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Sample records for resynchronization therapy devices

  1. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) Updated:Apr 24,2015 If you have heart ... may be a candidate for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). What is CRT and how can it help ...

  2. A devices' game of thrones: cardiac resynchronization therapy vs. pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Moura-Ferreira, Sara; Gonçalves, Helena; Oliveira, Marco; Primo, João; Fonseca, Paulo; Ribeiro, José; Santos, Elisabeth; Pelicano, Nuno; Martins, Dinis; Gama, Vasco

    2017-04-18

    Oversensing can interfere with biventricular pacing. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) output inhibition due to automatic brady mode change from a sensing to a pacing mode of a previously implanted pacemaker as it reached battery capacity depleted indicator has not been previously published in the medical literature. We report the first case of CRT output inhibition in a pacemaker dependent patient due to electrical stimuli from a previously right-sided implanted pacemaker, after unaware reversion of OVO mode (O = no chambers paced; V = ventricular sensing; O = no response to sensing) to backup VVI (V = ventricular pacing; V = ventricular sensing; I = inhibitory response to sensing) when it reached the elective replacement interval. This paper emphasizes the importance of knowing the distinct pacemaker brady mode behaviours after battery capacity depleted indicator has been reached, according to the pacemakers' manufacturer, including the possibility of automatic brady mode change from sensing to pacing mode. It also highlights the potential for severe bradycardia or asystole of this automatic brady mode change from a previously implanted pacemaker in pacemaker dependent patients submitted to CRT upgrade.

  3. Clinical management of a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with a cardiac resynchronization therapy device.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elizabeth Marie; Ogburn, Anna L; Monroe, Denise

    2011-06-01

    A 24-yr-old, male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was diagnosed with congestive heart failure using transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiology. New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III was assigned to the severity of the condition. Over 16 mo, this progressed to NYHA Class IV despite increasing medical therapy. Repeated evaluations suggested that implantation of a cardiac resynchronization therapy device with a defibrillator (CRT-D) could benefit this animal based on clinical signs and underlying evidence of dyssynchrony and suspected fibrotic myocardial disease. Surgical implantation of leads into the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle was accomplished. The CRT-D device was placed under the thoracic pectoral muscles during an initial surgical procedure. Improvement in the gorilla's clinical condition after implantation of the CRT-D device was immediate and dramatic. Subsequent scanning of the device was accomplished through operant conditioning. The data from these device interrogations included stored and real-time cardiac data, which were used to minimize recognized environmental stressors and change device settings. Over 4 yr, case management was critical to successful device use in treatment of the clinical disease. This involved medications, training for device interrogation, exercise to increase activity and improve body condition, and phlebotomy attempts. Dietary management was necessary to manipulate caloric and sodium intake and encourage medication compliance. Cardiac resynchronization therapy device implantation, although requiring specialized equipment and surgical skill, appears to be a viable option for treatment of fibrosing cardiomyopathy with systolic dysfunction in gorillas refractory to medical management. In addition to treatment, this device provides cardiovascular data at rest that could allow for early diagnosis and treatment of gorillas with this and other cardiac conditions in the future. This

  4. Cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker: critical appraisal of the adaptive CRT-P device.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Georges E; Houmsse, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective and well-established therapy for patients suffering with heart failure, left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤35%), and electrical dyssynchrony, demonstrated by a surface QRS duration of ≥120 ms. Patients undergoing treatment with CRT have shown significant improvement in functional class, quality of life, LV ejection fraction, exercise capacity, hemodynamics, and reverse remodeling of LV, and ultimately, morbidity and mortality. However, 30%-40% of patients who receive a CRT device may not show improvement, and they are termed as non responders. The nonresponders have a poor prognosis; several methods have been developed to try to enhance response to CRT. Echocardiography-guided optimization of CRT has not resulted in significant clinical benefit, since it is done at rest with the patient in supine position. An ideal optimization strategy would provide continuous monitoring and adjustment of device pacing to provide maximal cardiac resynchronization, under a multitude of physiologic states. Intrinsic activation of the right ventricle (RV) with paced activation of the RV, even in the setting of biventricular (BiV) pacing, may result in an adverse effect on cardiac performance. With this physiology, the use of LV-only pacing may be preferred and may enhance CRT. Adaptive CRT is a novel device-based algorithm that was designed to achieve patient-specific adjustment in CRT so as to provide appropriate BiV pacing or LV-only pacing. This article will review the goals of CRT optimization, and implementation and outcomes associated with adaptive CRT.

  5. Electromagnetic interference between external defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy-pacemaker (CRT-P) devices.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Hamid; Al-Ameri, Hazim; Ottino, Jessica; Hastings, Cordell; Kippola, James; Gueron, Ioni; Daccarett, Marcos; Machado, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Implantable heart rhythm devices are susceptible to interference in hospitals where electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources are ubiquitous. We report three cases in which EMI from the external defibrillator caused the inability to interrogate Boston Scientific cardiac resynchronization therapy-pacemaker (CRT-P) devices. We have documented interference with the Boston Scientific CRT-P Contact Renewal device model numbers H120/H125 (Natick, MA, USA) and two brands of external defibrillators: the Philips Heartstart XL model number M4735A (Andover, MA, USA) and the Hewlett-Packard Codemaster model number M1722B (Palo Alto, CA, USA). For device implants, we routinely place external pacing pads with the external defibrillator in the "standby" mode for transcutaneous pacing so that only the pacer "start/stop" button needs to be pressed when necessary. We have not been able to interrogate three consecutive Boston Scientific CRT-P devices prior to closure while the external defibrillator had the back-up pacing mode on "standby." In our initial case, a second device was opened because this interaction was not recognized. We documented EMI with the standby pacing mode ON and discovered that by disabling only the "standby" pacing mode on the external defibrillator, the device could be interrogated without difficulty. This is a case series reporting EMI with a Boston Scientific CRT-P Contact Renewal device H120/H125 telemetry from an external defibrillator with pacing mode on "standby." Failure to recognize this important interaction may lead to inappropriate device and resource utilization. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optimizing the programation of cardiac resynchronization therapy devices in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Bàrbara; Sitges, Marta; Marigliano, Alba; Delgado, Victoria; Díaz-Infante, Ernesto; Azqueta, Manel; Tamborero, David; Tolosana, José María; Berruezo, Antonio; Pérez-Villa, Félix; Paré, Carles; Mont, Lluís; Brugada, Josep

    2007-09-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the clinical impact of cardiac resynchronization device optimization. A series of 100 consecutive patients received cardiac resynchronization therapy. In the first 49 patients, an empirical atrioventricular delay of 120 ms was set, with simultaneous biventricular stimulation (interventricular [VV] interval=0 ms). In the next 51 patients, systematic atrioventricular optimization was performed. VV optimization was also performed, selecting 1 VV delay: right or left ventricular preactivation (+30 or -30 ms) or simultaneous (VV interval=0 ms), according to the best synchrony obtained by tissue Doppler-derived wall displacement. At follow-up, patients who were alive without cardiac transplantation and showed improvement of >or=10% in the distance walked in the 6-minute walking test were considered responders. There were no differences between the 2 groups at baseline. Left ventricular ejection fraction improved in the 2 groups, but left ventricular cardiac output improved only in the optimized group. At 6 months, patients with optimized devices walked slightly further in the 6-minute walking test (497+/-167 vs 393+/-123 m, p<0.01), with no differences in New York Heart Association functional class or quality of life compared with nonoptimized patients. Overall, the number of nonresponders were similar in the 2 groups (27% vs 23%, p=NS). In conclusion, the echocardiographic optimization of cardiac resynchronization devices provided a slight incremental clinical benefit at midterm follow-up. Simple and rapid methods to routinely optimize the devices are warranted.

  7. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Device Implantation in a Patient with Cardiogenic Shock under Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyunghee; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Park, Seung-Jung; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kang, Jiseok; Joh, Hyun Sung; Shin, Sun Hye

    2017-01-01

    65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with acute decompensated heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and severe mitral regurgitation. Electrocardiography revealed a typical left bundle branch block and atrial fibrillation. Her condition deteriorated despite administering high-doses of inotropes and vasopressors. Pending a decision to therapy, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed when the patient underwent a cardiogenic shock. Although the hemodynamic status stabilized with ECMO support, weaning the patient from ECMO was not possible. Thus, we decided to perform cardiac resynchronization with defibrillator implantation as a “rescue” therapy. Five days post-implantation, the patient was successfully weaned from ECMO. PMID:28154601

  8. Septic Pulmonary Embolism Caused by Infected Pacemaker Leads After Replacement of a Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Device

    PubMed Central

    Said, Salah A.M.; Nijhuis, Rogier; Derks, Anita; Droste, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 70 Final Diagnosis: Pacemaker leads endocarditis Symptoms: Bacterial lead endocarditis • congestive heart failure • fever • pacemaker dysfunction Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Pacemaker box replacement due to end-of-service Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been demonstrated to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced, drug-refractory heart failure. Procedure-related mortality is less than 1% in larger studies. Approximately10% of CRT patients have to undergo surgical revision because of infections, dislocations, or unacceptable electrical behavior manifested as high threshold, unstable sensing, or unwanted phrenic nerve stimulation. Case Report: A 70-year-old man with symptomatic congestive heart failure underwent implantation of a biventricular pacemaker on the left anterior chest wall in 2003 and pulse generator exchange in August 2009. The patient responded well to CRT. At follow-up, the pacing system functioned normally. In September 2009, in the context of a predialysis program, an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in another hospital for assessment and evaluation of chronic kidney disease. This procedure was complicated with peripheral thrombophlebitis that was managed appropriately with complete recovery. Eight months later (May 2010), the patient was admitted to our hospital with fever, anemia, and elevated infection parameters. During admission, blood cultures grew Staphylococcus epidermidis. The chest X-ray, lung perfusion scintigraphy, and CT scan depicted pulmonary embolism and infarction. The right ventricular lead threshold was found to be increased to 7 volts with unsuccessful capture. Echocardiography demonstrated vegetations on leads. The entire pacing system was explanted, but the patient expired few days later following percutaneous removal due to multiorgan failure. Conclusions: In heart failure

  9. Optimization techniques in cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Avi

    2009-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves symptoms and cardiac function, as well as reduces mortality in patients with progressive congestive heart failure, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and a left bundle branch block on the surface electrocardiogram. As many as 30% of patients fail to have an adequate response. The interplay between the atrioventricular delay and the contribution of a properly timed atrial contraction to ventricular filling along with a properly timed sequence of activation of the right and left ventricular is crucial to maximizing the benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy devices.

  10. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device replacement considerations: upgrade or downgrade? A complex decision in the current clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Nakou, Eleni S; Simantirakis, Emmanuel N; Kallergis, Eleftherios M; Nakos, Konstantinos S; Vardas, Panos E

    2016-12-23

    There are limited data about the management of patients presenting for elective generator replacements in the setting of previously implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices that are nearing end-of-life. The individual patient's clinical status and concomitant morbidities may evolve so that considerations may include not only replacement of the pulse generator, but also potentially changing the type of device [e.g. downgrading CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D) to CRT-pacemaker (CRT-P) or ICD or upgrading of CRT-P to CRT-D]. Moreover, the clinical evidence for CRT-D/CRT-P implantation may change over time, with ongoing research and availability of new trial data. In this review we discuss the ethical, clinical and financial implications related to CRT generator replacements and the need for additional clinical trials to better understand which patients should undergo CRT device downgrading or upgrading at the time of battery depletion.

  11. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Women.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Maria Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on the outcomes of patients with heart failure are unquestionable. Women are under-represented in all CRT studies. Most of the available data show that CRT produces a greater clinical benefit in women than men. In several studies, women have left bundle branch block more frequently than men. Women have a remarkably high (90%) CRT response over a wide range of QRS lengths (130-175 milliseconds). Use of a QRS duration of 150 milliseconds as the threshold for CRT prescription may deny a life-saving therapy to many women likely to benefit from CRT.

  12. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Women.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Maria Rosa

    2015-12-01

    The benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on the outcomes of patients with heart failure are unquestionable. Women are under-represented in all CRT studies. Most of the available data show that CRT produces a greater clinical benefit in women than men. In several studies, women have left bundle branch block more frequently than men. Women have a remarkably high (90%) CRT response over a wide range of QRS lengths (130-175 milliseconds). Use of a QRS duration of 150 milliseconds as the threshold for CRT prescription may deny a life-saving therapy to many women likely to benefit from CRT.

  13. Implementation study of an analog spiking neural network for assisting cardiac delay prediction in a cardiac resynchronization therapy device.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing; Schwartz, François; Michel, Jacques; Herve, Yannick; Dalmolin, Renzo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we aim at developing an analog spiking neural network (SNN) for reinforcing the performance of conventional cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices (also called biventricular pacemakers). Targeting an alternative analog solution in 0.13- μm CMOS technology, this paper proposes an approach to improve cardiac delay predictions in every cardiac period in order to assist the CRT device to provide real-time optimal heartbeats. The primary analog SNN architecture is proposed and its implementation is studied to fulfill the requirement of very low energy consumption. By using the Hebbian learning and reinforcement learning algorithms, the intended adaptive CRT device works with different functional modes. The simulations of both learning algorithms have been carried out, and they were shown to demonstrate the global functionalities. To improve the realism of the system, we introduce various heart behavior models (with constant/variable heart rates) that allow pathologic simulations with/without noise on the signals of the input sensors. The simulations of the global system (pacemaker models coupled with heart models) have been investigated and used to validate the analog spiking neural network implementation.

  14. Surgical implantation of a cardiac resynchronization therapy device in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with fibrosing cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elizabeth Marie; Ogburn, Anna L; Hall, Jeffrey; Rush, Dwain; Lau, Yung; Dillon, A R; Garmon, Linda; Tillson, D M; Kay, G Neal

    2010-09-01

    A 24-yr-old, male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was diagnosed in March of 2003 with congestive heart failure (CHF). Transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated global left and right ventricular hypokinesia with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.20. At the time of diagnosis, the animal exhibited symptoms and signs of CHF with minimal exertion (New York Heart Association class III). Over a 16-mo period, the severity of CHF progressed to class IV (resting signs and symptoms) despite angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, beta-blockers, and diuretics. Because of intractable CHF and a QRS duration that was markedly prolonged compared with the normal range for this species, a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device was implanted using implantation techniques based on human surgical procedures. Placement of the right ventricular, right atrial, and left ventricular leads and pulse generator were accomplished in 5.5 hr. Telemetry of the device postoperatively via wand or remote radio frequency has allowed for noninvasive programming and interrogation. The clinical improvement in CHF with this therapy was immediate and dramatic for this animal. Six months after CRT device implantation, the device leads became dislodged during an altercation with another gorilla, with the rapid development of CHF upon cessation of biventricular pacing. A second procedure to replace the leads returned the gorilla to his previous level of activity. In 2007, the pulse generator was electively replaced for battery depletion with a device capable of remote radiofrequency programming and interrogation. CRT implantation, although requiring specialized equipment and surgical skill, appears to be a viable option for treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in gorillas.

  15. Biventricular Pacing (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Issue In 2002, (before the establishment of the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee), the Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a health technology policy assessment on biventricular (BiV) pacing, also called cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The goal of treatment with BiV pacing is to improve cardiac output for people in heart failure (HF) with conduction defect on ECG (wide QRS interval) by synchronizing ventricular contraction. The Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that there was evidence of short (6 months) and longer-term (12 months) effectiveness in terms of cardiac function and quality of life (QoL). More recently, a hospital submitted an application to the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee to review CRT, and the Medical Advisory Secretariat subsequently updated its health technology assessment. Background Chronic HF results from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to act as a pump. It is estimated that 1% to 5% of the general population (all ages) in Europe have chronic HF. (1;2) About one-half of the patients with HF are women, and about 40% of men and 60% of women with this condition are aged older than 75 years. The incidence (i.e., the number of new cases in a specified period) of chronic HF is age dependent: from 1 to 5 per 1,000 people each year in the total population, to as high as 30 to 40 per 1,000 people each year in those aged 75 years and older. Hence, in an aging society, the prevalence (i.e., the number of people with a given disease or condition at any time) of HF is increasing, despite a reduction in cardiovascular mortality. A recent study revealed 28,702 patients were hospitalized for first-time HF in Ontario between April 1994 and March 1997. (3) Women comprised 51% of the cohort. Eighty-five percent were aged 65 years or older, and 58% were aged 75 years or older. Patients with chronic HF experience shortness of breath, a limited capacity

  16. [Is echocardiography still helpful in cardiac resynchronization therapy?].

    PubMed

    Mele, Donato; Bertini, Matteo; D'Andrea, Antonello; Fiorencis, Andrea; Malagù, Michele; Casadei, Francesca; De Marco, Eugenia; Galderisi, Maurizio; Nistri, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an established approach for the treatment of patients with heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. In most centers, these patients are usually evaluated by echocardiography, which allows collecting a number of cardiac anatomical and functional parameters in a non-invasive, repeatable way and without exposure to ionizing radiation. However, over the years, clinical studies have sometimes emphasized and sometimes reduced the role of this method in the setting of cardiac resynchronization therapy for cardiac dyssynchrony evaluation, prognostic stratification of patients, optimization of pacing, and follow-up. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to review the current role of echocardiography before, during and after the implantation of a cardiac resynchronization therapy device.

  17. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Femoral approach.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luís; Miranda, Rita; Almeida, Sofia; Ribeiro, Luciano; Alvarenga, Carlos; João, Isabel; Pereira, Hélder

    2017-04-01

    We describe the case of a 62-year-old female patient with bilateral subclavian vein occlusion, in whom a cardiac resynchronization system was implanted via a femoral vein. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. European cardiac resynchronization therapy survey II: rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, Kenneth; Normand, Camilla; Anker, Stefan D; Auricchio, Angelo; Blomström, Carina Lundqvist; Lundqvist, Carina Blomström; Bogale, Nigussie; Cleland, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Gasparini, Maurizio; Gitt, Anselm; Hindricks, Gerhard; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Ponikowski, Piotr; Stellbrink, Christoph; Ruschitzka, Frank; Linde, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) Survey II is a 6 months snapshot survey initiated by two ESC Associations, the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Failure Association, which is designed to describe clinical practice regarding implantation of CRT devices in a broad sample of hospitals in 47 ESC member countries. The large volume of clinical and demographic data collected should reflect current patient selection, implantation, and follow-up practice and provide information relevant for assessing healthcare resource utilization in connection with CRT. The findings of this survey should permit representative benchmarking both nationally and internationally across Europe.

  19. Trying to predict the unpredictable: Variations in device-based daily monitored diagnostic parameters can predict malignant arrhythmic events in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Jędrzejczyk-Patej, Ewa; Kowalski, Oskar; Sredniawa, Beata; Pruszkowska, Patrycja; Sokal, Adam; Szulik, Mariola; Mazurek, Michał; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Lenarczyk, Radosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of device-based diagnostic parameters in predicting ventricular arrhythmias in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) recipients. Ninety-six CRT-D patients participating in TRUST CRT Trial were analyzed. The inclusion criteria were: heart failure in NYHA ≥ 3 class, QRS ≥ 120 ms, LVEF £ 35% and significant mechanical dyssynchrony. Patients were divided into those with (n = 31, 92 arrhythmias) and without (n = 65) appropriate ICD interventions within follow-up of 12.03 ± 6.7 months. Daily monitored device-based parameters: heart rate (HR), thoracic impedance (TI), HR variability and physical activity were analyzed in 4 time windows: within 10, 7, 3 days and 1 day before appropriate ICD interventions. A consistent pattern of changes in three monitored factors was observed prior to arrhythmia: 1) a gradual increase of day HR (from 103.43% of reference within 10-day window to 105.55% one day before, all p < 0.05 vs. reference); 2) variations in night HR (104.75% in 3 days, 107.65% one day before, all p < 0.05) and 3) TI decrease (from 97.8% in 10 days to 96.81% one day before, all p < 0.05). The combination of three parameters had better predictive value, which improved further after exclusion of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The predictive model combining HR and TI together with LVEF and NT-proBNP was more prognostic than the model involving LVEF and NT-proBNP alone (difference in AUC 0.05, 95% CI 0.0005-0.09, p = 0.04). Daily device-monitored parameters show significant variations prior to ventricular arrhythmia. Combination of multiple parameters improves arrhythmia predictive performance by its additive value to baseline risk factors, while presence of AF diminishes it.

  20. Longevity of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for cardiac resynchronization therapy in current clinical practice: an analysis according to influencing factors, device generation, and manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Landolina, Maurizio; Curnis, Antonio; Morani, Giovanni; Vado, Antonello; Ammendola, Ernesto; D'onofrio, Antonio; Stabile, Giuseppe; Crosato, Martino; Petracci, Barbara; Ceriotti, Carlo; Bontempi, Luca; Morosato, Martina; Ballari, Gian Paolo; Gasparini, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Device replacement at the time of battery depletion of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) may carry a considerable risk of complications and engenders costs for healthcare systems. Therefore, ICD device longevity is extremely important both from a clinical and economic standpoint. Cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D) battery longevity is shorter than ICDs. We determined the rate of replacements for battery depletion and we identified possible determinants of early depletion in a series of patients who had undergone implantation of CRT-D devices. We retrieved data on 1726 consecutive CRT-D systems implanted from January 2008 to March 2010 in nine centres. Five years after a successful CRT-D implantation procedure, 46% of devices were replaced due to battery depletion. The time to device replacement for battery depletion differed considerably among currently available CRT-D systems from different manufacturers, with rates of batteries still in service at 5 years ranging from 52 to 88% (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Left ventricular lead output and unipolar pacing configuration were independent determinants of early depletion [hazard ratio (HR): 1.96; 95% 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57-2.46; P < 0.001 and HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.25-2.01; P < 0.001, respectively]. The implantation of a recent-generation device (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.45-0.72; P < 0.001), the battery chemistry and the CRT-D manufacturer (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.89; P = 0.008) were additional factors associated with replacement for battery depletion. The device longevity at 5 years was 54%. High left ventricular lead output and unipolar pacing configuration were associated with early battery depletion, while recent-generation CRT-Ds displayed better longevity. Significant differences emerged among currently available CRT-D systems from different manufacturers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  1. Longevity of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for cardiac resynchronization therapy in current clinical practice: an analysis according to influencing factors, device generation, and manufacturer

    PubMed Central

    Landolina, Maurizio; Curnis, Antonio; Morani, Giovanni; Vado, Antonello; Ammendola, Ernesto; D'onofrio, Antonio; Stabile, Giuseppe; Crosato, Martino; Petracci, Barbara; Ceriotti, Carlo; Bontempi, Luca; Morosato, Martina; Ballari, Gian Paolo; Gasparini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims Device replacement at the time of battery depletion of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) may carry a considerable risk of complications and engenders costs for healthcare systems. Therefore, ICD device longevity is extremely important both from a clinical and economic standpoint. Cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D) battery longevity is shorter than ICDs. We determined the rate of replacements for battery depletion and we identified possible determinants of early depletion in a series of patients who had undergone implantation of CRT-D devices. Methods and results We retrieved data on 1726 consecutive CRT-D systems implanted from January 2008 to March 2010 in nine centres. Five years after a successful CRT-D implantation procedure, 46% of devices were replaced due to battery depletion. The time to device replacement for battery depletion differed considerably among currently available CRT-D systems from different manufacturers, with rates of batteries still in service at 5 years ranging from 52 to 88% (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Left ventricular lead output and unipolar pacing configuration were independent determinants of early depletion [hazard ratio (HR): 1.96; 95% 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57–2.46; P < 0.001 and HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.25–2.01; P < 0.001, respectively]. The implantation of a recent-generation device (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.45–0.72; P < 0.001), the battery chemistry and the CRT-D manufacturer (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47–0.89; P = 0.008) were additional factors associated with replacement for battery depletion. Conclusion The device longevity at 5 years was 54%. High left ventricular lead output and unipolar pacing configuration were associated with early battery depletion, while recent-generation CRT-Ds displayed better longevity. Significant differences emerged among currently available CRT-D systems from different manufacturers. PMID:25976906

  2. Effect of Smaller Left Ventricular Capture Threshold Safety Margins to Improve Device Longevity in Recipients of Cardiac Resynchronization-Defibrillation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Waks, Jonathan W; Collins, Robert; Kleckner, Karen; Kramer, Daniel B; Zimetbaum, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    Device longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is affected by the pacing capture threshold (PCT) and programmed pacing amplitude of the left ventricular (LV) pacing lead. The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of LV pacing thresholds in a nationwide sample of CRT defibrillator recipients and to determine potential longevity improvements associated with a decrease in the LV safety margin while maintaining effective delivery of CRT. CRT defibrillator patients in the Medtronic CareLink database were eligible for inclusion. LV PCT stability was evaluated using ≥2 measurements over a 14-day period. Separately, a random sample of 7,250 patients with programmed right atrial and right ventricular amplitudes ≤2.5 V, LV thresholds ≤ 2.5 V, and LV pacing ≥90% were evaluated to estimate theoretical battery longevity improvement using LV safety margins of 0.5 and 1.5 V. Threshold stability analysis in 43,256 patients demonstrated LV PCT stability of <0.5 V in 77% of patients and <1 V in 95%. Device longevity analysis showed that the use of a 0.5-V safety margin increased average battery longevity by 0.62 years (95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.63) compared with a safety margin of 1.5 V. Patients with LV PCTs >1 V had the greatest increases in battery life (mean increase 0.86 years, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.87). In conclusion, nearly all CRT defibrillator patients had LV PCT stability <1.0 V. Decreasing the LV safety margin from 1.5 to 0.5 V provided consistent delivery of CRT for most patients and significantly improved battery longevity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Smaller Left Ventricular Capture Threshold Safety Margins to Improve Device Longevity in Recipients of Cardiac Resynchronization-Defibrillation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Steinhaus, Daniel A.; Waks, Jonathan W.; Collins, Robert; Kleckner, Karen; Kramer, Daniel B.; Zimetbaum, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Device longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is affected by the pacing capture threshold (PCT) and programmed pacing amplitude of the left ventricular (LV) pacing lead. The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of LV pacing thresholds in a nationwide sample of CRT defibrillator recipients and to determine potential longevity improvements associated with a decrease in the LV safety margin while maintaining effective delivery of CRT. CRT defibrillator patients in the Medtronic CareLink database were eligible for inclusion. LV PCT stability was evaluated using ≥2 measurements over a 14-day period. Separately, a random sample of 7,250 patients with programmed right atrial and right ventricular amplitudes ≤2.5 V, LV thresholds ≤ 2.5 V, and LV pacing ≥90% were evaluated to estimate theoretical battery longevity improvement using LV safety margins of 0.5 and 1.5 V. Threshold stability analysis in 43,256 patients demonstrated LV PCT stability of <0.5 V in 77% of patients and <1 V in 95%. Device longevity analysis showed that the use of a 0.5-V safety margin increased average battery longevity by 0.62 years (95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.63) compared with a safety margin of 1.5 V. Patients with LV PCTs >1 V had the greatest increases in battery life (mean increase 0.86 years, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.87). In conclusion, nearly all CRT defibrillator patients had LV PCT stability <1.0 V. Decreasing the LV safety margin from 1.5 to 0.5 V provided consistent delivery of CRT for most patients and significantly improved battery longevity. PMID:25933732

  4. Device-measured physical activity versus six-minute walk test as a predictor of reverse remodeling and outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Vegh, Eszter Maria; Kandala, Jagdesh; Orencole, Mary; Upadhyay, Gaurav A; Sharma, Ajay; Miller, Alexandra; Merkely, Bela; Parks, Kimberly A; Singh, Jagmeet P

    2014-05-01

    Implanted devices can provide objective assessment of physical activity over prolonged periods. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of device-measured physical activity data compared with a six-minute walk test (6MWT) in predicting clinical response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This was a single-center study in which patients who underwent CRT for standard indications were evaluated. Daily physical activity and 6MWT were evaluated postimplant at 1, 3, and 6 months. The primary end point was a composite of heart failure hospitalization, transplant, left ventricular (LV) assist device, and all-cause death at 3 years. Echocardiographic response, defined as a ≥10% improvement in LV ejection fraction (LVEF), at 6 months was the secondary end point. About 164 patients were included: average age was 67.3 ± 12.9 years, 77% were men, baseline LVEF was 25% ± 7%. Kaplan-Meier curves showed superior freedom from the composite end point in the highest tertile of both 6MWT and physical activity compared with the lowest tertile (41 vs 23 cases, respectively, p <0.001) for 6MWT and for activity (22 vs 7 cases, respectively, p = 0.001). In an adjusted multivariate model, independent predictors of improved clinical outcome included 1-month physical activity (hazard ratio 0.546, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.361 to 0.824, p = 0.004) and 6MWT (hazard ratio 0.581, 95% CI 0.425 to 0.795, p = 0.001). An additional hour of higher activity at 1 month translated to a 1.38 times (95% CI 1.075 to 1.753, p = 0.011) higher likelihood of improved echocardiographic response. In conclusion, device-based measures of physical activity may be useful in predicting echocardiographic reverse remodeling and long-term clinical outcome in patients receiving CRT.

  5. Battery longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mian Bilal; Munir, Muhammad Bilal; Rattan, Rohit; Flanigan, Susan; Adelstein, Evan; Jain, Sandeep; Saba, Samir

    2014-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) deliver high burden ventricular pacing to heart failure patients, which has a significant effect on battery longevity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether battery longevity is comparable for CRT-ICDs from different manufacturers in a contemporary cohort of patients. All the CRT-ICDs implanted at our institution from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 were included in this analysis. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected on all patients using the electronic medical record. Detailed device information was collected on all patients from scanned device printouts obtained during routine follow-up. The primary endpoint was device replacement for battery reaching the elective replacement indicator (ERI). A total of 646 patients (age 69 ± 13 years), implanted with CRT-ICDs (Boston Scientific 173, Medtronic 416, and St Jude Medical 57) were included in this analysis. During 2.7 ± 1.5 years follow-up, 113 (17%) devices had reached ERI (Boston scientific 4%, Medtronic 25%, and St Jude Medical 7%, P < 0.001). The 4-year survival rate of device battery was significantly worse for Medtronic devices compared with devices from other manufacturers (94% for Boston scientific, 67% for Medtronic, and 92% for St Jude Medical, P < 0.001). The difference in battery longevity by manufacturer was independent of pacing burden, lead parameters, and burden of ICD therapy. There are significant discrepancies in CRT-ICD battery longevity by manufacturer. These data have important implications on clinical practice and patient outcomes.

  6. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in a patient with amyloid cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Zizek, David; Cvijić, Marta; Zupan, Igor

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac involvement in systemic light chain amyloidosis carries poor prognosis. Amyloid deposition in the myocardium can alter regional left ventricular contraction and cause dyssynchrony. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment strategy for patients with advanced heart failure and echocardiographic dyssynchrony. We report a clinical and echocardiographic response of a patient with amyloid cardiomyopathy, treated with a combination of chemotherapy and CRT.

  7. Interventional electrophysiology and cardiac resynchronization therapy: delivering electrical therapies for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, J David; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2007-04-24

    Implantable devices have become a readily available option for patients with heart failure. Not only do these patients develop bradycardia and ventricular tachycardia, but their ventricular dysfunction can often improve with cardiac resynchronization therapy. However, this is a complex and rapidly developing clinical science for which the physician chooses techniques and selects patients on the basis of the results of clinical trials, clinical experience, and rapidly evolving tools. The results depend on the interplay of these complex variables. Placement of the left ventricular lead has forced the device physician to develop new skills and/or interdisciplinary relationships with physicians with vascular intervention, imaging, and surgical skills. Familiarity with the cardiac venous anatomy, occlusive venography, venoplasty, guide wire tools, guiding catheters, stenting, and new intracardiac visualization and magnetic intracardiac lead positioning tools are examples of just a few of the novel skills that are useful in the delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy. Beyond implantation, these patients and devices require specialized follow-up with continued medical therapy and echo-guided adjustments of device programming. Finally, there are ongoing controversies and many as yet unanswered questions that are the subject of ongoing and planned clinical trials.

  8. Robotic implantation of a multichamber cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Alaa; Sharma, Mahesh S; Zenati, Marco A

    2006-08-01

    Transvenous implantation of a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) may not be feasible due to anatomic constraints. One of the most notable advances in minimal-access heart surgery has been the introduction of robotic telemanipulation systems. We present a challenging case in which a CRT-D system was implanted using a robotic approach. Feasibility of such an approach expands the horizons for delivery of CRT-D therapy.

  9. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Leads to Improvements in Handgrip Strength

    PubMed Central

    Warriner, David R.; Lawford, Patricia; Sheridan, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A reduction in skeletal muscle performance measured by handgrip strength is common in heart failure. No trial has investigated the role of cardiac resynchronization therapy, which leads to improvements in cardiac performance, on the function of skeletal muscle in patients with heart failure. Methods Nineteen patients were recruited, 18 male, age 69 ± 8 years, New York Heart Association class II-IV, QRS duration 173 ± 21 ms and left ventricular ejection fraction 26±8%. Handgrip strength was measured at baseline before, and 6 and 12 months, following cardiac resynchronization therapy. Response was assessed using quality of life questionnaire, 6-minute walk distance, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing at the same time points. Results Fourteen patients were identified as responders, demonstrating significant improvements in all four markers of response. There was no significant difference at baseline in left or right handgrip strength between responders and non-responders. Compared to baseline, handgrip strength significantly increased in responders during follow-up, left (34.4 ± 11.4 to 40.3 ± 11.3 kgf, P < 0.001) and right (35.7 ± 12.5 to 42.2 ± 11.5 kgf, P < 0.001) at 12 months. No such improvement was seen in non-responders. Conclusions This study demonstrates that positive response to cardiac resynchronization therapy is associated with significant gains in handgrip strength, suggesting that cardiac resynchronization therapy may indirectly lead to secondary gains in skeletal muscle function. PMID:28197275

  10. Effect of echocardiography-guided left ventricular lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy on mortality and risk of defibrillator therapy for ventricular arrhythmias in heart failure patients (from the Speckle Tracking Assisted Resynchronization Therapy for Electrode Region [STARTER] trial).

    PubMed

    Adelstein, Evan; Alam, Mian Bilal; Schwartzman, David; Jain, Sandeep; Marek, Josef; Gorcsan, John; Saba, Samir

    2014-05-01

    Echocardiography-guided left ventricular (LV) lead placement at the site of latest mechanical activation improves heart failure outcomes in patients receiving a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D). In this study, we test the hypothesis that a strategy of echocardiography-guided LV lead placement improves patient survival rate free from appropriate CRT-D therapy for ventricular arrhythmias. Patients enrolled in the prospective, randomized Speckle Tracking Assisted Resynchronization Therapy for Electrode Region trial and treated with a CRT-D device (108 with the echo-guided strategy and 75 with the routine strategy) were followed to the end point of death or first appropriate CRT-D therapy. Over a follow-up period of 3.7 ± 2.1 years, 62 patients (33%) died and 40 (22%) received appropriate CRT-D therapy. Compared with the routine group, patients in the echo-guided group had improved CRT-D therapy-free survival rate (hazard ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = 0.42 to 0.98, p = 0.038). Patients randomized to the echo-guided LV lead placement were more likely to resynchronize their LV compared with the routine group (72% vs 48%, respectively, p = 0.006). Patients whose LV did resynchronize after CRT-D had improved therapy-free survival rate compared with those whose LV did not resynchronize (hazard ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval = 0.28 to 0.86, p = 0.012). In conclusion, a strategy of echo-guided LV lead placement improved the patient survival rate free from defibrillator therapy in CRT-D recipients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: a potential option for congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kousik; Avramovitch, Naomi A; Kim, Michael H; Trohman, Richard G

    2005-12-01

    The use of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with QRS prolongation (left-sided interventricular conduction delay) and symptomatic (New York Heart Association class III and IV) heart failure despite optimal medical therapy is well established. This case report describes the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy to treat symptomatic congestive heart failure in 2 patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels.

  12. Optogenetics for in vivo cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapies.

    PubMed

    Nussinovitch, Udi; Gepstein, Lior

    2015-07-01

    Abnormalities in the specialized cardiac conduction system may result in slow heart rate or mechanical dyssynchrony. Here we apply optogenetics, widely used to modulate neuronal excitability, for cardiac pacing and resynchronization. We used adeno-associated virus (AAV) 9 to express the Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgene at one or more ventricular sites in rats. This allowed optogenetic pacing of the hearts at different beating frequencies with blue-light illumination both in vivo and in isolated perfused hearts. Optical mapping confirmed that the source of the new pacemaker activity was the site of ChR2 transgene delivery. Notably, diffuse illumination of hearts where the ChR2 transgene was delivered to several ventricular sites resulted in electrical synchronization and significant shortening of ventricular activation times. These findings highlight the unique potential of optogenetics for cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapies.

  13. Living with cardiac resynchronization therapy: Challenges for people with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Dehghanzadeh, Shadi; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Varaei, Shokoh; Kheirkhah, Jalal

    2017-03-01

    The number of people with heart failure requiring implantation of a cardiac resynchronization device is increasing in Iran. Although this intervention is an effective life-saving treatment, several challenges are associated with patients' lifestyle after insertion. This study identified the challenges and coping mechanisms of Iranians with heart failure living with cardiac resynchronization therapy. A qualitative approach using conventional content analysis was adopted. Seventeen people with heart failure and three nurses were recruited between December 2014 and November 2015 from a teaching hospital and a private clinic in Rasht, Iran. Participants were interviewed using semi-structured interviews lasting 30-60 min. Five themes emerged: (i) fear of implantation, (ii) the panic of receiving a shock from the device, (iii) lack of control over life, (iv) inadequacies of the healthcare system, and (v) psychosocial coping. A heightened understanding of these challenges and coping strategies could prepare healthcare professionals to provide better routine care, education, and support to the recipients of cardiac resynchronization therapy prior to implantation, during the recovery period, and for long-term management.

  14. The Role of Atrioventricular and Interventricular Optimization for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Daniel B; Gold, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Many patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction may benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy; however, approximately 30% of patients do not experience significant clinical improvement with this treatment. AV and VV delay optimization techniques have included echocardiography, device-based algorithms, and several other novel noninvasive techniques. Using these techniques to optimize device settings has been shown to improve hemodynamic function acutely; however, the long-term clinical benefit is limited. In most cases, an empiric AV delay with simultaneous biventricular or left ventricular pacing is adequate. The value of optimization of these intervals in "nonresponders" still requires further investigation.

  15. Successful treatment of a cardiac resynchronization therapy nonresponder by identifying lead malpositioning

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Karthik Venkatesh; Ferreira, Scott Wayne; Mehdirad, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    This case describes some of the commonly overlooked device-related issues in patients who have reportedly failed to respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The case demonstrates voltage-dependent right ventricular capture instead of right atrial capture by a subtly malpositioned right atrial lead. CRT therapy failed to improve symptoms of heart failure and the diagnosis of “CRT nonresponder” was made. With a detailed fact-finding approach, the mechanism behind this nonresponse was identified, and the outcome of CRT was significantly improved with rectification of the problems. PMID:28405094

  16. Improvement in left ventricular intrinsic dyssynchrony with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Bozyel, Serdar; Ağaçdiken Ağır, Ayşen; Şahin, Tayfun; Çelikyurt, Umut; Aktaş, Müjdat; Argan, Onur; Yılmaz, İrem; Karaüzüm, Kurtuluş; Derviş, Emir; Vural, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek

    2017-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to induce a structural and electrical remodeling; the data on whether left ventricle (LV) reverse remodeling is associated with restitution of intrinsic contraction pattern are unknown. In this study, we investigated the presence of improvement in left ventricular intrinsic dyssynchrony in patients with CRT. A total of 45 CRT recipients were prospectively studied. Dyssynchrony indexes including interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD) and tissue Doppler velocity opposing-wall delay (OWD) as well as QRS duration on 12-lead surface electrocardiogram were recorded before CRT device implantation. After 1 year, patients with chronic biventricular pacing were reprogramed to VVI 40 to allow the resumption of native conduction and contraction pattern. After 4-6 h of intrinsic rhythm, QRS duration and all echocardiographic measurements were recorded. Dyssynchrony was defined as IVMD >40 ms and OWD >65 ms. CRT response was defined by a ≥15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) at a 12-month follow-up. Thirty-two patients (71%) showed response to CRT. The native QRS duration reduced significantly from 150±12 ms to 138±14 ms (p<0.001), and dyssynchrony indexes showed a significant improvement only in responders. The mean OWD reduced from 86±37 ms to 50±29 ms (p<0.001), and the mean IVMD decreased from 55±22 ms to 28±22 ms (p<0.001) in responders. The reduction in LVESV was significantly correlated with ΔOWD (r=0.47, p=0.001), ΔIVMD (r=0.45, p=0.001), and ΔQRS (r=0.34, p=0.022). Chronic CRT significantly improves LV native contraction pattern and causes reverse remodeling in dyssynchrony.

  17. Gender-related safety and efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Schuchert, Andreas; Muto, Carmine; Maounis, Themistoklis; Frank, Robert; Ella, Rita Omega; Polauck, Alexander; Padeletti, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and a broad QRS complex. Gender-related safety and efficacy data are necessary for informed patient decision-making for female patients with CHF. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of gender on the outcome of CRT in highly symptomatic heart failure patients. Gender may have an effect on the outcome of heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronisation therapy. The study analyzed the 2-year follow-up of 393 New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV patients with a class I CRT indication enrolled in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation Suppression in AF-HF Comorbidity Therapy (MASCOT) study. In female patients (n = 82), compared with male patients (n = 311), CHF was more often due to dilated cardiomyopathy (74% vs 44%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Females also had a more impaired quality-of-life score and a smaller left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD). Women were less likely than men to have received a CRT defibrillator (35% vs 61%, respectively; P < 0.0001). After 2 years, the devices had delivered more biventricular pacing in women than in men (96% ± 13% vs 94% ± 13%, respectively; P < 0.0004). Women had a greater reduction in LVEDD than did men (-8.2 mm ± 11.1 mm vs -1.1 mm ± 22.1 mm, respectively; P < 0.02). Both genders improved similarly in NYHA functional class. Women reported greater improvement than men in quality-of-life score (-21.1 ± 26.5 vs -16.2 ± 22.1, respectively; P < 0.0001). After adjustment for cardiovascular history, women had lower all-cause mortality (P = 0.0007), less cardiac death (P = 0.04), and fewer hospitalizations for worsening heart failure (P = 0.01). Females exhibited a better response to CRT than did males. Because females have such impressive benefits from CRT, improved screening and advocacy for CRT implantation in women should be considered. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nuclear Image-Guided Approaches for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihua; Garcia, Ernest V

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a standard treatment for patients with heart failure. However, 30-40 % of the patients having CRT do not respond to CRT with improved clinical symptom and cardiac functions. It is important for CRT response that left ventricular (LV) lead is placed away from scar and at or near the site of the latest mechanical activation. Nuclear image-guided approaches for CRT have shown significant clinical value to assess LV myocardial viability and mechanical dyssynchrony, recommend the optimal LV lead position, and navigate the LV lead to the target coronary venous site. All these techniques, once validated and implemented, should impact the current clinical practice.

  19. Disease management: remote monitoring in heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators, resynchronization devices, and haemodynamic monitors.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T

    2013-06-01

    Heart failure represents a major public health concern, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. A particular focus of contemporary heart failure management is reduction of hospital admission and readmission rates. While optimal medical therapy favourably impacts the natural history of the disease, devices such as cardiac resynchronization therapy devices and implantable cardioverter defibrillators have added incremental value in improving heart failure outcomes. These devices also enable remote patient monitoring via device-based diagnostics. Device-based measurement of physiological parameters, such as intrathoracic impedance and heart rate variability, provide a means to assess risk of worsening heart failure and the possibility of future hospitalization. Beyond this capability, implantable haemodynamic monitors have the potential to direct day-to-day management of heart failure patients to significantly reduce hospitalization rates. The use of a pulmonary artery pressure measurement system has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization in a large randomized controlled study, the CardioMEMS Heart Sensor Allows Monitoring of Pressure to Improve Outcomes in NYHA Class III Heart Failure Patients (CHAMPION) trial. Observations from a pilot study also support the potential use of a left atrial pressure monitoring system and physician-directed patient self-management paradigm; these observations are under further investigation in the ongoing LAPTOP-HF trial. All these devices depend upon high-intensity remote monitoring for successful detection of parameter deviations and for directing and following therapy.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of cardiac resynchronization therapy in combination with implantable defibrillator in patients with heart failure and wide QRS duration.

    PubMed

    Bilchick, Kenneth C; Stukenborg, George J

    2014-11-15

    Several clinical trials have established that cardiac resynchronization therapy in combination with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator improves survival and alleviates heart failure symptoms in appropriately selected patients. Recent guidelines have expanded the indications to include patients with less severe heart failure. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which cardiac resynchronization therapy in combination with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator improves survival and reduces risk for heart failure hospitalization in United States Medicare patients who met class I or class IIa recommendations. Propensity score methods were used to assess survival and rehospitalization outcomes in Medicare patients. Among patients who met class I recommendations, those with combined cardiac resynchronization therapy had significantly lower risk for death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77 to 0.88, p <0.0001) and lower risk for rehospitalization (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.94, p <0.0001). Among patients who met class IIa recommendations, the relative hazard of death for patients with combined cardiac resynchronization therapy was lower (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.96, p = 0.0015), but there was no significant difference in the risk for rehospitalization for heart failure (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.10, p = 0.2600). In conclusion, cardiac resynchronization therapy in combination with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator resulted in improved survival among Medicare patients meeting class I criteria and most patients meeting class IIa criteria as outlined in the current guidelines for device-based therapy in heart failure, although the effect sizes were lower than those demonstrated in recent trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between cardiac resynchronization therapy and diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Egnaczyk, Gregory F; Chung, Eugene S

    2014-03-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves measures of systolic function and clinical status. However, its effect on diastolic function is not well established. Commonly used parameters of diastolic function are measured from echocardiography, using pulse wave and tissue Doppler technologies, as well as timing and deformation data. Review of the existing studies that address the relationship between diastolic function and CRT shows conflicting data, but general trends can be deduced. Baseline elevated filling pressure appears to identify patients most likely to derive improvement in that particular parameter. Intrinsic relaxation does not appear to be significantly impacted by CRT. Generally, changes in diastolic properties after CRT appear to be linked to changes in systolic function. Specific therapy aimed at diastolic asynchrony is lacking, partly due to an unclear relationship between diastolic asynchrony and diastolic dysfunction, and the inability to specifically impact diastolic timing with a systolic intervention such as CRT.

  2. An integrated platform for image-guided cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying Liang; Shetty, Anoop K; Duckett, Simon; Etyngier, Patrick; Gijsbers, Geert; Bullens, Roland; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Rhode, Kawal S

    2012-05-21

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective procedure for patients with heart failure but 30% of patients do not respond. This may be due to sub-optimal placement of the left ventricular (LV) lead. It is hypothesized that the use of cardiac anatomy, myocardial scar distribution and dyssynchrony information, derived from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may improve outcome by guiding the physician for optimal LV lead positioning. Whole heart MR data can be processed to yield detailed anatomical models including the coronary veins. Cine MR data can be used to measure the motion of the LV to determine which regions are late-activating. Finally, delayed Gadolinium enhancement imaging can be used to detect regions of scarring. This paper presents a complete platform for the guidance of CRT using pre-procedural MR data combined with live x-ray fluoroscopy. The platform was used for 21 patients undergoing CRT in a standard catheterization laboratory. The patients underwent cardiac MRI prior to their procedure. For each patient, a MRI-derived cardiac model, showing the LV lead targets, was registered to x-ray fluoroscopy using multiple views of a catheter looped in the right atrium. Registration was maintained throughout the procedure by a combination of C-arm/x-ray table tracking and respiratory motion compensation. Validation of the registration between the three-dimensional (3D) roadmap and the 2D x-ray images was performed using balloon occlusion coronary venograms. A 2D registration error of 1.2 ± 0.7 mm was achieved. In addition, a novel navigation technique was developed, called Cardiac Unfold, where an entire cardiac chamber is unfolded from 3D to 2D along with all relevant anatomical and functional information and coupled to real-time device detection. This allowed more intuitive navigation as the entire 3D scene was displayed simultaneously on a 2D plot. The accuracy of the unfold navigation was assessed off-line using 13 patient data sets

  3. An integrated platform for image-guided cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ying Liang; Shetty, Anoop K.; Duckett, Simon; Etyngier, Patrick; Gijsbers, Geert; Bullens, Roland; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Rhode, Kawal S.

    2012-05-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective procedure for patients with heart failure but 30% of patients do not respond. This may be due to sub-optimal placement of the left ventricular (LV) lead. It is hypothesized that the use of cardiac anatomy, myocardial scar distribution and dyssynchrony information, derived from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may improve outcome by guiding the physician for optimal LV lead positioning. Whole heart MR data can be processed to yield detailed anatomical models including the coronary veins. Cine MR data can be used to measure the motion of the LV to determine which regions are late-activating. Finally, delayed Gadolinium enhancement imaging can be used to detect regions of scarring. This paper presents a complete platform for the guidance of CRT using pre-procedural MR data combined with live x-ray fluoroscopy. The platform was used for 21 patients undergoing CRT in a standard catheterization laboratory. The patients underwent cardiac MRI prior to their procedure. For each patient, a MRI-derived cardiac model, showing the LV lead targets, was registered to x-ray fluoroscopy using multiple views of a catheter looped in the right atrium. Registration was maintained throughout the procedure by a combination of C-arm/x-ray table tracking and respiratory motion compensation. Validation of the registration between the three-dimensional (3D) roadmap and the 2D x-ray images was performed using balloon occlusion coronary venograms. A 2D registration error of 1.2 ± 0.7 mm was achieved. In addition, a novel navigation technique was developed, called Cardiac Unfold, where an entire cardiac chamber is unfolded from 3D to 2D along with all relevant anatomical and functional information and coupled to real-time device detection. This allowed more intuitive navigation as the entire 3D scene was displayed simultaneously on a 2D plot. The accuracy of the unfold navigation was assessed off-line using 13 patient data sets

  4. The use of nuclear imaging for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji; Boogers, Mark J; Boogers, Mark M; Bax, Jeroen J; Soman, Prem; Garcia, Ernest V

    2010-03-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has shown benefits in patients with end-stage heart failure, depressed left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (< or = 35%), and prolonged QRS duration (> or = 120 ms). However, based on the conventional criteria, 20% to 40% of patients fail to respond to CRT. Studies have focused on important parameters for predicting CRT response, such as LV dyssynchrony, scar burden, LV lead position, and site of latest activation. Phase analysis allows nuclear cardiology modalities, such as gated blood-pool imaging and gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (GMPS), to assess LV dyssynchrony. Most importantly, GMPS with phase analysis has the potential of assessing LV dyssynchrony, scar burden, and site of late activation from a single acquisition, so that this technique may provide a one-stop shop for predicting CRT response. This article provides a summary on the role of nuclear cardiology in selecting patients for CRT, with emphasis on GMPS with phase analysis.

  5. What is treatment success in cardiac resynchronization therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Paul W.X.; Leyva, Francisco; Frenneaux, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for symptomatic patients with heart failure, a prolonged QRS duration, and impaired left ventricular (LV) function. Identification of ‘responders’ and ‘non-responders’ to CRT has attracted considerable attention. The response to CRT can be measured in terms of symptomatic response or clinical outcome, or both. Alternatively, the response to CRT can be measured in terms of changes in surrogate measures of outcome, such as LV volumes, LV ejection fraction, invasive measures of cardiac performance, peak oxygen uptake, and neurohormones. This review explores whether these measures can be used in assessing the symptomatic and prognostic response to CRT. The role of these parameters to the management of individual patients is also discussed. PMID:19861392

  6. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Janoušek, Jan; Kubuš, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment option for adult patients suffering heart failure due to idiopathic or ischemic cardiomyopathy associated with electromechanical dyssynchrony. There is limited evidence suggesting similar efficacy of CRT in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Due to the heterogeneity of structural and functional substrates, CRT implantation techniques are different with a thoracotomy or hybrid approach prevailing. Efficacy of CRT in CHD seems to depend on the anatomy of the systemic ventricle with best results achieved in systemic left ventricular patients upgraded to CRT from conventional pacing. Indications for CRT in patients with CHD were recently summarized in the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) Expert Consensus Statement on the Recognition and Management of Arrhythmias in Adult Congenital Heart Disease and are presented in the text.

  7. The Contemporary Role of Echocardiography in Improving Patient Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gorcsan, John; Marek, Josef J.; Onishi, Tetsuari

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an important therapy for heart failure patients with widened electrocardiographic QRS complexes and depressed ejection fractions, however, approximately one-third do not respond. This article presents a practical contemporary approach to the utility of echocardiography to improve CRT patient response by assessing mechanical dyssynchrony, optimizing left ventricular lead positioning, and performing appropriate echo-Doppler optimization, along with future potential roles. Specifically, recent long-term outcome data are presented that demonstrates that baseline dyssynchrony is a powerful marker associated with CRT response, in particular for patients with narrower QRS duration or non left bundle branch block morphology. Advances in speckle tracking echocardiography to tailor delivery of CRT by guiding LV lead position is discussed, including data from randomized clinical trials supporting targeting the LV lead toward the site of latest activation. In addition, an update on the current role of Doppler echocardiographic device optimization after CRT implantation is reviewed. PMID:24741393

  8. Understanding the timing cycles of a cardiac resynchronization device designed with left ventricular sensing.

    PubMed

    Barold, S Serge; Kucher, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Some devices used for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can sense from the left ventricular (LV) lead as in Biotronik CRT devices (Biotronik GmbH, Berlin, Germany), whose special LV timing cycles form the basis of this report. LV sensing (LVs) was designed to prevent competitive pacing outside the LV myocardial absolute refractory period. LVs works by inhibiting the release of an LV pacemaker stimulus (LVp) in the vulnerable period of the LV during a programmable period. LVs with stored LV electrograms may also provide recordings of diagnostic value in tachyarrhythmias. LVs has added a new dimension to the evaluation of the function of CRT devices, because it is manifested by unfamiliar timing cycles. In this respect, Biotronik devices can initiate an LV upper rate interval (URI) upon sensing a right-sided event when LVs is turned off. An inhibited LVp can also initiate an LVURI. The LVURI should generally be programmed to a relatively short duration and shorter than the right ventricular URI to prevent a special form of desynchronization arrhythmia sustained by LVs. This arrhythmia is characterized by recurring delayed LVs events in sequences associated with RV pacing followed by LVs events with loss of LVp.

  9. Echocardiography-guided left ventricular lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy: results of the Speckle Tracking Assisted Resynchronization Therapy for Electrode Region trial.

    PubMed

    Saba, Samir; Marek, Josef; Schwartzman, David; Jain, Sandeep; Adelstein, Evan; White, Pamela; Oyenuga, Olusegun A; Onishi, Tetsuari; Soman, Prem; Gorcsan, John

    2013-05-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF) with wide QRS complex and diminished left ventricular (LV) function, but response is variable. The Speckle Tracking Assisted Resynchronization Therapy for Electrode Region (STARTER) was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial testing the hypothesis that an incremental benefit to cardiac resynchronization therapy would be gained by echo-guided (EG) transvenous LV lead placement versus a routine fluoroscopic approach. EG LV lead placement was attempted at the site of latest time to peak radial strain by speckle tracking echocardiography. The prespecified primary end point was first HF hospitalization or death. Of 187 New York Heart Association class II to IV patients with HF (62% ischemic; ejection fraction 26±6%; QRS 159±27 ms), 110 were randomized to EG and 77 to routine strategies. Primary events included 30 deaths and 37 HF hospitalizations over 1.8 years. Using intention-to-treat, patients randomized to an EG strategy had a significantly more favorable event-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.82; P=0.006). Exact or adjacent concordance of LV lead with latest site could be achieved in 85% of the EG group and occurred fortuitously in 66% of controls (P=0.010) and was associated with an improvement in event-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.71; P=0.002). A strategy of EG LV lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy improved patient outcomes by reducing the combined risk of death or HF hospitalizations and has implications for delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00156390.

  10. Is speckle tracking actually helpful for cardiac resynchronization therapy?

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    What is the specific role of echocardiography in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)? CRT has proven to be highly effective for improving symptoms and survival of patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and wide QRS. However, a significant minority of patients do not respond favorably to CRT on the basis of standard clinical selection criteria, including the electrocardiographic QRS width. Subsequently, echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony has been considered useful for CRT for selected responders, but findings by multicenter studies suggest that its predictive value was not sufficiently robust to replace routine selection criteria for CRT. A more recent approach, however, using speckle-tracking echocardiography yields more accurate quantification of regional wall contraction. Speckle-tracking approaches have therefore generated a great deal of interest about their clinical applications for CRT. Although reports on speckle tracking have not been included in any recommendations as to whether patients should undergo CRT based on the current guidelines, speckle tracking can play an important supplementary part in CRT on the basis of a case-by-case clinical decision for challenging cases. Here, we review the strengths of speckle-tracking methods, and their current potential for clinical use in CRT.

  11. Interactive visualization for scar transmurality in cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiml, Sabrina; Toth, Daniel; Panayiotou, Maria; Fahn, Bernhard; Karim, Rashed; Behar, Jonathan M.; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S.; Brost, Alexander; Mountney, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Heart failure is a serious disease affecting about 23 million people worldwide. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is used to treat patients suffering from symptomatic heart failure. However, 30% to 50% of patients have limited clinical benefit. One of the main causes is suboptimal placement of the left ventricular lead. Pacing in areas of myocardial scar correlates with poor clinical outcomes. Therefore precise knowledge of the individual patient's scar characteristics is critical for delivering tailored treatments capable of improving response rates. Current research methods for scar assessment either map information to an alternative non-anatomical coordinate system or they use the image coordinate system but lose critical information about scar extent and scar distribution. This paper proposes two interactive methods for visualizing relevant scar information. A 2-D slice based approach with a scar mask overlaid on a 16 segment heart model and a 3-D layered mesh visualization which allows physicians to scroll through layers of scar from endocardium to epicardium. These complementary methods enable physicians to evaluate scar location and transmurality during planning and guidance. Six physicians evaluated the proposed system by identifying target regions for lead placement. With the proposed method more target regions could be identified.

  12. [Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with narrow QRS].

    PubMed

    Chapurnykh, A V; Mochalova, O V; Solov'eva, N V; Riabov, A S; Solov'ev, O V; Nazarov, D E

    2011-01-01

    Conduction delay affecting 30-50% of patients with NYHA class III-IV heart failure (HF) mainly results from left bundle branch block and leads to deterioration of cardiac contractility through intra- and interventricular dyssynchrony. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has class I recommendation for the treatment of patients with severe systolic HF who have left ventricular ejection fraction less or equal to 35%, QRS duration greater than or equal to 120 ms. Nevertheless some studies have shown that systolic asynchrony is present in 27-43% of HF patients with narrow QRS complexes (defined as <120 ms). We present here results of CRT in 20 patients (13 male, 7 female). Main indication for CRT was ventricular dyssynchrony during basic cardiac rhythm or cardiac pacing independently of QRS width. In 4 patients width of QRS complex was less than 120 ms, in 3 QRS varied from 120 to 149 ms pts and in 13 it was equal to or exceeded 150 ms. CRT in patients with narrow QRS resulted in clinical improvement associated with increase of cardiac contractility and decrease of left ventricular end systolic volume. This allows to conclude that CRT can be beneficial for HF patients with narrow QRS and ventricular dyssynchrony.

  13. Pacing Evaluation-Atrial SUpport Study in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (PEGASUS CRT): design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Martin, David O; Stolen, Kira Q; Brown, Scott; Yu, Yinghong; Christie, Christine; Doshi, Shephal K; Smith, Joseph M; Gold, Michael R; Day, John D

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been demonstrated to be an effective heart failure (HF) therapy. All pivotal trials of CRT to date have used atrial-synchronous biventricular pacing wherein there is no or minimal atrial pacing. In clinical practice, however, physicians often program CRT devices to have atrial rate support pacing, either by increasing the lower rate limit or by activating the rate sensor. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of empiric atrial support pacing in patients with HF who have received a CRT defibrillator (CRT-D) device. PEGASUS CRT is a multicenter, 3-arm, randomized clinical trial of approximately 1200 patients receiving a CRT-D device. For the first 6 weeks after implant, devices are programmed to DDD with a lower rate limit of 40 beats/min. At 6 weeks, patients are randomized to DDD-40, DDD-70, or DDDR-40. All randomized patients are followed for 1 year, and at each visit, mortality, HF events, quality of life, New York Heart Association class, and atrial and ventricular arrhythmic episodes are evaluated. An exercise substudy will also be conducted, enrolling a minimum of 375 patients. Patients in this substudy will complete 2 cardiopulmonary exercise tests to evaluate the effect pacing mode has on exercise capacity. This randomized controlled trial will address whether empiric atrial support pacing is of clinical benefit to patients with HF who receive a CRT-D device.

  14. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure and a QRS complex <120 milliseconds: the Evaluation of Resynchronization Therapy for Heart Failure (LESSER-EARTH) trial.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Bernard; Harel, François; Ducharme, Anique; White, Michel; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Roy, Denis; Philippon, François; Dorian, Paul; Talajic, Mario; Dubuc, Marc; Guerra, Peter G; Macle, Laurent; Rivard, Léna; Andrade, Jason; Khairy, Paul

    2013-02-26

    Although the benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy are well established in selected patients with heart failure and a prolonged QRS duration, salutary effects in patients with narrow QRS complexes remain to be demonstrated. The Evaluation of Resynchronization Therapy for Heart Failure (LESSER-EARTH) trial is a randomized, double-blind, 12-center study that was designed to compare the effects of active and inactive cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and a QRS duration <120 milliseconds. The trial was interrupted prematurely by the Data Safety and Monitoring Board because of futility and safety concerns after 85 patients were randomized. Changes in exercise duration after 12 months were no different in patients with and without active cardiac resynchronization therapy (-0.7 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), -2.9 to 1.5] versus 0.8 minutes [95% CI, -1.2 to 2.9]; P=0.31]. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in left ventricular end-systolic volumes (-6.4 mL [95% CI, -18.8 to 5.9] versus 3.1 mL [95% CI, -9.2 to 15.5]; P=0.28) and ejection fraction (3.3% [95% CI, 0.7-6.0] versus 2.1% [95% CI, -0.5 to 4.8]; P=0.52). Moreover, cardiac resynchronization therapy was associated with a significant reduction in the 6-minute walk distance (-11.3 m [95% CI, -31.7 to 9.7] versus 25.3 m [95% CI, 6.1-44.5]; P=0.01), an increase in QRS duration (40.2 milliseconds [95% CI, 34.2-46.2] versus 3.4 milliseconds [95% CI, 0.6-6.2]; P<0.0001), and a nonsignificant trend toward an increase in heart failure-related hospitalizations (15 hospitalizations in 5 patients versus 4 hospitalizations in 4 patients). In patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, symptoms of heart failure, and a QRS duration <120 milliseconds, cardiac resynchronization therapy did not improve clinical outcomes or left ventricular remodeling and was associated with potential harm. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique

  15. Earlier Right Ventricular Pacing in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for a Patient with Right Axis Deviation.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo

    2017-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.

  16. QRS duration versus morphology and survival after cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khidir, Mand J.H.; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Schalij, Martin J.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims The prognostic implications of QRS duration and morphology in heart failure patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains debated. The present evaluation investigated the association between QRS duration (<150 vs. ≥150 ms) and QRS morphology (left bundle brand block [LBBB] vs. non‐LBBB) and long‐term prognosis of a large cohort of unselected heart failure patients treated with CRT according to contemporary guidelines. Methods and results Of 973 heart failure patients treated with CRT (mean age 66.1 ± 9.8 years, 76% male), 658 patients (68%) showed QRS duration ≥150 ms, and 772 patients (79%) had LBBB configuration. Compared with patients with QRS duration <150 ms, patients with QRS duration ≥150 ms had less frequently ischaemic cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation and showed larger left ventricular volumes and lower left ventricular ejection fraction. Compared with patients with non‐LBBB configuration, patients with LBBB morphology were younger, less often males and less often had ischaemic cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation. On multivariable analysis, after correcting for relevant clinical and echocardiographic variables, LBBB morphology was significantly associated with better survival [hazard ratio (HR) 0.737; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.584–0.931; P = 0.010], whereas there was no statistically significant association between QRS duration ≥150 ms and survival (HR 0.889; 95% CI 0.726–1.088; P = 0.252). Conclusions In this large population of heart failure patients treated with CRT, QRS morphology was independently associated with long‐term survival. The association between QRS duration and long‐term survival was not statistically significant. PMID:28217309

  17. Potential pro-arrhythmic effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tayeh, Osama; Farouk, Waleed; ElAzab, Abdo; Khald, Hassan; Curnis, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A decline in mortality due to pump failure has been clearly documented after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), however the impact on sudden cardiac death and the development of malignant ventricular arrhythmias remains questionable. Our study aims to investigate this alleged pro-arrhythmic effect of CRT using surface electrocardiogram (ECG) markers of pro-arrhythmia. Methods Seventy five patients, who received CRT were included in this study. Manual measurement of corrected QT interval (QTc), Tpeak-end (Tp-e) interval, QT dispersion (QTd) and Tpeak-end dispersion during baseline 12 lead surface ECG and after applying atrial-biventricular pacing were done. Arrhythmias post CRT was recorded from ECG, 24 h holter monitoring or pacemaker programmer event recorder. Results QTc interval showed significant prolongation after CRT (498.9 ± 50.8 vs. 476.2 ± 41.6 msec, P = 0.0001). Comparing patients with major arrhythmogenic events (MAE) and increased frequency of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) post CRT pacing to those patients without arrhythmias, there was a significant prolongation of the QTc interval (527 ± 63.29 vs. 496.95 ± 45.2 msec, P = 0.043) and Tp-e interval (94.16 ± 9 vs. 87.41 ± 16.37 msec, P = 0.049). While in the arrhythmogenic group, there was an insignificant decrease in QTd and Tpeak-end dispersion. Conclusion QTc and Tp-e intervals are a potential predictor of occurrence of MAE and PVCs. On the other hand, Tp-e dispersion and QTd did not show a predictive potential for arrhythmia. PMID:24174858

  18. Echocardiographic Predictors of Worse Outcome After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Eduardo Arrais; Pereira, Francisca Tatiana Moreira; Abreu, José Sebastião; Lima, José Wellington O.; Monteiro, Marcelo de Paula M.; Rocha Neto, Almino Cavalcante; Quidute, Ana Rosa Pinto; Goés, Camilla Viana A.; Rodrigues Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins; Scanavacca, Maurício Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is the recommended treatment by leading global guidelines. However, 30%-40% of selected patients are non-responders. Objective To develop an echocardiographic model to predict cardiac death or transplantation (Tx) 1 year after CRT. Method Observational, prospective study, with the inclusion of 116 patients, aged 64.89 ± 11.18 years, 69.8% male, 68,1% in NYHA FC III and 31,9% in FC IV, 71.55% with left bundle-branch block, and median ejection fraction (EF) of 29%. Evaluations were made in the pre-implantation period and 6-12 months after that, and correlated with cardiac mortality/Tx at the end of follow-up. Cox and logistic regression analyses were performed with ROC and Kaplan-Meier curves. The model was internally validated by bootstrapping. Results There were 29 (25%) deaths/Tx during follow-up of 34.09 ± 17.9 months. Cardiac mortality/Tx was 16.3%. In the multivariate Cox model, EF < 30%, grade III/IV diastolic dysfunction and grade III mitral regurgitation at 6-12 months were independently related to increased cardiac mortality or Tx, with hazard ratios of 3.1, 4.63 and 7.11, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.78. Conclusion EF lower than 30%, severe diastolic dysfunction and severe mitral regurgitation indicate poor prognosis 1 year after CRT. The combination of two of those variables indicate the need for other treatment options. PMID:26351981

  19. Atrial high-rate episodes predict clinical outcome in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsson, Jonatan; Platonov, Pyotr G; Reitan, Christian; Carlsson, Jonas; Borgquist, Rasmus

    2017-04-01

    Up to 50% of patients qualified for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have documented atrial fibrillation (AF) prior to CRT-implantation. This finding is associated with worse prognosis but few studies have evaluated the importance of post-implant device-detected AF. This study aimed to assess the prognostic impact of device-detected atrial high-rate episodes (AHRE), as a surrogate for AF. Data were retrospectively obtained from consecutive patients receiving CRT. Baseline clinical data and data from CRT device-interrogations, performed at a median of 12.2 months after CRT-implantation, were evaluated with regard to prediction of the composite endpoint of death, heart transplant or appropriate shock therapy. Median follow-up time was 51 months post-implant. The study included 377 patients. Preoperative AF was present in 49% and associated with worse outcome. The cumulative burden of AHRE at 12 months post-implant was an independent predictor of the primary endpoint. During the first 12 months after CRT-implantation, AHRE were detected in 25% of the patients with no preoperative diagnosis of AF. This finding was not associated with worse outcome. In CRT recipients, the cumulative burden of AHRE during the first year of follow-up was associated with worse long-term clinical outcome. Prospective trials are needed to determine if a rhythm control strategy is to be preferred in patients with CRT.

  20. Percutaneous closure and "push-pull" technique to repair arterial lead and sheath placement complicating cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Waqas; Cooklin, Michael; Salter, Richard James; Sabharwal, Tarun; Rinaldi, Christopher Aldo

    2012-02-01

    We present a case of inadvertent subclavian arterial puncture and lead placement to the left ventricle in a patient undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy. We describe the use of a "push-pull" technique within an arterial setting to allow removal of the lead, while maintaining access through the same puncture to allow an arterial-closure device to then seal the artery at this site. As a result of this percutaneous approach, the patient avoided the need for a vascular surgical procedure. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The ethics of unilateral implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator deactivation: patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Daeschler, Margaret; Verdino, Ralph J; Kirkpatrick, James N

    2017-08-01

    Decisions about deactivation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are complicated. Unilateral do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders (against patient/family wishes) have been ethically justified in cases of medical futility. Unilateral deactivation of ICDs may be seen as a logical extension of a unilateral DNR order. However, the ethical implications of unilateral ICD deactivation have not been explored. Sixty patients who had an ICD or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) were interviewed at a quaternary medical centre outpatient electrophysiology practice. Survey questions addressed whether deactivation of defibrillator function was included in advanced directives, whether deactivation constitutes physician-assisted suicide, and whether unilateral deactivation can be ethically justified. Responses were elicited to scenarios in which defibrillation function was deactivated in different contexts (including patient request to deactivate, existing DNR, and unilateral deactivation). Only 15% of respondents had thought about device deactivation if they were to develop a serious illness from which they were not expected to recover. A majority (53%) had advance directives, but only one mentioned what to do with the device. However, a majority (78%) did not consider deactivation of an ICD shocking function against patients' wishes to be ethical or moral. Management of ICDs and CRT-Ds as patients near the end of their lives creates ethical dilemmas. Few patients consider device deactivation at end-of-life, although a large majority believes that unilateral deactivation is not ethical/moral, even in the setting of medical futility. Advance care planning for these patients should address device deactivation.

