reached in the elderly patient subgroup (P=0.33). Four patients aged 64-75 years (6%) died from treatment-related complications. Survival in the two age groups was similar despite a de-escalation of induction treatment in patients aged over 65 years. Duration of response in elderly patients receiving maintenance temozolomide was longer than in the younger age subgroup. While toxicity during induction is still of concern, especially in the elderly patients, we conclude from these data that de-escalation of induction therapy in elderly primary central nervous system lymphoma patients followed by maintenance treatment seems to be a promising treatment strategy. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01458730).

  11. Pandemic vaccination strategies and influenza severe outcomes during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and the post-pandemic influenza season: the Nordic experience.

    PubMed

    Gil Cuesta, Julita; Aavitsland, Preben; Englund, Hélène; Gudlaugsson, Ólafur; Hauge, Siri Helene; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Sigmundsdóttir, Guðrún; Tegnell, Anders; Virtanen, Mikko; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2016-04-21

    During the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, the five Nordic countries adopted different approaches to pandemic vaccination. We compared pandemic vaccination strategies and severe influenza outcomes, in seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in these countries with similar influenza surveillance systems. We calculated the cumulative pandemic vaccination coverage in 2009/10 and cumulative incidence rates of laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in 2009/10 and 2010/11. We estimated incidence risk ratios (IRR) in a Poisson regression model to compare those indicators between Denmark and the other countries. The vaccination coverage was lower in Denmark (6.1%) compared with Finland (48.2%), Iceland (44.1%), Norway (41.3%) and Sweden (60.0%). In 2009/10 Denmark had a similar cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions and deaths compared with the other countries. In 2010/11 Denmark had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions (IRR: 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-3.0) and deaths (IRR: 8.3; 95% CI: 5.1-13.5). Compared with Denmark, the other countries had higher pandemic vaccination coverage and experienced less A(H1N1)pdm09-related severe outcomes in 2010/11. Pandemic vaccination may have had an impact on severe influenza outcomes in the post-pandemic season. Surveillance of severe outcomes may be used to compare the impact of influenza between seasons and support different vaccination strategies.

  12. The clinical impact of IKZF1 deletions in paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is independent of minimal residual disease stratification in Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology treatment protocols used between 1992 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Linda; Ivanov Öfverholm, Ingegerd; Norén-Nyström, Ulrika; Zachariadis, Vasilios; Nordlund, Jessica; Sjögren, Helene; Golovleva, Irina; Nordgren, Ann; Paulsson, Kajsa; Heyman, Mats; Barbany, Gisela; Johansson, Bertil

    2015-09-01

    Paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (BCP ALL) with IKZF1 deletions (∆IKZF1) are associated with a poor outcome. However, there are conflicting data as to whether ∆IKZF1 is an independent risk factor if minimal residual disease (MRD) and other copy number alterations also are taken into account. We investigated 334 paediatric BCP ALL, diagnosed 1992-2013 and treated according to Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology ALL protocols, with known IKZF1 status based on either single nucleotide polymorphism array (N = 218) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (N = 116) analyses. ∆IKZF1, found in 15%, was associated with inferior 10-year probabilities of event-free (60% vs. 83%; P < 0·001) and overall survival (pOS; 73% vs. 89%; P = 0·001). Adjusting for known risk factors, including white blood cell (WBC) count and MRD, ∆IKZF1 was the strongest independent factor for relapse and death. ∆IKZF1 was present in 27% of cases with non-informative cytogenetics ('BCP-other') and a poor 10-year pOS was particularly pronounced in this group (58% vs. 90%; P < 0·001). Importantly, neither MRD nor WBC count predicted events in the ∆IKZF1-positive cases. Co-occurrence of pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) deletions in Xp22.33/Yp11.32 (P2RY8-CRLF2) and ∆IKZF1 increased the risk of relapse (75% vs. 30% for cases with only ∆IKZF1; P = 0·045), indicating that BCP-other ALL with both P2RY8-CRLF2 and ∆IKZF1 constitutes a particularly high-risk group.

  13. Which is the better proxy for paleo-current strength: Sortable-silt mean size (SS>¯) or sortable-silt mean grain diameter (dSS)? A case study from the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegzes, Andrea D.; Jansen, Eystein; Telford, Richard J.

    2015-10-01

    The coarseness of the 10-63 μm terrigenous silt (i.e., sortable-silt) fraction tends to vary independently of sediment supply in current-sorted muds in the world's oceans, with coarser sediments representing relatively greater near-bottom flow speeds. Traditionally, the coarseness of this size fraction is described using an index called sortable-silt mean size (SS>¯), which is an arithmetic average calculated from the differential volume or mass distribution of grains within the 10-63 μm terrigenous silt fraction, where the relative weights of the individual size bins become increasingly disproportionate, with respect to the actual number of grains within those size bins, toward the coarse end of the size range. This not only increases the absolute value of the apparent "mean size" within the 10-63 μm terrigenous silt fraction, but it may also affect the apparent pattern of relative changes in the coarseness of the sortable-silt fraction along the core. In addition, it makes SS>¯ more prone to biases due to, for example, analytical errors. Here we present a detailed analysis of grain-size distributions over three selected Holocene time intervals from two complementary sediment cores (JM97-948/2A and MD95-2011), extracted from the center of a high-accumulation area along the flow path of the main branch of the Atlantic Inflow into the Nordic Seas and show that differential-number-based statistics, which likely better describes variations in the actual coarseness of the sortable-silt fraction, may provide a more robust alternative to SS>¯.

  14. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (P<0·001) in the intervention period than in the control period (medians: baseline 2·03%; intervention 1·46%; control 1·37%). In contrast, the intervention increased reading speed (0·7 sentence, P=0·009) and the number of correct sentences (1·8 sentences, P<0·001), which corresponded to 11 and 25%, respectively, of the effect of one school year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (P<0·001), indicating that the number correct improved relatively more than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials.

  15. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view.

  16. Information Sharing in the Field of Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilerot, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on an extensive research project which aimed at exploring information sharing activities in a scholarly context. The paper presents and synthesises findings from a literature review and three qualitative case studies. The empirical setting is a geographically distributed Nordic network of design scholars. Method:…

  17. Internal split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat,; George, Thomas [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  18. News Almost dry but never dull: ASE 2014 EuroPhysicsFun shows physics to Europe Institute of Physics for Africa (IOPfA) South Sudan Report October 2013 Celebrating the centenary of x-ray diffraction The Niels Bohr Institute—an EPS Historical Site Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN) 2014: inquiry-based science education in technology-rich environments Physics World Cup 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    Almost dry but never dull: ASE 2014 EuroPhysicsFun shows physics to Europe Institute of Physics for Africa (IOPfA) South Sudan Report October 2013 Celebrating the centenary of x-ray diffraction The Niels Bohr Institute—an EPS Historical Site Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN) 2014: inquiry-based science education in technology-rich environments Physics World Cup 2013

  19. News Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

  20. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Kjølbæk, Louise; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-28

    Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school

  1. Electrostatic Field Invisibility Cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chuwen; Yang, Yuping; Geng, Zhaoxin; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2015-01-01

    The invisibility cloak has been drawing much attention due to its new concept for manipulating many physical fields, from oscillating wave fields (electromagnetic, acoustic and elastic) to static magnetic fields, dc electric fields, and diffusive fields. Here, an electrostatic field invisibility cloak has been theoretically investigated and experimentally demonstrated to perfectly hide two dimensional objects without disturbing their external electrostatic fields. The desired cloaking effect has been achieved via both cancelling technology and transformation optics (TO). This study demonstrates a novel way for manipulating electrostatic fields, which shows promise for a wide range of potential applications. PMID:26552343

  2. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  3. Wake fields and wake field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Wilson, P.B.; Weiland, T.

    1984-12-01

    In this lecture we introduce the concepts of wake fields and wake potentials, examine some basic properties of these functions, show how they can be calculated, and look briefly at a few important applications. One such application is wake field acceleration. The wake field accelerator is capable of producing the high gradients required for future very high energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear colliders. The principles of wake field acceleration, and a brief description of experiments in progress in this area, are presented in the concluding section. 40 references, 27 figures.

  4. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  5. Dissipative Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kheirandish, F.; Amooshahi, M.

    2008-11-18

    Quantum field theory of a damped vibrating string as the simplest dissipative scalar field theory is investigated by introducing a minimal coupling method. The rate of energy flowing between the system and its environment is obtained.

  6. Planning a Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forecast for Home Economics, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The showroom of a button manufacturer was the site of a successful field trip for a New York City home economics class. Suggestions for field trip preparation are included as well as directions for making button jewelry. (EA)

  7. Cosmological magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the Universe, from stars and galaxies up to galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early Universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early Universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of a primordial cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large-scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.

  8. Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    2008-07-02

    The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced.

  9. Electric Field Imaging Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  10. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  11. The Doctorate in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein; Tvede, Olaf

    1998-01-01

    Overview of research training systems leading to doctoral degrees in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden emphasizes the structure of postgraduate education, administration and funding, number of students, time to degree, completion rates, labor market, and study abroad. Comparisons to U.S., British, German, and French systems suggests a trend…

  12. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  13. Modern Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Tom

    2008-09-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Quantum theory of free scalar fields; 3. Interacting field theory; 4. Particles of spin one, and gauge invariance; 5. Spin 1/2 particles and Fermi statistics; 6. Massive quantum electrodynamics; 7. Symmetries, Ward identities and Nambu Goldstone bosons; 8. Non-abelian gauge theory; 9. Renormalization and effective field theory; 10. Instantons and solitons; 11. Concluding remarks; Appendices; References; Index.

  14. Geological Field Trip Guidebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Harriet E.

    1978-01-01

    Geological field trip guidebooks, developed for use during a field trip or field conference, are considered ephemeral publications by their compilers and publishers. Too few copies are printed and little attention is paid to bibliographic format and information. These difficulties are discussed and recommendations are made to alleviate the…

  15. Politics of aviation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  16. Magnetic field generator

    DOEpatents

    Krienin, Frank

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

  17. A geomagnetic field spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A spherical harmonic model of the earth's internal magnetic field of degree and order 23 is derived from selected Magsat data, and its power spectrum, computed with terms developed by Mauersberger (1956) and Lowes (1974), is found to exhibit a change of a slope at n = 14 which is interpreted as an indication that the core field dominates at values lower than 13 while the crust field dominates above a value of 15. The representations of the two portions of the spectrum obtained can be used to establish order-of-magnitude inaccuracies due to both crustal fields and the inability to observe core field wavelengths beyond n = 13, at which point they are obscured by the crustal field, in core field models.

  18. Field by field hybrid upwind splitting methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coquel, Frederic; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1993-01-01

    A new and general approach to upwind splitting is presented. The design principle combines the robustness of flux vector splitting schemes in the capture of nonlinear waves and the accuracy of some flux difference splitting schemes in the resolution of linear waves. The new schemes are derived following a general hybridization technique performed directly at the basic level of the field by field decomposition involved in FDS methods. The scheme does not use a spatial switch to be tuned up according to the local smoothness of the approximate solution.

  19. Depletion of intense fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Seipt, D.; Heinzl, T.; Marklund, M.

    2017-03-01

    The problem of backreaction of quantum processes on the properties of the background field still remains on the list of outstanding questions of high intensity particle physics. Usually, photon emission by an electron or positron, photon decay into electron-positron pairs in strong electromagnetic fields, or electron-positron pair production by such fields are described in the framework of the external field approximation. It is assumed that the external field has infinite energy and is not affected by these processes. However, the above-mentioned processes have a multi-photon nature, i.e., they occur with the absorption of a significant number of field photons. As a result, the interaction of an intense electromagnetic field with either a highly charged electron bunch or a fast growing population of electrons, positrons, and gamma photons (as in the case of an electromagnetic cascade) may lead to a depletion of the field energy, thus making the external field approximation invalid. Taking the multi-photon Compton process as an example, we estimate the threshold of depletion and find it to become significant at field strengths (a0˜103) and electron bunch charge of about tens of nC.

  20. Mapping nanoscale light fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberg, N.; Kuipers, L.

    2014-12-01

    The control of light fields on subwavelength scales in nanophotonic structures has become ubiquitous, driven by both curiosity and a multitude of applications in fields ranging from biosensing to quantum optics. Mapping these fields in detail is crucial, as theoretical modelling is far from trivial and highly dependent on nanoscale geometry. Recent developments of nanoscale field mapping, particularly with near-field microscopy, have not only led to a vastly increased resolution, but have also resulted in increased functionality. The phase and amplitude of different vector components of both the electric and magnetic fields are now accessible, as is the ultrafast temporal or spectral evolution of propagating pulses in nanostructures. In this Review we assess the current state-of-the-art of subwavelength light mapping, highlighting the new science and nanostructures that have subsequently become accessible.

