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Sample records for retail market avaliacao

  1. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  2. Investigating Competition in the Retail Petrol Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, P.

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire that college economics students can use to investigate the degree and nature of competition in the retail market for petrol is provided. A simple computer program is included to help in the analysis of the questionnaire. (Author/RM)

  3. General Marketing, Retailing and Entrepreneurship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufford, Ed; And Others

    This curriculum guide, which combines the curriculum for three marketing related clusters, is intended to serve the employment needs of students at the secondary, postsecondary, or adult level. The guide is designed to assist teachers in using competency-based curriculum guides. Information on using the guide is followed by the master listing and…

  4. Better-bred berries for the retail market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While there are many exciting new choices for berry cultivars for the Northwest commercial industry, very few of them are available in the retail nursery market. It’s an odd thing where the top-selling cultivars in the region haven’t seen the light of day in the retail nursery market. For many other...

  5. Directory of Post-Secondary Retailing and Marketing Vocational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This directory lists 357 general and 135 special retailing and marketing vocational programs at the post secondary level. Institutions vary somewhat in the identification of general programs; for example, they may be called retailing, merchandising, marketing, mid-management, or distributive education programs. Specialized programs offered by…

  6. The Retail Community as a Classroom through Market Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashinger, Phyllis; Johnson, Tommie U.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a project in which an urban university and a local retail establishment in a metropolitan area collaborated with a postsecondary institution in a market research project designed to determine the degree of professionalism practiced in sales performances in retail stores. (CT)

  7. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  8. Retail Merchandising. An Advanced Level Option for Marketing and Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Ross; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to prepare secondary school students for entry-level and career-level positions in the largest area of employment in distribution and marketing--retail merchandising. Developed for use in the twelfth grade competency cluster phase of New York State secondary marketing and distributive education program, this…

  9. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. Results: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Conclusions: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail–tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change. PMID:14645954

  10. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  11. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  12. A Services Marketing Perspective on E-Retailing: Implications for E-Retailers and Directions for Further Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolesar, Mark B.; Galbraith, R. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Applying a body of theory and empirical research in the study of customer loyalty drivers in the services sector, this paper sets out a number of marketing and Web site design implications for e-retailers. It then suggests several means by which e-retailers can manage customer perceptions to increase sales and develop greater customer loyalty.…

  13. FGD markets & business in an age of retail wheeling

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Dalton, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses (1) the market and technology outlook for flue gas desulfurization ({open_quotes}FGD{close_quotes}) systems, with particular emphasis on wet systems in North America and the implications of retail wheeling of electricity and emission allowances for the utility industry, and (2) implications for the utility industry of architect/engineering ({open_quotes}A/E{close_quotes}) firm tendencies to reduce greatly the FGD vendor`s scope of award. The paper concludes that (1) the FGD market will be modest domestically and robust offshore over the forecast period (5-10 years), although the utility industry`s response to federal and state air toxics rules and retail wheeling may eventually grow the FGD market domestically beyond that created by compliance with Phase II of the Clean Air Act`s Title IV acid rain program alone, (2) new designs are likely to follow trends established in the past few years, but will likely include advanced processes that use higher velocity and smaller space, and possibly multi-pollutant control to remain competitive, and (3) shrinking of the FGD vendor`s scope may have adverse implications for the utility end-user, while retail wheeling may increase third-party ownership of FGD technology

  14. Marketing. Retailing 102, Promotions 202, Relations in Business 202, Management 302, Marketing Practicum 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide contains guidelines for conducting five secondary-level marketing cluster courses--Retailing 102, Promotions 202, Relations in Business 202, Management 302, and Marketing Practicum 302. Covered first are goals and objectives, teachers' notes and suggested activities, lists of suggested materials, and guidelines for correlating…

  15. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade... impact of the FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices'' (``Unavailability... Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement of Basis and Purpose: The Rule, 36 FR 8777 (May...