  2. National Trends in the Use of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With or Without Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Lindvall, Charlotta; Chatterjee, Neal A; Chang, Yuchiao; Chernack, Betty; Jackson, Vicki A; Singh, Jagmeet P; Metlay, Joshua P

    2016-01-19

    Candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) receive either a biventricular pacemaker or a biventricular pacemaker with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D). Optimal device selection remains challenging because the benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy may not be uniform, particularly in patients at competing risk of nonsudden death. In this serial cross-sectional study using the National Inpatient Sample database, we identified 311,086 admissions associated with CRT implant between 2006 to 2012. CRT-D was the most common device type (86.1%), including in patients ≥ 75 years of age with ≥ 5 Elixhauser comorbidities (75.5%). Multivariate predictors of CRT-D implant included demographic, clinical, and geographic factors: prior ventricular arrhythmia (rate ratio [RR], 1.14; 95% CI, 1.13-1.14), ischemic heart disease (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.10-1.11), male sex (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.09-1.10), black race (RR, 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04-1.07), and Northeast geographic region (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09). There was significant interhospital variation in the use of CRT-D (10-90 percentile range, 72.9%-98.0% CRT-D). The majority of patients in this contemporary US cohort underwent implantation of CRT-D. Predictors of CRT-D implant included demographic, clinical, and geographic factors. In patient subgroups predicted to have an attenuated benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy (older adults with multiple comorbidities), CRT-D remained the dominant device type. An improved understanding of the determinants of device selection may aid in decision making and ultimately better align patient risk with device benefit at the time of CRT implantation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Clinical and echocardiographic predictors of nonresponse to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Miriam; Delgado, Victoria; Ng, Arnold C T; Auger, Dominique; Mooyaart, Eline A Q; Bertini, Matteo; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; van Bommel, Rutger J; Holman, Eduard R; Poldermans, Don; Schalij, Martin J; Bax, Jeroen J

    2011-03-01

    Lack of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) ranges between 30% to 40% of heart failure (HF) patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic determinants of nonresponse to CRT. A total of 581 patients (66.4 ± 10.0 years, 77.9% male) with advanced HF scheduled for CRT implantation were included. Clinical and echocardiographic evaluations were performed at baseline and 6 months of follow-up. Nonresponse was defined as no improvement in the New York Heart Association functional class, death from worsening HF or heart transplantation, and <15% reduction in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume. At 6 months of follow-up, 254 patients (44%) did not respond to CRT. The nonresponders were more frequently male (81.9% vs 74.3%, P = .030) and had ischemic cardiomyopathy (69.7% vs 53.2%, P < .001), shorter QRS duration (150.6 ± 29.9 milliseconds vs 156.0 ± 32.5 milliseconds, P = .041), worse New York Heart Association functional class (2.8 ± 0.6 vs 2.7 ± 0.6, P = .008) and shorter 6-minute walk distance (297.9 ± 110.7 m vs 331.8 ± 112.6 m, P = .001), larger left atrial volumes (44.9 ± 16.9 mL/m(2) vs 40.9 ± 17.6 mL/m(2), P = .006), less baseline LV dyssynchrony (56.2 ± 41.3 milliseconds vs 69.1 ± 39.9 milliseconds, P < .001), and, more frequently, anterior LV lead position (12.4% vs 4.0%, P = .007). At multivariate analysis, only the ischemic etiology of HF (odds ratio [OR] 2.264, P = .005), shorter 6-minute walk distance at baseline (OR 0.998, P = .030), less baseline LV dyssynchrony (OR 0.989, P < .001), and anterior LV lead position (OR 3.713, P < .010) remained independent predictors of nonresponse to CRT. Ischemic etiology of HF, shorter baseline 6-minute walk distance, less baseline LV dyssynchrony, and anterior LV lead position are independent determinants of nonresponse to CRT. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diabetes Mellitus and Outcomes of Cardiac Resynchronization With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy in Older Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Masoudi, Frederick A; Bao, Haikun; Spatz, Erica S; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale data on outcomes with cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator in patients with diabetes mellitus are limited. We compared outcomes after cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator implantation among patients with heart failure who have diabetes mellitus versus those without diabetes mellitus. Survival curves and covariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio were used to assess the risks for death, readmission, and device-related complications by diabetes mellitus status among 18 428 patients at least 65 years old receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry between 2006 and 2009, with up to 3 years of follow-up. Accounting for differences between groups, compared with those without diabetes mellitus (n=11 345), patients with diabetes mellitus (n=7083) had a higher risk of death both at 1 year (HR, 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.29]; P=0.0037) and 3 years (HR, 1.21 [1.14-1.29]; P<0.001) after device implantation and higher risks of all-cause readmission (sub-HR, 1.16 [1.11-1.21] at 1 year; P<0.0001; sub-HR, 1.15 [1.11-1.19] at 3 years; P<0.0001) and heart failure-related readmission (sub-HR, 1.18 [1.09-1.28] at 1 year; P<0.0001; and sub-HR, 1.22 [1.15-1.30] at 3 years; P<0.0001). Device-related complications within 90 days did not differ between those with and without diabetes mellitus (odds ratio: 0.90 [0.77-1.06]; P=0.37). Interactions of age, sex, ischemic cardiomyopathy, renal failure, or QRS duration were not significant. In older patients with heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator, diabetes mellitus was independently associated with greater risks of death and rehospitalization, but similar risks of procedural complications. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Economic impact of longer battery life of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gadler, Fredrik; Ding, Yao; Verin, Nathalie; Bergius, Martin; Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Russell, Mason W

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact that longer battery life of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) devices has on reducing the number of device replacements and associated costs of these replacements from a Swedish health care system perspective. An economic model based on real-world published data was developed to estimate cost savings and avoided device replacements for CRT-Ds with longer battery life compared with devices with industry-standard battery life expectancy. Base-case comparisons were performed among CRT-Ds of three manufacturers - Boston Scientific Corporation, St. Jude Medical, and Medtronic - over a 6-year time horizon, as per the available clinical data. As a sensitivity analysis, we evaluated CRT-Ds as well as single-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD-VR) and dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD-DR) devices over a longer 10-year period. All costs were in 2015 Swedish Krona (SEK) discounted at 3% per annum. Base-case analysis results show that up to 603 replacements and up to SEK 60.4 million cumulative-associated costs could be avoided over 6 years by using devices with extended battery life. The pattern of savings over time suggests that savings are modest initially but increase rapidly beginning in the third year of follow-up with each year's cumulative savings two to three times the previous year. Evaluating CRT-D, ICD-VR, and ICD-DR devices together over a longer 10-year period, the sensitivity analysis showed 2,820 fewer replacement procedures and associated cost savings of SEK 249.3 million for all defibrillators with extended battery life. Extended battery life is likely to reduce device replacements and associated complications and costs, which may result in important cost savings and a more efficient use of health care resources as well as a better quality of life for heart failure patients in Sweden.

  6. Dyssynchrony by speckle-tracking echocardiography and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: results of the Speckle Tracking and Resynchronization (STAR) study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Nesser, Hans-Joachim; Buck, Thomas; Oyenuga, Olusegun; Jánosi, Rolf Alexander; Winter, Siegmund; Saba, Samir; Gorcsan, John

    2010-01-01

    Aims The Speckle Tracking and Resynchronization (STAR) study used a prospective multi-centre design to test the hypothesis that speckle-tracking echocardiography can predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods and results We studied 132 consecutive CRT patients with class III and IV heart failure, ejection fraction (EF) ≤35%, and QRS ≥120 ms from three international centres. Baseline dyssynchrony was evaluated by four speckle tracking strain methods; radial, circumferential, transverse, and longitudinal (≥130 ms opposing wall delay for each). Pre-specified outcome variables were EF response and three serious long-term events: death, transplant, or left ventricular assist device. Of 120 patients (91%) with baseline dyssynchrony data, both short-axis radial strain and transverse strain from apical views were associated with favourable EF response 7 ± 4 months and long-term outcome over 3.5 years (P < 0.01). Radial strain had the highest sensitivity at 86% for predicting EF response with a specificity of 67%. Serious long-term unfavourable events occurred in 20 patients after CRT, and happened three times more frequently in those who lacked baseline radial or transverse dyssynchrony than in patients with dyssynchrony (P < 0.01). Patients who lacked both radial and transverse dyssynchrony had unfavourable clinical events occur in 53%, in contrast to events occurring in 12% if baseline dyssynchrony was present (P < 0.01). Circumferential and longitudinal strains predicted response when dyssynchrony was detected, but failed to identify dyssynchrony in one-third of patients who responded to CRT. Conclusion Dyssynchrony by speckle-tracking echocardiography using radial and transverse strains is associated with EF response and long-term outcome following CRT. PMID:20530502

  7. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and atrial overdrive pacing for the treatment of central sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Lüthje, Lars; Renner, Bernd; Kessels, Roger; Vollmann, Dirk; Raupach, Tobias; Gerritse, Bart; Tasci, Selcuk; Schwab, Jörg O.; Zabel, Markus; Zenker, Dieter; Schott, Peter; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Unterberg-Buchwald, Christina; Andreas, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Aims The combined therapeutic impact of atrial overdrive pacing (AOP) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on central sleep apnoea (CSA) in chronic heart failure (CHF) so far has not been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of CRT alone and CRT + AOP on CSA in CHF patients and to compare the influence of CRT on CHF between CSA positive and CSA negative patients. Methods and results Thirty patients with CRT indication underwent full night polysomnography, echocardiography, exercise testing, and neurohumoral evaluation before and 3 months after CRT implantation. In CSA positive patients (60%), two additional sleep studies were conducted after 3 months of CRT, with CRT alone or CRT + AOP, in random order. Cardiac resynchronization therapy resulted in significant improvements of NYHA class, left ventricular ejection fraction, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, VO2max, and quality of life irrespective of the presence of CSA. Cardiac resynchronization therapy also reduced the central apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI) (33.6 ± 14.3 vs. 23.8 ± 16.9 h−1; P < 0.01) and central apnoea index (17.3 ± 14.1 vs. 10.9 ± 13.9 h−1; P < 0.01) without altering sleep stages. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with atrial overdrive pacing resulted in a small but significant additional decrease of the central AHI (23.8 ± 16.9 vs. 21.5 ± 16.9 h−1; P < 0.01). Conclusion In this study, CRT significantly improved CSA without altering sleep stages. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with atrial overdrive pacing resulted in a significant but minor additional improvement of CSA. Positive effects of CRT were irrespective of the presence of CSA. PMID:19147446

  8. Predictors and outcomes of cardiac resynchronization therapy extended to the second generator.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuping; Yang, Dachun; Kusumoto, Fred; Shen, Win-Guang; Mulpuru, Siva; Zhou, Shenghua; Liang, Jinjun; Wu, Gang; Yang, Mei; Liu, Jin-Qu; Friedman, Paul A; Cha, Yong-Mei

    2017-09-14

    A proportion of patients who receive cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) live to receive a second generator. Controversy exists on whether an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) should be offered to patients who have normalized or near-normalized left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at the time of generator replacement (GR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate incidence of appropriate ICD therapy after CRT-D GR. This series involved 1026 consecutive patients who underwent CRT-D implant between January 2002 and December 2012. Echocardiography was assessed before the initial device implant and before GR. ICDs were monitored at our device clinic in person or remotely, or both. Of the cohort, 227 patients (22.1%) underwent CRT-D GR at our institution. Approximately 48% of the patients who received new CRT-D generators were no longer meeting the guidelines indication for ICD use at the time of GR. These patients received subsequent appropriate ICD therapies at a significantly lower rate than those with LVEF <35% (12% vs 35%; P < .001). Of these patients, 47 (20.7%) had LVEF improvement to ≥50% at the time of GR. ICD therapy for ventricular arrhythmia in the ischemic group was 18.2%, while no patient in the nonischemic group received ICD therapy from the second generator after GR. Improvement in LVEF after CRT-D GR is associated with significantly reduced incidence of appropriate ICD therapy. Ventricular arrhythmia is less likely to develop with normalized LVEF in nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Agreement is poor among current criteria used to define response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Fornwalt, Brandon K; Sprague, William W; BeDell, Patrick; Suever, Jonathan D; Gerritse, Bart; Merlino, John D; Fyfe, Derek A; León, Angel R; Oshinski, John N

    2010-05-11

    Numerous criteria believed to define a positive response to cardiac resynchronization therapy have been used in the literature. No study has investigated agreement among these response criteria. We hypothesized that the agreement among the various response criteria would be poor. A literature search was conducted with the keywords "cardiac resynchronization" and "response." The 50 publications with the most citations were reviewed. After the exclusion of editorials and reviews, 17 different primary response criteria were identified from 26 relevant articles. The agreement among 15 of these 17 response criteria was assessed in 426 patients from the Predictors of Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (PROSPECT) study with Cohen's kappa-coefficient (2 response criteria were not calculable from PROSPECT data). The overall response rate ranged from 32% to 91% for the 15 response criteria. Ninety-nine percent of patients showed a positive response according to at least 1 of the 15 criteria, whereas 94% were classified as a nonresponder by at least 1 criterion. kappa-Values were calculated for all 105 possible comparisons among the 15 response criteria and classified into standard ranges: Poor agreement (kappa< or =0.4), moderate agreement (0.4 or =0.75). Seventy-five percent of the comparisons showed poor agreement, 21% showed moderate agreement, and only 4% showed strong agreement. The 26 most-cited publications on predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy define response using 17 different criteria. Agreement between different methods to define response to cardiac resynchronization therapy is poor 75% of the time and strong only 4% of the time, which severely limits the ability to generalize results over multiple studies.

  10. Clinical Assessment of Intraventricular Blood Transport in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, Lorenzo; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Benito, Y.; Perez Del Villar, C.; Gonzalez-Mansilla, A.; Barrio, A.; Yotti, R.; Kahn, A. M.; Shadden, S. C.; Fernandez-Aviles, F.; Bermejo, J.; Del Alamo, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    In the healthy heart, left ventricular (LV) filling generates flow patterns which have been proposed to optimize blood transport by coupling diastole and systole phases. We present a novel image-based method to assess how flow patterns influence LV blood transport in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Solving the advection equation with time-varying inflow boundary conditions allows to track the transport of blood entering the LV in the different filling waves, as well as the transport barriers which couple filling and ejection. The velocity fields were obtained using echocardiographic color Doppler velocimetry, which provides two-dimensional time-resolved flow maps in the apical long axis three-chamber view of the LV. We analyze flow transport in a group of patients with CRT devices as well as in healthy volunteers. In the patients under CRT, the device programming was varied to analyze flow transport under different values of the atrioventricular (AV) conduction delay and to model tachycardia. This analysis illustrates how CRT influences the transit of blood inside the LV, contributes to conserving kinetic energy and favors the generation of hemodynamic forces that accelerate blood in the direction of the LV outflow tract.

  11. Incidence, definition, diagnosis, and management of the cardiac resynchronization therapy nonresponder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Yujie; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with mild-to-severe heart failure. However, up to 40% of CRT recipients are nonresponders. This review addresses important aspects with regard to the identification and management of CRT nonresponders. Mid-term clinical or echocardiographic nonresponse is associated with worse clinical outcomes during the extended follow-up. A number of predictors are indicative of CRT response, which include patient characteristics, electrical determinants, and imaging techniques from preimplant to postimplant period, and can be grouped as modifiable and nonmodifiable contributors to treatment response. Advanced age, male sex, ischemic cause, end-stage heart failure, inadequate electrical delay, and absence of mechanical dyssynchrony are regarded as unfavorable but nonmodifiable factors, for which considering underutilization of CRT by refining patient selection is reasonable. On the contrary, more efforts should be made to optimize patient management by correcting those modifiable factors, such as suboptimal medical therapy, uncontrolled atrial fibrillation, left ventricular lead dislodgement or inappropriate location, loss of biventricular capture, and lack of device optimization. Proper management and careful selection of CRT recipients will transform a proportion of treatment nonresponders into responders, which is vital to improve patients' outcome.

  12. Early prediction of cardiac resynchronization therapy response by non-invasive electrocardiogram markers.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa, Nuria; Pérez-Roselló, Víctor; Donoso, Víctor; Osca, Joaquín; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Fernández, Carmen; Galbis, Antonio

    2017-08-24

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for those patients with severe heart failure. Regrettably, there are about one third of CRT "non-responders", i.e. patients who have undergone this form of device therapy but do not respond to it, which adversely affects the utility and cost-effectiveness of CRT. In this paper, we assess the ability of a novel surface ECG marker to predict CRT response. We performed a retrospective exploratory study of the ECG previous to CRT implantation in 43 consecutive patients with ischemic (17) or non-ischemic (26) cardiomyopathy. We extracted the QRST complexes (consisting of the QRS complex, the S-T segment, and the T wave) and obtained a measure of their energy by means of spectral analysis. This ECG marker showed statistically significant lower values for non-responder patients and, joint with the duration of QRS complexes (the current gold-standard to predict CRT response), the following performances: 86% accuracy, 88% sensitivity, and 80% specificity. In this manner, the proposed ECG marker may help clinicians to predict positive response to CRT in a non-invasive way, in order to minimize unsuccessful procedures.

  13. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves psycho-cognitive performance in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Duncker, David; Friedel, Katrin; König, Thorben; Schreyer, Hendrik; Lüsebrink, Ulrich; Duncker, Mareke; Oswald, Hanno; Klein, Gunnar; Gardiwal, Ajmal

    2015-09-01

    Reduced cognitive performance and high prevalence of depression have been reported in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and severe left ventricular dysfunction. However, effects of contemporary device therapy on cognitive performance and depression symptoms have not been studied thoroughly. Seventy-four consecutive CHF patients-45 receiving a biventricular defibrillator (CRT-D) and 29 receiving an implantable single or dual-chamber defibrillator (ICD) as a control group-were enrolled in this investigator-initiated, prospective, controlled, and investigator-blinded study. A set of neuropsychological tests (mini-mental state examination, DemTect, age-concentration test, and Beck depression inventory) was performed before, at 3 and at 6 months after device implantation. DemTect-score improved significantly (F = 7.8; P = 0.007) after CRT-D-implantation compared with ICD. Age-concentration test revealed better concentration ability after CRT-D-implantation (F = 8.3; P = 0.005) compared with ICD. Under CRT-D mini-mental state examination showed a significant improvement (F = 4.2; P = 0.043). CRT with defibrillator therapy also improved depression revealed by beck depression inventory (F = 14.7; P< 0.001) compared with ICD. This prospective study is the first to demonstrate psycho-cognitive improvement by resynchronization therapy in CHF patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. In contrast to ICD therapy, the beneficial effect of CRT-D on psycho-cognitive performance might be attributed to improved cardiac function and haemodynamics. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Inflammation in Congestive Heart Failure: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lappegård, K T; Bjørnstad, H; Mollnes, T E; Hovland, A

    2015-09-01

    Congestive heart failure is associated with increased levels of several inflammatory mediators, and animal studies have shown that infusion of a number of cytokines can induce heart failure. However, several drugs with proven efficacy in heart failure have failed to affect inflammatory mediators, and anti-inflammatory therapy in heart failure patients has thus far been disappointing. Hence, to what extent heart failure is caused by or responsible for the increased inflammatory burden in the patient is still unclear. Over the past couple of decades, resynchronization therapy with a biventricular pacemaker has emerged as an effective treatment in a subset of heart failure patients, reducing both morbidity and mortality. Such treatment has also been shown to affect the inflammation associated with heart failure. In this study, we review recent data on the association between heart failure and inflammation, and in particular how resynchronization therapy can affect the inflammatory process.

  15. Long-Term Echocardiographic Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Initial Nonresponders.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kevin V; Gage, Ryan M; Curtin, Antonia E; Bank, Alan J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and clinical implications of a delayed echocardiographic response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Long-term prognosis for CRT patients is routinely based on the assessment of echocardiograms after 6 to 12 months of therapy. Some patients, however, may require a longer period of therapy before echocardiographic improvements are detectable. This observational study included all patients with heart failure (HF) receiving a CRT device at a single center from 2003 to 2011. Eligible patients met current indications and had technically adequate echocardiograms from before implantation, approximately 1 year after implantation (mid-term), and ≥3 years after implantation (long-term). A positive echocardiographic response to CRT was defined as a reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥15%. All-cause mortality was compared for patients in 3 response groups: mid-term responders, long-term responders, and nonresponders. During this study, 294 patients met the study criteria. Of the 120 patients who were nonresponders after 1 year, 52 (43%) experienced a delayed positive response. Delayed, long-term responders had mortality and hospitalization rates similar to mid-term responders and significantly lower than nonresponders. Among patients surviving at least 3 years after implantation of a CRT device and with echocardiographic follow-up, a significant portion of nonresponders after 1 year of CRT experience a delayed echocardiographic response after a longer period of time. Survival and hospitalization rates were similar for all echocardiographic responders, regardless of the time at which the response occurred. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Registry Evaluating Functional Outcomes of Resynchronization Management (REFORM): quality of life and psychological functioning in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jessica; Sears, Samuel; Ramza, Brian; Reynolds, Dwight W; Nguyen, Paul; Fedewa, Michelle; House, John; Kennedy, Paul; Thompson, Rose; Murray, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a treatment for heart failure (HF) that improves cardiac, functional, and quality of life (QoL) outcomes. This study was designed to examine the effect of the addition of CRT (CRTD) to the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) on psychological functioning. Overall, 99 participants completed batteries before and 9 months after ICD or CRTD implantation in a registry of HF patients receiving device treatment in 3 US centers. Measures included validated indices of mental health (State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire: Depression) and generic and disease/device-specific QoL (Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-12, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, Florida Patient Acceptance Survey, Florida Shock Anxiety Scale). Mixed between-within analyses of covariance were employed to compare device groups on each outcome controlling for cardiac and demographic covariates. Clinically significant anxiety was elevated in both groups at both time points (57% CRTD at baseline, 29% CRTD 9 months, 44% ICD at baseline, 45% ICD 9 months). Clinically significant depressive symptoms were high at baseline (38% CRTD, 31% ICD), but dropped at follow-up (16% CRTD, 7% ICD; P = 0.01). Participants with CRTD had improved mental component and disease-specific QoL following CRT; however, CRTD patients had worse QoL, worse mental component QoL at baseline, and worse device acceptance at 9-month follow-up than patients with ICDs (all P < 0.05). Evidence of low QoL, psychological functioning, and device acceptance provides the impetus to increase research on well-being of HF patients being implanted with CRTD in research and clinical work. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact of carvedilol and metoprolol on inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy: the MADIT-CRT trial (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy).

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Martin H; Abu-Zeitone, Abeer; Jons, Christian; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; McNitt, Scott; Kutyifa, Valentina; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J

    2013-10-08

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on the endpoint of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study. The impact of carvedilol and metoprolol on inappropriate therapy in heart failure patients with devices has not yet been investigated. All patients in the MADIT-CRT study who received a device (N = 1,790) were identified. Using time-dependent Cox regression analysis, we compared patients treated with different types of beta-blockers or no beta-blockers on the primary endpoint of inappropriate therapy, delivered as antitachycardia pacing (ATP) or shock therapy. Secondary endpoints were inappropriate therapy due to atrial fibrillation and atrial tachyarrhythmias, also evaluated as ATP or shock therapy. Inappropriate therapy occurred in 253 (14%) of 1,790 patients during a follow-up period of 3.4 ± 1.1 years. Treatment with carvedilol was associated with a significantly decreased risk of inappropriate therapy compared with metoprolol (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.64 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48 to 0.85]; p = 0.002). The reduction in risk was consistent for inappropriate ATP (HR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.48 to 0.90]; p = 0.009) and inappropriate shock therapy (HR: 0.54 [95% CI: 0.36 to 0.80]; p = 0.002). The risk of inappropriate therapy caused by atrial fibrillation was also reduced in patients receiving carvedilol compared with metoprolol (HR: 0.50 [95% CI: 0.32 to 0.81]; p = 0.004). General use of beta-blockers (93%) and adherence in this study was high. In heart failure patients undergoing either cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator or with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator device, carvedilol was associated with a 36% lower rate of inappropriate ATP and shock therapy compared with metoprolol. Inappropriate therapy due to atrial fibrillation was associated with a 50% lower rate in

  18. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Defibrillator Treatment in a Child with Heart Failure and Ventricular Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak Ju; Cho, Sungkyu; Kim, Woong-Han

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a new treatment for refractory heart failure. However, most patients with heart failure treated with CRT are adults, middle-aged or older with idiopathic or ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. We treated a 12-year-old boy, who was transferred after cardiac arrest, with dilated cardiomyopathy, left bundle-branch block, and ventricular tachycardia. We performed cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D). After CRT-D, left ventricular ejection fraction improved from 22% to 44% assessed by echocardiogram 1 year postoperatively. On electrocardiogram, QRS duration was shortened from 206 to 144 ms. The patient’s clinical symptoms also improved. For pediatric patients with refractory heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia, CRT-D could be indicated as an effective therapeutic option. PMID:27525239

  19. [Horizons and perspectives on the problem of non--responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Carità, Patrizia; Corrado, Egle; Pontone, Gianluca; Curnis, Antonio; Nogara, Angela; Mignano, Antonino; Verdecchia, Massimo; Ciaramitaro, Gianfranco; Novo, Salvatore; Coppola, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown as a successful strategy in the treatment of patients with heart failure and electrical dyssincrony. However, a significant proportion of implanted patients fails to respond sufficiently or in a predictable manner. Consequently, non response to CRT remains a valuable problem in clinical practice. In order to improve CRT response and long-term clinical benefits, the proper evaluation of patient's global frialty, the technology improvement, the multimodality imaging approach and the use of simple and low cost electrographic parameters (to verify effective biventricular capture and QRS narrowing) could play a important role. Therefore, the integration of various medical expertises (clinical cardiology, cardiac advanced imaging, electrophysiology) is a crucial element in order to achive the maximal benefits from this promising tecnique. In the multistep process (from patients evaluation to results verification) the follow-up even from the earliest post implantation phase, should be managed with great attention having the potential for impact the prognosis. This brief review focus the problem of non responder to CRT, giving particular attention to the different variables that may play a role (comorbilities, improvement in the tecnology of device implantation, role of multimodality imaging and electrocardiographic parameters).

  20. Echocardiography and cardiac resynchronization therapy in children and patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mertens, L; Friedberg, M K

    2012-10-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to improve mortality and morbidity in adults with refractory heart failure and prolonged QRS-duration. Recent research data suggest that the therapeutic benefit is related to the effect of CRT on interventricular and intraventricular dyssynchrony associated with electrical dyssynchrony. However, around 30-40% of the patients do not respond to CRT when device implantation is based only on QRS-duration. It was hoped that improved description of mechanical dyssynchrony using imaging techniques, might result in improved identification of patients who could benefit from CRT. Different methods have been proposed but a recent multicenter prospective echocardiographic study (PROSPECT) was disappointing. Applying adult criteria for CRT treatment to children and adults with acquired and congenital heart disease is even more challenging due to the age-dependency of QRS-duration and the wide variety of underlying diseases including different ventricular morphology that can result in heart failure. In this review we will overview the adult and pediatric data of CRT treatment and propose a mechanistic approach that could potentially be helpful in trying to identify those patients who might benefit from the treatment.

  1. First clinical evaluation of an atrial haemodynamic sensor lead for automatic optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, David; Delnoy, Peter Paul; Nägele, Herbert; Mansourati, Jacques; Mont, Lluís; Anselme, Frédéric; Stengel, Petra; Anselmi, Francesca; Oswald, Hanno; Leclercq, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Aims One option to improve cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) responder rates lies in the optimization of pacing intervals. A haemodynamic sensor embedded in the SonRtip atrial lead measures cardiac contractility and provides a systematic automatic atrioventricular and interventricular delays optimization. This multi-centre study evaluated the safety and performance of the lead, up to 1 year. Methods and results A total of 99 patients were implanted with the system composed of the lead and a CRT-Defibrillator device. Patients were followed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-implant. The primary safety objective was to demonstrate that the atrial lead complication free rate was superior to 90% at 3-months follow-up visit. A lead handling questionnaire was filled by implanting investigators. Lead electrical performances and the performance of the system to compute AV and VV delays were evaluated at each study visit over 1 year. The complication free rate at 3 months post-implant was 99.0% [95%CI 94.5–100.0%], P < 0.001. Electrical performances of the lead were adequate whatever the atrial lead position and remained stable over the study period. The optimization algorithm was able to compute AV and VV delays in 97% of patients, during >75% of the weeks. Conclusion The atrial lead is safe to implant and shows stable electrical performance over time. It therefore offers a promising tool for automatic CRT optimization to further improve responder rates to CRT. PMID:25976907

  2. Dramatic Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With AV Delay Optimization in Narrow QRS Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Rikitake; Nakai, Toshiko; Ikeya, Yukitoshi; Mano, Hiroaki; Sonoda, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Naoko; Iso, Kazuki; Okumura, Yasuo; Ohkubo, Kimie; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Watanabe, Ichiro; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for heart failure. However, as outlined in the AHA/ACC/HRS Appropriate Use Criteria, CRT is not strongly recommended for patients with a narrow QRS complex. We describe a case of dilated cardiomyopathy and narrow QRS complex in which we obtained a dramatic response to CRT by optimizing the atrioventricular (AV) delay. The patient was a 61-year-old man with intractable heart failure. Echocardiography showed a low ejection fraction of 22% but no dyssynchrony. Because he had been hospitalized many times for congestive heart failure despite β-blocker and diuretic treatment, we decided to use CRT. However, after implantation of the CRT device, the QRS complex widened abnormally, and his symptoms worsened. He was re-admitted 2 months after CRT implantation. We examined the pacemaker status and optimized the AV delay to obtain a "narrow" QRS complex. The patient's condition improved dramatically after the AV delay optimization. His clinical status has been good, and there has been no subsequent hospitalization. Our case points to the effectiveness of CRT in patients with a narrow QRS complex and to the importance of AV optimization for successful CRT.

  3. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves the uptake of MIBI-99mTc and cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Simone Cristina Soares; Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Nishioka, Silvana D'Orio; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Soares, José; Meneghetti, José Cláudio

    2008-09-01

    This case shows the improvement promoted by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on myocardial perfusion and left ventricular (LV) performance assessed by gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The patient had idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, left bundle branch block and severe heart failure despite optimized medical treatment. After CRT, clinical improvement, QRS reduction and improvement of previously hypoperfused anterior and septal walls were observed. There was also decrease in LV end-diastolic and systolic volumes and increase in LV ejection fraction.

  4. Interventricular lead separation is critical for NT-proBNP reduction after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ninian N; Badar, Athar A; Pettit, Stephen J; Templeton, Sheena; Connelly, Derek T; Gardner, Roy S

    2014-01-01

    Effective cardiac resynchronization therapy may depend upon the distance between left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) pacing leads. We assessed the influence of lead separation upon circulating NT-proBNP. In total, 132 patients underwent assessment, including NT-proBNP assay, before and after cardiac resynchronization therapy. 3D lead separation was calculated from postero-anterior and lateral chest radiography. Lead separation correlated with NT-proBNP reduction (r = 0.25; p = 0.004). Circulating NT-proBNP only fell in those with lead separation in the upper two quartiles. Deteriorating NT-proBNP occurred in 44 patients. Lead separation was less in these patients compared with those with an improvement (corrected 3D lead separation: 148.0 ± 5.38 and 170.5 ± 4.21 mm, respectively; p = 0.0018). Left ventricular-right ventricular lead separation correlates with postcardiac resynchronization therapy improvements in circulating NT-proBNP, a powerful marker of heart failure status and prognosis. Attention should be paid to achieving maximal lead separation at implantation.

  5. Multispecialty approach: the need for heart failure disease management for refining cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, W H Wilson; Boehmer, John; Gras, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been proven in clinical trials to be a very effective therapy in appropriate patients. However, although the literature has primarily focused on appropriate implanting techniques and inclusion criteria for CRT devices by electrophysiologists, most patients who receive CRT are managed by their primary care providers with the help of general cardiologists and/or heart failure (HF) specialists. As CRT has been more broadly applied over the past decade, the fragmentation and specialization of care in the current health care system have created challenges in optimizing this otherwise invasive but potentially beneficial intervention in the complex HF patient. Furthermore, cost considerations as well as appropriate follow-up care continue to challenge the optimal application of these devices, particularly when evidence to support multidisciplinary approaches is lacking. The challenge begins with identification of appropriate candidates for CRT, which is an evolving concept due to data emerging from new studies with a wide range of inclusion and exclusion criteria coupled with increasing oversight from providers or even logistical hurdles from patients. Postimplant management practices and procedures are still evolving. The important and so-far unresolved concept of the "nonresponder" to CRT remains largely subjective and is variably defined in the literature, and the lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms of "nonresponse" continues to challenge long-term management of CRT, even given the recent developments in advanced sensor technologies. Therefore, further investigations into HF disease management with a multispecialty approach, pre-CRT and post-CRT, are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of tricuspid valve regurgitation on outcome in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Grupper, Avishay; Killu, Ammar M; Friedman, Paul A; Abu Sham'a, Raed; Buber, Jonathan; Kuperstein, Rafael; Rozen, Guy; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Espinosa, Raul E; Luria, David; Webster, Tracy L; Brooke, Kelly L; Hodge, David O; Wiste, Heather J; Cha, Yong-Mei; Glikson, Michael

    2015-03-15

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has a symptomatic and survival benefit for patients with heart failure (HF), but the percentage of nonresponders remains relatively high. The aims of this study were to assess the clinical significance of baseline tricuspid regurgitation (TR) or worsening TR after implantation of a CRT device on the response to therapy. This is a multicenter retrospective analysis of prospectively collected databases that includes 689 consecutive patients who underwent implantation of CRT. The patients were divided into groups according to baseline TR grade and according to worsening TR within 15 months after device implantation. Outcome was assessed by clinical and echocardiographic response within 15 months and by estimated survival for a median interquartile range follow-up time of 3.3 years (1.6, 4.6). TR worsening after CRT implantation was documented in 104 patients (15%). These patients had worse clinical and echocardiographic response to CRT, but worsening of TR was not a significant predictor of mortality (p = 0.17). According to baseline echocardiogram, 620 patients (90%) had some degree of TR before CRT implant. Baseline TR was an independent predictor of worse survival (p <0.001), although these patients had significantly better clinical and echocardiographic response compared with patients without TR. In conclusion, worsening of TR after CRT implantation is a predictor of worse clinical and echocardiographic response but was not significantly associated with increased mortality. Baseline TR is associated with reduced survival despite better clinical and echocardiographic response after CRT implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and phase resetting of the sinoatrial node: a conjecture.

    PubMed

    Cantini, Federico; Varanini, Maurizio; Macerata, Alberto; Piacenti, Marcello; Morales, Maria-Aurora; Balocchi, Rita

    2007-03-01

    Congestive heart failure is a severe chronic disease often associated with disorders that alter the mechanisms of excitation-contraction coupling that may result in an asynchronous left ventricular motion which may further impair the ability of the failing heart to eject blood. In recent years a therapeutic approach to resynchronize the ventricles (cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT) has been performed through the use of a pacemaker device able to provide atrial-based biventricular stimulation. Atrial lead senses the spontaneous occurrence of cells depolarization and sends the information to the generator which, in turn, after a settled delay [atrioventricular (AV) delay], sends electrical impulses to both ventricles to stimulate their synchronous contraction. Recent studies performed on heart rate behavior of chronically implanted patients at different epochs after implantation have shown that CRT can lead to sustained overall improvement of heart function with a reduction in morbidity and mortality. At this moment, however, there are no studies about CRT effects on spontaneous heart activity of chronically implanted patients. We performed an experimental study in which the electrocardiographic signal of five subjects under chronic CRT was recorded during the activity of the pacemaker programmed at different AV delays and under spontaneous cardiac activity after pacemaker deactivation. The different behavior of heart rate variability during pacemaker activity and after pacemaker deactivation suggested the hypothesis of a phase resetting mechanism induced by the pacemaker stimulus on the sinoatrial (SA) node, a phenomenon already known in literature for aggregate of cardiac cells, but still unexplored in vivo. The constraints imposed by the nature of our study (in vivo tests) made it impossible to plan an experiment to prove our hypothesis directly. We therefore considered the best attainable result would be to prove the accordance of our data to the conjecture

  8. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy and phase resetting of the sinoatrial node: A conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantini, Federico; Varanini, Maurizio; Macerata, Alberto; Piacenti, Marcello; Morales, Maria-Aurora; Balocchi, Rita

    2007-03-01

    Congestive heart failure is a severe chronic disease often associated with disorders that alter the mechanisms of excitation-contraction coupling that may result in an asynchronous left ventricular motion which may further impair the ability of the failing heart to eject blood. In recent years a therapeutic approach to resynchronize the ventricles (cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT) has been performed through the use of a pacemaker device able to provide atrial-based biventricular stimulation. Atrial lead senses the spontaneous occurrence of cells depolarization and sends the information to the generator which, in turn, after a settled delay [atrioventricular (AV) delay], sends electrical impulses to both ventricles to stimulate their synchronous contraction. Recent studies performed on heart rate behavior of chronically implanted patients at different epochs after implantation have shown that CRT can lead to sustained overall improvement of heart function with a reduction in morbidity and mortality. At this moment, however, there are no studies about CRT effects on spontaneous heart activity of chronically implanted patients. We performed an experimental study in which the electrocardiographic signal of five subjects under chronic CRT was recorded during the activity of the pacemaker programmed at different AV delays and under spontaneous cardiac activity after pacemaker deactivation. The different behavior of heart rate variability during pacemaker activity and after pacemaker deactivation suggested the hypothesis of a phase resetting mechanism induced by the pacemaker stimulus on the sinoatrial (SA) node, a phenomenon already known in literature for aggregate of cardiac cells, but still unexplored in vivo. The constraints imposed by the nature of our study (in vivo tests) made it impossible to plan an experiment to prove our hypothesis directly. We therefore considered the best attainable result would be to prove the accordance of our data to the conjecture

  9. Sensor-based electromagnetic navigation to facilitate implantation of left ventricular leads in cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Döring, Michael; Sommer, Philipp; Rolf, Sascha; Lucas, Johannes; Breithardt, Ole A; Hindricks, Gerhard; Richter, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Implantation of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices can be challenging, time consuming, and fluoroscopy intense. To facilitate placement of left ventricular (LV) leads, a novel electromagnetic navigation system (MediGuide™, St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) has been developed, displaying real-time 3-D location of sensor-embedded delivery tools superimposed on prerecorded X-ray cine-loops of coronary sinus venograms. We report our experience and advanced progress in the use of this new electromagnetic tracking system to guide LV lead implantation. Between January 2012 and December 2013, 71 consecutive patients (69 ± 9 years, 76% male) were implanted with a CRT device using the new electromagnetic tracking system. Demographics, procedural data, and periprocedural adverse events were gathered. The impact of the operator's experience, optimized workflow, and improved software technology on procedural data were analyzed. LV lead implantation was successfully achieved in all patients without severe adverse events. Total procedure time measured 87 ± 37 minutes and the median total fluoroscopy time (skin-to-skin) was 4.9 (2.5-7.8) minutes with a median dose-area-product of 476 (260-1056) cGy*cm(2) . An additional comparison with conventional CRT device implantations showed a significant reduction in fluoroscopy time from 8.0 (5.8; 11.5) to 4.5 (2.8; 7.3) minutes (P = 0.016) and radiation dose from 603 (330; 969) to 338 (176; 680) cGy*cm(2) , respectively (P = 0.044 ). Use of the new navigation system enables safe and successful LV lead placement with improved orientation and significantly reduced radiation exposure during CRT implantation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: implant rates, temporal trends and relationships with heart failure epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Berti, Elena; Belotti, Laura Maria Beatrice; Biffi, Mauro; Carboni, Angelo; Bandini, Alberto; Casali, Edoardo; Tomasi, Corrado; Toselli, Tiziano; Baraldi, Paolo; Bottoni, Nicola; Barbato, Gaetano; Sassone, Biagio

    2014-02-01

    Consensus guidelines define indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), but the variability in implant rates in 'real world' clinical practice, as well as the relationship with the epidemiology of heart failure are not defined. In Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with around 4.4 million inhabitants, a registry was instituted to collect data on implanted devices for CRT, with (CRT-D) or without defibrillation (CRT-P) capabilities. Data from all consecutive patients resident in this region who underwent a first implant of a CRT device in years 2006-2010 were collected and standardized (considering each of the nine provinces of the region). The number of CRT implants increased progressively, with a 71% increase in 2010 compared to 2006. Between 84 and 90% of implants were with CRT-D devices. The variability in standardized implant rates among the provinces was substantial and the ratio between the provinces with the highest and the lowest implant rates was always greater than 2. Considering prevalent cases of heart failure in the period 2006-2010, the proportion of patients implanted with CRT per year ranged between 0.23 and 0.30%. The application in 'real world' clinical practice of CRT in heart failure is quite heterogeneous, with substantial variability even among areas belonging to the same region, with the need to make the access to this treatment more equitable. Despite the increased use of CRT, its overall rate of adoption is low, if a population of prevalent heart failure patients is selected on the basis of administrative data on hospitalizations.

  11. Economic impact of longer battery life of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Gadler, Fredrik; Ding, Yao; Verin, Nathalie; Bergius, Martin; Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Russell, Mason W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the impact that longer battery life of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) devices has on reducing the number of device replacements and associated costs of these replacements from a Swedish health care system perspective. Methods An economic model based on real-world published data was developed to estimate cost savings and avoided device replacements for CRT-Ds with longer battery life compared with devices with industry-standard battery life expectancy. Base-case comparisons were performed among CRT-Ds of three manufacturers – Boston Scientific Corporation, St. Jude Medical, and Medtronic – over a 6-year time horizon, as per the available clinical data. As a sensitivity analysis, we evaluated CRT-Ds as well as single-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD-VR) and dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD-DR) devices over a longer 10-year period. All costs were in 2015 Swedish Krona (SEK) discounted at 3% per annum. Results Base-case analysis results show that up to 603 replacements and up to SEK 60.4 million cumulative-associated costs could be avoided over 6 years by using devices with extended battery life. The pattern of savings over time suggests that savings are modest initially but increase rapidly beginning in the third year of follow-up with each year’s cumulative savings two to three times the previous year. Evaluating CRT-D, ICD-VR, and ICD-DR devices together over a longer 10-year period, the sensitivity analysis showed 2,820 fewer replacement procedures and associated cost savings of SEK 249.3 million for all defibrillators with extended battery life. Conclusion Extended battery life is likely to reduce device replacements and associated complications and costs, which may result in important cost savings and a more efficient use of health care resources as well as a better quality of life for heart failure patients in Sweden. PMID:27826203

  12. Association of hypothyroidism with adverse events in patients with heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay K; Vegh, Eszter; Orencole, Mary; Miller, Alexandra; Blendea, Dan; Moore, Stephanie; Lewis, Gregory D; Singh, Jagmeet P; Parks, Kimberly A; Heist, E Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with an adverse prognosis in cardiac patients in general and in particular in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of hypothyroidism on patients with HF receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Additionally, the impact of level of control of hypothyroidism on risk of adverse events after CRT implantation was also evaluated. We included consecutive patients in whom a CRT device was implanted from April 2004 to April 2010 at our institution with sufficient follow-up data available for analysis; 511 patients were included (age 68.5±12.4 years, women 20.4%); 84 patients with a clinical history of hypothyroidism, on treatment with thyroid hormone repletion or serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level≥5.00 μU/ml, were included in the hypothyroid group. The patients were followed for up to 3 years after implant for a composite end point of hospitalization for HF, left ventricular assist device placement, or heart transplant and cardiac death; 215 composite end point events were noted in this period. In a multivariate model, hypothyroidism (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.027 to 2.085, p=0.035), female gender (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.428 to 0.963, p=0.032), and creatinine (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.145 to 1.382, p<0.001) were significantly associated with occurrence of the composite end point; 53.6% of patients with hypothyroidism at baseline developed the composite end point compared with 39.8% of those with euthyroidism (p=0.02). In conclusion, hypothyroidism is associated with a worse prognosis after CRT implantation.

  13. The Relationship of Myocardial Collagen Metabolism and Reverse Remodeling after Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Ivan; Milasinovic, Goran; Nikcevic, Gabrijela; Kircanski, Bratislav; Jovanovic, Velibor; Raspopovic, Srdjan; Radovanovic, Nikola; Pavlovic, Sinisa U.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background In the majority of patients with a wide QRS complex and heart failure resistant to optimal medical therapy, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) leads to reverse ventricular remodeling and possibly to changes in cardiac collagen synthesis and degradation. We investigated the relationship of biomarkers of myocardial collagen metabolism and volumetric response to CRT. Methods We prospectively studied 46 heart failure patients (mean age 61±9 years, 87% male) who underwent CRT implantation. Plasma concentrations of amino-terminal propeptide type I (PINP), a marker of collagen synthesis, and carboxy-terminal collagen telopeptide (CITP), a marker of collagen degradation, were measured before and 6 months after CRT. Response to CRT was defined as 15% or greater reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6-month follow-up. Results Baseline PINP levels showed a negative correlation with both left ventricular end-diastolic volume (r=-0.51; p=0.032), and end-systolic diameter (r=-0.47; p=0.049). After 6 months of device implantation, 28 patients (61%) responded to CRT. No significant differences in the baseline levels of PINP and CITP between responders and nonresponders were observed (p>0.05 for both). During follow-up, responders demonstrated a significant increase in serum PINP level from 31.37±18.40 to 39.2±19.19 μg/L (p=0.049), whereas in non-responders serum PINP levels did not significantly change (from 28.12±21.55 to 34.47± 18.64 μg/L; p=0.125). There were no significant changes in CITP levels in both responders and non-responders (p>0.05). Conclusions Left ventricular reverse remodeling induced by CRT is associated with an increased collagen synthesis in the first 6 months of CRT implantation.

  14. The effect of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmia on heart failure or death in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients: a MADIT-CRT substudy (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy).

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Pietrasik, Grzegorz; Goldenberg, Ilan; Kutyifa, Valentina; Daubert, James P; Ruwald, Martin H; Jons, Christian; McNitt, Scott; Wang, Paul; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of both history of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmias (IAT) and in-trial IAT on the risk of heart failure (HF) or death comparing cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) treatment in mildly symptomatic HF patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Limited data exist regarding the benefit of CRT-D in patients with IAT. The benefit of CRT-D in reducing the risk of HF/death was evaluated using multivariate Cox models incorporating the presence of, respectively, a history of IAT at baseline and time-dependent development of in-trial IAT during follow-up in 1,264 patients with LBBB enrolled in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study. The overall beneficial effect of CRT-D versus ICD on the risk of HF/death was not significantly different between LBBB patients with or without history of IAT (HR: 0.50, p = 0.028, and HR: 0.46, p < 0.001, respectively; p for interaction = 0.79). Among patients who had in-trial IAT, CRT-D was associated with a significant 57% reduction in the risk of HF/death compared with ICD-only therapy (HR: 0.43, p = 0.047), similar to the effect of the device among patients who did not have IAT (HR: 0.47, p < 0.001; p for interaction = 0.85). The percentage of patients with biventricular pacing ≥92% was similar in both groups (p = 0.43). Consistent results were shown for the benefit of CRT-D among patients who had in-trial atrial fibrillation/flutter (HR: 0.30, p = 0.027; p for interaction = 0.41). In the MADIT-CRT study, the clinical benefit of CRT-D in LBBB patients was not attenuated by prior history of IAT or by the development of in-trial atrial tachyarrhythmias. (MADIT-CRT: Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy; NCT00180271). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  15. Integration of mechanical, structural and electrical imaging to understand response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Etelvino; Bijnens, Bart; Berruezo, Antonio; Mont, Lluis; Doltra, Adelina; Andreu, David; Brugada, Josep; Sitges, Marta

    2014-10-01

    There is extensive controversy exists on whether cardiac resynchronization therapy corrects electrical or mechanical asynchrony. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between electrical and mechanical sequences and if myocardial scar has any relevant impact. Six patients with normal left ventricular function and 12 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and left bundle branch block, treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy, were studied. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography and electroanatomical mapping were performed in all patients and, where applicable, before and after therapy. Magnetic resonance was performed for evaluation of myocardial scar. Images were postprocessed and mechanical and electrical activation sequences were defined and time differences between the first and last ventricular segment to be activated were determined. Response to therapy was defined as a reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥ 15% after 12 months of follow-up. Good correlation between electrical and mechanical timings was found in patients with normal left ventricular function (r(2) = 0.88; P = .005) but not in those with left ventricular dysfunction (r(2) = 0.02; P = not significant). After therapy, both timings and sequences were modified and improved, except in those with myocardial scar. Despite a close electromechanical relationship in normal left ventricular function, there is no significant correlation in patients with dysfunction. Although resynchronization therapy improves this correlation, the changes in electrical activation may not yield similar changes in left ventricular mechanics particularly depending on the underlying myocardial substrate. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with challenging anatomy due to venous anomalies or adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Imran; Dhala, Anwer; Choudhuri, Indrajit; Sra, Jasbir; Akhtar, Masood; Tajik, Abdul Jamil

    2014-09-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has proven salutary effects in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic dysfunction, and electromechanical dyssynchrony in the setting of ischemic, nonischemic, and congenital cardiomyopathy. While CRT device implants have become routine in the adult ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy populations, patients with congenital heart disease offer special challenges due to unusual anatomic variations. A comprehensive assessment of anatomic abnormalities is essential prior to implant. In addition, implant techniques and equipment must be tailored to the expected anatomy. A flexible approach is necessary-implant may require equipment and techniques adapted from vascular intervention. This article describes our approach to CRT implant in patients with congenital heart disease, and is illustrated by reports of several cases. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Battery longevity from cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators: differences between manufacturers and discrepancies with published product performance reports.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mian Bilal; Munir, Muhammad Bilal; Rattan, Rohit; Adelstein, Evan; Jain, Sandeep; Saba, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an important treatment for heart failure that requires constant ventricular pacing, placing a high energy burden on CRT defibrillators (CRT-D). Longer battery life reduces the need for device changes and associated complications, thereby affecting patient outcomes and cost of care. We therefore investigated the time to battery depletion of CRT-D from different manufacturers and compared these results with manufacturers' published product performance reports (PPRs). All CRT-D recipients at our institution between January 2008 and December 2010 were included in this study cohort. The patients were followed up to the endpoint of battery depletion and were otherwise censored at the time of death, last follow-up, or device removal for any reason other than battery depletion. A total of 621 patients [173 Boston Scientific (BSC), 391 Medtronic (MDT), and 57 St. Jude Medical (SJM)] were followed up for a median of 3.7 (IQR 1.6-5.0) years, during which time 253 (41%) devices were replaced for battery depletion. Compared with MDT devices, battery depletion was 85 and 54% less likely to happen with BSC and SJM devices, respectively (P < 0.001 for pairwise comparisons). Product performance reports from all manufacturers significantly overestimated battery longevity by more than 20% 6 years after device implantation. Large differences in CRT-D battery longevity exist between manufacturers. Industry-published PPRs significantly overestimate device longevity. These data have important implications to patients, healthcare professionals, hospitals, and third-party payers.

  18. Predictors of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana; Oliveira, Mário; Silva Cunha, Pedro; Santa Clara, Helena; Santos, Vanessa; Portugal, Guilherme; Rio, Pedro; Soares, Rui; Moura Branco, Luísa; Alves, Marta; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Ferreira, Rui; Mota Carmo, Miguel

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has modified the prognosis of chronic heart failure (HF) with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. However, 30% of patients do not have a favorable response. The big question is how to determine predictors of response. To identify baseline characteristics that might influence echocardiographic response to CRT. We performed a prospective single-center hospital-based cohort study of consecutive HF patients selected to CRT (NYHA class II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <35% and QRS complex ≥120 ms). Responders were defined as those with a ≥5% absolute increase in LVEF at six months. Clinical, electrocardiographic, laboratory, echocardiographic, autonomic, endothelial and cardiopulmonary function parameters were assessed before CRT device implantation. Logistic regression models were used. Seventy-nine patients were included, 54 male (68.4%), age 68.1 years (standard deviation 10.2), 19 with ischemic etiology (24%). At six months, 51 patients (64.6%) were considered responders. Although by univariate analysis baseline tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and serum creatinine were significantly different in responders, on multivariate analysis only TAPSE was independently associated with response, with higher values predicting a positive response to CRT (OR=1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.26; p=0.020). TAPSE ≥15 mm was strongly associated with response, and TAPSE <15 mm with non-response (p=0.005). Responders had no TAPSE values below 10 mm. From a range of clinical and technical baseline characteristics, multivariate analysis only identified TAPSE as an independent predictor of CRT response, with TAPSE <15 mm associated with non-response. This study highlights the importance of right ventricular dysfunction in CRT response. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02413151. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. T-wave area as biomarker of clinical response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Végh, Eszter M; Engels, Elien B; van Deursen, Caroline J M; Merkely, Béla; Vernooy, Kevin; Singh, Jagmeet P; Prinzen, Frits W

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology on the electrocardiogram is a positive predictor for response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We previously demonstrated that the vectorcardiography (VCG)-derived T-wave area predicts echocardiographic CRT response in LBBB patients. In the present study, we investigate whether the T-wave area also predicts long-term clinical outcome to CRT. This is a retrospective study consisting of 335 CRT recipients. Primary endpoint were the composite of heart failure (HF) hospitalization, heart transplantation, left ventricular assist device implantation or death during a 3-year follow-up period. HF hospitalization and death alone were secondary endpoints. The patient subgroup with a large T-wave area and LBBB 36% reached the primary endpoint, which was considerably less (P < 0.01) than for patients with LBBB and a small T-wave area or non-LBBB patients with a small or large T-wave area (48, 57, and 51%, respectively). Similar differences were observed for the secondary endpoints, HF hospitalization (31 vs. 51, 51, and 38%, respectively, P < 0.01) and death (19 vs. 42, 34, and 42%, respectively, P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, a large T-wave area and LBBB were the only independent predictors of the combined endpoint besides high creatinine levels and use of diuretics. T-wave area may be useful as an additional biomarker to stratify CRT candidates and improve selection of those most likely to benefit from CRT. A large T-wave area may derive its predictive value from reflecting good intrinsic myocardial properties and a substrate for CRT. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Iterative cardiac output measurement for optimizing cardiac resynchronization therapy: a randomized, blinded, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Reinsch, Nico; Konorza, Thomas; Woydowski, Dagmar; Bruck, Heike; Volsek, Michaela; Müller-Tasch, Thomas; Neumann, Till; Erbel, Raimund; Wieneke, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    Many invasive and noninvasive methods have been proposed for guiding optimal programming of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. However, results are not satisfying. Preliminary results suggest that cardiac output (CO) measurements using inert gas rebreathing (IGR) might be an eligible method to tailor atrioventricular (AV) and ventriculo-ventricular (VV) programming. The aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate whether an optimization of CRT can be obtained by noninvasive CO measurements and (2) to evaluate whether acute hemodynamic improvements obtained by this approach relate into increase in cardiac exercise capacity. In 24 patients on CRT, iterative VV- and AV-delay optimization was done using the IGR method. This blinded, randomized, crossover study compared the responses to optimization during two periods: a 4-week optimized and a 4-week standard programming. Exercise capacity after optimization was assessed after each period by New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, a 6-minute walking test, and quality of life (QoL) questionnaire. CO could be determined by IGR in all patients. The NYHA class decreased by 17.8% (2.8 ± 0.3 vs 2.3 ± 0.4, P < 0.001), the mean (± standard deviation) distance walked in 6 minutes was 9.3% greater after optimization (456 ± 140 m vs 417 ± 134 m, P < 0.001), and the QoL improved by 14.5% (41.8 ± 10.4 vs 36.5 ± 9.5, P < 0.001). The portion of responders to CRT increased from 66.5% to 87.5%. CRT optimization by iterative CO measurements leads to an increase in CO and an improvement of exercise capacity. Our results suggest that this method might become an important additive tool to adjust CRT programming. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Atrioventricular and ventricular-to-ventricular programming in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy: results from ALTITUDE.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Benjamin A; Wehrenberg, Scott; Jackson, Kevin P; Hayes, David L; Varma, Niraj; Powell, Brian D; Day, John D; Frazier-Mills, Camille G; Stein, Kenneth M; Jones, Paul W; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves outcomes in patients with heart failure, yet response rates are variable. We sought to determine whether physician-specified CRT programming was associated with improved outcomes. Using data from the ALTITUDE remote follow-up cohort, we examined sensed atrioventricular (AV) and ventricular-to-ventricular (VV) programming and their associated outcomes in patients with de novo CRT from 2009-2010. Outcomes included arrhythmia burden, left ventricular (LV) pacing, and all-cause mortality at 4 years. We identified 5709 patients with de novo CRT devices; at the time of implant, 34% (n = 1959) had entirely nominal settings programmed, 40% (n = 2294) had only AV timing adjusted, 11% (n = 604) had only VV timing adjusted, and 15% (n = 852) had both AV and VV adjusted from nominal programming. Suboptimal LV pacing (<95%) during follow-up was similar across groups; however, the proportion with atrial fibrillation (AF) burden >5% was lowest in the AV-only adjusted group (17.9%) and highest in the nominal (27.7%) and VV-only adjusted (28.3%) groups. Adjusted all-cause mortality was significantly higher among patients with non-nominal AV delay >120 vs. <120 ms (adjusted heart rate (HR) 1.28, p = 0.008) but similar when using the 180-ms cutoff (adjusted HR 1.13 for >180 vs. ≤180 ms, p = 0.4). Nominal settings for de novo CRT implants are frequently altered, most commonly the AV delay. There is wide variability in reprogramming. Patients with nominal or AV-only adjustments appear to have favorable pacing and arrhythmia outcomes. Sensed AV delays less than 120 ms are associated with improved survival.

  2. The role of cardiac resynchronization therapy for arterial switch operations complicated by complete heart block.

    PubMed

    Mah, Douglas Y; Alexander, Mark E; Banka, Puja; Abrams, Dominic J; Triedman, John K; Walsh, Edward P; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Mayer, John E; Cecchin, Frank

    2013-09-01

    As mortality in patients with D-loop transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) has decreased after the arterial switch operation (ASO), the focus has shifted to higher risk groups and outcomes that impact long-term morbidity and mortality, such as left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We sought to examine the perioperative factors associated with LV dysfunction in patients with D-TGA and ventricular septal defects (VSD) after ASO. A retrospective study was made of all patients with D-TGA/VSD who underwent ASO/VSD closure from 2001 to 2011. Patients with prematurity, L-looped ventricles, and straddling atrioventricular valves were excluded. The primary endpoint was moderate or severe LV dysfunction measured by echocardiogram 2 months or more after surgery. A total of 112 patients underwent ASO/VSD closure at a median age of 5 days. Median time of follow-up was 6.5 months, with no mortality noted. Six patients (8%) were noted to have at least moderate LV dysfunction. Risk factors were heart block requiring pacemaker placement (p<0.001) and length of intensive care unit admission (p=0.04). All 6 patients with heart block had an epicardial lead on the right ventricular free wall; 4 had moderate or severe LV dysfunction and underwent upgrade to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT); median time from initial pacemaker to CRT was 5 months. With a median follow-up of 5 months after CRT, LV function improved to normal (2 patients) or mild dysfunction (2 patients). Left ventricular dysfunction after surgical repair for D-TGA/VSD is low, with heart block and pacemaker insertion playing a significant role. The LV function improved after patients were upgraded to a CRT device. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement of Right Ventricular Hemodynamics with Left Ventricular Endocardial Pacing during Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    HYDE, EOIN R.; BEHAR, JONATHAN M.; CROZIER, ANDREW; CLARIDGE, SIMON; JACKSON, TOM; SOHAL, MANAV; GILL, JASWINDER S.; O'NEILL, MARK D.; RAZAVI, REZA; RINALDI, CHRISTOPHER A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with biventricular epicardial (BV‐CS) or endocardial left ventricular (LV) stimulation (BV‐EN) improves LV hemodynamics. The effect of CRT on right ventricular function is less clear, particularly for BV‐EN. Our objective was to compare the simultaneous acute hemodynamic response (AHR) of the right and left ventricles (RV and LV) with BV‐CS and BV‐EN in order to determine the optimal mode of CRT delivery. Methods Nine patients with previously implanted CRT devices successfully underwent a temporary pacing study. Pressure wires measured the simultaneous AHR in both ventricles during different pacing protocols. Conventional epicardial CRT was delivered in LV‐only (LV‐CS) and BV‐CS configurations and compared with BV‐EN pacing in multiple locations using a roving decapolar catheter. Results Best BV‐EN (optimal AHR of all LV endocardial pacing sites) produced a significantly greater RV AHR compared with LV‐CS and BV‐CS pacing (P < 0.05). RV AHR had a significantly increased standard deviation compared to LV AHR (P < 0.05) with a weak correlation between RV and LV AHR (Spearman rs = −0.06). Compromised biventricular optimization, whereby RV AHR was increased at the expense of a smaller decrease in LV AHR, was achieved in 56% of cases, all with BV‐EN pacing. Conclusions BV‐EN pacing produces significant increases in both LV and RV AHR, above that achievable with conventional epicardial pacing. RV AHR cannot be used as a surrogate for optimizing LV AHR; however, compromised biventricular optimization is possible. The beneficial effect of endocardial LV pacing on RV function may have important clinical benefits beyond conventional CRT. PMID:27001004

  4. Whether noninvasive optimization of AV and VV delays improves the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Bożena; Chudzik, Michał; Klimczak, Artur; Rosiak, Marcin; Lewek, Joanna; Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Device optimization is not routinely performed in patients who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation. Noninvasive optimization of CRT devices by measurement of cardiac output (CO) can be used as a simple method to assess ventricular systolic performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) delay can improve hemodynamic response to CRT and whether this optimization should be performed for each patient individually. Twenty patients with advanced heart failure New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% and left bundle branch block (QRS ≥ 120 ms) in sinus rhythm were evaluated from 24 h to 48 h after implantation of a CRT device by means of impedance cardiography (ICG). CO was first measured at each patient's intrinsic rhythm. Patients then underwent adjustments of AV and VV delay from 80 ms to 140 ms and from -60 ms to +60 ms, respectively in 20 ms increment steps and CO at each setting was measured by ICG. Both AV and VV delays were programmed according to the greatest improvement in CO compared to intrinsic rhythm. There was a statistically signifi cant increase in CO measured at the intrinsic rhythm compared to different AV delay by mean of 21% (3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 4.6 ± 0.1 L/min, p < 0.05). Optimal AV/VV delays with left ventricle-preexcitation or simultaneous biventricular pacing caused additional increased CO from intrinsic rhythm by mean of 32.6% (3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 5.04 ± ± 1.0 L/min, p < 0.05). Optimal AV/VV setting delays also resulted in improved hemodynamic responses compared to VV factory setting delay. Both AV and VV delay optimization should be performed in clinical practice. Optimal AV delay improved outcome. However, combination of optimized AV/VV delays provided the best hemodynamic response. Optimized AV/VV delays with left ventricle-preexcitation or simultaneous biventricular pacing increased

  5. Is cardiac resynchronization therapy for right ventricular failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension of benefit?

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jason T; Thenappan, Thenappan; Benditt, David G; Weir, E Kenneth; Pritzker, Marc R

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a manifestation of a group of disorders leading to pulmonary vascular remodeling and increased pulmonary pressures. The right ventricular (RV) response to chronic pressure overload consists of myocardial remodeling, which is in many ways similar to that seen in left ventricular (LV) failure. Maladaptive myocardial remodeling often leads to intraventricular and interventricular dyssychrony, an observation that has led to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) for LV failure. CRT has proven to be an effective treatment strategy in subsets of patients with LV failure resulting in improvement in LV function, heart failure symptoms, and survival. Current therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension is based on decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance, and there is currently no effective therapy targeting the right ventricle or maladaptive ventricular remodeling in these patients. This review focuses on the RV response to chronic pressure overload, its effect on electromechanical coupling and synchrony, and how lessons learned from left ventricular cardiac resynchronization might be applied as therapy for RV dysfunction in the context of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  6. Clinical Effectiveness of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Versus Medical Therapy Alone Among Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Khazanie, Prateeti; Hammill, Bradley G.; Qualls, Laura G.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Hammill, Stephen C.; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Al-Khatib, Sana M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Peterson, Pamela N.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    2014-01-01

    Background— Cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) reduces morbidity and mortality among selected patients with heart failure in clinical trials. The effectiveness of this therapy in clinical practice has not been well studied. Methods and Results— We compared a cohort of 4471 patients from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry’s Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Registry hospitalized primarily for heart failure and who received CRT-D between April 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009, to a historical control cohort of 4888 patients with heart failure without CRT-D from the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE) hospitalized between January 1, 2002, and March 31, 2006. Both registries were linked with Medicare claims to evaluate longitudinal outcomes. We included patients from the ICD Registry with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and QRS duration ≥120 ms who were admitted for heart failure. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare outcomes with and without CRT-D after adjustment for important covariates. After multivariable adjustment, CRT-D was associated with lower 3-year risks of death (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.48–0.56; P<0.001), all-cause readmission (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.73; P<0.001), and cardiovascular readmission (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.56–0.64; P<0.001). The association of CRT-D with mortality did not vary significantly among subgroups defined by age, sex, race, QRS duration, and optimal medical therapy. Conclusions— CRT-D was associated with lower risks of mortality, all-cause readmission, and cardiovascular readmission than medical therapy alone among patients with heart failure in community practice. PMID:25227768

  7. Long-term effectiveness of the combined minute ventilation and patient activity sensors as predictor of heart failure events in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy: Results of the Clinical Evaluation of the Physiological Diagnosis Function in the PARADYM CRT device Trial (CLEPSYDRA) study.

    PubMed

    Auricchio, Angelo; Gold, Michael R; Brugada, Josep; Nölker, G; Arunasalam, Siva; Leclercq, Christophe; Defaye, Pascal; Calò, Leonardo; Baumann, Oliver; Leyva, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Monitoring early signs of clinical deterioration could allow physicians to adjust medical treatment for patients at risk of acute heart failure decompensation. To date, several strategies using different surrogate measures of clinical status emerged, but none has yet been proven to predict clinical events. We hypothesized that the Physiological Diagnostic feature, which combines data from minute ventilation and physical activity sensors, predicts heart failure events in patients implanted with cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillation (CRT-D) devices. The Clinical Evaluation of the Physiological Diagnostic feature in the PARADYM CRT device (CLEPSYDRA) trial is a multicentre, prospective, non-randomized, double-blind study comprising 521 CRT-D patients with heart failure [67.4 ± 10.1 years (mean ± SD), 82% male, New York Heart Association class III/IV 85.0%/6.7%, QRS 155.3 ± 26.6 ms, left ventricular ejection fraction 25.7 ± 7.7%]. The objective of the study was the sensitivity and false positive rate of the Physiological Diagnostic algorithm to predict heart failure events within the following month. After a mean follow-up of 17.0 ± 8.7 months, 130 (25.6%) patients experienced a heart failure event. The sensitivity of the algorithm to predict an event was 34% and the false positive rate was 2.4 per patient-year. Thirty-four per cent of heart failure events occurring within a month were predicted by the Physiological Diagnostic algorithm, and 2.4 alerts per patient per year were not followed by an heart failure event within the subsequent month. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for mild-to-moderate heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anthony S L; Wells, George A; Talajic, Mario; Arnold, Malcolm O; Sheldon, Robert; Connolly, Stuart; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Nichol, Graham; Birnie, David H; Sapp, John L; Yee, Raymond; Healey, Jeffrey S; Rouleau, Jean L

    2010-12-16

    Cardiac-resynchronization therapy (CRT) benefits patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a wide QRS complex. Most of these patients are candidates for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). We evaluated whether adding CRT to an ICD and optimal medical therapy might reduce mortality and morbidity among such patients. We randomly assigned patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III heart failure, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 30% or less, and an intrinsic QRS duration of 120 msec or more or a paced QRS duration of 200 msec or more to receive either an ICD alone or an ICD plus CRT. The primary outcome was death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure. We followed 1798 patients for a mean of 40 months. The primary outcome occurred in 297 of 894 patients (33.2%) in the ICD-CRT group and 364 of 904 patients (40.3%) in the ICD group (hazard ratio in the ICD-CRT group, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.87; P<0.001). In the ICD-CRT group, 186 patients died, as compared with 236 in the ICD group (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.91; P = 0.003), and 174 patients were hospitalized for heart failure, as compared with 236 in the ICD group (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.83; P<0.001). However, at 30 days after device implantation, adverse events had occurred in 124 patients in the ICD-CRT group, as compared with 58 in the ICD group (P<0.001). Among patients with NYHA class II or III heart failure, a wide QRS complex, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, the addition of CRT to an ICD reduced rates of death and hospitalization for heart failure. This improvement was accompanied by more adverse events. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Medtronic of Canada; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00251251.).

  9. P-wave locking in the postventricular atrial refractory period of cardiac resynchronization devices. Management with the Biotronik system.

    PubMed

    Barold, S S; Stroobandt, R X; Herweg, B; Kucher, A

    2012-06-01

    Electrical desynchronization in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) occurs when sinus P waves are continually locked in the postventricular atrial refractory period (PVARP). This process is characterized by sequences of a P wave as an atrial event in the PVARP followed by a conducted and sensed ventricular event. Such sequences are more common in patients with a prolonged PR interval, often initiated by premature ventricular complexes (PVC) and terminated by PVCs or slowing of the sinus rate. Specific algorithms automatically identify a recurring pattern of P wave locking in the PVARP, whereupon they shorten the PVARP temporarily until atrial tracking is restored with the programmed sensed AV interval. The Biotronik family of Lumax CRT devices use an AV control window which is not an algorithm that "unlocks" P waves trapped in the PVARP. Rather, it prevents P waves from becoming trapped in the PVARP. A ventricular sensed event occurring within the AV control interval does not start a PVARP so that P wave locking cannot occur when the AV conduction time is shorter than the AV control interval.

  10. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With Wireless Left Ventricular Endocardial Pacing: The SELECT-LV Study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vivek Y; Miller, Marc A; Neuzil, Petr; Søgaard, Peter; Butter, Christian; Seifert, Martin; Delnoy, Peter Paul; van Erven, Lieselot; Schalji, Martin; Boersma, Lucas V A; Riahi, Sam

    2017-05-02

    A total of 30% to 40% of patients with congestive heart failure eligible for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) either do not respond to conventional CRT or remain untreated due to an inability or impediment to coronary sinus (CS) lead implantation. The WiSE-CRT system (EBR Systems, Sunnyvale, California) was developed to address this at-risk patient population by performing biventricular pacing via a wireless left ventricular (LV) endocardial pacing electrode. The SELECT-LV (Safety and Performance of Electrodes implanted in the Left Ventricle) study is a prospective multicenter non-randomized trial assessing the safety and performance of the WiSE-CRT system. A total of 35 patients indicated for CRT who had "failed" conventional CRT underwent implantation of an LV endocardial pacing electrode and a subcutaneous pulse generator. System performance, clinical efficacy, and safety events were assessed out to 6 months post-implant. The procedure was successful in 97.1% (n = 34) of attempted implants. The most common indications for endocardial LV pacing were difficult CS anatomy (n =12), failure to respond to conventional CRT (n = 10), and a high CS pacing threshold or phrenic nerve capture (n = 5). The primary performance endpoint, biventricular pacing on the 12-lead electrocardiogram at 1 month, was achieved in 33 of 34 patients. A total of 28 patients (84.8%) had improvement in the clinical composite score at 6 months, and 21 (66%) demonstrated a positive echocardiographic CRT response (≥5% absolute increase in LV ejection fraction). There were no pericardial effusions, but serious procedure/device-related events occurred in 3 patients (8.6%) within 24 h, and 8 patients (22.9%) between 24 h and 1 month. The SELECT-LV study demonstrates the clinical feasibility for the WiSE-CRT system, and provided clinical benefits to a majority of patients within an otherwise "failed" CRT population. (Safety and Performance of Electrodes Implanted in the Left Ventricle

  11. Rate-adaptive AV delay and exercise performance following cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Nesan; Prada-Delgado, Oscar; Campos, Ana Garcia; Grimster, Alex; Valencia, Oswaldo; Baltabaeva, Aigul; Jones, Sue; Anderson, Lisa

    2012-11-01

    Physiological shortening of the atrioventricular (AV) interval with increasing heart rate is well documented in normal human beings and is an established component of dual-chamber pacing for bradycardia. To assess the effect of exercise on optimal AV delay and the impact of a patient-specific rate-adaptive AV delay (RAAVD) on exercise capacity in patients with heart failure following cardiac resynchronization therapy. Phase 1: We performed iterative AV optimization at rest and exercise in 52 cardiac resynchronization therapy patients in atrial-sensed mode (mean age 71.6 ± 9.2 years, 25% females). Phase 2: Subsequently, 20 consecutive volunteers from this group (mean age 69.2 ± 9.6 years, 15% females) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with RAAVD individually programmed ON (RAAVD-ON) or OFF (RAAVD-OFF). Phase 1: In 94% of the patients, there was a marked reduction (mean 50%) in optimal AV delay with exercise. The optimal resting vs exercise AV delay was 114.2 ± 29 ms at a heart rate of 64.4 ± 7.1 beats/min vs 57 ± 31 ms at a heart rate of 103 ± 13 beats/min (P < .001). No patients required an increase in AV delay with exercise, and 3 (6%) showed no change. Phase 2: With RAAVD-ON, significantly better exercise times were achieved (8.7 ± 3.2 minutes) compared with RAAVD-OFF (7.9 ± 3.2 minutes; P = .003), and there was a significant improvement in Vo(2)max (RAAVD-ON 16.1 ± 4.0 vs RAAVD-OFF 14.9 ± 3.7 mL/(kg · min); P = .024). There was a dramatic reduction in optimal AV delay with physiological exercise in the majority of this heart failure cardiac resynchronization therapy cohort. Replicating this physiological response with a programmable RAAVD translated into a 10% improvement in exercise capacity. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Myocardial infarction does not preclude electrical and hemodynamic benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy in dyssynchronous canine hearts.