  1. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  2. Organic magnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  3. Field emission electron source

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  4. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  5. Magnetic fields from inflation?

    SciTech Connect

    Demozzi, Vittoria; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Rubinstein, Hector E-mail: viatcheslav.mukhanov@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2009-08-01

    We consider the possibility of generation of the primordial magnetic field on inflation and show that the effect of the back reaction of this field can be very important. Assuming that the back reaction does not spoil inflation we find a rather strong restriction on the amplitude of the primordial field which could be generated on inflation. Namely, this amplitude recalculated to the present epoch cannot exceed 10{sup −32}G in Mpc scales. This field seems to be too small to be amplified to the observable values by a possible dynamo mechanism.

  6. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  7. Photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

  8. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal

  9. Pregnant Field Students' Guilt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-01-01

    This study examined guilt feelings among social work students who were pregnant for the first time during field work training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in the 9th month (n=5) or 2-12 months after delivery (n=5). Content analysis revealed 6 main triggers, illustrated by excerpts, which stimulated field students' guilt…

  10. Strong Magnetic Field Characterisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    coils were driven by a pulsed-power system to generate the fields. All the sources were characterised through a series of measurements and modelling... generated for the coils. Options for further investigation were provided. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED This...investigation. The desired field strength was based on assessments [1] from preliminary magnetohydrodynamic ( MHD ) modelling and while not achievable by

  11. A Biomes Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  12. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  13. Diamond fiber field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B.; Coates, Don M.; Devlin, David J.; Eaton, David F.; Silzars, Aris K.; Valone, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  14. Teaching in the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Lou; Donaldson, George

    Beginning with a field-trip justification, this guide illuminates the problems and procedural considerations of taking school classes outside of school grounds. Major divisions of treatment are Motivating Field Work, Preparing Yourself (the teacher), Determining Purposes, Preparing for the Mechanics of the Trip, Getting Permission, Planning for…

  15. Forrest or Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2009-01-01

    An open field--with its wildflowers, grasses, and vole tunnels--became an instant classroom. Students' senses were awakened there, and upon entering a nearby forest, they immediately detected a difference: less light and cooler air. "Why are there no grasses in the forest? Why aren't there ferns in the field?" These and other questions emerged as…

  16. Undulator Field Integral Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-07

    The LCLS undulator field integrals must be very small so that the beam trajectory slope and offset stay within tolerance. In order to make accurate measurements of the small field integrals, a long coil will be used. This note describes the design of the coil measurement system.

  17. Tips from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Rachel; Groome, Meghan; Sheppard, Keith; Stroud, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Field trips are opportunities to experience science in settings beyond the classroom. Much educational research has focused on effective ways of designing and planning field trips for optimal impact on the classroom and science curriculum. However, teachers are sometimes at a loss on how to design a trip that will enhance students' analytical…

  18. BOCES Field Trip Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassau County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Westbury, NY.

    An effective and comprehensive guide to possible field trips for Nassau County (New York) elementary and secondary students covers places of interest in Nassau and Suffolk counties and in New York City. Recognizing that field trips can have great importance in the learning process, especially if they are directly related to the curriculum, the…

  19. Voices from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keilty, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention takes its form from a variety of fields. It has its obvious roots in the fields that primarily provide early intervention services--special education, allied health, and early childhood education. Early intervention also draws from public health as a coordinated approach to addressing the biological, psychological, and social…

  20. The Coriolis field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, L. Filipe; Natário, José

    2016-05-01

    We present a pedagogical discussion of the Coriolis field, emphasizing its not-so-well-understood aspects. We show that this field satisfies the field equations of the so-called Newton-Cartan theory, a generalization of Newtonian gravity that is covariant under changes of arbitrarily rotating and accelerated frames. Examples of solutions of this theory are given, including the Newtonian analogue of the Gödel universe. We discuss how to detect the Coriolis field by its effect on gyroscopes, of which the gyrocompass is an example. Finally, using a similar framework, we discuss the Coriolis field generated by mass currents in general relativity, and its measurement by the gravity probe B and LAGEOS/LARES experiments.

  1. Open field lines instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzoli, R. |

    1995-09-01

    The results of some recent theoretical papers dealing with flute-like instabilities in the scrape-off layer of a tokamak with limiter configuration, where the magnetic field intersects conducting walls, are briefly recalled. Attention is then paid to the instability driven by the electron temperature gradient across the field in conjunction with the formation of the Debye sheath at the boundary, and to the effects due to the inclination of the end walls with respect to the magnetic field. When a divertor configuration is considered, important modifications are found owing to the strong deformations of the flux tubes passing near the {ital x}-point, which contrast the onset of flute-like perturbations, and to the stochasticity of field lines that can be excited by magnetic field perturbations. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  3. Remnant field detector

    DOEpatents

    Visser, Age T.

    1988-05-03

    A method apparatus for qualitatively detecting remnant magnetic fields in matched pairs of magnet cores. Equal magnitude and oppositely oriented magnetic flux is induced in the magnet cores by oppositely wound primary windings and current source. Identically wound secondary windings generate output voltages in response to the induced flux. The output voltages generated should be of equal magnitude and opposite polarity if there is no remnant field in the cores. The output voltages will be unequal which is detected if either core has a remnant field.

  4. Gauge fields and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  5. Remnant field detector

    DOEpatents

    Visser, Age T.

    1988-01-01

    A method apparatus for qualitatively detecting remnant magnetic fields in matched pairs of magnet cores. Equal magnitude and oppositely oriented magnetic flux is induced in the magnet cores by oppositely wound primary windings and current source. Identically wound secondary windings generate output voltages in response to the induced flux. The output voltages generated should be of equal magnitude and opposite polarity if there is no remnant field in the cores. The output voltages will be unequal which is detected if either core has a remnant field.

  6. Cosmology of bifundamental fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2009-01-15

    If a field theory contains gauged, non-Abelian, bifundamental fields, i.e. fields that are charged under two separate non-Abelian gauge groups, the transition from a deconfined phase to a hadronic phase may be frustrated. Similar frustration may occur in non-Abelian gauge models containing matter only in higher dimensional representations, e.g. models with pure glue, or if ordinary quarks are confined by two flux tubes, as implied in the triangular configuration of baryons within QCD. In a cosmological setting, such models can lead to the formation of a web of confining electric flux tubes that can potentially have observational signatures.

  7. Kepler Field of View

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Kepler mission will be looking continuously at over 100,000 stars in one region of the sky, in the Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The field of view is extremely large for an astronomical teles...

  8. What Are Electromagnetic Fields?

    MedlinePlus

    ... will generate a single big wave; more rapid motion will generate a whole series of small waves. ... are hardly detectable. Magnetic fields arise from the motion of electric charges. The strength of the magnetic ...

  9. Baja California: Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, John; Stewart, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to plan and execute an extended field trip which provides first hand observation of biological and cultural systems. Socialization of the participants was achieved through common planning and goal achievement. (BR)

  10. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  11. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, William J.

    Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October 2003 to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions. If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the geomagnetic field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. Geomagnetism, the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations. It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of geomagnetism is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book. It is particularly germane in view of a broad range of geomagnetic topics that are at the forefront of today's science, including environmental magnetism, so-called ``jerks'' observed in the Earth's magnetic field, the perplexing magnetic field of Mars, improved satellite magnetic field observations, and the increasing availability of high-quality continental magnetic anomaly maps, to name only a few.

  12. Field Information Support Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    varying degrees of market share around the world. These operating systems include, but are not limited to: Microsoft Windows Mobile, Symbian OS...flexibility of the Android operating system , FIST can enable a much better level of collection at the forward edge of the operating environment...maximum 200 words) The Field Information Support Tool (FIST) is a field-based collection system using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) smartphones

  13. Magnetosheath magnetic field variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    A case study using simulations IRM and CCE observations demonstrates that transient magnetospheric events correspond to pressure pulses in the magnetosheath, inward bow shock motion, and magnetopause compression. Statistical surveys indicate that the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation rarely remains constant during periods of magnetopause and bow shock motion (both characterized by periods of 1 to 10 min). There is no tendency for bow shock motion to occur for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations.

  14. Collective field accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Luce, John S.

    1978-01-01

    A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a .nu./.gamma. of .about. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam.

  15. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

  16. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength

  17. The HST Frontier Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, Jennifer; Mountain, M.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Capak, P. L.; Mack, J.; Coe, D. A.; Barker, E. A.; Adler, D. S.; Avila, R. J.; Anderson, J.; Casertano, S.; Christian, C. A.; Gonzaga, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fruchter, A. S.; Jenkner, H.; Jordan, I. J.; Hammer, D.; Hilbert, B.; Lawton, B. L.; Lee, J. C.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J. W.; Mutchler, M. J.; Ogaz, S.; Reid, I. N.; Royle, P.; Robberto, M.; Sembach, K.; Smith, L. J.; Sokol, J.; Surace, J. A.; Taylor, D.; Tumlinson, J.; Viana, A.; Williams, R. E.; Workman, W.

    2014-01-01

    Using Director's Discretionary observing time, HST is undertaking a revolutionary deep field observing program to peer deeper into the Universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields will combine the power of HST with the natural gravitational telescopes of high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies and the second-deepest observations of blank fields ever obtained. Up to six strong-lensing clusters (Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, AbellS1063, and Abell 370) will be targeted with coordinated parallels of adjacent blank fields with ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras to ~29th ABmag depths in seven bandpasses over the next three years. These observations will reveal distant galaxy populations ~10-100 times fainter than any previously observed, and improve our statistical understanding of galaxies during the epoch of reionization. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope observations of the first set of the Frontier Fields, Abell 2744, and describe the HST Frontier Fields observing strategy and schedule. All data for this observing program is nonproprietary and available immediately upon entry into the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

  18. Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

  19. Magnetic fields at uranus.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuña, M H; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1986-07-04

    The magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft revealed a strong planetary magnetic field of Uranus and an associated magnetosphere and fully developed bipolar masnetic tail. The detached bow shock wave in the solar wind supersonic flow was observed upstream at 23.7 Uranus radii (1 R(U) = 25,600 km) and the magnetopause boundary at 18.0 R(U), near the planet-sun line. A miaximum magnetic field of 413 nanotesla was observed at 4.19 R(U ), just before closest approach. Initial analyses reveal that the planetary magnetic field is well represented by that of a dipole offset from the center of the planet by 0.3 R(U). The angle between Uranus' angular momentum vector and the dipole moment vector has the surprisingly large value of 60 degrees. Thus, in an astrophysical context, the field of Uranus may be described as that of an oblique rotator. The dipole moment of 0.23 gauss R(3)(U), combined with the large spatial offset, leads to minimum and maximum magnetic fields on the surface of the planet of approximately 0.1 and 1.1 gauss, respectively. The rotation period of the magnetic field and hence that of the interior of the planet is estimated to be 17.29+/- 0.10 hours; the magnetotail rotates about the planet-sun line with the same period. Thelarge offset and tilt lead to auroral zones far from the planetary rotation axis poles. The rings and the moons are embedded deep within the magnetosphere, and, because of the large dipole tilt, they will have a profound and diurnally varying influence as absorbers of the trapped radiation belt particles.

  20. The Gorgon gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, L.J.; Sayers, M.J.; Tait, A.M. )

    1990-09-01

    The Gorgon gas field was discovered by West Australian Petroleum Pty Limited (WAPET) in 1980 with the 1 Gorgon well, and appraised by 1 North Gorgon in 1982 and 1 Central Gorgon in 1983. The gas field is situated on the North West Shelf of Western Australia, 65 km northwest of WAPET's Barrow Island oil field, itself 65 km offshore. The Gorgon gas field is at the southwestern end of the Rankin Platform, which contains several giant gas fields. Water depth at the Gorgon gas field is around 250 m. The top of the Triassic Mungaroo Formation reservoir sequence is at approximately 3,500 m subsea. Individual meander-belt sandstones are up to 50 m thick and occur either interbedded with interchannel claystones or stacked to form sand bodies up to 220 m thick. The Triassic sediments form a tilted horst sealed by Cretaceous Barrow Group shales. Gross gas columns and net gas pays in the 1 Gorgon, 1 Central Gorgon, and 1 North Gorgon wells are 409 and 106 m, 441 and 45 m, and 761 and 136 m, respectively. The field is 5 km wide and at least 30 km long. Gas reserves are estimated at 232 {times} 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}, of which around 17% is carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The reservoir sandstones have porosities of 15 to 20% and permeabilities from tens to thousands of millidarcys. Individual zones have flowed gas at rates of up to 1.06 million m{sup 3}/day through a 31.75 mm choke.