  16. Influence of wholesale lamb marketing options and merchandising styles on retail yield and fabrication time.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, C L; Martin, A M; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1997-01-01

    Lamb carcasses (n = 94) from five packing plants, selected to vary in weight class and fat thickness, were used to determine retail yield and labor requirements of wholesale lamb fabrication. Carcasses were allotted randomly according to weight class to be fabricated as whole carcasses (n = 20), three-piece boxes (n = 22), or subprimals (n = 52). Processing times (seconds) were recorded and wholesale and retail weights (kilograms) were obtained to calculate retail yield. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in retail cuts or boneless or semi-boneless retail cuts. Retail yield for subprimal lamb legs decreased from 85.3 +/- .6% for bone-in to 68.0 +/- .7% for a completely boneless retail product. Correspondingly, processing times increased from 126.1 +/- 5.4 s to 542.0 +/- 19.2 s for bone-in and boneless legs, respectively. For all subprimals, retail yield percentage tended to decrease and total processing time increase as cuts were fabricated to boneless or semi-boneless end points compared with a bone-in end point. Percentage retail yield did not differ (P > .05) among whole carcass, three-piece box, and subprimal marketing methods. Total processing time was shorter for subprimals (P < .05) than for the other two marketing methods.

  17. Ochratoxin A in rice on the Moroccan retail market.

    PubMed

    Juan, C; Zinedine, A; Idrissi, L; Mañes, J

    2008-08-15

    One hundred (100) samples of rice purchased from retail markets in five different cities (Rabat, Témara, Salé, Casablanca and Méknès) in Morocco from January to October 2006 were surveyed for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The identification of OTA in positive rice samples was confirmed by methyl ester derivatization. Analytical results showed a frequency of contamination of 26% of total analyzed rice samples. The percentage of contamination of samples was 24, 26.6, 16.6, 27.7 and 30% in Rabat, Témara, Méknès, Salé and Casablanca respectively. Levels of OTA in positive samples ranged between 0.08 and 47 ng/g. The average contamination of all analyzed samples was 3.5 ng/g. The highest frequency of positive samples (30%) and the most contaminated sample (47 ng/g) was found in a sample from Casablanca city. 14 out of 100 total samples exceeded the maximum level of 5 ng/g set by European regulations for OTA in cereals. Based in the results presented in this study, the estimated daily intake of OTA in rice was 0.32 ng/kg bw/day for Moroccan consumers.

  18. Analysis of the Italian generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Italy is among the European countries with the lowest uptake of generic medicines. This paper provides a perspective on the Italian generic medicines retail market. Fast market entrance of generic medicines in Italy is hindered by several factors: the existence of Complementary Protection Certificates in the past, the large market for copies and multiple cases of patent linkage. Prices of generic medicines in Italy are low compared to other European countries. To contain pharmaceutical expenditure, pharmaceutical companies are currently forced to pay back in case of overspending, which disproportionally penalizes small and fast growing companies, to which most generic companies belong to. Current demand-side policies do not successfully stimulate the use of generic medicines. The current market environment surrounding the Italian generic medicines retail market (i.e., low prices, low volumes) threatens its long-term sustainability. Recommendations to enhance the long-term sustainability of the Italian generic medicines retail market round off this perspective paper.

  19. Concentration and drug prices in the retail market for malaria treatment in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim; Bloland, Peter; Mills, Anne

    2009-06-01

    The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition.The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care-seekers obtaining appropriate treatment.Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels.

  20. A Retail Center Facing Change: Using Data to Determine Marketing Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kristen L.; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Plaza del Valle is an open-air shopping center in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles. The new marketing manager must review primary and secondary data to determine a target market, a product positioning strategy, and a promotion strategy for the retail shopping center with the ultimate goal of increasing revenue for the Plaza. She is…

  1. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  2. Marketing retail health clinics: challenges and controversies arising from a health care innovation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cheryl-Ann N; Khanfar, Nile M; Harrington, Catherine; Loudon, David

    2011-01-01

    Since their founding in 2000, retail-based health care clinics, also called convenient care clinics, have flourished but continue to generate controversy. This article examines the literature with respect to the industry's background, establishment of industry standards, types of services offered, marketing of retail health clinics, industry growth with new target markets, and patient demographics. It also examines the growing relationship with insurers and third-party payers, quality-of-care concerns by medical associations, and legal regulations and their potential impact on industry growth nationwide.