    PubMed

    Rademakers, Leonard M; van Kerckhoven, Roeland; van Deursen, Caroline J M; Strik, Marc; van Hunnik, Arne; Kuiper, Marion; Lampert, Anniek; Klersy, Catherine; Leyva, Francisco; Auricchio, Angelo; Maessen, Jos G; Prinzen, Frits W

    2010-08-01

    Several studies suggest that patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy benefit less from cardiac resynchronization therapy. In a novel animal model of dyssynchronous ischemic cardiomyopathy, we investigated the extent to which the presence of infarction influences the short-term efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy. Experiments were performed in canine hearts with left bundle branch block (LBBB, n=19) and chronic myocardial infarction, created by embolization of the left anterior descending or left circumflex arteries followed by LBBB (LBBB+left anterior descending infarction [LADi; n=11] and LBBB+left circumflex infarction [LCXi; n=7], respectively). Pacing leads were positioned in the right atrium and right ventricle and at 8 sites on the left ventricular (LV) free wall. LV pump function was measured using the conductance catheter technique, and synchrony of electrical activation was measured using epicardial mapping and ECG. Average and maximal improvement in electric resynchronization and LV pump function by right ventricular+LV pacing was similar in the 3 groups; however, the site of optimal electrical and mechanical benefit was LV apical in LBBB hearts, LV midlateral in LBBB+LCXi hearts and LV basal-lateral in LBBB+LADi hearts. The best site of pacing was not the site of latest electrical activation but that providing the largest shortening of the QRS complex. During single-site LV pacing the range of atrioventricular delays yielding > or =70% of maximal hemodynamic effect was approximately 50% smaller in infarcted than noninfarcted LBBB hearts (P<0.05). Cardiac resynchronization therapy can improve resynchronization and LV pump function to a similar degree in infarcted and noninfarcted hearts. Optimal lead positioning and timing of LV stimulation, however, require more attention in the infarcted hearts.

  13. Predictors of mortality, LVAD implant, or heart transplant in primary prevention cardiac resynchronization therapy recipients: The HF-CRT score.

    PubMed

    Nauffal, Victor; Tanawuttiwat, Tanyanan; Zhang, Yiyi; Rickard, John; Marine, Joseph E; Butcher, Barbara; Norgard, Sanaz; Dickfeld, Timm; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Guallar, Eliseo; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Cheng, Alan

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces morbidity and mortality among individuals with dyssynchronous systolic heart failure (HF). However, patient outcomes vary, with some at higher risk than others for HF progression and death. To develop a risk prediction score incorporating variables associated with mortality, left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implant, or heart transplant in recipients of a primary prevention cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D). We followed 305 CRT-D patients from the Prospective Observational Study of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators for the composite outcome of all-cause mortality, LVAD implant, or heart transplant soon after device implantation. Serum biomarkers and electrocardiographic and clinical variables were collected at implant. Multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model with stepwise selection method was used to fit the final model. Among 305 patients, 53 experienced the composite endpoint. In multivariable analysis, 5 independent predictors ("HF-CRT") were identified: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein >9.42 ng/L (HR = 2.5 [1.4, 4.5]), New York Heart Association functional class III/IV (HR = 2.3 [1.2, 4.5]), creatinine >1.2 mg/dL (HR = 2.7 [1.4, 5.1]), red blood cell count <4.3 × 10(6)/μL (HR = 2.4 [1.3, 4.7]), and cardiac troponin T >28 ng/L (HR = 2.7 [1.4, 5.2]). One point was attributed to each predictor and 3 score categories were identified. Patients with scores 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 had a 3-year cumulative event-free survival of 96.8%, 79.7%, and 35.2%, respectively (log-rank, P < .001). A simple score combining clinical and readily available biomarker data can risk-stratify CRT patients for HF progression and death. These findings may help identify patients who are in need of closer monitoring or early application of more aggressive circulatory support. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of medication directed by home-monitoring cardiac resynchronization therapy in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Zhang, Fei-fei; Peng, Xin-hui; Zhao, Dong-hua; Peng, Jian

    2014-03-01

    PATIENTS with chronic heart failure (CHF) have a high incidence of atrial/ventricular arrhythmias which seriously affect life span and quality of life. Cardiac re-synchronization therapy (CRT) can improve cardiac function and reverse myocardial remodeling, therefore improving the quality of life and reducing mortality. CRT with Home-Monitoring (HM) can be used to monitor cardiac arrhythmias and other heart physiological indexes such as intrathoracic impedance and hemodynamics. Through wireless satellites, the data from the patients are sent to a monitor center for analysis. Doctors can identify emergent information and make a rapid diagnosis based on the information stored in the monitor center. CRT with HM has been verified as a valid method to optimize drug treatment according to individual parameters.

  15. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Role of MicroRNA Changes.

    PubMed

    Sardu, Celestino; Barbieri, Michelangela; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Paolisso, Pasquale; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Marfella, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two growing and related diseases in general population and particularly in elderly people. In selected patients affected by HF and severe dysfunction of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), with left bundle brunch block, the cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT) is the treatment of choice to improve symptoms, NYHA class, and quality of life. CRT effects are related to alterations in genes and microRNAs (miRs) expression, which regulate cardiac processes involved in cardiac apoptosis, cardiac fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis, and membrane channel ionic currents. Different studies have shown a different prognosis in T2DM patients and T2DM elderly patients treated by CRT-D. We reviewed the literature data on CRT-D effect on adult and elderly patients with T2DM as compared with nondiabetic patients.

  16. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Role of MicroRNA Changes

    PubMed Central

    Sardu, Celestino; Barbieri, Michelangela; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Paolisso, Pasquale; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Marfella, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two growing and related diseases in general population and particularly in elderly people. In selected patients affected by HF and severe dysfunction of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), with left bundle brunch block, the cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT) is the treatment of choice to improve symptoms, NYHA class, and quality of life. CRT effects are related to alterations in genes and microRNAs (miRs) expression, which regulate cardiac processes involved in cardiac apoptosis, cardiac fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis, and membrane channel ionic currents. Different studies have shown a different prognosis in T2DM patients and T2DM elderly patients treated by CRT-D. We reviewed the literature data on CRT-D effect on adult and elderly patients with T2DM as compared with nondiabetic patients. PMID:26636106

  17. Towards an atrio-ventricular delay optimization assessed by a computer model for cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, David; Le Rolle, Virginie; Tse Ve Koon, Kevin; Thebault, Christophe; Donal, Erwan; Hernández, Alfredo I.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, lumped-parameter models of the cardiovascular system, the cardiac electrical conduction system and a pacemaker are coupled to generate mitral ow pro les for di erent atrio-ventricular delay (AVD) con gurations, in the context of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). First, we perform a local sensitivity analysis of left ventricular and left atrial parameters on mitral ow characteristics, namely E and A wave amplitude, mitral ow duration, and mitral ow time integral. Additionally, a global sensitivity analysis over all model parameters is presented to screen for the most relevant parameters that a ect the same mitral ow characteristics. Results provide insight on the in uence of left ventricle and atrium in uence on mitral ow pro les. This information will be useful for future parameter estimation of the model that could reproduce the mitral ow pro les and cardiovascular hemodynamics of patients undergoing AVD optimization during CRT.

  18. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Restores Sympathovagal Balance in the Failing Heart by Differential Remodeling of Cholinergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    DeMazumder, Deeptankar; Kass, David A.; O’Rourke, Brian; Tomaselli, Gordon F.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is the only heart failure (HF) therapy documented to improve left ventricular (LV) function and reduce mortality. The underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. While β-adrenergic signaling has been studied extensively, the effect of CRT on cholinergic signaling is unexplored. Objective We hypothesized that remodeling of cholinergic signaling plays an important role in the aberrant calcium signaling and depressed contractile and β-adrenergic responsiveness in dyssynchronous HF (DHF) that are restored by CRT. Methods and Results Canine tachypaced DHF and CRT models were generated to interrogate responses specific to dyssynchronous vs. resynchronized ventricular contraction during hemodynamic decompensation. Echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and invasive hemodynamic data were collected from normal controls, DHF and CRT models. LV tissue was used for biochemical analyses and functional measurements (calcium transient, sarcomere shortening) from isolated myocytes (N=42–104 myocytes/model; 6–9 hearts/model). Human LV myocardium was obtained for biochemical analyses from explanted failing (N=18) and non-failing (N=7) hearts. The M2 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M2-mAChR) was upregulated in human and canine HF compared to non-failing controls. CRT attenuated the increased M2-mAChR expression and Gαi-coupling, and enhanced M3-mAChR expression in association with enhanced calcium cycling, sarcomere shortening and β-adrenergic responsiveness. Despite model-dependent remodeling, cholinergic stimulation completely abolished isoproterenol-induced triggered activity in both DHF and CRT myocytes. Conclusions Remodeling of cholinergic signaling is a critical pathological component of human and canine HF. Differential remodeling of cholinergic signaling represents a novel mechanism for enhancing sympathovagal balance with CRT and may identify new targets for treatment of systolic HF. PMID

  19. Development and Validation of Predictive Models of Cardiac Mortality and Transplantation in Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Eduardo Arrais; Pereira, Francisca Tatiana Moreira; Abreu, José Sebastião; Lima, José Wellington O.; Monteiro, Marcelo de Paula Martins; Rocha Neto, Almino Cavalcante; Goés, Camilla Viana Arrais; Farias, Ana Gardênia P.; Rodrigues Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins; Quidute, Ana Rosa Pinto; Scanavacca, Maurício Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background 30-40% of cardiac resynchronization therapy cases do not achieve favorable outcomes. Objective This study aimed to develop predictive models for the combined endpoint of cardiac death and transplantation (Tx) at different stages of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods Prospective observational study of 116 patients aged 64.8 ± 11.1 years, 68.1% of whom had functional class (FC) III and 31.9% had ambulatory class IV. Clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic variables were assessed by using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curves. Results The cardiac mortality/Tx rate was 16.3% during the follow-up period of 34.0 ± 17.9 months. Prior to implantation, right ventricular dysfunction (RVD), ejection fraction < 25% and use of high doses of diuretics (HDD) increased the risk of cardiac death and Tx by 3.9-, 4.8-, and 5.9-fold, respectively. In the first year after CRT, RVD, HDD and hospitalization due to congestive heart failure increased the risk of death at hazard ratios of 3.5, 5.3, and 12.5, respectively. In the second year after CRT, RVD and FC III/IV were significant risk factors of mortality in the multivariate Cox model. The accuracy rates of the models were 84.6% at preimplantation, 93% in the first year after CRT, and 90.5% in the second year after CRT. The models were validated by bootstrapping. Conclusion We developed predictive models of cardiac death and Tx at different stages of CRT based on the analysis of simple and easily obtainable clinical and echocardiographic variables. The models showed good accuracy and adjustment, were validated internally, and are useful in the selection, monitoring and counseling of patients indicated for CRT. PMID:26559987

  20. Endomyocardial upregulation of beta1 adrenoreceptor gene expression and myocardial contractile reserve following cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Vanderheyden, Marc; Mullens, Wilfried; Delrue, Leen; Goethals, Marc; Verstreken, Sofie; Wijns, William; de Bruyne, Bernard; Bartunek, Jozef

    2008-03-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with a blunted force-frequency relation (FFR) and myocardial contractile reserve (MCR) partially from a downregulation of beta1-adrenoreceptors (beta1-AR). We investigated whether acute and chronic cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was capable of reversing the blunted FFR and MCR and if this was associated with upregulation of beta1-AR. Left ventricle dP/dtmax was invasively measured in 10 CHF patients (New York Heart Association class > or =3; ejection fraction <25%) during incremental dual chamber (DDD)-CRT pacing at 70, 90, 110, and 130 beats/min, with and without continuous infusion of intravenous dobutamine, immediately after CRT implantation (BL) and 4 months later (FU). In a subgroup of 5 patients, serial left ventricle beta1 and beta2-AR gene expression was measured using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Four months after the initiation of resynchronization therapy, DDD-CRT pacing results in a significant upward shift of the heart rate versus LV dP/dtmax relationship (P < .01) with force frequency amplification as evidenced by the steeper slope of the force frequency response (P = .04). Infusion of dobutamine recruits myocardial contractile reserve and increases the heart rate versus LV dP/dtmax relationship at BL and at FU (both P < .05). However, only at follow-up was an additional force frequency amplification noticed (P < .05) during dobutamine infusion. This observation was paralleled by a significant upregulation of beta1-AR gene expression (P = .02). Chronic CRT is associated with a partial restoration of the FFR and with a recruitment in myocardial contractile reserve, which is paralleled by upregulation of beta1-AR.

  1. Cine dyscontractility index: A novel marker of mechanical dyssynchrony that predicts response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Werys, Konrad; Petryka-Mazurkiewicz, Joanna; Błaszczyk, Łukasz; Miśko, Jolanta; Śpiewak, Mateusz; Małek, Łukasz A; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz; Miłosz-Wieczorek, Barbara; Marczak, Magdalena; Kubik, Agata; Dąbrowska, Agnieszka; Piątkowska-Janko, Ewa; Sawionek, Błażej; Wijesurendra, Rohan; Piechnik, Stefan K; Bogorodzki, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cine-derived dyssynchrony indices provide additional information compared to conventional tagged MRI (tMRI) acquisitions in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Patients scheduled for CRT (n = 52) underwent preprocedure MRI including cine and tMRI acquisitions. Segmental strain curves were calculated for both cine and tMRI to produce a range of standard indices for direct comparison between modalities. We also proposed and evaluated a novel index of "dyscontractility," which detects the presence of focal areas with paradoxically positive circumferential strain. Across conventional strain indices, there was only moderate-to-poor (R = 0.3-0.6) correlation between modalities; eight cine-derived indices showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) relations to CRT outcome compared to just two tMRI-based counterparts. The novel dyscontractility index calculated on basal slice cine images (cine dyscontractility index, "CDI") was the single best predictor of clinical response to CRT (area under the curve AUC = 0.81, P < 0.001). While poorly correlated to its tMRI counterpart (R = 0.33), CDI performed significantly better in predicting response to CRT (P < 0.005), and was also numerically better than all other tMRI indices (AUC 0.53-0.76, all P for AUC comparisons <0.17). Cine-derived strain indices offer potentially new information compared to tMRI. Specifically, the novel CDI is most strongly linked to response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in a contemporary patient cohort. It utilizes readily available MRI data, is relatively straightforward to process, and compares favorably with any conventional tagging index. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1483-1492. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Area of left ventricular regional conduction delay and preserved myocardium predict responses to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Tse, Hung-Fat; Lee, Kathy Lf; Wan, Siu-Hong; Yu, Yinghong; Hoersch, Walter; Pastore, Joseph; Zhu, Qingsheng; Kenknight, Bruce; Spinelli, Julio; Lau, Chu-Pak

    2005-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy. A significant proportion of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block (LBBB) do not respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the electromechanical properties of the myocardium would predict acute hemodynamic improvement during left ventricular (LV) pacing. We studied 10 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and LBBB (ejection fraction (EF): 27%+/-7%; QRS duration: 166+/-16 msec) using three-dimensional electromechanical endocardial mapping technique to assess endocardial activation time (Endo-AT), unipolar voltage, and local linear shortening during sinus rhythm. LV stimulation was performed in VDD mode at five different sites and three atrioventricular delays within the coronary sinus. LV+dP/dtmax changes from baseline were measured during LV stimulation at each site (%DeltadP/dtmax). There was no significant relationship between maximum %DeltadP/dtmax during LV stimulation at the best coronary sinus site and LV EF, baseline LV+dP/dtmax, total LV Endo-AT, baseline QRS duration nor changes in QRS duration during LV pacing. However, the maximum %DeltadP/dtmax was significantly positively correlated with percentage area of late Endo-AT (r=0.97, P<0.001) and preserved LV myocardium (r=0.81, P=0.005), respectively. Patients with >20% of LV area with late Endo-AT and >30% of preserved LV myocardium had five times better acute hemodynamic response with LV stimulation. Multivariate analysis showed that only percentage area of late Endo-AT was independently correlated with %DeltadP/dtmax (P<0.05). The presence of a larger amount of LV area with late Endo-AT and preserved LV myocardium measured by electromechanical mapping could identify patients who have better acute improvement in systolic performance during LV stimulation.

  3. Acute Beneficial Hemodynamic Effects of a Novel 3D-Echocardiographic Optimization Protocol in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Simon; Lesevic, Hasema; Barthel, Petra; Michalk, Fabian; Hoppe, Katharina; Hausleiter, Jörg; Kolb, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Background Post-implantation therapies to optimize cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) focus on adjustments of the atrio-ventricular (AV) delay and ventricular-to-ventricular (VV) interval. However, there is little consensus on how to achieve best resynchronization with these parameters. The aim of this study was to examine a novel combination of doppler echocardiography (DE) and three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) for individualized optimization of device based AV delays and VV intervals compared to empiric programming. Methods 25 recipients of CRT (male: 56%, mean age: 67 years) were included in this study. Ejection fraction (EF), the primary outcome parameter, and left ventricular (LV) dimensions were evaluated by 3DE before CRT (baseline), after AV delay optimization while pacing the ventricles simultaneously (empiric VV interval programming) and after individualized VV interval optimization. For AV delay optimization aortic velocity time integral (AoVTI) was examined in eight different AV delays, and the AV delay with the highest AoVTI was programmed. For individualized VV interval optimization 3DE full-volume datasets of the left ventricle were obtained and analyzed to derive a systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI), calculated from the dispersion of time to minimal regional volume for all 16 LV segments. Consecutively, SDI was evaluated in six different VV intervals (including LV or right ventricular preactivation), and the VV interval with the lowest SDI was programmed (individualized optimization). Results EF increased from baseline 23±7% to 30±8 (p<0.001) after AV delay optimization and to 32±8% (p<0.05) after individualized optimization with an associated decrease of end-systolic volume from a baseline of 138±60 ml to 115±42 ml (p<0.001). Moreover, individualized optimization significantly reduced SDI from a baseline of 14.3±5.5% to 6.1±2.6% (p<0.001). Conclusions Compared with empiric programming of biventricular pacemakers, individualized

  4. [Cardiac resynchronization therapy in a patient with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries and 2:1 atrioventricular block].

    PubMed

    Conte, Giulio; Coppini, Lucia; Demola, Maria Antonietta; Zardini, Marco; Ardissino, Diego

    2012-12-01

    Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) is a rare congenital heart disease with an atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial discordance in which the morphological right ventricle supports the systemic circulation and the morphological tricuspid valve is the systemic atrioventricular valve. Heart rhythm disturbances and ventricular dysfunction related to electromechanical dyssynchrony are common in adult congenital heart disease patients with a systemic right ventricle. Thus, these patients may require conventional pacemaker implantation, which in the presence of ventricular dysfunction and conduction disease may further compromise cardiac performance. Indeed, cardiac resynchronization therapy may be an effective treatment option for these patients. We report the case of a patient with CCTGA and moderate depression of systemic ventricular systolic function who developed a 2:1 atrioventricular block and was treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  5. Echocardiography versus intracardiac electrocardiography-based optimization for cardiac resynchronization therapy : a comparative clinical long-term trial.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C J; Liadski, A; Bell, M; Naber, C K; Bruder, O; Sabin, G V; Küpper, B; Wieneke, H

    2011-10-01

    Optimization of AV and VV delay programming has been shown to be essential for the success of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Acute hemodynamic improvement can be obtained by intracardiac electrocardiogram (IEGM)-based optimization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether this IEGM-based algorithm is comparable to the current gold standard of echocardiography. After device implantation patients with standard criteria for CRT, AV and VV delay programming was either optimized by an IEGM-based algorithm (IEGM group, n = 24) or by echocardiography (echo group, n = 24). Cardiopulmonary exercise capacity was assessed after 3 and 12 months on the basis of NYHA class and the 6-min-walk test. Left ventricular ejection fraction was evaluated by echocardiography. In both groups there was a significant decrease in NYHA class and a significant increase in 6-min-walk distance and ejection fraction after 3 and 12 months. After 12 months there was no significant difference in the proportion of responders, NYHA class and 6-min-walk distance between the IEGM the echo group. The present data show that a sustained improvement of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity can be obtained by optimizing CRT patients on the basis of an IEGM algorithm. The comparable results for cardiopulmonary exercise parameters suggest that this new method might become an important tool for adjusting CRT programming in daily practice.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-α predicts response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rordorf, Roberto; Savastano, Simone; Sanzo, Antonio; Spazzolini, Carla; De Amici, Mara; Camporotondo, Rita; Ghio, Stefano; Vicentini, Alessandro; Petracci, Barbara; De Regibus, Valentina; Taravelli, Erika; Landolina, Maurizio; Schwartz, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) and are up-regulated in affected patients. We investigated whether pro-inflammatory cytokines might predict the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 were assessed in 91 patients before CRT. Response to CRT was defined as a decrease ≥15% in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) at 6 months. Baseline TNF-α did correlate with LVESV reduction (P=0.001) after CRT. The subject group was divided according to tertiles of TNF-α. From the lower to the upper tertile LVESV (-31±28%, -17±17%, -9±22%) and LV end-diastolic volume (-23±25%, -14±16%, -4±18%) were progressively less reduced after CRT (P<0.001). The proportion of responders to CRT was 70%, 42% and 33%, according to the lower, intermediate and upper tertile of TNF-α distribution (P=0.01). Serious cardiac events (cardiac death, HF hospitalization or urgent heart transplantation) occurred in 63% of patients in the upper tertile vs. 32% and 17% in the intermediate and lower tertiles, respectively, during a median follow-up of 47 months (P<0.001). Circulating TNF-α predicts the degree of LV reverse remodeling after CRT and may contribute to the early identification of those patients at higher risk of events after device implantation.

  7. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Reduces Ventricular Arrhythmias in Primary but Not Secondary Prophylactic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients: Insight From the Resynchronization in Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial.

    PubMed

    Sapp, John L; Parkash, Ratika; Wells, George A; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Gardner, Martin J; Healey, Jeffrey S; Thibault, Bernard; Sterns, Laurence D; Birnie, David; Nery, Pablo B; Sivakumaran, Soori; Essebag, Vidal; Dorian, Paul; Tang, Anthony S L

    2017-03-01

    The RAFT (Resynchronization in Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial) demonstrated that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduced both mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with functional class II or III heart failure and widened QRS. We examined the influence of CRT on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with primary versus secondary prophylaxis defibrillator indications. All ventricular arrhythmias among RAFT study participants were downloaded and adjudicated by 2 blinded reviewers with an overreader for disagreements and committee review for remaining discrepancies. Incidence of ventricular arrhythmias among patients randomized to CRT-D versus implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) were compared within the groups of patients treated for primary prophylaxis and for secondary prophylaxis. Of 1798 enrolled patients, 1764 had data available for adjudication and were included. Of these, 1531 patients were implanted for primary prophylaxis, while 233 patients were implanted for secondary prophylaxis; 884 patients were randomized to ICD and 880 to CRT-D. During 5953.6 patient-years of follow-up, there were 11 278 appropriate ICD detections of ventricular arrhythmias. In the primary prophylaxis group, CRT-D significantly reduced incidence ventricular arrhythmias in comparison to ICD (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99; P=0.044). This effect was not seen in the secondary prophylaxis group (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.58; P=0.45). CRT-D was not associated with significant differences in overall ventricular arrhythmia burden in either group. CRT reduced the rate of onset of new ventricular arrhythmias detected by ICDs in patients without a history of prior ventricular arrhythmias. This effect was not observed among patients who had prior ventricular arrhythmias. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00251251. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Association between frequent cardiac resynchronization therapy optimization and long-term clinical response: a post hoc analysis of the Clinical Evaluation on Advanced Resynchronization (CLEAR) pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Delnoy, Peter Paul; Ritter, Philippe; Naegele, Herbert; Orazi, Serafino; Szwed, Hanna; Zupan, Igor; Goscinska-Bis, Kinga; Anselme, Frederic; Martino, Maria; Padeletti, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Aims The long-term clinical value of the optimization of atrioventricular (AVD) and interventricular (VVD) delays in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains controversial. We studied retrospectively the association between the frequency of AVD and VVD optimization and 1-year clinical outcomes in the 199 CRT patients who completed the Clinical Evaluation on Advanced Resynchronization study. Methods and results From the 199 patients assigned to CRT-pacemaker (CRT-P) (New York Heart Association, NYHA, class III/IV, left ventricular ejection fraction <35%), two groups were retrospectively composed a posteriori on the basis of the frequency of their AVD and VVD optimization: Group 1 (n = 66) was composed of patients ‘systematically’ optimized at implant, at 3 and 6 months; Group 2 (n = 133) was composed of all other patients optimized ‘non-systematically’ (less than three times) during the 1 year study. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, heart failure-related hospitalization, NYHA functional class, and Quality of Life score, at 1 year. Systematic CRT optimization was associated with a higher percentage of improved patients based on the composite endpoint (85% in Group 1 vs. 61% in Group 2, P < 0.001), with fewer deaths (3% in Group 1 vs. 14% in Group 2, P = 0.014) and fewer hospitalizations (8% in Group 1 vs. 23% in Group 2, P = 0.007), at 1 year. Conclusion These results further suggest that AVD and VVD frequent optimization (at implant, at 3 and 6 months) is associated with improved long-term clinical response in CRT-P patients. PMID:23493410

  9. Indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy: 2011 update from the Heart Failure Society of America Guideline Committee.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, William G; Hernandez, Adrian F; Carson, Peter E; Fang, James C; Katz, Stuart D; Spertus, John A; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Tang, W H Wilson; Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Javed; Westlake Canary, Cheryl A; Collins, Sean P; Colvin-Adams, Monica; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Givertz, Michael M; Hershberger, Ray E; Rogers, Joseph G; Teerlink, John R; Walsh, Mary N; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Starling, Randall C

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves survival, symptoms, quality of life, exercise capacity, and cardiac structure and function in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II or ambulatory class IV heart failure (HF) with wide QRS complex. The totality of evidence supports the use of CRT in patients with less severe HF symptoms. CRT is recommended for patients in sinus rhythm with a widened QRS interval (≥150 ms) not due to right bundle branch block (RBBB) who have severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and persistent NYHA functional class II-III symptoms despite optimal medical therapy (strength of evidence A). CRT may be considered for several other patient groups for whom evidence of benefit is clinically significant but less substantial, including patients with a QRS interval of ≥120 to <150 ms and severe LV systolic dysfunction who have persistent mild to severe HF despite optimal medical therapy (strength of evidence B), some patients with atrial fibrillation, and some with ambulatory class IV HF. Several evidence gaps remain that need to be addressed, including the ideal threshold for QRS duration, QRS morphology, lead placement, degree of myocardial scarring, and the modality for evaluating dyssynchrony. Recommendations will evolve over time as additional data emerge from completed and ongoing clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure induced by left bundle branch block after transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Du, Rong-Zeng; Qian, Jun; Wu, Jun; Liang, Yi; Chen, Guang-Hua; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Ye; Zhao, Yang; Yan, Jin-Chuan

    2014-12-01

    A 54-year-old female patient with congenital heart disease had a persistent complete left bundle branch block three months after closure by an Amplatzer ventricular septal defect occluder. Nine months later, the patient suffered from chest distress, palpitation, and sweating at daily activities, and her 6-min walk distance decreased significantly (155 m). Her echocardiography showed increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter with left ventricular ejection fraction of 37%. Her symptoms reduced significantly one week after received cardiac resynchronization therapy. She had no symptoms at daily activities, and her echo showed left ventricular ejection fraction of 46% and 53%. Moreover, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter decreased 6 and 10 months after cardiac resynchronization therapy, and 6-min walk distance remarkably increased. This case demonstrated that persistent complete left bundle branch block for nine months after transcatheter closure with ventricular septal defect Amplatzer occluder could lead to left ventricular enlargement and a significant decrease in left ventricular systolic function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy decreased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and increased left ventricular ejection fraction, thereby improving the patient's heart functions.

  11. Right atrial pacing impairs cardiac function during resynchronization therapy: acute effects of DDD pacing compared to VDD pacing.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Alain; Ammann, Peter; Sticherling, Christian; Burger, Peter; Schaer, Beat; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans Peter; Eckstein, Jens; Kiencke, Stephanie; Kaiser, Christoph; Linka, Andre; Buser, Peter; Pfisterer, Matthias; Osswald, Stefan

    2005-05-03

    We aimed to compare the hemodynamic effects of right-atrial-paced (DDD) and right-atrial-sensed (VDD) biventricular paced rhythm on cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves hemodynamics in patients with severe heart failure and left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. However, the impact of active right atrial pacing on resynchronization therapy is unknown. Seventeen CRT patients were studied 10 months (range: 1 to 46 months) after implantation. At baseline, the programmed atrioventricular delay was optimized by timing LV contraction properly at the end of atrial contraction. In both modes the acute hemodynamic effects were assessed by multiple Doppler echocardiographic parameters. Compared to DDD pacing, VDD pacing resulted in much better improvement of intraventricular dyssynchrony assessed by the septal-to-posterior wall motion delay (VDD 106 +/- 83 ms vs. DDD 145 +/- 95 ms; p = 0.001), whereas the interventricular mechanical delay (difference between onset of pulmonary and aortic outflow) did not differ (VDD 20 +/- 21 ms vs. DDD 18 +/- 17 ms; p = NS). Furthermore, VDD pacing significantly prolonged the rate-corrected LV filling period (VDD 458 +/- 123 ms vs. DDD 371 +/- 94 ms; p = 0.0001) and improved the myocardial performance index (VDD 0.60 +/- 0.18 vs. DDD 0.71 +/- 0.23; p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that avoidance of right atrial pacing results in a higher degree of LV resynchronization, in a substantial prolongation of the LV filling period, and in an improved myocardial performance. Thus, the VDD mode seems to be superior to the DDD mode in CRT patients.

  12. Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines on the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy: evidence and patient selection.

    PubMed

    Exner, Derek V; Birnie, David H; Moe, Gordon; Thibault, Bernard; Philippon, François; Healey, Jeffrey S; Tang, Anthony S L; Larose, Éric; Parkash, Ratika

    2013-02-01

    Recent landmark trials provided the impetus to update the recommendations for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This article provides guidance on the prescription of CRT within the confines of published data. A future article will explore the implementation of these guidelines. These guidelines are intended to serve as a framework for the prescription of CRT within the Canadian health care system and beyond. They were developed through a critical evaluation of the existing literature, and expert consensus. The panel unanimously adopted each recommendation. The 8 recommendations relate to ensuring the adequacy of medical therapy before the initiation of CRT, the use of symptom severity to select candidates for CRT, differing recommendations based on the presence or absence of sinus rhythm, the presence of left bundle branch block vs other conduction patterns, and QRS duration. The use of CRT in the setting of chronic right ventricular pacing, left ventricular lead placement, and the routine assessment of dyssynchrony to guide the prescription of CRT are also included. The strength of evidence was weighed, taking full consideration of any risks of bias, as well as any imprecision, inconsistency, and indirectness of the available data. The strength of each recommendation and the quality of evidence were adjudicated. Trade-offs between desirable and undesirable consequences of alternative management strategies were considered, as were values, preferences, and resource availability. These guidelines were externally reviewed by experts, modified based on those reviews, and will be updated as new knowledge is acquired. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of the Red Blood Cell Distribution Width Improves the Risk Prediction in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Boros, András Mihály; Perge, Péter; Jenei, Zsigmond; Karády, Júlia; Zima, Endre; Molnár, Levente; Becker, Dávid; Gellér, László; Prohászka, Zoltán; Merkely, Béla; Széplaki, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Increases in red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) predict the mortality of chronic heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). It was hypothesized that RDW is independent of and possibly even superior to NT-proBNP from the aspect of long-term mortality prediction. Design. The blood counts and serum NT-proBNP levels of 134 patients undergoing CRT were measured. Multivariable Cox regression models were applied and reclassification analyses were performed. Results. After separate adjustment to the basic model of left bundle branch block, beta blocker therapy, and serum creatinine, both the RDW > 13.35% and NT-proBNP > 1975 pg/mL predicted the 5-year mortality (n = 57). In the final model including all variables, the RDW [HR = 2.49 (1.27–4.86); p = 0.008] remained a significant predictor, whereas the NT-proBNP [HR = 1.18 (0.93–3.51); p = 0.07] lost its predictive value. On addition of the RDW measurement, a 64% net reclassification improvement and a 3% integrated discrimination improvement were achieved over the NT-proBNP-adjusted basic model. Conclusions. Increased RDW levels accurately predict the long-term mortality of CRT patients independently of NT-proBNP. Reclassification analysis revealed that the RDW improves the risk stratification and could enhance the optimal patient selection for CRT. PMID:26903690

  14. 1A.08: GENETIC MARKERS IN CARDIAC RESYNCHRONIZATION THERAPY TREATMENT SUCCESS.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, B; De Maria, R; Gatsios, D; Chrysanthakopoulou, T; Landolina, M; Gasparini, M; Campolo, J; Parolini, M; Sanzo, A; Galimberti, P; Lenders, M; Brand, E; Parodi, O; Lunati, M; Brand, S M

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can improve ventricular size, shape and mass and reduce mitral regurgitation by reverse remodelling of the failing ventricle. CRT combines right atrial and ventricular pacing with pacing of the left ventricular free wall by a third lead to resynchronize contraction between and within ventricles. About 30% of patients do not respond to this therapy for unknown reasons. In the present study, we aimed at the identification and classification of CRT responder by the use of genetic variants and clinical parameters. Out of 1,421 CRT patients, 207 subjects were consecutively selected and CRT responder and non-responder were matched for their baseline parameters before CRT. Treatment success was defined as decrease in left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) >15% at follow-up echocardiography compared to baseline LVESV. An association study was performed to identify genetic variants associated with CRT success. For the classification of CRT patients into responder and non-responder, machine learning algorithms were applied using combinations of clinical parameters and the identified genetic variants. Significant differences, resulting from the defined remodelling phenotypes, were found between CRT responder and non-responder for volume (p < 0.001) and function (p < 0.001) changes. In CRT responder patients, LVEDV decreased by 22 ml [-37 to -16 ml] and LVEF improved by 11% [6 to 16%], whereas changes in LV volume (deltaLVEDV 2 ml [-4 to +10 ml]) and LVEF (deltaLVEF 2.5% [-2 to +5%]) were slight in CRT non-responders. We identified 4 genetic variants to be associated with the CRT responder phenotype at the allelic (p < 0.035) and genotypic (p < 0.031) level: rs3766031 (ATPIB1), rs5443 (GNB3), rs5522 (NR3C2) and rs7325635 (TNFSF11). By application of the classifiers "Clinical & Genotypes" and "Clinical & Alleles" in the machine learning process, the rule-based methods C4.5 and PART were identified to exceed 82

  15. The economic impact of battery longevity in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for cardiac resynchronization therapy: the hospital and healthcare system perspectives.

    PubMed

    Landolina, Maurizio; Morani, Giovanni; Curnis, Antonio; Vado, Antonello; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Bianchi, Valter; Stabile, Giuseppe; Crosato, Martino; Petracci, Barbara; Ceriotti, Carlo; Bontempi, Luca; Morosato, Martina; Ballari, Gian Paolo; Gasparini, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-Ds) are likely to undergo one or more device replacements, mainly for battery depletion. We assessed the economic impact of battery depletion on the overall cost of CRT-D treatment from the perspectives of the healthcare system and the hospital. We also compared devices of different generations and from different manufacturers in terms of therapy cost. We analysed data on 1792 CRT-Ds implanted in 1399 patients in 9 Italian centres. We calculated the replacement probability and the total therapy cost over 6 years, stratified by device generation and manufacturer. Public tariffs from diagnosis-related groups were used together with device prices and hospitalization costs. Generators were from 3 manufacturers: Boston Scientific (667, 37%), Medtronic (973, 54%), and St Jude Medical (152, 9%). The replacement probability at 6 years was 83 and 68% for earlier- and recent-generation devices, respectively. The need for replacement increased total therapy costs by more than 50% over the initial implantation cost for hospitals and by more than 30% for healthcare system. The improved longevity of recent-generation CRT-Ds reduced the therapy cost by ∼6% in both perspectives. Among recent-generation CRT-Ds, the replacement probability of devices from different manufacturers ranged from 12 to 70%. Consequently, the maximum difference in therapy cost between manufacturers was 40% for hospitals and 19% for the healthcare system. Differences in CRT-D longevity strongly affect the overall therapy cost. While the use of recent-generation devices has reduced the cost, significant differences exist among currently available systems.

  16. Current trends in use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy with a pacemaker or defibrillator in Japanese pediatric patients: results from a nationwide questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tsugutoshi; Sumitomo, Naokata; Yoshimoto, Jun; Miyazaki, Aya; Hinokiyama, Kazuhiro; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Yasukochi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), cardiac resynchronization therapy with a biventricular pacemaker (CRTP) and CRT with a defibrillator (CRTD) in children has not been studied statistically, and dual-chamber (DDD) pacemakers are still used for pediatric CRT because of current government regulations. Data were obtained from 15 children's and 74 general hospitals through a questionnaire survey regarding the aforementioned therapies performed before 2012 in Japanese children (<16 years old). ICD, CRT with DDD, CRTP and CRTD were used in 64 (42%), 47 (31%), 34 (22%) and 7 (5%), respectively, of all cases reported (n=152). Among all CRTP and CRT-DDD cases (n=81), the use of DDD accounted for 41% in general hospitals vs. 89% in children's hospitals, and CRT-DDD and CRTP were effective in 67 cases (83%). Of 64 ICD cases, appropriate shocks were experienced in 28 cases (44%), and inappropriate shocks in 19 cases (29%). Additionally, data from the Japan Arrhythmia Device Industry Association obtained for overall device usage analysis revealed that CRTP was more commonly used in children than in adults. There is an increasing need for pediatric device therapy, especially CRTP. However, many children's hospitals were still using DDD pacemakers in 2012. Although the demand for device therapy in children may be small, it is indispensable in pediatric cardiology.

  17. [Impact of cardiac resynchronization therapy on survival in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Kuznetzov, V A; Vinogradova, T O; Enina, T N; Kolunin, G V; Kharatz, V E; Pavlov, A V; Krinochkin, D V; Belonogov, D V; Gorbatenko, E A; Efimova, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    To compare the impact of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on survival in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (CMP) in clinical practice. The study enrolled 206 patients with NYHA Functional Class II-IV chronic heart failure (CHF) and a left ventricular ejection fraction of < or = 35, including 107 patients implanted with CRT devices in combination with continuous drug therapy (DT). Among the 107 patients, 48 were diagnosed as having non-ischemic CMP (NCMP), 59 as coronary heart disease (CHD). The other 99 patients (12 with NCMP and 87 with CHD) were on DT only. Later on the patients from both groups were divided into subgroups according to the treatment policy of CHF: CRT + DT or DT only. The mean follow-up period was 24 +/- 18.1 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that overall survival in the patients on CRT + DT was significantly higher than in those on DT (70 and 49%, respectively; p = 0.004). Analysis of the chosen treatment policy in the NCMP subgroup showed no significant differences in survival rates in the patients receiving CRT + DT or DT (74 versus 78%, respectively; p = 0.5). At the same time, the survival rates in the CHD patients on CRT + DT were significantly higher than those in the DT subgroup (68 versus 44%; p = 0.04). CRT significantly reduces overall mortality in patients with CHF in clinical practice. Our findings indicated that this effect was achieved mainly in patients with CHD, rather than in those with NCMP.

  18. Electromechanical effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy during rest and stress in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Valzania, Cinzia; Gadler, Fredrik; Eriksson, Maria J; Olsson, Arne; Boriani, Giuseppe; Braunschweig, Frieder

    2007-01-01

    Haemodynamic and functional effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have been studied mostly at rest. CRT effects on left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony and function during stress have not been evaluated in detail. We studied the electromechanical effects of CRT at rest and during Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE), during active and withheld CRT. Twenty-one responders to CRT (62+/-12 yr) were assessed by walking test, quality of life, and BNP with active CRT ("on") and 2 weeks after pacing withdrawal ("off"). DSE (10 microg/kg/min) was performed both at "on" and "off" to evaluate dyssynchrony parameters, systolic and diastolic function. At rest, CRT withdrawal was associated with an increased interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD, from 21+/-18 ms to 49+/-24 ms, p<0.001) and impaired intraventricular synchrony. There was a significant decrease in LV systolic function and LV filling time. Dobutamine infusion had no impact on inter- and intraventricular synchrony. During stress, there was an improvement in LV performance both at "on" and "off". However, LV dp/dt, aortic VTI, cardiac output, mean systolic peak velocities and LV filling time during dobutamine stress were significantly greater with CRT "on". In long-term responders, CRT improves LV performance both at rest and during dobutamine stress. This is attributable to an improvement in LV synchrony, which is maintained during stress.

  19. Tracing the European course of cardiac resynchronization therapy from 2006 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Merkely, Bela; Roka, Attila; Kutyifa, Valentina; Boersma, Lucas; Leenhardt, Antoine; Lubinski, Andrzej; Oto, Ali; Proclemer, Alessandro; Brugada, Josep; Vardas, Panos E; Wolpert, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a highly efficient treatment modality for patients with severe congestive heart failure and intraventricular dyssynchrony. However, the high individual cost and technical complexity of the implantation may limit its widespread utilization. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) launched a project to assess treatment of arrhythmias in all European Society of Cardiology member countries in order to have a platform for a progressive harmonization of arrhythmia treatment. As a result, two EHRA White Books have been published in 2008 and 2009 based on governmental, insurance, and professional society data. Our aim was to analyse the local differences in the utilization of CRT, based on these surveys. A total of 41 countries provided enough data to analyse years 2006-2008. Significant differences were found in the overall number of implantations and the growth rate between 2006 and 2008. Other contributing factors include local reimbursement of CRT, the existence of national guidelines, and a high number of conventional implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations, while GDP or healthcare spending has less effect. Focusing on improving these factors may increase the availability of CRT in countries where it is currently underutilized.

  20. Role of echocardiography before cardiac resynchronization therapy: new advances and current developments.

    PubMed

    Marechaux, Sylvestre; Menet, Aymeric; Guyomar, Yves; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Guerbaai, Raphaëlle Ashley; Graux, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    The role of echocardiography in improving the selection of patients who will benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains a source of debate. Although previous landmark reports have demonstrated a link between mechanical dyssynchrony, assessed by delays between left ventricle (LV) walls and response to CRT, the predictive value of these findings has not yet been confirmed in multicenter trials. Indeed, recent studies demonstrated that the classical assessment of LV mechanical dyssynchrony using delay between walls by echocardiography depends not only on LV electrical activation delay (electrical dyssynchrony), but also on abnormalities in regional contractility of the LV and/or loading conditions, which do not represent an appropriate target for CRT. Recent reports highlighted the value of new indices of electromechanical dyssynchrony obtained by echocardiography, to predict LV response and outcome after CRT including septal flash, left bundle branch block-typical pattern by longitudinal strain, apical rocking, septal strain patterns, and systolic stretch index. This was achieved using a mechanistic approach, based on the contractile consequences of electrical dyssynchrony. These indices are rarely found in patients with narrow QRS (<120 ms), whereas their frequency rises in patients with an increase in QRS duration (>120 ms). Theses indices should improve candidate selection for CRT in clinical practice, especially for patients in whom the benefit of CRT remains uncertain, for example, patients with intermediate QRS width (120-150 ms).

  1. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging fusion for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinwoo; Radau, Perry; Xu, Robert; Wright, Graham A

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) can effectively treat left ventricle (LV) driven Heart Failure (HF). However, 30% of the CRT recipients do not experience symptomatic benefit. Recent studies show that the CRT response rate can reach 95% when the LV pacing lead is placed at an optimal site at a region of maximal LV dyssynchrony and away from myocardial scars. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) can identify the optimal site in three dimensions (3D). 3D CMR data can be registered to clinical standard x-ray fluoroscopy to achieve an optimal pacing of the LV. We have developed a 3D CMR to 2D x-ray image registration method for CRT procedures. We have employed the LV pacing lead on x-ray images and coronary sinus on MR data as landmarks. The registration method makes use of a guidewire simulation algorithm, edge based image registration technique and x-ray C-arm tracking to register the coronary sinus and pacing lead landmarks.

  2. Electrocardiographic predictors of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with intraventricular conduction delay.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Yoichi; Noda, Takashi; Nakajima, Ikutaro; Yamada, Yuko; Miyamoto, Koji; Okamura, Hideo; Satomi, Kazuhiro; Aiba, Takeshi; Kusano, Kengo F; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ishihara, Masaharu; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kamakura, Shiro; Shimizu, Wataru

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about predictors of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with intraventricular conduction delay (IVCD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of CRT and significant variables on surface electrocardiogram (ECG) to predict response to CRT in those patients. Among the cohort of 152 CRT patients, 40 patients with IVCD were evaluated. Sixteen patients (40%) were responders. At baseline, responders had a wider QRS duration (158±18 vs. 144±18ms, P=0.02) and a higher frequency of left axis deviation (LADEV; 75% vs. 29%, P=0.004) compared with non-responders. After CRT, greater shortening of QRS duration (ΔQRS; 26±24 vs. 7±24ms, P=0.02), axis shift from LADEV to right axis deviation (RADEV; 69% vs. 13%, P<0.001), and both rightward forces in lead I and anterior forces in V1 (56% vs. 13%, P=0.003) were found more frequently in responders. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that LADEV at baseline, or ΔQRS and axis shift from LADEV to RADEV after CRT were independent predictors of response to CRT. Patients with IVCD may not respond to CRT, but LADEV at baseline and reversal of ventricular activation after CRT on surface ECG could be important to predict response to CRT.

  3. Usefulness of hyponatremia as a predictor for adverse events in patients with heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay K; Vegh, Eszter M; Kandala, Jagdesh; Orencole, Mary; Januszkiewicz, Lukasz; Bose, Abhishek; Miller, Alexandra; Parks, Kimberly A; Heist, E Kevin; Singh, Jagmeet P

    2014-07-01

    Hyponatremia portends a poor prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic implication of hyponatremia on adverse events in patients with HF receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Additionally, the impact of improvement of hyponatremia after CRT device implantation was also evaluated. In this retrospective analysis, we included patients in whom a CRT device was implanted between April 2004 and April 2010 at our institution and had a baseline sodium level obtained within 72 hours of implantation. The patients were followed up for 3 years after implantation for subsequent primary composite end points, that is, hospitalization for HF, left ventricular assist device or heart transplant, and all-cause death. Sodium levels were followed up at 3 to 6 months after device implantation. Hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level of <135 mmol/L. A total of 402 patients were included (age 68.7 ± 12.3 years, women 20.9%). One hundred seventy-nine adverse events were noted in this period. In a Cox proportional hazards univariate model, hyponatremia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.113 to 2.131, p = 0.009), creatinine (HR 1.267, 95% CI 1.156 to 1.389, p <0.001), and diuretics (HR 2.652, 95% CI 1.401 to 5.019, p = 0.003) were associated with occurrence of the composite end point. A total of 57.9% of patients with hyponatremia at baseline had the composite end point compared with 40.7% of those with normal sodium concentration (p = 0.004). Kaplan-Meier curve showed that hyponatremic patients fared worse. Also, patients in whom hyponatremia resolved after CRT device implantation had lower incidence of the composite end point compared with patients who had normal pre-CRT sodium levels but developed hyponatremia later. In conclusion, baseline hyponatremia is associated with poor prognosis in patients with HF. CRT can resolve hyponatremia in some patients after device implantation

  4. Potential value of automated daily screening of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator diagnostics for prediction of major cardiovascular events: results from Home-CARE (Home Monitoring in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Stefan; Wende, Christian Michael; Nägele, Herbert; Katz, Amos; Bauer, Wolfgang Rudolf; Barr, Craig Scott; Malinowski, Klaus; Schwacke, Harald; Leyva, Francisco; Proff, Jochen; Berdyshev, Sergey; Paul, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether diagnostic data from implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-Ds) retrieved automatically at 24 h intervals via a Home Monitoring function can enable dynamic prediction of cardiovascular hospitalization and death. Methods and results Three hundred and seventy-seven heart failure patients received CRT-Ds with Home Monitoring option. Data on all deaths and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular reasons and Home Monitoring data were collected prospectively during 1-year follow-up to develop a predictive algorithm with a predefined specificity of 99.5%. Seven parameters were included in the algorithm: mean heart rate over 24 h, heart rate at rest, patient activity, frequency of ventricular extrasystoles, atrial–atrial intervals (heart rate variability), right ventricular pacing impedance, and painless shock impedance. The algorithm was developed using a 25-day monitoring window ending 3 days before hospitalization or death. While the retrospective sensitivities of the individual parameters ranged from 23.6 to 50.0%, the combination of all parameters was 65.4% sensitive in detecting cardiovascular hospitalizations and deaths with 99.5% specificity (corresponding to 1.83 false-positive detections per patient-year of follow-up). The estimated relative risk of an event was 7.15-fold higher after a positive predictor finding than after a negative predictor finding. Conclusion We developed an automated algorithm for dynamic prediction of cardiovascular events in patients treated with CRT-D devices capable of daily transmission of their diagnostic data via Home Monitoring. This tool may increase patients’ quality of life and reduce morbidity, mortality, and health economic burden, it now warrants prospective studies. ClinicalTrials.gov  NCT00376116. PMID:21852311

  5. Reparative resynchronization in ischemic heart failure: an emerging strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Satsuki; Terzic, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac dyssynchrony refers to disparity in cardiac wall motion, a serious consequence of myocardial infarction associated with poor outcome. Infarct-induced scar is refractory to device-based cardiac resynchronization therapy, which relies on viable tissue. Leveraging the prospect of structural and functional regeneration, reparative resynchronization has emerged as a potentially achievable strategy. In proof-of-concept studies, stem-cell therapy eliminates contractile deficit originating from infarcted regions and secures long-term synchronization with tissue repair. Limited clinical experience suggests benefit of cell interventions in acute and chronic ischemic heart disease as adjuvant to standard of care. A regenerative resynchronization option for dyssynchronous heart failure thus merits validation. PMID:24840208

  6. Identification of genetic markers for treatment success in heart failure patients: insight from cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Boris; De Maria, Renata; Gatsios, Dimitris; Chrysanthakopoulou, Theodora; Landolina, Maurizio; Gasparini, Maurizio; Campolo, Jonica; Parolini, Marina; Sanzo, Antonio; Galimberti, Paola; Bianchi, Michele; Lenders, Malte; Brand, Eva; Parodi, Oberdan; Lunati, Maurizio; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can improve ventricular size, shape, and mass and reduce mitral regurgitation by reverse remodeling of the failing ventricle. About 30% of patients do not respond to this therapy for unknown reasons. In this study, we aimed at the identification and classification of CRT responder by the use of genetic variants and clinical parameters. Of 1421 CRT patients, 207 subjects were consecutively selected, and CRT responder and nonresponder were matched for their baseline parameters before CRT. Treatment success of CRT was defined as a decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume >15% at follow-up echocardiography compared with left ventricular end-systolic volume at baseline. All other changes classified the patient as CRT nonresponder. A genetic association study was performed, which identified 4 genetic variants to be associated with the CRT responder phenotype at the allelic (P<0.035) and genotypic (P<0.031) level: rs3766031 (ATPIB1), rs5443 (GNB3), rs5522 (NR3C2), and rs7325635 (TNFSF11). Machine learning algorithms were used for the classification of CRT patients into responder and nonresponder status, including combinations of the identified genetic variants and clinical parameters. We demonstrated that rule induction algorithms can successfully be applied for the classification of heart failure patients in CRT responder and nonresponder status using clinical and genetic parameters. Our analysis included information on alleles and genotypes of 4 genetic loci, rs3766031 (ATPIB1), rs5443 (GNB3), rs5522 (NR3C2), and rs7325635 (TNFSF11), pathophysiologically associated with remodeling of the failing ventricle. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Feasibility and Association of Neurohumoral Blocker Up-titration After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    Martens, Pieter; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Nijst, Petra; Bertrand, Philippe B; Dupont, Matthias; Tang, Wilson H; Mullens, Wilfried

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves mortality and morbidity on top of optimal medical therapy in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This study aimed to elucidate the association between neurohumoral blocker up-titration after CRT implantation and clinical outcomes. Doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and beta-blockers were retrospectively evaluated in 650 consecutive CRT patients implanted from October 2008 to August 2015 and followed in a tertiary multidisciplinary CRT clinic. All 650 CRT patients were on a maximal tolerable dose of ACE-I/ARB and beta-blocker at the time of CRT implantation. However, further up-titration was successful in 45.4% for ACE-I/ARB and in 56.8% for beta-blocker after CRT-implantation. During a mean follow-up of 37 ± 22 months, a total of 139 events occurred for the combined end point of heart failure admission and all-cause mortality. Successful, versus unsuccessful, up-titration was associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.537 (95% confidence interval 0.316-0.913; P = .022) for ACE-I/ARB and 0.633 (0.406-0.988; P = .044) for beta-blocker on the combined end point heart failure admission and all-cause mortality. Patients in the up-titration group exhibited a similar risk for death or heart failure admission as patients treated with the maximal dose (ACE-I/ARB: P = .133; beta-blockers: P = .709). After CRT, a majority of patients are capable of tolerating higher dosages of neurohumoral blockers. Up-titration of neurohumoral blockers after CRT implantation is associated with improved clinical outcomes, similarly to patients treated with the guideline-recommended target dose at the time of CRT implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Online: What Patients Find when Searching the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Modi, Minal; Laskar, Nabila; Modi, Bhavik N

    2016-06-01

    To objectively assess the quality of information available on the World Wide Web on cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Patients frequently search the internet regarding their healthcare issues. It has been shown that patients seeking information can help or hinder their healthcare outcomes depending on the quality of information consulted. On the internet, this information can be produced and published by anyone, resulting in the risk of patients accessing inaccurate and misleading information. The search term "Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy" was entered into the three most popular search engines and the first 50 pages on each were pooled and analyzed, after excluding websites inappropriate for objective review. The "LIDA" instrument (a validated tool for assessing quality of healthcare information websites) was to generate scores on Accessibility, Reliability, and Usability. Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES). Of the 150 web-links, 41 sites met the eligibility criteria. The sites were assessed using the LIDA instrument and the FRES. A mean total LIDA score for all the websites assessed was 123.5 of a possible 165 (74.8%). The average Accessibility of the sites assessed was 50.1 of 60 (84.3%), on Usability 41.4 of 54 (76.6%), on Reliability 31.5 of 51 (61.7%), and 41.8 on FRES. There was a significant variability among sites and interestingly, there was no correlation between the sites' search engine ranking and their scores. This study has illustrated the variable quality of online material on the topic of CRT. Furthermore, there was also no apparent correlation between highly ranked, popular websites and their quality. Healthcare professionals should be encouraged to guide their patients toward the online material that contains reliable information. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Incidence and clinical relevance of uncontrolled ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation in heart failure patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Maurizio; Landolina, Maurizio; Lunati, Maurizio; Proclemer, Alessandro; Lonardi, Gabriele; Iacopino, Saverio; Rahue, Werner; Biffi, Mauro; DiStefano, Paola; Grammatico, Andrea; Santini, Massimo

    2011-08-01

    Uncontrolled ventricular rate (VR) during atrial fibrillation (AF) may cause clinical deterioration in heart failure (HF) patients who need continuous biventricular pacing to achieve cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We aimed at evaluating the association between AF, uncontrolled VR, and sub-optimal CRT, defined as low biventricular pacing percentage (BIVP%). All 1404 patients had HF, New York Heart Association (NYHA) ≥II, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%, and QRS ≥120 ms, and received an implantable CRT defibrillator (CRT-D). Occurrence of AF, VR during AF and lifetime BIVP% were estimated from device data. Ventricular rate during AF was defined as uncontrolled in patients with mean VR>80 bpm and maximum VR>110 bpm. Over a median follow-up of 18 months, AF was detected in 443 of 1404 patients (32%). In this sub-group of AF patients, VR during AF was uncontrolled in 150 of 443 patients (34%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-1.06, P= 0.028], and uncontrolled VR [HR = 1.69 (CI = 1.01-2.83), P= 0.046] were the only independent predictors of clinical outcome, assessed by HF hospitalizations and death. The median lifetime BIVP% was 95% (25-75 percentile range 91-99%). Biventricular pacing percentage was significantly and inversely correlated to VR, decreasing by 7% for each 10 bpm increase in VR. Sub-optimal CRT, defined as BIVP% <95%, was predicted by the occurrence of persistent or permanent AF [odds ratio (OR) = 3.77, CI = 2.44-5.82, P< 0.001], and uncontrolled VR [OR = 2.25, CI = 1.35-3.73, P= 0.002]. Uncontrolled VR occurs in one-third of CRT-D patients, who experience AF, and is associated with HF hospitalizations and death and with sub-optimal CRT (lifetime BIVP%<95%).

  10. Echocardiographic Predictors of Long-Term Survival in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: What Is the Optimal Metric?

    PubMed

    Rickard, John; Baranowski, Bryan; Wilson Tang, W H; Grimm, Richard A; Niebauer, Mark; Cantillion, Daniel; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Varma, Niraj

    2017-04-01

    Multiple definitions of reverse ventricular remodeling (RVR) employing various changes in left ventricular end-systolic (LVESV) or diastolic volumes (LVEDVs) or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) have been used in determining cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response, making comparability across studies difficult. We compared different metrics to each other, and in combination, in terms of association with long-term outcomes. We collected clinical and echocardiographic data on 436 patients undergoing CRT. LVEF was assessed via a combined volumetric and visual assessment. Volumes were manually traced. Using a nested multivariate model of a priori determined predictors of long-term survival free of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or heart transplant, multiple definitions of RVR were added to the model individually to determine which provided the best model fit. Over a mean follow-up of 5.4 ± 2.3 years, there were 198 endpoints (10 LVADs, 15 heart transplants, and 173 deaths). When added to a nested model controlling for multiple potential confounders, all definitions of RVR were significantly associated with improved survival. Changes in LVEF and LVESV were superior to changes in LVEDV. A combination metric of an LVEF improvement ≥ 5% and LVESV reduction ≥ 10% was the best overall metric for model fit. Changes in LVESV and LVEF are better predictors of long-term outcome following CRT compared to changes in LVEDV. Adding an assessment of LVEF to reduction in LVESV ≥ 10% provided the best overall definition for RVR in predicting CRT outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Predicting Clinical and Echocardiographic Response After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With a Score Combining Clinical, Electrocardiographic, and Echocardiographic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Anne; Menet, Aymeric; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Fournet, Maxime; Schnell, Frederic; Guyomar, Yves; Leclercq, Christophe; Mabo, Philippe; Fauchier, Laurent; Donal, Erwan

    2017-06-01

    The L2ANDS2 score was previously found to be able to assess the probability of left ventricular (LV) remodeling. We sought to evaluate this score in terms of clinical outcomes: 275 patients with heart failure, from 2 centers, implanted with a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device were followed at least 2 years after implantation. Baseline clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic characteristics including left bundle branch block, age >70 years, nonischemic etiology, LV end-diastolic diameter <40 mm/m(2), and septal flash by echocardiography were integrated in 4 scoring systems. Nonresponse to CRT was LV reverse remodeling <15% at 6 months' follow-up and/or occurrence of major cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death or transplantation or assistance) during a clinical follow-up of at least 2 years. Ninety-seven patients (36%) demonstrated nonresponse to CRT. The L2ANDS2 score demonstrated the best predictive value (C statistic of 0.783) for predicting absence of LV reverse remodeling and/or occurrence of major cardiovascular event during the 2 years follow-up compared with other scoring systems that do not include septal flash. A L2ANDS2 score ≤4 was associated with a worse outcome (38% survival vs 81% survival, hazard ratio 4.19, 95% CI 2.70 to 6.48, p <0.0001). In conclusion, the L2ANDS2 score is able to assess the probability of nonresponse to CRT in terms of no reverse LV remodeling and/or major cardiovascular event at long-term follow-up. Integrating septal flash in a scoring system adds value over left bundle branch block only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Importance of adjunctive heart failure optimization immediately after implantation to improve long-term outcomes with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Mullens, Wilfried; Kepa, Jacek; De Vusser, Philippe; Vercammen, Jan; Rivero-Ayerza, Maximo; Wagner, Patrick; Dens, Joseph; Vrolix, Mathias; Vandervoort, Pieter; Tang, W H Wilson

    2011-08-01

    Despite improvement in morbidity and mortality with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), disease progression continues to affect a subset of patients and there is limited effort to identify contributing factors. Our objective was to investigate if a protocol-driven approach incorporated in a management strategy of heart failure immediately after implantation would provide incremental benefits beyond usual care after implantation. We reviewed 114 consecutive patients with CRT implanted from 2005 through 2009 who received usual care after implantation or underwent protocol-driven CRT care after implantation. Preimplantation characteristics in patients receiving usual versus protocol-driven care were similar in left ventricular (LV) dimension (LV internal diastolic diameter 6.2 ± 0.8 vs 6.4 ± 1.0 cm), LV ejection fraction (26 ± 8% vs 25% ± 8%), QRS width, and medication usage. Major adjustments during the protocol-driven approach were uptitration of neurohormonal blockers (64%), echocardiographically guided atrioventricular optimization (50%), heart failure education (42%), arrhythmia management (19%), and LV lead repositioning (7%). Although positive LV remodeling was noted in the 2 groups at 6 months, extent was significantly greater in the protocol-driven approach compared to usual care (change in LV internal diastolic diameter 0.7 ± 0.6 cm vs 0.2 ± 1.2 cm, p = 0.01; change in LV ejection fraction 11 ± 7% vs 7 ± 9%, p = 0.01), which was associated with fewer major adverse events (14% vs 53%, p <0.001). In conclusion, a protocol-driven approach for patients with CRT started immediately after implantation is associated with incremental favorable effects on reverse remodeling and fewer adverse events compared to usual care after implantation. These effects appeared to be driven not only by changes in device settings and arrhythmia management but also by concomitant medication optimization and heart failure education.

  13. Three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping of the coronary veins during cardiac resynchronization therapy implant: feasibility and possible applications.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Imran; Ryu, Kyungmoo; Hood, Richard; Choudhuri, Indrajit; Akhtar, Masood

    2014-11-01

    Left ventricular (LV) electrical activation pattern could determine optimal LV lead placement site during cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implant. We sought to determine the feasibility of using EnSite NavX™ electroanatomic mapping system (St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN) to assess LV electrical activation during CRT implant. Patients (n = 32; NYHA III, LVEF <35%, QRSd >120 ms) underwent NavX™ mapping during CRT implant. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) was present during sinus rhythm in group A (n = 17), whereas LBBB was induced by permanent RV apical pacing in group B (n = 15). Following coronary sinus (CS) cannulation, a coil tip 0.014-in. guidewire was introduced into all available CS branches as a mapping electrode. Each patient's unipolar activation map was successfully constructed within 10 min, using the onset of surface QRS as reference. LV activation patterns were complex and varied in both groups. Earliest activation was usually apical, but latest activation was more heterogenous. The lateral or posterolateral branches were the sites of latest activation in 47% of group A and 73% of group B. An LV lead positioned conventionally by a physician blinded to the mapping data was concordant with the latest activated segment in 18% of group A and none of group B patients. Electroanatomic mapping of the CS tributaries is feasible and clinically practicable. Mapping revealed heterogenous conduction patterns that vary between patients in each group and between groups. An LV lead empirically placed in a lateral branch rarely paces the optimal, latest activated vein segment.

  14. Clinical benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator in patients with an ejection fraction > 35% estimated by cardiac magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Fabregat-Andrés, Oscar; García-González, Pilar; Valle-Muñoz, Alfonso; Estornell-Erill, Jordi; Pérez-Boscá, Leandro; Palanca-Gil, Victor; Payá-Serrano, Rafael; Quesada-Dorador, Aurelio; Morell, Salvador; Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco

    2014-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator prolongs survival and improves quality of life in advanced heart failure. Traditionally, patients with ejection fraction > 35 estimated by echocardiography have been excluded. We assessed the prognostic impact of this therapy in a group of patients with severely depressed systolic function as assessed by echocardiography but with an ejection fraction > 35% as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance. We analyzed consecutive patients admitted for decompensated heart failure between 2004 and 2011. The patients were in functional class II-IV, with a QRS ≥ to 120 ms, ejection fraction ≤ 35% estimated by echocardiography, and a cardiac magnetic resonance study. We included all patients (n=103) who underwent device implantation for primary prevention. Ventricular arrhythmia, all-cause mortality and readmission for heart failure were considered major cardiac events. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to systolic function assessed by magnetic resonance. The 2 groups showed similar improvements in functional class and ejection fraction at 6 months. We found a nonsignificant trend toward a higher risk of all-cause mortality in patients with systolic function ≤ 35% at long-term follow-up. The presence of a pattern of necrosis identified patients with a worse prognosis for ventricular arrhythmias and mortality in both groups. We conclude that cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator leads to a similar clinical benefit in patients with an ejection fraction ≤ 35% or > 35% estimated by cardiac magnetic resonance. Analysis of the pattern of late gadolinium enhancement provides additional information on arrhythmic risk and long-term prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between frequency of atrial and ventricular ectopic beats and biventricular pacing percentage and outcomes in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Martin H; Mittal, Suneet; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Aktas, Mehmet K; Daubert, James P; McNitt, Scott; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Jons, Christian; Kutyifa, Valentina; Steinberg, Jonathan S; Wang, Paul; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech

    2014-09-09

    A high percentage of biventricular pacing is required for optimal outcome in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), but the influence of ectopic beats on the success of biventricular pacing has not been well established. This study sought to determine if increased ectopic beats reduce the chance of high biventricular pacing percentage and are associated with subsequent adverse outcomes. From the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy), 801 patients with an implanted CRT-defibrillator device with data available on biventricular pacing percentage and pre-implantation 24-h Holter recordings were included. Using logistic regression, we estimated the influence of ectopic beats on the percentage of biventricular pacing. Reverse remodeling was measured as reductions in atrial and left ventricular end-systolic volumes (LVESV) at 1 year. Cox models were used to assess the influence of ectopic beats on the outcomes of heart failure (HF) or death, ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs), and death. In the pre-implantation Holter recording, ectopic beats accounted for a mean 3.2 ± 5.5% of all beats. The probability of subsequent low biventricular pacing percentage (<97%) was increased 3-fold (odds ratio: 3.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.74 to 6.50; p < 0.001) in patients with 0.1% to 1.5% ectopic beats and 13-fold (odds ratio: 13.42; 95% confidence interval: 7.02 to 25.66; p < 0.001) in patients with >1.5% ectopic beats compared with those with <0.1% ectopic beats. Patients with ≥0.1% ectopic beats had significantly less reverse remodeling (percent reduction in LVESV 31 ± 15%) than patients with <0.1% ectopic beats (percent reduction in LVESV 39 ± 14%; p < 0.001). The risk of HF/death and VTA was increased significantly in those with 0.1% to 1.5% ectopic beats (hazard ratio: 3.13 and 1.84, respectively) and for >1.5% ectopic beats (hazard ratio: 2.38 and 2.74, respectively). Relatively

  16. Biophysical Modeling to Determine the Optimization of Left Ventricular Pacing Site and AV/VV Delays in the Acute and Chronic Phase of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    LEE, ANGELA W. C.; CROZIER, ANDREW; HYDE, EOIN R.; LAMATA, PABLO; TRUONG, MICHAEL; SOHAL, MANAV; JACKSON, THOMAS; BEHAR, JONATHAN M.; CLARIDGE, SIMON; SHETTY, ANOOP; SAMMUT, EVA; PLANK, GERNOT; RINALDI, CHRISTOPHER ALDO

    2017-01-01

    Device Optimization for Acute and Chronic CRT Background Cardiac anatomy and function adapt in response to chronic cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The effects of these changes on the optimal left ventricle (LV) lead location and timing delay settings have yet to be fully explored. Objective To predict the effects of chronic CRT on the optimal LV lead location and device timing settings over time. Methods Biophysical computational cardiac models were generated for 3 patients, immediately post‐implant (ACUTE) and after at least 6 months of CRT (CHRONIC). Optimal LV pacing area and device settings were predicted by pacing the ACUTE and CHRONIC models across the LV epicardium (49 sites each) with a range of 9 pacing settings and simulating the acute hemodynamic response (AHR) of the heart. Results There were statistically significant differences between the distribution of the AHR in the ACUTE and CHRONIC models (P < 0.0005 in all cases). The site delivering the maximal AHR shifted location between the ACUTE and CHRONIC models but provided a negligible improvement (<2%). The majority of the acute optimal LV pacing regions (76–100%) and device settings (76–91%) remained optimal chronically. Conclusion Optimization of the LV pacing location and device settings were important at the time of implant, with a reduced benefit over time, where the majority of the acute optimal LV pacing region and device settings remained optimal with chronic CRT. PMID:27885749

  17. Hemodynamic benefit of rest and exercise optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Tony; Haluska, Brian A; Leano, Rodel; Marwick, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    The optimal method of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) optimization is as yet unknown. We sought to investigate the responses of optimization at rest and on exercise. This 2 stage study involved 59 patients (age 65 ± 10, 75% male), who had all recently undergone successful CRT implantation. In the first stage, the 6-month response was compared between 30 individuals who underwent resting echocardiographic optimization of CRT [atrioventricular (AV delay) plus ventriculo-ventricular delays (VV delay)], compared with the 29 who did not. In the second stage, a subset of 37 patients from the original cohort were randomized (double-blind) to either resting echocardiographic optimization (n = 20) or exercise echocardiographic optimization (n = 17) and followed for a further 6 months. Clinical and echocardiographic data were collected at each stage. Patients undergoing rest optimization demonstrated improvement in almost all variables and significantly in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in contrast to those without optimization. In a linear regression model, the only significant predictor of BNP change was whether an individual underwent resting optimization or not (β = 0.38, P = 0.04). In those undergoing resting optimization, the degree of change in AV delay was correlated with improvement in left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic volume (r(2)  = 0.33, P < 0.01). Optimization on exercise was associated with a significant decrease in 6-minute walk test compared to those randomized to rest optimization possibly due to inducing nonoptimization at rest. In conclusion, echocardiographic optimization of CRT at rest is superior to no optimization or optimization on exercise. Patients with the greatest change in AV delay to reach optimal may undergo greater LV remodeling.

  18. Vitamin D levels predict the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sunman, Hamza; Özkan, Adem; Yorgun, Hikmet; Canpolat, Uğur; Maharjan, Naresh; Asil, Serkan; Kaya, Ergün Barış; Bayrak, Tülin; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Özkara, Asuman; Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between vitamin D levels in patients with heart failure (HF) and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We studied 57 patients (mean age: 60.47±13.09 years) with New York Heart Association Class II or III heart failure, QRS duration ?120 milliseconds, and ejection fraction <35% (mean: 27.1±4.4%) who underwent CRT. All patients were taking optimal medical treatment for HF. Patients were classified as CRT responders if they had >15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6 months compared with baseline measurements. Vitamin D levels were evaluated before CRT implantation with ELISA. Of the 57 patients, 34 patients (59.6%) were classified as responders and 23 patients (40.4%) were classified as non-responders. Baseline features, laboratory findings, and echocardiographic characteristics were nearly the same in both groups. High vitamin D level was detected in responder group compared to non-responder group (26.17±7.5 ng/mL vs 21.15±5.9 ng/mL; p=0.009). Age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cardiomyopathy, QRS morphology and duration, and levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and vitamin D were associated with CRT response in our study population. In multivariate regression analysis, preimplantation QRS duration, and BNP and vitamin D levels remained independent predictors (QRS duration Odds ratio [OR]: 1.047, CI: 1.019-1.417, p=0.006; BNP OR: 0.997, 95% CI: 0.994-0.999, p=0.029; vitamin D OR: 1.121, 95% CI: 1.011-1.242, p=0.030). In the present study, preimplantation level of vitamin D was found to be predictor of response to CRT.