  1. Field error lottery

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. ); Quimby, D.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Swimming in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Holger

    2016-11-01

    Microswimmers move autonomously but are subject to external fields, which influence their swimming path and their collective dynamics. With three concrete examples we illustrate swimming in external fields and explain the methodology to treat it. First, an active Brownian particle shows a conventional sedimentation profile in a gravitational field but with increased sedimentation length and some polar order along the vertical. Bottom-heavy swimmers are able to invert the sedimentation profile. Second, active Brownian particles interacting by hydrodynamic flow fields in a three-dimensional harmonic trap can spontaneously break the isotropic symmetry. They develop polar order, which one can describe by mean-field theory reminiscent to Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, and thereby pump fluid. Third, a single microswimmer shows interesting non-linear dynamics in Poiseuille flow including swinging and tumbling trajectories. For pushers, hydrodynamic interactions with bounding surfaces stabilize either straight swimming against the flow or tumbling close to the channel wall, while pushers always move on a swinging trajectory with a specific amplitude as limit cycle.

  3. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  4. Pilot Field Test Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherriff, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The Field Test study is currently in full swing, preceded by the successful completion of the Pilot Field Test study that paved the way for collecting data on the astronauts in the medical tent in Kazakhstan. Abigail Sherriff worked alongside Logan Dobbe on one Field Test aspect to determine foot clearance over obstacles (5cm, 10cm, and 15cm) using APDM Inc. Internal Measurement Units (IMU) worn by the astronauts. They created a program to accurately calculate foot clearance using the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope data with the IMUs attached to the top of the shoes. To validate the functionality of their program, they completed a successful study on test subjects performing various tasks in an optical motion studio, considered a gold standard in biomechanics research. Future work will include further validation and expanding the program to include other analyses.

  5. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  6. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays.

  7. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, S.E.

    1998-03-03

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays. 11 figs.

  8. Orsted Initial Field Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, N.; Holme, R.; Hulot, G.; Sabaka, T.; Neubert, T.; Toffner-Clausen, L.; Primdahl, F.; Jorgensen, J.; Leger, J.-M.; Barraclough, D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic measurements taken by the Orsted satellite during geomagnetic quiet conditions around January 1, 2000 have been used to derive a spherical harmonic model of the Earth's magnetic field for epoch 2000.0. The maximum degree and order of the model is 19 for internal, and 2 for external, source fields; however, coefficients above degree 14 may not be robust. Such detailed models exist for only one previous epoch, 1980. Achieved rms misfit is 2 nT for the scalar intensity and 4 nT for the vector components perpendicular to the magnetic field. This model is of higher detail than the IGRF 2000, which for scientific purposes related to the Orsted mission it supersedes.

  9. The ALMA Frontier Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Franz E.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Laporte, Nicolas; Muñoz Arancibia, Alejandra; Villard, Eric; Kneissl, Ruediger; Kim, Sam; ALMA Frontier Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    The Frontier Fields Legacy Program targets six strong lensing clusters with deep HST and Spitzer imaging to detect and characterize the faint background galaxy population, particularly the first galaxies at z~6-10. We initiated an ALMA survey to produce “shallow” ~2'x2' maps of the Frontier Field cluster fields at 1.1mm to study intrinsically faint dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and place constraints on the star formation from a variety of interesting extragalactic source populations. Five of the six clusters have now been completed, yielding relatively uniform maps that pinpoint cool dust emission from powerful DSFGs at z>1. I will present a census of the detected objects thus far, as well as some stacking constraints on the average emission from undetected source populations.

  10. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  11. Towards graphane field emitters

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shuyi; Li, Chi; Zhou, Yanhuai; Collins, Clare M.; Kang, Moon H.; Parmee, Richard J.; Zhang, Xiaobing; Milne, William I.; Wang, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    We report on the improved field emission performance of graphene foam (GF) following transient exposure to hydrogen plasma. The enhanced field emission mechanism associated with hydrogenation has been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, plasma spectrophotometry, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The observed enhanced electron emissionhas been attributed to an increase in the areal density of lattice defects and the formation of a partially hydrogenated, graphane-like material. The treated GF emitter demonstrated a much reduced macroscopic turn-on field (2.5 V μm–1), with an increased maximum current density from 0.21 mA cm–2 (pristine) to 8.27 mA cm–2 (treated). The treated GFs vertically orientated protrusions, after plasma etching, effectively increased the local electric field resulting in a 2.2-fold reduction in the turn-on electric field. The observed enhancement is further attributed to hydrogenation and the subsequent formation of a partially hydrogenated structured 2D material, which advantageously shifts the emitter work function. Alongside augmentation of the nominal crystallite size of the graphitic superstructure, surface bound species are believed to play a key role in the enhanced emission. The hydrogen plasma treatment was also noted to increase the emission spatial uniformity, with an approximate four times reduction in the per unit area variation in emission current density. Our findings suggest that plasma treatments, and particularly hydrogen and hydrogen-containing precursors, may provide an efficient, simple, and low cost means of realizing enhanced nanocarbon-based field emission devices via the engineered degradation of the nascent lattice, and adjustment of the surface work function. PMID:28066543

  12. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

    1991-12-06

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. During this quarter an additional tracer study was performed in the field to determine pre-treatment flow paths and the first nutrients were injected. 2 figs.

  13. Electric field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joshua Reynolds

    The physical user interface is an increasingly significant factor limiting the effectiveness of our interactions with and through technology. This thesis introduces Electric Field Imaging, a new physical channel and inference framework for machine perception of human action. Though electric field sensing is an important sensory modality for several species of fish, it has not been seriously explored as a channel for machine perception. Technological applications of field sensing, from the Theremin to the capacitive elevator button, have been limited to simple proximity detection tasks. This thesis presents a solution to the inverse problem of inferring geometrical information about the configuration and motion of the human body from electric field measurements. It also presents simple, inexpensive hardware and signal processing techniques for makin the field measurements, and several new applications of electric field sensing. The signal processing contribution includes synchronous undersampling, a narrowband, phase sensitive detection technique that is well matched to the capabilities of contemporary microcontrollers. In hardware, the primary contributions are the School of Fish, a scalable network of microcontroller-based transceive electrodes, and the LazyFish, a small footprint integrated sensing board. Connecting n School of Fish electrodes results in an array capable of making heterodyne measurements of any or all n(n - 1) off-diagonal entries in the capacitance matrix. The LazyFish uses synchronous undersampling to provide up to 8 high signal- to-noise homodyne measurements in a very small package. The inverse electrostatics portion of the thesis presents a fast, general method for extracting geometrical information about the configuration and motion of the human body from field measurements. The method is based on the Sphere Expansion, a novel fast method for generating approximate solutions to the Laplace equation. Finally, the thesis describes a variety

  14. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K.; Rude, Thomas H.; Fowler, Vance G.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a gel matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose gel electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single gel with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments. PMID:25682374

  15. Field studies courses open

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourteen month-long courses combining applied academics with training in field research methodology are being offered this summer by the School for Field Studies. The courses, held in eight countries during May, June, July, and August, provide unique opportunities for participants to work as a team under primitive conditions.‘Our courses bind together the academic challenge of the research problem, the physical challenge of the site itself, and the interpersonal challenge of the expedition team in a dynamic way so that both cognitive and affective learning are accelerated,’ according to Jim Elder, the school's director.

  16. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas H; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a gel matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose gel electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single gel with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments.

  17. The Capodimonte Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    A Window towards the Distant Universe Summary The Osservatorio Astronomico Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF) is a multi-colour imaging survey project that is opening a new window towards the distant universe. It is conducted with the ESO Wide Field Imager (WFI) , a 67-million pixel advanced camera attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). As a pilot project at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (OAC) [1], the OACDF aims at providing a large photometric database for deep extragalactic studies, with important by-products for galactic and planetary research. Moreover, it also serves to gather experience in the proper and efficient handling of very large data sets, preparing for the arrival of the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) with the 1 x 1 degree 2 OmegaCam facility. PR Photo 15a/01 : Colour composite of the OACDF2 field . PR Photo 15b/01 : Interacting galaxies in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15c/01 : Spiral galaxy and nebulous object in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15d/01 : A galaxy cluster in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15e/01 : Another galaxy cluster in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15f/01 : An elliptical galaxy in the OACDF2 field. The Capodimonte Deep Field ESO PR Photo 15a/01 ESO PR Photo 15a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 426 pix - 73k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 851 pix - 736k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3190 pix - 7.3M] Caption : This three-colour image of about 1/4 of the Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF) was obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the la Silla Observatory. It covers "OACDF Subfield no. 2 (OACDF2)" with an area of about 35 x 32 arcmin 2 (about the size of the full moon), and it is one of the "deepest" wide-field images ever obtained. Technical information about this photo is available below. With the comparatively few large telescopes available in the world, it is not possible to study the Universe to its outmost limits in all directions. Instead, astronomers try to obtain the most detailed

  18. Dark-field competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbach, Christoph; mcissbc

    2014-04-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “Dark field illuminates X-ray imaging” (25 February, http://ow.ly/ulJnl), which concerns new research by Robert Cernik and colleagues (Proc. R. Soc. A 10.1098/rspa.2013.0629).

  19. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  20. Quantum field tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, A.; Riofrío, C. A.; Hübener, R.; Eisert, J.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the concept of quantum field tomography, the efficient and reliable reconstruction of unknown quantum fields based on data of correlation functions. At the basis of the analysis is the concept of continuous matrix product states (cMPS), a complete set of variational states grasping states in one-dimensional quantum field theory. We innovate a practical method, making use of and developing tools in estimation theory used in the context of compressed sensing such as Prony methods and matrix pencils, allowing us to faithfully reconstruct quantum field states based on low-order correlation functions. In the absence of a phase reference, we highlight how specific higher order correlation functions can still be predicted. We exemplify the functioning of the approach by reconstructing randomized cMPS from their correlation data and study the robustness of the reconstruction for different noise models. Furthermore, we apply the method to data generated by simulations based on cMPS and using the time-dependent variational principle. The presented approach is expected to open up a new window into experimentally studying continuous quantum systems, such as those encountered in experiments with ultra-cold atoms on top of atom chips. By virtue of the analogy with the input-output formalism in quantum optics, it also allows for studying open quantum systems.

  1. Hubble Deep Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, H.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Deep Fields are two small areas of the sky that were carefully selected for deep observations by the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST). They represent the deepest optical observations to date and reveal galaxies as faint as V=30, 4 billion times fainter than can be seen with the unaided eye....

  2. Tremont Field Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tremont Field Site is a 41.5-acre public park located northeast of the intersection of West 11th Street and Clark Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio. Through two deed transfers in 1948 and 1949, the City acquired the site from the United States Government.

  3. DEMONSTRATION PLAN FIELD MEASUREMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The demonstration of innovative field measurement devices for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County site in Port Hueneme, California. The primary purpose of the demonstration is to evaluate innovative field measurement devices for TPH in soil based on their performance and cost as compared to a conventional, off-site laboratory analytical method. The seven field measurement devices listed below will be demonstrated. CHEMetrics, Inc.'s, RemediAidTm Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Starter Kit Wilks Enterprise, Inc.'s, Infracal' TOG/TPH Analyzer, Models CVH and HATR-T Horiba Instruments, Incorporated's, OCMA-350 Oil Content Analyzer Dexsil' Corporation's PetroFLAGTm Hydrocarbon Test Kit for Soil Environmental Systems Corporation's Synchronous Scanning Luminoscope siteLAB@ Corporation's Analytical Test Kit UVF-3 I OOA Strategic Diagnostics, Inc.'s, EnSys Petro Test System This demonstration plan describes the procedures that will be used to verify the performance and cost of each field measurement device. The plan incorporates the quality assurance and quality control elements needed to generate data of sufficient quality to document each device's performance and cost. A separate innovative technology verification report (ITVR) will be prepared for each device. The ITVRs will present the demonstratio

  4. Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1997-01-01

    Virtual field trips can provide experiences beyond the reach of average K-12 students. Describes multimedia products for school use: Africa Trail, Dinosaur Hunter, Louvre Museum, Magic School Bus Explores the Rainforest, and Up to the Himalayas: Kingdoms in the Clouds and provides book and Internet connections for additional learning, highlighting…

  5. Warp Field Mechanics 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold

    2011-01-01

    This paper will begin with a short review of the Alcubierre warp drive metric and describes how the phenomenon might work based on the original paper. The canonical form of the metric was developed and published in [6] which provided key insight into the field potential and boost for the field which remedied a critical paradox in the original Alcubierre concept of operations. A modified concept of operations based on the canonical form of the metric that remedies the paradox is presented and discussed. The idea of a warp drive in higher dimensional space-time (manifold) will then be briefly considered by comparing the null-like geodesics of the Alcubierre metric to the Chung-Freese metric to illustrate the mathematical role of hyperspace coordinates. The net effect of using a warp drive technology coupled with conventional propulsion systems on an exploration mission will be discussed using the nomenclature of early mission planning. Finally, an overview of the warp field interferometer test bed being implemented in the Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory: Eagleworks (APPL:E) at the Johnson Space Center will be detailed. While warp field mechanics has not had a Chicago Pile moment, the tools necessary to detect a modest instance of the phenomenon are near at hand.