  3. 76 FR 13401 - Vectren Retail, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Vectren Retail, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Vectren Retail, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. Analysis of French generic medicines retail market: why the use of generic medicines is limited.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The market share of generic medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the generic medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French generic medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy generic medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, generic medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of generic medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in generic medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of generic medicines in France round off this perspective paper.

  5. Role of slotting fees and trade promotions in shaping how tobacco is marketed in retail stores

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine how the retail environment in which tobacco is sold has changed because of the slotting fees and trade promotions paid by the tobacco companies. Public policy options for dealing with this environment are also evaluated.
DATA SOURCES—A literature review, telephone interviews, and observation.
RESULTS—The tobacco companies have been dramatically increasing the volume of slotting fees and trade promotions they pay to retailers, creating a more tobacco friendly retail environment containing self service displays and ample point-of-sale advertising. Critics express concern that these payments have kept prices lower and more varied than they might be otherwise, created more opportunities for pilferage and underage selling, and provided more youth exposure to tobacco promotions. Public policy makers could either ban these payments, institute policies designed to mitigate their harmful effects, or leave the situation as it is, relying on enforcement of existing statutes as well as market forces to reduce harm. Actions that might mitigate harmful effects would include putting minimum retail prices on tobacco products, banning self service displays, requiring retailers to be licensed, and adding more warning signs at the point of sale.
CONCLUSION—Additional research is needed before determining the most appropriate public policy stance.


Keywords: promotion; slotting; retailing; merchandising PMID:11740025

  6. Retailing I: A Foundation for Marketing and Distributive Education Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kathryn Scruggs

    Designed to serve as a foundation for competency-based marketing and distributive education curriculum development, this package consists of task lists, performance objectives, and performance guides for use in planning an introductory level retailing course. Job descriptions are given for receiving clerks, stock clerks, and salespersons/sales…

  7. Marketing and Retailing. A Curriculum Guide for a Two-Year Postsecondary Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, R. Jean; Proffitt, Sally

    This manual was developed to provide a comprehensive curriculum guideline for postsecondary marketing and retailing programs. It contains competence-based materials and integrates the Interstate Distributive Education Curriculum Consortium (IDECC) Learning Activity Packages into the curriculum. The first of seven chapters in this manual presents…

  8. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced.

  9. Microbiological quality of some spices and herbs in retail markets.

    PubMed

    Schwab, A H; Harpestad, A D; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Duran, A P; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-09-01

    The microbiological quality of 10 spices or herbs was determined by a national survey at the retail level. Aerobic plate count values for the 10 products ranged from less than 100 to 3.1 X 10(8) per g; mean values of the individual spices or herbs ranged from 1,400 to 820,000 per g. Coliform counts ranged from less than 3 to 1.1 X 10(6) per g; however, mean values were less than 20 per g for all products. Escherichia coli counts ranged from less than 3 to 2,300 per g. Except for celery seed, which had a mean value of 7 per g, all mean values were less than 3 per g. Yeast and mold counts were made for 5 of the 10 products. Mean values were generally low; the highest mean (290 per g) was obtained for cinnamon.

  10. Microbiological quality of some spices and herbs in retail markets.

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, A H; Harpestad, A D; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Duran, A P; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of 10 spices or herbs was determined by a national survey at the retail level. Aerobic plate count values for the 10 products ranged from less than 100 to 3.1 X 10(8) per g; mean values of the individual spices or herbs ranged from 1,400 to 820,000 per g. Coliform counts ranged from less than 3 to 1.1 X 10(6) per g; however, mean values were less than 20 per g for all products. Escherichia coli counts ranged from less than 3 to 2,300 per g. Except for celery seed, which had a mean value of 7 per g, all mean values were less than 3 per g. Yeast and mold counts were made for 5 of the 10 products. Mean values were generally low; the highest mean (290 per g) was obtained for cinnamon. PMID:7138003

  11. 75 FR 8325 - AEP Retail Energy Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AEP Retail Energy Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AEP Retail Energy Partner, LLC's application...