  19. Impact of Iron Deficiency on Response to and Remodeling After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    Martens, Pieter; Verbrugge, Frederik; Nijst, Petra; Dupont, Matthias; Tang, W H Wilson; Mullens, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency is prevalent in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and relates to symptomatic status, readmission, and all-cause mortality. The relation between iron status and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains insufficiently elucidated. This study assesses the impact of iron deficiency on clinical response and reverse cardiac remodeling and outcome after CRT. Baseline characteristics, change in New York Heart Association functional class, reverse cardiac remodeling on echocardiography, and clinical outcome (i.e., all-cause mortality and heart failure readmissions) were retrospectively evaluated in consecutive CRT patients who had full iron status and complete blood count available at implantation, implanted at a single tertiary care center with identical dedicated multidisciplinary CRT follow-up from October 2008 to August 2015. A total of 541 patients were included with mean follow-up of 38 ± 22 months. Prevalence of iron deficiency was 56% at implantation. Patients with iron deficiency exhibited less symptomatic improvement 6 months after implantation (p value <0.001). In addition, both the decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (-3.1 vs -6.2 mm; p value = 0.011) and improvement in ejection fraction (+11% vs +15%, p value = 0.001) were significantly lower in patients with iron deficiency. Iron deficiency was significantly associated with an increased risk for heart failure admission or all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.718, 95% confidence interval 1.178 to 2.506), irrespectively of the presence of anemia (Hemoglobin <12 g/dl in women and <13 g/dl in men). In conclusion, iron deficiency is prevalent and affects both clinical response and reverse cardiac remodeling after CRT implantation. Moreover, it is a powerful predictor of adverse clinical outcomes in CRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Agreement is Poor Amongst Current Criteria Used to Define Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fornwalt, Brandon K.; Sprague, William W.; BeDell, Patrick; Suever, Jonathan D.; Gerritse, Bart; Merlino, John D.; Fyfe, Derek A.; León, Angel R.; Oshinski, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Numerous criteria believed to define a positive response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have been utilized in the literature. No study has investigated agreement amongst these response criteria. We hypothesized that the agreement between the various response criteria would be poor. Methods and Results A literature search was conducted with the keywords “cardiac resynchronization” and “response”. The 50 publications with the most citations were reviewed. After excluding editorials and reviews, seventeen different primary response criteria were identified from 26 relevant articles. The agreement amongst fifteen of these seventeen response criteria was assessed in 426 patients from the PROSPECT study using Cohen's κ coefficient (two response criteria were not calculable from PROSPECT data). The overall response rate ranged from 32-91% for the fifteen response criteria. Ninety-nine percent of patients showed a positive response by at least one of the fifteen criteria while 94% were classified as a non-responder by at least one criterion. Kappa values were calculated for all 105 possible comparisons amongst the fifteen response criteria and classified into standard ranges: poor agreement (κ≤0.4), moderate agreement (0.4<κ<0.75) and strong agreement (κ≥0.75). Seventy-five percent of the comparisons showed poor agreement, 21% showed moderate agreement and only 4% showed strong agreement. Conclusions The 26 most cited publications on predicting response to CRT define response using 17 different criteria. Agreement between different methods to define response to CRT is poor 75% of the time and strong only 4% of the time, which severely limits the ability to generalize results over multiple studies. PMID:20421518

  1. Response to cardiac resynchronization therapy as assessed by time-based speckle tracking imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Abdul; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Elvan, Arif

    2015-04-01

    Response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is still difficult to predict with previously investigated dyssynchrony indices. The predictive value of speckle tracking strain analysis has not been fully delineated yet. The objective of this study was to assess the predictive value of longitudinal strain (LS) and radial strain (RS) speckle tracking measurements on echocardiographic and clinical response to CRT. A total of 138 consecutive patients with functional class II-IV heart failure who underwent CRT were studied. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and during follow-up. Six different time-based left ventricular (LV)-dyssynchrony indices were measured with LS and RS. Echocardiographic response to CRT was defined as a reduction in LV end-systolic volume ≥15% and clinical response as survival without heart failure hospitalization. Multivariable analyses were performed to adjust for potential confounding factors. Echocardiographic and clinical follow-up was 22 ± 8 and 42 ± 8 months, respectively. Ninety-six patients (70%) were classified as echocardiographic responders and 114 patients (83%) survived without heart failure hospitalization. QRS duration and nonischemic etiology predicted echocardiographic response to CRT. None of the speckle tracking indices was different between echocardiographic responders and nonresponders to CRT. Regarding clinical response, only maximal delay between six segments in four-chamber view measured with LS was different between responders and nonresponders, with 154-ms delay as the optimal cut-off value. Neither stratified analyses in patients with sinus rhythm nor multivariable analyses did change these findings. Of all time-based measured speckle tracking indices, only maximal delay between six segments in four-chamber view as assessed with LS was associated with clinical response to CRT. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pacemaker optimization in nonresponders to cardiac resynchronization therapy: left ventricular pacing as an available option.

    PubMed

    Gage, Ryan M; Burns, Kevin V; Vatterott, Daniel B; Kubo, Spencer H; Bank, Alan J

    2012-06-01

    Echocardiographic (ECHO)-guided pacemaker optimization (PMO) in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) nonresponders acutely improves left ventricular (LV) function. However, the chronic results of LV pacing in this group are less understood. We retrospectively studied 28 CRT nonresponders optimized based on ECHO to LV pacing and compared them to 28 age- and gender-matched patients optimized to biventricular (BiV) pacing. ECHOs with tissue Doppler imaging assessed LV hemodynamics before, immediately after, and 29 ± 16 months after PMO. Also, 56 age- and gender-matched CRT responders were included for comparison of clinical outcomes. PMO resulted in acute improvements in longitudinal LV systolic function and several measures of dyssynchrony, with greater improvements in the LV paced group. Chronic improvements in ejection fraction (EF) (3.2 ± 7.7%), and left ventricle end-systolic volume (LVESV) (-11 ± 36 mL) and one dyssynchrony measure were seen in the combined group. Chronically, both LV and BiV paced patients improved some measures of systolic function and dyssynchrony although response varied between the groups. Survival at 3.5 years was similar (P = 0.973) between the PMO (58%) and nonoptimized groups (58%) but survival free of cardiovascular hospitalization was significantly (P = 0.037) better in the nonoptimized group. CRT nonresponders undergoing PMO to either LV or BiV pacing have acute improvements in longitudinal systolic function and some measures of dyssynchrony. Some benefits are sustained chronically, with improvements in EF, LVESV, and dyssynchrony. A strategy of ECHO-guided PMO results in survival for CRT nonresponders similar to that of CRT patients not referred for PMO. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Antiarrhythmic effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy with triple-site biventricular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ogano, Michio; Iwasaki, Yu-ki; Tanabe, Jun; Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya; Hayashi, Meiso; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2013-10-01

    The antiarrhythmic effect of triple-site biventricular stimulation (Tri-V) is poorly understood. This study aims to evaluate the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on ventricular arrhythmia (VA) with Tri-V using a single right ventricular (RV) and double left ventricular (LV) lead. Over a period of 3.5 years, 58 consecutive patients with New York Heart Association class II-IV heart failure, an LV ejection fraction of ≤ 0.35, and a QRS interval of ≥ 120 ms were enrolled. Acute haemodynamic responses to dual-site biventricular stimulation (Bi-V) and Tri-V were evaluated by assigning patients to a Bi-V or Tri-V group. Electrocardiogram parameters [QT interval, JT interval, and transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR)] were measured over time after CRT. Spontaneous VA detected by telemetry was reviewed and confirmed. During a mean follow-up of 481 days after implantation, VA occurred in 2 of 22 patients in the Tri-V group and 14 of 36 patients in Bi-V group. Triple-site biventricular stimulation was thus associated with a decreased VA risk (P = 0.044). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that Tri-V pacing prevented arrhythmic events as compared with Bi-V pacing (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.029-0.610; P = 0.009). Ventricular repolarization indices at 6 months were significantly shortened in Tri-V compared with Bi-V (QTc, -23.6 vs. -14.1%, P = 0.008; JTc, -21.4 vs. -7.7%, P = 0.005; TDRc, -39.9 vs. -17.0%, P < 0.001). Compared with Bi-V, Tri-V reduced VA during long-term follow-up. Improvements in repolarization parameters may result in antiarrhythmic effects.

  4. Myocardial collagen metabolism in failing hearts before and during cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Umar, Soban; Bax, Jeroen J; Klok, Margreet; van Bommel, Rutger J; Hessel, Marleen H M; den Adel, Brigit; Bleeker, Gabe B; Henneman, Maureen M; Atsma, Douwe E; van der Wall, Ernst E; Schalij, Martin J; van der Laarse, Arnoud

    2008-09-01

    In patients with heart failure cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) leads to reverse ventricular remodelling. To evaluate whether myocardial collagen metabolism in patients with heart failure is implicated in adverse ventricular remodelling and response to CRT. Collagen synthesis and degradation were assessed from the concentrations of aminoterminal propeptides of type I and type III collagen (PINP and PIIINP) and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), respectively, in serum of 64 patients with heart failure before and after 6 months of CRT. Forty-six patients (72%) showed a > 10% reduction in LV end-systolic volume at follow-up and were classified as responders to CRT, the other 18 patients (28%) were classified as non-responders. Responders demonstrated a mean (+/-SEM) increase of serum PINP and PIIINP during follow-up, from 32.9+/-2.2 to 46.7+/-4.0 microg/L (p < 0.001) and from 4.59+/-0.24 to 5.13+/-0.36 microg/L (p < 0.05), respectively. In non-responders, serum PINP and PIIINP remained unchanged during follow-up. At baseline, responders had significantly lower serum PINP than non-responders (32.9+/-2.2 vs. 41.8+/-4.3 microg/L; p < 0.05). ICTP levels of responders at baseline tended to be higher than in non-responders (3.54+/-0.56 vs. 2.08+/-0.37 microg/L, p = ns), and in both groups ICTP levels did not change upon CRT. Reverse LV remodelling following CRT is associated with increased collagen synthesis rate in the first 6 months of follow-up.

  5. Influence of pacing site characteristics on response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jorge A; Yee, Raymond; Stirrat, John; Scholl, David; Krahn, Andrew D; Gula, Lorne J; Skanes, Allan C; Leong-Sit, Peter; Klein, George J; McCarty, David; Fine, Nowell; Goela, Aashish; Islam, Ali; Thompson, Terry; Drangova, Maria; White, James A

    2013-07-01

    Transmural scar occupying left ventricular (LV) pacing regions has been associated with reduced response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, spatial influences of lead tip delivery relative to scar at both pacing sites remain poorly explored. This study evaluated scar distribution relative to LV and right ventricular (RV) lead tip placement through coregistration of late gadolinium enhancement MRI and cardiac computed tomographic (CT) findings. Influences on CRT response were assessed by serial echocardiography. Sixty patients receiving CRT underwent preimplant late gadolinium enhancement MRI, postimplant cardiac CT, and serial echocardiography. Blinded segmental evaluations of mechanical delay, percentage scar burden, and lead tip location were performed. Response to CRT was defined as a reduction in LV end-systolic volume ≥15% at 6 months. The mean age and LV ejection fraction were 64±9 years and 25±7%, respectively. Mean scar volume was higher among CRT nonresponders for both the LV (23±23% versus 8±14% [P=0.01]) and RV pacing regions (40±32% versus 24±30% [P=0.04]). Significant pacing region scar was identified in 13% of LV pacing regions and 37% of RV pacing regions. Absence of scar in both regions was associated with an 81% response rate compared with 55%, 25%, and 0%, respectively, when the RV, LV, or both pacing regions contained scar. LV pacing region dyssynchrony was not predictive of response. Myocardial scar occupying the LV pacing region is associated with nonresponse to CRT. Scar occupying the RV pacing region is encountered at higher frequency and seems to provide a more intermediate influence on CRT response.

  6. Elevated serum creatinine at baseline predicts poor outcome in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Alaa; El-Saed, Aiman; Voigt, Andrew; Albany, Constantine; Saba, Samir

    2008-05-01

    Renal insufficiency is recognized as a predictor of mortality and poor outcome in heart failure patients. We sought to study the impact of baseline serum creatinine on subsequent outcome in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) recipients. We retrospectively reviewed hospital records of all CRT recipients at Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System (2003-2005) and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (2004). We recorded clinical characteristics at the time of implantation including demographics, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, ejection fraction, QRS duration, cardiomyopathy etiology, medical history, medication use, and serum creatinine. Mortality alone and mortality combined with heart failure hospitalization were the study endpoints. Out of the 330 patients studied, a total of 66 (20.0%) patients died over a mean follow-up duration of 19.7 +/- 9.0 months (range 1-44). The cohort was studied by three creatinine tertiles (0.6-1.0, 1.1-1.3, 1.4-3.0 mg/dL). Both study endpoints were observed more frequently in patients in the highest creatinine tertile compared to others (28.7% vs 14.0%, P = 0.008 for death and 41.6% vs 21.5%, P = 0.001 for the combined endpoint). High creatinine remained an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-3.39, P = 0.032) and the combined endpoint (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.20-3.13, P = 0.007) in multivariate adjusted models. Studied as a continuous variable, increase in creatinine level by 0.1 mg/dL was associated with an 11% increase in mortality risk and a 7% increase in the combined endpoint. In an unselected cohort of CRT recipients, the baseline creatinine was found to predict worse survival and poor outcome over a modest follow-up duration.

  7. Comparison of Different Pacing Strategies to Minimize Phrenic Nerve Stimulation in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huizar, Jose F.; Kaszala, Karoly; Koneru, Jayanthi N.; Thacker, Leroy R.; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Phrenic nerve (PN) stimulation (PNS) frequently limits cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Yet, pacing strategies to minimize PNS have not been systematically compared. We propose to: 1) compare different pacing strategies to minimize PNS in CRT and 2) evaluate differences between PN and left ventricular (LV) capture thresholds among LV pacing configurations. Methods and Results PN and LV thresholds were obtained using 6 LV configurations in 28 patients with any PNS during CRT implantation or replacement. Incidence of PNS was compared in all LV configurations by programming pacing output to 1) One Volt above LV threshold, 2) triple pulse width (PW) at LV threshold, and 3) 1.5 times LV threshold for each patient. PN thresholds and PN strength-duration curves were statistically different between configurations (P<0.05). Ring→RVcoil and Ring→Can had the largest difference between PN and LV thresholds. Pacing output programmed to 1.5 times LV threshold, 1 Volt above LV threshold and triple PW at LV threshold had similar probability of PNS between LV configurations. However, 1 volt above LV threshold and triple PW at LV threshold frequently resulted in poor (<30%) LV capture safety margin (14–43% and 53–68%, respectively). Freedom from PNS (programmed output at twice LV threshold) was found in 88%, 84% and 52% with 6, 3, or 2 available LV configurations, respectively. Conclusion Multiple LV pacing configurations marginally increase the probability of avoiding PNS by electronic reprogramming. Pacing output programmed to 1.5 times LV threshold is an additional alternative to minimize PNS when electronic reprogramming options are limited. PMID:23621543

  8. Impact of clinical and echocardiographic response to cardiac resynchronization therapy on long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Matteo; Höke, Ulas; van Bommel, Rutger J; Ng, Arnold C T; Shanks, Miriam; Nucifora, Gaetano; Auger, Dominique; Borleffs, C Jan Willem; van Rijnsoever, Eva P M; van Erven, Lieselot; Schalij, Martin J; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2013-08-01

    Clinical or echocardiographic mid-term responses to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) may have a different influence on a long-term prognosis of heart failure patients treated with CRT. The aim of the evaluation was to establish which definition of response to CRT, clinical or echocardiographic, best predicts long-term prognosis. A total of 679 heart failure patients treated with CRT were included. All the patients underwent a complete history and physical examination and transthoracic echocardiogram prior to CRT implantation and at 6-month follow-up. The clinical and echocardiographic responses to CRT were defined based on clinical improvement (≥1 NYHA class) and LV reverse remodelling (reduction in LV end-systolic volume ≥15%) at 6-month follow-up, respectively. All the patients were prospectively followed up for the occurrence of death. The mean age was 65 ± 11 years and 79% of the patients were male. At 6-month follow-up, 510 (77%) patients showed clinical response to CRT and 412 (62%) patients showed echocardiographic response to CRT. During a mean follow-up of 37 ± 22 months, 140 (21%) patients died. Clinical and echocardiographic responses to CRT were both significantly related to all-cause mortality on univariable analysis. However, on multivariable Cox-regression analysis only echocardiographic response to CRT was independently associated with superior survival (hazard ratio: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.27-0.50; P < 0.001). In a large population of heart failure patients treated with CRT, the reduction in LV end-systolic volume at the mid-term follow-up demonstrated to be a better predictor of long-term survival than improvement in the clinical status.

  9. Prediction of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy by speckle tracking echocardiography using different software approaches.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hara, Hideyuki; Saba, Samir; Gorcsan, John

    2009-06-01

    Although several echocardiographic approaches exist to quantify mechanical dyssynchrony, the comparative ability of different manufacturers' speckle-tracking software programs to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is unknown. Eighty-four patients with heart failure referred for CRT were studied (mean age, 64 +/- 12 years; mean ejection fraction [EF], 26 +/- 7%; mean QRS duration, 157 +/- 26 ms). Dyssynchrony was assessed using the same midventricular short-axis digital cine loop for each patient with 3 different offline speckle-tracking strain analysis programs: software A, speckle-tracking two-dimensional strain; software B, velocity vector imaging strain; and software C, speckle-tracking strain. Significant dyssynchrony was defined as an anterior septum-to-posterior wall delay > or =130 ms. Follow-up was available for 57 patients (mean, 7 +/- 4 months). Response to CRT was defined as an EF increase > or =15%. Variability between software results was observed when patients had large degrees of dyssynchrony (> or =200 ms), with limits of agreement from 123 to 214 ms. However, close agreement for identifying patients with significant dyssynchrony was observed: 91% for software A versus B, 96% for software A versus C, and 93% for software B versus C. Importantly, the 3 software approaches' ability to predict EF outcome had similar sensitivities, specificities, and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves: 0.87, 0.86, and 0.86, respectively. Radial strain dyssynchrony analyses by 3 different speckle-tracking software programs were similarly able to predict EF response to CRT. Although variability in absolute values of dyssynchrony was observed, there was close agreement for determining the presence or absence of significant dyssynchrony. Speckle-tracking echocardiography has potential as a means to quantify dyssynchrony in a multicenter clinical trial or clinical practice.

  10. Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on left atrial reverse remodeling: role of echocardiographic AV delay optimization.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Alessandro; Rossi, Luca; Franchi, Francesco; Piepoli, Massimo Francesco; Malavasi, Vincenzo; Casali, Edoardo; Modena, Maria Grazia; Villani, Giovanni Quinto

    2013-08-20

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves left ventricular (LV) function in patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and there are some evidences about beneficial effects also on left atrial (LA) dimension and function. The contribution of atrioventricular delay (AVD) optimization on LA changes has not been evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate the effect of CRT on LA reverse remodelling and to evaluate the contribution of AVD optimization. From the Cardiology Department of Piacenza Hospital and Modena University Hospital fifty one patients with refractory systolic HF and left bundle branch block were prospectively enrolled before CRT implantation. Patients were 1:1 randomized to either an optimized AVD (AV Opt group) determined by continuous wave Doppler aortic velocity-time integral (VTI) or an empiric AVD of 110 ms (AV Fixed group). Optimal AVD was defined as the AVD that yielded the largest aortic VTI at one of eight tested AV intervals (between 60 and 200 ms). LA volumes and emptying fractions were assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography at baseline and 6 months after CRT. At 6-month follow-up, CRT induced LA reverse remodeling in the whole population (maximal LA volume: 55.8 ± 16.4 ml/m² vs 50.3 ± 18.9 ml/m², p=0.006; pre-systolic LA volume: 47.0 ± 15.2 ml/m² vs 41.4 ± 17.4 ml/m², p=0.003; post-systolic LA volume: 36.4 ± 15.0 ml/m² vs 30.3 ± 18.0 ml/m(2), p=0.001); nevertheless, no substantial difference was observed about LA structural and functional remodeling between both AV Opt group and AV Fixed group. CRT induces LA reverse remodeling that appears independent from AVD optimization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of tricuspid valve regurgitation on clinical and echocardiographic outcome in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Abu Sham'a, Raed; Buber, Jonathan; Grupper, Avishay; Nof, Eyal; Kuperstein, Rafael; Luria, David; Feinberg, Micha S; Eldar, Michael; Glikson, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The severity of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a predictor of outcome among heart failure patients. The interaction between cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and TR has not been described. In this study, we examined the effect of pre-implant TR, and worsened TR post-implant, on response to CRT and overall survival. We included all patients with successfully implanted CRT systems between 2007 and 2010. Patients were divided into two groups pre-implant: (Gp 1) no-or-mild TR; and (Gp 2) moderate-or-severe TR. Post-implant, patients were divided into two groups: (Gp A) improved or stable TR; and (Gp B) worsened TR. The clinical and echocardiographic outcome of all patients was assessed. The study included 193 patients. Thirty-five subjects (18%) had moderate or severe TR pre-implant (Gp 2). Baseline echo parameters and 6 min walk distance were worse in Gp 2 compared with Gp 1 (mild or no TR). There was no significant difference in clinical response to CRT between the two groups. However, Gp 2 had a significantly lower echocardiographic response (35 vs. 60%, P = 0.01) and higher mortality over 3 years (OR = 6.70, 95% CI = 1.8-24.5, P = 0.004). Post-implant, 25 patients (13%) developed worsened TR (Gp B), not associated with deterioration in right ventricle function or elevation in pulmonary artery pressure. Worsened TR predicted a reduced clinical response to CRT (42 vs. 70%, P = 0.006), when compared with Gp A. The presence of baseline moderate or severe TR is associated with increased mortality but does not predict clinical or echocardiographic response to CRT. Patients with worsened TR following CRT are less likely to clinically respond to CRT. Pacing leads passing through the tricuspid valve may worsen TR. It is conceivable that avoidance of lead-induced TR by alternative implantation techniques could improve the response rate to CRT.

  12. Relationship between pre-implant ejection fraction and outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy in symptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Schuchert, Andreas; Muto, Carmine; Maounis, Themistoklis; Ella, Rita Omega; Polauck, Alexander; Padeletti, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    Left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is regarded as a strong predictor for morbidity and mortality in heart failure patients. The aim of the analysis was to assess the relationship between pre-implant LVEF and outcome of patients with advanced heart failure who received cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We analysed the two-year follow-up of 366 patients who had been enrolled in the MASCOT study which included NYHA class III/IV patients with a class I CRT indication. Pre-implant LVEF was stratified by tertile. The boundaries for pre-implant LVEF were < 22% (n = 128; 18.2 +/- 3.1%; T(low)), 22% to 28% (n = 121; 25.4 +/- 1.4%; T(middle)) and > 28% (n = 117; 32.6 +/- 3.9%; T(high)) for each tertile.Two-year post-implant LVEF was 32.0 +/- 11.5% (T(low)), 33.7 +/- 10.8% (T(middle)) and 36.4 +/- 9.9% (T(high)). T(Iow) had a greater increase between pre- and post-implant LVEF compared to T(middle) (P = 0.03) and T(high) (P = 0.0001). NYHA class improved similarly among the three groups as well as the quality of life score. No significant differences were detected between the three groups for all-cause mortality, cardiac death, all-cause hospitalization, and hospitalization due to worsening heart failure. Symptomatic heart failure patients with a wide QRS complex and a severe impaired LV function had a better improvement of their pre-implant LVEF than patients with a more preserved LVEF. This may be one reason that in these patient groups long-term morbidity and mortality were not related to their pre-implant LVEF. Pre-implant LVEF was in symptomatic CRT patients not predictive for their long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  13. Combined myocardial deformation to predict cardiac resynchronization therapy response in nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Liang, Zhao-Guang; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Liu, Hui; Chi, Chao; Tian, Yan-Feng; Qi, Shu-Han; Wang, Bi-Yu; Han, Wei

    2017-09-01

    20-30% of patients do not benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) when the established selection criteria were applied. We hypothesized that a combined assessment of mechanical dyssynchrony, myocardial deformation, and diastolic function would identify patients who would benefit most from CRT. In 36 CRT patients, clinical evaluation and echocardiography were performed before and after CRT. Patients were classified into three subgroups according to their amount of response: echocardiographic responders, clinical responders, and nonresponders. Radial dyssynchrony and left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal, radial, and circumferential peak strain was assessed by speckle-tracking image. Diastolic function was quantified by conventional echocardiography. In addition to left bundle branch block, nonspecific intraventricular conduction disturbance with intraventricular dyssynchrony could also improve LV remodeling. Echocardiographic responders had better global longitudinal strain, global circumferential peak strain, and global radial strain at baseline which significantly increased at 12-month follow-up. An improvement in estimates of LV filling pressure and a decrease in mitral regurgitation and left atrial dimensions were observed only in echocardiographic responders to CRT. Patients with clinical but without echocardiographic response showed a significant improvement in atrioventricular (AV) synchrony and a nonsignificant improvement in other parameters. The nonresponder group did not improve the AV and intraventricular dyssynchrony. CRT could not improve restrictive filling pattern with normal filling time. Overall, those patients with AV and intraventricular dyssynchrony and those with best contractile function and short diastolic filling time of restrictive filling pattern at baseline demonstrated the greatest benefit from CRT. Mechanical dyssynchrony, contractile function, and filling pattern are important determinants of the benefits in CRT.

  14. Multi-scale, tailor-made heart simulation can predict the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Jun-Ichi; Washio, Takumi; Nakagawa, Machiko; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kadooka, Yoshimasa; Kariya, Taro; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yoko; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Nagai, Ryozo; Hisada, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2017-07-01

    The currently proposed criteria for identifying patients who would benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) still need to be optimized. A multi-scale heart simulation capable of reproducing the electrophysiology and mechanics of a beating heart may help resolve this problem. The objective of this retrospective study was to test the capability of patient-specific simulation models to reproduce the response to CRT by applying the latest multi-scale heart simulation technology. We created patient-specific heart models with realistic three-dimensional morphology based on the clinical data recorded before treatment in nine patients with heart failure and conduction block treated by biventricular pacing. Each model was tailored to reproduce the surface electrocardiogram and hemodynamics of each patient in formats similar to those used in clinical practice, including electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and hemodynamic measurements. We then performed CRT simulation on each heart model according to the actual pacing protocol and compared the results with the clinical data. CRT simulation improved the ECG index and diminished wall motion dyssynchrony in each patient. These results, however, did not correlate with the actual response. The best correlation was obtained between the maximum value of the time derivative of ventricular pressure (dP/dtmax) and the clinically observed improvement in the ejection fraction (EF) (r=0.94, p<0.01). By integrating the complex pathophysiology of the heart, patient-specific, multi-scale heart simulation could successfully reproduce the response to CRT. With further verification, this technique could be a useful tool in clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Contractility sensor-guided optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy: results from the RESPOND-CRT trial

    PubMed Central

    Delnoy, Peter Paul; Brachmann, Johannes; Reynolds, Dwight; Padeletti, Luigi; Noelker, Georg; Kantipudi, Charan; Rubin Lopez, José Manuel; Dichtl, Wolfgang; Borri-Brunetto, Alberto; Verhees, Luc; Ritter, Philippe; Singh, Jagmeet P.

    2017-01-01

    Aims Although cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective in patients with systolic heart failure (HF) and a wide QRS interval, a substantial proportion of patients remain non-responsive. The SonR contractility sensor embedded in the right atrial lead enables individualized automatic optimization of the atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) timings. The RESPOND-CRT study investigated the safety and efficacy of the contractility sensor system in HF patients undergoing CRT. Methods and results RESPOND-CRT was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomized (2:1, respectively) to receive weekly, automatic CRT optimization with SonR vs. an Echo-guided optimization of AV and VV timings. The primary efficacy endpoint was the rate of clinical responders (patients alive, without adjudicated HF-related events, with improvement in New York Heart Association class or quality of life), at 12 months. The study randomized 998 patients. Responder rates were 75.0% in the SonR arm and 70.4% in the Echo arm (mean difference, 4.6%; 95% CI, −1.4% to 10.6%; P < 0.001 for non-inferiority margin −10.0%) (Table 2). At an overall mean follow-up of 548 ± 190 days SonR was associated with a 35% risk reduction in HF hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46–0.92; log-rank P = 0.01). Conclusion Automatic AV and VV optimization using the contractility sensor was safe and as effective as Echo-guided AV and VV optimization in increasing response to CRT. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01534234 PMID:27941020

  16. Relevance of echocardiographic evaluation of right ventricular function in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, Lea; Rordorf, Roberto; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Landolina, Maurizio; Magrini, Giulia; Klersy, Catherine; Frattini, Folco; Petracci, Barbara; Vicentini, Alessandro; Campana, Carlo; Tavazzi, Luigi; Ghio, Stefano

    2009-08-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a marker of poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. It is still unclear whether RV function might influence response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Forty-four consecutive patients with HF, large QRS, and either intraventricular or interventricular dyssynchrony underwent echocardiographic evaluation before, 1 month after, and 6 months after CRT. Response to CRT was considered in case of significant LV reverse remodeling, defined as the occurrence of LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) reduction > or =15% at 6 months. All echocardiographic indexes of baseline RV function and dimensions were significantly more impaired in nonresponders versus responders to CRT: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE 15 +/- 4 mm vs 20 +/- 5 mm, P = 0.001), RV systolic pulmonary artery pressure (RVSP 39 +/- 14 mmHg vs 27 +/- 8 mmHg, P = 0.02), RV end-diastolic area (RVEDA 23 +/- 6 cm(2) vs 16 +/- 3 cm(2) P < 0.001), RV end-systolic area (RVESA 16 +/- 6 cm(2) vs 8 +/- 2 cm(2), P = 0.001), and RV fractional area change (30 +/- 12% vs 48 +/- 8%, P < 0.001). All the indexes of RV function significantly correlated with the percentage of LVESV reduction after CRT. Severe RV dysfunction was defined as TAPSE < or =14 mm and the population was stratified into two groups based on baseline TAPSE < or = or > 14 mm. As compared to those with high TAPSE (n = 30), patients with low TAPSE (n = 14) were less likely to show LV reverse remodeling after CRT (76% vs 14%, P < 0.001). Our study suggests that RV function significantly affects response to CRT. Poor LV reverse remodeling occurs after CRT in patients with HF having severe RV dysfunction at baseline.

  17. Biophysical Modeling to Determine the Optimization of Left Ventricular Pacing Site and AV/VV Delays in the Acute and Chronic Phase of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angela W C; Crozier, Andrew; Hyde, Eoin R; Lamata, Pablo; Truong, Michael; Sohal, Manav; Jackson, Thomas; Behar, Jonathan M; Claridge, Simon; Shetty, Anoop; Sammut, Eva; Plank, Gernot; Rinaldi, Christopher Aldo; Niederer, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac anatomy and function adapt in response to chronic cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The effects of these changes on the optimal left ventricle (LV) lead location and timing delay settings have yet to be fully explored. To predict the effects of chronic CRT on the optimal LV lead location and device timing settings over time. Biophysical computational cardiac models were generated for 3 patients, immediately post-implant (ACUTE) and after at least 6 months of CRT (CHRONIC). Optimal LV pacing area and device settings were predicted by pacing the ACUTE and CHRONIC models across the LV epicardium (49 sites each) with a range of 9 pacing settings and simulating the acute hemodynamic response (AHR) of the heart. There were statistically significant differences between the distribution of the AHR in the ACUTE and CHRONIC models (P < 0.0005 in all cases). The site delivering the maximal AHR shifted location between the ACUTE and CHRONIC models but provided a negligible improvement (<2%). The majority of the acute optimal LV pacing regions (76-100%) and device settings (76-91%) remained optimal chronically. Optimization of the LV pacing location and device settings were important at the time of implant, with a reduced benefit over time, where the majority of the acute optimal LV pacing region and device settings remained optimal with chronic CRT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Association between patient activity and long-term cardiac death in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Keping; Su, Yangang; Hua, Wei; Chen, Silin; Liang, Zhaoguang; Xu, Wei; Dai, Yan; Liu, Zhimin; Fan, Xiaohan; Hou, Cuihong; Zhang, Shu

    2017-05-01

    Background Patient activity (PA) has been demonstrated to predict all-cause mortality. However, the association between PA and cardiac death is unclear. Aims The aims of this study were to determine whether PA can predict cardiac death and what is the cut-off of PA to discriminate cardiac death, as well as the mechanism underlying the relationship between PA and survival in patients with home monitoring. Methods This study retrospectively analysed clinical and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator device data in 845 patients. Data regarding PA and PP variability during the first 30-60 days of home monitoring were collected, and mean values were calculated. The primary endpoint was cardiac death, and the secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results The mean PA percentage was 11 ± 5.8%. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we determined that a PA cut-off value of 7.84% (113 min) can predict cardiac death. During a mean follow-up period of 31.1 ± 12.9 months (ranging from three to 60 months), PA ≤ 7.84% was associated with increased risks of cardiac death in an unadjusted analysis; after adjusting in a multivariate Cox model, the relationship remained significant between PA≤7.84% and cardiac death (hazard ratio = 3.644, 95% confidence interval = 2.424-5.477, p < 0.001). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between PA and PP variability ( r = 0.601, p < 0.001). Conclusions A baseline PA ≤ 7.84% was associated with a higher risk of cardiac death in patients who have survived more than three months after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator implantation. PA had a sizable effect on heart rate variability, reflecting autonomic function.

  19. Changes in parameters of right ventricular function with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Lavie, Carl J; Vallakati, Ajay; Garg, Akash; Goel, Sunny; Lazar, Jason; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2017-09-12

    Studies have shown that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) significantly improves right ventricle (RV) size and function in patients with heart failure (HF). CRT does not lead to improvement in RV function independent of baseline clinical variables. A systematic search of studies published between 1966 to August 31, 2015 was conducted using Pub Med, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL and the Web of Science databases. Studies reporting tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) or RV basal strain or RV long axis diameter or RV short axis diameter or RV fractional area change (FAC), before and after CRT, were identified. A meta-analysis was performed using random effects with inverse variance method to determine the pooled mean difference in various parameters of RV function after CRT. Meta-regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between change in various parameters of RV functions after CRT and covariates- age, QRS duration, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Thirteen studies (N=1541) were selected for final analysis. CRT therapy led to statistically significant increases in TAPSE [1.21 (95% CI 0.55-1.86; p<0.001)], RV FAC [2.26 (95% CI 0.50-4.01; p<0.001)] and basal strain [2.82 (95% CI 0.59-5.05; p<0.001)] and statistically significant decreases in mean RV long axis diameter [-2.94 (95% CI -5.07- -0.82; p=0.005)] and short axis diameter [-1.39 (95% CI -2.10- -0.67; p=0.876)] after a mean follow up period of 9 months. However, after meta-regression analysis for age, QRS duration, and baseline LVEF as covariates, there was no significant improvement in any of the parameters of RV function after CRT. There was a statistically significant improvement in TAPSE, RV basal strain, RV fractional area, RV long axis and short axis with CRT. However, improvement in these echocardiographic parameters of RV function after CRT was not independent of baseline clinical variables but statistically dependent on age, QRS duration and baseline LVEF.

  20. Results of the Prospective Minnesota Study of ECHO/TDI in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (PROMISE-CRT) study.

    PubMed

    Bank, Alan J; Kaufman, Christopher L; Kelly, Aaron S; Burns, Kevin V; Adler, Stuart W; Rector, Tom S; Goldsmith, Steven R; Olivari, Maria-Teresa P; Tang, Chuen; Nelson, Linda; Metzig, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Retrospective single-center studies have shown that measures of mechanical dyssynchrony before cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), or acute changes after CRT, predict response better than QRS duration. The Prospective Minnesota Study of Echocardiographic/TDI in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (PROMISE-CRT) study was a prospective multicenter study designed to determine whether acute (1 week) changes in mechanical dyssynchrony were associated with response to CRT. Nine Minnesota Heart Failure Consortium centers enrolled 71 patients with standard indications for CRT. Left ventricular (LV) size, function, and mechanical dyssynchrony (echocardiography [ECHO], tissue Doppler imaging [TDI], speckle-tracking echocardiography [STE]) as well as 6-minute walk distance and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire scores were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months after CRT. Acute change in mechanical dyssynchrony was not associated with clinical response to CRT. Acute change in STE radial dyssynchrony explained 73% of the individual variation in reverse remodeling. Baseline measures of mechanical dyssynchrony were associated with reverse remodeling (but not clinical) response, with 4 measures each explaining 12% to 30% of individual variation. Acute changes in radial mechanical dyssynchrony, as measured by STE, and other baseline mechanical dyssynchrony measures were associated with CRT reverse remodeling. These data support the hypothesis that acute improvement in LV mechanical dyssynchrony is an important mechanism contributing to LV reverse remodeling with CRT.

  1. Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on the sequence of mechanical activation assessed by two-dimensional radial strain imaging.

    PubMed

    Auger, Dominique; Hoke, Ulas; Thijssen, Joep; Abate, Elena; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Ewe, See Hooi; Witkowski, Tomasz G; Leong, Darryl P; Holman, Eduard R; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Schalij, Martin J; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2014-03-15

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) induces left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling by synchronizing LV mechanical activation. We evaluated changes in segmental LV activation after CRT and related them to CRT response. A total of 292 patients with heart failure (65 ± 10 years, 77% men) treated with CRT underwent baseline echocardiographic assessment of LV volumes and ejection fraction. Time-to-peak radial strain was measured for 6 midventricular LV segments with speckle-tracking strain imaging. Moreover, the time difference between the peak radial strain of the anteroseptal and the posterior segments was calculated to obtain LV dyssynchrony. After 6 months, LV volumes, segmental LV mechanical activation timings, and LV dyssynchrony were reassessed. Response to CRT was defined as ≥15% decrease in LV end-systolic volume at 6-month follow-up. Responders (n = 177) showed LV resynchronization 6 months after CRT (LV dyssynchrony from 200 ± 127 to 85 ± 86 ms; p <0.001) by earlier activation of the posterior segment (from 438 ± 141 to 394 ± 132 ms; p = 0.001) and delayed activation of the anteroseptal segment (from 295 ± 155 to 407 ± 138 ms; p <0.001). In contrast, nonresponders (n = 115) experienced an increase in LV dyssynchrony 6 months after CRT (from 106 ± 86 to 155 ± 112 ms; p = 0.001) with an earlier activation of posterior wall (from 391 ± 139 to 355 ± 136 ms; p = 0.039) that did not match the delayed anteroseptal activation (from 360 ± 148 to 415 ± 122 ms; p = 0.001). In conclusion, responders to CRT showed LV resynchronization through balanced lateral and anteroseptal activations. In nonresponders, LV dyssynchrony remains, by posterior wall preactivation and noncompensatory delayed septal wall activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Heart Failure Patients*

    PubMed Central

    Stanchina, Michael L.; Ellison, Kristin; Malhotra, Atul; Anderson, Maria; Kirk, Malcolm; Benser, Michael E.; Tosi, Christine; Carlisle, Carol; Millman, Richard P.; Buxton, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to improve cardiac function and reduce Cheyne-Stokes respiration but has not been evaluated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In this pilot study, we investigated the impact of both CRT and CRT plus increased rate pacing in heart failure (ie, congestive heart failure [CHF]) patients with OSA. We hypothesized that through increased cardiac output CRT/pacing would reduce obstructive events and daytime symptoms of sleepiness. Methods Full polysomnograms were performed on CHF patients who were scheduled for CRT, and those patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of > 5 events per hour were approached about study enrollment. Patients had a pre-CRT implant baseline echocardiogram and an echocardiogram a mean (± SEM) duration of 6.6 ± 1.4 months post-CRT implant; polysomnography; and responded to the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire, the Epworth sleepiness scale, and the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire. An additional third polysomnography was performed combining CRT with a pacing rate of 15 beats/min above the baseline sleeping heart rate within 1 week of the second polysomnography. Assessments for the change in cardiac output during the polysomnography were performed using circulation time to pulse oximeter as a surrogate. Results Twenty-four patients were screened, and 13 patients (mean age, 68.6 years; body mass index, 28.7 kg/m2) had evidence of OSA. The mean AHI decreased from 40.9 ± 6.4 to 29.5 ± 5.9 events per hour with CRT (p = 0.04). The mean baseline ejection fraction was 22 ± 1.7% and increased post-CRT to 33.6 ± 2.0% (p < 0.05). The reduction in AHI with CRT closely correlated with a decrease in circulation time (r = 0.89; p < 0.001) with CRT. Increased rate pacing made no additional impact on the AHI or circulation time. CRT had a limited impact on sleep architecture or daytime symptom scores. Conclusions CRT improved cardiac function and

  3. Cardiac resynchronization therapy modulation of exercise left ventricular function and pulmonary O₂ uptake in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Corey R; Paterson, Ian; Haykowsky, Mark J; Lawrance, Richard; Martellotto, Andres; Pantano, Alfredo; Gulamhusein, Sajad; Haennel, Robert G

    2012-06-15

    To better understand the mechanisms contributing to improved exercise capacity with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), we studied the effects of 6 mo of CRT on pulmonary O(2) uptake (Vo(2)) kinetics, exercise left ventricular (LV) function, and peak Vo(2) in 12 subjects (age: 56 ± 15 yr, peak Vo(2): 12.9 ± 3.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), ejection fraction: 18 ± 3%) with heart failure. We hypothesized that CRT would speed Vo(2) kinetics due to an increase in stroke volume secondary to a reduction in LV end-systolic volume (ESV) and that the increase in peak Vo(2) would be related to an increase in cardiac output reserve. We found that Vo(2) kinetics were faster during the transition to moderate-intensity exercise after CRT (pre-CRT: 69 ± 21 s vs. post-CRT: 54 ± 17 s, P < 0.05). During moderate-intensity exercise, LV ESV reserve (exercise - resting) increased 9 ± 7 ml (vs. a 3 ± 9-ml decrease pre-CRT, P < 0.05), and steady-state stroke volume increased (pre-CRT: 42 ± 8 ml vs. post-CRT: 61 ± 12 ml, P < 0.05). LV end-diastolic volume did not change from rest to steady-state exercise post-CRT (P > 0.05). CRT improved heart rate, measured as a lower resting and steady-state exercise heart rate and as faster heart rate kinetics after CRT (pre-CRT: 89 ± 12 s vs. post-CRT: 69 ± 21 s, P < 0.05). For peak exercise, cardiac output reserve increased significantly post-CRT and was 22% higher at peak exercise post-CRT (both P < 0.05). The increase in cardiac output was due to both a significant increase in peak and reserve stroke volume and to a nonsignificant increase in heart rate reserve. Similar patterns in LV volumes as moderate-intensity exercise were observed at peak exercise. Cardiac output reserve was related to peak Vo(2) (r = 0.48, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate the chronic CRT-mediated cardiac factors that contribute, in part, to the speeding in Vo(2) kinetics and increase in peak Vo(2) in clinically stable heart failure patients.

  4. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for the prevention of heart-failure events.

    PubMed

    Moss, Arthur J; Hall, W Jackson; Cannom, David S; Klein, Helmut; Brown, Mary W; Daubert, James P; Estes, N A Mark; Foster, Elyse; Greenberg, Henry; Higgins, Steven L; Pfeffer, Marc A; Solomon, Scott D; Wilber, David; Zareba, Wojciech

    2009-10-01

    This trial was designed to determine whether cardiac-resynchronization therapy (CRT) with biventricular pacing would reduce the risk of death or heart-failure events in patients with mild cardiac symptoms, a reduced ejection fraction, and a wide QRS complex. During a 4.5-year period, we enrolled and followed 1820 patients with ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy, an ejection fraction of 30% or less, a QRS duration of 130 msec or more, and New York Heart Association class I or II symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:2 ratio to receive CRT plus an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (1089 patients) or an ICD alone (731 patients). The primary end point was death from any cause or a nonfatal heart-failure event (whichever came first). Heart-failure events were diagnosed by physicians who were aware of the treatment assignments, but they were adjudicated by a committee that was unaware of assignments. During an average follow-up of 2.4 years, the primary end point occurred in 187 of 1089 patients in the CRT-ICD group (17.2%) and 185 of 731 patients in the ICD-only group (25.3%) (hazard ratio in the CRT-ICD group, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.84; P=0.001). The benefit did not differ significantly between patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and those with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The superiority of CRT was driven by a 41% reduction in the risk of heart-failure events, a finding that was evident primarily in a prespecified subgroup of patients with a QRS duration of 150 msec or more. CRT was associated with a significant reduction in left ventricular volumes and improvement in the ejection fraction. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the overall risk of death, with a 3% annual mortality rate in each treatment group. Serious adverse events were infrequent in the two groups. CRT combined with ICD decreased the risk of heart-failure events in relatively asymptomatic patients with a low ejection fraction

  5. Intracardiac impedance after cardiac resynchronization therapy is a novel predictor for worsening of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Nodera, Minoru; Kamioka, Masashi; Kaneshiro, Takashi; Kamiyama, Yoshiyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2017-02-08

    Intrathoracic impedance measured by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) varies because several factors other than pulmonary congestion may affect this parameter. Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in intracardiac impedance between the right and left ventricular leads would be more accurate to identify worsening heart failure in patients with CRT. The study enrolled 21 patients with CRT defibrillator (15 males, 70 ± 12 years). During the follow-up period (12 ± 7 months), the subjects experienced 37 fluid index threshold (60 ohm-days) crossing events. These events were divided into two groups whether hospitalization due to worsening heart failure was required (group-H, n = 14) or not (group-NH, n = 23). Based on the intracardiac impedance at the beginning of increasing fluid index (BI) and the crossing of 60 ohm-days (CI), the rate of impedance change (BI-CI/BI) was estimated. Then, the time elapsed from BI to CI (T) was evaluated. We calculated the rate of intracardiac impedance change per day (BI-CI/BI × T) in each group. The rate of intrathoracic impedance change per day was also determined using the same method. The median rate of intracardiac impedance change per day was 0.27 (IQR 0.22-0.54) %/day in group-H, and 0 (IQR 0-0.08) %/day in group-NH with a significant difference (P < 0.0001), whereas the rate of intrathoracic impedance change per day was similar between the two groups. By receiver operating characteristic curve for identification of hospitalization due to worsening heart failure, the best cutoff value of the rate of intracardiac impedance change per day was 0.20%/day (sensitivity 92%, specificity 88%, and AUC 0.98). In contrast, the best cutoff value of the rate of intrathoracic impedance change per day was 0.19%/day (sensitivity 86%, specificity 43%, and AUC 0.68). These results suggest that increased rate of change of decreasing intracardiac impedance measured by CRT is a novel useful predictor for

  6. Initial clinical experience with cardiac resynchronization therapy utilizing a magnetic navigation system.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Peter; Martin, Laura; Angel, Lori; Tomassoni, Gery

    2007-02-01

    The placement of left ventricular (LV) leads during cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) involves many technical difficulties. These difficulties increase procedural times and decrease procedural success rates. A total of 50 patients with severe cardiomyopathy (mean LV ejection fraction was 21 +/- 6%) and a wide QRS underwent CRT implantation. Magnetic navigation (Stereotaxis, Inc.) was used to position a magnet-tipped 0.014'' guidewire (Cronus guidewire) within the coronary sinus (CS) vasculature. LV leads were placed in a lateral CS branch, either using a standard CS delivery sheath or using a "bare-wire" approach without a CS delivery sheath. The mean total procedure time was 98.1 +/- 29.1 minutes with a mean fluoroscopy time of 22.7 +/- 15.1 minutes. The mean LV lead positioning time was 10.4 +/- 7.6 minutes. The use of a delivery sheath was associated with longer procedure times 98 +/- 32 minutes vs 80 +/- 18 minutes (P = 0.029), fluoroscopy times 23 +/- 15 minutes vs 13 +/- 4 minutes (P = 0.0007) and LV lead positioning times 10 +/- 6 minutes vs 4 +/- 2 minutes (P = 0.015) when compared to a "bare-wire" approach. When compared with 52 nonmagnetic-assisted control CRT cases, magnetic navigation reduced total LV lead positioning times (10.4 +/- 7.6 minutes vs 18.6 +/- 18.9 minutes; P = 0.005). If more than one CS branch vessel was tested, magnetic navigation was associated with significantly shorter times for LV lead placement (16.2 +/- 7.7 minutes vs 36.4 +/- 23.4 minutes; P = 0.004). Magnetic navigation is a safe, feasible, and efficient tool for lateral LV lead placement during CRT. Magnetic navigation during CRT allows for control of the tip direction of the Cronus 0.014'' guidewire using either a standard CS delivery sheath or "bare-wire" approach. Although there are some important limitations to the 0.014'' Cronus magnetic navigation can decrease LV lead placement times compared with nonmagnetic-assisted control CRT cases, particularly if multiple CS

  7. Predictors and outcomes of "super-response" to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Killu, Ammar M; Grupper, Avishay; Friedman, Paul A; Powell, Brian D; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Espinosa, Raul E; Luria, David; Rozen, Guy; Buber, Jonathan; Lee, Ying-Hsiang; Webster, Tracy; Brooke, Kelly L; Hodge, David O; Wiste, Heather J; Glikson, Michael; Cha, Yong-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to improve heart failure (HF) symptoms and survival. We hypothesized that a greater improvement in left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after CRT is associated with greater survival benefit. In 693 patients across 2 international centers, the improvement in LVEF after CRT was determined. Patients were grouped as non-/modest-, moderate-, or super-responders to CRT, defined as an absolute change in LVEF of ≤5%, 6-15%, and >15%, respectively. Changes in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) were assessed for each group. There were 395 non-/modest-, 186 moderate-, and 112 super-responders. Super-responders were more likely to be female and to have nonischemic cardiomyopathy, lower creatinine, and lower pulmonary artery systolic pressure than non-/modest- and moderate-responders. Super-responders were also more likely to have lower LVEF than non-/modest-responders. There was no difference in NYHA functional class, mitral regurgitation grade, or tricuspid regurgitation grade between groups. Improvement in NYHA functional class (-0.9 ± 0.9 vs -0.4 ± 0.8 [P < .001] and -0.6 ± 0.8 [P = .02]) and LVEDD (-8.7 ± 9.9 mm vs -0.5 ± 5.0 and -2.4 ± 5.8 mm [P < .001 for both]) was greatest in super-responders. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that super-responders achieved better survival compared with non-/modest- (P < .001) and moderate-responders (P = .049). Improvement in HF symptoms and survival after CRT is proportionate to the degree of improvement in LV systolic function. Super-response is more likely in women, those with nonischemic substrate, and those with lower pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between resolution of fragmented QRS and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Celikyurt, Umut; Karauzum, Kurtulus; Sahin, Tayfun; Agacdiken, Aysen; Vural, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been recommended for patients with symptomatic heart failure and a wide QRS. Fragmented QRS (fQRS) on a 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) has been shown to predict cardiac events. We aimed to investigate the relationship between resolution of fQRS and response to CRT. Sixty-seven consecutive patients (38 men, mean age 65 ± 11) with left bundle branch block and fQRS on ECG undergoing CRT were studied. The presence of fQRS was assessed using standardized criteria. Echocardiographic response to CRT was defined by a ≥15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and resolution of fQRS was defined as decrease in number of leads with fQRS on ECG at 6 months follow-up. Thirty-nine patients (58%) had response to CRT. LVESV significantly decreased from 150 ± 64 to 100 ± 48 in responders (P = 0.001). There was not any significant decrease in nonresponders (LVESV; from 157 ± 70 to 153 ± 66, P = 0.45). The number of leads with fQRS was decreased from 4.4 ± 1.8 to 1.7 ± 1.6 in responder patients (P < 0.001). The number of leads with fQRS was not significantly changed in nonresponders. (4.2 ± 2.2 vs. 5.1 ± 2.4, P = 0.06). In multivariate analysis, significant associates of response to CRT was evaluated adjusting for etiology of cardiomyopathy, baseline QRS width, left ventricular ejection fraction, number of leads with fQRS and resolution of fQRS. Resolution of fQRS was the only predictor of response to CRT (OR 0.018, 95% CI, 0.004-0.083, P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, resolution of fQRS, is associated with response to CRT. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Long-term clinical effect of hemodynamically optimized cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure and ventricular conduction delay.

    PubMed

    Auricchio, Angelo; Stellbrink, Christoph; Sack, Stefan; Block, Michael; Vogt, Jürgen; Bakker, Patricia; Huth, Christof; Schöndube, Friedrich; Wolfhard, Ulrich; Böcker, Dirk; Krahnefeld, Olaf; Kirkels, Hans

    2002-06-19

    We sought to compare the short- and long-term clinical effects of atrial synchronous pre-excitation of one (univentricular) or both ventricles (biventricular), that provide cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In patients with heart failure (HF) who have a ventricular conduction delay, CRT improves systolic hemodynamic function. The clinical benefit of CRT is still being investigated. Forty-one patients were randomized to four weeks of first treatment with biventricular or univentricular stimulation, followed by four weeks without treatment, and then four weeks of a second treatment with the opposite stimulation. The best CRT stimulation was continued for nine months. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was optimized by hemodynamic testing at implantation. The primary end points were exercise capacity measures. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The left ventricle was selected for univentricular pacing in 36 patients. The clinical effects of univentricular and biventricular CRT were not significantly different. The results of each method were pooled to assess sequential treatment effects. Oxygen uptake during bicycle exercise increased from 9.48 to 10.4 ml/kg/min at the anaerobic threshold (p = 0.03) and from 12.5 to 14.3 ml/kg/min at peak exercise (p < 0.001) with the first treatment, and from 10.0 to 10.7 ml/kg/min at the anaerobic threshold (p = 0.2) and from 13.4 to 15.2 ml/kg/min at peak exercise (p = 0.002) with the second treatment. The 6-min walk distance increased from 342 m at baseline to 386 m after the first treatment (p < 0.001) and to 416 m after the second treatment (p = 0.03). All improvements persisted after 12 months of therapy. Cardiac resynchronization therapy produces a long-term improvement in the clinical symptoms of patients with HF who have a ventricular conduction delay. The differences between optimized biventricular and univentricular therapy appear to be small for short-term treatment.

  10. Cardiac resynchronization as therapy for congestive cardiac failure in children dependent on chronic cardiac pacing.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Eugène; Backx, Ad; Singh, Sandeep

    2006-04-01

    Three patients with heart failure after chronic right ventricular apical pacing were treated with resynchronization. Biventricular pacing was used for two patients, and the other was treated with left univentricular pacing. In all patients, we observed a dramatic improvement of left ventricular dimension, function, and clinical state. We conclude that biventricular or left ventricular pacing is superior to right ventricular apical pacing in children who are pacemaker-dependent.

  11. Why QRS Duration Should Be Replaced by Better Measures of Electrical Activation to Improve Patient Selection for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    Engels, Elien B; Mafi-Rad, Masih; van Stipdonk, Antonius M W; Vernooy, Kevin; Prinzen, Frits W

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a well-known treatment modality for patients with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction accompanied by a ventricular conduction delay. However, a large proportion of patients does not benefit from this therapy. Better patient selection may importantly reduce the number of non-responders. Here, we review the strengths and weaknesses of the electrocardiogram (ECG) markers currently being used in guidelines for patient selection, e.g., QRS duration and morphology. We shed light on the current knowledge on the underlying electrical substrate and the mechanism of action of CRT. Finally, we discuss potentially better ECG-based biomarkers for CRT candidate selection, of which the vectorcardiogram may have high potential.

  12. Inverse Relationship of Blood Pressure to Long-Term Outcomes and Benefit of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Patients With Mild Heart Failure: A Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Long-Term Follow-Up Substudy.

    PubMed

    Biton, Yitschak; Moss, Arthur J; Kutyifa, Valentina; Mathias, Andrew; Sherazi, Saadia; Zareba, Wojciech; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Barsheshet, Alon; Brown, Mary W; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that low blood pressure is associated with increased mortality and heart failure (HF) in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was shown to increase systolic blood pressure (SBP). Therefore, we hypothesized that treatment with CRT would provide incremental benefit in patients with lower SBP values. The independent contribution of SBP to outcome was analyzed in 1267 patients with left bundle brunch block enrolled in Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT). SBP was assessed as continuous measures and further categorized into approximate quintiles. The risk of long-term HF or death and CRT with defibrillator versus implantable cardioverter defibrillator benefit was assessed in multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. Multivariate analysis showed that in the implantable cardioverter defibrillator arm, each 10-mm Hg decrement of SBP was independently associated with a significant 21% (P<0.001) increased risk for HF or death, and patients with lower quintile SBP (<110 mm Hg) experienced a corresponding >2-fold risk-increase. CRT with defibrillator provided the greatest HF or mortality risk reduction in patients with SBP<110 mm Hg hazard ratio of 0.34, P<0.001, when compared with hazard ratio of 0.52, P<0.001, in those with 110>SBP≥136 mm Hg and hazard ratio of 0.94, P=0.808, with SBP>136 mm Hg (P for trend=0.001). In patients with mild HF, prolonged QRS, and left bundle brunch block, low SBP is related to higher risk of mortality or HF with implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy alone. Treatment with CRT is associated with incremental clinical benefits in patients with lower baseline SBP values. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00180271. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Long-term outcome of leads and patients following robotic epicardial left ventricular lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Ganesh S; Balaram, Sandhya; Choi, Andrew; Kuteyeva, Olga; Garikipati, Naga Vamsi; Steinberg, Jonathan S; Mittal, Suneet

    2011-02-01

    In cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), positive clinical response and reverse remodeling have been reported using robotically assisted left ventricular (LV) epicardial lead placement. However, the long-term performance of epicardial leads and long-term outcome of patients who undergo CRT via robotic assistance are unknown. In addition, since the LV lead placement is more invasive than a transvenous procedure, it is important to identify patients at higher risk of complications. We evaluated 78 consecutive patients (70 ± 11 years, 50 male) who underwent robotic epicardial LV lead placement. The short- (<12 months) and long-term (≥ 12 months) lead performance was determined through device interrogations. Mortality data were determined by contact with the patient's family and referring physicians and confirmed using the Social Security Death Index. All patients had successful lead placement and were discharged in stable condition. When compared to the time of implantation, there was a significant increase in pacing threshold (1.0 ± 0.5 vs 2.14 ± 1.2; P < 0.001) and decrease in lead impedance (1010 ± 240 Ω vs 491 ± 209 Ω; P < 0.001) at short-term follow-up. The pacing threshold (2.3 ± 1.2 vs 2.14 ± 1.2; P = 0.30) and lead impedance (451 ± 157 Ω vs 491 ± 209 Ω; P = 0.10) remained stable during long-term follow-up when compared to short-term values. At a follow-up of 44 ± 21 months, there were 20 deaths (26%). These patients were older (77 ± 7 vs 67 ± 11 years; P = 0.001) and had a lower ejection fraction (EF) (13 ± 7% vs 18 ± 9%; P = 0.02) than surviving patients. Robotically implanted epicardial LV leads for CRT perform well over short- and long-term follow-up. Older patients with a very low EF are at higher risk of death. The risks and benefits of this procedure should be carefully considered in these patients. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. LV Dyssynchrony Is Helpful in Predicting Ventricular Arrhythmia in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Chiang, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Wan-Yu; Huang, Jin-Long; Hung, Guang-Uei; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chen, Ji

    2016-02-01

    For patients with coronary artery disease, larger scar burdens are associated with higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia. Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony is associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure. The purpose of this study was to assess the values of LV dyssynchrony and myocardial scar assessed by myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) in predicting the development of ventricular arrhythmia in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Twenty-two patients (16 males, mean age: 66 ± 13) with irreversible ischemic cardiomyopathy received cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) for at least 12 months were enrolled for MPS. Quantitative parameters, including LV dyssynchrony with phase standard deviation (phase SD) and bandwidth, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and scar (% of total areas), were generated by Emory Cardiac Toolbox. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) recorded in the CRT device during follow-up were used as the reference standard of diagnosing ventricular arrhythmia. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed for determining the independent predictors of VT/VF and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used for generating the optimal cut-off values for predicting VT/VF. Nine (41%) of the 22 patients developed VT/VF during the follow-up periods. Patients with VT/VF had significantly lower LVEF, larger scar, larger phase SD, and larger bandwidth (all P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed LVEF and bandwidth were independent predictors of VT/VF. ROC curve analysis showed the areas under the curves were 0.71 and 0.83 for LVEF and bandwidth, respectively. The optimal cut-off values were <36% and > 139° for LVEF and bandwidth, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 100%, 39%, 53%, and 100%, respectively, for LVEF; and were 78%, 92%, 88%, and 86%, respectively, for bandwidth. LV

  15. [Telemetry data based on comparative study of physical activity in patients with resynchronization device].

    PubMed

    Melczer, Csaba; Melczer, László; Goják, Ilona; Kónyi, Attila; Szabados, Sándor; Raposa, L Bence; Oláh, András; Ács, Pongrác

    2017-05-01

    The effect of regular physical activity on health is widely recognized, but several studies have shown its key importance for heart patients. The present study aimed to define the PA % values, and to convert them into metabolic equivalent values (MET), which describes oxygen consumption during physical activity. A total of seventeen patients with heart disease; 3 females and 14 males; age: 57.35 yrs ± 9.54; body mass 98.71 ± 9.89 kg; average BMI 36.69 ± 3.67 were recruited into the study. The measured values from Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy devices and outer accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) were studied over a 7-day time period. Using the two sets of values describing physical performance, linear regression was calculated providing a mathematical equation, thus, the Physical Activity values in percentage were converted into MET values. During the 6-minute walk test the patients achieved an average of 416.6 ± 48.2 m. During 6MWT the measured values averaged at 1.85 ± 0.18 MET's, and MET values averaged at 1.12 ± 0.06 per week. It clearly shows that this test is a challenge for the patients compared to their daily regular physical activity levels. With our method, based on the values received from the physical activity sensor implanted into the resynchronisation devices, changes in patients' health status could be monitored telemetrically with the assistance from the implanted electronic device. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(17): 748-753.

  16. Association between left ventricular ejection fraction post-cardiac resynchronization treatment and subsequent implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy for sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Joseph A; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Shaw, Linda K; Thomas, Laine; Fogel, Richard I; Padanilam, Benzy; Rardon, David; Vatthyam, Rosh; Gemma, Lee W; Golden, Keith; Prystowsky, Eric N

    2013-04-01

    Although cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can improve left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), it is not known whether a specific level of improvement will predict future implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D) was implanted in 423 patients at 1 institution between October 2, 2001 and January 19, 2007. A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between post-CRT-D LVEF and ICD therapy for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. A landmark population of 270 patients, with post-CRT-D LVEF measured and no ICD therapy within 1 year of device implantation, was followed for subsequent outcomes. Of these, 22 patients (8.2%) had subsequent appropriate ICD therapy over a median follow-up of 1.5 years. The estimated 2-year risk of appropriate ICD therapy is 3.0% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0%-6.3%), 2.1% (95% CI, 0%-5.0%), and 1.5% (95% CI, 0%-3.9%) for post-CRT-D LVEF of 45%, 50%, and 55%, respectively. In patients with a primary prevention indication for CRT-D, the estimated 2-year risk is 3.3% (95% CI, 0%-7.3%), 2.5% (95% CI, 0%-6.1%), and 1.9% (95% CI, 0%-5.1%) for post-CRT-D LVEF of 45%, 50%, and 55%, respectively. When a CRT responder demonstrates near normalization in LVEF to ≥45%, the incidence of ICD therapy for ventricular arrhythmias becomes low. Future studies are needed to determine whether an ICD is still needed in some of these patients at the time of generator replacement.

  17. Impact of CT-apelin and NT-proBNP on identifying non-responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Kosztin, Annamária; Széplaki, Gábor; Kovács, Attila; Földes, Gábor; Szokodi, István; Vivien Nagy, Klaudia; Kutyifa, Valentina; Fórizs, Éva; Végh, Eszter M; Gellér, László; Becker, Dávid; Aradi, Dániel; Merkely, Béla

    Assessment of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is essential. To assess the predictive value of CT-apelin together with NT-proBNP in patients undergoing CRT. Serum CT-apelin and NT-proBNP were measured by ELISA before, and six months after CRT. Primary endpoint was non-response (<4% increase in LVEF) after six months. From 81 patients, 15 proved to be non-responders. Six-month CT-apelin was superior compared to NT-proBNP in identifying non-responders by multivariate ROC (CT-apelin: p = 0.01, NT-proBNP: p = 0.13) and by logistic regression (CT-apelin: p = 0.01, NT-proBNP: p = 0.41) analyses. Six-month CT-apelin might be a valuable novel biomarker in identifying non-responders to CRT that was superior to NT-proBNP.

  18. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: a new frontier in the management of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gurevitz, Osnat; Glikson, Michael

    2003-08-01

    CRT offers today another option for some patients with heart failure, side by side with more "traditional" therapies like drugs, assist devices, and heart transplantation. Clinical studies show that in properly selected patients a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and clinical status can be achieved by BV pacing. It is still unknown whether this type of therapy will also result in a survival benefit for patients with severe heart failure. The next few years certainly promise to be as exciting for CRT as were the last few.

  19. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and AV optimization increase myocardial oxygen consumption, but increase cardiac function more than proportionally.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, Andreas; Pabari, Punam A; Mayet, Jamil; Peters, Nicholas S; Davies, D Wyn; Lim, P Boon; Lefroy, David; Hughes, Alun D; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Francis, Darrel P; Whinnett, Zachary I

    2014-02-01

    The mechanoenergetic effects of atrioventricular delay optimization during biventricular pacing ("cardiac resynchronization therapy", CRT) are unknown. Eleven patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent invasive measurements of left ventricular (LV) developed pressure, aortic flow velocity-time-integral (VTI) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) at 4 pacing states: biventricular pacing (with VV 0 ms) at AVD 40 ms (AV-40), AVD 120 ms (AV-120, a common nominal AV delay), at their pre-identified individualised haemodynamic optimum (AV-Opt); and intrinsic conduction (LBBB). AV-120, relative to LBBB, increased LV developed pressure by a mean of 11(SEM 2)%, p=0.001, and aortic VTI by 11(SEM 3)%, p=0.002, but also increased MVO2 by 11(SEM 5)%, p=0.04. AV-Opt further increased LV developed pressure by a mean of 2(SEM 1)%, p=0.035 and aortic VTI by 4(SEM 1)%, p=0.017. MVO2 trended further up by 7(SEM 5)%, p=0.22. Mechanoenergetics at AV-40 were no different from LBBB. The 4 states lay on a straight line for Δexternal work (ΔLV developed pressure × Δaortic VTI) against ΔMVO2, with slope 1.80, significantly >1 (p=0.02). Biventricular pacing and atrioventricular delay optimization increased external cardiac work done but also myocardial oxygen consumption. Nevertheless, the increase in cardiac work was ~80% greater than the increase in oxygen consumption, signifying an improvement in cardiac mechanoenergetics. Finally, the incremental effect of optimization on external work was approximately one-third beyond that of nominal AV pacing, along the same favourable efficiency trajectory, suggesting that AV delay dominates the biventricular pacing effect - which may therefore not be mainly "resynchronization". © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coexistence of dynamic mitral regurgitation and dynamic left ventricular dyssynchrony in a patient with repeated episodes of acute pulmonary edema: improvement with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Salomé; Andrade, Maria João; Reis, Carla; Brito, João; Trabulo, Marisa; Mendes, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    A 69-year-old woman with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic heart failure experienced repeated hospital admissions for acute pulmonary edema with no recognizable precipitating factor. Worsening mitral regurgitation was triggered by exercise echocardiography and significant intraventricular dyssynchrony was elicited by low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography. After cardiac resynchronization therapy she remained free of hospitalizations for 12 months. This case highlights the dynamic nature of both functional mitral regurgitation and left ventricular dyssynchrony and illustrates how in some patients stress echocardiography can help to clarify clinical scenarios and help with the challenging task of selecting patients who will benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Relation of QRS Duration to Clinical Benefit of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Mild Heart Failure Patients Without Left Bundle Branch Block: The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Substudy.

    PubMed

    Biton, Yitschak; Kutyifa, Valentina; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Goldenberg, Ilan; Klein, Helmut; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Ruwald, Anne Christine; Ruwald, Martin H; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech

    2016-02-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with heart failure (HF) and without left bundle branch block. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes of 537 non-left bundle branch block patients with mild HF enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT) study by QRS duration or morphology further stratified by PR interval. At 7 years of follow-up, the cumulative probability of HF hospitalization or death was 45% versus 56% among patients randomized to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and CRT with defibrillator (CRT-D), respectively (P=0.209). Multivariable-adjusted subgroup analysis by QRS duration showed that patients from the lower quartile QRS duration group (≤ 134 ms) experienced 2.4-fold (P=0.015) increased risk for HF hospitalization or death with CRT-D versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator only therapy, whereas the effect of CRT-D in patients from the upper quartiles group (QRS>134 ms) was neutral (hazard ratio [HR] =0.97, P=0.86; P value for interaction =0.024). In a second analysis incorporating PR interval, patients with prolonged QRS (>134 ms) and prolonged PR (>230 ms) were protected with CRT-D (HR=0.31, P=0.003), whereas the association was neutral with prolonged QRS (>134 ms) and shorter PR (≤ 230 ms;, HR=1.19, P=0.386; P value for interaction =0.002). The effect was neutral, regardless of morphology, right bundle branch block (HR=1.01, P=0.975), and intraventricular conduction delay (HR=1.31, P=0.172). Overall, patients with mild HF but without left bundle branch block morphology did not derive clinical benefit with CRT-D during long-term follow-up. Relatively shorter QRS was associated with a significantly increased risk with CRT-D relative to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator -only. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00180271, NCT01294449, and NCT02060110. © 2016

  2. Comparison of Conventional versus Steerable-Catheter Guided Coronary Sinus Lead Positioning in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Device Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Er, Fikret; Yüksel, Dilek; Hellmich, Martin; Gassanov, Natig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare conventional versus steerable catheter guided coronary sinus (CS) cannulation in patients with advanced heart failure undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Background Steerable catheter guided coronary sinus cannulation could reduce fluoroscopy time and contrast medium use during CRT implantation. Methods 176 consecutive patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure undergoing CRT implantation from January 2008 to December 2012 at the University Hospital of Cologne were identified. During the study period two concurrent CS cannulation techniques were used: standard CS cannulation technique (standard-group, n = 113) and CS cannulation using a steerable electrophysiology (EP) catheter (EPCath-group, n = 63). Propensity-score matched pairs of conventional and EP-catheter guided CS cannulation made up the study population (n = 59 pairs). Primary endpoints were total fluoroscopy time and contrast medium amount used during procedure. Results The total fluoroscopy time was 30.9 min (interquartile range (IQR), 19.9–44.0 min) in the standard-group and 23.4 min (IQR, 14.2-34-2 min) in the EPCath-group (p = 0.011). More contrast medium was used in the standard-group (60.0 ml, IQR, 30.0–100 ml) compared to 25.0 ml (IQR, 20.0–50.0 ml) in the EPCath-group (P<0.001). Conclusions Use of steerable EP catheter was associated with significant reduction of fluoroscopy time and contrast medium use in patients undergoing CRT implantation. PMID:26599637

  3. Women with nonischemic cardiomyopathy have a favorable prognosis and a better left ventricular remodeling than men after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Manlio; Landolina, Maurizio; Oliva, Fabrizio; Ghio, Stefano; Vargiu, Sara; Rordorf, Roberto; Raineri, Claudia; Ammirati, Enrico; Petracci, Barbara; Campo, Claudia; Bisetti, Silvia; Lunati, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a well established therapy in heart failure patients who are on optimal medical therapy and have reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and wide QRS complexes. Although women and patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy are under-represented in CRT trials and registries, there is evidence that these two groups of patients can benefit more from CRT. The aim of our analysis was to investigate the impact of female sex on mortality in a population that included a high percentage of patients (61%) with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. We analyzed data on 507 consecutive patients (20% women) who received CRT at two Italian Heart Transplant centers and were followed up for a maximum of 48 months. After multivariate adjustment, women showed a trend toward better survival with regard to all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.32, confidence interval (CI) 0.10-1.04; P = 0.059]. However, this benefit was limited to nonischemic patients with regard to all-cause mortality (HR 0.20, CI 0.05-0.87, P = 0.032) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.14, CI 0.02-1.05, P = 0.056). Female CRT recipients, at mid-term, have a favorable prognosis than male patients and this benefit appears to be more evident in nonischemic patients. Thus, we strongly believe that the apparent under-utilization of CRT in females is an anomaly that should be corrected.