  6. Field-Flow Fractionation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Karin D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a technique for separating samples that range over 15 orders of magnitude in molecular weight. Discusses theory, apparatus, and sample preparation techniques. Lists several types of field-flow fractionation (FFF) and their uses: sedimentation FFF, thermal FFF, flow FFF, electrical FFF, and steric FFF. (ML)

  7. Fields of Fuel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Wangen, Steve; Nye, D. Leith; Shapiro, R. Benjamin; Strinz, Will; Ferris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To help teachers engage students in discussions about sustainability, the authors designed Fields of Fuel, a multiplayer, web-based simulation game that allows players to explore the environmental and economic trade-offs of a realistic sustainable system. Computer-based simulations of real-world phenomena engage students and have been shown to…

  8. Entanglement with classical fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.F.; Thomas, J.E.

    2004-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple classical-field optical heterodyne method which employs postselection to reproduce the polarization correlations of a four-particle entangled state. We give a heuristic argument relating this method to the measurement of multiple quantum fields by correlated homodyne detection. We suggest that using multiple classical fields and postselection, one can reproduce the polarization correlations obtained in quantum experiments which employ multiple single-photon sources and linear optics to prepare multiparticle entangled states. Our experimental scheme produces four spatially separated beams which are separately detected by mixing with four independent optical local oscillators (LO) of variable polarization. Analog multiplication of the four beat signals enables projection onto a four-particle polarization-state basis. Appropriate band pass filtering is used to produce a signal proportional to the projections of the maximally entangled four-field polarization state, H{sub 1})H{sub 2})H{sub 3})H{sub 4})+V{sub 1})V{sub 2})V{sub 3})V{sub 4}), onto the product of the four LO polarizations. Since the data from multiple observers is combined prior to postselection, this method does not constitute a test of nonlocality. However, we reproduce the polarization correlations of the 32 elements in the truth table from the quantum mechanical Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger experiments on the violation of local realism. We also demonstrate a form of classical entanglement swapping in a four-particle basis.

  9. Managing Field Evacuations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satz, Jay A.; McEvoy, David; Merrill, Kurt

    In the event of a debilitating injury or illness, outdoor leaders should consider four critical phases in successfully managing backcountry field evaluations. The first phase, managing the immediate scene, involves assuring scene safety, medical care of the patient, instituting the emergency response plan, and providing for the needs of uninjured…

  10. Warp Field Mechanics 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, H.

    This paper will begin with a short review of the Alcubierre warp drive metric and describes how the phenomenon might work based on the original paper. The canonical form of the metric was developed and published in [6] which provided key insight into the field potential and boost for the field which remedied a critical paradox in the original Alcubierre concept of operations. A modified concept of operations based on the canonical form of the metric that remedies the paradox is presented and discussed. The idea of a warp drive in higher dimensional space-time (manifold) will then be briefly considered by comparing the null-like geodesics of the Alcubierre metric to the Chung-Freese metric to illustrate the mathematical role of hyperspace coordinates. The net effect of using a warp drive "technology" coupled with conventional propulsion systems on an exploration mission will be discussed using the nomenclature of early mission planning. Finally, an overview of the warp field interferometer test bed being implemented in the Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory: Eagleworks (APPL:E) at the Johnson Space Center will be detailed. While warp field mechanics has not had a "Chicago Pile" moment, the tools necessary to detect a modest instance of the phenomenon are near at hand.

  11. Holden Crater Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    A common location for dune fields on Mars is in the basin of large craters. This dune field is located in Holden Crater at 25 degrees South atitude.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -25.5, Longitude 326.8 East (33.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Modelling Water Flow, Heat Transport, Soil Freezing and Thawing, and Snow Processes in a Clayey, Subsurface Drained Agricultural Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsta, L.; Turunen, M.; Koivusalo, H. J.; Paasonen-Kivekäs, M.; Karvonen, T.; Taskinen, A.

    2012-12-01

    experimental field section while snow and frost depths were recorded within the experimental field section. The model was calibrated with 1994 data and validated with soil temperature and snow and frost depth data from the years 1995-1999. The main advantage of the new model was the 3-D distributed nature of the system which made it possible to simulate lateral water and heat fluxes in soil and overland flow on the field surface. Also, the possibility to simulate hydrological conditions in the experimental field continuously from 1994 to 1998 was essential because the main sediment loads in Nordic fields usually occur after snow melt and during autumn rains and the resulting runoff depends on the antecedent moisture conditions in the field. The simulation results revealed differences in soil temperatures within the field area due to the topography of the undulating field. The low lying areas were colder (up to 1 °C) during winter and also remained colder longer in the spring due to the higher water content compared to the drier, upper parts of the slopes. Repeated freezing and thawing cycles during the winter and early spring caused an ice layer to form on the soil surface which promoted generation of surface runoff. The snow cover over the field and the organic matter in the tillage layer had an insulating effect on the soil temperatures.

  13. Vector fields in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant FμνF~μν, one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the `electric' and `magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.

  14. Bigfoot Field Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Burrows, S.; Gower, S. T.; Cohen, W. B.

    1999-09-01

    The BigFoot Project is funded by the Earth Science Enterprise to collect and organize data to be used in the EOS Validation Program. The data collected by the BigFoot Project are unique in being ground-based observations coincident with satellite overpasses. In addition to collecting data, the BigFoot project will develop and test new algorithms for scaling point measurements to the same spatial scales as the EOS satellite products. This BigFoot Field Manual Mill be used to achieve completeness and consistency of data collected at four initial BigFoot sites and at future sites that may collect similar validation data. Therefore, validation datasets submitted to the ORNL DAAC that have been compiled in a manner consistent with the field manual will be especially valuable in the validation program.

  15. Wake field acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  16. (abstract) Venus Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    A global gravity field model of Venus to degree and order 75 (5772 spherical harmonic coefficients) has been estimated from Doppler radio tracking of the orbiting spacecraft Pioneer Venus Orbiter (1979-1992) and Magellan (1990-1994). After the successful aerobraking of Magellan, a near circular polar orbit was attained and relatively uniform gravity field resolution (approximately 200 km) was obtained with formal uncertainties of a few milligals. Detailed gravity for several highland features are displayed as gravity contours overlaying colored topography. The positive correlation of typography with gravity is very high being unlike that of the Earth, Moon, and Mars. The amplitudes are Earth-like, but have significantly different gravity-topography ratios for different features. Global gravity, geoid, and isostatic anomaly maps as well as the admittance function are displayed.

  17. Magnetic fields and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.L.

    1993-10-01

    This letter is a response to an article by Savitz and Kaune, EHP 101:76-80. W-L wire code was applied to data from a 1988 Denver study, and an association was reported between high W-L wire code and childhood cancer. This author discusses several studies and provides explanations which weakens the argument that classification error resulted in an appreciable reduction in the association between W-L high wire code and childhood cancer. In conclusion, the fact that new wire code is only weakly correlated with magnetic field measurements (in the same manner as the original W-L wire code) suggests that the newly reported stronger association with childhood cancer is likely due to factors other than magnetic fields. Differential residential mobility and differential residential age are two possible explanations and are suggestive that the reported association may be false.

  18. Graphene field emission devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S. Raghavan, S.; Duesberg, G. S.; Pratap, R.

    2014-09-08

    Graphene field emission devices are fabricated using a scalable process. The field enhancement factors, determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, are within few hundreds and match the theoretical predictions. The devices show high emission current density of ∼10 nA μm{sup −1} at modest voltages of tens of volts. The emission is stable with time and repeatable over long term, whereas the noise in the emission current is comparable to that from individual carbon nanotubes emitting under similar conditions. We demonstrate a power law dependence of emission current on pressure which can be utilized for sensing. The excellent characteristics and relative ease of making the devices promise their great potential for sensing and electronic applications.

  19. Habituating field scientists.

    PubMed

    Alcayna-Stevens, Lys

    2016-12-01

    This article explores the sensory dimensions of scientific field research in the only region in the world where free-ranging bonobos ( Pan paniscus) can be studied in their natural environment; the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. If, as sensory anthropologists have argued, the senses are developed, grown and honed in a given cultural and environmental milieu, how is it that field scientists come to dwell among familiarity in a world which is, at first, unfamiliar? This article builds upon previous anthropological and philosophical engagements with habituation that have critically examined primatologists' attempts to become 'neutral objects in the environment' in order to habituate wild apes to their presence. It does so by tracing the somatic modes of attention developed by European and North American researchers as they follow bonobos in these forests. The argument is that as environments, beings and their elements become familiar, they do not become 'neutral', but rather, suffused with meaning.

  20. Field reparametrization in SMEFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarino, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    Debate topic for effective field theory (EFT) is the choice of a "basis" for dim= 6 operators. Clearly all bases are equivalent as long as they are a "basis", containing a minimal set of operators after the use of equations of motion and respecting the SU(3)× SU(2)× U(1) gauge invariance. From a more formal point of view a basis is characterized by its closure with respect to renormalization. Equivalence of bases should always be understood as a statement for the S-matrix and not for the Lagrangian, as dictated by the equivalence theorem. Any phenomenological approach that misses one of these ingredients is still acceptable for a preliminar analysis, as long as it does not pretend to be an EFT. Here we revisit the equivalence theorem and its consequences for EFT when two sets of higher-dimensional operators are connected by a set of non-linear, non-invariant, field reparametrizations.

  1. High field pulsed microwiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.W.

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes a microwiggler assembly which produces large magnetic fields for oscillating charged particle beams, particularly electron beams for free electron laser (FEL) application. A tube of electrically conductive material is formed with radial slots axially spaced at the period of the electron beam. The slots have alternate 180{degrees} relationships and are formed to a maximum depth of 0.6 to 0.7 times the tube circumference. An optimum slot depth is selected eliminate magnetic quadrupole fields within the microwiggler as determined from a conventional pulsed wire technique. Suitable slot configurations include single slits, double slits, triple slits, and elliptical slots. An axial electron beam direction is maintained by experimentally placing end slits adjacent entrance and exit portions of the assembly, where the end slit depth is determined by use of the pulsed wire technique outside the tube.

  2. High field pulsed microwiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a microwiggler assembly which produces large magnetic fields for oscillating charged particle beams, particularly electron beams for free electron laser (FEL) application. A tube of electrically conductive material is formed with radial slots axially spaced at the period of the electron beam. The slots have alternate 180{degrees} relationships and are formed to a maximum depth of 0.6 to 0.7 times the tube circumference. An optimum slot depth is selected eliminate magnetic quadrupole fields within the microwiggler as determined from a conventional pulsed wire technique. Suitable slot configurations include single slits, double slits, triple slits, and elliptical slots. An axial electron beam direction is maintained by experimentally placing end slits adjacent entrance and exit portions of the assembly, where the end slit depth is determined by use of the pulsed wire technique outside the tube.

  3. The interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field as determined by the solar wind velocity structure are examined. The various ways in which magnetic fields affect phenomena in the solar wind are summarized. The dominant role of high and low velocity solar wind streams that persist, with fluctuations and evolution, for weeks or months is emphasized. It is suggested that for most purposes the sector structure is better identified with the stream structure than with the magnetic polarity and that the polarity does not necessarily change from one velocity sector to the next. Several mechanisms that might produce the stream structure are considered. The interaction of the high and low velocity streams is analyzed in a model that is steady state when viewed in a frame that corotates with the sun.

  4. Conformal scalar field wormholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Jonathan J.; Laflamme, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    The Euclidian Einstein equations with a cosmological constant and a conformally coupled scalar field are solved, taking the metric to be of the Robertson-Walker type. In the case Lambda = 0, solutions are found which represent a wormhole connecting two asymptotically flat Euclidian regions. In the case Lambda greater than 0, the solutions represent tunneling from a small Tolman-like universe to a large Robertson-Walker universe.

  5. Proca and electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hillion, P.; Quinnerz, S.

    1986-07-01

    In the framework of the proper orthochronous Lorentz group, the old connection is revived between the electromagnetic field characterized by a self-dual tensor and a traceless second-rank spinor obeying the Proca equation. The relationship between this spinor and the Hertz potential also considered as a self-dual tensor is emphasized. The extension of this formalism to meet the covariance under the full Lorentz group is also discussed.