  12. Marketing and Distributive Education. General Retail Merchandising Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb. Dept. of Business Education and Administration Services.

    This document is one of four curriculum guides designed to provide the curriculum coordinator with a basis for planning a comprehensive program in the field of marketing as well as to provide marketing and distributive education teachers with maximum flexibility. Introductory information provides directions for using the guide and information on…

  13. Generic penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.

    PubMed

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we explore the penetration of generic atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of generic risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, generic penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  14. The search for consumer content in energy marketing and retailing

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, V.K.

    1996-09-15

    The gas and electric industries in the United STates control about $900 billion in assets (production, logistical, merchant). They employ these assets to serve about 150 million customers (counted separately for gas and electric), but they manage to offer only two rudimentary products-molecules and electrons-and at only two levels of service: firm and interruptible. Such a poverty of consumer content stands without precedent in the history of U.S. business. That this game is coming to an end should elicit no surprise. True retail competition in the gas and electric industries will become a transforming and quotidian reality within five years, creating great shifts in revenue and capital: (1) a $50-billion drip in annual consumer energy spending; (2) from $200 to $300 billion extinguished over seven to 10 years in noncash book value in the pipes and wires and energy production industries; (3) tens of billions of dollars in new investments, particularly gas-fired merchant and distributed generation plants, and computing and communications systems; and (4) many more billions in new enterprise value for efficient and innovative firms. The old business model emphasized industrial technology and quantitative increases in consumption of energy commodities. The new model, supplanting the old, will accentuate information technology and qualitative increases in consumption of energy services.

  15. Association of Retail Tobacco Marketing With Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Wang, Yun; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    A survey of 2125 middle-school students in central California examined adolescents’ exposure to tobacco marketing in stores and its association with self-reported smoking. Two thirds of sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students reported at least weekly visits to small grocery, convenience, or liquor stores. Such visits were associated with a 50% increase in the odds of ever smoking, even after control for social influences to smoke. Youth smoking rates may benefit from efforts to reduce adolescents’ exposure to tobacco marketing in stores. PMID:15569957

  16. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  17. Green marketing in the Massachusetts electric company retail competition pilot program

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, S.M.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    With electric industry restructuring initiatives being introduced on the state and federal levels, retail access pilot programs serve an important function for examining competitive market issues, as well as marketing strategies and customer reactions to different power supply options. The experience gained through these pilots provides important insights into future power market operations, including the market for green power. The Massachusetts Electric Company`s (MECo`s) Choice: New England pilot for residential and small-business customers was a voluntary program developed primarily to test the billing and metering logistics that distribution companies will need in the competitive market. The pilot also offered a preview of program implementation and marketing under customer choice. It was the first retail competition pilot to explicitly include green power options in program design. The MECo pilot`s energy suppliers were selected through the issuance of a request for proposals (RFP). Respondents were asked to submit bids in one or more of three energy supply categories-price, green, and other options. These options were developed by the pilot administrator through internal meetings, discussions with state officials and other stakeholders, and a review of information from other similar pilots. For the green option, the pilot administrator did not establish a green standard. Instead, suppliers were allowed to submit offers that promoted environmental stewardship. Customer response to the different green options are reported. The pilot results clearly demonstrate that, in a competitive situation, there is interest in a variety of energy supply options, including green options. 2 tabs.