  4. Transseptal Leftventricular Endocardial Pacing is an Alternative Technique in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. One Year Experience in a High Volume Center.

    PubMed

    Neuhoff, I; Szilágyi, S; Molnár, L; Osztheimer, I; Zima, E; Dan, G A; Merkely, B; Gellér, L

    2016-01-01

    In patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), failure rate to implant the left ventricular (LV) lead by the traditional trans-venous approach is 4-8%. Surgical epicardial implantation is considered as an alternative, but this technique is not without morbidity. Evidence from case documentation and from small trial batches demonstrated the viability of endocardial LV lead implantation where surgical epicardial lead placement is not applicable. Four patients were implanted with endocardial LV lead using the transseptal atrial approach after unsuccessful transvenous implantation. Implantation of an endocardial active fixation LV leads was successful in all patients with stable electrical parameters immediately after implantation and over the follow-up period. All patients received anticoagulation therapy in order to target the international normalized ratio of 2.5-3.5 and have not experienced any thromboembolic, hemorrhagic events, or infection. Follow-up echocardiography indicated significant improvement of LV systolic function (24 + 4.9 to 32 + 5.1 %, P = 0.023) with a notable improvement of the functional status. Endocardial left ventricular lead implantation can be a valuable and safe alternative technique to enable LV stimulation in high surgical risk patients where standard coronary sinus implant is unsuccessful.

  5. Tailor-made heart simulation predicts the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy in a canine model of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Panthee, Nirmal; Okada, Jun-ichi; Washio, Takumi; Mochizuki, Youhei; Suzuki, Ryohei; Koyama, Hidekazu; Ono, Minoru; Hisada, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2016-07-01

    Despite extensive studies on clinical indices for the selection of patient candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), approximately 30% of selected patients do not respond to this therapy. Herein, we examined whether CRT simulations based on individualized realistic three-dimensional heart models can predict the therapeutic effect of CRT in a canine model of heart failure with left bundle branch block. In four canine models of failing heart with dyssynchrony, individualized three-dimensional heart models reproducing the electromechanical activity of each animal were created based on the computer tomographic images. CRT simulations were performed for 25 patterns of three ventricular pacing lead positions. Lead positions producing the best and the worst therapeutic effects were selected in each model. The validity of predictions was tested in acute experiments in which hearts were paced from the sites identified by simulations. We found significant correlations between the experimentally observed improvement in ejection fraction (EF) and the predicted improvements in ejection fraction (P<0.01) or the maximum value of the derivative of left ventricular pressure (P<0.01). The optimal lead positions produced better outcomes compared with the worst positioning in all dogs studied, although there were significant variations in responses. Variations in ventricular wall thickness among the dogs may have contributed to these responses. Thus CRT simulations using the individualized three-dimensional heart models can predict acute hemodynamic improvement, and help determine the optimal positions of the pacing lead. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison of the different features of quadripolar left ventricular pacing leads to deliver cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Antoniadis, Antonios P; Behar, Jonathan M; Sieniewicz, Ben; Gould, Justin; Niederer, Steven; Rinaldi, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac Resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves the quality of life and reduces morbidity and mortality of certain patients with heart failure. However, not all patients respond positively after CRT and about one third of cases do not experience benefit. Suboptimal biventricular pacing may account for this and quadripolar left ventricular (LV) leads have emerged in the last years to address issues relating to inadequate delivery of CRT. This review article concisely summarizes the main technical characteristics of the quadripolar LV leads either currently available in the market today or under final stages of development. Focus is given in recent advancements in the area and challenging aspects and controversies, future implications as well as opportunities for further development. Quadripolar LV pacing leads have now become the standard of care in CRT. Currently a multitude of lead options is available to the clinician. The selection process of the most appropriate lead is far from the 'one size fits all' concept. Further development of quadripolar LV leads is currently ongoing and it is anticipated to contribute towards the release of more technologically advantageous leads which will enable the delivery of optimal CRT therapy with the lowest rate of complications.

  7. The MOnitoring Resynchronization dEvices and CARdiac patiEnts (MORE-CARE) Randomized Controlled Trial: Phase 1 Results on Dynamics of Early Intervention With Remote Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Antoine; Ricci, Renato Pietro; Quesada, Aurelio; Favale, Stefano; Iacopino, Saverio; Romeo, Francesco; Risi, Arnaldo; Mangoni di S Stefano, Lorenza; Navarro, Xavier; Biffi, Mauro; Santini, Massimo; Burri, Haran

    2013-01-01

    Background Remote monitoring (RM) in patients with advanced heart failure and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D) may reduce delays in clinical decisions by transmitting automatic alerts. However, this strategy has never been tested specifically in this patient population, with alerts for lung fluid overload, and in a European setting. Objective The main objective of Phase 1 (presented here) is to evaluate if RM strategy is able to reduce time from device-detected events to clinical decisions. Methods In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, patients with moderate to severe heart failure implanted with CRT-D devices were randomized to a Remote group (with remote follow-up and wireless automatic alerts) or to a Control group (with standard follow-up without alerts). The primary endpoint of Phase 1 was the delay between an alert event and clinical decisions related to the event in the first 154 enrolled patients followed for 1 year. Results The median delay from device-detected events to clinical decisions was considerably shorter in the Remote group compared to the Control group: 2 (25th-75th percentile, 1-4) days vs 29 (25th-75th percentile, 3-51) days respectively, P=.004. In-hospital visits were reduced in the Remote group (2.0 visits/patient/year vs 3.2 visits/patient/year in the Control group, 37.5% relative reduction, P<.001). Automatic alerts were successfully transmitted in 93% of events occurring outside the hospital in the Remote group. The annual rate of all-cause hospitalizations per patient did not differ between the two groups (P=.65). Conclusions RM in CRT-D patients with advanced heart failure allows physicians to promptly react to clinically relevant automatic alerts and significantly reduces the burden of in-hospital visits. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00885677; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00885677 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6IkcCJ7NF). PMID:23965236

  8. Novel measure of electrical dyssynchrony predicts response in cardiac resynchronization therapy: Results from the SMART-AV Trial.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenko, Larisa G; Cheng, Alan; Park, Jason; Wold, Nicholas; Meyer, Timothy E; Gold, Michael R; Mittal, Suneet; Singh, Jagmeet; Stein, Kenneth M; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces mortality and morbidity in selected heart failure patients. However, not all patients respond to CRT. We hypothesized that a novel measure of electrical dyssynchrony, sum absolute QRST integral (SAI QRST), predicts CRT response independent of QRS duration and morphology. We retrospectively analyzed baseline 12-lead electrocardiograms of SmartDelay Determined AV Optimization: A comparison to other AV delay methods used in cardiac resynchronization therapy (SMART-AV) trial study participants (N = 234; mean age 67 years; 163 (70%) men; 140 (60%) ischemic cardiomyopathy; mean left ventricular ejection fraction 25%; mean QRS duration 152 ms; 179 (77%) had left bundle branch block). Baseline pre-implant electrocardiograms were digitized, transformed into orthogonal XYZ, and analyzed automatically by customized MATLAB software. SAI QRST was measured as an averaged arithmetic sum of absolute areas under the QRST curve. Patients were followed prospectively 6 months after CRT-defibrillator implantation. Patients with a decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥15 mL after 6 months of CRT were considered responders. The logistic regression model was adjusted for age, sex, bundle branch block morphology, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiomyopathy type, and QRS duration. Patients with the high mean SAI QRST (third tertile) had 2.5 times greater odds of response than those with the low mean SAI QRST (first tertile: odds ratio [OR] 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-5.0; P = .010) and 1.9 times greater than the lower 2 tertiles combined (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.5; P = .03). Adjustment for renal function (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.32-4.11; P = .003) and left ventricular lead position in right anterior oblique and left anterior oblique views (OR 1.7; 95% CI 0.9-3.2; P = .087) did not attenuate association of SAI QRST with outcome. High SAI QRST independently predicts CRT response in the SMART-AV study. Copyright © 2015

  9. [From implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to cardiac resynchronization therapy with the use of epicardial left ventricular lead. The evolution of the treatment of post inflammatory heart failure--a case report].

    PubMed

    Gepner, Katarzyna; Sterliński, Maciej; Przybylski, Andrzej; Maciag, Aleksander; Kołsut, Piotr; Szwed, Hanna

    2006-10-01

    The authors present a case of a 77-year-old man with heart failure in the course of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and atrial fibrillation (AF), after implantation of an automatic cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) due to recurrent symptomatic ventricular tachycardia (VT). Addition of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was decided due to the heart-failure dependent intensification of the arrhythmia and poststimulation enlargement of QRS. CRT was led to withdraw patient's arrhythmia and to improvement of the general condition of the patient for approximately one year. After the arrhythmia reoccurred due to dislocation of the electrode in the coronary sinus with loss of left ventricle stimulation. Multiple attempts at restoration of resynchronization function via a transvenous approach failed. The patient was qualified for implantation of an epicardial left ventricle electrode. The surgery was combined with a planned exchange of ICD-CRT. Basing on a 6-month observation period an improvement heart performance and general state of health have been observed. No arrhythmic event has been noted in device memory. Performed procedures are picturing the evolution of in pacing techniques and automatic defibrillation in Poland over recent years.

  10. Survival after shock therapy in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator recipients according to rhythm shocked. The ALTITUDE survival by rhythm study.

    PubMed

    Powell, Brian D; Saxon, Leslie A; Boehmer, John P; Day, John D; Gilliam, F Roosevelt; Heidenreich, Paul A; Jones, Paul W; Rousseau, Matthew J; Hayes, David L

    2013-10-29

    This study sought to determine if the risk of mortality associated with inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks is due to the underlying arrhythmia or the shock itself. Shocks delivered from ICDs are associated with an increased risk of mortality. It is unknown if all patients who experience inappropriate ICD shocks have an increased risk of death. We evaluated survival outcomes in patients with an ICD and a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator enrolled in the LATITUDE remote monitoring system (Boston Scientific Corp., Natick, Massachusetts) through January 1, 2010. First shock episode rhythms from 3,809 patients who acutely survived the initial shock were adjudicated by 7 electrophysiologists. Patients with a shock were matched to patients without a shock (n = 3,630) by age at implant, implant year, sex, and device type. The mean age of the study group was 64 ± 13 years, and 78% were male. Compared with no shock, there was an increased rate of mortality in those who received their first shock for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.65, p < 0.0001), ventricular fibrillation/polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (HR: 2.10, p < 0.0001), and atrial fibrillation/flutter (HR: 1.61, p = 0.003). In contrast, mortality after first shocks due to sinus tachycardia and supraventricular tachycardia (HR: 0.97, p = 0.86) and noise/artifact/oversensing (HR: 0.91, p = 0.76) was comparable to that in patients without a shock. Compared with no shock, those who received their first shock for ventricular rhythms and atrial fibrillation had an increased risk of death. There was no significant difference in survival after inappropriate shocks for sinus tachycardia or noise/artifact/oversensing. In this study, the adverse prognosis after first shock appears to be more related to the underlying arrhythmia than to an adverse effect from the shock itself. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  11. Long-Term Follow-Up of Isolated Epicardial Left Ventricular Lead Implant Using a Minithoracotomy Approach for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    McALOON, Christopher J; Anderson, Benjamin M; Dimitri, Wadih; Panting, Jonathan; Yusuf, Shamil; Bhudia, Sunil K; Osman, Faizel

    2016-10-01

    Transvenous left ventricular (LV) lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy is unsuccessful in 5-10% of reported cases. These patients may benefit from isolated surgical placement of an epicardial LV lead via minithoracotomy approach. To evaluate the success of this approach at long-term follow-up. Retrospective evaluation of all consecutive patients undergoing isolated epicardial LV lead placement after failed transvenous attempt over a 6-year period. Data collected on baseline parameters, procedural details, and outcome at follow-up (hospital stay, complications, mortality, and clinical response). Forty-two patients underwent epicardial lead implant. Five died within 1 year (11.9%): two (4.8%) died within 30-days post op (one from intraoperative hemorrhage, the other from multiple organ failure); 39 (95.1%) were admitted to the high dependency unit and transferred to the ward <24 hours. Median hospital stay was 3.4 ± 1.9 days. The overall complication rate was 17.5% (n = 7): 15.0% (n = 6) short term and 2.5% (n = 1) long term; these included three (7.5%) LV noncapture events all treated with reprogramming. There were two (5.0%) wound infections requiring oral antibiotics and two (5.0%) device infections requiring intravenous antibiotics (one had device resiting, the other developed septic shock requiring intensive care admission). Assessment of clinical response was possible in 34 (81.0%) at follow-up: 21 (61.8%) were responders and 13 (28.2%) nonresponders with no significant differences between these groups; no clinical predictors of response were identified. Isolated epicardial LV lead implant using minithoracotomy is relatively safe and effective at successful LV pacing. Response rate and postoperative recovery at long-term follow-up are reasonable in these high-risk patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Parametric ultrasound and fluoroscopy image fusion for guidance of left ventricle lead placement in cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    Babic, Aleksandar; Odland, Hans Henrik; Gérard, Olivier; Samset, Eigil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Recent studies show that the response rate to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) could be improved if the left ventricle (LV) is paced at the site of the latest mechanical activation, but away from the myocardial scar. A prototype system for CRT lead placement guidance that combines LV functional information from ultrasound with live x-ray fluoroscopy was developed. Two mean anatomical models, each containing LV epi-, LV endo- and right ventricle endocardial surfaces, were computed from a database of 33 heart failure patients as a substitute for a patient-specific model. The sphericity index was used to divide the observed population into two groups. The distance between the mean and the patient-specific models was determined using a signed distance field metric (reported in mm). The average error values for LV epicardium were −0.4±4.6 and for LV endocardium were −0.3±4.4. The validity of using average LV models for a CRT procedure was tested by simulating coronary vein selection in a group of 15 CRT candidates. The probability of selecting the same coronary branch, when basing the selection on the average model compared to a patient-specific model, was estimated to be 95.3±2.9%. This was found to be clinically acceptable. PMID:26158110

  13. Rational and design of EuroCRT: an international observational study on multi-modality imaging and cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Donal, Erwan; Delgado, Victoria; Magne, Julien; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Leclercq, Christophe; Cosyns, Bernard; Sitges, Marta; Edvardsen, Thor; Sade, Elif; Stankovic, Ivan; Agricola, Eustachio; Galderisi, Maurizio; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Hernandez, Alfredo; Plein, Sven; Muraru, Denisa; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Hindricks, Gerhard; Popescu, Bogdan A; Habib, Gilbert

    2017-02-27

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (LVEF) with cardiac imaging is important in the selection of patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Several observational studies have explored the role of imaging-derived LV dyssynchrony parameters to predict the response to CRT, but have yielded inconsistent results, precluding the inclusion of imaging-derived LV dyssynchrony parameters in current guidelines for selection of patients for CRT. The EuroCRT is a large European multicentre prospective observational study led by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. We aim to explore if combing the value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and echocardiography could be beneficial for selecting heart failure patients for CRT in terms of improvement in long-term survival, clinical symptoms, LV function, and volumes. Speckle tracking echocardiography will be used to assess LV dyssynchrony and wasted cardiac work whereas myocardial scar will be assessed with late gadolinium contrast enhanced CMR. All data will be measured in core laboratories. The study will be conducted in European centres with known expertise in both CRT and multimodality cardiac imaging.

  14. [Status of cardiac resynchronization therapy in Catalonia, Spain: Results of the prospective multicentric study TRC-CAT].

    PubMed

    Trucco, María Emilce; Tolosana, José María; Arbelo, Elena; Méndez, Francisco Javier; Viñolas, Xavier; Anguera, Ignasi; Dallaglio, Paolo; Villuendas, Roger; Pereferrer Kleiner, Damià; Pérez-Rodon, Jordi; Roca-Luque, Ivo; Mercé, Jordi; Badarjí, Alfredo; Martí Almor, Julio; Vallés, Ermengol; Berruezo, Antonio; Sitges, Marta; Brugada, Josep; Mont, Lluis

    2016-05-20

    Results of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have been extensively published. However, there is limited data in unselected populations. The objective of the study was to analyse the efficacy and safety of CRT in Catalonia. A prospective study was performed of consecutive patients implanted with CRT over one year in 7 university hospitals in Catalonia, representing 90% of the implanted patients. Echocardiographic reverse remodelling was defined as 5 points improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction and clinical responders were defined as patients with an increase>10% of six-minute walk test or one point of New York Heart Association functional class at 12 months. Patients were followed up for one year and hospital admissions and mortality were analyzed. Of the 200 patients included in the study, 99% met the indications of the current CRT clinical guidelines and 68% received CRT with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. The rate of complications was 12.5%. During follow-up 16 patients (8%) died. Fifty-two percent (104) of the population was considered to respond clinically and 62% (124) presented improved echocardiographic parameters. Compared to the year prior to implant, hospital admissions decreased by 82% (P<.001). In an unselected population of Catalonia, we observe that CRT was effective and decreased the number of hospital admissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical outcomes after cardiac resynchronization therapy: importance of left ventricular diastolic function and origin of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, Alan D; Rovner, Aleksandr; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Faddis, Mitchell N; Gleva, Marye J; Sawhney, Navinder; Dávila-Román, Víctor G

    2006-03-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves functional outcomes in patients with severe systolic heart failure. Whether the effects of CRT on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and clinical outcomes are influenced by the cause as either ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy (CM) has not been well established. A total of 57 patients (age 60 +/- 11 years; 25% women; LV ejection fraction 25 +/- 5%) were studied before and 4 +/- 2 months after CRT by echocardiography. Heart failure cause was ischemic CM in 19 and nonischemic CM in 38. Measurements of LV systolic and diastolic function were determined by 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography with Doppler tissue imaging of regional myocardial velocities. Clinical outcome events were assessed at long-term follow-up and included hospitalization for heart failure exacerbation, heart transplantation, or cardiac-related death. There were significant increases in LV ejection fraction, reductions in end-systolic volumes, and improved LV systolic dyssynchrony in both groups. However, significant improvements in LV diastolic function were observed only in the patients with nonischemic CM. Clinical events occurred in 53% of the ischemic group versus 26% of the nonischemic group (P < .05) after 20 +/- 11 months of CRT. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that Doppler-estimated LV filling pressures were predictors of clinical outcome events. After CRT patients with ischemic CM exhibit lack of improvement in LV diastolic function despite favorable effects on LV systolic performance. The Doppler-derived LV filling indices may be an important predictor of long-term clinical outcomes after CRT.

  16. Three-Dimensional Cardiac Mapping Characterizes Ventricular Contractile Patterns during Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Implant: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Imran K; Sperzel, Johannes; Heist, Edwin Kevin; Rosenberg, Stuart P; Ryu, Kyungmoo; Yang, Michael; D'Avila, Andre; Singh, Jagmeet P

    2015-09-01

    Electroanatomic mapping systems track the position of electrodes in the heart. We assessed the feasibility of characterizing left ventricular (LV) performance during cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implant utilizing an electroanatomic mapping system to track the motion of CRT lead electrodes, thus deriving ventricular contractility surrogates. During CRT implant, atrial, right ventricular (RV), and LV leads were connected to the EnSite NavX™ mapping system (St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA). The relative displacement of electrodes was averaged over 10 cardiac cycles during RV, LV, and biventricular (BiV) pacing in DOO mode. Three contractility surrogates indicative of ventricular performance were extracted from the RV-LV distance waveform: systolic slope (SS), time to peak systolic contraction (TPSC), and fractional shortening (FS). In the 20 patients included, there were detectable differences in each of the three contractility surrogates responding to the different pacing configurations. Median SS varied 42%, median TPSC varied 35%, and median FS varied 19% across RV, LV, and BiV pacing interventions. The RV-LV distance waveform showed subtle sensitivity to varying pacing timing cycles when measured in a subset of patients. For all pacing configurations, RV-LV distance waveforms were stable during 2-minute recordings. Tracking the motion of CRT pacing electrodes with a mapping system to derive contractility surrogates during implant is feasible. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Assessment of resynchronization therapy on functional status and quality of life in patients requiring an implantable defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Arnold; Mangat, Iqwal; Korley, Victoria; Connolly, Stuart; Connors, Sean; Gardner, Martin; Philippon, Francois; Sterns, Larry; Thibault, Bernard; Dorian, Paul

    2009-12-01

    The effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on physical function and Quality of Life (QoL) in patients who require an implantable defibrillator but do not meet guideline criteria for CRT has not been studied in detail. This was a randomized study of 72 patients with high risk of sudden cardiac death, ejection fraction (EF) < or =35%, mild-to-moderate heart failure symptoms, and QRS > 120 ms. Patients received a CRT defibrillator and were randomized to CRT turned ON or OFF. Objective and subjective measures were performed at baseline and after 6 months. There was no difference in change in left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV) by radionuclid angiogram scan, the primary endpoint, between the CRT ON group (DeltaESV =-7 +/- 52 mL), and CRT OFF group (DeltaESV =-30 +/- 47 mL). Similarly, echocardiogram measures of ESV and EF showed no difference between the two groups. In the CRT ON group, selected measures of QoL and subjective exercise tolerance but not heart failure symptoms improved significantly. Six-minute walk distance prolonged in the CRT ON group (baseline 313.6 +/- 114.4 m, 6-month 365.0 +/- 122.5 m, P = 0.01), but the difference in change in walk distance between the two groups was not significant. Further studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up will be required to allow definite conclusions regarding the potential benefit of CRT in this patient population.

  18. Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction underlies stroke work improvement in the acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuxuan; Gurev, Viatcheslav; Constantino, Jason; Trayanova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Background The acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be due to three mechanisms: resynchronization of ventricular contraction, efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction, and mitral regurgitation reduction. However, the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to the acute response of CRT, specifically stroke work improvement, has not been quantified. Objective The goal of this study was to use an MRI-based anatomically accurate 3D model of failing canine ventricular electromechanics to quantify the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to stroke work improvement and identify the predominant mechanisms. Methods An MRI-based electromechanical model of the failing canine ventricles assembled previously by our group was further developed and modified. Three different protocols were used to dissect the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to stroke work improvement. Results Resynchronization of ventricular contraction did not lead to significant stroke work improvement. Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction was the predominant mechanism underlying stroke work improvement. Stroke work improvement peaked at an intermediate AV delay, as it allowed ventricular filling by atrial contraction to occur at a low diastolic LV pressure but also provided adequate time for ventricular filling before ventricular contraction. Diminution of mitral regurgitation by CRT led to stroke work worsening instead of improvement. Conclusion Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction is responsible for significant stroke work improvement in the acute CRT response. PMID:23928177

  19. Temporal Influence of Heart Failure Hospitalizations Prior to Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With Defibrillator on Subsequent Outcome in Mild Heart Failure Patients (from MADIT-CRT).

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy Y; Moss, Arthur J; Ruwald, Martin H; Kutyifa, Valentina; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Zareba, Wojciech; Ruwald, Anne-Christine

    2015-05-15

    The temporal effect of heart failure (HF) hospitalization occurring at different time periods before implantation has not yet been studied in detail. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential association between time from last HF hospitalization to device implantation and effects on subsequent outcomes and benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D). Multivariate Cox models were used to determine the temporal influence of previous HF hospitalization on the end point of HF or death within all left bundle branch block implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and CRT-D patients enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT) trial (n = 1,250) and to evaluate the clinical benefit of CRT-D implantation, comparing CRT-D patients with ICD patients within each previous HF hospitalization group. The patients with previous HF hospitalization ≤12 months before device implantation had the greatest incidence of HF or death during 4-year follow-up (31%), while those with previous HF hospitalization >12 months and those with no previous HF hospitalization had similar lower rates of HF or death (22% and 24%, respectively). All patients treated with CRT-D derived significant clinical benefit compared with their ICD counterparts, regardless of time of previous hospitalization (hazard ratios 0.38 [no previous hospitalization], 0.49 (≤12 months), and 0.45 (>12 months); p for interaction = 0.67). In conclusion, in the present study of patients with mild HF with prolonged QRS intervals and LBBB, a previous HF hospitalization ≤12 months was associated with increased risk for HF or death compared with >12 months and no previous HF hospitalizations. The clinical benefit of CRT-D was evident in all patients regardless of time from last HF hospitalization to implantation compared with ICD only.

  20. Cardiovascular drug utilization post-implant is related to clinical outcome in heart failure patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakos, Zoltan; Reitan, Christian; Werther-Evaldsson, Anna; Roijer, Anders; Platonov, Pyotr; Borgquist, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    In select patients with heart failure, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is the most common complementary treatment besides medical treatment. We aimed to assess the association between post CRT-implant changes in cardiovascular medication and cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalization. 211 patients on optimal medical therapy eligible for CRT were retrospectively included in this study (72 ± 7 years, 80% male, 66% left bundle branch block, 48% dilated cardiomyopathy and investigated at baseline and after 6 months. Follow-up with medication, biochemical markers and echocardiography was performed and 3-year mortality data was collected. At 6 months post-implant the cohort was divided into two groups; 157 patients had low dosage furosemide treatment (up to 40 mg) and 54 patients were treated with high dosage (> 40 mg). A composite endpoint of heart failure hospitalization and all-cause mortality was evaluated at 30 months (881 ± 267 days) after the 6-month visit. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, pa-tients in the high dose diuretics group had a higher risk of the primary endpoint (HR 1.9 [1.1-3.4], p = 0.033), but treatment with high dose diuretics was not associated with improved clinical symptoms (r = 0.031, p = 0.64). High dosage of loop-diuretics was associated with worse medium-term clinical outcome in CRT treated patients. It is unclear whether there is a direct causality between these associations, or if higher prescribed dosage of loop-diuretics is just a marker of more severe disease. Higher dose loop diuretics do not necessarily improve the symptoms and may be harmful to the patient. Prospective trials are warranted to further elucidate these findings. (Cardiol J 2017; 24, 4: 374-384).

  1. Combined score using clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic parameters to predict left ventricular remodeling in patients having had cardiac resynchronization therapy six months earlier.

    PubMed

    Brunet-Bernard, Anne; Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Fauchier, Laurent; Guiot, Aurélie; Fournet, Maxime; Reynaud, Amélie; Schnell, Frédéric; Leclercq, Christophe; Mabo, Philippe; Donal, Erwan

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a scoring system integrating clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic measurements can predict left ventricular reverse remodeling after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The derivation cohort consisted of 162 patients with heart failure implanted with a CRT device. Baseline clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic characteristics were entered into univariate and multivariate models to predict reverse remodeling as defined by a ≥15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6 months (60%). Combinations of predictors were then tested under different scoring systems. A new 7-point CRT response score termed L2ANDS2: Left bundle branch block (2 points), Age >70 years, Nonischemic origin, left ventricular end-diastolic Diameter <40 mm/m(2), and Septal flash (2 points) was calculated for these patients. This score was then validated against a validation cohort of 45 patients from another academic center. A highly significant incremental predictive value was noted when septal flash was added to an initial 4-factor model including left bundle branch block (difference between area under the curve C statistics = 0.125, p <0.001). The predictive accuracy using the L2ANDS2 score was then 0.79 for the C statistic. Application of the new score to the validation cohort (71% of responders) gave a similar C statistic (0.75). A score >5 had a high positive likelihood ratio (+LR = 5.64), whereas a score <2 had a high negative likelihood ratio (-LR = 0.19). In conclusion, this L2ANDS2 score provides an easy-to-use tool for the clinician to assess the pretest probability of a patient being a CRT responder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term outcomes in patients with ambulatory new york heart association class III and IV heart failure undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Rickard, John; Bassiouny, Mohammed; Tedford, Ryan J; Baranowski, Bryan; Spragg, David; Cantillon, Daniel; Varma, Niraj; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Tang, W H Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Patients with ambulatory New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure were significantly underrepresented in clinical trials of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The natural long-term trajectory of survival free of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or heart transplant in patients with ambulatory class IV symptoms who underwent CRT has not been established. We extracted clinical data on 723 consecutive patients with NYHA class III or ambulatory class IV heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, and a QRS duration ≥120 ms who underwent CRT from September 30, 2003, to August 6, 2007. Chart notes immediately before CRT were reviewed to confirm NYHA class status before CRT. Kaplan-Meier curves and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were constructed to determine long-term survival free of heart transplant and LVAD based on NYHA class status. Of the 723 patients, 52 had ambulatory class IV symptoms. Over a mean follow-up of 5.0 ± 2.5 years controlling for many possible confounders, ambulatory NYHA class IV status was independently associated with poor long-term outcomes. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival free of LVAD or heart transplant for class III versus ambulatory class IV patients was 92.0%, 84.0%, 75.0%, 68.1%, and 63.2% versus 75.0%, 61.5%, 52.0%, 45%, and 40.4%, respectively. Although patients with ambulatory class IV heart failure receiving CRT have inferior long-term outcomes compared with those with class III symptoms, survival in class IV patients continues to parallel class III patients over an extended follow-up. At 5 years, survival free of LVAD or heart transplant in ambulatory class IV patients receiving CRT is 40%.

  3. Comparison of right ventricular septal pacing and right ventricular apical pacing in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators: the SEPTAL CRT Study.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Christophe; Sadoul, Nicolas; Mont, Lluis; Defaye, Pascal; Osca, Joaquim; Mouton, Elisabeth; Isnard, Richard; Habib, Gilbert; Zamorano, Jose; Derumeaux, Genevieve; Fernandez-Lozano, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a recommended treatment of heart failure (HF) patients with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction and wide QRS. The optimal right ventricular (RV) lead position being a matter of debate, we sought to examine whether RV septal (RVS) pacing was not inferior to RV apical (RVA) pacing on left ventricular reverse remodelling in patients receiving a CRT-defibrillator. Patients (n = 263, age = 63.4 ± 9.5 years) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to RVS (n = 131) vs. RVA (n = 132) pacing. Left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) reduction between baseline and 6 months was not different between the two groups (-25.3 ± 39.4 mL in RVS group vs. -29.3 ± 44.5 mL in RVA group, P = 0.79). Right ventricular septal pacing was not non-inferior (primary endpoint) to RVA pacing with regard to LVESV reduction (average difference = -4.06 mL; P = 0.006 with a -20 mL non-inferiority margin). The percentage of 'echo-responders' defined by LVESV reduction >15% between baseline and 6 months was similar in both groups (50%) with no difference in the time to first HF hospitalization or death (P = 0.532). Procedural or device-related serious adverse events occurred in 68 patients (RVS = 37) with no difference between the two groups (P = 0.401). This study demonstrates that septal RV pacing in CRT is non-inferior to apical RV pacing for LV reverse remodelling at 6 months with no difference in the clinical outcome. No recommendation for optimal RV lead position can hence be drawn from this study. NCT 00833352. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  4. Longer Left Ventricular Electric Delay Reduces Mitral Regurgitation After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: Mechanistic Insights From the SMART-AV Study (SmartDelay Determined AV Optimization: A Comparison to Other AV Delay Methods Used in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Neal A; Gold, Michael R; Waggoner, Alan D; Picard, Michael H; Stein, Kenneth M; Yu, Yinghong; Meyer, Timothy E; Wold, Nicholas; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Singh, Jagmeet P

    2016-11-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with worse survival in those undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Left ventricular (LV) lead position in CRT may ameliorate mechanisms of MR. We examine the association between a longer LV electric delay (QLV) at the LV stimulation site and MR reduction after CRT. QLV was assessed retrospectively in 426 patients enrolled in the SMART-AV study (SmartDelay Determined AV Optimization: A Comparison to Other AV Delay Methods Used in CRT). QLV was defined as the time from QRS onset to the first large peak of the LV electrogram. Linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the association between baseline QLV and MR reduction at 6 months (absolute change in vena contracta width and odds of ≥1 grade reduction in MR). At baseline, there was no difference in MR grade, LV dyssynchrony, or LV volumes in those with QLV above versus below the median (95 ms). After multivariable adjustment, increasing QLV was an independent predictor of MR reduction at 6 months as reflected by an increased odds of MR response (odds ratio: 1.13 [1.03-1.25]/10 ms increase QLV; P=0.02) and a decrease in vena contracta width (P<0.001). At 3 months, longer QLV (≥median) was associated with significant decrease in LV end-systolic volume (ΔLV end-systolic volume -28.2±38.9 versus -4.9±33.8 mL, P<0.001). Adjustment for 3-month ΔLV end-systolic volume attenuated the association between QLV and 6-month MR reduction. In patients undergoing CRT, longer QLV was an independent predictor of MR reduction at 6 months and associated with interval 3-month LV reverse remodeling. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for using an electric-targeting LV lead strategy at the time of CRT implant. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly patients treated with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy in a real-world setting: data from the Israeli ICD Registry.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Goldenberg, Ilan; Haim, Moti; Schliamser, Jorge E; Boulos, Monther; Ilan, Michael; Swissa, Moshe; Gavrielov-Yusim, Natalie; Fuchs, Therese; Amit, Guy; Glikson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Elderly patients are underrepresented in clinical trials of device therapy. To provide real-world data regarding outcomes associated with device-based therapy in a large cohort of elderly patients enrolled in the Israeli ICD Registry. Between July 2010 and June 2012, a total of 2807 consecutive patients undergoing implanted cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (ICD/CRT-D) implantation were prospectively enrolled in the Israeli ICD Registry. For the present analysis, patients were categorized into 3 age groups: ≤60 years (n = 1378 [49%]), 61-75 years (n = 863 [31%]), and >75 years (n = 566 [20%]). Elderly patients (>75 years of age) had more comorbid conditions and were more likely to undergo CRT-D implantation (all P < .01). However, the rate of device-related complications associated with surgical reinterventions at 1 year was <3% regardless of age (P = .70 for the comparison among the 3 age groups). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of heart failure or death and of appropriate ICD therapy for ventricular arrhythmias was significantly increased with increasing age among patients who received an ICD. In contrast, the age-related increase in the risk of all end points was attenuated among patients who received CRT-D devices (all P values for age-by-device-type interactions are <.05). In a real-world scenario, elderly patients (>75 years of age) comprise approximately 20% of the ICD/CRT-D recipients and experience a device reintervention rate similar to that of their younger counterparts. Our data suggest that the association between advanced age and adverse clinical outcomes is attenuated in elderly patients implanted with CRT-D devices. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy after cardiac resynchronization therapy-induced left ventricular function recovery: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Neal A.; Roka, Attila; Lubitz, Steven A.; Gold, Michael R.; Daubert, Claude; Linde, Cecilia; Steffel, Jan; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Mela, Theofanie

    2015-01-01

    Aims For patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD; CRT-D), the effect of an improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on appropriate ICD therapy may have significant implications regarding management at the time of ICD generator replacement. Methods and results We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effect of LVEF recovery following CRT on the incidence of appropriate ICD therapy. A search of multiple electronic databases identified 709 reports, of which 6 retrospective cohort studies were included (n = 1740). In patients with post-CRT LVEF ≥35% (study n = 4), the pooled estimated rate of ICD therapy (5.5/100 person-years) was significantly lower than patients with post-CRT LVEF <35% [incidence rate difference (IRD): −6.5/100 person-years, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): −8.8 to −4.2, P < 0.001]. Similarly, patients with post-CRT LVEF ≥45% (study n = 4) demonstrated lower estimated rates of ICD therapy (2.3/100 person-years) compared with patients without such recovery (IRD: −5.8/100 person-years, 95% CI: −7.6 to −4.0, P < 0.001). Restricting analysis to studies discounting ICD therapies during LVEF recovery (study n = 3), patients with LVEF recovery (≥35 or ≥45%) had significantly lower rates of ICD therapy compared with patients without such recovery (P for both <0.001). Patients with primary prevention indication for ICD, regardless of LVEF recovery definition, had very low rates of ICD therapy (0.4 to 0.8/100-person years). Conclusion Recovery of LVEF post-CRT is associated with significantly reduced appropriate ICD therapy. Patients with improvement of LVEF ≥45% and those with primary prevention indication for ICD appear to be at lowest risk. PMID:26264552

  7. Mechanical Dyssynchrony by Tissue Doppler Cross-Correlation is Associated with Risk for Complex Ventricular Arrhythmias after Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tayal, Bhupendar; Gorcsan, John; Delgado-Montero, Antonia; Marek, Josef J; Haugaa, Kristina H; Ryo, Keiko; Goda, Akiko; Olsen, Niels Thue; Saba, Samir; Risum, Niels; Sogaard, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Tissue Doppler cross-correlation analysis has been shown to be associated with long-term survival after cardiac resynchronization defibrillator therapy (CRT-D). Its association with ventricular arrhythmia (VA) is unknown. From two centers 151 CRT-D patients (New York Heart Association functional classes II-IV, ejection fraction ≤ 35%, and QRS duration ≥ 120 msec) were prospectively included. Tissue Doppler cross-correlation analysis of myocardial acceleration curves from the basal segments in the apical views both at baseline and 6 months after CRT-D implantation was performed. Patients were divided into four subgroups on the basis of dyssynchrony at baseline and follow-up after CRT-D. Outcome events were predefined as appropriate antitachycardia pacing, shock, or death over 2 years. Mechanical dyssynchrony was present in 97 patients (64%) at baseline. At follow-up, 42 of these 97 patients (43%) had persistent dyssynchrony. Furthermore, among 54 patients with no dyssynchrony at baseline, 15 (28%) had onset of new dyssynchrony after CRT-D. In comparison with the group with reduced dyssynchrony, patients with persistent dyssynchrony after CRT-D were associated with a substantially increased risk for VA (hazard ratio [HR], 4.4; 95% CI, 1.2-16.3; P = .03) and VA or death (HR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.7-9.6; P = .002) after adjusting for other covariates. Similarly, patients with new dyssynchrony had increased risk for VA (HR, 10.6; 95% CI, 2.8-40.4; P = .001) and VA or death (HR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.8-13.5; P = .002). Persistent and new mechanical dyssynchrony after CRT-D was associated with subsequent complex VA. Dyssynchrony after CRT-D is a marker of poor prognosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel measure of electrical dyssynchrony predicts response in cardiac resynchronization therapy: Results from the SMART-AV Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tereshchenko, Larisa G.; Cheng, Alan; Park, Jason; Wold, Nicholas; Meyer, Timothy E.; Gold, Michael R.; Mittal, Suneet; Singh, Jagmeet; Stein, Kenneth M.; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces mortality and morbidity in selected heart failure (HF) patients. However, not all patients respond to CRT. Objective We hypothesized that a novel measure of electrical dyssynchrony, sum absolute QRST integral (SAI), predicts CRT response independent of QRS duration and morphology. Methods We retrospectively analyzed baseline 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) of SMART-AV study participants [N=234, mean age 67 y, 70% male, 60% ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 25%, mean QRS duration 152ms, 77% had left bundle branch block (LBBB)]. Baseline pre-implant ECGs were digitized, transformed into orthogonal XYZ, and analyzed automatically by customized Matlab software. SAI was measured as an averaged arithmetic sum of absolute areas under the QRST curve. Patients were followed prospectively 6 months after CRT-D implantation. Patients with a decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥ 15mls after 6 months of CRT were considered responders. Logistic regression model was adjusted for age, gender, BBB morphology, LVEF, type of cardiomyopathy and QRS duration. Results Patients with the high mean SAI (3rd tertile) had 2.5 times greater odds of response than those with low mean SAI (1st tertile; OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.0, p=0.010), and 1.9 times greater than the lower two tertiles combined (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1–3.5; P=0.03). Adjustment for renal function (OR 2.33 (95%CI 1.32, 4.11); P=0.003) and LV lead position in RAO/LAO (OR 1.7 (95%CI 0.9, 3.2); P=0.087) did not attenuate association of SAI with outcome. Conclusion High SAI QRST independently predicts CRT response in the SMART-AV study. PMID:26272523

  9. Electro-echocardiographic Indices to Predict Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Non-response on Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ziqing; Chen, Xueying; Han, Fei; Qin, Shengmei; Li, Minghui; Wu, Yuan; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) threw lights on heart failure treatment, however, parts of patients showed nonresponse to CRT. Unfortunately, it lacks effective parameters to predict CRT non-response. In present study, we try to seek effective electro-echocardiographic predictors on CRT non-response. This is a retrospective study to review a total of 227 patients of dyssynchronous heart failure underwent CRT implantation. Logistic analysis was performed between CRT responders and CRT non-responders. The primary outcome was the occurrence of improved left ventricular ejection fraction 1 year after CRT implantation. We concluded that LVEDV > 255 mL (OR = 2.236; 95% CI, 1.016–4.923) rather than LVESV > 160 mL (OR = 1.18; 95% CI, 0.544–2.56) and TpTe/QTc > 0.203 (OR = 5.206; 95% CI, 1.89–14.34) significantly predicted CRT non-response. Oppositely, S wave > 5.7 cm/s (OR = 0.242; 95% CI, 0.089–0.657), E/A > 1 (OR = 0.211; 95% CI, 0.079–0.566), E’/A’ > 1 (OR = 0.054; 95% CI, 0.017–0.172), CLBBB (OR = 0.141; 95% CI, 0.048–0.409), and QRS duration >160 ms (OR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.305–0.922) surprisingly predicted low-probability of CRT non-response. PMID:28281560

  10. Vectorcardiographic QRS area identifies delayed left ventricular lateral wall activation determined by electroanatomic mapping in candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Mafi Rad, Masih; Wijntjens, Gilbert W M; Engels, Elien B; Blaauw, Yuri; Luermans, Justin G L M; Pison, Laurent; Crijns, Harry J; Prinzen, Frits W; Vernooy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Delayed left ventricular (LV) lateral wall (LVLW) activation is considered the electrical substrate underlying LV dysfunction amenable to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The purpose of this study was to assess LVLW activation in CRT candidates using coronary venous electroanatomic mapping (EAM) and to investigate whether the QRS area (QRSAREA) on the vectorcardiogram (VCG) can identify delayed LVLW activation. Fifty-one consecutive CRT candidates (29 left bundle branch block [LBBB], 15 intraventricular conduction delay [IVCD], 7 right bundle branch block [RBBB]) underwent intraprocedural coronary venous EAM using EnSite NavX. VCGs were constructed from preprocedural digital 12-lead ECGs using the Kors method. QRSAREA was assessed and compared to QRS duration and 5 different LBBB definitions. Delayed LVLW activation (activation time >75% of QRS duration) occurred in 38 of 51 patients (29/29 LBBB, 8/15 IVCD, 1/7 RBBB). QRSAREA was larger in patients with than in patients without delayed LVLW activation (108 ± 42 µVs vs 51 ± 27 µVs, P < .001), and identified delayed LVLW activation better than QRS duration (area under the curve 0.89 [95% confidence interval 0.79-0.99] vs 0.49 [95% confidence interval 0.33-0.65]). QRSAREA >69 µVs diagnosed delayed LVLW activation with a higher sum of sensitivity (87%) and specificity (92%) than any of the LBBB definitions. Of the different LBBB definitions, the European Society of Cardiology textbook definition performed best with sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 100%. Coronary venous EAM can be used during CRT implantation to determine the presence of delayed LVLW activation. QRSAREA is a noninvasive alternative for intracardiac measurements of electrical activation, which identifies delayed LVLW activation better than QRS duration and LBBB morphology. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of QRS morphology on clinical event reduction with cardiac resynchronization therapy: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Sipahi, Ilke; Chou, Josephine C.; Hyden, Marshall; Rowland, Douglas Y.; Simon, Daniel I.; Fang, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective in reducing clinical events in systolic heart failure patients with a wide QRS. Previous retrospective studies suggest only patients with QRS prolongation due to a left bundle-branch block (LBBB) benefit from CRT. Our objective was to examine this by performing a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials of CRT. Methods Systematic searches of MEDLINE and the Food and Drug Administration official website were conducted for randomized controlled CRT trials. Trials reporting adverse clinical events (eg, all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalizations) according to QRS morphology were included in the meta-analysis. Results Four randomized trials totaling 5,356 patients met the inclusion criteria. In patients with LBBB at baseline, there was a highly significant reduction in composite adverse clinical events with CRT (RR = 0.64 [95% CI (0.52–0.77)], P = .00001). However no such benefit was observed for patients with non-LBBB conduction abnormalities (RR = 0.97 [95% CI (0.82–1.15)], P = .75). When examined separately, there was no benefit in patients with right-bundle branch block (RR = 0.91 [95% CI (0.69–1.20)], P = .49) or non-specific intraventricular conduction delay (RR = 1.19 [95% CI (0.87–1.63)], P = .28). There was no heterogeneity among the clinical trials with regards to the lack of benefit in non-LBBB patients (I2 = 0%). When directly compared, the difference in effect of CRT between LBBB versus non-LBBB patients was highly statistically significant (P = .0001 by heterogeneity analysis). Conclusions While CRT was very effective in reducing clinical events in patients with LBBB, it did not reduce such events in patients with wide QRS due to other conduction abnormalities. PMID:22305845

  12. Echocardiographic and clinical response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure patients with and without previous right ventricular pacing.

    PubMed

    Gage, Ryan M; Burns, Kevin V; Bank, Alan J

    2014-11-01

    Right ventricular pacing (RVp) results in an electrocardiographic left bundle branch block pattern and can lead to heart failure. This study aimed to evaluate echocardiographic and clinical outcomes of heart failure patients with RVp upgraded to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), as they are frequently excluded from multicentre studies. This observational study assessed 655 consecutive patients with QRS ≥120 ms and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%. There were 465 patients without significant previous RVp and 190 with RVp >40%. Echocardiograms were analysed pre-CRT and ∼ 1 year post-CRT. Death and heart failure hospitalizations were analysed using Cox regression, adjusted for baseline characteristics. The RVp patients had smaller end-systolic volume (P = 0.002), were older (P < 0.001), and had more atrial fibrillation (P < 0.001) pre-CRT. Ejection fraction and proportion of ischaemic aetiology were similar. One year following CRT implantation the ejection fraction response was greater in the RVp group (8.3 ± 9 vs. 5.8 ± 9 units, P = 0.005). The RVp patients had an adjusted 33% lower risk of death or heart failure hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) 0.67 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.89, P = 0.005], while tending to have an adjusted lower risk of death (HR 0.73 95% CI 0.53-1.01, P = 0.055). Despite similar ejection fraction pre-CRT, patients upgraded to CRT with previous RVp have smaller end-systolic volume and respond to CRT at least as well as, if not better than, other wide QRS heart failure patients. A greater improvement in ejection fraction and a lower risk of death or heart failure hospitalization when adjusted for baseline characteristics were seen in those with previous RVp. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  13. Clinical Long-Term Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Is Independent of Persisting Echocardiographic Markers of Dyssynchrony

    PubMed Central

    Naegeli, Barbara; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Attenhofer Jost, Christine; Fah-Gunz, Anja; Maurer, Dominik; Bertel, Osmund; Scharf, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to prove the concept that correction of established parameters of dyssynchrony is a requirement for favorable long-term outcome in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), whereas patients with persisting dyssynchrony should have a less favorable response. Methods After CRT implantation and optimization of dyssynchrony parameters, we evaluated whether correction or persistence of dyssynchrony predicted long-term outcome. Primary endpoint was a combination of cardiac mortality/heart transplantation and hospitalization due to worsening heart failure, and secondary endpoint was NYHA class. Results One hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients (mean age 68 ± 10 years) undergoing CRT with a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 27±9% were followed for 27 ± 19 months. All cause mortality was 17.2%, cardiac mortality was 7.8% and 3.1% had to undergo heart transplantation. Rehospitalization due to worsening heart failure was observed in 14.8%. NYHA class before CRT implantation was 2.8 ± 0.8 and improved during follow-up to 2.0 ± 0.8 (P < 0.001). A clinical response was observed in 76% (n = 97) and an echocardiographic response was documented in 66% (n = 85). After individually optimized AV and VV intervals with echocardiography, atrioventricular dyssynchrony was still present in 7.2%, interventricular dyssynchrony in 13.3% and intraventricular dyssynchrony in 16.4%. Despite persistent atrioventricular, interventricular and intraventricular dyssynchrony at long-term follow-up, the combined primary and secondary endpoints did not differ compared to the group without mechanical dyssynchrony (P = ns). QRS duration with biventricular stimulation did not differ between responders vs. nonresponders. Conclusion After successful CRT implantation, clinical long-term response is independent of correction of dyssynchrony measured by echocardiographic parameters and QRS width. PMID:28352448

  14. Gauging the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: The important interplay between predictor variables and definition of a favorable outcome.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Milan; Petrovic, Marija; Milasinovic, Goran; Vujisic Tesic, Bosiljka; Trifunovic, Danijela; Petrovic, Olga; Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Petrovic, Ivana; Banovic, Marko; Boricic-Kostic, Marija; Petrovic, Jelena; Arena, Ross; Popovic, Dejana

    2017-03-01

    Selection of patients who are viable candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), prediction of the response to CRT as well as an optimal definition of a favorable response, all require further exploration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interplay between the prediction of the response to CRT and the definition of a favorable outcome. Seventy patients who received CRT were included. All patients met current guideline criteria for CRT. Forty-three echocardiographic parameters were evaluated before CRT and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. M-mode, 2D echocardiography, and Doppler imaging were used to quantify left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, mitral regurgitation, right ventricular systolic function, pulmonary artery pressure, and myocardial mechanical dyssynchrony. The following definitions of a favorable CRT response were used: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improvement more >5% acutely following CRT, LVEF improvement >20% at 12-month follow-up, and a LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) decrease >15% at 12-month follow-up. For the LVEF improvement >5%, the best predictor was isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT; P=.035). For improvement of LVEF >20%, the best predictors were left ventricular stroke index (LVSI; P=.044) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS; P=.031). For the drop in left ventricular systolic volume (LVESV >15%), the best predictor was septal-to-lateral wall delay (ΔT) (P=.043, RR=1.023, 95% CI for RR=1.001-1.045). The definition of a favorable CRT response influenced the optimal predictor variable(s). Standardization of defining a favorable response to CRT is needed to guide clinical decision making processes. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Association of intraventricular mechanical dyssynchrony with response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure patients with a narrow QRS complex

    PubMed Central

    van Bommel, Rutger J.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Delgado, Victoria; Bertini, Matteo; Borleffs, Carel Jan Willem; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Holzmeister, Johannes; Ruschitzka, Frank; Schalij, Martin J.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Gorcsan, John

    2010-01-01

    Aims Current criteria for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are restricted to patients with a wide QRS complex (>120 ms). Overall, only 30% of heart failure patients demonstrate a wide QRS complex, leaving the majority of heart failure patients without this treatment option. However, patients with a narrow QRS complex exhibit left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony, as assessed with echocardiography. To further elucidate the possible beneficial effect of CRT in heart failure patients with a narrow QRS complex, this two-centre, non-randomized observational study focused on different echocardiographic parameters of LV mechanical dyssynchrony reflecting atrioventricular, interventricular and intraventricular dyssynchrony, and the response to CRT in these patients. Methods and results A total of 123 consecutive heart failure patients with a narrow QRS complex (<120 ms) undergoing CRT was included at two centres. Several widely accepted measures of mechanical dyssynchrony were evaluated: LV filling ratio (LVFT/RR), LV pre-ejection time (LPEI), interventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (IVMD), opposing wall delay (OWD), and anteroseptal posterior wall delay with speckle tracking (ASPWD). Response to CRT was defined as a reduction ≥15% in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6 months follow-up. Measures of dyssynchrony can frequently be observed in patients with a narrow QRS complex. Nonetheless, for LVFT/RR, LPEI, and IVMD, presence of predefined significant dyssynchrony is <20%. Significant intraventricular dyssynchrony is more widely observed in these patients. With receiver operator characteristic curve analyses, both OWD and ASPWD demonstrated usefulness in predicting response to CRT in narrow QRS patients with a cut-off value of 75 and 107 ms, respectively. Conclusion Mechanical dyssynchrony can be widely observed in heart failure patients with a narrow QRS complex. In particular, intraventricular measures of mechanical dyssynchrony may be useful in

  16. The arterial baroreflex effectiveness index in risk stratification of chronic heart failure patients who are candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Serôdio, João; Martins Oliveira, Mário; Matoso Laranjo, Sérgio; Tavares, Cristiano; Silva Cunha, Pedro; Abreu, Ana; Branco, Luísa; Alves, Sandra; Rocha, Isabel; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Baroreflex function is an independent marker of prognosis in heart failure (HF). However, little is known about its relation to response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study is to assess arterial baroreflex function in HF patients who are candidates for CRT. The study population consisted of 25 patients with indication for CRT, aged 65±10 years, NYHA functional class ≥III in 52%, QRS width 159±15 ms, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 29±5%, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) 150±48 ml, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) 357±270 pg/ml, and peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) 18.4±5.0 ml/kg/min. An orthostatic tilt test was performed to assess the baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) by the sequence method. This group was compared with 15 age-matched healthy individuals. HF patients showed a significantly depressed BEI during tilt (31±12% vs. 49±18%, p=0.001). A lower BEI was associated with higher BNP (p=0.038), lower peak VO2 (p=0.048), and higher LVESV (p=0.031). By applying a cut-off value of 25% for BEI, two clusters of patients were identified: lower risk cluster (BEI >25%) QRS 153 ms, LVESV 129 ml, BNP 146 pg/ml, peak VO2 19.0 ml/kg/min; and higher risk cluster (IEB ≤25%) QRS 167 ms, LVESV 189 ml, BNP 590 pg/ml, peak VO2 16.2 ml/kg/min. Candidates for CRT show depressed arterial baroreflex function. Lower BEI was observed in high-risk HF patients. Baroreflex function correlated closely with other clinical HF parameters. Therefore, BEI may improve risk stratification in HF patients undergoing CRT. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Etiology on the Outcomes in Heart Failure Patients Treated with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanmei; Duan, Chongyang; Liu, Feng; Shen, Shuxin; Chen, Pingyan; Bin, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been extensively demonstrated to benefit heart failure patients, but the role of underlying heart failure etiology in the outcomes was not consistently proven. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether efficacy and effectiveness of CRT is affected by underlying heart failure etiology. Methods and Results Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were conducted to identify RCTs and observational studies that reported clinical and functional outcomes of CRT in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) patients. Efficacy of CRT was assessed in 7 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 7072 patients and effectiveness of CRT was evaluated in 14 observational studies with 3463 patients In the pooled analysis of RCTs, we found that CRT decreased mortality or heart failure hospitalization by 29% in ICM patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 21% to 35%), and by 28% (95% CI, 18% to 37%) in NICM patients. No significant difference was observed between the 2 etiology groups (P = 0.55). In the pooled analysis of observational studies, however, we found that ICM patients had a 54% greater risk for mortality or HF hospitalization than NICM patients (relative risk: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.30–1.83; P<0.001). Both RCTs and observational studies demonstrated that NICM patients had greater echocardiographic improvements in the left ventricular ejection fraction and end-systolic volume, as compared with ICM patients (both P<0.001). Conclusion CRT might reduce mortality or heart failure hospitalization in both ICM and NICM patients similarly. The improvement of the left ventricular function and remodeling is greater in NICM patients. PMID:24732141

  18. Functional response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with renal dysfunction and subsequent long-term mortality.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Stefan; Klempfner, Robert; Sabbag, Avi; Luria, David; Gurevitz, Osnat; Bar-Lev, David; Lipchenca, Igor; Nof, Eyal; Kuperstein, Rafael; Goldenberg, Ilan; Eldar, Michael; Glikson, Michael; Beinart, Roy

    2014-11-01

    Renal dysfunction is associated with increased morbi-mortality in heart failure patients. Data regarding functional and clinical efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in this population are limited. We aimed to evaluate the rate of functional response to CRT in patients with renal dysfunction and its association with long-term mortality. Our study included a total of 179 consecutive patients implanted between 2007 and 2010. The rate of functional response to CRT (defined by a composite score using New York Heart Association functional class, 6-minute walk test, and quality of life) was compared between patients with and without renal dysfunction (defined as eGFR < or ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ). Survival analysis estimates were constructed according to the Kaplan-Meier method, with results comparison using the log-rank test. During a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 73 patients (40%) died. Patients with low eGFR were older (72 ± 8 years vs. 64 ± 12 years; P < 0.001), and had higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease (75% vs. 53%; P = 0.003). Functional response rates did not differ significantly between patients with and without renal dysfunction (58% and 69%, respectively; P = 0.14). Despite overall higher mortality in patients with low eGFR (53.8% vs. 22.7%; P < 0.001), the presence of functional response at 1 year among patients with renal dysfunction was still independently associated with an improved long-term survival (HR = 0.49 [95%CI: 0.28-0.83]; P = 0.009). Functional response to CRT at 1 year does not differ significantly between patients with or without kidney disease, and is an independent predictor of improved long-term survival in patients with renal dysfunction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Utility of comprehensive assessment of strain dyssynchrony index by speckle tracking imaging for predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Yamawaki, Kouhei; Ryo, Keiko; Omar, Alaa Mabrouk Salem; Fukuda, Yuko; Norisada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Onishi, Tetsuari; Gorcsan, John; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kawai, Hiroya; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2011-02-01

    The strain delay index is reportedly a marker of dyssynchrony and residual myocardial contractility. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a relatively simple version of the strain dyssynchrony index (SDI) can predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and that combining assessment of radial, circumferential, and longitudinal SDI can further improve the prediction of responders. A total of 52 patients who underwent CRT were studied. The SDI was calculated as the average difference between peak and end-systolic strain from 6 segments for radial and circumferential SDI and 18 segments for longitudinal SDI. Conventional dyssynchrony measures were assessed by interventricular mechanical delay, the Yu index, and radial dyssynchrony by speckle tracking strain. Response was defined as a ≥15% decrease in end-systolic volume after 3 months. Of the individual parameters, radial SDI ≥6.5% was the best predictor of response to CRT, with sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 81%, and an area under the curve of 0.87 (p <0.001). Circumferential SDI ≥3.2% and longitudinal SDI ≥3.6% were also found to be predictive of response to CRT, with areas under the curve of 0.81 and 0.80, respectively (p <0.001). Moreover, radial, circumferential, and longitudinal SDI at baseline were correlated with reduction of end-systolic volume with CRT. In addition, the response rate in patients with 3 positive SDIs was 100%. In contrast, rates in patients with either 1 or no positive SDIs were 42% and 22%, respectively (p <0.005 and p <0.001 vs 3 positive SDIs). In conclusion, the SDI can successfully predict response to CRT, and the combined approach leads to more accurate prediction than using individual parameters.

  20. Postimplantation ventricular ectopic burden and clinical outcomes in cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator patients: a MADIT-CRT substudy.

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Aktas, Mehmet K; Ruwald, Martin H; Kutyifa, Valentina; McNitt, Scott; Jons, Christian; Mittal, Suneet; Steinberg, Jonathan S; Daubert, James P; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech

    2017-09-20

    Frequent ventricular ectopy on preimplantation Holter has been associated with attenuated benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, it is unclear whether ectopic burden measured post-CRT implantation can be utilized to evaluate long-term prognosis. We aimed to describe the association between post-CRT implantation ectopic burden and subsequent risk of clinical outcomes. At the 12-month follow-up visit, 24-hour Holter recordings were performed in 698 CRT-D patients from the MADIT-CRT study. The mean number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs/hour) was calculated. High ectopic burden was defined as >10 VPCs/hour and low burden as ≤10 VPCs/hour. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to assess the association between 12-month ectopic burden and the risk of the end points of heart failure (HF) or death and ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF). At 12 months, 282 (40%) patients presented with low ectopic burden and 416 (60%) patients presented with high ectopic burden. The 3-year risk of HF/death and VT/VF was lower in patients with a low burden (7% and 8%) and significantly higher (25% and 24%) in patients with high burden. In multivariate analyses, patients with a high ectopic burden had approximately threefold increased risk of both HF/death (HR=2.76 [1.62-4.70], p < .001) and VT/VF (HR=2.79 [1.69-4.58], p < .001). In CRT-D patients with mild heart failure, high ectopic burden at 12-month follow-up was associated with a high 3-year risk of HF/death and VT/VF and threefold increased risk as compared to patients with low burden. Ectopic burden at 12 months may be a valuable approach for evaluating long-term prognosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with special focus on patency of coronary sinus and its branches: conceptual viewpoint and semi-theoretical considerations on lead-induced obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stirbys, Petras

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy appears to be useful for patients with severe chronic congestive heart failure. However, many questions still arise concerning the effectiveness of this kind of therapy since hemodynamic improvement is not observed in all patients. Heterogeneity of conclusions reported by several multicenter clinical trials and prominent experts demonstrates that many uncertainties related to cardiac resynchronization therapy still exist. We tried to reveal some inadequacies in clinical results by focusing on cardiac venous blood return which is likely complicated by the presence of lead inside the coronary sinus and its branches. Downstream traversing lead may occlude (partially or completely) the ostia of minor tributaries and target vein of lead final positioning. Thrombosis may also be incited within the coronary sinus itself. Remaining lumen predetermined by the lead body and subsequent thrombosis may be insufficient to provide adequate blood flow. Resulting detrimental venous return presumably may slightly depress myocardial contractility which may be significant in very sensitive group of patients assigned to the New York Heart Association class III or IV. Cardiac venous blood pumping conditions (or venous drainage) are likely also complicated by abnormal activation of left ventricle. The contributory role of these two subtle causes unfavorably influencing venous drainage is still unknown. It may be treated as a hypothetical attempt to find the clue and needs future studies for verification.

  2. Comparison and Validation of Recommended QT Interval Correction Formulas for Predicting Cardiac Arrhythmias in Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Cardiac Resynchronization Devices.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Álvarez, Diego; Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; García-Seara, Francisco Javier; Kreidieh, Omar; Martínez-Sande, José Luis; Álvarez-Álvarez, Belén; Fernández-López, Xesús Alberte; González-Melchor, Laila; Lage-Fernández, Ricardo; Moscoso-Galán, Isabel; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2017-09-15

    QT interval prolongation is an important marker for the development of cardiac arrhythmias (CAs). Optimal methods to estimate QT/QTc intervals in patients with ventricular pacing (VP) and its correlation with CA have not been widely investigated. We aimed to validate the currently available formulas for QT determination during VP and to compare their abilities in predicting the occurrence of CA (atrial fibrillation [AF] and malignant ventricular arrhythmias [VAs] in patients with advanced heart failure and cardiac resynchronization therapy). Consecutive patients with advanced heart failure who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation between August 2001 and April 2015 were included in a retrospective study. Four proposed formulas for QT correction in VP rhythms were evaluated. One hundred eighty patients were enrolled. During 44 months of follow-up, 43 patients (37.7%) developed AF and 16 patients (8.9%) developed VA. There was no correlation between corrected QT increments and AF risk with any of the formulas for paced rhythms. Regarding VA, higher corrected QT values measured with Massachusetts' formula (QTcM) were found to have a higher risk of event (p = 0.036) (Beta = 1.012 [1.001 to 1.023]). Each 1 ms increase in QTc increased the probability of experiencing VA by 12‰. QTcM >444 was found to be a strong predictor of VA. In conclusion, there are significant differences in mean QTc interval measured by the currently advised formulas. QTc interval was not associated with AF in any of the formulas. Only the QTcM formula showed a significant stepwise increase in the risk of experiencing malignant VA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of apical rocking with long-term major adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Abdul; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Elvan, Arif

    2016-02-01

    Correctly identifying patients who will benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is still challenging. 'Apical rocking' is observed in asynchronously contracting ventricles and is associated with echocardiographic response to CRT. The association of apical rocking and long-term clinical outcome is however unknown at present. We assessed the predictive value of left ventricular (LV) apical rocking on a long-term clinical outcome in patients treated with CRT. Consecutive heart failure patients treated with primary indication for CRT-D between 2005 and 2009 were included in a prospective registry. Echocardiography was performed prior to CRT to assess apical rocking, defined as motion of the LV apical myocardium perpendicular to the LV long axis. Major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was defined as combined end point of cardiac death and/or heart failure hospitalization and/or appropriate therapy (ATP and/or ICD shocks). All echocardiograms were assessed by independent cardiologists, blinded for clinical data. Multivariable analyses were performed to adjust for potential confounders. Two hundred and ninety-five patients with echocardiography prior to implantation were included in the final analyses. Apical rocking was present in 45% of the study patients. Apical rocking was significantly more common in younger patients, females, patients with sinus rhythm, non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, and in patients with LBBB and wider QRS duration. During a mean clinical follow-up of 5.2 ± 1.6 years, 92 (31%) patients reached the end point of the study (MACE). Patients with MACE had shorter QRS duration, had more ischaemic cardiomyopathy, and were more often on Amiodarone. In univariate analyses, MACE was associated with shorter QRS duration, ischaemic aetiology, and the absence of apical rocking. After multivariable analyses, apical rocking was associated with less MACE (hazards ratio, HR 0.44, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.25-0.77). Apical rocking is an independent

  4. Strain dyssynchrony index determined by three-dimensional speckle area tracking can predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously reported strain dyssynchrony index assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking strain, and a marker of both dyssynchrony and residual myocardial contractility, can predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). A newly developed three-dimensional (3-D) speckle tracking system can quantify endocardial area change ratio (area strain), which coupled with the factors of both longitudinal and circumferential strain, from all 16 standard left ventricular (LV) segments using complete 3-D pyramidal datasets. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that strain dyssynchrony index using area tracking (ASDI) can quantify dyssynchrony and predict response to CRT. Methods We studied 14 heart failure patients with ejection fraction of 27 ± 7% (all≤35%) and QRS duration of 172 ± 30 ms (all≥120 ms) who underwent CRT. Echocardiography was performed before and 6-month after CRT. ASDI was calculated as the average difference between peak and end-systolic area strain of LV endocardium obtained from 3-D speckle tracking imaging using 16 segments. Conventional dyssynchrony measures were assessed by interventricular mechanical delay, Yu Index, and two-dimensional radial dyssynchrony by speckle-tracking strain. Response was defined as a ≥15% decrease in LV end-systolic volume 6-month after CRT. Results ASDI ≥ 3.8% was the best predictor of response to CRT with a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 100% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 (p < 0.001). Two-dimensional radial dyssynchrony determined by speckle-tracking strain was also predictive of response to CRT with an AUC of 0.82 (p < 0.005). Interestingly, ASDI ≥ 3.8% was associated with the highest incidence of echocardiographic improvement after CRT with a response rate of 100% (7/7), and baseline ASDI correlated with reduction of LV end-systolic volume following CRT (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Conclusions ASDI can predict responders and LV reverse remodeling following CRT. This

  5. A prospective evaluation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance measures of dyssynchrony in the prediction of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients with electrical dyssynchrony who undergo cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) do not obtain substantial benefit. Assessing mechanical dyssynchrony may improve patient selection. Results from studies using echocardiographic imaging to measure dyssynchrony have ultimately proved disappointing. We sought to evaluate cardiac motion in patients with heart failure and electrical dyssynchrony using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). We developed a framework for comparing measures of myocardial mechanics and evaluated how well they predicted response to CRT. Methods CMR was performed at 1.5 Tesla prior to CRT. Steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine images and complementary modulation of magnetization (CSPAMM) tagged cine images were acquired. Images were processed using a novel framework to extract regional ventricular volume-change, thickening and deformation fields (strain). A systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) for all parameters within a 16-segment model of the ventricle was computed with high SDI denoting more dyssynchrony. Once identified, the optimal measure was applied to a second patient population to determine its utility as a predictor of CRT response compared to current accepted predictors (QRS duration, LBBB morphology and scar burden). Results Forty-four patients were recruited in the first phase (91% male, 63.3 ± 14.1 years; 80% NYHA class III) with mean QRSd 154 ± 24 ms. Twenty-one out of 44 (48%) patients showed reverse remodelling (RR) with a decrease in end systolic volume (ESV) ≥ 15% at 6 months. Volume-change SDI was the strongest predictor of RR (PR 5.67; 95% CI 1.95-16.5; P = 0.003). SDI derived from myocardial strain was least predictive. Volume-change SDI was applied as a predictor of RR to a second population of 50 patients (70% male, mean age 68.6 ± 12.2 years, 76% NYHA class III) with mean QRSd 146 ± 21 ms. When compared to QRSd, LBBB morphology and scar burden, volume

  6. Greater response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with true complete left bundle branch block: a PREDICT substudy.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Mark Jonathan; Green, Martin S; Redpath, Calum J; Nery, Pablo B; Keren, Arieh; Beanlands, Robert S; Birnie, David H

    2012-05-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) benefits patients with heart failure and a wide QRS complex. Still, one-third derive no clinical benefit and a majority of patients demonstrate no objective improvement of left ventricular (LV) function. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a strong predictor of response to CRT. We evaluated whether absence of electrocardiogram (ECG) markers of residual left bundle (LB) conduction in guideline-defined LBBB predicted a greater response to CRT. An r wave ≥1 mm in lead V1 (r-V1) and/or a q wave ≥1 mm in lead aVL (q-aVL) was used to identify patients with residual LB conduction. Forty patients with a wide QRS were prospectively enrolled and subdivided into three groups: complete LBBB (cLBBB), LBBB without r-V1 or q-aVL (n = 12); LBBB with residual LB conduction (rLBBB), LBBB with r-V1 and/or q-aVL (n = 15); and non-specific intraventricular conduction delay (IVCD), (n = 13). Following CRT: mean change in left ventricular ejection fraction was 11.9 ± 11.9% in cLBBB, 3.8 ± 5.4% in rLBBB (P= 0.045), and 2.5 ± 4.4% in IVCD (P= 0.02 cLBBB vs. IVCD); mean reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume was 26.4 ± 39.2% in cLBBB, 14.3 ± 22.9% in rLBBB (P= 0.35), and 5.6 ± 17.3% in IVCD (P= 0.11 cLBBB vs. IVCD); mean change in native QRS duration was -8.0 ± 11.0 ms in cLBBB, -0.8 ± 8.24 ms in rLBBB (P= 0.07), and 0.15 ± 8.0 ms in IVCD (P= 0.048 cLBBB vs. IVCD). In patients with guideline-defined LBBB, the absence of ECG markers of residual LB conduction was predictive of a greater improvement in LV function with CRT.