  6. Mobilestar field test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubow, Wayne

    1988-01-01

    Various field tests were performed in order to gain practical experience and a broader understanding of mobile communications. The first phase consisted of CW propagation tests to develop firsthand experience of propagation phenomena. From this information, estimates of the feasibility and accuracy of power control were possible. The next phase tested the idea of power control. Equipment representative of that expected to be used in an actual mobile satellite communication system was assembled and tested under a variety of environments.

  7. Mobile Field Goniospectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, J. I.; Kaasalainen, S.; Näränen, J.

    2004-05-01

    Multiangle remote sensing needs multiangle models and multiangle ground reference data. The ground data can be measured using goniometers. Many targets are in difficult terrains and hard to bring into laboratory, which makes the ground data collection more complicated We have developed several field goniometers to measure the directional and spectral reflection signatures of various targets. The heaviest of the instruments is fully manual and very robust for field work. It can be transported using a light trailer and mounted in an hour. The new very light goniometer measures the BRDF automatically in few minutes. It can be carried by two persons even large distances to difficult places. Both of these instruments use the ASD Field Spec PRO FR spectrometer with a 4m light fibre allowing optics to be mounted up and the heavy parts down. The dimensions --- arm length about 2m --- and optics (1--8 degree view angles) limit the useful spot diameter to about 3, 10 or 30cm, making the system useful for small vegetation and soil. These two wide angle goniometers are complemented by a narrow angle backscattering goniometer utilising beamsplitters to measure up to exact backscattering direction and about 15 degree around. We present BRDF and spectra for undergrowth (lichen, moss, peat, twigs) from a field campaign in August 2003, and various grasses dry and wet. We recognise significant differences in the directional pattern between different species (factors of 2-10) and varying structural properties, making the use of directional signal for remote sensing very attractive. We are working with scattering models of snow and soil, and will continue with vegetation soon.

  8. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  9. More Track and Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Toepker, Terrence P.

    2004-09-01

    A recent item in Physics Challenges for Teachers and Students presented a problem of a metal rod (mass M) sliding on frictionless, parallel conducting rails (of negligible resistance and separated by a distance L) in the presence of a downwardly directed uniform external magnetic field B. A resistor R bridges the rails, thereby completing the circuit. This problem can also be found in Griffiths' text Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Problem 7.7).2

  10. Fringe Field Superconducting Switch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-31

    superconducting smp ,ine 10, and a ferromagnet ferromagnet 14 preferably has at least two easy axes of magnetization, shown here by the double- headed arrows...magnetic field of control current **p6fCooductor- S4 ’’/ eonteol^cun 7* insulator ■O Jöpptyzcöwem supercuiKhttstog-^2 ^ FIG.^ 4 //■ r.»~r

  11. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. Magnetic field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, W. I.

    The fundamental principles of particle acceleration by magnetic reconnection in cosmic plasmas are reviewed. The history of reconnection models is traced, and consideration is given to the Kelvin-Helmholtz theorem, the frozen-field theorem, the application of the Kelvin-Helmholtz theorem to a collisionless plasma, solutions to specific reconnection problems, and configurational instability. Diagrams and graphs are provided, and the objections raised by critics of the reconnection theory and/or its astrophysical applications are discussed.

  13. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  14. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  15. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical ( GMO ) or Faraday...Squids are those based upon the giant magneto-optical ( GMO ) effect in ferrimagnetic materials or YIG garnets and the giant magneto-resistance (GMR...effect in manganese based compounds. The development of the GMO material was mostly motivated by the need for compact, in-line fiber optical

  16. Crater Floor Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Our final dune image shows a small dune field inside an unnamed crater south of Nili Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 20.6, Longitude 79 East (281 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Nili Patera Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image shows a dune field within Nili Patera, the northern caldera of a large volcanic complex in Syrtis Major.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 9, Longitude 67 East (293 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Carbon sequestration strategies for crop- and grasslands evaluated in long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Improved management of grass- and croplands is a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of N fertilization, organic amendments and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks by analyzing data from long-term field experiments in Nordic countries. Increasing net primary production was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by about 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. We also quantified the effect of organic amendments on soil carbon stocks. Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely from about 15% for above-ground crop residues to about 90% for composted household waste. We also emphasize that increased soil carbon stocks not always lead to carbon sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and discuss misunderstandings related to mitigation options earlier proposed for carbon sequestration such as organic farming, manure application, residue handling or application of biochar. Finally, the consequences of different land use and management are discussed, taking into account two critical boundaries - the limited area of agricultural land on Earth and requirements to produce sufficient food, fibres and energy for a growing population.

  19. Magnetic Field Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilin, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.

  20. Heavy fields and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goon, Garrett

    2017-01-01

    We study the effects of heavy fields on 4D spacetimes with flat, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. At low energies, matter generates specific, calculable higher derivative corrections to the GR action which perturbatively alter the Schwarzschild-( A) dS family of solutions. The effects of massive scalars, Dirac spinors and gauge fields are each considered. The six-derivative operators they produce, such as ˜ R 3 terms, generate the leading corrections. The induced changes to horizon radii, Hawking temperatures and entropies are found. Modifications to the energy of large AdS black holes are derived by imposing the first law. An explicit demonstration of the replica trick is provided, as it is used to derive black hole and cosmological horizon entropies. Considering entropy bounds, it's found that scalars and fermions increase the entropy one can store inside a region bounded by a sphere of fixed size, but vectors lead to a decrease, oddly. We also demonstrate, however, that many of the corrections fall below the resolving power of the effective field theory and are therefore untrustworthy. Defining properties of black holes, such as the horizon area and Hawking temperature, prove to be remarkably robust against higher derivative gravitational corrections.

  1. Carter separable electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynden-Bell, D.

    2000-02-01

    The purely electromagnetic analogue in flat space of Kerr's metric in general relativity is only rarely considered. Here we carry out in flat space a programme similar to Carter's investigation of metrics in general relativity in which the motion of a charged particle is separable. We concentrate on the separability of the motion (be it classical, relativistic or quantum) of a charged particle in electromagnetic fields that lie in planes through an axis of symmetry. In cylindrical polar coordinates (t,R,φ,z) the four-vector potential takes the form [formmu2] is the unit toroidal vector. The forms of the functions Φ(R,z) and A(R,z) are sought that allow separable motion. This occurs for relativistic motion only when AR,Φ and A2-Φ2 are all of the separable form ζ(λ)-η(μ)]/(λ-μ), where ζ and η are arbitrary functions, and λ and μ are spheroidal coordinates or degenerations thereof. The special forms of A and Φ that allow this are deduced. They include the Kerr metric analogue, with E+iB=-∇{q[(r-ia).(r-ia)]-1/2}. Rather more general electromagnetic fields allow separation when the motion is non-relativistic. The investigation is extended to fields that lie in parallel planes. Connections to Larmor's theorem are remarked upon.

  2. Computational quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobe, Rainer

    2006-05-01

    I will give an overview on recent attempts to solve the time-dependent Dirac equation for the electron-positron field operator. These numerical solutions permit a first temporally and spatially resolved insight into the mechanisms of how an electron-positron pair can be created from vacuum in a very strong force field. This approach has helped to illuminate a wide range of controversial questions. Some of these questions arise for complicated physical situations such as how an electron scatters off a supercritical potential barrier (Klein paradox). This requires the application of quantum field theory to study the combined effect of the pair-production due to the supercriticality of the potential together with the scattering at the barrier involving the Pauli-principle. Other phenomena include Schr"odinger's Zitterbewegung and the localization problem for a relativistic particle. This work has been supported by the NSF and Research Corporation. P. Krekora, K. Cooley, Q. Su and R. Grobe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 070403 (2005). P. Krekora, Q. Su and R. Grobe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 043004 (2004). P. Krekora, Q. Su and R. Grobe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040406 (2004).

  3. Bright field illumination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A Bright Field Illumination system for inspecting a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface. The system has an illumination source placed near a first focus of an elliptical reflector. In addition, a camera facing the inspected area is placed near the illumination source and the first focus. The second focus of the elliptical reflector is located at a distance approximately twice the elliptical reflector's distance above the inspected surface. The elliptical reflector directs the light from the source onto the inspected surface. Due to the shape of the elliptical reflector, light that is specularly reflected from the inspected surface is directed into the camera is which located at the position of the reflected second focus of the ellipse. This system creates a brightly lighted background field against which damage sites appear as high contrast dark objects which can be easily detected by a person or an automated inspection system. In addition, the Bright Field Illumination system and method can be used in combination with a vision inspection system providing for multiplexed illumination and data handling of multiple kinds of surface characteristics including abrupt and gradual surface variations and differences between measured characteristics of different kinds and prior instruments.

  4. Field Trips: Tradition in Jeopardy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Ginger

    2011-01-01

    The school field trip: something fun, different, exciting, exhausting--a break from the school day grind. But the field trip has ramifications beyond just getting out of school for the day. For students, the field trip is to the classroom what the big game is to athletes. For museums and other attractions, the field trip is a way to cultivate…

  5. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  6. Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2014-12-01

    The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.

  7. Superhorizon magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the evolution of superhorizon-scale magnetic fields from the end of inflation till today. Whatever is the mechanism responsible for their generation during inflation, we find that a given magnetic mode with wave number k evolves, after inflation, according to the values of k ηe , nk , and Ωk , where ηe is the conformal time at the end of inflation, nk is the number density spectrum of inflation-produced photons, and Ωk is the phase difference between the two Bogoliubov coefficients which characterize the state of that mode at the end of inflation. For any realistic inflationary magnetogenesis scenario, we find that nk-1≪|k ηe|≪1 , and three evolutionary scenarios are possible: (i) |Ωk∓π |=O (1 ) , in which case the evolution of the magnetic spectrum Bk(η ) is adiabatic, a2Bk(η )=const , with a being the expansion parameter; (ii) |Ωk∓π |≪|k ηe| , in which case the evolution is superadiabatic, a2Bk(η )∝η ; (iii) |k ηe|≪|Ωk∓π |≪1 or |k ηe|˜|Ωk∓π |≪1 , in which case an early phase of adiabatic evolution is followed, after a time η⋆˜|Ωk∓π |/k , by a superadiabatic evolution. Once a given mode reenters the horizon, it remains frozen into the plasma and then evolves adiabatically till today. As a corollary of our results, we find that inflation-generated magnetic fields evolve adiabatically on all scales and for all times in conformal-invariant free Maxwell theory, while they evolve superadiabatically after inflation on superhorizon scales in the nonconformal-invariant Ratra model, where the inflaton is kinematically coupled to the electromagnetic field. The latter result supports and, somehow, clarifies our recent claim that the Ratra model can account for the presence of cosmic magnetic fields without suffering from both backreaction and strong-coupling problems.

  8. Aerial field guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nummedal, D.

    1978-01-01

    There are two overflights planned for the field conference; one for the Cheney-Palouse tract of the eastern channeled scabland, the other covering the coulees and basins of the western region. The approximate flight lines are indicated on the accompanying LANDSAT images. The first flight will follow the eastern margin of this large scabland tract, passing a series of loess remnants, gravel bars and excavated rock basins. The western scablands overflight will provide a review of the structurally controlled complex pattern of large-scale erosion and deposition characteristic of the region between the upper Grand Coulee (Banks Lake) and the Pasco Basin.

  9. Predicting photothermal field performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Photothermal field performance in flat plate solar collectors was predicted. An analytical model which incorporates the measured dependency between transmittance loss and UV and temperature exposure levels was developed. The model uses SOLMET weather data extrapolated to 30 years for various sites and module mounting configurations. It is concluded that the temperature is the key to photothermally induced transmittance loss. The sensitivity of transmittance loss to UV level is nonlinear with minimum in curve near one sun. The ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) results are consistent with 30 year life allocation.

  10. Digital field ion microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sijbrandij, S.J.; Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.; Thomson, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    Due to environmental concerns, there is a trend to avoid the use of chemicals needed to develop negatives and to process photographic paper, and to use digital technologies instead. Digital technology also offers the advantages that it is convenient, as it enables quick access to the end result, allows image storage and processing on computer, allows rapid hard copy output, and simplifies electronic publishing. Recently significant improvements have been made to the performance and cost of camera-sensors and printers. In this paper, field ion images recorded with two digital cameras of different resolution are compared to images recorded on standard 35 mm negative film. It should be noted that field ion images exhibit low light intensity and high contrast. Field ion images were recorded from a standard microchannel plate and a phosphor screen and had acceptance angles of {approximately} 60{degree}. Digital recordings were made with a Digital Vision Technologies (DVT) MICAM VHR1000 camera with a resolution of 752 x 582 pixels, and a Kodak DCS 460 digital camera with a resolution of 3,060 x 2,036 pixels. Film based recordings were made with Kodak T-MAX film rated at 400 ASA. The resolving power of T-MAX film, as specified by Kodak, is between 50 and 125 lines per mm, which corresponds to between 1,778 x 1,181 and 4,445 x 2,953 pixels, i.e. similar to that from the DCS 460 camera. The intensities of the images were sufficient to be recorded with standard fl:1.2 lenses with exposure times of less than 2 s. Many digital cameras were excluded from these experiments due to their lack of sensitivity or the inability to record a full frame image due to the fixed working distance defined by the vacuum system. The digital images were output on a Kodak Digital Science 8650 PS dye sublimation color printer (300 dpi). All field ion micrographs presented were obtained from a Ni-Al-Be specimen.