  18. E-Cigarette Market Trends in Traditional U.S. Retail Channels, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, David; Corey, Catherine G.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: E-cigarette sales continue to increase in the United States. To date, little surveillance research has documented the specific product attributes driving growth. This study uses national market scanner data to describe sales trends in traditional U.S. tobacco retail channels between 2012 and 2013 and identifies product features associated with sales increases. Methods: Data on e-cigarette sales in convenience stores, drug stores, grocery stores, and mass merchandisers in the United States were obtained from the Nielsen Company. Each product was coded for attributes such as brand, flavor, and unit size. Total sales volume, market share, and percent growth were calculated for various product attributes. Results: E-cigarette sales more than doubled between 2012 and 2013, from $273.6 million to $636.2 million, respectively. Growth was particularly strong in the convenience store channel. Blu eCigs quickly emerged as the best-selling brand and in 2013 constituted nearly half (44.1%) of overall sales. Although fruit-flavored and other flavored products experienced marked growth, unflavored and menthol e-cigarettes overwhelmingly dominated the market. Sales of single unit products (likely disposable e-cigarettes) increased by 216.4%, a much faster rate than multi-unit packs and cartridge refills. Conclusions: In traditional U.S. retail channels, particularly the convenience store channel, sales of e-cigarettes continue to grow, with brands like blu and disposable products as the likely drivers. Given the rapidly-changing market, expanded surveillance is needed to monitor sales not only in traditional retail locations, but sales online and in specialty “vape shops,” as well. PMID:25542918

  19. Phenotypic characteristics and genotypic correlation between Salmonella isolates from a slaughterhouse and retail markets in Yangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yinqiang; Tao, Jing; Jiao, Yang; Fei, Xiao; Zhou, Le; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Huijuan; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-04-02

    An epidemiological investigation of Salmonella spp. in pig and pork samples from one slaughterhouse and its downstream retail markets in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, was conducted from October 2013 to March 2014. A total of 71.8% (155/216) and 70.9% (78/110), respectively, of the slaughterhouse and retail market samples were recovered positive for Salmonella. All Salmonella isolates were characterized using serotyping, antimicrobial resistance detection, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven serotypes were shared by isolates from the two sources, with the most common serotypes being Salmonella Derby, Typhimurium, and Uganda. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing revealed that the highest antimicrobial resistance rate was against tetracycline (49.7% and 37.2% in isolates from the slaughterhouse and retail market, respectively) with many multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates in both sources. MLST analysis showed that eight sequence type (ST) patterns were shared, and ST40 occupied an absolute superiority among isolates from both sources. PFGE permitted the resolution of XbaI macrorestriction fragments of the selected 31 Salmonella Derby and 19 Salmonella Typhimurium into 30 and 10 distinct pulsotypes, displaying the high similarity between the isolates from the two sources. Our findings indicated that Salmonella isolates from a slaughterhouse and its downstream retail markets were phenotypically and genetically homologous. Additionally, Salmonella may propagate along the slaughter line and pork production chain from the slaughterhouse to retail markets.

  20. Restrictions on the reimbursement policy with regard to retail marketing of medicinal products in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, the law of 12 May 2011 on the reimbursement of medicines, food products of special nutritional purpose and medicinal products, intended to tighten up the reimbursement system, came into force in Poland. The new legislative act has significantly altered the previous principles of retail marketing of products subject to publicly financed reimbursement. First of all, the prices of reimbursed products have been unified through the introduction of fixed margins and prices and a ban--completely unknown until now--on using free market sales practices. These regulations are intended to lead to the abolition of price competition and its replacement with competition as to the quality of services provided by pharmacies. At the same time, entities engaged in retail marketing of medicinal products have been imposed a number of new obligations and highly repressive penalties for failure to fulfill them. The paper analyzes the legislative changes and points out the consequences, both those which can already be seen and the predictable ones. The assumed priority and criterion of evaluation of the reimbursement policy in question is its impact on the functioning of pharmacies which, according to the premises of Polish pharmaceutical law, should play the role of public health protection institutions.