  7. Early right ventricular response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: impact on clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stolfo, Davide; Tonet, Elisabetta; Merlo, Marco; Barbati, Giulia; Gigli, Marta; Pinamonti, Bruno; Ramani, Federica; Zecchin, Massimo; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-02-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has been associated with a worse outcome in heart failure patients undergoing CRT. However, evidence on the RV response to CRT is controversial and there are no data regarding the early effects of CRT on RV function (RVF). We sought to investigate whether a CRT device favourably influences the RVF acutely after implantation, impacting on long-term outcomes. Patients who successfully underwent CRT device implantation from January 2005 to January 2014 were retrospectively analysed. RV dysfunction was defined by an RV fractional area change <35%. Post-procedural echocardiographic evaluation was performed at a median time of 2 days (interquartile range 1-6 days). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and urgent heart transplantation. A total of 194 patients with available pre- and post-procedural RVF assessment were included. Sixty-two (32%) presented an impaired RVF before the procedure. Of them, 32% showed prompt normalization of RVF following CRT. This occurred in parallel with a large improvement in pulmonary arterial pressure, mitral regurgitation, E/E' ratio, and diastolic function. Pre-implantation independent predictors of early RVF normalization were LBBB (P = 0.034) and higher systolic blood pressure (P = 0.026). Improvement in RVF was independently associated with a better long-term prognosis at multivariable analysis [hazard ratio 0.124; 95% confidence interval 0.016-0.966, P = 0.04). Acute normalization of RVF can be observed after CRT along with haemodynamic improvement, and therefore can be used as an independent predictor of transplant-free survival. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Applicability of a risk score for prediction of the long-term benefit of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Barra, Sérgio; Looi, Khang-Li; Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Khan, Fakhar Z; Virdee, Munmohan; Agarwal, Sharad

    2016-08-01

    The Goldenberg risk score, comprising five clinical risk factors (New York Heart Association class >2, atrial fibrillation, QRS duration >120 ms, age >70 years, and urea >26 mg/dL), may help identify patients in whom the survival benefit of the defibrillator may be limited. We aim at assessing whether this score can accurately predict the long-term all-cause mortality risk of patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and identify those who are more likely to benefit from the defibrillator. In this retrospective observational cohort study, 638 patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy who had CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D) (n = 224) vs. CRT-pacemaker (CRT-P) (n = 414) implantation were prospectively followed up for survival outcomes. The long-term outcome of patients with CRT-D vs. CRT-P was compared within risk score categories and in patients with severe renal dysfunction. Mean follow-up in surviving and deceased patients was 62.7 and 32.5 months, respectively. This score showed higher discriminative performance in all-cause mortality prediction in CRT-D vs. CRT-P patients (area under the curve 0.718 ± 0.041 vs. 0.650 ± 0.032, respectively, P = 0.001). In those with scores 0-2, a CRT-D device decreased mortality rates in the first 4 years of follow-up compared with CRT-P (11.3 vs. 24.7%, P = 0.041), but this effect attenuated with longer follow-up duration (21.2 vs. 32.7%, P = 0.078). In this group, the benefit of CRT-D during the follow-up was seen after adjusting for traditional mortality predictors (hazard ratio 0.339, P = 0.001). No significant differences in mortality rates were seen in patients with score ≥3 (57.9% with CRT-D vs. 56.9%, P = 0.8) and those with severe renal dysfunction (92.9% in CRT-D vs. 76.2%, P = 0.17). Similar results were seen following propensity score matching. A simple risk stratification score comprising five clinical risk factors may help identify CRT patients who are more likely to benefit from

  9. Primary results from the SmartDelay determined AV optimization: a comparison to other AV delay methods used in cardiac resynchronization therapy (SMART-AV) trial: a randomized trial comparing empirical, echocardiography-guided, and algorithmic atrioventricular delay programming in cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Gold, Michael R; Meyer, Timothy E; Fernndez Lozano, Ignacio; Mittal, Suneet; Waggoner, Alan D; Lemke, Bernd; Singh, Jagmeet P; Spinale, Francis G; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Whitehill, Jeffrey; Weiner, Stanislav; Bedi, Maninder; Rapkin, Joshua; Stein, Kenneth M

    2010-12-21

    one variable that may influence cardiac resynchronization therapy response is the programmed atrioventricular (AV) delay. The SmartDelay determined av optimization: a comparison to other AV delay methods used in cardiac resynchronization therapy (SMART-AV) trial prospectively randomized patients to a fixed empirical AV delay (120 milliseconds), echocardiographically optimized AV delay, or AV delay optimized with SmartDelay, an electrogram-based algorithm. a total of 1014 patients (68% men; mean age, 66 ± 11 years; mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 25 ± 7%) who met enrollment criteria received a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator, and 980 patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio. All patients were programmed (DDD-60 or DDDR-60) and evaluated after implantation and 3 and 6 months later. The primary end point was left ventricular end-systolic volume. Secondary end points included New York Heart Association class, quality-of-life score, 6-minute walk distance, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction. The medians (quartiles 1 and 3) for change in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6 months for the SmartDelay, echocardiography, and fixed arms were -21 mL (-45 and 6 mL), -19 mL (-45 and 6 mL), and -15 mL (-41 and 6 mL), respectively. No difference in improvement in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6 months was observed between the SmartDelay and echocardiography arms (P=0.52) or the SmartDelay and fixed arms (P=0.66). Secondary end points, including structural (left ventricular end-diastolic volume and left ventricular ejection fraction) and functional (6-minute walk, quality of life, and New York Heart Association classification) measures, were not significantly different between arms. neither SmartDelay nor echocardiography was superior to a fixed AV delay of 120 milliseconds. The routine use of AV optimization techniques assessed in this trial is not warranted. However, these data do not exclude

  10. Evaluation of synergistic effects of resynchronization therapy and a β-blocker up-titration strategy based on a predefined patient-management program: the RESTORE study.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Pietro; Ammendola, Ernesto; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Accogli, Michele; Calò, Leonardo; Ruocco, Antonio; Rapacciuolo, Antonio; Del Giorno, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Valter; Malacrida, Maurizio; Valsecchi, Sergio; Gronda, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that a substantial number of eligible heart failure (HF) patients fail to receive β-blocker therapy, or receive it at a suboptimal dose. The aim of this study is to assess the benefit of a predefined management program designed for β-blocker up-titration, evaluating the synergistic effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and β-blockers in a HF population. The Resynchronization Therapy and β-Blocker Titration (RESTORE) study is a prospective, case-control, multicenter cohort study designed to test the hypothesis that a β-blocker up-titration strategy based on a predefined management program maximizes the beneficial effect of CRT, increasing the number of patients reaching the target dose of β-blockers and improving their clinical outcome. All study patients receive an implantable defibrillator for CRT delivery in accordance with current guidelines. Enrollments started in December 2011 and are scheduled to end in December 2014. Approximately 250 consecutive patients will be prospectively enrolled in 6 Italian centers and followed up for 24 months after implantation. The primary endpoint is to demonstrate that CRT may allow titration of β-blockers until the optimal dose, or at least to the effective dose, in patients with HF. This study might provide important information about the benefit of a predefined management program for β-blocker up-titration in patients receiving CRT. Moreover, assessment of health-care utilization and the consumption of resources will allow estimating the potential utility of remote monitoring by means of an automated telemedicine system in facilitating the titration of β-blockers in comparison with a standard in-hospital approach.

  11. Rationale and design of a randomized clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of frequent optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy: the Frequent Optimization Study Using the QuickOpt Method (FREEDOM) trial.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T; Gras, Daniel; Yu, Cheuk Man; Guzzo, Lisa; Gupta, Manish S

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the rationale, design, and end points of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial evaluating frequent systematic optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) delays in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). One thousand five hundred eighty heart failure patients, with standard clinical indications for CRT, were enrolled at 178 sites in 16 countries. Within 2 weeks after implantation of a CRT system capable of using a new device-based algorithm for AV and VV optimization, patients were randomly assigned to frequent optimization arm versus empiric device programming or any other non-device-based method of CRT optimization (standard of care arm). In patients in the frequent optimization arm, the AV and VV delays were calculated, reevaluated, and, if necessary, reprogrammed every 3 months. In patients in the standard of care arm, device programming was left to the implanting physician's discretion and remained unchanged throughout the trial unless mandated by a change in clinical status. The primary end point of the trial is the heart failure clinical composite, which classifies patients as worsened, unchanged, or improved based on prespecified definitions. Secondary end points include hospitalizations for cardiovascular reasons and all-cause mortality. End points are adjudicated by an independent committee blinded to study assignment. The FREEDOM trial, expected to conclude late in 2009, will determine whether frequent optimization of CRT, using a new device-based algorithm, is associated with better clinical outcomes than current standard of care. In addition to improving patient care, this approach might alleviate the workload and economic burden imposed by current approaches to optimization of CRT devices. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of septal flash and left ventricle contractile reserve on positive remodeling during 1 year cardiac resynchronization therapy: the multicenter ViaCRT study.

    PubMed

    Gąsior, Zbigniew; Płońska-Gościniak, Edyta; Kułach, Andrzej; Wita, Krystian; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Szwed, Hanna; Kasprzak, Jarosław; Tomaszewski, Andrzej; Sinkiewicz, Władysław; Wojciechowska, Celina

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure (HFREF). However, the relatively high non-responder rate results in a need for more precise qualification for CRT. The ViaCRT study was designed to determine the role of contractile reserve and dyssynchrony parameters in predicting CRT response. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the effect of baseline septal flash and contractile reserve (CR) on clinical and echocardiographic parameters of response to CRT in 12-month follow-up. One hundred thirty-three guideline-selected CRT candidates (both ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction) were enrolled in the study. Baseline study population characteristics were: left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) 25 ±6%, QRS 165 ±25 ms, NYHA class III (90%) and IV (10%). In subjects with septal flash (SF) registered before CRT implantation improvement in LVEF (14 ±2% vs. 8 ±1%, p < 0.05) and left ventricle (LV) systolic (63 ±10 ml vs. 36 ±6 ml, p < 0.05) and diastolic (46 ±10 ml vs. 32 ±7, p < 0.05) volumes was more pronounced than in patients without SF. In patients with CR (defined as LVEF increase by 20% or 4 viable segments) improvement in echo parameters was not significantly different then in the CR- group. Neither SF nor CR was associated with improvement in NYHA class. Subgroup analysis revealed that only in non-ischemic HF patients is presence of septal flash associated with LV function improvement after CRT. In non-ischemic HF patients septal flash is a helpful parameter in prediction of LV remodeling after 12 months of resynchronization therapy.

  13. 76 FR 63928 - Circulatory System Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Circulatory System Devices Panel of the Medical Devices... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Circulatory System Devices Panel of...: ``Medtronic cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) systems are indicated for heart...

  14. Device therapy for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Boehmer, John P

    2003-03-20

    Although pharmacologic therapy has made impressive advances in the past decade and is the mainstay of therapy for heart failure (HF), there is still a large unmet need, because morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. Implanted medical devices are gaining increasing utility in this group of patients and have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of HF. The majority of devices in clinical use or under active investigation in HF can be grouped into 1 of 4 categories: devices to monitor the HF condition, devices to treat rhythm disturbances, devices to improve the mechanical efficiency of the heart, and devices to replace part or all of the heart's function. There are several devices either approved or under development to monitor the HF condition, ranging from interactive weight scales to implantable continuous pressure monitors. The challenge is to demonstrate that this technology can improve patient outcomes. Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are used to treat heart rhythms in a broad range of patients with heart disease, but they now have a special place in HF management with the prophylactic use of ICDs in patients who have advanced systolic dysfunction. The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) II study demonstrated a 29% reduction in all-cause mortality with ICDs in patients with a history of a myocardial infarction and a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction <0.30. LV and multisite pacing are means of improving the mechanical efficiency of the heart. The concept is to create a more coordinated contraction of the ventricles to overcome the inefficiency associated with conduction system delays, which are common in HF. The acute hemodynamic effect can be impressive and is immediate. Several studies of intermediate duration (3 to 6 months) have consistently demonstrated that biventricular pacing improves symptoms and exercise capacity. Mechanical methods of remodeling the heart into a more

  15. Evaluation of five resynchronization methods using different combinations of PGF2α, GnRH, estradiol and an intravaginal progesterone device for insemination in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Sani, R Narenji; Farzaneh, N; Moezifar, M; Seifi, H A; Tabatabei, A Alavi

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate five methods for the resynchronization of estrus in lactating dairy cows. One hundred and seventy-three Holstein cows were assigned at random to five treatments: Ovsynch-24, IPD+Ovsynch-24, Ovsynch-31, Heatsynch, and IPD+Heatsynch. The start of the resynchronization protocols, and all subsequent procedures, was timed in relation to the pre-enrolment AI (PAI) and ranged over 7 days for each treatment. The pregnancy status of all the animals was evaluated by ultrasound examination on day 31±3 PAI. In all treatments, the resynchronized AI (RAI) was at an observed estrus or at a fixed time after the completion of the resynchronization procedures. Cows were observed for estrus thrice daily and those observed in estrus were inseminated according to the AM-PM rule. Those cows diagnosed as not pregnant and not observed in estrus were inseminated at a fixed time. The average proportion of cows with an active CL was 31.2% (54/173) on day 14 PAI, 22.0% (38/173) on day 21 PAI, and 18.5% (32/173) on day 24 PAI (NS). The incidence of luteolysis averaged 12.7% (22/173) from day 21 to 24, and 28.9% (50/173) from day 14 to 24. The differences between individual treatments were not significant but there was a significantly greater incidence of luteolysis (P<0.0009) from day 14 to 21 for the IPD treatments combined (30.3%; 24/63) than for the non-IPD treatments combined (26.6%; 17/110). Conception rates at day 31 PAI ranged from 16.6% to 42.1% (NS), and at day 61 PAI ranged from 16.6% to 37.1% (NS). Also conception rates at day 31 and 61 RAI ranged from 5% to 25% (NS). Pregnancy losses between days 31 and 61 PAI varied from 0 to 25.0% (NS) between treatments for the pre-enrollment AI but were 0% for all treatments for the resynchronized AI. It was concluded that using IPD, PGF2α, estradiol and GnRH in different resynchronization methods had no effects on conception rate in this study. Also conception rate was not significantly different when

  16. [Predict value of time to peak of systolic velocity derived from velocity vector imaging on cardiac resynchronization therapy response in refractory heart failure patients].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianping; Wang, Yutang; Zhi, Guang; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Shan, Zhaoliang; Shi, Xiangmin; Lin, Kun

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the impact of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on left ventricular systolic function evaluated by velocity vector imaging (VVI) in refractory heart failure patients and the predictive value of VVI on CRT responses. This study included 38 patients with medically refractory heart failure (HF) patients underwent CRT in our department from May 2007 to April 2011. Left ventricular long axis dyssynchrony indexes including time to peak of systolic velocity (Ts max-min), standard deviation of the time to peak of systolic velocity (Ts-SD) before and at 3-6 months post CRT. CRT response was defined as 15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume. ROC curve and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. Twenty-four patients were defined as responder. No significant difference was observed between responders and non-responders in medical therapy. When using Ts max-min to predict response, the AUC of ROC curves was 0.76 ± 0.07. The sensitivity and specifity was 70.8% and 77.8% respectively with Ts max-min ≥ 124.0 ms. When using Ts-SD to predict response, the AUC of ROC curves was 0.82 ± 0.07. The sensitivity and specifity was 79.2% and 71.2% respectively with Ts-SD ≥ 40.5. Ts-SD is a useful index to predict CRT response in refractory HF patients.

  17. Current Treatment Strategies for Heart Failure: Role of Device Therapy and LV Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Janaswamy, Praneeth; Walters, Tomos E; Nazer, Babak; Lee, Randall J

    2016-09-01

    Medical care of heart failure (HF) begins with the determination of the cause of the heart failure and diagnosing potential reversible causes (i.e., coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, etc.). Medical therapy includes pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies that limit and/or reverse the signs and symptoms of HF. Initial behavior modification includes dietary sodium and fluid restriction to avoid weight gain; and encouraging physical activity when appropriate. Optimization of medical therapy is the first line of treatment that includes the use of diuretics, vasodilators (i.e., ACE inhibitors or ARBs), beta blockers, and potentially inotropic agents and anticoagulation depending on the patient's severity of heart failure and LV dysfunction. As heart failure advances despite optimized medical management, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are appropriate device therapies. The development of progressive end-stage HF, despite maximal medical therapy, necessitates the consideration of mechanical circulatory devices such as ventricular assist devices (VADs) either as a bridge to heart transplantation or as destination therapy. Despite the advances in the treatment of heart failure, there is still a large morbidity and mortality associated with HF, thus the need to develop newer strategies for the treatment of HF.

  18. Cost-consequence analysis of daily continuous remote monitoring of implantable cardiac defibrillator and resynchronization devices in the UK.

    PubMed

    Burri, Haran; Sticherling, Christian; Wright, David; Makino, Koji; Smala, Antje; Tilden, Dominic

    2013-11-01

    The need for ongoing and lifelong follow-up (FU) of patients with cardiac implantable electric devices (CIED) requires significant resources. Remote CIED management has been established as a safe alternative to conventional periodical in-office FU (CFU). An economic model compares the long-term cost and consequences of using daily Home Monitoring® (HM) instead of CFU. A cost-consequence evaluation comparing HM vs. CFU was performed using a Markov cohort model and data relating to events and costs identified via a systematic review of the literature. The model is conservative, without assuming a reduction of cardiovascular events by HM such as decompensated heart failure or mortality, or considering cost savings such as for transportation. Also cost savings due to an improved timing of elective device replacement, and fewer FU visits needed in patients near device replacement are not considered. Over 10 years, HM is predicted to be cost neutral at about GBP 11 500 per patient in either treatment arm, with all costs for the initial investment into HM and fees for ongoing remote monitoring included. Fewer inappropriate shocks (-51%) reduce the need for replacing devices for battery exhaustion (-7%); the number of FU visits is predicted to be halved by HM. From a UK National Health Service perspective, HM is cost neutral over 10 years. This is mainly accomplished by reducing the number of battery charges and inappropriate shocks, resulting in fewer device replacements, and by reducing the number of in-clinic FU visits.

  19. Effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on left ventricular mass and wall thickness in mild heart failure patients in MADIT-CRT.

    PubMed

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Solomon, Scott D; Bourgoun, Mikhail; Shah, Amil M; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Knappe, Dorit; McNitt, Scott; Wang, Paul J; Merkely, Bela; Pfeffer, Marc; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech

    2013-03-01

    The effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on left ventricular wall thickness and left ventricular mass (LVM) is unknown. To evaluate the effects of CRT on septal and posterior wall thickness (SWT and PWT) and LVM in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and non-LBBB vs implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients and to assess the relationship between CRT-induced changes and cardiac events. We investigated 843 patients with LBBB and 366 patients with non-LBBB enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial - Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT) trial to analyze changes in SWT, PWT, and LVM at 12 months and subsequent outcome. The primary end point was heart failure or death; secondary end points included ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or death. In LBBB patients, reduction in SWT, PWT, and LVM was more pronounced in CRT defibrillator (CRT-D) than in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (SWT:-6.7% ± 4.4% vs-1.0% ± 1.9%; PWT:-6.4% ± 4.3% vs-0.8% ± 1.9%; LVM:-23.6% ± 9.9% vs-5.1% ± 5.1%; P<.001 for all). In CRT-D patients with non-LBBB, LVM reduction was less pronounced; however, changes in SWT and PWT were comparable. Changes in LVM correlated with changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume. In CRT-D patients with LBBB, reduction in SWT and LVM was associated with reduction in heart failure/death (SWT: hazard ratio 0.94; 95% confidence interval 0.89-0.99 per percent change; P = .03) and ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation/death (SWT: hazard ratio 0.95; 95% confidence interval 0.91-1.00; P = .04). CRT-D patients with non-LBBB did not show favorable reduction in clinical or arrhythmic end points related to changes in SWT, PWT, or LVM. CRT-D was associated with significant reduction in SWT, PWT, and LVM in patients with LBBB along with left ventricular volume changes and associated favorable clinical and arrhythmia outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Usefulness of brain natriuretic peptide level at implant in predicting mortality in patients with advanced but stable heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    El-Saed, Aiman; Voigt, Andrew; Shalaby, Alaa

    2009-11-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level has emerged as a predictor of death and hospital readmission in patients with heart failure (HF). The value of baseline BNP assessment in advanced HF patients receiving cardiac resynchronization defibrillator therapy (CRT-D) has not been firmly established. We hypothesized that a baseline BNP level would predict all cause mortality and HF hospitalization in HF patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy. A retrospective chart review of all patients having BNP assessment prior to implantation of a CRT-D for standard indications during 2004 and 2005 was conducted at the Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality and the secondary endpoint was HF-related hospitalization. We used findings from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to define low (<492 pg/mL) and high (> or =492 pg/mL) BNP groups. Out of 173 CRT-D recipients, 115 patients (mean age 67.0 +/- 10.7 years, New York Heart Association [NYHA] class 2.9 +/- 0.3, left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] 22.5% +/- 9.6%, QRS 148.3 +/- 30.4 ms) had preimplantation BNP measured (mean 559 +/- 761 pg/mL and median 315 pg/mL). During a mean follow-up time of 17.5 +/- 6.5 mo, 27 deaths (23.5%) and 31 HF hospitalizations (27.0%) were recorded. Compared to those with low BNP (n = 74), those of high BNP (n = 41) were older, had lower LVEF, higher creatinine levels, suffered more deaths, and HF hospitalizations. In multivariate regression models, higher BNP remained a significant predictor of both the primary endpoint (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-7.88, p = 0.038) and secondary endpoint (HR: 4.23, 95% CI: 1.68-10.60, p = 0.002). Baseline BNP independently predicted mortality and HF hospitalization in a predominantly older white male population of advanced HF patients receiving CRT-D. Elevated BNP levels may identify a vulnerable HF population with a particularly poor prognosis despite CRT-D.

  1. The MOnitoring Resynchronization dEvices and CARdiac patiEnts (MORE-CARE) study: rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Burri, Haran; Quesada, Aurelio; Ricci, Renato Pietro; Boriani, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Mario; Favale, Stefano; Da Costa, Antoine; Kautzner, Josef; Moser, Raymond; Navarro, Xavier; Santini, Massimo

    2010-07-01

    With the advent of remote monitoring, current models of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have the possibility of sending automatic alert messages that allow early diagnosis of events such as lung fluid overload, atrial fibrillation and device integrity issues. Timely treatment of these events has the potential to improve patient outcome, but this has not as yet been proven. The MORE-CARE study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of advanced device diagnostics and remote monitoring in improving the outcome of patients with biventricular ICDs. Up to 1720 patients with a standard indication for a biventricular ICD will be randomized to standard in-office follow-up, or to a remote monitoring strategy using the CareLink network and involving automatic alerts for lung fluid overload, atrial fibrillation, and device integrity issues. The first phase aims at evaluating the delay between an alert event, and clinical action to the event. The second phase of the study will evaluate whether the remote monitoring strategy results in a significant reduction of a combined end point of total mortality or cardiovascular and device-related hospitalization. The duration of the study will be event-driven due to its sequential design. MORE-CARE will evaluate the efficacy of remote monitoring for improving patient outcome in patients implanted with a biventricular ICD. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An ontology-based annotation of cardiac implantable electronic devices to detect therapy changes in a national registry.

    PubMed

    Rosier, Arnaud; Mabo, Philippe; Chauvin, Michel; Burgun, Anita

    2015-05-01

    The patient population benefitting from cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is increasing. This study introduces a device annotation method that supports the consistent description of the functional attributes of cardiac devices and evaluates how this method can detect device changes from a CIED registry. We designed the Cardiac Device Ontology, an ontology of CIEDs and device functions. We annotated 146 cardiac devices with this ontology and used it to detect therapy changes with respect to atrioventricular pacing, cardiac resynchronization therapy, and defibrillation capability in a French national registry of patients with implants (STIDEFIX). We then analyzed a set of 6905 device replacements from the STIDEFIX registry. Ontology-based identification of therapy changes (upgraded, downgraded, or similar) was accurate (6905 cases) and performed better than straightforward analysis of the registry codes (F-measure 1.00 versus 0.75 to 0.97). This study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of ontology-based functional annotation of devices in the cardiac domain. Such annotation allowed a better description and in-depth analysis of STIDEFIX. This method was useful for the automatic detection of therapy changes and may be reused for analyzing data from other device registries.

  3. Adaptive servo ventilation improves Cheyne-Stokes respiration, cardiac function, and prognosis in chronic heart failure patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Makiko; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yamada, Shinya; Kamioka, Masashi; Kamiyama, Yoshiyuki; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2012-09-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR-CSA) is often observed in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective for CHF patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony, it is still unclear whether adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) improves cardiac function and prognosis of CHF patients with CSR-CSA after CRT. Twenty two patients with CHF and CSR-CSA after CRT defibrillator (CRTD) implantation were enrolled in the present study and randomly assigned into two groups: 11 patients treated with ASV (ASV group) and 11 patients treated without ASV (non-ASV group). Measurement of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (before 3, and 6 months later) and echocardiography (before and 6 months) were performed in each group. Patients were followed up to register cardiac events (cardiac death and re-hospitalization) after discharge. In the ASV group, indices for apnea-hypopnea, central apnea, and oxyhemoglobin saturation were improved on ASV. BNP levels, cardiac systolic and diastolic function were improved with ASV treatment for 6 months. Importantly, the event-free rate was significantly higher in the ASV group than in the non-ASV group. ASV improves CSR-CSA, cardiac function, and prognosis in CHF patients with CRTD. Patients with CSR-CSA and post CRTD implantation would get benefits by treatment with ASV. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with postero-lateral scar by cardiac magnetic resonance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Daoulah, Amin; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Al-Faifi, Salem M; Ocheltree, Sara R; Haq, Ejazul; Asrar, Farhan M; Fathey, Adnan; Haneef, Ali Ahmed; Al Mousily, Faris; O, El-Sayed; Lotfi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces morbidity and mortality in selected patients with heart failure, but up to one third of patients may not respond to CRT. A transmural postero-lateral (TMPL) wall scar in the left ventricle (LV) or over the LV pacing site may attenuate clinical and echocardiographic response to CRT. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for studies examining the association between Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-determined postero-lateral or LV pacing site scar and clinical and echocardiographic response to CRT. Eleven prospective studies were included. The presence of TMPL scar on pre-implant CMR was associated with a 75% lower chance of echocardiographic response to CRT, and a similarly lower chance of clinical response. Significant scar over LV pacing site on pre-implant CMR was also associated with a 46% lower chance of echocardiographic response to CRT, and a 67% lower chance of clinical response. The presence of transmural postero-lateral scar or significant scar within the LV pacing site detected by pre-implant CMR is associated with a lower rate of clinical or echocardiographic response to CRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Case with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy diagnosed forty-two years after onset and implanted with a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Yoshio; Watanabe, Eri; Otsuka, Mieko; Hirahara, Taishi; Momomura, Shinichi; Hayashi, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 53-year-old male. He showed steppage gait at the age of 11 and equinus foot at 13. He walked unaided with shoe-insoles to support his heels. Atrial fibrillation and cardiac hypertrophy were found in his 30s, and ventricular tachycardia (VT) was observed at the age of 48. Electrophysiological studies were performed, but VT was not sustained, symptomatic, or showed signs of infra-Hisian block, and a pacemaker was not indicated. At 53, he was introduced to a neurologist because of tetraplegia after the first episode of syncope. A spinal MR showed ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and central cervical cord injury. Furthermore, he presented not only contracture in his shoulder, elbow, and ankles but also atrophy in his scapulohumeral and gastrocnemius muscles. In accordance with a diagnosis of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), provocative testing of VT was carried out, and a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) was implanted. Later, a mutation analysis of the LMNA gene disclosed a known missense mutation of p.Arg377His, and we diagnosed him as EDMD2 (laminopathy). Contractures could be the clue to diagnose EDMD and indicate the need for pacemakers and defibrillators in patients with cardiac conduction disorders.

  6. Respiratory motion compensated overlay of surface models from cardiac MR on interventional x-ray fluoroscopy for guidance of cardiac resynchronization therapy procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzke, R.; Bornstedt, A.; Lutz, A.; Schenderlein, M.; Hombach, V.; Binner, L.; Rasche, V.

    2010-02-01

    Various multi-center trials have shown that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective procedure for patients with end-stage drug invariable heart failure (HF). Despite the encouraging results of CRT, at least 30% of patients do not respond to the treatment. Detailed knowledge of the cardiac anatomy (coronary venous tree, left ventricle), functional parameters (i.e. ventricular synchronicity) is supposed to improve CRT patient selection and interventional lead placement for reduction of the number of non-responders. As a pre-interventional imaging modality, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has the potential to provide all relevant information. With functional information from CMR optimal implantation target sites may be better identified. Pre-operative CMR could also help to determine whether useful vein target segments are available for lead placement. Fused with X-ray, the mainstay interventional modality, improved interventional guidance for lead-placement could further help to increase procedure outcome. In this contribution, we present novel and practicable methods for a) pre-operative functional and anatomical imaging of relevant cardiac structures to CRT using CMR, b) 2D-3D registration of CMR anatomy and functional meshes with X-ray vein angiograms and c) real-time capable breathing motion compensation for improved fluoroscopy mesh overlay during the intervention based on right ventricular pacer lead tracking. With these methods, enhanced interventional guidance for left ventricular lead placement is provided.

  7. [Economic impact of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure. Available evidence and evaluation of the CRT-Eucomed model for analysis of cost-effectiveness].

    PubMed

    Fattore, Giovanni; Landolina, Maurizio; Bontempi, Luca; Cacciatore, Giuseppe; Curnis, Antonio; Gulizia, Michele; Padeletti, Luigi; Mazzei, Luigi; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2005-12-01

    Several clinical trials show that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with moderate-severe heart failure increases survival, improves quality of life and reduces hospital admissions. The high cost of this new technology, incurred by health organizations at the moment of the implant, requires to assess whether its use is economically rational for the Italian Health Service. The paper summarizes evidences of the impact of CRT on the use of hospital resources and on quality of life, and presents a model to calculate incremental costs per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in patients with moderate-severe heart failure treated with optimal medical therapy. The model is based on efficacy data drawn from clinical trials and on other information concerning the Italian context collected and validated by a team of experts from Assobiomedica and the Italian Federation of Cardiology. The model estimates that the incremental cost per QALY gained attributable to CRT is Euro 63,225 if all effects (years of life gained, increased quality of life and reduction of hospital costs) are censored at the end of the first year after the implant and Euro 21,720 if all effects are censored at the end of the third year. Cost-effectiveness of CRT is thus strongly dependent upon the duration of its effects: longer benefits of the therapy compensate initial costs and thus make the technology more cost-effective. In order to get better estimates of the economic profile of CRT it is required to collect more precise data from routine practice on survival, quality of life and hospital resources. The model presented can be easily adapted to take into account new evidence and to calculate cost per QALY gained in regional and local contexts.

  8. Protocol-driven remote monitoring of cardiac resynchronization therapy as part of a heart failure disease management strategy.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Christophe J P; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Vranken, Julie; Van der Auwera, Jo; Mullens, Wilfried; Dupont, Matthias; Grieten, Lars; De Cannière, Hélène; Lanssens, Dorien; Vandenberk, Thijs; Storms, Valerie; Thijs, Inge M; Vandervoort, Pieter

    2017-08-14

    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. CRT devices are equipped with remote monitoring functions, which are pivotal in the detection of device problems, but may also facilitate disease management. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical interventions taken based on remote monitoring. This is a single centre observational study of consecutive CRT patients (n = 192) participating in protocol-driven remote follow-up. Incoming technical- and disease-related alerts were analysed together with subsequently triggered interventions. During 34 ± 13 months of follow-up, 1372 alert-containing notifications were received (2.53 per patient-year of follow-up), comprising 1696 unique alerts (3.12 per patient-year of follow-up). In 60%, notifications resulted in a phone contact. Technical alerts constituted 8% of incoming alerts (0.23 per patient-year of follow-up). Rhythm (1.43 per patient-year of follow-up) and bioimpedance alerts (0.98 per patient-year of follow-up) were the most frequent disease-related alerts. Notifications included a rhythm alert in 39%, which triggered referral to the emergency room (4%), outpatient cardiology clinic (36%) or general practitioner (7%), or resulted in medication changes (13%). Sole bioimpedance notifications resulted in a telephone contact in 91%, which triggered outpatient evaluation in 8% versus medication changes in 10%. Clinical outcome was excellent with 97% 1-year survival. Remote CRT follow-up resulted in 0.23 technical- versus 2.64 disease-related alerts annually. Rhythm and bioimpedance notifications constituted the majority of incoming notifications which triggered an actual intervention in 22% and 15% of cases, respectively.

  9. Inductionless or limited shock testing is possible in most patients with implantable cardioverter- defibrillators/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators: results of the multicenter ASSURE Study (Arrhythmia Single Shock Defibrillation Threshold Testing Versus Upper Limit of Vulnerability: Risk Reduction Evaluation With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantations).

    PubMed

    Day, John D; Doshi, Rahul N; Belott, Peter; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika; Behboodikhah, Mahnaz; Ott, Peter; Glatter, Kathryn A; Tobias, Serge; Frumin, Howard; Lee, Byron K; Merillat, John; Wiener, Isaac; Wang, Samuel; Grogin, Harlan; Chun, Sung; Patrawalla, Rob; Crandall, Brian; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Weiss, J Peter; Lappe, Donald L; Neuman, Stacey

    2007-05-08

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators have relied on multiple ventricular fibrillation (VF) induction/defibrillation tests at implantation to ensure that the device can reliably sense, detect, and convert VF. The ASSURE Study (Arrhythmia Single Shock Defibrillation Threshold Testing Versus Upper Limit of Vulnerability: Risk Reduction Evaluation With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantations) is the first large, multicenter, prospective trial comparing vulnerability safety margin testing versus defibrillation safety margin testing with a single VF induction/defibrillation. A total of 426 patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator underwent vulnerability safety margin or defibrillation safety margin screening at 14 J in a randomized order. After this, patients underwent confirmatory testing, which required 2 VF conversions without failure at < or = 21 J. Patients who passed their first 14-J and confirmatory tests, irrespective of the results of their second 14-J test, had their devices programmed to a 21-J shock for ventricular tachycardia (VT) or VF > or = 200 bpm and were followed up for 1 year. Of 420 patients who underwent 14-J vulnerability safety margin screening, 322 (76.7%) passed. Of these, 317 (98.4%) also passed 21-J confirmatory tests. Of 416 patients who underwent 14-J defibrillation safety margin screening, 343 (82.5%) passed, and 338 (98.5%) also passed 21-J confirmatory tests. Most clinical VT/VF episodes (32 of 37, or 86%) were terminated by the first shock, with no difference in first shock success. In all observed cases in which the first shock was unsuccessful, subsequent shocks terminated VT/VF without complication. Although spontaneous episodes of fast VT/VF were limited, there was no difference in the odds of first shock efficacy between groups. Screening with vulnerability safety margin or defibrillation safety

  10. Right ventricular lead positioning does not influence the benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Rönn, Folke; Kesek, Milos; Karp, Kjell; Henein, Michael; Jensen, Steen M

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the optimal right ventricular (RV) pacing site in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This study compares bi-ventricular pacing at the left ventricular (LV) free wall combined with two different RV stimulation sites: RV outflow tract (RVOT+LV) vs. RV-apex (RVA+LV). Thirty-three patients (32 males) with chronic heart failure, NYHA class III-IV, optimal drug therapy, QRS-duration ≥150 ms, and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) received CRT with two different RV leads, in the apex (RVA) or outflow tract (RVOT), together with an LV lead, all connected to a bi-ventricular pacemaker. Randomization to pacing in RVOT+LV or RVA+LV was made 1 month after implantation and cross-over to the alternate pacing configuration occurred after 3 months. The median age of patients was 69 ± 10 years, the mean QRS was 179 ± 23 ms, and 58% of patients had ischaemic heart disease. Seven patients had pacemaker rhythm at inclusion and 60% were treated with atrioventricular-junctional ablation before randomization. In the RVA+LV and RVOT+LV pacing modes, 67 and 63% (nonsignificant) responded symptomatically with a decrease of at least 10 points in the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure score. The secondary end-points (6-min walk test, peak oxygen uptake, N-Terminal fragment of B-type Natriuretic Peptide, and left ventricular ejection fraction) showed significant improvement between baseline and CRT, but not between RVOT+LV and RVA+LV. In this randomized controlled study, the exact RV pacing site, either apex or outflow tract, did not influence the benefits of CRT in a group of patients with chronic heart failure and AF. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00457834.

  11. SmartDelay Determined AV Optimization: A Comparison of AV Delay Methods Used in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (SMART-AV): Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    STEIN, KENNETH M.; ELLENBOGEN, KENNETH A.; GOLD, MICHAEL R.; LEMKE, BERND; LOZANO, IGNACIO FERNÁNDEZ; MITTAL, SUNEET; SPINALE, FRANCIS G.; VAN EYK, JENNIFER E.; WAGGONER, ALAN D.; MEYER, TIMOTHY E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The clinical benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) for patients with moderate-to-severely symptomatic heart failure, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and ventricular conduction delay is established. However, some patients do not demonstrate clinical improvement following CRT. It is unclear whether systematic optimization of the programmed atrioventricular (AV) delay improves the rate of clinical response. Methods SMART-AV is a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded, three-armed trial that will investigate the effects of optimizing AV delay timing in heart failure patients receiving CRT + defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy. A minimum of 950 patients will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio using randomly permuted blocks within each center programmed to either DDD or DDDR with a lower rate of 60. The study will include echocardiographic measurements of volumes and function [e.g., left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV)], biochemical measurements of plasma biomarker profiles, and functional measurements (e.g., 6-minute hall walk) in CRT-D patients who are enrolled and randomized to fixed AV delay (i.e., 120 ms), AV delay determined by electrogram-based SmartDelay, or an AV delay determined by echocardiography (i.e., mitral inflow). Patients will be evaluated prior to initiation of CRT, 3 and 6 months post-implant. The primary endpoint is the relative change in LVESV at 6 months between the groups. Patient enrollment commenced in May 2008 and the study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov. Conclusion SMART-AV is a randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate three different methods of AV delay optimization to determine whether systematic AV optimization is beneficial for patients receiving CRT for 6 months post-implant. PMID:19821938

  12. Incremental Value of Cystatin C Over Conventional Renal Metrics for Predicting Clinical Response and Outcomes in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The BIOCRT Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Neal A.; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Szymonifka, Jackie; Deaño, Roderick C.; Thai, Wai-ee; Wai, Bryan; Min, James K.; Januzzi, James L.; Truong, Quynh A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the benefit of CRT in select patients with heart failure (HF), there remains significant need for predicting those at risk for adverse outcomes for this effective but costly therapy. CysC, an emerging marker of renal function, is predictive of worsening symptoms and mortality in patients with HF. This study assessed the utility of baseline and serial measures of cystatin C (CysC), compared to conventional creatinine-based measures of renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR), in predicting clinical outcomes following cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods In 133 patients, we measured peripheral venous (PV) and coronary sinus (CS) CysC concentrations and peripheral creatinine levels at the time of CRT implant. Study endpoints included clinical response to CRT at 6 months and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 2 years. Results While all 3 renal metrics were predictive of MACE (all adjusted p≤0.02), only CysC was associated with CRT non-response at 6 months (adjusted odds ratio 3.6, p=0.02). CysC improved prediction of CRT non-response (p≤0.003) in net reclassification index analysis compared to models utilizing standard renal metrics. Serial CysC >1mg/L was associated with 6-month CRT non-response and reduced 6-minute walk distance as well as 2-year MACE (all p≤0.04). Conclusion In patients undergoing CRT, CysC demonstrated incremental benefit in the prediction of CRT non-response when compared to standard metrics of renal function. Baseline and serial measures of elevated CysC were predictive of CRT non-response and functional status at 6 months as well as long term clinical outcomes. PMID:26710332

  13. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and AV optimization increase myocardial oxygen consumption, but increase cardiac function more than proportionally☆

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, Andreas; Pabari, Punam A.; Mayet, Jamil; Peters, Nicholas S.; Davies, D. Wyn; Lim, P. Boon; Lefroy, David; Hughes, Alun D.; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Francis, Darrel P.; I.Whinnett, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanoenergetic effects of atrioventricular delay optimization during biventricular pacing (“cardiac resynchronization therapy”, CRT) are unknown. Methods Eleven patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent invasive measurements of left ventricular (LV) developed pressure, aortic flow velocity-time-integral (VTI) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) at 4 pacing states: biventricular pacing (with VV 0 ms) at AVD 40 ms (AV-40), AVD 120 ms (AV-120, a common nominal AV delay), at their pre-identified individualised haemodynamic optimum (AV-Opt); and intrinsic conduction (LBBB). Results AV-120, relative to LBBB, increased LV developed pressure by a mean of 11(SEM 2)%, p = 0.001, and aortic VTI by 11(SEM 3)%, p = 0.002, but also increased MVO2 by 11(SEM 5)%, p = 0.04. AV-Opt further increased LV developed pressure by a mean of 2(SEM 1)%, p = 0.035 and aortic VTI by 4(SEM 1)%, p = 0.017. MVO2 trended further up by 7(SEM 5)%, p = 0.22. Mechanoenergetics at AV-40 were no different from LBBB. The 4 states lay on a straight line for Δexternal work (ΔLV developed pressure × Δaortic VTI) against ΔMVO2, with slope 1.80, significantly > 1 (p = 0.02). Conclusions Biventricular pacing and atrioventricular delay optimization increased external cardiac work done but also myocardial oxygen consumption. Nevertheless, the increase in cardiac work was ~ 80% greater than the increase in oxygen consumption, signifying an improvement in cardiac mechanoenergetics. Finally, the incremental effect of optimization on external work was approximately one-third beyond that of nominal AV pacing, along the same favourable efficiency trajectory, suggesting that AV delay dominates the biventricular pacing effect — which may therefore not be mainly “resynchronization”. PMID:24332598

  14. Scar Characterization to Predict Life-Threatening Arrhythmic Events and Sudden Cardiac Death in Patients With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The GAUDI-CRT Study.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Juan; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Borràs, Roger; Anguera, Ignasi; Bisbal, Felipe; Martí-Almor, Julio; Tolosana, Jose M; Penela, Diego; Andreu, David; Soto-Iglesias, David; Evertz, Reinder; Matiello, María; Alonso, Concepción; Villuendas, Roger; de Caralt, Teresa M; Perea, Rosario J; Ortiz, Jose T; Bosch, Xavier; Serra, Luis; Planes, Xavier; Greiser, Andreas; Ekinci, Okan; Lasalvia, Luis; Mont, Lluis; Berruezo, Antonio

    2017-07-28

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether scar characterization could improve the risk stratification for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Among patients with a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) indication, appropriate defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy rates are low. Primary prevention patients with a class I indication for CRT were prospectively enrolled and assigned to CRT-D or CRT pacemaker according to physician's criteria. Pre-procedure contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance was obtained and analyzed to identify scar presence or absence, quantify the amount of core and border zone (BZ), and depict BZ distribution. The presence, mass, and characteristics of BZ channels in the scar were recorded. The primary endpoint was appropriate defibrillator therapy or SCD. 217 patients (39.6% ischemic) were included. During a median follow-up of 35.5 months (12 to 62 months), the primary endpoint occurred in 25 patients (11.5%) and did not occur in patients without myocardial scar. Among patients with scar (n = 125, 57.6%), those with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies or SCD exhibited greater scar mass (38.7 ± 34.2 g vs. 17.9 ± 17.2 g; p < 0.001), scar heterogeneity (BZ mass/scar mass ratio) (49.5 ± 13.0 vs. 40.1 ± 21.7; p = 0.044), and BZ channel mass (3.6 ± 3.0 g vs. 1.8 ± 3.4 g; p = 0.018). BZ mass (hazard ratio: 1.06 [95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.08]; p < 0.001) and BZ channel mass (hazard ratio: 1.21 [95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 1.32]; p < 0.001) were the strongest predictors of the primary endpoint. An algorithm based on scar mass and the absence of BZ channels identified 148 patients (68.2%) without ICD therapy/SCD during follow-up with a 100% negative predictive value. The presence, extension, heterogeneity, and qualitative distribution of BZ tissue of myocardial scar independently predict appropriate ICD therapies and SCD in CRT patients. Copyright © 2017 American

  15. Cardiac resynchronization: Insight from experimental and computational models

    PubMed Central

    Kerckhoffs, R.C.P.; Lumens, J.; Vernooy, K.; Omens, J.H.; Mulligan, L.J.; Delhaas, T.; Arts, T.; McCulloch, A.D.; Prinzen, F.W.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a promising therapy for heart failure patients with a conduction disturbance, such as left bundle branch block. The aim of CRT is to resynchronize contraction between and within ventricles. However, about 30% of patients do not respond to this therapy. Therefore, a better understanding is needed for the relation between electrical and mechanical activation. In this paper, we focus on to what extent animal experiments and mathematical models can help in order to understand the pathophysiology of asynchrony to further improve CRT. PMID:18417196

  16. Comparison of different invasive hemodynamic methods for AV delay optimization in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy: Implications for clinical trial design and clinical practice☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Whinnett, Zachary I.; Francis, Darrel P.; Denis, Arnaud; Willson, Keith; Pascale, Patrizio; van Geldorp, Irene; De Guillebon, Maxime; Ploux, Sylvain; Ellenbogen, Kenneth; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Ritter, Philippe; Bordachar, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background Reproducibility and hemodynamic efficacy of optimization of AV delay (AVD) of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) using invasive LV dp/dtmax are unknown. Method and results 25 patients underwent AV delay (AVD) optimisation twice, using continuous left ventricular (LV) dp/dtmax, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP). We compared 4 protocols for comparing dp/dtmax between AV delays:Immediate absolute: mean of 10 s recording of dp/dtmax acquired immediately after programming the tested AVD,Delayed absolute: mean of 10 s recording acquired 30 s after programming AVD,Single relative: relative difference between reference AVD and the tested AVD,Multiple relative: averaged difference, from multiple alternations between reference and tested AVD. We assessed for dp/dtmax, LVSBP and LVPP, test–retest reproducibility of the optimum. Optimization using immediate absolute dp/dtmax had poor reproducibility (SDD of replicate optima = 41 ms; R2 = 0.45) as did delayed absolute (SDD 39 ms; R2 = 0.50). Multiple relative had better reproducibility: SDD 23 ms, R2 = 0.76, and (p < 0.01 by F test). Compared with AAI pacing, the hemodynamic increment from CRT, with the nominal AV delay was LVSBP 2% and LVdp/dtmax 5%, while CRT with pre-determined optimal AVD gave 6% and 9% respectively. Conclusions Because of inevitable background fluctuations, optimization by absolute dp/dtmax has poor same-day reproducibility, unsuitable for clinical or research purposes. Reproducibility is improved by comparing to a reference AVD and making multiple consecutive measurements. More than 6 measurements would be required for even more precise optimization — and might be advisable for future study designs. With optimal AVD, instead of nominal, the hemodynamic increment of CRT is approximately doubled. PMID:23481908

  17. Three-dimensional propagation imaging of left ventricular activation by speckle-tracking echocardiography to predict responses to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yoshihiro; Ishizu, Tomoko; Kawamura, Ryo; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kuroki, Kenji; Igarashi, Miyako; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Nogami, Akihiko; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    On the basis of the electromechanical coupling theory, an activation imaging system has been developed with three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. The aim of this study was to determine the association between left ventricular (LV) propagation patterns by activation imaging and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This was a retrospective, single-center study. Eighty-one patients undergoing CRT, of whom 50 (61.7%) had left bundle branch block (LBBB), were enrolled. Activation imaging studies were performed with a three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic system, which allowed visualization of LV activation propagation and measurement of the time from the QRS complex to activation onset. A CRT volume responder was defined as a patient with ≥15% reduction of LV end-systolic volume at 6 months after CRT. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the composite end point of death due to cardiac causes or unplanned hospitalization for cardiac diseases. In patients with LBBB, the main activation pattern (74%) was a U-shaped propagation pattern, which was characterized as propagation from the midseptum to the lateral or posterior wall through the apex. In patients without LBBB, various non-U-shaped propagation patterns were observed in the majority of patients (97%). Among the 41 CRT responders, almost all (87.8%) had the U-shaped propagation pattern. During follow-up (median, 20 months), 29 patients (35.8%) reached the clinical end points. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, a U-shaped propagation pattern was associated with the end points independently of LBBB or LV end-diastolic volume. The U-shaped propagation pattern on three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was significantly associated with a favorable CRT response. Activation pattern analysis may provide additional information to predict response to CRT. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Hemodynamic effects of sustained postoperative cardiac resynchronization therapy in infants after repair of congenital heart disease: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Mark K; Schwartz, Steven M; Zhang, Hargen; Chiu-Man, Christine; Manlhiot, Cedric; Ilina, Maria V; Arsdell, Glen Van; Kirsh, Joel A; McCrindle, Brian W; Stephenson, Elizabeth A

    2017-02-01

    It is unknown whether continuous cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can lead to sustained improvement in hemodynamics after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). We investigated whether CRT improves cardiac index (CI) and blood pressure in infants after biventricular repair of CHD. We randomized infants younger than 4 months after biventricular CHD surgery to standard care or standard care plus CRT for 48 hours or until extubation if sooner. Change in the primary outcome of CI and blood pressure over time was compared between groups. For subgroup analysis, QRS duration was considered prolonged if greater than the 98th percentile. Forty-two patients were randomized: 21 controls and 21 patients receiving CRT (median weight 4 kg). There were no identified adverse events from pacing. The change in CI over time was not different between patients receiving CRT and controls, but trended toward improvement in patients with wide QRS who received CRT (n = 9) vs controls with wide QRS (n = 8) (+1.65 (0.86) L/(min·m(2)); P = .06). Controls with wide QRS experienced the smallest increase in CI (0.33 L/(min·m(2))). Blood pressure was significantly higher in infants with wide QRS who received CRT than in controls (+7.14 (3.08) mm Hg; P = .02). Serum lactate level, catecholamine use, ventilation time, and length of intensive care unit stay were similar between the 2 groups. CRT improved blood pressure and a trend toward higher CI in infants after repair of biventricular CHD with prolonged QRS duration. These findings warrant further study of CRT to improve postoperative recovery in infants with electrical dyssynchrony. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Left ventricular contractile reserve by stress echocardiography as a predictor of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, Quirino; Carpeggiani, Clara; Michelassi, Claudio; Villari, Bruno; Picano, Eugenio

    2017-08-16

    The presence of left ventricular contractile reserve (LVCR) during stress echo (SE) may provide favorable response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in heart failure patients. The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of available SE data in this set of patients. From a Pubmed and Advance Google Scholar database web based search scan up to December 2016, we initially identified 5906 records. From this initial set, we removed that did not include SE and duplicate studies. We assessed for eligibility 71 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, and 60 of them did not meet the inclusion criteria as follow: 1) heart failure patients with NYHA class III and IV, depressed ejection fraction (EF <35%) and QRS duration ≥120 ms at study entry; 2) SE with assessment of LVCR; 3) Follow-up data. LVCR during SE was identified as reduction in wall motion score index and/or an increase in EF. Eleven studies with 861 patients (mean age 67 ± 9 years, ejection fraction 25 ± 6%) were included in the meta-analysis. The type of stress was either exercise (n = 2) or dobutamine (n = 9), the latter with low-dose (10 mcg) in two, intermediate-dose (20 mcg) in five, and high-dose (40 mcg) protocol in two studies. LVCR was detected in 555 patients (63%) and CRT-response was present in 584 (66%). The overall odds ratio for LVCR to predict a favorable CRT response was 2.06 (95%, CI 1.70-2-43), Z score: 11.055, p < 0.001. The presence of LVCR during SE with either dobutamine or exercise is associated with a greater chance of response to CRT. This parameter is now ready to be tested in a prospective multicenter trial to select patients more likely to benefit from CRT.

  20. Relationship Between Changes in Pulse Pressure and Frequency Domain Components of Heart Rate Variability During Short-Term Left Ventricular Pacing in Patients with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Bożena; Ruta, Jan; Kudryński, Krzysztof; Ptaszyński, Paweł; Klimczak, Artur; Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof

    2016-06-15

    BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between changes in pulse pressure (PP) and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) components caused by left ventricular pacing in patients with implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty patients (mean age 63±8.5 years) with chronic heart failure (CHF) and implanted CRT were enrolled in the study. The simultaneous 5-minute recording of beat-to-beat arterial systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) by Finometer and standard electrocardiogram with CRT switched off (CRT/0) and left ventricular pacing (CRT/LV) was performed. PP (PP=SBP-DBP) and low- and high-frequency (LF and HF) HRV components were calculated, and the relationship between these parameters was analyzed. RESULTS Short-term CRT/LV in comparison to CRT/0 caused a statistically significant increase in the values of PP (P<0.05), LF (P<0.05), and HF (P<0.05). A statistically significant correlation between ΔPP and ΔHF (R=0.7384, P<0.05) was observed. The ΔHF of 6 ms2 during short-term CRT/LV predicted a PP increase of ≥10% with 84.21% sensitivity and 85.71% specificity. CONCLUSIONS During short-term left ventricular pacing in patients with CRT, a significant correlation between ΔPP and ΔHF was observed. ΔHF ≥6 ms2 may serve as a tool in the selection of a suitable site for placement of a left ventricular lead.

  1. Don't expect left ventricular reverse remodeling after cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with systolic heart failure and atrioventricular block: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sairaku, Akinori; Yoshida, Yukihiko; Nakano, Yukiko; Hirayama, Haruo; Maeda, Mayuho; Hashimoto, Haruki; Kihara, Yasuki

    2016-10-15

    The BLOCK HF trial showed that heart failure patients with atrioventricular block (AVB) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) are considered good candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), even though they have a narrow QRS duration. We aimed to compare the clinical response to CRT between patients with AVB combined with LVSD and patients with pre-existing CRT indications. We compared the clinical data on CRT across the following 3 groups in 3 cardiovascular centers; heart failure patients with an LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≤35% who had a QRS duration of ≥120ms (standard indication, n=125), those needing an upgrade to CRT (upgrade, n=49), and patients with an LVEF of ≤50% who had advanced AVB (AVB with LVSD, n=27). The prevalence of left bundle branch block differed significantly across the groups (87.2%, 98.0% and 40.7%; P<0.001). No inter-group difference was found in the percentage of patients in whom clinical composite score (CCS) assessed 6months after the CRT was improved (60.8%, 57.1% and 70.4%; P=0.67). Whereas, even among the patients with an improved CCS, a significantly smaller LV end-systolic volume reduction after the CRT was seen in the ABV with LVSD group (-35.3±34.7, -21.4±28.5 and -5.2±23.9%; P=0.001). The incidence of cardiovascular death or hospitalization from heart failure within 5years occurred with a similar frequency (44%, 55.1% and 44.4%; P=0.9). As compared to patients with preexisting CRT indications, CRT may be similarly effective for patients with AVB and LVSD, however, LV reverse remodeling may be uncommon among them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined baseline strain dyssynchrony index and its acute reduction predicts mid-term left ventricular reverse remodeling and long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Miyoshi, Tatsuya; Hiraishi, Mana; Tsuji, Takayuki; Kaneko, Akihiro; Ryo, Keiko; Fukuda, Yuko; Norisada, Kazuko; Onishi, Tetsuari; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kawai, Hiroya; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that combining assessment of baseline radial strain dyssynchrony index (SDI), that expressed both left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony and residual myocardial contractility, and of acute changes in this index can yield more accurate prediction of mid-term responders and long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Radial SDI for 75 CRT patients was calculated as the average difference between peak and end-systolic speckle tracking strain from 6 segments of the mid-LV short-axis view before and 8 ± 2 days after CRT. Mid-term responder was defined as ≥ 15% decrease in LV end-systolic volume 6 ± 2 months after CRT. Long-term outcome was tracked over 5 years. Baseline radial SDI ≥ 6.5% is considered predictive of responder and favorable outcome, as previously reported. Acute reduction in radial SDI ≥ 1.5% was found to be the best predictor of mid-term responders with CRT. Furthermore, patients with acute reductions in radial SDI ≥1.5% were associated with a significantly more favorable long-term outcome after CRT than those with radial SDI <1.5% (log rank P < 0.001). An important findings were that baseline radial SDI ≥6.5% and acute reductions in radial SDI ≥ 1.5% in 42 patients were associated with the highest event-free survival rate of 92%, whereas, 21 patients corresponding values of <6.5% and <1.5% were associated with low event-free survival rate of 46% (log rank P < 0.001). Combined assessment of baseline radial SDI and its acute reduction after CRT may have clinical implications for predicting responders and thus patients' care.

  3. High-amplitude left ventricular pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy: an alternative way to increase response rate in non-responders

    PubMed Central

    Akın, Filiz; Demircan, Sabri; Soylu, Korhan; Erbay, Alirıza; Yuksel, Serkan; Meric, Murat; Gulel, Okan; Sahin, Mahmut; Yılmaz, Ozcan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study compared patients who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) by high-amplitude left ventricular (LV) pacing with those who underwent CRT by standard LV pacing. Methods We included 32 CRT patients with ejection fraction (EF) ≤35%, QRS time ≥120 ms, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV symptoms of heart failure despite optimal medical treatment. These patients were evaluated clinically and echocardiographically before, three and six months after CRT. At the 3rd month, the LV pulse amplitude value was set high at 5 volt for 16 patients [high-amplitude Group (HAG)], while for the other 16 patients, it was reduced to at least twice the threshold value at ≤2.5 volt [low-amplitude group (LAG)]. Results Clinical and echocardiographic response rates of HAG and LAG after CRT were similar in the 3rd and 6th month. In both groups, increase in LVEF and decrease in LV ESV in the 3rd and 6th month were statistically significant compared to those before CRT, and NYHA class and end-diastolic volume (EDV) was significantly reduced in the 6th month compared to those before CRT. However, NHYA class and EDV continued to reduce significantly in HAG from the 3rd to the 6th month (P<0.05), while the decrease in LAG was not significant (P>0.05). The rate of mitral regurgitation (MR) was reduced significantly in HAG in the 6th month compared to that before CRT, while the decrease in LAG was not significant (P<0.05; P>0.05 respectively). Conclusions CRT by high-amplitude LV pacing was more effective according to clinical and echocardiographic evaluations. It should be considered as an alternative in non-responsive patients. PMID:24255779

  4. The role of electrocardiography in the elaboration of a new paradigm in cardiac resynchronization therapy for patients with nonspecific intraventricular conduction disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Vereckei, András; Katona, Gábor; Szelényi, Zsuzsanna; Szénási, Gábor; Kozman, Bálint; Karádi, István

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is associated with a favorable outcome only in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) pattern and in patients with a QRS duration > 150 ms, in patients with non-LBBB pattern with a QRS duration of 120–150 ms usually is not beneficial. After adjusting for QRS duration, QRS morphology was no longer a determinant of the clinical response to CRT. In contrast to the mainstream view, we hypothesized that the unfavorable CRT outcome in patients with non-LBBB and a QRS duration of 120–150 ms is not due to the QRS morphology itself, but to less dyssynchrony and unfavorable patient characteristics in this subgroup, such as more ischemic etiology and greater prevalence of male patients compared with patients with LBBB pattern. Further, the current CRT technique is devised to eliminate the dyssynchrony present in patients with LBBB pattern and inappropriate to eliminate the dyssynchrony in patients with non-LBBB pattern. We also hypothesized that electrocardiography may also provide information about the presence of interventricular and left intraventricular dyssynchrony and the approximate location of the latest activated left ventricular (LV) region. To this end, we devised new ECG criteria to estimate interventricular and LV intraventricular dyssynchrony and the approximate location of the latest activated LV region. Our preliminary data demonstrated that the latest activated LV region in patients with nonspecific intraventricular conduction disturbance (NICD) pattern might be at a remote site from that present in patients with LBBB pattern, which might necessitate the invention of a novel CRT technique for patients with NICD pattern. The application of the new interventricular and LV intraventricular dyssynchrony ECG criteria and a potential novel CRT technique might decrease the currently high nonresponder rate in patients with NICD pattern. PMID:27168736

  5. Left Ventricular Lead Placement Targeted at the Latest Activated Site Guided by Electrophysiological Mapping in Coronary Sinus Branches Improves Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanchun; Yu, Haibo; Zhou, Weiwei; Xu, Guoqing; Sun, Y I; Liu, Rong; Wang, Zulu; Han, Yaling

    2015-12-01

    Electrophysiological mapping (EPM) in coronary sinus (CS) branches is feasible for guiding LV lead placement to the optimal, latest activated site at cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) procedures. However, whether this procedure optimizes the response to CRT has not been demonstrated. This study was to evaluate effects of targeting LV lead at the latest activated site guided by EPM during CRT. Seventy-six consecutive patients with advanced heart failure who were referred for CRT were divided into mapping (MG) and control groups (CG). In MG, the LV lead, also used as a mapping bipolar electrode, was placed at the latest activated site determined by EPM in CS branches. In CG, conventional CRT procedure was performed. Patients were followed for 6 months after CRT. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the 2 groups. In MG (n = 29), EPM was successfully performed in 85 of 91 CS branches during CRT. A LV lead was successfully placed at the latest activated site guided by EPM in 27 (93.1%) patients. Compared with CG (n = 47), MG had a significantly higher rate (86.2% vs. 63.8%, P = 0.039) of response (>15% reduction in LV end-systolic volume) to CRT, a higher percentage of patients with clinical improvement of ≥2 NYHA functional classes (72.4% vs. 44.7%, P = 0.032), and a shorter QRS duration (P = 0.004). LV lead placed at the latest activated site guided by EPM resulted in a significantly greater CRT response, and a shorter QRS duration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Electrical storm induced by cardiac resynchronization therapy is determined by pacing on epicardial scar and can be successfully managed by catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Roque, Carla; Trevisi, Nicola; Silberbauer, John; Oloriz, Teresa; Mizuno, Hiroya; Baratto, Francesca; Bisceglia, Caterina; Sora, Nicoleta; Marzi, Alessandra; Radinovic, Andrea; Guarracini, Fabrizio; Vergara, Pasquale; Sala, Simone; Paglino, Gabriele; Gulletta, Simone; Mazzone, Patrizio; Cireddu, Manuela; Maccabelli, Giuseppe; Della Bella, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The mechanism of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)-induced proarrhythmia remains unknown. We postulated that pacing from a left ventricular (LV) lead positioned on epicardial scar can facilitate re-entrant ventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CRT-induced proarrhythmia and LV lead location within scar. Twenty-eight epicardial and 63 endocardial maps, obtained from 64 CRT patients undergoing ventricular tachycardia ablation, were analyzed. A positive LV lead/scar relationship, defined as a lead tip positioned on scar/border zone, was determined by overlaying fluoroscopic projections with LV electroanatomical maps. CRT-induced proarrhythmia occurred in 8 patients (12.5%). They all presented early with electrical storm (100% versus 39% of patients with no proarrhythmia; P<0.01), requiring temporary biventricular pacing discontinuation in half of cases. They more frequently presented with heart failure/cardiogenic shock (50% versus 7%; P<0.01), requiring intensive care management. Ventricular tachycardia was re-entrant in all. The LV lead location within epicardial scar was significantly more frequent in the proarrhythmia group (60% versus 9% P=0.03 on epicardial bipolar scar, 80% versus 17% P=0.02 on epicardial unipolar scar, and 80% versus 17% P=0.02 on any-epicardial scar). Ablation was performed within epicardial scar, close to the LV lead, and allowed CRT reactivation in all patients. CRT-induced proarrhythmia presented early with electrical storm and was associated with an LV lead positioning within epicardial scar. Catheter ablation allowed for resumption of biventricular stimulation in all patients. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Extending the boundaries of cardiac resynchronization therapy: efficacy in atrial fibrillation, New York heart association class II, and narrow QRS heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Wein, Sara; Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Wein, Lironne; Billah, Baki; Krum, Henry

    2010-05-01

    Large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III/IV heart failure, systolic left ventricular dysfunction, and a wide QRS. However, additional patient groups may also benefit from CRT. We meta-analyzed clinical benefits of CRT in heart failure patients with narrow QRS, atrial fibrillation (AF) and NYHA Class II symptoms. Thirteen trials of 2882 patients contributed to this meta-analysis. In the narrow versus wide QRS group comparison, no difference in benefit was observed for change in left ventricular ejection fraction (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.37 to 0.97) or left ventricular end systolic volume (SMD 0.30, 95% CI -1.14 to 1.74). The benefit was greater in the wide QRS group for the 6-minute walk test (SMD 1.27, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.96) and NYHA class improvement (SMD 1.24, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.75). In the atrial fibrillation (AF) versus sinus rhythm (SR) group comparison, no difference in benefit was observed for change in left ventricular ejection fraction (SMD -0.38, 95% CI -1.28 to 0.53) or NYHA improvement (SMD 0.32, 95% CI -0.77 to 1.40). In the NYHA II versus NYHA III/IV group comparison, no difference in benefit was observed for change in left ventricular end diastolic diameter (SMD 0.05, 95% CI -0.94 to 1.05) or left ventricular end systolic diameter (SMD 0.74, 95% CI -1.98 to 3.46). Large-scale clinical outcome trials of CRT are warranted in heart failure patients with narrow QRS, AF, and NYHA II, given the similar benefits observed to those with wide QRS, SR, and NYHA III/IV for many parameters.

  8. Repetitive optimizing left ventricular pacing configurations with quadripolar leads improves response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: A single-center randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gu, Min; Jin, Han; Hua, Wei; Fan, Xiao-Han; Ding, Li-Gang; Wang, Jing; Niu, Hong-Xia; Cai, Chi; Zhang, Shu

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether repetitive optimizing left ventricular pacing configurations (LVPCs) with quadripolar leads (QUAD) can improve response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Fifty-two eligible patients were enrolled and 1:1 randomized to either the quadripolar LV leads (QUAD) group or the conventional bipolar leads (CONV) group. In the QUAD group, optimization of LVPC was performed for all patients before discharge and for nonresponders at 3 months follow-up. Clinical evaluations and transthoracic echocardiograms were performed before, 3, and 6 months after CRT implantation. At 3 months follow-up, 16 of 25 (64%) patients in the CONV group (1 patient was lost to follow-up) and 18 of 26 (69%) patients in the QUAD group were classified as responders. After optimizing the LVPCs in 3-month nonresponders in the QUAD group, 21 of 26 (80.8%) patients in the QUAD group were classified as responders at 6 months as compared with 17 of 25 (68%) patients in the CONV group. Left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) reduction, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increase, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class reduction at 6 months were significantly greater in the QUAD group than in the CONV group (LVESV: -26.9 ± 13.8 vs -17.2 ± 13.3%; P = .013; LVEF: +12.7 ± 8.0 vs +7.8 ± 6.3 percentage points; P = .017; NYHA: -1.27 ± 0.67 vs -0.72 ± 0.54 functional classes; P = .002). Compared with conventional bipolar leads, CRT using quadripolar leads with repetitive optimized LVPCs resulted in an additional increase in LVEF and reduction in LVESV and NYHA functional class at 6-month follow-up.

  9. Combined preoperative information using a bullseye plot from speckle tracking echocardiography, cardiac CT scan, and MRI scan: targeted left ventricular lead implantation in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakos, Zoltan; Markstad, Hanna; Ostenfeld, Ellen; Carlsson, Marcus; Roijer, Anders; Borgquist, Rasmus

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and incremental value of using an integrated bullseye model for presenting data from cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with echocardiography evaluation of segmental mechanical delay for guiding optimal left ventricular lead placement in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Thirty-nine patients (69 ± 9.7 years, 77% male, 82% with LBBB, 54% with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, 82% New York Heart Association classification of heart failure III) eligible for CRT were included. The left ventricular segment with the latest mechanical activation was determined by echocardiography with speckle tracking radial strain. Cardiac CT scan was used for anatomical evaluation of the coronary sinus and its branches. Cardiac MRI was used for evaluation of viability. A composite bullseye plot was constructed, indicating the most appropriate site for left ventricle (LV) lead placement. The latest mechanical delay was in the basal-anterior (3%), basal-inferior (3%), basal-inferolateral (13%), basal-anterolateral (21%), mid-anterior (8%), mid-inferior (3%), mid-inferolateral (34%), and mid-anterolateral (16%) segment. There were on average 2.5 ± 0.8 veins of suitable sizes (≥1.5 mm in diameter). A preoperative combined bullseye plot indicated that in 53% of the patients, there was a matching vein in the segment with the latest mechanical delay. If immediately adjacent segments were included, an optimal placement was possible in 95% of the patients. At 6 months, there was a statistically significant reduction in the left ventricular end systolic volume and the left ventricular ejection fraction was improved (P < 0.01). Presenting data from echocardiography, cardiac CT, and MRI in a combined bullseye plot is both feasible and convenient for indicating the most appropriate site for LV lead placement. An optimal electrode position can be suggested in almost all patients.

  10. Rationale and design of a randomized trial to assess the safety and efficacy of MultiPoint Pacing (MPP) in cardiac resynchronization therapy: The MPP Trial.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Gery; Baker, James; Corbisiero, Raffaele; Love, Charles; Martin, David; Sheppard, Robert; Worley, Seth J; Lee, Kwangdeok; Niazi, Imran

    2017-05-18

    Although the majority of Class III congestive heart failure (HF) patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) show a clinical benefit, up to 40% of patients do not respond to CRT. This paper reports the design of the MultiPoint Pacing (MPP) trial, a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CRT using MPP compared to standard biventricular (Bi-V) pacing. A maximum of 506 patients with a standard CRT-D indication will be enrolled at up to 50 US centers. All patients will be implanted with a CRT-D system (Quartet LV lead Model 1458Q with a Quadra CRT-D, Abbott) that can deliver both MPP and Bi-V pacing. Standard Bi-V pacing will be activated at implant. At 3 months postimplant, patients in whom the echocardiographic parameters during MPP are equal or better than during Bi-V pacing are randomized (1:1) to either an MPP or Bi-V arm. The primary safety endpoint is freedom from system-related complications at 9 months. Each patient's response to CRT will be evaluated using a heart-failure clinical composite score, consisting of a change in NYHA functional class, patient global assessment score, HF events, and cardiovascular death. The primary efficacy endpoint is the proportion of responders in the MPP arm compared with the Bi-V arm between 3 and 9 months. This trial seeks to evaluate whether MPP via a single quadripolar LV lead improves hemodynamic and clinical responses to CRT, both in clinical responders and nonresponders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The mode of death in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator patients: results from routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Joep; van Rees, Johannes B; Venlet, Jeroen; Borleffs, C Jan Willem; Höke, Ulas; Putter, Hein; van der Velde, Enno T; van Erven, Lieselot; Schalij, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    Although data on the mode of death of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) patients have been examined in randomized clinical trials, in routine clinical practice data are scarce. To provide reasonable expectations and prognosis for patients and physicians, this study assessed the mode of death in routine clinical practice. To assess the mode of death in ICD/CRT-D recipients in routine clinical practice. All patients who underwent an ICD or CRT-D implantation at the Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands, between 1996 and 2010 were included. Patients were divided into primary prevention ICD, secondary prevention ICD, and CRT-D patients. For patients who died during follow-up, the mode of death was retrieved from hospital and general practitioner records and categorized according to a predetermined classification: heart failure death, other cardiac death, sudden death, noncardiac death, and unknown death. A total of 2859 patients were included in the analysis. During a median follow-up of 3.4 years (interquartile range 1.7-5.7 years), 107 (14%) primary prevention ICD, 253 (28%) secondary prevention ICD, and 302 (25%) CRT-D recipients died. The 8-year cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality was 39.9% (95% confidence interval 37.0%-42.9%). Heart failure death and noncardiac death were the most common modes of death for all groups. Sudden death accounted for approximately 7%-8% of all deaths. For all patients, heart failure and noncardiac death are the most common modes of death. The proportion of patients who died suddenly was low and comparable for primary and secondary ICD and CRT-D patients. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of using a telescoping-support catheter system for left ventricular lead placement on implant success and procedure time of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kevin P; Hegland, Donald D; Frazier-Mills, Camille; Piccini, Jonathan P; Koontz, Jason I; Atwater, Brett D; Daubert, James P; Worley, Seth J

    2013-05-01

    Proper positioning of the left ventricular (LV) lead improves clinical outcomes and survival in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Techniques of LV lead insertion using contrast injection and a telescoping system of delivery catheters to support advancement of the lead into the target branch may allow more efficient, targeted lead placement. We sought to evaluate the impact of an LV lead implant approach using telescoping-support catheters (group TS) on success rate, lead location, and procedural time compared to standard over-the-wire implant techniques (group OTW). Four hundred thirty-seven consecutive patients undergoing CRT implantation were divided into group TS (n = 105) or group OTW (n = 332) based upon a review of the operative technique used for LV lead implantation. The primary outcome was success of LV lead implantation at the index procedure. Secondary endpoints included optimal positioning of the LV lead and reduction in procedural fluoroscopy time. Failed LV lead placement was lower (1.9% vs 8.1%, P = 0.02) and optimal lead positioning was achieved more often for group TS than group OTW (87% vs 75%, P = 0.01). In addition, there were significantly shorter fluoroscopy times for group TS versus group OTW (29.6 minutes vs 41.9 minutes, P < 0.01). A CRT-implant approach using contrast injection and a telescoping-support catheter system results in fewer failed LV lead implants, improved LV lead location, and shorter procedure times. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Local electrogram delay recorded from left ventricular lead at implant predicts response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: retrospective study with 1 year follow up.