  11. Transverse field focused system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1986-01-01

    A transverse field focused (TFF) system for transport or acceleration of an intense sheet beam of negative ions in which a serial arrangement of a plurality of pairs of concentric cylindrical-arc electrodes is provided. Acceleration of the sheet beam can be achieved by progressively increasing the mean electrode voltage of successive electrode pairs. Because the beam is curved by the electrodes, the system can be designed to transport the beam through a maze passage which is baffled to prevent line of sight therethrough. Edge containment of the beam can be achieved by shaping the side edges of the electrodes to produce an electric force vector directed inwardly from the electrode edges.

  12. Semiclassical Coulomb field

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, J.

    2008-06-15

    The contribution of different modes of the Coulomb field to decoherence and to the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance is calculated in the one-loop approximation for nonrelativistic electron gas. The dominant contribution was found to come from the usual collective modes in the plasma, namely, the zero-sound and the plasmon oscillations. The length scale of the quantum-classical transition is found to be close to the Thomas-Fermi screening length. It is argued that the extension of these modes to the whole Fock space yields optimal pointer states.

  13. Reconnection of Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Spacecraft observations of steady and nonsteady reconnection at the magnetopause are reviewed. Computer simulations of three-dimensional reconnection in the geomagnetic tail are discussed. Theoretical aspects of the energization of particles in current sheets and of the microprocesses in the diffusion region are presented. Terrella experiments in which magnetospheric reconnection is simulated at both the magnetopause and in the tail are described. The possible role of reconnection in the evolution of solar magnetic fields and solar flares is discussed. A two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computer simulation of turbulent reconnection is examined. Results concerning reconnection in Tokamak devices are also presented.

  14. NFC - Narrow Field Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Gorková, S.

    2015-01-01

    We have been introducing a low-cost CCTV video system for faint meteor monitoring and here we describe the first results from 5 months of two-station operations. Our system called NFC (Narrow Field Camera) with a meteor limiting magnitude around +6.5mag allows research on trajectories of less massive meteoroids within individual parent meteor showers and the sporadic background. At present 4 stations (2 pairs with coordinated fields of view) of NFC system are operated in the frame of CEMeNt (Central European Meteor Network). The heart of each NFC station is a sensitive CCTV camera Watec 902 H2 and a fast cinematographic lens Meopta Meostigmat 1/50 - 52.5 mm (50 mm focal length and fixed aperture f/1.0). In this paper we present the first results based on 1595 individual meteors, 368 of which were recorded from two stations simultaneously. This data set allows the first empirical verification of theoretical assumptions for NFC system capabilities (stellar and meteor magnitude limit, meteor apparent brightness distribution and accuracy of single station measurements) and the first low mass meteoroid trajectory calculations. Our experimental data clearly showed the capabilities of the proposed system for low mass meteor registration and for calculations based on NFC data to lead to a significant refinement in the orbital elements for low mass meteoroids.

  15. Measurement of radiofrequency fields

    SciTech Connect

    Leonowich, J.A.

    1992-05-01

    We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs.

  16. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyntjes, Geert

    2002-02-01

    Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

  17. The Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Mathew J.; Forsyth, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.

  18. The Themis heliostat field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collon, A.; Leclerc, A.

    The 201-heliostat field which supplies solar rays to the central receiver as part of the Themis project is detailed. Each heliostat has 54 sq m of surface and is connected with all others in a central control circuit. The energy is directed to a square aperture 4 m on a side. The control logic is written in three levels, with microprocessors located in each heliostat drive to follow commands of a central computer. The reflector field is subsequently divided into zones in order to maximize control efficiency and power deposition on the receiver as the day progresses. A maximum of 9.7 MWth is shone on the power tower at an operational efficiency of 77 percent. A cylindrical shape was chosen for the array, which turns face downward to survive in strong winds. Emergency procedures which would also cause the plant to shut down due to an accident in the primary loop are explored, along with hazards to human eyesight from seeing the reflected flux.

  19. Spectral Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Anne

    1990-12-01

    The diode to diode variations and photocathode non- uniformities of the FOS detectors were determined in SV for spectra obtained through the single apertures. Additional flat field calibrations will be performed in cycle 1 to verify stability and to extend the calibration to include the paired aperture spectra. In this test, we will obtain spectra of G191-B2B, which is known to have a very smooth, relatively featureless spectrum. The star will be observed in every useful detector/disperser combination through single apertures, and with the most useful dispersers at the photocathode locations corresponding to paired aperture spectra. Spatial scanning in the dispersion direction is used to shift the spectra, so that instrumental and features can be distinguished. The most useful polarizer configurations are also calibrated (excluding red side polarimetry and including blue side polarimetry for POL0-B but not for POL0-A). A second star, BD+28D4211, is also observed in the same manner, about 6 months later, to establish photometric and flat-field stability.

  20. The First Chandra Field

    SciTech Connect

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cedric; Elsner, Ronald F.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Wu, Kinwah; O'Dell, Stephen L.; /NASA, Marshall

    2005-09-09

    Before the official first-light images, the Chandra X-ray Observatory obtained an X-ray image of the field to which its focal plane was first exposed. We describe this historic observation and report our study of the first Chandra field. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detected 15 X-ray sources, the brightest being dubbed ''Leon X-1'' to honor the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. Based upon our analysis of the X-ray data and spectroscopy at the European Southern Observatory (ESO; La Silla, Chile), we find that Leon X-1 is a Type-1 (unobscured) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at a redshift z = 0.3207. Leon X-1 exhibits strong Fe II emission and a broad-line Balmer decrement that is unusually flat for an AGN. Within the context of the Eigenvector-1 correlation space, these properties suggest that Leon X-1 may be a massive ({ge} 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}}) black hole, accreting at a rate approaching its Eddington limit.

  1. The field worker's fields: ethics, ethnography and medical sociology.

    PubMed

    Anspach, Renée R; Mizrachi, Nissim

    2006-09-01

    Sociologists who do field work in medical settings face an intractable tension between their disciplinary field, which takes a critical perspective toward medicine, and their ethnographic field, which often includes physicians. This paper explores the ethical problems that result from the collision of the two fields. While in the field, ethnographers are forced to choose between sociology and their obligations to host members, as they decide whether to disclose their actual research agendas, whether to ask tough questions or to reveal their concerns, and whether to give advice. The tension persists when field workers leave the field to write, forcing them to choose between competing interpretations and to decide what to reveal or conceal in the interests of confidentiality. Through these moral choices about what to ask, record or present to the reader, ethnographers shape the academic field even as it shapes them.

  2. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study.

  3. String theory in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Makeenko, Yuri M.; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Szabo, Richard J.

    2003-02-01

    A review of various aspects of superstrings in background electromagnetic fields is presented. Topics covered include the Born-Infeld action, spectrum of open strings in background gauge fields, the Schwinger mechanism, finite-temperature formalism and Hagedorn behaviour in external fields, Debye screening, D-brane scattering, thermodynamics of D-branes, and noncommutative field and string theories on D-branes. The electric field instabilities are emphasized throughout and contrasted with the case of magnetic fields. A new derivation of the velocity-dependent potential between moving D-branes is presented, as is a new result for the velocity corrections to the one-loop thermal effective potential.

  4. Field-dressed orbitals in strong-field molecular ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemering, Robert; Njoya, Oumarou; Weinacht, Thomas; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate the importance of considering the shape of field-dressed molecular orbitals in interpreting angle-dependent measures of strong-field ionization from excited states. Our calculations of angle-dependent ionization for three homologous polyatomic molecules with very similar valence orbitals show that one has to take into account the shape of the field-dressed orbitals rather than the field-free orbitals in order to rationalize the experimental measurements.

  5. Beyond mean field theory: statistical field theory for neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Buice, Michael A; Chow, Carson C

    2014-01-01

    Mean field theories have been a stalwart for studying the dynamics of networks of coupled neurons. They are convenient because they are relatively simple and possible to analyze. However, classical mean field theory neglects the effects of fluctuations and correlations due to single neuron effects. Here, we consider various possible approaches for going beyond mean field theory and incorporating correlation effects. Statistical field theory methods, in particular the Doi–Peliti–Janssen formalism, are particularly useful in this regard. PMID:25243014

  6. Electric-field and magnetic-field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieckowski, T. W.

    1993-05-01

    Analysis of double-loaded loop antennas and their properties has led to the design of new measuring sensors which enable has led to determination of both electric field strength and magnetic field strength. Sensors of the design proposed are applicable to a quasipoint measurement providing independent determination of the electric and magnetic component of the field.

  7. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  8. Squishy Physics Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Eric R.; Cianci, Gianguido; Habdas, Piotr

    2008-03-01

    Our laboratory studies soft condensed matter, which means we investigate squishy materials such as foams, emulsions, and colloidal suspensions. These materials include common things such as peanut butter, toothpaste, mayonnaise, shampoo, and shaving cream. We have conducted several field trips for grade school students, where they come to our laboratory and play with squishy materials. They do both hands-on table-top projects and also look at samples with a microscope. We have also developed some of these activities into labs appropriate for first-year college students. Our first goal for these activities is to show students that science is fun, and the second goal is to get them intrigued by the idea that there are more phases than just solids, liquids, and gases.

  9. Asymmetrical field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  10. Oil field management system

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  11. Molecules in Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    2015-08-01

    Molecules probe cool matter in the Universe and various astrophysical objects. Their ability to sense magnetic fields provides new insights into magnetic properties of these objects. During the past fifteen years we have carried out a theoretical study of molecular magnetic effects such as the Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Hanle effects and their applications for inferring magnetic structures and spatial inhomogeneities on the Sun, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets from molecular spectro-polarimetry (e.g., Berdyugina 2011). Here, we present an overview of this study and compare our theoretical predictions with recent laboratory measurements of magnetic properties of some molecules. We present also a new web-based tool to compute molecular magnetic effects and polarized spectra which is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant HotMol.

  12. Star field simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Star Field Simulator has been developed to serve as a source of radiation for the ASTRO Star Tracker. The star tracker and simulator are components of a motion compensation test facility located at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Preflight tests and simulations using various levels of guide stars are performed in the test facility to establish performance of the motion compensation system before being used in a flight environment. The ASTRO Star Tracker operates over a wide dynamic range of irradiance corresponding to visual stellar magnitudes of -0.8 to 8. A minimum of three simulated guide stars with variable magnitudes are needed to fully test the Star Tracker performance under simulated mission conditions.

  13. Direct Field Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, Paul; Goldstein, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an update to the methods and procedures used in Direct Field Acoustic Testing (DFAT). The paper will discuss some of the recent techniques and developments that are currently being used and the future publication of a reference standard. Acoustic testing using commercial sound system components is becoming a popular and cost effective way of generating a required acoustic test environment both in and out of a reverberant chamber. This paper will present the DFAT test method, the usual setup and procedure and the development and use of a closed-loop, narrow-band control system. Narrow-band control of the acoustic PSD allows all standard techniques and procedures currently used in random control to be applied to acoustics and some examples are given. The paper will conclude with a summary of the development of a standard practice guideline that is hoped to be available in the first quarter of next year.

  14. Field et al. Redux.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    On 12 February 1988 (by coincidence Charles Darwin’s birthday), a paper published in Science by Katherine Field, Rudy Raff, and colleagues presented the first credible molecular analysis of metazoan phylogeny based on sequences from the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU). Here I examine the main conclusions reached in this manuscript. I reconstitute their dataset and, by recompiling software available in 1988, I consider how they might have achieved a more accurate tree. I show how three common methods to avoid systematic error - more data, careful taxon sampling and superior models of evolution - overcome the errors that exist in the original paper. This approach illustrates the basis of some of the major advances of the past 25 years resulting in our current understanding of animal phylogeny. PMID:23398689

  15. Metallic field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Hassan

    This thesis investigates the principle of operation behind metallic-field effect transistors (METFETs) through a systematic study of atomistic simulations performed on metallic bulk, nanowire and transistor structures. In particular, density functional theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) based models were used to study the effect on the bandstructure and density of states of highly scaled metallic nanowires with varying parameters such as crystal orientation, cross-sectional area, and applied external bias. Similarly, the effect of varying similar parameters on the transfer and output characteristics of highly scaled metallic transistors was studied. Furthermore, oxide interfaces with metallic channels were investigated. The simulation results show that a gold METFET in the [100] crystal orientation has an I ON /IOFF ratio of 41, ION of 29.5microA and fT of 6.7THz, outperforming similarly sized MOSFETs as a promising alternative for use in high-frequency circuits.