  1. The New Hampshire retail competition pilot program and the role of green marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.A.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    Most states in the US are involved in electric industry restructuring, from considering the pros and cons in regulatory dockets to implementing legislative mandates for full restructuring and retail access for all consumers. Several states and utilities have initiated pilot programs in which multiple suppliers or service providers may compete for business and some utility customers can choose among competing suppliers. The State of New Hampshire has been experimenting with a pilot program, mandated by the State Legislature in 1995 and implemented by the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (NHPUC), before it implements full retail access. Green marketing, an attempt to characterize the supplier or service provider as environmentally friendly without referring to the energy resource used to generate electricity, was used by several suppliers or service providers to attract customers. This appeal to environmental consumerism was moderately successful, but it raised a number of consumer protection and public policy issues. This issue brief examines the marketing methods used in New Hampshire and explores what green marketing might mean for the development of renewable energy generation. It also addresses the issues raised and their implications.

  2. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria (ExPEC) exist as commensals in the human intestines and can infect extraintestinal sites and cause septicemia. The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC in human disease have been discussed previously. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the properties of ExPEC in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market with special attention to their prevalence, virulence and phylogenetic profiles. Furthermore, the isolates were screened for possible ESBL producers and their resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Methods The presence of ExPEC in 219 marinated and non-marinated raw poultry meat products from retail shops has been analyzed. One E. coli strain per product was analyzed further for phylogenetic groups and possession of ten virulence genes associated with ExPEC bacteria (kpsMT K1, ibeA, astA, iss, irp2, papC, iucD, tsh, vat and cva/cv) using PCR methods. The E. coli strains were also screened phenotypically for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and the susceptibility of 48 potential ExPEC isolates for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Results E. coli was isolated from 207 (94.5%) of 219 poultry meat products. The most common phylogenetic groups were D (50.7%), A (37.7%), and B2 (7.7%). Based on virulence factor gene PCR, 23.2% of the strains were classified as ExPEC. Two ExPEC strains (1%) belonged to [O1] B2 svg+ (specific for virulent subgroup) group, which has been implicated in multiple forms of ExPEC disease. None of the ExPEC strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins. One isolate (2.1%) showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Conclusions Potential ExPEC bacteria were found in 22% of marinated and non-marinated poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market and 0.9% were contaminated with E. coli [O1] B2 svg+ group. Marinades did not have an effect on

  3. Pulga (Flea Market) Contributions to the Retail Food Environment of Colonias in the South Texas Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; St. John, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food-sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruit and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants which served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruit and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food-source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment. PMID:21515116

  4. Pulga (flea market) contributions to the retail food environment of colonias in the South Texas border region.

    PubMed

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; St John, Julie

    2011-05-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores, and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruits and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants that served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruits and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment.

  5. State of competition in gasoline marketing. The effects of refiner operation at retail (a study required by Title III of the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act)

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.B.; Fenili, R.N.

    1980-05-01

    Title III of the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act requires the Secretary of Energy to report to the Congress on the extent to which producers, refiners, and other suppliers of motor fuel subsidize the sale of such fuel at retail or wholesale with profits obtained from other operations. This is Part I of the report required under that Title. It addresses a number of questions relating to the central issue - the state of competition in the gasoline marketing industry. Part II of the report, to be issued this fall, will discuss the subpoenaed documents of nine integrated companies, and will contain recommendations for action, if deemed necessary. The basic thrust of Part I is an examination of three issues: (1) Are integrated refiners subsidizing their company operated gasoline retail outlets; (2) Are integrated refiners moving gasoline away from their branded dealer network into their own retail outlets; and (3) Are integrated refiners manipulating the allocation system in favor of their own retail outlets to the detriment of other gasoline marketers. At a series of regional hearings, independent marketers charged that integrated refiners were engaging in each of these practices. In essence, integrated refiners were portrayed as using unfair or illegal competitive practices which would ultimately lead to their domination of retail gasoline markets. This report addresses each allegation, after providing a historical and theoretical framework for today's debate.