    PubMed

    Polasek, Rostislav; Kucera, Pavel; Nedbal, Pavel; Roubicek, Tomas; Belza, Tomas; Hanuliakova, Jana; Horak, David; Wichterle, Dan; Kautzner, Josef

    2012-05-20

    Considerable proportion of patients does not respond to the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This study investigated clinical relevance of left ventricular electrode local electrogram delay from the beginning of QRS (QLV). We hypothesized that longer QLV indicating more optimal lead placement in the late activated regions is associated with the higher probability of positive CRT response. We conducted a retrospective, single-centre analysis of 161 consecutive patients with heart failure and LBBB or nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay (IVCD) treated with CRT. We routinely intend to implant the LV lead in a region with long QLV. Clinical response to CRT, left ventricular (LV) reverse remodelling (i.e. decrease in LV end-systolic diameter - LVESD ≥10%) and reduction in plasma level of NT-proBNP >30% at 12-month post-implant were the study endpoints. We analyzed association between pre-implant variables and the study endpoints. Clinical CRT response rate reached 58%, 84% and 92% in the lowest (≤105 ms), middle (106-130 ms) and the highest (>130 ms) QLV tertile (p < 0.0001), respectively. Longer QRS duration (p = 0.002), smaller LVESD and a non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (both p = 0.02) were also univariately associated with positive clinical CRT response. In a multivariate analysis, QLV remained the strongest predictor of clinical CRT response (p < 0.00001), followed by LVESD (p = 0.01) and etiology of LV dysfunction (p = 0.04). Comparable predictive power of QLV for LV reverse remodelling and NT-proBNP response rates was observed. LV lead position assessed by duration of the QLV interval was found the strongest independent predictor of beneficial clinical response to CRT.

  14. Relation between strain dyssynchrony index determined by comprehensive assessment using speckle-tracking imaging and long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy for patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Akihiro; Tsuji, Takayuki; Ryo, Keiko; Fukuda, Yuko; Norisada, Kazuko; Onishi, Tetsuari; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kawai, Hiroya; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2012-04-15

    Strain dyssynchrony index (SDI), which was a marker of dyssynchrony and residual myocardial contractility, can predict left ventricular reverse remodeling short-term after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We investigated SDI-predicted long-term outcome after CRT in patients with heart failure (HF). We studied 74 patients with HF who underwent CRT. SDI was calculated as the average difference between peak and end-systolic strain from 6 segments for radial and circumferential SDIs and 18 segments for longitudinal SDI using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking strain. Based on our previous findings, the predefined cutoff for significant dyssynchrony and residual myocardial contractility was a radial SDI ≥6.5%, a circumferential SDI ≥3.2%, and a longitudinal SDI ≥3.6%. The predefined principal outcome variable was the combined end point of death or hospitalization owing to deteriorating HF. Long-term follow-up after CRT was tracked over 4 years. The primary end point of prespecified events occurred in 14 patients (19%). An association with a favorable long-term outcome after CRT was observed in patients with significant radial, circumferential, and longitudinal SDIs (p <0.001, <0.005, and 0.010 vs patients without significant SDIs, respectively). Furthermore, cardiovascular event-free rate after CRT in patients with positivity of 3 for the 3 SDIs was 100% better than that in patients with positivity of 1 (52%, p <0.005) or 0 (31%, p <0.001) for the 3 SDIs. In conclusion, SDIs can successfully predict long-term outcome after CRT in patients with HF. Moreover, the approach combining the 3 types of SDI leads to a more accurate prediction than the use of individual parameters. These findings may have clinical implications in patients with CRT.

  15. Cardiac resynchronization therapy evaluated by myocardial scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI: changes in left ventricular uptake, dyssynchrony, and function

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Silvana A. D.; Giorgi, Maria C. P.; Chen, Ji; Abe, Rubens; Filho, Martino Martinelli; Hotta, Viviane T.; Vieira, Marcelo L.; Garcia, Ernest V.; Meneghetti, José C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose 99mTc-MIBI gated myocardial scintigraphy (GMS) evaluates myocyte integrity and perfusion, left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony and function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) may improve the clinical symptoms of heart failure (HF), but its benefits for LV function are less pronounced. We assessed whether changes in myocardial 99mTc-MIBI uptake after CRT are related to improvement in clinical symptoms, LV synchrony and performance, and whether GMS adds information for patient selection for CRT. Methods A group of 30 patients with severe HF were prospectively studied before and 3 months after CRT. Variables analysed were HF functional class, QRS duration, LV ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiography, myocardial 99mTc-MIBI uptake, LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV), phase analysis LV dyssynchrony indices, and regional motion by GMS. After CRT, patients were divided into two groups according to improvement in LVEF: group 1 (12 patients) with increase in LVEF of 5 or more points, and group 2 (18 patients) without a significant increase. Results After CRT, both groups showed a significant improvement in HF functional class, reduced QRS width and increased septal wall 99mTc-MIBI uptake. Only group 1 showed favourable changes in EDV, ESV, LV dyssynchrony indices, and regional motion. Before CRT, EDV, and ESV were lower in group 1 than in group 2. Anterior and inferior wall 99mTc-MIBI uptakes were higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p<0.05). EDV was the only independent predictor of an increase in LVEF (p=0.01). The optimal EDV cut-off point was 315 ml (sensitivity 89%, specificity 94%). Conclusion The evaluation of EDV by GMS added information on patient selection for CRT. After CRT, LVEF increase occurred in hearts less dilated and with more normal 99mTc-MIBI uptake. PMID:19145431

  16. Pilot study using 3D-longitudinal strain computation in a multi-parametric approach for best selecting responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Fournet, Maxime; Bernard, Anne; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Galli, Elena; Martins, Raphael; Mabo, Philippe; Daubert, J Claude; Leclercq, Christophe; Hernandez, Alfredo; Donal, Erwan

    2017-06-17

    Almost all attempts to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) using echo-derived indices have failed so far. We sought to assess: the performance of homemade software for the automatic quantification of integral 3D regional longitudinal strain curves exploring left ventricular (LV) mechanics and the potential value of this tool to predict CRT response. Forty-eight heart failure patients in sinus rhythm, referred for CRT-implantation (mean age: 65 years; LV-ejection fraction: 26%; QRS-duration: 160 milliseconds) were prospectively explored. Thirty-four patients (71%) had positive responses, defined as an LV end-systolic volume decrease ≥15% at 6-months. 3D-longitudinal strain curves were exported for analysis using custom-made algorithms. The integrals of the longitudinal strain signals (I L,peak) were automatically measured and calculated for all 17 LV-segments. The standard deviation of longitudinal strain peak (SDI L,peak ) for all 17 LV-segments was greater in CRT responders than non-responders (1.18% s(-1) [0.96; 1.35] versus 0.83% s(-1) [0.55; 0.99], p = 0.007). The optimal cut-off value of SDI L,peak to predict response was 1.037%.s(-1). In the 18-patients without septal flash, SDI L,peak was significantly higher in the CRT-responders. This new automatic software for analyzing 3D longitudinal strain curves is avoiding previous limitations of imaging techniques for assessing dyssynchrony and then its value will have to be tested in a large group of patients.

  17. Value of baseline left lateral wall postsystolic displacement assessed by M-mode to predict reverse remodeling by cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Sassone, Biagio; Capecchi, Alessandro; Boggian, Giulio; Gabrieli, Luca; Saccà, Saverio; Vandelli, Roberto; Petracci, Elisabetta; Mele, Donato

    2007-08-01

    Although left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony assessed by ultrasound is emerging as superior to QRS duration in predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the role of conventional echocardiographic parameters of dyssynchrony is still debated. Forty-eight patients with heart failure in New York Heart Association classes III to IV, LV ejection fraction < or =35%, and QRS duration > or =120 ms were studied. LV dyssynchrony was evaluated by M-mode as septal-to-posterior wall motion delay and left lateral wall postsystolic displacement (LWPSD). Interventricular dyssynchrony was defined as the difference between the LV and right ventricular preejection periods measured by standard Doppler. Reverse remodeling was defined as an LV end-systolic volume decrease > or =15% after 6 months of CRT. Thirty-one patients (65%) were considered responders to CRT. At baseline responders differed from nonresponders by having less severe New York Heart Association class (p = 0.006), lower percentage of ischemic cause (p = 0.006), longer PR interval (p = 0.013), shorter LV diastolic filling time corrected for heart rate (p = 0.005), and presence of LWPSD (p = 0.003). At multivariate analysis, predictors of CRT response were LWPSD (odds ratio [OR] 1.045, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.001 to 1.091; p = 0.043), LV diastolic filling time corrected for heart rate (OR 0.855, 95% CI 0.744 to 0.981, p = 0.026), and nonischemic cause (OR 0.109, 95% CI 0.018 to 0.657, p = 0.016). In conclusion, preimplantation assessment of cardiac dyssynchrony based on M-mode LWPSD may predict LV reverse remodeling after CRT, especially in patients with nonischemic cause and shorter diastolic filling time. This suggests the potential role of baseline postsystolic mechanical phenomena in determining response to CRT independently of QRS duration.

  18. Destination therapy with ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Raman, Jai; Jeevanadam, Valluvan

    2004-01-01

    Despite extensive research and great strides over the past 40 years, the ideal permanent mechanical assist device remains elusive. The incidence of heart failure is increasing, and the number of heart transplants has remained constant. The HeartMate and Novacor are two pulsatile, long-term ventricular assist devices (VADs) commonly used as a bridge to transplantation. Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance in the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure is a randomized study of device therapy in heart failure with treatment either with device (HeartMate) therapy or maximal medical therapy which was recently completed and demonstrated a Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 1 year of 52% for the device group compared to 25% in the medical therapy group. The TCI HeartMate is the only device approved for destination therapy, while others such as the Novacor device are in the process of evaluation. Most of these devices are still plagued by mechanical problems, bleeding, thromboembolism and infection. Other promising new devices include smaller VADs using impeller pump technology, such as the Arrow LionHeart, Micromed Debakey pump and Jarvik 2000 pump. The CardioVAD is an interesting chronically implantable balloon pump inserted into the descending thoracic aorta. While experience with the newer implantable pumps is growing, most of them require some manipulation of the heart perioperatively, in addition to anticoagulation postoperatively and careful monitoring for complications and infection. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and bone marrow cell transplantation in patients with ischemic heart failure and electromechanical dyssynchrony: a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pokushalov, Evgeny; Romanov, Alexander; Corbucci, Giorgio; Prohorova, Darya; Chernyavsky, Alexander; Larionov, Petr; Terekhov, Igor; Artyomenko, Sergey; Kliver, Elena; Shirokova, Natalya; Karaskov, Alexander; Dib, Nabil

    2011-12-01

    Most studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) transplantation on angina, myocardial perfusion, regional wall motion, and LV ejection fraction (LVEF). Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has also shown a beneficial effect in patients with heart failure (HF) and electrical/mechanical dyssynchrony. However, the relative contribution of BMMC and CRT in patients with ischemic HF and electromechanical dyssynchrony has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of combining BMMC transplantation with CRT in patients with severe ischemic HF, left bundle branch block (LBBB), and mechanical dyssynchrony. Patients with ischemic HF, LVEF < 35%, LBBB, and mechanical dyssynchrony underwent intramyocardial transplantation of BMMC and CRTD system implantation. This randomized, single-blind, crossover study compared clinical and echocardiographic parameters during two follow-up periods: 6 months of active CRT (BMMC + CRTact) and 6 months of inactive CRT (BMMC + CRTinact). Physical performance was assessed by means of a 6-min walking test. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated by SPECT. Quality of Life (QoL) was assessed through the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire (MLwHFQ). Twenty-six patients (64 ± 7 years) were enrolled in the study. The distance covered by the patients during the 6-min walking test significantly increased in the BMMC + CRTinact phase (BMMC therapy only) in comparison with the baseline (269 ± 68 vs 206 ± 51; p = 0.007) and in the BMMC + CRTact phase (BMMC therapy + CRT) in comparison with the BMMC + CRTinact (378 ± 59 vs 269 ± 68; p < 0.001). The summed rest and stress score (SPECT) decreased significantly in the BMMC + CRTact and BMMC + CRTinact phases in comparison with the baseline (p ≤ 0.03). Both phases showed equivalent myocardial perfusion in the segments into which BMMC had been injected. QoL score was significantly lower in the BMMC

  20. Cooling Devices in Laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Sarda, Aarti; De, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician's personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice.

  1. Cooling Devices in Laser therapy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Sarda, Aarti; De, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician's personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice. PMID:28163450

  2. Are changes in the extent of left ventricular dyssynchrony as assessed by speckle tracking associated with response to cardiac resynchronization therapy?

    PubMed

    Ghani, Abdul; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Elvan, Arif

    2016-04-01

    Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony is used to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, the association between reduction in the extent of speckle tracking based LV-dyssynchrony and echocardiographic response to CRT has not been explored yet. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the extent of LV dyssynchrony as a result of CRT and its association with echocardiographic response to CRT in a large consecutive series of patients. We studied 138 patients with standard CRT indication. Time-based speckle tracking longitudinal strain (maximal delay between 6-segments in 4-chamber view) was performed to assess LV-dyssynchrony at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 22 ± 8 months. Echocardiographic CRT response was defined as a reduction in LV end-systolic volume ≥15 %. Mean age was 68 ± 8 years (30 % female). Mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was 26 ± 7 %. Ninety six patients (70 %) were classified as echocardiographic responders. In the total study group, LV-dyssynchrony decreased from 196 ± 89 ms at baseline to 180 ± 105 ms during follow-up, P = 0.01. Of note, in responders there was a pronounced reduction in LV dyssynchrony (198 ± 88 ms at baseline vs 154 ± 50 ms after CRT, P < 0.001), whereas in non-responders there was a significant increase (191 ± 92 ms at baseline vs 243 ± 160 ms after CRT, P = 0.04). After multivariate analysis, decreased in LV-dyssynchrony, wider QRS duration and non-ischemic etiology were independently and significantly associated with CRT response. Changes in the extent of LV dyssynchrony as measured by speckle tracking after CRT are independently associated with response to CRT.

  3. Different effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on left atrial function in patients with either idiopathic or ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy: a two-dimensional speckle strain study.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Antonello; Caso, Pio; Romano, Silvio; Scarafile, Raffaella; Riegler, Lucia; Salerno, Gemma; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Calabrò, Paolo; Del Viscovo, Luca; Romano, Gianpaolo; Maiello, Ciro; Santangelo, Lucio; Severino, Sergio; Cuomo, Sergio; Cotrufo, Maurizio; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2007-11-01

    In dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), attenuation of left atrial (LA) booster pump function has been observed, and attributed both to altered LA loading conditions owing to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and to LA involvement in the myopathic process. The aim of the present study was to detect LA systolic dysfunction in DCM using speckle-tracking two-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DSE), and to assess the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on LA myocardial strain during 6 month follow-up. A total of 90 patients (aged, 52.4 +/- 10.2 years) with either idiopathic (n = 47) or ischaemic (n = 43) DCM underwent standard Doppler echo and 2DSE analysis of atrial longitudinal strain in the basal segments of LA septum and LA lateral wall, and in LA roof. The two groups were comparable for clinical variables (NYHA class: III in 72.2%; IV in 27.8%). LV volumes, ejection fraction, stroke volume, and mitral valve effective regurgitant orifice were similar between the two groups. No significant differences were evidenced in Doppler transmitral inflow measurements. LA diameter and maximal volume were also similar between the two groups. Conversely, LA active emptying volume and fraction were both lower in patients with idiopathic DCM. Peak systolic myocardial atrial strain was significantly compromised in patients with idiopathic DCM compared with ischaemic DCM in all the analysed atrial segments (P < 0.001). At follow-up, 64 patients (71.1%) (37 idiopathic and 27 ischaemic) were responders, and 26 (28.9%) (10 idiopathic; 16 ischaemic) were non-responders to CRT (responder: decrease of LV end-systolic volume >15%). A significant improvement in LA systolic function was obtained only in patients with ischaemic DCM responders to CRT (P < 0.001). By multivariable analysis, in the overall population, it was found that ischaemic aetiology of DCM (beta-coefficient = 0.62; P < 0.0001) and positive response to CRT (beta-coefficient = 0.42; P < 0.01) were the

  4. Interventricular delay measurement using equilibrium radionuclide angiography before resynchronization therapy should be performed outside the area of segmental wall motion abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Courtehoux, Maxime; Zannad, Noura; Fauchier, Laurent; Babuty, Dominique; Eder, Veronique

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that only mechanical dyssynchrony outside the area of segmental wall motion abnormalities (WMA) can be reduced by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Included in the study were 28 consecutive patients with nonischaemic cardiomyopathy selected for CRT. Equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA) was carried out before and after implantation of a multisite pacemaker. Patients were separated into two groups depending on the presence or absence of segmental WMA. A reduction in QRS duration was observed in all patients after CRT. The interventricular delay (IVD) decreased significantly after CRT only in patients without WMA (homogeneous contraction, HG group; IVD 44 ± 11.4° vs. 17 ± 3.1°, p = 0.04). In contrast, no significant decrease was observed in patients with WMA (WMA group; IVD 51 ± 6° vs. 38 ± 6°, p NS). However, when dyssynchrony was considered outside the WMA area, a significant reduction in IVD was obtained, in the same range as in the HG group (IVD 32 ± 3° vs. 19 ± 3°, p = 0.04). In 9 of 15 patients (60%) with a reduction in IVD after CRT, the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) increased by about +10%. In contrast, in 13 of 13 patients (100%) with no reduction in IVD, no modification of LVEF was obtained. In the presence of segmental WMA without significant delays outside the WMA area, no reduction in IVD was observed and LVEF did not increase (IVD 34 ± 5° before CRT vs. 37 ± 7° after CRT; LVEF 19 ± 4% before CRT vs. 22 ± 3% after CRT, p NS). ERNA can be used to predict good mechanical resychronization (decrease in IVD) in patients after pacing. IVD has to be determined excluding the area of WMA in order to select patients who will show an increase in their left ventricle function after CRT.

  5. Site of latest activation in patients eligible for cardiac resynchronization therapy: patterns of dyssynchrony among different QRS configurations and impact of heart failure etiology.

    PubMed

    van Bommel, Rutger J; Ypenburg, Claudia; Mollema, Sjoerd A; Borleffs, C Jan Willem; Delgado, Victoria; Bertini, Matteo; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; van der Wall, Ernst E; Schalij, Martin J; Bax, Jeroen J

    2011-06-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has emerged as a treatment option for patients with end-stage heart failure and a QRS duration ≥120 ms. Nonetheless, many patients with a prolonged QRS do not demonstrate left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony, and discrepancies between electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony have been observed. In addition, several studies demonstrated that superior benefits after CRT could be achieved when the LV pacing lead was positioned at the most delayed myocardial segment. A total of 248 heart failure patients scheduled for CRT were included. In all patients, a 12-lead electrocardiogram and 2-dimensional echocardiogram were obtained. Patients were divided into 5 QRS configuration subgroups: narrow, left bundle-branch block, right bundle-branch block, intraventricular conduction delay, and right ventricular pacing. With speckle-tracking radial strain analysis, we evaluated time to peak radial strain. Next, the segments with the least and with the most mechanical activation delay were identified, and LV dyssynchrony was defined as the time delay between the two. Mean QRS duration was 164 ± 31 ms. Mean LV dyssynchrony in all patients was 186 ± 122 ms. Site of latest activation was predominantly located in the lateral (27%), posterior (26%), and inferior (20%) segments. Furthermore, extent of LV dyssynchrony was comparable between QRS configuration subgroups. An unequal distribution of LV segments with the most mechanical delay was observed in the left bundle-branch block and right ventricular pacing subgroups (P < .001 for both), whereas in the narrow, right bundle-branch block, and intraventricular conduction delay subgroups, a more homogeneous distribution was noted. No differences in distribution pattern or in extent of LV dyssynchrony were observed between ischemic and nonischemic heart failure patients. The lateral, posterior, and inferior segments take up 73% of the total latest activated segments in heart failure

  6. Non-cardiac factors for prediction of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: The value of baseline, and of serial changes, in red cell distribution width.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Erberto; Biagioli, Paolo; Alunni, Gianfranco; Murrone, Adriano; Zingarini, Gianluca; Coiro, Stefano; D'Antonio, Antonella; Mengoni, Anna; Cerasa, Maria Francesca; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2017-09-15

    Increased red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been associated with poor outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, whether baseline RDW, and its serial changes after CRT implant, have incremental prognostic value is unknown. In 148 consecutive patients (age, 68±9years; 122 men) undergoing CRT, RDW was assessed before and 3months after implant. Patients were categorized according to baseline RDW (≤14.5% vs >14.5%); and as "stable", "decreased", "increased", relative to post-implant changes. Primary end-point was a composite of death/HF hospitalization during follow-up (median 21months). A reduction in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume by ≥15% at 6-month identified LV reverse remodeling. By multivariable logistic regression analysis "increased" (OR:0.22, 95%CI: 0.07-0.69, P=0.010) and "stable-high" RDW at follow-up (OR: 0.39, 95%CI: 0.17-0.89, P=0.027) showed a lower likelihood to develop LV reverse remodeling, while baseline RDW was no longer predictive of LV remodeling. During follow-up, there were 57 events. Baseline RDW>14.5% (HR: 2.24, 95%CI: 1.05-4.77, P=0.036), "increased" (HR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.09-5.97, P=0.030) and "stable-high" RDW (HR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.45-5.99, P=0.003) independently predicted outcome after adjusting for functional improvement after CRT, radial dyssynchrony, BNP, creatinine clearance, and left atrial volume index. However, integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement were not statistically significant when both baseline RDW and its changes were added to a base predictive model. Increased and stable-high values of RDW were independently associated with both LV reverse remodeling and outcome after CRT; however, RDW did not show any incremental predictive value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Echocardiographic Prediction of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Response Requires Analysis of Both Mechanical Dyssynchrony and Right Ventricular Function: A Combined Analysis of Patient Data and Computer Simulations.

    PubMed

    van Everdingen, Wouter M; Walmsley, John; Cramer, Maarten J; van Hagen, Iris; De Boeck, Bart W L; Meine, Mathias; Delhaas, Tammo; Doevendans, Pieter A; Prinzen, Frits W; Lumens, Joost; Leenders, Geert E

    2017-08-08

    Pronounced echocardiographically measured mechanical dyssynchrony is a positive predictor of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), whereas right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a negative predictor. The aim of this study was to investigate how RV dysfunction influences the association between mechanical dyssynchrony and left ventricular (LV) volumetric remodeling following CRT. One hundred twenty-two CRT candidates (mean LV ejection fraction, 19 ± 6%; mean QRS width, 168 ± 21 msec) were prospectively enrolled and underwent echocardiography before and 6 months after CRT. Volumetric remodeling was defined as percentage reduction in LV end-systolic volume. RV dysfunction was defined as RV fractional area change < 35%. Mechanical dyssynchrony was assessed as time to peak strain between the septum and LV lateral wall, interventricular mechanical delay, and septal systolic rebound stretch. Simulations of heart failure with an LV conduction delay in the CircAdapt computer model were used to investigate how LV and RV myocardial contractility influence LV dyssynchrony and acute CRT response. In the entire patient cohort, higher baseline septal systolic rebound stretch, time to peak strain between the septum and LV lateral wall, and interventricular mechanical delay were all associated with LV volumetric remodeling in univariate analysis (R = 0.599, R = 0.421, and R = 0.410, respectively, P < .01 for all). The association between septal systolic rebound stretch and LV volumetric remodeling was even stronger in patients without RV dysfunction (R = 0.648, P < .01). However, none of the mechanical dyssynchrony parameters were associated with LV remodeling in the RV dysfunction subgroup. The computer simulations showed that low RV contractility reduced CRT response but hardly affected mechanical dyssynchrony. In contrast, LV contractility changes had congruent effects on mechanical dyssynchrony and CRT response. Mechanical dyssynchrony

  8. Hospitalization rates and associated cost analysis of cardiac resynchronization therapy with an implantable defibrillator and quadripolar vs. bipolar left ventricular leads: a comparative effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Forleo, Giovanni B; Di Biase, Luigi; Bharmi, Rupinder; Dalal, Nirav; Panattoni, Germana; Pollastrelli, Annalisa; Tesauro, Manfredi; Santini, Luca; Natale, Andrea; Romeo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This study compares, from a prospective, observational, non-randomized registry, the post-implant hospitalization rates and associated healthcare resource utilization of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) patients with quadripolar (QUAD) vs. bipolar (BIP) left ventricular (LV) leads. Between January 2009 and December 2012, 193 consecutive patients receiving de novo CRT-D implants with either a QUAD (n = 116) or a BIP (n = 77) LV lead were enrolled at implant and followed until July 2013 at a single-centre, university hospital. Post-implant hospitalizations related to heart failure (HF) or LV lead surgical revision and associated payer costs were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes. Italian national reimbursement rates were determined. Propensity scores were estimated using a logistic regression model based upon 11 pre-implant baseline characteristics and were used to derive a 1 : 1 matched cohort of QUAD (n = 77) and BIP (n = 77) patients. Hospitalization rates for the two groups were compared using negative binomial regression and associated payer costs were compared using non-parametric bootstrapping (×10 000) and one-sided hypothesis test. Hospitalization rates of the QUAD group [0.15/ patient (pt)-year] were lower than those of the BIP group (0.32/ pt-year); the incidence rate ratio was 0.46, P = 0.04. The hospitalization costs for the QUAD group (434 ± 128 €/pt-year) were lower than those for the BIP group (1136 ± 362 €/pt-year). The average difference was 718 €/pt-year, P = 0.016. In this comparative effectiveness assessment of well-matched groups of CRT-D patients with quadripolar and bipolar LV leads, QUAD patients experienced a lower rate of hospitalizations for HF and LV lead surgical revision, and a lower cost burden. This has important implications for LV pacing lead choice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  9. Cardiac resynchronization therapy by multipoint pacing improves response of left ventricular mechanics and fluid dynamics: a three-dimensional and particle image velocimetry echo study.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Mariachiara; Migliore, Federico; Badano, Luigi; Bertaglia, Emanuele; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Cavedon, Stefano; Zorzi, Alessandro; Corrado, Domenico; Iliceto, Sabino; Muraru, Denisa

    2016-12-26

    To characterize the effect of multipoint pacing (MPP) compared to biventricular pacing (BiV) on left ventricle (LV) mechanics and intraventricular fluid dynamics by three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and echocardiographic particle imaging velocimetry (Echo-PIV). In 11 consecutive patients [8 men; median age 65 years (57-75)] receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with a quadripolar LV lead (Quartet,St.Jude Medical,Inc.), 3DE and Echo-PIV data were collected for each pacing configuration (CRT-OFF, BiV, and MPP) at follow-up after 6 months. 3DE data included LV volumes, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), strain, and systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI). Echo-PIV was used to evaluate the directional distribution of global blood flow momentum, ranging from zero, when flow force is predominantly along the base-apex direction, up to 90° when it becomes transversal. MPP resulted in significant reduction in end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes compared with both CRT-OFF (P = 0.02; P = 0.008, respectively) and BiV (P = 0.04; P = 0.03, respectively). LVEF and cardiac output were significant superior in MPP compared with CRT-OFF, but similar between MPP and BiV. Statistical significant differences when comparing global longitudinal and circumferential strain and SDI with MPP vs. CRT-OFF were observed (P = 0.008; P = 0.008; P = 0.01, respectively). There was also a trend towards improvement in strain between BiV and MPP that did not reach statistical significance. MPP reflected into a significant reduction of the deviation of global blood flow momentum compared with both CRT-OFF and BiV (P = 0.002) indicating a systematic increase of longitudinal alignment from the base-apex orientation of the haemodynamic forces. These preliminary results suggest that MPP resulted in significant improvement of LV mechanics and fluid dynamics compared with BiV. However, larger studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. © Crown copyright 2016.

  10. Early and late effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on force-frequency relation and contractility regulating gene expression in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Mullens, Wilfried; Bartunek, Jozef; Tang, W H Wilson; Delrue, Leen; Herbots, Lieven; Willems, Rik; De Bruyne, Bernard; Goethals, Marc; Verstreken, Sofie; Vanderheyden, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Heart failure is associated with a reduction in left ventricular (LV) contractility as evidenced by a blunted force-frequency response (FFR) and downregulation of contractility regulating genes. This study sought to investigate whether cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is capable of reversing the blunted FFR and the downregulation of contractility regulating genes. Twenty heart failure patients underwent echocardiographic examination during incremental AAI and DDD-CRT pacing at 70, 90, and 110 beats/min, immediately after and 4 months after CRT implantation. The FFR was determined from the ratio of the LV systolic pressure/end systolic volume index at given heart rate. In a subgroup of 6 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, serial LV dP/dtmax was invasively measured during both pacing modes and serial LV endomyocardial biopsies were taken to measure sarcoplasmatic reticulum calcium ATPase 2alpha (SERCA2alpha), phospholamban (PLN), sarcolemmal sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), beta1-adrenoreceptor (beta1-AR), and apelin (APL) gene expression using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Acutely, DDD-CRT pacing was associated with a decrease in dyssynchrony (P <.01) and increase in diastolic filling time (P <.01) at all heart rates paralleled by an upward shift of the FFR (P <.01) without force-frequency amplification. A greater upward shift of the FFR was noticed during DDD-CRT as compared with AAI (P <.01) after 4 months. In addition, CRT was associated with a significant force-frequency amplification at follow-up as evidenced from the steeper slope of the FFR relationship (P = .039). This was associated with a significant upregulation of SERCA2alpha P = .01), PLN (P = .01), their ratio (P = .01), ratio of SERCA/NCX (P = .02), beta1-AR (P = .03), and APL (P = .01) mRNA levels. CRT is associated with an acute upward shift in the FFR without force-frequency amplification related to restored synchronicity and increased filling time of the LV

  11. Causes-of-death analysis of patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy: an analysis of the CeRtiTuDe cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Marijon, Eloi; Leclercq, Christophe; Narayanan, Kumar; Boveda, Serge; Klug, Didier; Lacaze-Gadonneix, Jonathan; Defaye, Pascal; Jacob, Sophie; Piot, Olivier; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Perier, Marie-Cecile; Mulak, Genevieve; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain; Milliez, Paul; Gras, Daniel; Cesari, Olivier; Hidden-Lucet, Françoise; Anselme, Frederic; Chevalier, Philippe; Maury, Philippe; Sadoul, Nicolas; Bordachar, Pierre; Cazeau, Serge; Chauvin, Michel; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Jouven, Xavier; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Aims The choice of resynchronization therapy between with (CRT-D) and without (CRT-P) a defibrillator remains a contentious issue. Cause-of-death analysis among CRT-P, compared with CRT-D, patients could help evaluate the extent to which CRT-P patients would have additionally benefited from a defibrillator in a daily clinical practice. Methods and results A total of 1705 consecutive patients implanted with a CRT (CRT-P: 535 and CRT-D: 1170) between 2008 and 2010 were enrolled in CeRtiTuDe, a multicentric prospective follow-up cohort study, with specific adjudication for causes of death at 2 years. Patients with CRT-P compared with CRT-D were older (P < 0.0001), less often male (P < 0.0001), more symptomatic (P = 0.0005), with less coronary artery disease (P = 0.003), wider QRS (P = 0.002), more atrial fibrillation (P < 0.0001), and more co-morbidities (P = 0.04). At 2-year follow-up, the annual overall mortality rate was 83.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 73.41–94.19] per 1000 person-years. The crude mortality rate among CRT-P patients was double compared with CRT-D (relative risk 2.01, 95% CI 1.56–2.58). In a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, CRT-P remained associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% CI 1.07–2.21, P = 0.0209), although other potential confounders may persist. By cause-of-death analysis, 95% of the excess mortality among CRT-P subjects was related to an increase in non-sudden death. Conclusion When compared with CRT-D patients, excess mortality in CRT-P recipients was mainly due to non-sudden death. Our findings suggest that CRT-P patients, as currently selected in routine clinical practice, would not potentially benefit with the addition of a defibrillator. PMID:26330420

  12. Comparison of the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with class II versus class III and IV heart failure (from the InSync/InSync ICD Italian Registry).

    PubMed

    Landolina, Maurizio; Lunati, Maurizio; Gasparini, Maurizio; Santini, Massimo; Padeletti, Luigi; Achilli, Augusto; Bianchi, Stefano; Laurenzi, Francesco; Curnis, Antonio; Vincenti, Antonio; Valsecchi, Sergio; Denaro, Alessandra

    2007-09-15

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is recommended for patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV heart failure and wide QRS complexes. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of CRT in patients in NYHA class II with those in NYHA class III or IV. Nine hundred fifty-two patients (188 in NYHA class II) consecutively implanted with biventricular devices and enrolled in a national observational registry were studied. Clinical outcomes were estimated after 12 months of CRT, and long-term survival was assessed. At a median follow-up of 16 months, significantly fewer major cardiovascular events were reported in patients in NYHA class II compared with NYHA class III or IV (rate 13 vs 23 per 100 patient-years of follow-up, p<0.001). The percentage of patients who improved in NYHA class status after 12 months of CRT was lower in those in class II than in those in class III or IV (34% vs 69%, p<0.001), whereas the absolute increase in the ejection fraction was similar (8+/-9% vs 9+/-11%, p=NS), as well as the reductions in end-diastolic diameter (-3+/-8 vs -3+/-8 mm, p=NS) and end-systolic diameter (-4+/-10 vs -6+/-10 mm, p=NS). The NYHA class II group experienced lower all-cause mortality (log-rank test p=0.018). In the 2 groups, patients with major cardiovascular events during follow-up exhibited less or no reverse remodeling compared with those with better long-term clinical outcomes. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that CRT induced similar improvements in ventricular function in the 2 groups, whereas the improvement in functional status was significantly lower for patients in NYHA class II than for those in class III or IV. A positive effect of CRT on cardiac dimensions was associated with a long-term beneficial effect on disease progression in patients in NYHA class II.

  13. Diode-laser-based therapy device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, Mircea V.; Nica, Adriana S.; Florian, Mariana; Poenaru, Daniela; Udrea, Gabriela; Lungeanu, Mihaela; Sporea, Dan G.; Vasiliu, Virgil V.; Vieru, Roxana

    2004-10-01

    A new therapy laser device is presented. The device consists of a central unit and different types of laser probes. The laser probe model SL7-650 delivers seven red (650 nm), 5 mW diode lasers convergent beams. The beams converge at about 30 cm in front of the laser probe and the irradiated area might be varied by simple displacement of the laser probe with respect to the target. The laser probe SL1-808 emits single infrared laser beam up to 500 mW. The efficiency of the use of this device in physiotherapy, and rheumatology, has been put into evidence after years of testing. Dermatology and microsurgery are users of infrared powerful laser probes. The device has successfully passed technical and clinical tests in order to be certified. The laser device design and some medical results are given.

  14. 21 CFR 882.5940 - Electroconvulsive therapy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5940 - Electroconvulsive therapy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used...

  16. 21 CFR 882.5940 - Electroconvulsive therapy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used...

  17. 21 CFR 882.5940 - Electroconvulsive therapy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used...

  18. 21 CFR 882.5940 - Electroconvulsive therapy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used...

  19. Long-term efficacy of implantable cardiac resynchronization therapy plus defibrillator for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with mild heart failure: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Ping; Li, Chun-Lei; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Li-Xin; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of implantable cardiac resynchronization therapy plus defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy used for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death have suggested that CRT-D therapy is less effective in patients with mild heart failure and a wide QRS complex. However, the long-term benefits are variable. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials identified in systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database. Three studies (3858 patients) with a mean follow-up of 66 months were included. Overall, CRT-D therapy was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality than was implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy (OR, 0.78; 95 % CI, 0.63-0.96; P = 0.02; I (2) = 19 %). However, the risk of cardiac mortality was comparable between two groups (OR, 0.74; 95 % CI, 0.53-1.01; P = 0.06). CRT-D treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of hospitalization for heart failure (OR, 0.67; 95 % CI, 0.50-0.89; P = 0.005; I (2) = 55 %). The composite outcome of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure was also markedly lower with CRT-D therapy than with ICD treatment alone (OR, 0.67; 95 % CI, 0.57-0.77; P < 0.0001; I (2) = 0 %). CRT-D therapy decreased the long-term risk of mortality and heart failure events in patients with mild heart failure with a wide QRS complex. However, long-term risk of cardiac mortality was similar between two groups. More randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings, especially in patients with NYHA class I heart failure or patients without LBBB.

  20. Induced pluripotent stem cell intervention rescues ventricular wall motion disparity, achieving biological cardiac resynchronization post-infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Satsuki; Nelson, Timothy J; Kane, Garvan C; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Terzic, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Dyssynchronous myocardial motion aggravates cardiac pump function. Cardiac resynchronization using pacing devices is a standard-of-care in the management of heart failure. Post-infarction, however, scar tissue formation impedes the efficacy of device-based therapy. The present study tests a regenerative approach aimed at targeting the origin of abnormal motion to prevent dyssynchronous organ failure. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells harbour a reparative potential, and were here bioengineered from somatic fibroblasts reprogrammed with the stemness factors OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. In a murine infarction model, within 30 min of coronary ligation, iPS cells were delivered to mapped infarcted areas. Focal deformation and dysfunction underlying progressive heart failure was resolved prospectively using speckle-tracking imaging. Tracked at high temporal and spatial resolution, regional iPS cell transplantation restored, within 10 days post-infarction, the contractility of targeted infarcted foci and nullified conduction delay in adjacent non-infarcted regions. Local iPS cell therapy, but not delivery of parental fibroblasts or vehicle, prevented or normalized abnormal strain patterns correcting the decrease in peak strain, disparity of time-to-peak strain, and pathological systolic stretch. Focal benefit of iPS cell intervention translated into improved left ventricular conduction and contractility, reduced scar, and reversal of structural remodelling, protecting from organ decompensation. Thus, in ischaemic cardiomyopathy, targeted iPS cell transplantation synchronized failing ventricles, offering a regenerative strategy to achieve biological resynchronization. PMID:23568891

  1. Whom should I refer in 2014 for cardiac resynchronization?

    PubMed

    Manlucu, Jaimie; Tang, Anthony S L

    2014-06-01

    Heart failure continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality amongst Canadians. Many patients remain symptomatic despite guideline-directed medical therapy. For drug-refractory patients with dyssynchronous systolic heart failure, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has reliably reduced heart failure hospitalizations and related deaths. Unfortunately, despite significant advancements in technology and our understanding of its clinical effect, the CRT nonresponder rate remains approximately 30%. Great efforts have been invested into identifying clinical predictors of CRT response. Left bundle branch block conduction delay and wider QRS (> 150 ms) have consistently been associated with clinical response to CRT, earning them the strongest recommendations in the revised guidelines in Canada and across the world. Due in large part to the benefit observed in the Resynchronization-Defibrillation for Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial (RAFT) trial, patients with mild heart failure symptoms (New York Heart Association class II) are now also candidates for resynchronization therapy. Patients with atrial fibrillation, non-left bundle branch block conduction patterns, and chronic right ventricular pacing have historically been associated with poor response. However, these populations remain grossly underrepresented in the large trials. In the absence of more data, these patients continue to receive weaker recommendations for CRT in the guidelines.

  2. Cardiac resynchronization in 2008: an echo approach.

    PubMed

    Gorcsan, John

    2008-05-01

    Dyssynchrony is the abnormality in timing of regional ventricular mechanical activation in patients with heart failure. Dyssynchrony is one of the principal pathophysiologic features that improves with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Several echocardiographic approaches over the past several years have been described to quantify mechanical dyssynchrony in an attempt to improve patient selection over the electrocardiographic QRS complex width, which is a surrogate for dyssynchrony. Although no ideal method exists, this article focuses on the strengths and limitations of measures of longitudinal velocity using color tissue Doppler, radial strain using speckle tracking, and interventricular mechanical delay using routine pulsed Doppler. Recent results using these methods are exciting; however, they have not yet replaced routine clinical implant criteria for CRT. Echocardiographic assessment of dyssynchrony continues to evolve, with new information being added continually, and appears to have promise for future clinical applications.

  3. Effectiveness of prophylactic implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators without cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Theuns, Dominic A.M.J.; Smith, Tim; Hunink, Myriam G.M.; Bardy, Gust H.; Jordaens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Aims Much controversy exists concerning the efficacy of primary prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in patients with low ejection fraction due to coronary artery disease (CAD) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This is also related to the bias created by function improving interventions added to ICD therapy, e.g. resynchronization therapy. The aim was to investigate the efficacy of ICD-only therapy in primary prevention in patients with CAD or DCM. Methods and results Public domain databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were searched from 1980 to 2009 for randomized clinical trials of ICD vs. conventional therapy. Two investigators independently abstracted the data. Pooled estimates were calculated using both fixed-effects and random-effects models. Eight trials were included in the final analysis (5343 patients). Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators significantly reduced the arrhythmic mortality [relative risk (RR): 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27–0.67] and all-cause mortality (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64–0.82). Regardless of aetiology of heart disease, ICD benefit was similar for CAD (RR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.51–0.88) vs. DCM (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.59–0.93). Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis provide strong evidence for the beneficial effect of ICD-only therapy on the survival of patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic heart disease, with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, if they are 40 days from myocardial infarction and ≥3 months from a coronary revascularization procedure. PMID:20974768

  4. A systematic approach to designing reliable VV optimization methodology: Assessment of internal validity of echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and haemodynamic optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, Andreas; Li Kam Wa, Matthew E.; Pabari, Punam A.; Unsworth, Beth; Baruah, Resham; Willson, Keith; Peters, Nicholas S.; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Hughes, Alun D.; Mayet, Jamil; Whinnett, Zachary I.; Francis, Darrel P.

    2013-01-01

    Background In atrial fibrillation (AF), VV optimization of biventricular pacemakers can be examined in isolation. We used this approach to evaluate internal validity of three VV optimization methods by three criteria. Methods and results Twenty patients (16 men, age 75 ± 7) in AF were optimized, at two paced heart rates, by LVOT VTI (flow), non-invasive arterial pressure, and ECG (minimizing QRS duration). Each optimization method was evaluated for: singularity (unique peak of function), reproducibility of optimum, and biological plausibility of the distribution of optima. The reproducibility (standard deviation of the difference, SDD) of the optimal VV delay was 10 ms for pressure, versus 8 ms (p = ns) for QRS and 34 ms (p < 0.01) for flow. Singularity of optimum was 85% for pressure, 63% for ECG and 45% for flow (Chi2 = 10.9, p < 0.005). The distribution of pressure optima was biologically plausible, with 80% LV pre-excited (p = 0.007). The distributions of ECG (55% LV pre-excitation) and flow (45% LV pre-excitation) optima were no different to random (p = ns). The pressure-derived optimal VV delay is unaffected by the paced rate: SDD between slow and fast heart rate is 9 ms, no different from the reproducibility SDD at both heart rates. Conclusions Using non-invasive arterial pressure, VV delay optimization by parabolic fitting is achievable with good precision, satisfying all 3 criteria of internal validity. VV optimum is unaffected by heart rate. Neither QRS minimization nor LVOT VTI satisfy all validity criteria, and therefore seem weaker candidate modalities for VV optimization. AF, unlinking interventricular from atrioventricular delay, uniquely exposes resynchronization concepts to experimental scrutiny. PMID:22459364

  5. Balloon Devices for Atrial Fibrillation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Andreas; Wissner, Erik; Lin, Tina; Ouyang, Feifan; Kuck, Karl-Heinz

    2015-05-01

    Ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) is an established treatment option for symptomatic patients refractory to antiarrhythmic medication. In patients with paroxysmal AF, ablation can be offered as first-line therapy when performed in an experienced centre. The accepted cornerstone for all ablation strategies is isolation of the pulmonary veins. However, it is still challenging to achieve contiguous, transmural, permanent lesions using radio-frequency current (RFC) based catheters in conjunction with a three-dimensional mapping system and the learning curve remains long. These limitations have kindled interest in developing and evaluating novel catheter designs that incorporate alternative energy sources. Novel catheters include balloon-based ablation systems, incorporating different energy modalities such as laser (Heartlight(™), CardioFocus, Marlborough, MA, US), RFC (Hot Balloon Catheter, Hayama Arrhythmia Institute, Kanagawa, Japan) and cryo-energy (ArcticFront, Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, US). While the cryoballoon (CB) and the radiofrequency hot balloon (RHB) are single-shot devices, the endoscopic ablation system (EAS) allows for point-by-point ablation. The CB and EAS are well established as safe, time-efficient and effective ablation tools. Initial studies using the RHB could also demonstrate promising results. However, more data are required.

  6. Left ventricular electrical activation during right ventricular pacing in heart failure patients with LBBB: visualization by electrocardiographic imaging and implications for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Varma, Niraj

    2015-01-01

    Assess effect of right ventricular pacing (RVP) on left ventricular (LV) activation in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). LV activation during RVP is regarded as similar to LBBB; hence novel CRT algorithms may avoid RVP by adopting "fusion" pacing with intrinsic RBB-mediated conduction. However, other CRT techniques demand RV paced wavefronts for optimal resynchronization. Appropriate selection may require attention to interaction between RVP-generated wavefronts with preexisting conduction abnormalities posed by LBBB i.e. transseptal delay and LV activation. We hypothesized that LV activation during RVP would differ to LBBB. Eleven patients (59±19years, 8 male, LV ejection fraction 25±10%; ischemic etiology 45%) were studied 5.4±5months after CRT implant. All had intact AV conduction with LBBB (PR interval 204±55; QRS 167±27ms) prior to CRT. None had mid-septal/outflow tract lead positions. Using non-invasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI), LV activation was contrasted in each patient between intrinsic conduction and RVP with minimized AV interval (i.e. committing ventricular excitation to the paced wavefront). RVP affected LV activation variably. Transseptal time decreased in 64% of patients. More LV conduction barriers were created than resolved, slowing LV free wall activation from 67±29ms during intrinsic conduction to 104±24ms with RVP (p=0.025). The load of late-activated LV myocardium increased in 73% but decreased in 27% patients. Changes were not reflected by QRS duration. Ultimate action of RVP in any patient depended on summary effects of transseptal breakthrough and following LV activation. If both were enhanced then LV preexcitation occurred. If one was delayed but other accelerated, then the outcome of their balance determined the ultimate effect on LV depolarization. RVP may aggravate or resolve LBBB-induced conduction problems at one or more levels. Its avoidance vs integration (or timing relative to LV pacing

  7. Automatic optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy using SonR-rationale and design of the clinical trial of the SonRtip lead and automatic AV-VV optimization algorithm in the paradym RF SonR CRT-D (RESPOND CRT) trial.

    PubMed

    Brugada, Josep; Brachmann, Johannes; Delnoy, Peter Paul; Padeletti, Luigi; Reynolds, Dwight; Ritter, Philippe; Borri-Brunetto, Alberto; Singh, Jagmeet P

    2014-04-01

    Although cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective in most patients with heart failure (HF) and ventricular dyssynchrony, a significant minority of patients (approximately 30%) are non-responders. Optimal atrioventricular and interventricular delays often change over time and reprogramming these intervals might increase CRT effectiveness. The SonR algorithm automatically optimizes atrioventricular and interventricular intervals each week using an accelerometer to measure change in the SonR signal, which was shown previously to correlate with hemodynamic improvement (left ventricular [LV] dP/dtmax). The RESPOND CRT trial will evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the SonR optimization system in patients with HF New York Heart Association class III or ambulatory IV eligible for a CRT-D device. Enrolled patients will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to either SonR CRT optimization or to a control arm employing echocardiographic optimization. All patients will be followed for at least 24 months in a double-blinded fashion. The primary effectiveness end point will be evaluated for non-inferiority, with a nested test of superiority, based on the proportion of responders (defined as alive, free from HF-related events, with improvements in New York Heart Association class or improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire quality of life score) at 12 months. The required sample size is 876 patients. The two primary safety end points are acute and chronic SonR lead-related complication rates, respectively. Secondary end points include proportion of patients free from death or HF hospitalization, proportion of patients worsened, and lead electrical performance, assessed at 12 months. The RESPOND CRT trial will also examine associated reverse remodeling at 1 year.

  8. First inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy is often due to inaccurate device programming: analysis of the French OPERA registry.

    PubMed

    Leenhardt, Antoine; Defaye, Pascal; Mouton, Elisabeth; Delay, Marc; Delarche, Nicolas; Dupuis, Jean-Marc; Bizeau, Olivier; Mabo, Philippe; Cheggour, Saida; Babuty, Dominique

    2012-10-01

    Inappropriate therapy delivered by implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) remains a challenge. The OPERA registry measured the times to, and studied the determinants of, first appropriate (FAT) and inappropriate (FIT) therapies delivered by single-, dual- and triple-chamber [cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D)] ICD. We entered 636 patients (mean age = 62.0 ± 13.5 years; 88% men) in the registry, of whom 251 received single-, 238 dual-, and 147 triple-chamber ICD, for primary (30.5%) or secondary (69.5%) indications. We measured times to FAT and FIT as a function of multiple clinical characteristics, examined the effects of various algorithm components on the likelihood of FAT and FIT delivery, and searched for predictors of FAT and FIT. Over 22.8 ± 8.8 months of observation, 184 patients (28.9%) received FAT and 70 (11.0%) received FIT. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) was the trigger of 88% of FAT, and supraventricular tachycardia was the trigger of 91% of FIT. The median times to FIT (90 days; range 49-258) and FAT (171 days; 50-363) were similar. The rate of FAT was higher (P <0.001) in patients treated for secondary than primary indications, while that of FIT were similar in both groups. Out of 57 analysable FIT, 27 (47.4%) could have been prevented by fine tuning the device programming like the sustained rate duration or the VT discrimination algorithm. First inappropriate therapy occurred in 11% of 636 ICD recipients followed for ∼2 years. Nearly 50% of FIT could have been prevented by improving device programming.

  9. When is an optimization not an optimization? Evaluation of clinical implications of information content (signal-to-noise ratio) in optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy, and how to measure and maximize it.

    PubMed

    Pabari, Punam A; Willson, Keith; Stegemann, Berthold; van Geldorp, Irene E; Kyriacou, Andreas; Moraldo, Michela; Mayet, Jamil; Hughes, Alun D; Francis, Darrel P

    2011-05-01

    Impact of variability in the measured parameter is rarely considered in designing clinical protocols for optimization of atrioventricular (AV) or interventricular (VV) delay of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In this article, we approach this question quantitatively using mathematical simulation in which the true optimum is known and examine practical implications using some real measurements. We calculated the performance of any optimization process that selects the pacing setting which maximizes an underlying signal, such as flow or pressure, in the presence of overlying random variability (noise). If signal and noise are of equal size, for a 5-choice optimization (60, 100, 140, 180, 220 ms), replicate AV delay optima are rarely identical but rather scattered with a standard deviation of 45 ms. This scatter was overwhelmingly determined (ρ = -0.975, P < 0.001) by Information Content, [Formula: see text], an expression of signal-to-noise ratio. Averaging multiple replicates improves information content. In real clinical data, at resting, heart rate information content is often only 0.2-0.3; elevated pacing rates can raise information content above 0.5. Low information content (e.g. <0.5) causes gross overestimation of optimization-induced increment in VTI, high false-positive appearance of change in optimum between visits and very wide confidence intervals of individual patient optimum. AV and VV optimization by selecting the setting showing maximum cardiac function can only be accurate if information content is high. Simple steps to reduce noise such as averaging multiple replicates, or to increase signal such as increasing heart rate, can improve information content, and therefore viability, of any optimization process.

  10. Different regions of latest electrical activation during left bundle-branch block and right ventricular pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy patients determined by coronary venous electro-anatomic mapping.

    PubMed

    Mafi Rad, Masih; Blaauw, Yuri; Dinh, Trang; Pison, Laurent; Crijns, Harry J; Prinzen, Frits W; Vernooy, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Current targeted left ventricular (LV) lead placement strategy is directed at the latest activated region during intrinsic activation. However, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is most commonly applied by simultaneous LV and right ventricular (RV) pacing without contribution from intrinsic conduction. Therefore, targeting the LV lead to the latest activated region during RV pacing might be more appropriate. We investigated the difference in LV electrical activation sequence between left bundle-branch block (LBBB) and RV apex (RVA) pacing using coronary venous electro-anatomic mapping (EAM). Twenty consecutive CRT candidates with LBBB underwent intra-procedural coronary venous EAM during intrinsic activation and RVA pacing using EnSite NavX. Left ventricular lead placement was aimed at the latest activated region during LBBB according to current recommendations. In all patients, LBBB was associated with a circumferential LV activation pattern, whereas RVA pacing resulted in activation from the apex of the heart to the base. In 10 of 20 patients, RVA pacing shifted the latest activated region relative to LBBB. In 18 of 20 patients, the LV lead was successfully positioned in the latest activated region during LBBB. For the whole study population, LV lead electrical delay, expressed as percentage of QRS duration, was significantly shorter during RVA pacing than during LBBB (72 ± 13 vs. 82 ± 5%, P = 0.035). Right ventricular apex pacing alters LV electrical activation pattern in CRT patients with LBBB, and shifts the latest activated region in a significant proportion of these patients. These findings warrant reconsideration of the current practice of LV lead targeting for CRT. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Cardiac magnetic resonance-derived anatomy, scar, and dyssynchrony fused with fluoroscopy to guide LV lead placement in cardiac resynchronization therapy: a comparison with acute haemodynamic measures and echocardiographic reverse remodelling.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Anoop K; Duckett, Simon G; Ginks, Matthew R; Ma, Yinglaing; Sohal, Manav; Bostock, Julian; Kapetanakis, Stam; Singh, Jagmeet P; Rhode, Kawal; Wright, Matthew; O'Neill, Mark D; Gill, Jaswinder S; Carr-White, Gerald; Razavi, Reza; Rinaldi, Christopher Aldo

    2013-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) lead positioning for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is largely empirical and operator-dependent. Our aim was to determine whether cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-guided CRT may improve the acute and the chronic response. CMR-derived anatomical models and dyssynchrony maps were created for 20 patients. The CMR targets (three latest activated segments with <50% scar) were overlaid on to live fluoroscopy. Acute haemodynamic response (AHR) to LV pacing was assessed using an intra-ventricular pressure wire. Chronic CRT response (end-systolic volume reduction ≥15%) was assessed 6 months post-implantation. All patients underwent successful CMR-guided LV lead placement. A CMR target segment was paced in 75% of patients. The mean change in LVdP/dtmax for the CMR target was +14.2 ± 12.5 vs. +18.7 ± 11.9% for the best AHR in any segment and +12.0 ± 13.8% for the segment based on coronary sinus (CS) venography. Using CMR guidance, the acute responder rate was 60 vs. 50% on the basis of venography. At 6 months 60% of patients were echocardiographic responders. Of the echocardiographic responders, 92% were successfully paced in a CMR target segment compared with only 50% of non-responders (P = 0.04). CMR guidance compared well when validated against the AHR. Lead placement was possible in the CMR target region in most patients with an AHR comparable with the best achieved in any CS branch. The chronic response was significantly better in patients paced in a CMR target segment. These results suggest that CMR guidance may represent a clinically useful tool for CRT.

  12. Incidence and Costs Related to Lead Damage Occurring Within the First Year After a Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Replacement Procedure.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Christine I; Vose, Joshua G; Mittal, Suneet

    2016-02-12

    Inadvertent damage to leads for transvenous pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators is an important complication associated with generator-replacement procedures. We sought to estimate the incidence and costs associated with transvenous lead damage following cardiac implantable electronic device replacement. Using the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Research Database, we identified health care claims between 2009 and 2013 for lead damage following generator replacement. Patients were identified by claims with a procedure code for cardiac implantable electronic device replacement and then evaluated for 1 year. All follow-up visits for lead damage were identified, and incidence, risk factors, and hospitalization costs were determined. A total of 22 557 patients with pacemakers, 20 632 with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, and 2063 with cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators met selection criteria. Incidence of lead damage was 0.46% for pacemaker replacement, 1.27% for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator replacement, and 1.94% for cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator replacement procedures (P<0.001). After adjusting for patient characteristics, patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators demonstrated risk of lead damage that was, respectively, double (hazard ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.57-2.55) and >2.5 times (hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 1.73-3.83) that of patients with pacemakers. Lead revision or repair procedures were associated with increased inpatient hospitalization costs (mean $19 959 for pacemaker, $24 885 for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and $46 229 for cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator; P=0.048, Kruskal-Wallis test). These findings establish the first objective assessment of the incidence, risk factors, and economic burden of lead damage following cardiac implantable

  13. Defibrillators: Selecting the Right Device for the Right Patient.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Friedman, Paul; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2016-11-01

    Advances in the field of defibrillation have brought to practice different types of devices that include the transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy, the subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD), and the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator. To ensure optimal use of these devices and to achieve best patient outcomes, clinicians need to understand how these devices work, learn the characteristics of patients who qualify them for one type of device versus another, and recognize the remaining gaps in knowledge surrounding these devices. The transvenous ICD has been shown in several randomized clinical trials to improve the survival of patients resuscitated from near-fatal ventricular fibrillation and those with sustained ventricular tachycardia with syncope or systolic heart failure as a result of ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy despite receiving guideline-directed medical therapy. Important gaps in knowledge regarding the transvenous ICD involve the role of the ICD in patient subgroups not included, or not well represented, in clinical trials and the need to refine the selection criteria for the ICD in patients who are indicated for it. S-ICDs were recently introduced into the clinical arena as another option for many patients who have an approved indication for a transvenous ICD. The main advantage of the S-ICD is a lower risk of infection and lead-related complications; however, the S-ICD does not offer bradycardia or antitachycardia pacing. The S-ICD may be ideal for patients with limited vascular access, high infection risk, or some congenital heart diseases. However, more data are needed regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of the S-ICD in comparison to transvenous ICDs, the extent of defibrillation testing required, and the use of the S-ICD with other novel technologies, including leadless pacemakers. Cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillators are indicated in patients with a left ventricular

  14. Cone positioning device for oral radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Mahanna, G K; Ivanhoe, J R; Attanasio, R A

    1994-06-01

    This article describes the fabrication and modification of a peroral cone-positioning device. The modification provides added cone stability and prevents tongue intrusion into the radiation field. This device provides a repeatable accurate cone/lesion relationship and the fabrication technique is simplified, accurate, and minimizes patient discomfort.

  15. Implantable drug therapy device: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.

    1972-01-01

    Design is described of small, rechargeable, implantable infusor which contains fluid medicament stored under pressure and which dispenses fluid continuously through catheter. Body of infusor is covered by pliable silicone rubber sheath attached to suture pad for securing device.

  16. Optimization of myocardial strain imaging and speckle tracking for resynchronization after congenital heart surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Madriago, Erin; Sahn, David J; Balaji, Seshadri

    2010-09-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy can improve cardiac function in children with heart failure. The optimal method of assessing dyssynchrony has not been established. Newer tissue Doppler techniques such as strain assessment and speckle tracking appear to be promising for optimization of resynchronization. Two children aged 7 weeks and 4 months, with transposition of the great arteries and ventricular septal defect, and double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis, developed heart block after surgery. Conventional epicardial pacing resulted in heart failure in both. Upgrade to cardiac resynchronization therapy was not associated with normalization of function by echo, necessitating optimization. Baseline ventriculo-ventricular delay was 4 ms. Speckle tracking strain assessment was performed while adjusting ventriculo-ventricular delay. In Patient 1, synchrony was best with left ventricular (LV) activation preceding right ventricular (RV) by 30 ms. In Patient 2, it was best with RV preceding LV by 20 ms. At follow-up, both patients had normalization of function. In each case, optimization and reprogramming could be done live with no need for offline analysis. Speckle tracking strain analysis appears to be successful in the live, on-site optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy in children. Further studies may help refine this process further.

  17. Novel Silicon Devices for Radiation Therapy Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzi, Mara

    2016-02-01

    Modern radiotherapy techniques pose specific constraints in radiation-monitoring and dosimetry due to the occurrence of small radiation fields with high dose gradients, variation in space and time of the dose rate, variation in space and time of the beam energy spectrum. Novel devices coping with these strict conditions are needed. This paper reviews the most advanced technologies developed with silicon-based materials for clinical radiotherapy. Novel Si diodes as Pt-doped Si, epitaxial Si as well as thin devices have optimized performance, their response being independent of the accumulated dose, thus ensuring radiation tolerance and no need of recalibration. Monolithic devices based on segmented Si detectors can be easily tailored to optimize spatial resolution in the large active areas required in clinical radiotherapy. In particular, a monolithic device based on epitaxial p-type silicon, characterized by high spatial resolution and ability to directly measure temporal variations in dose modulation proved to be best viable solution for pre-treatment verifications in IMRT fields.

  18. [Organ replacement therapy - extracorporeal liver assist devices].

    PubMed

    Sinner, Barbara; Kirchner, Gabriele I

    2016-09-01

    Liver failure is a disease with a high mortality rate. Often liver transplantation is the sole therapeutic option. On the one hand, liver support systems probably support the liver to allow regeneration, on the other hand they are an option to bridge for transplantation. This article gives an overview on the clinically used liver assist devices (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], Prometheus system, single-pass albumin dialysis [SPAD], plasmapheresis) and discusses the applications in liver failure.

  19. Regional Longitudinal Deformation Improves Prediction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: A MADIT-CRT Substudy (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy).

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Knappe, Dorit; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Claggett, Brian; Wang, Paul J; Moss, Arthur J; Solomon, Scott D; Kutyifa, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular dysfunction is a known predictor of ventricular arrhythmias. We hypothesized that measures of regional longitudinal deformation by speckle-tracking echocardiography predict ventricular tachyarrhythmias and provide incremental prognostic information over clinical and conventional echocardiographic characteristics. We studied 1064 patients enrolled in the MADIT-CRT trial (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) with speckle-tracking data available. Peak longitudinal strain was obtained for the septal, lateral, anterior, and inferior myocardial walls at baseline. The end point was the first event of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or fibrillation (VF). During the median follow-up of 2.9 years, 254 (24%) patients developed VT/VF. Patients with VT/VF had significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (28.3% versus 29.5%; P<0.001) and longitudinal strain in all myocardial walls compared with patients without VT/VF (anterior-strain, -7.7% versus -8.8%; P<0.001; lateral-strain, -7.3% versus -7.9%; P=0.022; inferior-strain, -8.3% versus -9.9%; P<0.001; septal-strain, -9.1% versus -10.0%; P<0.001). After multivariate adjustment, only anterior and inferior longitudinal strain remained independent predictors of VT/VF (anterior: hazard ratio, 1.08 [1.03-1.13]; P=0.001; inferior: hazard ratio, 1.08 [1.04-1.12]; P<0.001; per 1% absolute decrease for both). When including B-type natriuretic peptide in the model, only a decreasing myocardial function in the inferior myocardial wall predicted VT/VF (hazard ratio, 1.05 [1.00-1.11]; P=0.039). Only strain obtained from the inferior myocardial wall provided incremental prognostic information for VT/VF over clinical and echocardiographic parameters (C statistic 0.71 versus 0.69; P=0.005). Assessment of regional longitudinal myocardial deformation in the inferior region provided incremental prognostic information over clinical and echocardiographic risk factors in

  20. Management of functional Sprint Fidelis leads at cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator generator replacement: a novel option for preventing inappropriate shocks from lead failure in fragile patients with high risk of sudden death.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dennis W X; Chu, Matthew M; House, Chad M

    2016-12-08

    In patients with a functional Sprint Fidelis lead at generator replacement, the manufacturer recommended to either continue to use the existing lead or replace it with a new lead. For those patients who continue to use a functional Fidelis lead, the risk of inappropriate shocks remains present if the lead fails in the future. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative approach at the time of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) generator replacement in patients with a functional bipolar left ventricular (LV) lead for prevention of inappropriate shocks from future Fidelis lead failure. During the procedure, the pace/sense IS-1 connection pin of the functional Fidelis lead was intentionally inserted into the LV port of the new CRT-D generator, while the existing bipolar LV lead IS-1 connection pin was inserted into the right ventricular (RV) pace/sense port. After such switching, the existing bipolar LV lead was used for functional LV pacing/sensing, while the Fidelis lead was used for functional RV pacing and high voltage shock only and could no longer be used for the purpose of sensing and detecting. This approach precluded oversensing and inappropriate shocks should the functional Fidelis lead fail in the future. Six fragile patients, who were not considered suitable candidates for lead replacement, underwent the alternative approach. During a follow-up of 35 ± 23 months, the CRT-D system functioned normally in five patients. The Fidelis lead fractured in one patient 7 months after generator replacement. The malfunction was detected promptly and the defected lead was replaced. No inappropriate detections or shock was triggered. In CRT-D patients with a functional Fidelis lead and a bipolar LV lead, switching of the Fidelis lead pace/sense IS-1 pin with the bipolar LV lead IS-1 pin at generator replacement did not affect normal system function. This novel approach may be valuable in fragile patients with high risk of sudden death for

  1. Are women worldwide under-treated with regard to cardiac resynchronization and sudden death prevention?

    PubMed

    Curtis, Anne B

    2006-12-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have been demonstrated to improve survival in patients with serious structural heart disease. Likewise, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has assumed an important role in the treatment of patients with symptomatic heart failure because of its demonstrated value in improving functional class, quality of life, exercise capacity, and survival. However, these clinical trials have all primarily enrolled Caucasian males, raising the question as to whether other important subgroups benefit in a comparable way. Women have lower rates of sudden cardiac death (SCD) compared to men, and event rates lag 10-20 years behind those in men. Among patients with known coronary artery disease, women have one-fourth the risk of SCD found in men. Women with heart failure tend to present at an older age than men, and women more often have heart failure with preserved systolic function, a group in whom prophylactic ICD therapy for the prevention of SCD has not been studied. Despite these differences, analysis of clinical trial results shows that women have similar outcomes with ICD and CRT therapy compared to men. There is a lower percentage of women among device therapy patients both in clinical trials and in practice for reasons that are not clear, but at least some of the difference is likely due to differences in age at presentation and co-morbidities. In fact, device therapy overall appears to be under-utilized in both men and women, when implantation rates are compared to the prevalence of heart failure in the population as a whole.

  2. CARDIAC MRI SCAR PATTERNS DIFFER BY GENDER IN AN IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR AND CARDIAC RESYNCHRONIZATION COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Loring, Zak; Strauss, David G.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Weiss, Robert G.; Wu, Katherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent meta-analyses suggest that the effectiveness of cardiac devices may differ between genders. Compared to men, women may not benefit as much from implantable defibrillators (ICDs), yet benefit more from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Myocardial scar burden is associated with increased incidence of appropriate ICD shocks but decreased response to CRT and may explain gender differences in device benefit. Objective To test the hypothesis that the extent of myocardial scar is less in women than men. Methods In 235 patients referred for primary prevention ICDs who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we compared scar size by gender. Analyses were performed for all patients (ICD cohort) and those receiving biventricular pacemakers (CRT subgroup). Results In the ICD cohort, women (vs. men) had a higher prevalence of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM, 64% vs. 39%, p<0.001) which accounted for a smaller overall scar burden (0.5% vs 13%, p<0.01). Likewise, in the CRT subgroup, the higher prevalence of NICM in women (83% vs. 46%, p=0.01) also contributed to a smaller scar size (0 vs 13%, p<0.01). Women also had significantly less scarring of the inferolateral LV wall. Conclusions In a cohort of patients undergoing clinically indicated ICD and CRT, women had less myocardial scar than men. This difference was primarily driven by a higher prevalence of NICM in women. These findings may have important implications for the future study of gender disparities in ICD and CRT outcomes. PMID:23313802

  3. Development of device therapy for ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Holley, Loraine K

    2007-06-01

    The past 25 years have seen the implantable cardioverter defibrillator emerge as the treatment of choice for ventricular arrhythmias with reduction in size but increased therapeutic options. Understanding the complex mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias and defibrillation in normal and diseased hearts has been the focus of many research teams including that of John Uther at the Westmead Hospital Department of Cardiology. Marked improvements in capacitor and battery technologies, arrhythmia discrimination, pacing algorithms, shock waveforms and monitoring capabilities enable wider use and patient acceptance. Emergence of cardiac resynchronisation therapy and the implantable defibrillator for treatment of chronic heart failure is not only giving quality of life and extended survival for heart failure patients but has also cast new light on the evolution of heart failure.

  4. New Devices and Old Pitfalls in Shock Wave Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Michael R.; Matula, Thomas J.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.

    2006-05-01

    Shock waves are now used to treat a variety of musculoskeletal indications and the worldwide demand for shock wave therapy (SWT) is growing rapidly. It is a concern that very little is known about the mechanisms of action of shock waves in SWT. The technology for SWT devices is little changed from that of shock wave lithotripters developed for the treatment of urinary stones. SWT devices are engineered on the same acoustics principles as lithotripters, but the targets of therapy for SWT and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) are altogether different. For SWT to achieve its potential as a beneficial treatment modality it will be necessary to determine precisely how SWT shock waves interact with biological targets. In addition, for SWT to evolve, the future design of these devices should be approached with caution, and lithotripsy may serve as a useful model. Indeed, there is a great deal to be learned from the basic research that has guided the development of SWL.

  5. Inhaled therapy in cystic fibrosis: agents, devices and regimens

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Key points There have been significant advances in both inhalation medicines and delivery devices with “intelligent nebulisers” and “dry-powder inhalers” becoming commonplace in CF care. Inhaled medicines generate high levels of a drug within the airways with limited systemic effects, offering safe and convenient antibiotic and mucolytic therapy for individuals with CF. Variations in adherence are not unique to CF; however, treatment burden is high and therefore fast inhaled drug delivery devices may assist individuals in completing the prescribed treatment regimes. Prescribers of inhaled medicines have a responsibility to consider, in addition to efficacy, the appropriated drug/device combination for each individual in order to promote adherence and achieve the desired clinical benefit. Summary The recognised mainstay daily treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) focus on inhaled and oral medications, airway clearance and optimised nutrition. This review discusses recent advances in inhaled therapies for the management of CF, including devices such as intelligent nebulisers, drug formulations and supporting evidence for inhaled antibiotics (for the management of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and muco-active drugs. We include practical advice for clinicians regarding the optimisation of inhalation technique and education. The influence of adherence on the use of inhaled therapies in CF is also reviewed. Educational aims To inform readers about the history and progression of inhaled therapies for people with CF with reference to the literature supporting current practice. To highlight the factors that may impact the success of inhaled therapies, including those which are device specific such as drug deposition and those which influence adherence. PMID:26306111

  6. Pediatric Dilated Cardiomyopathy Patients Do Not Meet Traditional Cardiac Resynchronization Criteria.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Ofer; Dham, Niti; Greene, E Anne; Heath, Deneen M; Alexander, Mark E; Berul, Charles I

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective device-based intervention for adults with heart failure (HF) with specific indications, based on large, multicenter randomized clinical trials. The criteria for CRT in adult HF include significant symptoms, ventricular systolic dysfunction, prolonged QRS duration, and left bundle branch block (LBBB) pattern on electrocardiogram (ECG). Despite having less data, CRT is also being widely utilized in children with HF. The shortage of evidence-based CRT criteria in pediatrics prompted us to review a cohort of children with dilated cardiomyopathy and evaluate their potential eligibility for CRT using the traditional adult criteria. Single-center data of all pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were extracted from the heart failure registry and retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had at least 2 separate visits that included HF scoring, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram were included. Patients who were ventricular paced were excluded. Data for 52 patients meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed. The mean ejection fraction was 25% on the first clinical evaluation and 27% on the second visit. No patient and 2 patients met the adult criteria for prolonged QRS on the first and second encounters, respectively. No patients had an LBBB pattern on ECG. None of the pediatric HF patients in our study met the published Class I criteria for CRT device therapy in adults. These findings suggest that extrapolation of adult HF data to pediatrics is not sufficient for CRT criteria. Specific guidelines for device implantation in children must be based on scientific investigation including pediatric clinical trials. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Outcome of Patients with Advanced Heart Failure Who Receive Device-Based Therapy for Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: Insights from the Israeli ICD Registry.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Goldenberg, Ilan; Samniah, Nimer; Rosso, Raphael; Marai, Ibrahim; Pekar, Alexander; Khalameizer, Vladimir; Militianu, Arie; Glikson, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Randomized clinical trials have shown conflicting data on the benefit of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with more advanced heart failure (HF) symptoms. Using the Israeli ICD Registry data, we sought to examine the effect of HF functional class on the outcome of patients who receive device therapy in a real-world setting. The association between HF functional class (categorized as baseline New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class I and II in [61%] vs class III and IV in [39%]) and clinical outcomes was assessed among 913 patients who received an ICD (n = 514) or a cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D; n = 399) device and were prospectively followed in the Israeli ICD Registry between July 2011 and June 2013. The risk associated with advanced HF functional class was significantly different in ICD and CRT-D recipients. In the former group, patients with NYHA classes III and IV experienced >3-fold increased risk of HF or death (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.28; P < 0.001), whereas among CRT-D recipients the risk was similar between patients with NYHA III/IV and those with less advanced HF symptoms (HR = 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-1.78]; P = 0.42; P value for NYHA functional class by device type interaction = 0.002). The risk for ventricular arrhythmia (VA) was significantly lower among patients with more advanced NYHA functional class, regardless of device type (overall HR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.33-0.91; P = 0.04). Our findings suggest that patients with less advanced HF symptoms experience a greater risk for VA and the development of HF is attenuated in CRT-D recipients with more advanced NYHA functional class. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dual device therapy in the setting of changing ICD technology: device-device interaction revisited.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, R G; Dorian, P; Poludnikiewicz, M; Newman, D

    1997-06-01

    This case report concerns an adverse device-device interaction between a replacement ICD and a dual chamber rate responsive pacemaker. It was observed that subtle changes in the design of sensing circuits between an older first-generation ICD and the newer third-generation ICD device led to unexpected and dramatic changes in the interactive behavior of a dual device system. The new ICD was connected to chronically implanted hardware. The sensing behavior of the newer ICD included a shorter time constant in the decay of the automatic gain control function, resulting in triple sensing of both the atrial and ventricular paced stimuli and the evoked QRS complex. Physicians should be aware of new design changes in the future so as to anticipate such interactions. In the setting of rapidly changing technology, extra caution must be exercised when choosing to implant two devices in the same patient.