  16. Asymmetrical field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1995-01-01

    Providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure.

  17. Associative Hierarchical Random Fields.

    PubMed

    Ladický, L'ubor; Russell, Chris; Kohli, Pushmeet; Torr, Philip H S

    2014-06-01

    This paper makes two contributions: the first is the proposal of a new model-The associative hierarchical random field (AHRF), and a novel algorithm for its optimization; the second is the application of this model to the problem of semantic segmentation. Most methods for semantic segmentation are formulated as a labeling problem for variables that might correspond to either pixels or segments such as super-pixels. It is well known that the generation of super pixel segmentations is not unique. This has motivated many researchers to use multiple super pixel segmentations for problems such as semantic segmentation or single view reconstruction. These super-pixels have not yet been combined in a principled manner, this is a difficult problem, as they may overlap, or be nested in such a way that the segmentations form a segmentation tree. Our new hierarchical random field model allows information from all of the multiple segmentations to contribute to a global energy. MAP inference in this model can be performed efficiently using powerful graph cut based move making algorithms. Our framework generalizes much of the previous work based on pixels or segments, and the resulting labelings can be viewed both as a detailed segmentation at the pixel level, or at the other extreme, as a segment selector that pieces together a solution like a jigsaw, selecting the best segments from different segmentations as pieces. We evaluate its performance on some of the most challenging data sets for object class segmentation, and show that this ability to perform inference using multiple overlapping segmentations leads to state-of-the-art results.

  18. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  19. Performing the field necropsy examination.

    PubMed

    Mason, Gary L; Madden, Dennis J

    2007-11-01

    This article is designed to aid the practitioner by maximizing the effectiveness of field postmortem diagnostic investigations. Contents include an outline of the procedure for field necropsy of ruminants, recommended tools and supplies, and guidelines for sample collection and submission.

  20. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  1. Correlation Based Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschneider, M.; Mauerberger, S.; Lesur, V.; Baerenzung, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method for determining geomagnetic field models. It is based on the construction of an a priori correlation structure derived from our knowledge about characteristic length scales and sources of the geomagnetic field. The magnetic field measurements are then seen as correlated random variables too and the inversion process amounts to compute the a posteriori correlation structure using Bayes theorem. We show how this technique allows the statistical separation of the various field contributions and the assessment of their uncertainties.

  2. Martian external magnetic field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  3. Ideal Channel Field Effect Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    to bring the electron energy in equilibrium with the local electric field, i.e. the electron energy lags the local electric field. This non...equilibrium effect makes the impact ionization depend mostly on the carrier energy instead of the local electric field. The electron kinetic energy (E - Ec...the peak of the electron energy does not happen at the peak local electric field. Therefore the breakdown voltage was calculated using a non- local

  4. Direct drive field actuator motors

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  5. On Pfaffian Random Point Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargin, V.

    2014-02-01

    We study Pfaffian random point fields by using the Moore-Dyson quaternion determinants. First, we give sufficient conditions that ensure that a self-dual quaternion kernel defines a valid random point field, and then we prove a CLT for Pfaffian point fields. The proofs are based on a new quaternion extension of the Cauchy-Binet determinantal identity. In addition, we derive the Fredholm determinantal formulas for the Pfaffian point fields which use the quaternion determinant.

  6. Relation between near field and far field acoustic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bies, D. A.; Scharton, T. D.

    1974-01-01

    Several approaches to the problem of determining the far field directivity of an acoustic source located in a reverberant environment, such as a wind tunnel, are investigated analytically and experimentally. The decrease of sound pressure level with distance is illustrated; and the spatial extent of the hydrodynamic and geometric near fields, the far field, and the reverberant field are described. A previously-prosposed analytical technique for predicting the far field directivity of the acoustic source on the basis of near field data is investigated. Experiments are conducted with small acoustic sources and an analysis is performed to determine the variation with distance from the source of the directionality of the sound field. A novel experiment is conducted in which the sound pressure measured at various distances from an acoustic driver located in the NASA Ames 40 x 80 ft wind tunnel is crosscorrelated with the driver excitation voltage.

  7. Force-Field Parameter Fitter

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-27

    ParFit is a flexible and extendable framework and library of classes for fitting force-field parameters to data from high-level ab-initio calculations on the basis of deterministic and stochastic algorithms. Currently, the code is fitting MM3 and Merck force-field parameters but could easily extend to other force-field types.

  8. Numerical calculations of flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D.; Vogel, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Numerical calculations were made of flow fields generated by various aerodynamic configurations. Data cover flow fields generated by a finitely thick lifting three dimensional wing with subsonic tips moving at supersonic speeds, cross flow instability associated with lifting delta wing configurations such as space shuttles, and flow fields produced by a lifting elliptic cone. Finite difference techniques were used to determine elliptic cone flow.

  9. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  10. Computer Based Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth F.; Hosticka, Alice; Schriver, Martha; Bedell, Jackie

    This paper discusses computer based virtual field trips that use technologies commonly found in public schools in the United States. The discussion focuses on the advantages of both using and creating these field trips for an instructional situation. A virtual field trip to Cumberland Island National Seashore, St. Marys, Georgia is used as a point…

  11. Double Gamers: Academics between Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The field of academia is frequently associated with traditional norms that aim to regulate scholarly activity, especially research. The social web, as another field, is often viewed as challenging long-established conventions with novel knowledge production practices. Hence, the two fields seem to oppose rather than complement each other. Using a…

  12. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  13. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  14. Light fields in the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelevin, V. N.; Kozlyaninov, M. V.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of light fields in the ocean is in basic ocean optics. Twenty-six separate studies discuss: (1) the field of solar radiation in the ocean; (2) stationary and nonstationary light fields created in the sea by artificial sources; and (3) the use of optical methods to study biological and hydrodynamic characteristics of the sea.

  15. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  16. VELETA 2002 Field Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alados-Arboledas, L.; Veleta2002 Team

    2003-04-01

    Depletion of the Earth's ozone layer is considered responsible of an increase in the solar ultraviolet irradiance incoming at surface level (WMO, 1998). For this reason, it is important to know the amount of ultraviolet radiation received by plants and animal organisms to evaluate the potential impact of increased UV radiation on biological systems. During recent years several studies has investigated the differences in UV radiation between places located at different altitude. Depending on the choice of the experimental area altitudinal gradients in erythemal UV have been reported ranging from 0.08 to 0.40 at different regions. Rather high altitudinal gradients were obtained when the studies have been undertaken at sites with important tropospheric pollution or when snow cover was present in the high-level sites. In this sense, it seems of interest to study these altitudinal gradients including comprehensive observations of the environmental conditions relevant to the incoming UV irradiance in order to separate the different contributions to this altitudinal effect. This paper presents the field campaign VELETA2002 (eValuation of the Effects of eLevation and aErosols on the ultravioleT rAdiation), developed during the month of July 2002 in the area of Sierra Nevada (Spain). This field campaign was designed to obtain experimental data on elevation and atmospheric aerosol effects on the solar ultraviolet irradiance. For this purpose a set of radiometers and spectroradiometers has been installed at both slopes of Sierra Nevada Massif, from coastal to inland locations. The field stations include Motril, a coastal location at sea level, Pitres (1200 m a.s.l.) located in the South slope of Sierra Nevada Massif, the Veleta Peak (3398 m a.s.l.), Las Sabinas (2200 m a.s.l.) located on the north slope of the mountain range and Armilla (680 m a.s.l.) located in the valley. The principal feature of the locations is that they provide a strong altitudinal gradient considering

  17. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and Faraday rotation of the polarization angle are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 \\upmu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 \\upmu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15 \\upmu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium.—Faraday rotation measures of the diffuse polarized radio emission from galaxy disks reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by mean-field dynamos. "Magnetic arms" between gaseous spiral arms may also be products of dynamo action, but need a stable spiral pattern to develop. Helically twisted field loops winding around spiral arms were found in two galaxies so far. Large-scale field reversals, like the one found in the Milky Way, could not yet be detected in external galaxies. In radio halos around edge-on galaxies, ordered magnetic fields with X-shaped patterns are observed. The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, in particular their first occurrence in young galaxies and their dynamical importance during galaxy evolution, will be studied with

  18. Overview - Electric fields. [in magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauffman, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The electric fields session is designed to review progress in observation, theory, and modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, and to expose important new results. The present report comments on the state and prospects of electric field research, with particular emphasis on relevance to quantitative modeling of the magnetospheric processes. Attention is given to underlying theories and models. Modeling philosophy is discussed relative to explanatory models and representative models. Modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, while in its infancy, is developing rapidly on many fronts employing a variety of approaches. The general topic of magnetospheric electric fields is becoming of prime importance in understanding space plasmas.

  19. Field practice internship final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, T.

    1994-05-01

    This field practice internship final report gives an overview of the field practice, which was completed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Management Department, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field practice focused on the completion of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 312, Tier II Report. The field practice internship was conducted on a full-time basis between December 13, 1993 through February 18, 1994. Sheila Poligone, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Coordinator served as the field practice preceptor.

  20. Field Model: An Object-Oriented Data Model for Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    We present an extensible, object-oriented data model designed for field data entitled Field Model (FM). FM objects can represent a wide variety of fields, including fields of arbitrary dimension and node type. FM can also handle time-series data. FM achieves generality through carefully selected topological primitives and through an implementation that leverages the potential of templated C++. FM supports fields where the nodes values are paired with any cell type. Thus FM can represent data where the field nodes are paired with the vertices ("vertex-centered" data), fields where the nodes are paired with the D-dimensional cells in R(sup D) (often called "cell-centered" data), as well as fields where nodes are paired with edges or other cell types. FM is designed to effectively handle very large data sets; in particular FM employs a demand-driven evaluation strategy that works especially well with large field data. Finally, the interfaces developed for FM have the potential to effectively abstract field data based on adaptive meshes. We present initial results with a triangular adaptive grid in R(sup 2) and discuss how the same design abstractions would work equally well with other adaptive-grid variations, including meshes in R(sup 3).

  1. Electronic field permeameter

    DOEpatents

    Chandler, Mark A.; Goggin, David J.; Horne, Patrick J.; Kocurek, Gary G.; Lake, Larry W.

    1989-01-01

    For making rapid, non-destructive permeability measurements in the field, a portable minipermeameter of the kind having a manually-operated gas injection tip is provided with a microcomputer system which operates a flow controller to precisely regulate gas flow rate to a test sample, and reads a pressure sensor which senses the pressure across the test sample. The microcomputer system automatically turns on the gas supply at the start of each measurement, senses when a steady-state is reached, collects and records pressure and flow rate data, and shuts off the gas supply immediately after the measurement is completed. Preferably temperature is also sensed to correct for changes in gas viscosity. The microcomputer system may also provide automatic zero-point adjustment, sensor calibration, over-range sensing, and may select controllers, sensors, and set-points for obtaining the most precise measurements. Electronic sensors may provide increased accuracy and precision. Preferably one microcomputer is used for sensing instrument control and data collection, and a second microcomputer is used which is dedicated to recording and processing the data, selecting the sensors and set-points for obtaining the most precise measurements, and instructing the user how to set-up and operate the minipermeameter. To provide mass data collection and user-friendly operation, the second microcomputer is preferably a lap-type portable microcomputer having a non-volatile or battery-backed CMOS memory.

  2. Paper field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, E.; Correia, Nuno; Barquinha, Pedro; Costa, Cláudia; Pereira, Luís; Gonçalves, Gonçalo; Martins, Rodrigo

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we report the use of a sheet of cellulose fiber-based paper as the dielectric layer used in oxide based semiconductor thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this new approach we are using the cellulose fiber-based paper in an "interstrate" structure since the device is build on both sides of the cellulose sheet. Such hybrid FETs present excellent operating characteristics such as high channel saturation mobility (>30 cm2/Vs), drain-source current on/off modulation ratio of approximately 104, near-zero threshold voltage, enhancement n-type operation and sub-threshold gate voltage swing of 0.8 V/decade. The cellulose fiber-based paper FETs characteristics have been measured in air ambient conditions and present good stability. The obtained results outpace those of amorphous Si TFTs and rival with the same oxide based TFTs produced on either glass or crystalline silicon substrates. The compatibility of these devices with large-scale/large-area deposition techniques and low cost substrates as well as their very low operating bias delineates this as a promising approach to attain high-performance disposable electronics like paper displays, smart labels, smart packaging, RFID and point-of-care systems for self analysis in bio-applications, among others.

  3. Megagauss Fields During Milliseconds

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, L.J.; Embury, D.; Han, K.; Parkin, D.M.; Baca, A.; Kihara, K.H.; Sims, J.R.; Boebinger, G.S.; Eyssa, Y.; Lesch, B.; Li, L.; Schillig, J.B.; Schneider-Muntau, H.; Walsh, R.

    1998-10-18

    A non-destructive, one megagauss magnet is now being designed in cooperation between Los Alamos and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) through joint funding by the US Department of Energy and the US NSF. The design combines two types of pulsed magnet now in use at the NHMFL: a capacitor-driven 'insert' magnet with a total pulse width of order 10 ms and a much larger 'outsert' magnet with a total pulse width of order 2 seconds that is driven by a controlled power source. The insert and outsert produce approximately 1/2 megagauss each. Although the design uses CuAg as the principal conductor further design efforts and materials development are exploring CuNb and stainless steel-clad copper as possible future alternatives. A crucial innovation was to employ wound steel strip (sheet) as a reinforcement in both insert and outsert coils. This gives extra strength due to the higher degree of cold-work possible in strip materials. For this leading edge magnet a key role is played by materials development. A major component, the 7 module 560 MVA controlled dc power supply required for the outsert, has been installed and commissioned.

  4. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  5. Field Friendly Tuberculosis Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proper, N.; Scherman, M. S.; Jevsevar, K. L.; Stone, J.; McNeil, M. R.; Krapf, D.

    2009-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a fading threat in the United States, but in the developing world it is still a major health-care concern. Given the rising number of cases and lack of resources, there is a desperate need for an affordable, portable detection system. We are working towards the development of a field-friendly immunological biosensor that utilizes florescence microscopy to undertake this task. We observe fluorescently labeled antibodies/antigens as they bind to a glass slide treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to inhibit non-specific adsorption. Antibodies against the antigens of interest are bound to the PEGylated glass slides via biotin-streptavidin interactions. Then, fluorescently labeled antibodies are mixed with different concentrations of TB antigens and this solution is incubated on the treated glass slides for 30 minutes. The slides are thoroughly rinsed with water following the incubation period. The antigens are then detected by fluorescence using a low-cost biosensor. Our system includes a ``supermarket-scanner'' HeNe laser, home-built electronics, off-the-shelf optics and a Si photodiode. Work is underway to incorporate a flow-cell into the system, in a small portable box.

  6. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C

    2005-02-09

    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  7. The Styx field trial

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    An assessment was made of the effectiveness of the generally accepted methods recommended for controlling hydatid disease during the course of a field-trial, initiated in 1943 in an isolated region of New Zealand. The results obtained during the first 21 years are described. Basically, the trial was an attempt to compare the effectiveness of a general public health educational programme and an anthelmintic programme using arecoline hydrobromide for treatment of dogs with that of a specific educational programme using this compound as a diagnostic agent. Arecoline hydrobromide was found to be too uncertain in its action to be of practical value as an anthelmintic. The development of diagnostic techniques, described in this paper, made it possible to use the compound for diagnostic purposes and thus for educational purposes, since each dog could be examined for tapeworms in the presence of the owner. Using changes in the annual prevalence rate in sheep of the cysts of E. granulosus and those of T. hydatigena as the principal indicators, the conclusion has been reached that the specific diagnostic approach achieved more success than the general educational and treatment programme. The principal reason for this appears to be that the former approach induced a greater awareness in owners of the need for strict management to prevent dogs gaining access to infective raw offal than that stimulated in the community when the dogs were dosed but not examined. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:5303843

  8. RESOLVE 2010 Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, J.; Quinn, J.; Moss, T.; Weis, K.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the field tests conducted in 2010 of the Regolith Environment Science & Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE). The Resolve program consist of several mechanism: (1) Excavation and Bulk Regolith Characterization (EBRC) which is designed to act as a drill and crusher, (2) Regolith Volatiles Characterization (RVC) which is a reactor and does gas analysis,(3) Lunar Water Resources Demonstration (LWRD) which is a fluid system, water and hydrogen capture device and (4) the Rover. The scientific goal of this test is to demonstrate evolution of low levels of hydrogen and water as a function of temperature. The Engineering goals of this test are to demonstrate:(1) Integration onto new rover (2) Miniaturization of electronics rack (3) Operation from battery packs (elimination of generator) (4) Remote command/control and (5) Operation while roving. Views of the 2008 and the 2010 mechanisms, a overhead view of the mission path, a view of the terrain, the two drill sites, and a graphic of the Master Events Controller Graphical User Interface (MEC GUI) are shown. There are descriptions of the Gas chromatography (GC), the operational procedure, water and hydrogen doping of tephra. There is also a review of some of the results, and future direction for research and tests.

  9. Vector fields in multidimensional cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierovich, Boris E.

    2011-09-01

    Vector fields in the expanding Universe are considered within the multidimensional theory of general relativity. Vector fields in general relativity form a three-parametric variety. Our consideration includes the fields with a nonzero covariant divergence. Depending on the relations between the particular parameters and the symmetry of a problem, the vector fields can be longitudinal and/or transverse, ultrarelativistic (i.e. massless) or nonrelativistic (massive), and so on. The longitudinal and transverse vector fields are considered separately in detail in the background of the de Sitter cosmological metric. In most cases the field equations reduce to Bessel equations, and their temporal evolution is analyzed analytically. The energy-momentum tensor of the most simple zero-mass longitudinal vector fields enters the Einstein equations as an additive to the cosmological constant. In this case the de Sitter metric is the exact solution of the Einstein equations. Hence, the most simple zero-mass longitudinal vector field pretends to be an adequate tool for macroscopic description of dark energy as a source of the expansion of the Universe at a constant rate. The zero-mass vector field does not vanish in the process of expansion. On the contrary, massive fields vanish with time. Though their amplitude is falling down, the massive fields make the expansion accelerated.

  10. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more

  11. Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2015-12-14

    We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.

  12. Magnetospheric electric fields and currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Zanetti, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    The progress made in the years 1983-1986 in understanding the character and operation of magnetospheric electric fields and electric currents is discussed, with emphasis placed on the connection with the interior regions. Special attention is given to determinations of global electric-field configurations, measurements of the response of magnetospheric particle populations to the electric-field configurations, and observations of the magnetospheric currents at high altitude and during northward IMF. Global simulations of current distributions are discussed, and the sources of global electric fields and currents are examined. The topics discussed in the area of impulsive and small-scale phenomena include substorm current systems, impulsive electric fields and associated currents, and field-aligned electrodynamics. A key finding of these studies is that the electric fields and currents are interrelated and cannot be viewed as separate entities.

  13. Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo

    2015-02-04

    A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  14. Whistler Modes with Wave Magnetic Fields Exceeding the Ambient Field

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R.L.; Urrutia, J.M.; Strohmaier, K.D.

    2006-03-10

    Whistler-mode wave packets with fields exceeding the ambient dc magnetic field have been excited in a large, high electron-beta plasma. The waves are induced with a loop antenna with dipole moment either along or opposite to the dc field. In the latter case the excited wave packets have the topology of a spheromak but are propagating in the whistler mode along and opposite to the dc magnetic field. Field-reversed configurations with net zero helicity have also been produced. The electron magnetohydrodynamics fields are force free, have wave energy density exceeding the particle energy density, and propagate stably at subelectron thermal velocities through a nearly uniform stationary ion density background.

  15. Whistler modes with wave magnetic fields exceeding the ambient field.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, R L; Urrutia, J M; Strohmaier, K D

    2006-03-10

    Whistler-mode wave packets with fields exceeding the ambient dc magnetic field have been excited in a large, high electron-beta plasma. The waves are induced with a loop antenna with dipole moment either along or opposite to the dc field. In the latter case the excited wave packets have the topology of a spheromak but are propagating in the whistler mode along and opposite to the dc magnetic field. Field-reversed configurations with net zero helicity have also been produced. The electron magnetohydrodynamics fields are force free, have wave energy density exceeding the particle energy density, and propagate stably at subelectron thermal velocities through a nearly uniform stationary ion density background.

  16. The Swarm Initial Field Model for the 2014 Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Nils; Hulot, Gauthier; Lesur, Vincent; Finlay, Christopher C.; Beggan, Ciaran; Chulliat, Arnaud; Sabaka, Terence J.; Floberghagen, Rune; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Data from the first year of ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive the Swarm Initial Field Model (SIFM), a new model of the Earth's magnetic field and its time variation. In addition to the conventional magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites, explicit advantage is taken of the constellation aspect by including east-west magnetic intensity gradient information from the lower satellite pair. Along-track differences in magnetic intensity provide further information concerning the north-south gradient. The SIFM static field shows excellent agreement (up to at least degree 60) with recent field models derived from CHAMP data, providing an initial validation of the quality of the Swarm magnetic measurements. Use of gradient data improves the determination of both the static field and its secular variation, with the mean misfit for east-west intensity differences between the lower satellite pair being only 0.12 nT.

  17. Field-aligned currents and large scale magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1980-01-01

    D'Angelo's model of polar cap electric fields (1977) was used to visualize how high-latitude field-aligned currents are driven by the solar wind generator. The region 1 and region 2 currents of Iijima and Potemra (1976) and the cusp field-aligned currents of Wilhjelm et al. (1978) and McDiarmid et al. (1978) are apparently driven by different generators, although in both cases the solar wind is their ultimate source.

  18. Radiofrequency fields and teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Heynick, Louis N; Merritt, James H

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies that sought teratologic effects or developmental abnormalities from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RFEMF) in the range 3 kHz-300 GHz are critically reviewed for their possible consequences on human health. Those studies were conducted on beetles, birds, rodents, and nonhuman primates. Collectively, those experimental studies indicate that teratologic effects can occur only from exposure levels that cause biologically detrimental increases in body temperature. No reliable experimental evidence was found for nonthermal teratologic effects; rodents, mouse fetuses, and perinatal mice are more susceptible to such effects than rats. The primary confirmed effect in rats at high RFEMF levels was initial weight deficits in fetuses and neonates that decreased with infant growth. More generally from findings with pregnant mammals, exposures at RFEMF levels far higher than those permitted under the IEEE human exposure guidelines are necessary to reach or exceed cited experimental thresholds for maternal temperature increases. Some results indicated that the levels necessary to cause such effects in pregnant mammals could exceed those lethal to the dams. In a behavioral study of squirrel monkeys, no effects were observed on usual dam-offspring interactions or EEGs, but unexpected deaths of a number of offspring had occurred. However, this finding was not confirmed in a study solely on infant death using a larger number of subjects for greater statistical validity. Also reviewed were epidemiologic studies of various human populations considered to have been chronically exposed to environmental levels of RFEMF. Early studies on the incidence of congenital anomalies yielded no credible evidence that chronic exposure of pregnant women or of fathers exposed to RFEMF from nearby sources at levels below those guidelines would cause any anomalies in their offspring. The findings of studies on pregnancy outcomes of female physiotherapists

  19. Field Science--the Nature and Utility of Scientific Fields.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2015-09-08

    Fields are the fundamental sociological units of science. Despite their importance, relatively little has been written about their emergence, composition, structure, and function in the scientific enterprise. This essay considers the nature of fields and their important role in maintaining information and providing normative standards for scientific work. We suggest that fields arise naturally as a consequence of increasing information and scientific specialization. New fields tend to emerge as research communities grow, which may reflect biologically determined optima for the size of human groups. The benefits of fields include the organization of scientists with similar interests into communities that collectively define the next important problems to pursue. In the discipline of microbiology, fields are often organized on the basis of phylogenetic differences between microorganisms being studied. Although fields are essential to the proper functioning of science, their emergence can restrict access by outsiders and sustain dogmas that hinder progress. We suggest mechanisms to improve the functioning of scientific fields and to promote interdisciplinary interaction between fields.

  20. The field lines of an axisymmetric magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1988-01-01

    The equations of Willis and Young (1987) for the field lines of an arbitrary axisymmetric multipole are generalized to an arbitrary linear combination of multipoles, i.e., to an arbitrary axisymmetric magnetic field B outside a sphere of radius a, S(a), centered on the origin, and containing all the sources of B. For this field, axisymmetric Stokes stream function is expressed in terms of the Gauss coefficients. It is shown that if only one Gauss coefficient is nonzero, the field line equations are identical to those obtained by Willis and Young.