  9. New and emerging drugs and device therapies for chronic heart failure in patients with systolic ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Jean L

    2011-01-01

    Chronic heart failure remains a common end product of cardiovascular diseases and, despite significant advances in therapy, continues to be accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Attenuation of neurohumoral overactivation with blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and β-blockers has improved outcome and helped reverse or halt disease progression in many patients; however, despite this, morbidity and mortality have remained elevated, and only marginal advances have occurred over the last few years. How best to combine these various agents continue to be tested but, apart from the addition of aldosterone receptor blockers and reduction of heart rate with ivabradine, advances have been few. Implantable defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization devices have proved to be very beneficial, and the limits of their use are presently still being tested. How best to handle atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure remains unanswered, but for now, rate control appears to be appropriate in many patients. Surgical ventricular restoration of the left ventricle has not proved to generally be useful, and although the role of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is well established in some patients, its use in others is being reevaluated. The use of biomarkers in patients with heart failure has stimulated great interest; however, much work remains before its full potential can be realized. As the complexity of the use of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice becomes clearer, research in the area is intensifying, but much work remains to be done before its use can be clearly outlined in patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sunshine Heart C-Pulse: device for NYHA Class III and ambulatory Class IV heart failure.

    PubMed

    Black, Matthew C; Schumer, Erin M; Rogers, Michael; Trivedi, Jaimin; Slaughter, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    Advanced heart failure (HF) patients not meeting criteria for ventricular assist device or heart transplant with life-limiting symptoms are limited to medical and resynchronization therapy. The Sunshine Heart C-Pulse, based on intra-aortic balloon pump physiology, provides implantable, on-demand, extra-aortic counterpulsation, which reduces afterload and improves cardiac perfusion in New York Heart Association Class III and ambulatory Class IV HF. The C-Pulse reduces New York Heart Association Class, improves 6-min walk distances, inotrope requirements and HF symptom questionnaires. Advantages include shorter operative times without cardiopulmonary bypass, no reported strokes or thrombosis and no need for anticoagulation. Driveline exit site infections, inability to provide full circulatory support and poor function with intractable arrhythmias remain concerns. Current randomized controlled studies will evaluate long-term efficacy and safety compared with medical and resynchronization therapy.

  11. Negative pressure wound therapy limits downgrowth in percutaneous devices

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Saranne J.; Jeyapalina, Sujee; Nichols, Francesca R.; Agarwal, Jayant; Bachus, Kent N.

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of a soft tissue seal around percutaneous devices is challenged by the downgrowth of periprosthetic tissues—a gateway to potential infection. As negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is used clinically to facilitate healing of complex soft tissue pathologies, it was hypothesized that NPWT could limit downgrowth of periprosthetic tissues. To test this hypothesis, 20 hairless guinea pigs were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 5/group). Using a One-Stage (Groups 1 and 3) or a Two-Stage (Groups 2 and 4) surgical procedure, each animal was implanted with a titanium-alloy subdermal device porous-coated with commercially pure, medical grade titanium. Each subdermal device had a smooth titanium-alloy percutaneous post. The One-Stage procedure encompassed insertion of a fully assembled device during a single surgery. The Two-Stage procedure involved the implantation of a subdermal device during the first surgery, and then three weeks later, insertion of a percutaneous post. Groups 1 and 2 served as untreated controls and Groups 3 and 4 received NPWT. Four weeks postimplantation of the post, the devices and surrounding tissues were harvested, and histologically evaluated for downgrowth. Within the untreated control groups, the Two-Stage surgical procedure significantly decreased downgrowth (p = 0.027) when compared with the One-Stage procedure. Independent of the surgical procedures performed, NPWT significantly limited downgrowth (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with the untreated controls. PMID:26487170

  12. Acoustic and Cavitation Fields of Shock Wave Therapy Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, Parag V.; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2006-05-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is considered a viable treatment modality for orthopedic ailments. Despite increasing clinical use, the mechanisms by which ESWT devices generate a therapeutic effect are not yet understood. The mechanistic differences in various devices and their efficacies might be dependent on their acoustic and cavitation outputs. We report acoustic and cavitation measurements of a number of different shock wave therapy devices. Two devices were electrohydraulic: one had a large reflector (HMT Ossatron) and the other was a hand-held source (HMT Evotron); the other device was a pneumatically driven device (EMS Swiss DolorClast Vet). Acoustic measurements were made using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone and a PVDF hydrophone. A dual passive cavitation detection system was used to monitor cavitation activity. Qualitative differences between these devices were also highlighted using a high-speed camera. We found that the Ossatron generated focused shock waves with a peak positive pressure around 40 MPa. The Evotron produced peak positive pressure around 20 MPa, however, its acoustic output appeared to be independent of the power setting of the device. The peak positive pressure from the DolorClast was about 5 MPa without a clear shock front. The DolorClast did not generate a focused acoustic field. Shadowgraph images show that the wave propagating from the DolorClast is planar and not focused in the vicinity of the hand-piece. All three devices produced measurable cavitation with a characteristic time (cavitation inception to bubble collapse) that varied between 95 and 209 μs for the Ossatron, between 59 and 283 μs for the Evotron, and between 195 and 431 μs for the DolorClast. The high-speed camera images show that the cavitation activity for the DolorClast is primarily restricted to the contact surface of the hand-piece. These data indicate that the devices studied here vary in acoustic and cavitation output, which may imply that the

  13. Home Healthcare Medical Devices: Infusion Therapy - Getting the Most Out of Your Pump

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Devices Brochure - Home Healthcare Medical Devices: Infusion Therapy - Getting the Most Out of Your Pump ... therapy. What do you do before using your infusion pump? Read your pump's Instructions for Use and ...

  14. Luminous fabric devices for wearable low-level light therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Chui, Chunghin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a flexible luminous fabric device was developed and investigated for wearable three-dimensionally fitted low-level light therapy. The fabric device exhibited excellent optical and thermal properties. Its optical power density and operating temperature were stable during usage for 10 hours. In vitro experiments demonstrated a significant increase in collagen production in human fibroblast irradiated by the fabric device, compared with the fibroblast without light irradiation. A series of tests were conducted for the safety of the fabric for human skin contact according to ISO standard ISO 10993-1:2003. The results showed that there was no potential hazard when the luminous fabrics were in direct contact with human skin. PMID:24409391

  15. Luminous fabric devices for wearable low-level light therapy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Chui, Chunghin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a flexible luminous fabric device was developed and investigated for wearable three-dimensionally fitted low-level light therapy. The fabric device exhibited excellent optical and thermal properties. Its optical power density and operating temperature were stable during usage for 10 hours. In vitro experiments demonstrated a significant increase in collagen production in human fibroblast irradiated by the fabric device, compared with the fibroblast without light irradiation. A series of tests were conducted for the safety of the fabric for human skin contact according to ISO standard ISO 10993-1:2003. The results showed that there was no potential hazard when the luminous fabrics were in direct contact with human skin.

  16. Management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing electrophysiological device surgery.

    PubMed

    Zacà, Valerio; Marcucci, Rossella; Parodi, Guido; Limbruno, Ugo; Notarstefano, Pasquale; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Di Cori, Andrea; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Casolo, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to formulate practical recommendations for the management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) surgery by providing indications for a systematic approach to the problem integrating general technical considerations with patient-specific elements based on a careful evaluation of the balance between haemorrhagic and thromboembolic risk. Hundreds of thousands patients undergo implantation or replacement of CIEDs annually in Europe, and up to 50% of these subjects receive antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants. The rate of CIED-related complications, mainly infective, has also significantly increased so that transvenous lead extraction procedures are, consequently, often required. Cardiac implantable electronic device surgery is peculiar and portends specific intrinsic risks of developing potentially fatal haemorrhagic complications; on the other hand, the periprocedural suspension of antithrombotic therapy in patients with high thromboembolic risk cardiac conditions may have catastrophic consequences. Accordingly, the management of the candidate to CIED surgery receiving concomitant antithrombotic therapy is a topic of great clinical relevance yet controversial and only partially, if at all, adequately addressed in evidence-based current guidelines. In spite of the fact that in many procedures it seems reasonably safe to proceed with aspirin only or without interruption of anticoagulants, restricting to selected cases the use of bridging therapy with parenteral heparins, there are lots of variables that may make the therapeutic choices challenging. The decision-making process applied in this document relies on the development of a stratification of the procedural haemorrhagic risk and of the risk deriving from the suspension of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy combined to generate different clinical scenarios with specific indications for optimal management of periprocedural

  17. [Experience using the isocenter verification device in proton therapy equipment].

    PubMed

    Fuse, Hiraku; Sakae, Takeji; Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Kamizawa, Satoshi; Segawa, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Yosuke; Yamanashi, Koichi; Sato, Masaru; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed an isocenter verification device for use in proton therapy. Radiation and mechanical isocenters were verified for treatment equipment including room lasers, a digital radiography system and the beam axis of a rotational gantry. The special feature of this device is its ability to correlate the position of the three isocenters in one measurement and thus improve accuracy compared to the conventional method using three separate devices. The reproducibility of the method and the fluctuation of the position of the beam axis isocenter were both investigated using this device for almost a year. Monthly measurements of the isocenter position were acquired for two gantries and it was found that the fluctuation was +/- 0.10mm for the up-to-down direction and +/- 0.16mm for the right-to-left direction in Gantry 1 and was +/-0.14mm for the up-to-down direction and +/-0.18mm for the right-to-left direction in Gantry 2. We could be measured with a repeatability of +/-0.18 mm or less by using developed device for the relative positional relationship between each isocenters. Because we can confirm results in approximately 30 minutes, we can perform a quality control after a clinical practice.

  18. The acoustic fields of shock wave therapy devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Robin O.; Chitnis, Parag V.

    2005-04-01

    We report measurements of a number of different shock wave therapy (SWT) devices. Two devices were electrohydraulic (EH): one had a large shock source (HMT Ossatron) and the other was a small hand-held source (HMT Evotron). The other device was a pneumatically driven device (EMS Swiss Dolorclast) and two different hand pieces were measured, one with an ``unfocused'' head and the other with a ``focused'' head. We found that the EH sources generated focused shock waves with a positive phase about 1 microsec long and peak pressure around 40 MPa, however, the acoustic output of the HMT Evotron appeared to be independent of the power setting of the machine. For the pneumatic source the duration of the positive phase was greater than 4 microsec and the peak pressure about 7 MPa. There was no clear shock front present and the waveform had a complex tail structure that was dependent on the power setting of the machine. We found that the focused hand-piece did not generate a focused acoustic field. The results are compared to reports of measurements from electromagnetic SWT devices. We contrast measurements made with different hydrophone systems: fiber-optic probe hydrophone, PVDF membrane hydrophone and PVDF bullet-shaped hydrophone.

  19. Cardiac device-associated lead infection: a diagnosis not to be missed

    PubMed Central

    Marquette, Malcolm; Budhdeo, Sanjay; Rajagopal, Vivek; Marinescu, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old gentleman was admitted to hospital with a history of general malaise for 5 months. His symptoms worsened 2 weeks prior to presentation. He experienced swinging pyrexia, night sweats and shortness of breath on exertion. Initial evaluation did not reveal any source of infection. Subsequent investigation revealed infection with vegetation affecting the intra-cardiac leads of cardiac resynchronization therapy device (CRT-D). The patient was treated with prolonged intravenous antibiotics and removal of the device and indwelling leads. The patient made a full recovery and a new device was implanted. PMID:26421154

  20. Resynchronization of the Asynchronous Polar CD Ind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Gordon; Patterson, Joseph; de Miguel, Enrique; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Monard, Berto; Bolt, Greg; McCormick, Jennie; Rea, Robert; Allen, William

    2017-04-01

    CD Ind is one of only four confirmed asynchronous polars (APs). APs are strongly magnetic cataclysmic variables of the AM Herculis subclass with the characteristic that their white dwarfs rotate a few percent out of synchronism with their binary orbit. Theory suggests that nova eruptions disrupt previously synchronized states. Following the eruption, the system is expected to rapidly resynchronize over a timescale of centuries. The other three asynchronous polars—V1432 Aql, BY Cam, and V1500 Cyg—have resynchronization time estimates ranging from 100 to more than 3500 years, with all but one being less than 1200 years. We report on the analysis of over 46,000 observations of CD Ind taken between 2007 and 2016, combined with previous observations from 1996, and estimate a CD Ind resynchronization time of 6400 ± 800 years. We also estimate an orbital period of 110.820(1) minutes and a current (2016.4) white dwarf spin period of 109.6564(1) minutes.

  1. Reverse ventricular remodeling and long-term survival in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization with surgically versus percutaneously placed left ventricular pacing leads.

    PubMed

    Rickard, John; Johnston, Douglas R; Price, Joel; Tedford, Ryan; Baranowski, Bryan; Bassiouny, Mohamed; Cantillon, Daniel; Grimm, Richard A; Tang, W H Wilson; Varma, Niraj; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-03-01

    A minority of patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) use a surgically placed epicardial left ventricular (SPELV) pacing lead. Previous studies of outcomes in patients receiving such leads have been limited to small cohorts with limited follow-up. We sought to compare outcomes between patients receiving SPELV pacing leads and patients with traditional percutaneously placed left ventricular (LV) leads. We extracted clinical data on consecutive patients undergoing the new implantation of a cardiac resynchronization device. Long-term survival and response (defined as an improvement in LV ejection fraction of ≥5%) were compared between the 2 groups. Between September 3, 2003, and August 6, 2007, 725 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 96 (13.2%) had an SPELV pacing lead. Over a mean follow-up of 5.1 ± 2.5 years, there were 310 deaths, 17 heart transplants, and 15 left ventricular assist device placements (342 total end points). In univariate analysis, there was no difference in outcomes between patients with an SPELV pacing lead and patients with a percutaneously placed LV lead both early at 6 months (log rank, P = .53) and over a mean follow-up of 5.1 years (log rank, P = .58). In multivariate analysis, survival free of left ventricular assist device or heart transplant was similar in patients regardless of lead placement status (P = .89). From a subcohort of 455 patients, 297 patients (65.3%) met criteria for response. In multivariate analysis, there was no difference in the rate of response based on lead placement modality. Patients undergoing epicardial LV lead placement using a surgical approach have outcomes and rates of reverse ventricular remodeling similar to those in patients undergoing LV lead placement using a percutaneous approach. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging medical devices for minimally invasive cell therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D; Ng, Kelvin S; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    The past decade has seen the first wave of cell-based therapeutics undergo clinical trials with varying degrees of success. Although attention is increasingly focused on clinical trial design, owing to spiraling regulatory costs, tools used in delivering cells and sustaining the cells' viability and functions in vivo warrant careful scrutiny. While the clinical administration of cell-based therapeutics often requires additional safeguarding and targeted delivery compared with traditional therapeutics, there is significant opportunity for minimally invasive device-assisted cell therapy to provide the physician with new regenerative options at the point of care. Herein we detail exciting recent advances in medical devices that will aid in the safe and efficacious delivery of cell-based therapeutics.

  3. How to treat stage D heart failure? - When to implant left ventricular assist devices in the era of continuous flow pumps?-.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    The new classification of heart failure in the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines includes stage D, which is refractory severe heart failure that does not respond to medical or resynchronization therapy. Among the many treatment strategies for stage D heart failure, only heart transplantation and ventricular assist devices have been established as improving prognosis. With the evolution in the mechanics of ventricular assist devices in recent years, the postoperative prognosis has improved, and less sick patients can now be candidates for these devices. In Japan, 2 continuous flow devices have been approved since April 2011, and now is the best time to consider the indications for their use.

  4. [Device-aided therapies in advanced Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, A A

    2016-01-01

    Advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) is a consequence of the severe neurodegenerative process and are characterized by the development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, aggravation of non-motor symptoms. Treatment with peroral and transdermal drugs can't provide an adequate control of PD symptoms and quality-of-life of the patients at this stage of disease. Currently, three device-aided therapies: deep brain stimulation (DBS), intrajejunal infusion of duodopa, subcutaneous infusion of apomorphine can be used in treatment of patients with advanced stages of PD. Timely administration of device-aided therapies and right choice of the method determine, to a large extent, the efficacy and safety of their use. Despite the high efficacy of all three methods with respect to the fluctuation of separate symptoms, each method has its own peculiarities. The authors reviewed the data on the expediency of using each method according to the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms, patient's age, PD duration, concomitant pathology and social support of the patients.

  5. Alternative programs for synchronizing and resynchronizing ovulation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bó, Gabriel A; de la Mata, José Javier; Baruselli, Pietro S; Menchaca, Alejo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) has been regarded as the most useful method to increase the number of cows inseminated in a given herd. The main treatments for FTAI in beef cattle are based on the use of progesterone-releasing devices and GnRH or estradiol to synchronize follicle wave emergence, with a mean pregnancy per AI (P/AI) around 50%. However, more recent protocols based on GnRH (named 5-day Co-Synch) or estradiol (named J-Synch) that reduce the period of progesterone device insertion and extend the period from device removal to FTAI have been reported to improve P/AI in beef cattle. Furthermore, treatments to resynchronize ovulation for a second FTAI in nonpregnant cows have provided the opportunity to do sequential inseminations and achieve high P/AI in a breeding season, reducing or even eliminating the need for clean-up bulls. In summary, FTAI protocols have facilitated the widespread application of AI in beef cattle, primarily by eliminating the necessity of estrus detection in beef herds.

  6. Direct left ventricular endocardial pacing: an alternative when traditional resynchronization via coronary sinus is not feasible or effective.

    PubMed

    Moriña-Vázquez, Pablo; Roa-Garrido, Jessica; Fernández-Gómez, Juan M; Venegas-Gamero, José; Pichardo, Rafael B; Carranza, Manuel H

    2013-06-01

    Biventricular pacing through the coronary sinus (CS) is effective for the treatment of patients with heart failure and left bundle-branch block. However, this approach is not always feasible. Although surgical epicardial lead implantation is an alternative, the technique may be deleterious in some patients. Thus, direct left ventricular (LV) endocardial pacing under local anesthesia may be an option. We describe our technique and analyze the results of direct LV endocardial pacing. Fourteen patients with failed resynchronization via CS (April 2006-September 2011) were selected. Using a femoral approach, we performed transseptal puncture and LV mapping, then fixed the active lead where the longest electrical delay was observed; the generator was placed in the anterior thigh. For resynchronization, eight patients with a device previously implanted through the upper veins received a single-chamber generator that was set to the VVT mode to sense the subclavian pacing spike. Six patients received a complete femoral resynchronization system with either a defibrillator or pacemaker. Patients were followed for 6-54 months. The LV lead was successfully implanted in all cases. Two patients experienced excessive bleeding and two died during follow-up. All except one improved at least one New York Heart Association class and experienced improved left ventricle ejection fraction. One patient with recurrent episodes of ventricular fibrillation was asymptomatic. Direct LV endocardial pacing is safe and may be a less risky, more efficient alternative than surgical epicardial lead implantation for resynchronization via CS. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Non-CPAP therapies in obstructive sleep apnoea: mandibular advancement device therapy.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Marie; Verbraecken, Johan; Randerath, Winfried

    2012-05-01

    Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) represent the main non-continuous positive airway pressure (non-CPAP) therapy for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The aim of the European Respiratory Society Task Force was to review the evidence in favour of MAD therapy. Effects of tongue-retaining devices are not included in this report. Custom-made MADs reduce apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) and daytime sleepiness compared with placebo devices. CPAP more effectively diminishes AHI, while increasing data suggest fairly similar outcomes in relation to symptoms and cardiovascular health from these treatments. Patients often prefer MADs to CPAP. Milder cases and patients with a proven increase in upper airway size as a result of mandibular advancement are most likely to experience treatment success with MADs. A custom-made device titrated from an initial 50% of maximum mandibular advancement has been recommended. More research is needed to define the patients who will benefit from MAD treatment compared with CPAP, in terms of the effects on sleep-disordered breathing and on other diseases related to OSA. In conclusion, MADs are recommended for patients with mild to moderate OSA (Recommendation Level A) and for those who do not tolerate CPAP. The treatment must be followed up and the device adjusted or exchanged in relation to the outcome.

  8. Mechanical circulatory support devices as destination therapy-current evidence.

    PubMed

    Puehler, Thomas; Ensminger, Stephan; Schoenbrodt, Michael; Börgermann, Jochen; Rehn, Erik; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous; Morshuis, Michiel; Gummert, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Advanced heart failure is an increasing problem worldwide. Nowadays, mechanical circulatory support devices (MSCD) are an established therapeutic option for terminal heart failure after exhaustion of medical and conventional surgical treatment, and are becoming a realistic alternative to heart transplantation (HTX). There are a number of different treatment options for these patients, such as bridge to transplantation (BTT), bridge to candidacy (BTC), bridge to recovery (BTR) and the destination therapy (DT) option. The latter option has become more frequent throughout the last years, due to a donor organ shortage and an increasing number of older patients with terminal heart failure who are not eligible for HTX. These factors have led to a rapidly increasing number of LVAD implantations as well as centers which perform these procedures. This has also been due to improved LVAD survival rates and quality of life following the introduction of smaller, intrapericardial and more durable continuous flow left ventricular devices. The most common complications for these patients are device-related problems, such as coagulation disorders, gastrointestinal bleeding, device related infection, pump thrombosis or cerebrovascular accidents. However, some questions still remain unanswered or under debate, such as the exact time-point for LVAD implantation. In addition, aspects such as better biocompatibility for LVADs remain a major challenge. This review will concentrate on DT for terminal heart failure and provide an overview of the current evidence for LVAD implantation in this patient group, with particular emphasis on indication and time-point of implantation, choice of LVADs, and long term outcomes and quality of life.

  9. [Efficacy of new devices for behavior modification therapy for obesity].

    PubMed

    Ookuma, K

    2001-03-01

    In the treatment of obesity, the behavior modification therapy has aimed at maintaining weight reduction by reforming wrong daily habitual eating behavior which leads obesity. However, a distorted cognitive pattern or a deviated physical lies behind the problematic eating behavior. In that aspect, we have developed new devices as belows. The ingestive behavioral questionnaire discloses problematic eating behavior and its related cognitive and sensational pattern at an early stage of the treatment. The charting of daily weight pattern is convenient for both therapist and patient himself to visually look out an actual ingestive pattern and reinforces maintenance of weight reduction by long term self-monitoring. The chewing chart recording is useful for the recovery of physical satiety sensation, and prevents over eating.

  10. Gastrointestinal Traits: Individualizing Therapy for Obesity with Drugs and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives were to review the discrepancy between numbers of people requiring weight loss treatment and results, and to assess the potential effects of pharmacological treatments (recently approved for obesity) and endoscopically deployed devices on quantitative gastrointestinal traits in development for obesity treatment. Methods We conducted a review of relevant literature to achieve our objectives. Results The 2013 guidelines increased the number of adults recommended for weight loss treatment by 20.9% (116.0 million to 140.2 million). There is an imbalance between efficacy and costs of commercial weight loss programs and drug therapy (average weight loss ~5 kg). The number of bariatric procedures performed in the United States has doubled in the past decade. The efficacy of bariatric surgery is attributed to reduction in the volume of the stomach, nutrient malabsorption with some types of surgery, increased postprandial incretin responses, and activation of farnesoid X receptor mechanisms. These gastrointestinal and behavioral traits identify sub-phenotypes of obesity based on recent research. Conclusions The mechanisms or traits targeted by drug and device treatments include centrally mediated alterations of appetite or satiation, diversion of nutrients, and alteration of stomach capacity, gastric emptying, or incretin hormones. Future treatment may be individualized based on quantitative gastrointestinal and behavioral traits measured in obese patients. PMID:26271184

  11. Gastrointestinal traits: individualizing therapy for obesity with drugs and devices.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this article were to review the discrepancy between numbers of people requiring weight loss treatment and results and to assess the potential effects of pharmacologic treatments (recently approved for obesity) and endoscopically deployed devices on quantitative GI traits in development for obesity treatment. We conducted a review of relevant literature to achieve our objectives. The 2013 guidelines increased the number of adults recommended for weight loss treatment by 20.9% (116.0 million to 140.2 million). There is an imbalance between efficacy and costs of commercial weight loss programs and drug therapy (average weight loss about 5 kg). The number of bariatric procedures performed in the United States has doubled in the past decade. The efficacy of bariatric surgery is attributed to reduction in the volume of the stomach, nutrient malabsorption with some types of surgery, increased postprandial incretin responses, and activation of farnesoid X receptor mechanisms. These GI and behavioral traits identify sub-phenotypes of obesity, based on recent research. The mechanisms or traits targeted by drug and device treatments include centrally mediated alterations of appetite or satiation, diversion of nutrients, and alteration of stomach capacity, gastric emptying, or incretin hormones. Future treatment may be individualized based on quantitative GI and behavioral traits measured in obese patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acoustic field of a ballistic shock wave therapy device.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Robin O; Chitnis, Parag V; McClure, Scott R

    2007-08-01

    Shock wave therapy (SWT) refers to the use of focused shock waves for treatment of musculoskeletal indications including plantar fascitis and dystrophic mineralization of tendons and joint capsules. Measurements were made of a SWT device that uses a ballistic source. The ballistic source consists of a handpiece within which compressed air (1-4 bar) is used to fire a projectile that strikes a metal applicator placed on the skin. The projectile generates stress waves in the applicator that transmit as pressure waves into tissue. The acoustic fields from two applicators were measured: one applicator was 15 mm in diameter and the surface slightly convex and the second was 12 mm in diameter the surface was concave. Measurements were made in a water tank and both applicators generated a similar pressure pulse consisting of a rectangular positive phase (4 micros duration and up to 8 MPa peak pressure) followed by a predominantly negative tail (duration of 20 micros and peak negative pressure of -6 MPa), with many oscillations. The rise times of the waveforms were around 1 micros and were shown to be too long for the pulses to be considered shock waves. Measurements of the field indicated that region of high pressure was restricted to the near-field (20-40 mm) of the source and was consistent with the Rayleigh distance. The measured acoustic field did not display focusing supported by calculations, which demonstrated that the radius of curvature of the concave surface was too large to effect a focusing gain. Other SWT devices use electrohydraulic, electromagnetic and piezoelectric sources that do result in focused shock waves. This difference in the acoustic fields means there is potentially a significant mechanistic difference between a ballistic source and other SWT devices.

  13. Detecting cavitation in vivo from shock-wave therapy devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matula, Thomas J.; Yu, Jinfei; Bailey, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has been used as a treatment for plantar faciitis, lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendonitis, non-unions, and other indications where conservative treatments have been unsuccessful. However, in many areas, the efficacy of SW treatment has not been well established, and the mechanism of action, particularly the role of cavitation, is not well understood. Research indicates cavitation plays an important role in other ultrasound therapies, such as lithotripsy and focused ultrasound surgery, and in some instances, cavitation has been used as a means to monitor or detect a biological effect. Although ESWT can generate cavitation easily in vitro, it is unknown whether or not cavitation is a significant factor in vivo. The purpose of this investigation is to use diagnostic ultrasound to detect and monitor cavitation generated by ESWT devices in vivo. Diagnostic images are collected at various times during and after treatment. The images are then post-processed with image-processing algorithms to enhance the contrast between bubbles and surrounding tissue. The ultimate goal of this research is to utilize cavitation as a means for optimizing shock wave parameters such as amplitude and pulse repetition frequency. [Work supported by APL internal funds and NIH DK43881 and DK55674.

  14. Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Dyssynchrony and Resynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Jonathan A.; Kass, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Dyssynchronous contraction of the ventricle, arising from electrical activation delays, significantly worsens morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) patients. Approximately one third of HF patients have cardiac dyssynchrony and are candidates for the pacemaker therapy Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), which uses bi-ventricular pacing to recoordinate contraction. The initial understanding of both dyssynchrony and CRT was in terms of global mechanics and hemodynamics, but lack of clinical benefit in a sizable sub-group of recipients who appear otherwise appropriate has challenged this paradigm. Using large animal models and some human data, a framework of complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiac dyssynchrony and CRT is emerging. Heart failure with dyssynchrony exhibits depressed myocyte and myofilament function, calcium handling, survival signaling, interstitial remolding, altered mitochondrial function, bioenergetics, myocyte structure, and other defects. Many of these are improved by CRT, and in a manner that seems unique to this treatment. Here we review current understanding of these cellular and sub-cellular mechanisms, making the case that these aspects are key to improving CRT utilization, as well as translating its benefits to a wider heart failure population. PMID:26596804

  15. Frequency of atrial tachyarrhythmias in patients treated by cardiac resynchronization (from the Prospective, Multicenter Mona Lisa Study).

    PubMed

    Marijon, Eloi; Jacob, Sophie; Mouton, Elisabeth; Defaye, Pascal; Piot, Olivier; Delarche, Nicolas; Dennetiere, Stéphane; Galley, Daniel; Le Franc, Pierre; Appl, Ursula; Guyomar, Yves; Albenque, Jean Paul; Chevalier, Philippe; Boveda, Serge

    2010-09-01

    The continuous measurement of sustained atrial tachyarrhythmia (AT) is now possible with some permanently implanted devices. Data on this subject remain controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of sustained AT in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy using pacemakers without backup defibrillators (CRT-P), within the first year after implantation, using strict definition criteria for sustained AT and a systematic review of all high-quality electrographically recorded episodes. The Mona Lisa study was a prospective, multicenter, cohort study carried out from February 2004 to February 2006, with a 12-month follow-up period. Sustained AT was defined as an episode lasting > or =5 minutes; episodes were confirmed by a systematic review of electrograms in the whole study population. Of the 198 patients who underwent CRT-P device implantation and were enrolled in the study, 173 were in stable sinus rhythm at baseline and were included in the analysis (mean age 70 +/- 9 years, 66% men, 91% in New York Heart Association class III, mean QRS duration 164 +/- 26 ms, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 25 +/- 7%). During a mean follow-up period of 9.9 +/- 3.6 months, 34 patients experienced > or =1 episode of sustained AT, for an incidence rate of 27.5% (95% confidence interval 18.2 to 36.7). Only a history of AT was independently associated with the occurrence of sustained AT within the 12 months after CRT-P device implantation (hazard ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.4, p = 0.02). In conclusion, this first prospective electrogram-based evaluation of AT incidence demonstrated that 27% of patients developed > or =1 episode of sustained AT lasting > or =5 minutes in the 12 months after CRT-P device implantation.

  16. Baseline asynchrony, assessed circumferentially using temporal uniformity of strain, besides coincidence between site of latest mechanical activation and presumed left ventricular lead position, predicts favourable prognosis after resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Cavallino, Chiara; Rondano, Elisa; Magnani, Andrea; Leva, Lucia; Inglese, Eugenio; Dell'era, Gabriele; Occhetta, Eraldo; Bortnik, Miriam; Marino, Paolo N

    2012-06-01

    Traditional indexes of LV dyssynchrony (DYS) in pts to be resynchronized are sensitive to noise, while the concordance between LV lead position and site of latest mechanical activation is suggested to be, in these patients, clinically relevant. Both aspects, asynchrony and lead position have been addressed separately but unclear is their potential synergistic role in the clinical evolution of CRT patients. We assessed clinical and echocardiographic outcome, as well as mid-term prognosis, in a population of CHF patients submitted to CRT, stratified according to a novel asynchrony quantitation (temporal uniformity of strain: TUS) method and concordance or not between presumed LV lead position and site of latest mechanical activation. TUS was computed in 85 pts (QRS > 120 ms, EF < 0.35) in whom we measured circumferential and longitudinal strains using speckle-tracking 2D-echocardiography before and 3-6 months after CRT, together with triplane apical LV volumes. Optimal LV lead position in short axis view was defined as concordance of the segment with latest systolic circumferential strain prior-CRT and segment with assumed LV lead position. Assumed LV lead position was defined from a chest X-ray obtained 1 day after implantation and scored as anterior, lateral, posterior or inferior using 2 orthogonal views (antero-posterior and lateral). Following CRT, LV volume decreased (diastolic -8 ± 20%) and EF improved (+6 ± 9%, P < 0.001 for both). Two-way ANOVA revealed TUS improvement post-CRT (+22 ± 68%, P = 0.025), with a clear evidence for more marked asynchrony detectable at circumferential (from 0.53 ± 0.20 to 0.55 ± 0.19) as compared with longitudinal level (from 0.56 ± 0.14 to 0.62 ± 0.14) (P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis revealed that greater baseline asynchrony, as assessed circumferentially (P = 0.079), together with concordance between LV lead position and site of activation (P = 0.012), besides younger age (P = 0.051), longer QRS duration (P = 0

  17. Pulmonary Right Ventricular Resynchronization in Congenital Heart Disease: Acute Improvement in Right Ventricular Mechanics and Contraction Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Janoušek, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Ložek, Miroslav; Tomek, Viktor; Vojtovič, Pavel; Gebauer, Roman; Kubuš, Peter; Krejčíř, Miroslav; Lumens, Joost; Delhaas, Tammo; Prinzen, Frits

    2017-09-01

    Electromechanical discoordination may contribute to long-term pulmonary right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in patients after surgery for congenital heart disease. We sought to evaluate changes in RV function after temporary RV cardiac resynchronization therapy. Twenty-five patients aged median 12.0 years after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and similar lesions were studied echocardiographically (n=23) and by cardiac catheterization (n=5) after primary repair (n=4) or after surgical RV revalvulation for significant pulmonary regurgitation (n=21). Temporary RV cardiac resynchronization therapy was applied in the presence of complete right bundle branch block by atrial-synchronized RV free wall pacing in complete fusion with spontaneous ventricular depolarization using temporary electrodes. The q-RV interval at the RV free wall pacing site (mean 77.2% of baseline QRS duration) confirmed pacing from a late activated RV area. RV cardiac resynchronization therapy carried significant decrease in QRS duration (P<0.001) along with elimination of the right bundle branch block QRS morphology, increase in RV filling time (P=0.002), pulmonary artery velocity time integral (P=0.006), and RV maximum +dP/dt (P<0.001), and decrease in RV index of myocardial performance (P=0.006). RV mechanical synchrony improved: septal-to-lateral RV mechanical delay decreased (P<0.001) and signs of RV dyssynchrony pattern were significantly abolished. RV systolic stretch fraction reflecting the ratio of myocardial stretching and contraction during systole diminished (P=0.001). In patients with congenital heart disease and right bundle branch block, RV cardiac resynchronization therapy carried multiple positive effects on RV mechanics, synchrony, and contraction efficiency. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. [Anaesthetic management in left ventricular assist device implantation as destination therapy: Our first experience].

    PubMed

    del Barrio Gómez, E; Rodríguez, J M; Martínez, S; García, E; Vargas, M C; Sastre, J A

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular assist devices have emerged as one of the main therapies of advanced cardiac failure due the increase of this disease and lack of organ supply for cardiac transplantation. The anaesthetic management is described on a patient without cardiac transplantation criteria. The device was successfully implanted as a destination therapy.

  19. Muscle activity of leg muscles during unipedal stance on therapy devices with different stability properties.

    PubMed

    Wolburg, Thomas; Rapp, Walter; Rieger, Jochen; Horstmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that less stable therapy devices require greater muscle activity and that lower leg muscles will have greater increases in muscle activity with less stable therapy devices than upper leg muscles. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Laboratory setting. Twenty-five healthy subjects. Electromyographic activity of four lower (gastrocnemius medialis, soleus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus) and four upper leg muscles (vastus medialis and lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus) during unipedal quiet barefoot stance on the dominant leg on a flat rigid surface and on five therapy devices with varying stability properties. Muscle activity during unipedal stance differed significantly between therapy devices (P < 0.001). The order from lowest to highest relative muscle activity matched the order from most to least stable therapy device. There was no significant interaction between muscle location (lower versus upper leg) and therapy device (P = 0.985). Magnitudes of additional relative muscle activity for the respective therapy devices differed substantially among lower extremity muscles. The therapy devices offer a progressive increase in training intensity, and thus may be useful for incremental training programs in physiotherapeutic practice and sports training programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of optimal cardiac resynchronization by vectors extracted from electrograms in dyssynchronous canine hearts.

    PubMed

    Engels, Elien B; Strik, Marc; van Middendorp, Lars B; Kuiper, Marion; Vernooy, Kevin; Prinzen, Frits W

    2017-08-01

    Proper optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) intervals can improve the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). It has been demonstrated that the area of the QRS complex (QRSarea) extracted from the vectorcardiogram can be used as a predictor of optimal CRT-device settings. We explored the possibility of extracting vectors from the electrograms (EGMs) obtained from pacing electrodes and of using these EGM-based vectors (EGMVs) to individually optimize acute hemodynamic CRT response. Biventricular pacing was performed in 13 dogs with left bundle branch block (LBBB) of which five also had myocardial infarction (MI), using 100 randomized AV- and VV-settings. Settings providing an acute increase in LV dP/dtmax ≥ 90% of the highest achieved value were defined as optimal. The prediction capability of QRSarea derived from the EGMV (EGMV-QRSarea) was compared with that of QRS duration. EGMV-QRSarea strongly correlated to the change in LV dP/dtmax (R = -0.73 ± 0.19 [LBBB] and -0.66 ± 0.14 [LBBB + MI]), while QRS duration was more poorly related to LV dP/dtmax changes (R = -0.33 ± 0.25 [LBBB] and -0.47 ± 0.39 [LBBB + MI]). This resulted in a better prediction of optimal CRT-device settings by EGMV-QRSarea than by QRS duration (LBBB: AUC = 0.89 [0.86-0.93] vs. 0.76 [0.69-0.83], P < 0.01; LBBB + MI: AUC = 0.91 [0.84-0.99] vs. 0.82 [0.59-1.00], P = 0.20, respectively). In canine hearts with chronic LBBB with or without MI, the EGMV-QRSarea predicts acute hemodynamic CRT response and identifies optimal AV and VV settings accurately. These data support the potency of EGM-based vectors as a noninvasive, easy and patient-tailored tool to optimize CRT-device settings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Method and devices for performing stereotactic microbeam radiation therapy

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham

    2010-01-05

    A radiation delivery system generally includes either a synchrotron source or a support frame and a plurality of microbeam delivery devices supported on the support frame, both to deliver a beam in a hemispherical arrangement. Each of the microbeam delivery devices or synchrotron irradiation ports is adapted to deliver at least one microbeam of radiation along a microbeam delivery axis, wherein the microbeam delivery axes of the plurality of microbeam delivery devices cross within a common target volume.

  2. Devices for stem cell isolation and delivery: current need for drug discovery and cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Martin; Bader, Augustinus; Giri, Shibashish

    2015-05-01

    Isolation and purification of stem cells and their delivery into diseased or aged tissues or organs need special devices for proper transplantation of stem cells in order to achieve high cell retention at transplant site for repair or regeneration of tissues and organs. The clinical and preclinical importance of special devices such as Celution System, Isolex cell separation device, magnetic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic dots, microfluidic devices, immunomagnetic cell separation for stem cell separation and isolation are the main focus in this paper. Further, devices like trans-coronary delivery, trans-endocardial delivery, intracoronary delivery devices for stem cell application to the heart are described. Devices for stem cell application to the brain, the spinal cord and other tissues are also explained. We highlighted scaffolds with incorporated stem cells and other encapsulation devices used to transplant stem cells. Current needs of devices for stem cells isolation, purification and delivery for drug discovery and cell therapy are discussed.

  3. Perioperative management of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Poveda-Jaramillo, R; Castro-Arias, H D; Vallejo-Zarate, C; Ramos-Hurtado, L F

    2017-05-01

    The use of implantable cardiac devices in people of all ages is increasing, especially in the elderly population: patients with pacemakers, cardioverter-defibrillators or cardiac resynchronization therapy devices regularly present for surgery for non-cardiac causes. This review was made in order to collect and analyze the latest evidence for the proper management of implantable cardiac devices in the perioperative period. Through a detailed exploration of PubMed, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), ClinicalKey, Cochrane (Ovid), the search software UpToDate, textbooks and patents freely available to the public on Google, we selected 33 monographs, which matched the objectives of this publication. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Legal issues related to vascular access devices and infusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Masoorli, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Infusion therapies are being delivered in many healthcare settings including hospitals, homecare settings, long-term care facilities, occupational health facilities, outpatient units, and physician offices. Nurses who infuse medications must be properly educated to recognize vascular access complications and initiate the proper interventions. This article discusses the high-risk areas of nursing malpractice related to infusion therapies.

  5. The Impact of Prior Radiation Therapy on Artificial Urinary Sphincter Device Survival.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Marcelino E; Linder, Brian J; Ziegelmann, Matthew J; Viers, Boyd R; Rangel, Laureano J; Elliott, Daniel S

    2016-04-01

    The literature on artificial urinary sphincter device survival in individuals with a history of radiation therapy is conflicting. We assess device survival outcomes among individuals after prior radiation therapy exposure undergoing primary artificial urinary sphincter placement. An institutional review board approved database of all patients who underwent artificial urinary sphincter surgery from 1999 to 2011 was used to assess device survival in patients treated with radiotherapy compared to individuals without radiotherapy exposure. Hazard regression and competing risk analysis were used to determine the association between radiation therapy and device outcomes. From 1999 to 2011 a total of 872 patients underwent artificial urinary sphincter surgery at our institution. Of these patients 489 underwent primary artificial urinary sphincter placement, with 181 of 489 (37%) having received radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were older (median age 72.0 vs 70.1 years, p <0.01) and had a higher median body mass index (29.4 vs 28.6 kg/m(2), p <0.03) than those without radiation exposure. Rates of diabetes mellitus and hypertension were similar between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in overall device survival between individuals who received radiation therapy and those without radiation therapy exposure, with 1 and 5-year device survival rates of 92% vs 90% and 77% vs 74%, respectively (p=0.24). While individuals who underwent radiation therapy were significantly older and had a higher body mass index, device survival was not significantly different between the 2 groups when using a cuff size greater than 3.5 cm. These findings will assist the urologist with the preoperative counseling of men undergoing primary artificial urinary sphincter placement with a history of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Joint Commission's disease-specific care certification for destination therapy ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Lockard, Kathleen L; Weimer, Ashley; O'Shea, Genevieve; Driggers, Erin; Conroy, Linda; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; Winowich, Stephen; Lohmann, Douglas; Schaub, Richard D; Severyn, Donald A; Kormos, Robert L

    2010-06-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services announced that all hospitals implanting ventricular assist devices are required to have certification from the The Joint Commission for disease-specific care destination therapy with a ventricular assist device effective March 27, 2009, in order to receive Medicare reimbursement for services rendered to patients who have devices implanted for destination therapy. On February 23, 2007, The Joint Commission released the certification requirements for ventricular assist devices implanted for destination therapy in an 8-page document so that hospitals could prepare to meet the 2009 certification deadline. The Artificial Heart Program of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center undertook a multidisciplinary project, under the guidance of the nurse coordinator, to prepare the hospital and program for a precertification survey by The Joint Commission for disease-specific destination therapy ventricular assist device certification. The Presbyterian Hospital Artificial Heart Program was awarded The Joint Commission's device-specific certification for destination therapy with ventricular assist devices in June 2008.

  7. Dissimilar ventricular rhythms: implications for ICD therapy.

    PubMed

    Barold, S Serge; Kucher, Andreas; Nägele, Herbert; Buenfil Medina, José Carlos; Brodsky, Michael; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic E; Stroobandt, Roland X

    2013-04-01

    Sensing of left ventricular (LV) activity in some devices used for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was designed primarily to prevent the delivery of an LV stimulus into the LV vulnerable period. Such a sensing function of the LV channel is not universally available in contemporary CRT devices. Recordings of LV electrograms may provide special diagnostic data unavailable solely from the standard right ventricular electrogram and corresponding marker channel. We used the LV sensing function of Biotronik CRT defibrillators to find 3 cases of dissimilar ventricular rhythms or tachyarrhythmias. Such arrhythmias are potentially important because concomitant slower right ventricular activity may prevent or delay implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy for a life-threatening situation involving a faster and more serious LV tachyarrhythmia. Dissimilar ventricular rhythms may not be rare and may account for cases of unexplained sudden death with a normally functioning implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and no recorded terminal arrhythmia.

  8. Frailty Syndrome in Heart Failure Patients who are Receiving Cardiac Resynchronization.

    PubMed

    Mlynarska, Agnieszka; Mlynarski, Rafal; Biernat, Jolanta; Sosnowski, Maciej; Golba, Krzysztof S

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that patients with de novo cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantation had a more intense frailty syndrome when compared to the patients who qualified for a system upgrade. One hundred and six patients aged ≥65 years were included. They were divided into two groups: de novo CRT implantation--74 patients and upgrade from standard right heart pacing--32 patients. A CRT was finally implanted in all of the patients. Frailty was evaluated using the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale (CSHA-CFS). The average results in CSHA-CFS were statistically higher (5.3 ± 0.8) in the de novo patients when compared to the patients who qualified for a system upgrade (4.9 ± 0.8); P = 0.027. Frailty syndrome was recognized in 81.1% of the patients in the de novo group and in 68.7% of the patients in the upgrade group; P = 0.164. Only one patient of the 106 had no attributes of frailty (or exposed ones) syndrome. Frailty syndrome is a common phenomenon in patients with heart failure and over 65 years of age. The syndrome is most often recognized in patients who are de novo qualified for cardiac resynchronization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Remote monitoring of cardiac implantable devices in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chu-Pak; Zhang, Shu

    2013-06-01

    Remote monitoring of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has emerged as a tool to replace regular follow-up of such devices, and to detect hardware failure, arrhythmias, and heart failure decompensation. The Asia-Pacific region is a geographically diverse area, with widely different cardiac device implant rates and expertise. However, common to all countries, distance and logistic for patients to reach an expert monitoring centre for routine follow up are significant, and in some countries, this will likely be replaced by remote monitoring. Unscheduled visits such as for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and ICD shocks will be expedited. There has been an increase in both pacemaker and ICD implant rates in Asia-Pacific, due to an ageing population and improvement in economic condition. Among the countries, Australia and Japan are the major users of remote monitoring. According to the statistics of the suppliers, in Australia, up to 15% of pacemakers, 40% ICD, and 30% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CTRD) are remotely monitored. The corresponding numbers for Japan are 5, 50, and 50% respectively. The monitoring personnel include nurses, technicians, and doctors, either from local centre or from device companies. Cost, lack of reimbursement, and logistic support are major issues in widespread application of remote monitoring technology. In conclusion, remote monitoring is increasing in Asia-Pacific region despite the increase in cost. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators and CRT/CRTDs are more likely than pacemakers to be enabled with remote monitoring.

  10. Ethical challenges with the left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rizzieri, Aaron G; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L

    2008-01-01

    The left ventricular assist device was originally designed to be surgically implanted as a bridge to transplantation for patients with chronic end-stage heart failure. On the basis of the REMATCH trial, the US Food and Drug Administration and the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services approved permanent implantation of the left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy in Medicare beneficiaries who are not candidates for heart transplantation. The use of the left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy raises certain ethical challenges. Left ventricular assist devices can prolong the survival of average recipients compared with optimal medical management of chronic end-stage heart failure. However, the overall quality of life can be adversely affected in some recipients because of serious infections, neurologic complications, and device malfunction. Left ventricular assist devices alter end-of-life trajectories. The caregivers of recipients may experience significant burden (e.g., poor physical health, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) from destination therapy with left ventricular assist devices. There are also social and financial ramifications for recipients and their families. We advocate early utilization of a palliative care approach and outline prerequisite conditions so that consenting for the use of a left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy is a well informed process. These conditions include: (1) direct participation of a multidisciplinary care team, including palliative care specialists, (2) a concise plan of care for anticipated device-related complications, (3) careful surveillance and counseling for caregiver burden, (4) advance-care planning for anticipated end-of-life trajectories and timing of device deactivation, and (5) a plan to address the long-term financial burden on patients, families, and caregivers. Short-term mechanical circulatory devices (e.g. percutaneous cardiopulmonary

  11. Devices in the management of advanced, chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, William T.; Smith, Sakima A.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a global phenomenon, and the overall incidence and prevalence of the condition are steadily increasing. Medical therapies have proven efficacious, but only a small number of pharmacological options are in development. When patients cease to respond adequately to optimal medical therapy, cardiac resynchronization therapy has been shown to improve symptoms, reduce hospitalizations, promote reverse remodelling, and decrease mortality. However, challenges remain in identifying the ideal recipients for this therapy. The field of mechanical circulatory support has seen immense growth since the early 2000s, and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have transitioned over the past decade from large, pulsatile devices to smaller, more-compact, continuous-flow devices. Infections and haematological issues are still important areas that need to be addressed. Whereas LVADs were once approved only for ‘bridge to transplantation’, these devices are now used as destination therapy for critically ill patients with HF, allowing these individuals to return to the community. A host of novel strategies, including cardiac contractility modulation, implantable haemodynamic-monitoring devices, and phrenic and vagus nerve stimulation, are under investigation and might have an impact on the future care of patients with chronic HF. PMID:23229137

  12. In-ear medical devices for acoustic therapies in tinnitus treatments, state of the art.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, David; Tavira-Sanchez, Francisco; Recuero-Lopez, Manuel; Anthony, Brian W

    2017-04-21

    Cochrane reviews indicate there is very limited support for all forms of sound therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy has the strongest support. American Academy of Otolaryngology (AAO) recently published some guidelines which recommends Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for tinnitus intervention, and only indicates that sound therapy should be considered an "option" for intervention. Nevertheless, acoustic therapy could lead to cause changes in the tinnitus perception and has been appreciated by the affected people for years. In the last decades, the use of sound or sound enrichment has become a central part of many tinnitus management programs used by audiologists, whether the intention was to mask tinnitus, suppress tinnitus, or interrupt the tinnitus generating neural activity. Several acoustic therapies have been developed and implemented in the last 40 years, but how can we determine which one is the most effective? We can determine the effects based on the results reported in many research studies, but in those studies are many factors that differ from one study to another, like in-ear medical devices used to apply acoustic therapy for tinnitus treatment. In this article, we review and analyze the different types of in-ear medical devices used in the most recently acoustic therapies in treatments against tinnitus, allowing us to identify the pros and cons. By our analysis, an optimal medical device could be characterized to enhance the application of acoustic therapies and in consequence the global results of the sound therapies that already exist. In this review, it was considered acoustic therapies, the technology implemented in medical devices and the clinical needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of the laser device for the stress therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Nikolai V.; Shcheglov, Sergey A.; Romanova, Galina E.; Koneva, Ð.¢atiana A.

    2017-05-01

    Recently there is a great interest to the drug-free methods of treatment of various diseases. For example, audiovisual therapy is used for the stress therapy. The main destination of the method is the health care and well-being. Visual content in the given case is formed when laser radiation is passing through the optical mediums and elements. The therapy effect is achieved owing to the color varying and complicated structure of the picture which is produced by the refraction, dispersion effects, diffraction and interference. As the laser source we use three laser sources with wavelengths of 445 nm, 520 nm and 640 nm and the optical power up to 1 W. The beam is guided to the optical element which is responsible for the final image of the dome surface. The dynamic image can be achieved by the rotating of the optical element when the laser beam is static or by scanning the surface of the element. Previous research has shown that the complexity of the image connected to the therapy effect. The image was chosen experimentally in practice. The evaluation was performed using the fractal dimension calculation for the produced image. In this work we model the optical image on the surface formed by the laser sources together with the optical elements. Modeling is performed in two stages. On the first stage we perform the simple modeling taking into account simple geometrical effects and specify the optical models of the sources.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of thermal coagulation effects in a phantom for calibrating thermal therapy devices.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, L S; Bronskill, M J

    2000-05-01

    A material has been developed and tested that permanently records thermal response patterns from heating devices. The material consists of a mixture of polyacrylamide and 18% w/w bovine serum albumin. Thermal denaturation is complete when the local temperature exceeds 70 degrees C, causing a large reduction in the T2 of the material. Three-dimensional distributions of "thermal damage" can be assessed using standard magnetic resonance imaging sequences. The material works well with microwave heating devices and is adaptable for use with ultrasound, radio-frequency, or laser heating devices. Suggested uses include characterizing heating devices prior to treatment and developing new clinical applications for thermal therapies.

  15. Materials, Devices and Systems of Soft Bioelectronics for Precision Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Gao, Wei; Yin, Zhouping

    2017-03-29

    The potential applications of soft bioelectronics in biomedical research and clinical trials have inspired a great deal of research interest in the past decade. While there has been significant amount of work in the fabrication and characterization of soft and stretchable sensors for monitoring of physical conditions and vital signs of human body, the development of soft bioelectronics based medical treatment and intervention systems has just begun. In addition to health monitoring, active treatments are essential for disease control in the healthcare domain, and medical therapy and surgery realized by sophisticated soft bioelectronic systems are better demonstrations of their utility in healthcare. In this Research News, we summarize recent key research achievements in soft bioelectronics enabled precision therapy, with emphasis on drug delivery, therapeutic and surgical mechanisms and tools enabled by integrated systems. Challenges in technology development and prospects for commercialization are also discussed.

  16. Thoratec paracorporeal biventricular assist device therapy: the Freiburg experience†

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Kerstin; Heilmann, Claudia; Siepe, Matthias; Benk, Christoph; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Schlensak, Christian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The treatment of severe biventricular (BV) contractile failure using mechanical circulatory support is challenging. We analyzed our center’s results following implantation of a biventricular assist device (BVAD). METHODS We implanted 39 BVADs between September 2001 and January 2009. All patients were qualified candidates for heart transplantation, without an organ available at time of BVAD implantation. Fifteen patients without a history of chronic cardiomyopathy suffered from acute BV failure (group 1), whereas the other 24 suffered from severe chronic cardiomyopathy (group 2). The indication for BVAD implantation was determined in reference to echocardiography, the degree of end-organ damage, and whether the patient qualified for a heart transplant or was a candidate for bridge to recovery. RESULTS Both groups were similar regarding their preoperative hemodynamics, intraoperative and early postoperative findings, and adverse events. Patients in group 1 were younger (mean age 37 ± 17 years) than those in group 2 (51 ± 12 years). Mean duration of support in group 1 was 137 ± 109 days, and 65 ± 61 days in group 2. In group 1, 33% (5/15) were weaned off the device and 53% (8/15) underwent heart transplantation, whereas 8/24 patients (42%) in the chronic group were transplanted. Group 1’s mortality on the device was lower than that of group 2 (13% vs 67%). Furthermore, 11 patients of group 1 survived for 1 year compared with four in group 2 (73% vs 17%). CONCLUSION Implantation of a BVAD in patients with chronic heart failure and acute decompensation is associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate. By contrast, BVAD implantation can achieve excellent results in patients with acute BV failure without a history of chronic cardiomyopathy, even if they are in cardiogenic shock upon admission. PMID:21592811

  17. Device diagnostics and early identification of acute decompensated heart failure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blair, Tara Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of heart failure (HF) management are based on reactive strategies to treat late indicators of decompensated HF. Advances in monitoring methods have become available with the evolution of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac-resynchronization therapy devices. These devices provide new diagnostic data and remote monitoring capabilities that allow clinicians to proactively monitor patients for earlier signs of worsening HF. The integration of data obtained from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac-resynchronization therapy technology could improve outpatient HF care, potentially leading to decreased readmission rates and improved patient outcomes. This review will synthesize the literature regarding the efficacy of device diagnostic data and the usability of the data in the clinical setting. Articles for review were obtained using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Device diagnostics showed strong correlation with established HF biomarkers and hemodynamic measures. The findings from this review indicate that device diagnostic parameters predict impending HF much earlier than traditional methods of monitoring do. Device diagnostics are also more accurate in the early prediction of HF when compared with noninvasive objective measures, particularly when multiple parameters are combined and monitored for trends. Device diagnostics possess a distinct advantage over traditional methods of monitoring for HF because they allow clinicians to remotely monitor the status of their HF patients without relying on patient compliance for data entry and reporting. Studies regarding the efficacy of device diagnostic parameters suggest that their integration into clinical practice will provide a more accurate and reliable mechanism for assisting clinicians in risk stratifying and predicting potential episodes of decompensated HF.

  18. Evolution of Endovascular Therapy in Acute Stroke: Implications of Device Development

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaian, Adithya; Mitchell, Peter; Dowling, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis is an effective treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. However, vascular recanalization rates remain poor especially in the setting of large artery occlusion. On the other hand, endovascular intra-arterial therapy addresses this issue with superior recanalization rates compared with intravenous thrombolysis. Although previous randomized controlled studies of intra-arterial therapy failed to demonstrate superiority, the failings may be attributed to a combination of inferior intra-arterial devices and suboptimal selection criteria. The recent results of several randomized controlled trials have demonstrated significantly improved outcomes, underpinning the advantage of newer intra-arterial devices and superior recanalization rates, leading to renewed interest in establishing intra-arterial therapy as the gold standard for acute ischaemic stroke. The aim of this review is to outline the history and development of different intra-arterial devices and future directions in research. PMID:26060800

  19. Quality of life in cardiac resynchronization recipients: association with response and impact on outcome.

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, Radosław; Jędrzejczyk-Patej, Ewa; Mazurek, Michał; Szulik, Mariola; Kowalski, Oskar; Pruszkowska, Patrycja; Sokal, Adam; Średniawa, Beata; Boidol, Joanna; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Podolecki, Tomasz; Mencel, Grzegorz; Kalarus, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic impact of improvement in health-related quality of life (QoL) and its relation to response in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) recipients remains unknown. To assess the correspondence between response to CRT and improvements in QoL and to verify if a change in QoL after pacing influences outcome in CRT patients. Ninety-seven participants of the Triple-Site Versus Standard Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Trial (TRUST CRT) randomized trial, in New York Heart Association class III-IV, QRS width ≥ 120 ms, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, and significant mechanical dyssynchrony were included. Subjects filled out the Minnesota-QoL questionnaire prior to and 6 months after CRT with defibrillator (CRT-D) implantation. Data on major adverse cardiac events (MACEs: death, heart failure hospitalization, heart transplant) collected within the next 2.5 years and adjudicated blindly constituted the censoring variables. Within the first 6 months of resynchronization QoL improved in 81%, while worsening in 19% of patients. Clinical response, but not the echocardiographic one, was associated with improved QoL. During subsequent 2.5 years MACEs occurred in 37% of patients (23% died). Subjects without QoL improvement were significantly (both P < 0.05) more prone to experience MACE (61% vs 32%) and die (44% vs 18%) within the follow-up. Unimproved QoL increased the probability of future MACE by 2.7 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.26-5.83; P = 0.01) and death by 3.2 times (95% CI: 1.23-8.32; P = 0.02) independently from clinical and echocardiographic response. Clinical response, but not the echocardiographic one, was associated with improved QoL in CRT recipients. These preliminary data suggest that lack of improvement in QoL after CRT was associated with a strongly unfavorable prognosis, regardless of functional or echocardiographic response. Our results merit further studies with a larger number of patients. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 21 CFR 878.4683 - Non-Powered suction apparatus device intended for negative pressure wound therapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-Powered suction apparatus device intended for... Surgical Devices § 878.4683 Non-Powered suction apparatus device intended for negative pressure wound therapy. (a) Identification. A non-powered suction apparatus device intended for negative pressure wound...

  1. Is coronary vein angioplasty necessary to provide cardiac resynchronization in selected patients? A case report.

    PubMed

    Sterliński, Maciej; Sosnowski, Cezary; Zajac, Dariusz; Ruzyłło, Witold; Szwed, Hanna

    2008-09-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has become a recommended method for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and cardiac dyssynchrony. In some cases, CRT implantation procedure can be complicated because of anatomic and technical reasons. Some reports describe balloon angioplasty of stenotic heart veins as a method to achieve the target vessel. We present a case of a 58-year-old male with permanent atrial fibrillation and CHF who was referred for CRT. During the implantation of the pacemaker, the diaphragmatic obstacle in coronary sinus (CS) has been passed after many attempts using a balloon catheter with no inflation. The aim of the report is to discuss, in short, the real necessity of venous angioplasty in the CS bed during CRT implantation.

  2. Hydrogel microfluidic co-culture device for photothermal therapy and cancer migration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Min; Seo, Hye In; Bae, Jun Hyuk; Chung, Bong Geun

    2017-02-07

    We developed the photo-crosslinkable hydrogel microfluidic co-culture device to study photothermal therapy and cancer cell migration. To culture MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells and metastatic U87MG human glioblastoma in the microfluidic device, we used 10 w/v% gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels as a semi-permeable physical barrier. We demonstrated the effect of gold nanorod on photothermal therapy of cancer cells in the microfluidic co-culture device. Interestingly, we observed that metastatic U87MG human glioblastoma largely migrated toward vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-treated GelMA hydrogel-embedding microchannels. The main advantage of this hydrogel microfluidic co-culture device is to simultaneously analyze the physiological migration behaviors of two cancer cells with different physiochemical motilities and study gold nanorod-mediated photothermal therapy effect. Therefore, this hydrogel microfluidic co-culture device could be a potentially powerful tool for photothermal therapy and cancer cell migration applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Son, Donghee; Lee, Jongha; Qiao, Shutao; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Ji Eun; Song, Changyeong; Kim, Seok Joo; Lee, Dong Jun; Jun, Samuel Woojoo; Yang, Shixuan; Park, Minjoon; Shin, Jiho; Do, Kyungsik; Lee, Mincheol; Kang, Kwanghun; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Lu, Nanshu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-05-01

    Wearable systems that monitor muscle activity, store data and deliver feedback therapy are the next frontier in personalized medicine and healthcare. However, technical challenges, such as the fabrication of high-performance, energy-efficient sensors and memory modules that are in intimate mechanical contact with soft tissues, in conjunction with controlled delivery of therapeutic agents, limit the wide-scale adoption of such systems. Here, we describe materials, mechanics and designs for multifunctional, wearable-on-the-skin systems that address these challenges via monolithic integration of nanomembranes fabricated with a top-down approach, nanoparticles assembled by bottom-up methods, and stretchable electronics on a tissue-like polymeric substrate. Representative examples of such systems include physiological sensors, non-volatile memory and drug-release actuators. Quantitative analyses of the electronics, mechanics, heat-transfer and drug-diffusion characteristics validate the operation of individual components, thereby enabling system-level multifunctionalities.

  4. A Survey of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes—Part I: Therapies and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Xiao, Yang; Hu, Fei; Lewis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys diabetes therapies from telemedicine viewpoint. In type 1 diabetes therapies, the exogenous insulin replacement is generally considered as a primary treatment. However, the complete replacement of exogenous insulin is still a challenging issue because of its complexity of modeling the dynamics, which is typically modeled nonlinearly. On the other hand, thanks to the progress of medical devices, currently the diabetes therapies are being automated. These medical devices include automated insulin pumps and blood glucose sensors. Insulin pumps are designed to create artificial insulin perfusion while they largely rely on the blood glucose profile measurements and these measurements are achieved by one or more blood glucose sensors. The blood glucose measurements are also important for the insulin-dependent diabetes therapies. An insulin pump along with sensors establishes a good feedback system providing the appropriate amount of the exogenous insulin on demand. Controlling the amount of exogenous insulin to suppress the blood glucose levels requires complicated computations. This paper mostly explains both type 1 and 2 diabetes and their mechanisms accompanied by descriptions of diabetes therapy and medical devices currently utilized in the therapy. PMID:18437199

  5. Acoustic regulation of extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) therapy devices in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruvada, Subha; Harris, Gerald R.

    2005-04-01

    The focused, large amplitude pressure fields produced by ESW lithotripsy devices were shown in the early 1980s to provide an efficient means for fragmenting urinary tract calculi. More recently, orthopedic applications of intense pressure pulses for pain relief and fracture healing have been developed. Under the US Medical Device Amendments of 1976, ESW therapy devices were deemed Class III, meaning that a pre-market application typically would be supported by both pre-clinical and clinical studies. This classification still applies, except for ESW lithotripters indicated for fragmenting kidney and ureteral calculi. These devices were reclassified to Class II in 2000, resulting in a simpler path to market in which a demonstration of substantial equivalence to a currently marketed device is sufficient. As part of its regulatory responsibility to address the safety and effectiveness of these devices, particularly with regard to acoustic output, the US Food and Drug Administration has recognized two International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for ESW lithotripters, one covering field measurements (IEC 61846) and the other dealing with labeling and other safety aspects (IEC 60601-2-36). Although these standards were designed primarily for lithotripsy, the FDA has used them where applicable in the regulatory analysis of other ESW therapy devices.

  6. Evaluation of advanced cooling therapy's esophageal cooling device for core temperature control.

    PubMed

    Naiman, Melissa; Shanley, Patrick; Garrett, Frank; Kulstad, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Managing core temperature is critical to patient outcomes in a wide range of clinical scenarios. Previous devices designed to perform temperature management required a trade-off between invasiveness and temperature modulation efficiency. The Esophageal Cooling Device, made by Advanced Cooling Therapy (Chicago, IL), was developed to optimize warming and cooling efficiency through an easy and low risk procedure that leverages heat transfer through convection and conduction. Clinical data from cardiac arrest, fever, and critical burn patients indicate that the Esophageal Cooling Device performs very well both in terms of temperature modulation (cooling rates of approximately 1.3°C/hour, warming of up to 0.5°C/hour) and maintaining temperature stability (variation around goal temperature ± 0.3°C). Physicians have reported that device performance is comparable to the performance of intravascular temperature management techniques and superior to the performance of surface devices, while avoiding the downsides associated with both.

  7. Development of an MRI-compatible device for prostate focal therapy.

    PubMed

    Cepek, Jeremy; Chronik, Blaine; Lindner, Uri; Trachtenberg, John; Fenster, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    We present a device that has been developed for delivering prostate focal thermal therapy under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Unlike most existing devices, ours is capable of delivering needles to targets in the prostate without removing the patient from the scanner. This feature greatly reduces procedure time and increases accuracy. The device consists of a mechanical linkage encoded with optical incremental encoders, and is manually actuated. A custom magnetic resonance (MR) compatible alignment interface allows the user to manually align the device to its target with high accuracy in-bore in very short time. The use of manual actuation over motors greatly reduces the complexity and bulk of the system, making it much more compact and portable. This is important when dealing with such tight space constraints. Needle targeting experiments in gel phantoms have demonstrated the device's ability to deliver needles with an accuracy of 2.1 +/- 1.3 mm.

  8. Inter-device differences in monitoring for goal-directed fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Robert H; Bartels, Karsten; Gan, Tong-Joo

    2015-02-01

    Goal-directed fluid therapy is an integral component of many Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols currently in use. The perioperative clinician is faced with a myriad of devices promising to deliver relevant physiologic data to better guide fluid therapy. The goal of this review is to provide concise information to enable the clinician to make an informed decision when choosing a device to guide goal-directed fluid therapy. The focus of many devices used for advanced hemodynamic monitoring is on providing measurements of cardiac output, while other, more recent, devices include estimates of fluid responsiveness based on dynamic indices that better predict an individual's response to a fluid bolus. Currently available technologies include the pulmonary artery catheter, esophageal Doppler, arterial waveform analysis, photoplethysmography, venous oxygen saturation, as well as bioimpedance and bioreactance. The underlying mechanistic principles for each device are presented as well as their performance in clinical trials relevant for goal-directed therapy in ERAS. The ERAS protocols typically involve a multipronged regimen to facilitate early recovery after surgery. Optimizing perioperative fluid therapy is a key component of these efforts. While no technology is without limitations, the majority of the currently available literature suggests esophageal Doppler and arterial waveform analysis to be the most desirable choices to guide fluid administration. Their performance is dependent, in part, on the interpretation of dynamic changes resulting from intrathoracic pressure fluctuations encountered during mechanical ventilation. Evolving practice patterns, such as low tidal volume ventilation as well as the necessity to guide fluid therapy in spontaneously breathing patients, will require further investigation.

  9. The Effectiveness of Cervical Spondylosis Therapy with Saunders Traction Device and High-Intensity Laser Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haładaj, Robert; Pingot, Mariusz; Topol, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    Background Among all spinal therapies, treatment of the cervical segment is the most difficult. The cervical segment is particularly sensitive to injuries and pain, and it also requires special care due to its great mobility and most delicate construction. The aim of this research was to evaluate analgesic efficacy and improvement of active mobility of the cervical spine after traction therapy with the Saunders device and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) immediately after therapy, and in short-, medium-, and long-term follow-up in patients with cervical spondylosis. Material/Methods The study included 174 patients (114 women and 60 men) aged 24–67 years. The patients were divided into two randomized groups. In group I (88 subjects) traction therapy with the Saunders device was applied, and in group II (86 subjects) HILT was applied. The measurement of the range of cervical spine movement, a subjective visual scale for pain (Visual Analog Scale [VAS]), and the Neck Disability Index-Polish Version (NDI) questionnaire were used. Results The results obtained by the Saunders and HILT methods were similar immediately after the therapy and after 4 weeks (the medium-term follow-up). However, in long-term follow-up, there was a significant increase in the maintenance of positive therapeutic effects with the HILT method. Conclusions Both therapeutic methods improved the efficiency and demonstrated analgesic efficacy in patients with cervical spondylosis immediately and in the medium term after the therapy. HILT was more effective than the Saunders method in long-term follow-up. PMID:28104903

  10. Amplatzer device and vacuum-assisted closure therapy to treat a thoracic empyema with bronchopleural fistula.

    PubMed

    Passera, Eliseo; Guanella, Giovanni; Meroni, Alberto; Chiesa, Giuseppe; Rizzi, Adriano; Rocco, Gaetano

    2011-08-01

    We present a case of lower bilobectomy complicated by a large bronchopleural fistula and empyema 1 month after primary surgery. The patient was immediately treated with an open window thoracostomy. After surgical debridement, an Amplatzer Septal Occluder device (AGA Medical Corp, Plymouth, MN) was positioned to close the fistula. Thereafter, the thoracostomy rapidly and spontaneously closed with vacuum-assisted closure therapy.

  11. Validation of a Mobile Device for Acoustic Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation Tinnitus Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Christian; Wegener, Alexander; Poppe, Hendrik; Williams, Mark; Popelka, Gerald; Tass, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    Sound-based tinnitus intervention stimuli include broad-band noise signals with subjectively adjusted bandwidths used as maskers delivered by commercial devices or he