  6. Roadmap of retail electricity market reform in China: assisting in mitigating wind energy curtailment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dezhao; Qiu, Huadong; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Yuan; Shao, Changzheng; Lin, You; Ding, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Among the renewable energies, wind energy has gained the rapidest development in China. Moreover wind power generation has been penetrated into power system in a large scale. However, the high level wind curtailment also indicates a low efficiency of wind energy utilization over the last decade in China. One of the primary constraints on the utilization of wind energy is the lack of an electricity market, in which renewable energies can compete equally with traditional fossil fuel generation. Thus the new round electric power industry reform is essential in China. The reform involves implementing new pricing mechanism, introducing retail-side competition, promoting the consumption of renewable energy. The new round reform can be a promising solution for promoting the development and consumption of wind energy generation in China. Based on proposed reform policies of electric power industry, this paper suggests a roadmap for retail electricity market reform of China, which consists of three stages. Barriers to the efficient utilization of wind energy are also analysed. Finally, this paper introduces several efficient measures for mitigating wind curtailment in each stage of reform.

  7. Salmonella on Raw Poultry in Retail Markets in Guatemala: Levels, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Serovar Distribution.

    PubMed

    Jarquin, Claudia; Alvarez, Danilo; Morales, Oneida; Morales, Ana Judith; López, Beatriz; Donado, Pilar; Valencia, Maria F; Arévalo, Alejandra; Muñoz, Fredy; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella numbers on retail raw chicken carcasses in Guatemala and to phenotypically characterize the isolates (serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility). In total, 300 chicken carcasses were collected from seven departments in Guatemala. Salmonella numbers were determined using the most-probable-number method following the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service protocol. In total, 103 isolates were obtained, all of which were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, whereas 46 isolates were serotyped. Overall, Salmonella prevalence and mean number (mean log most probable number per carcass) was 34.3% and 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 2.5), respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence were found by storage condition (refrigerated or ambient temperature), market type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent poultry stores), chicken production system (integrated or nonintegrated production company), and chicken skin color (white or yellow). Chickens produced by integrated companies had lower Salmonella numbers (P < 0.05) than nonintegrated companies, and white-skin carcasses had lower numbers (P < 0.05) than yellow-skin carcasses. Among 13 different Salmonella serovars identified, Paratyphi B (34.8%) was most prevalent, followed by Heidelberg (16.3%) and Derby (11.6%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 59.2% were resistant to one to three antibiotics and 13.6% to four or more antibiotics. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B and Heidelberg were the most resistant to the antibiotics tested. Salmonella levels and antibiotic resistant profiles among isolates from raw poultry at the retail market level were high relative to other reports from North and South America. These data can be used by Guatemalan stakeholders to develop risk assessment models and support further research opportunities to control transmission of Salmonella spp. and

  8. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    PubMed

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  9. An empirical investigation of spatial differentiation and price floor regulations in retail markets for gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, Jean-Francois

    In the first essay of this dissertation, I study an empirical model of spatial competition. The main feature of my approach is to formally specify commuting paths as the "locations" of consumers in a Hotelling-type model of spatial competition. The main consequence of this location assumption is that the substitution patterns between stations depend in an intuitive way on the structure of the road network and the direction of traffic flows. The demand-side of the model is estimated by combining a model of traffic allocation with econometric techniques used to estimate models of demand for differentiated products (Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995)). The estimated parameters are then used to evaluate the importance of commuting patterns in explaining the distribution of gasoline sales, and compare the economic predictions of the model with the standard home-location model. In the second and third essays, I examine empirically the effect of a price floor regulation on the dynamic and static equilibrium outcomes of the gasoline retail industry. In particular, in the second essay I study empirically the dynamic entry and exit decisions of gasoline stations, and measure the impact of a price floor on the continuation values of staying in the industry. In the third essay, I develop and estimate a static model of quantity competition subject to a price floor regulation. Both models are estimated using a rich panel dataset on the Quebec gasoline retail market before and after the implementation of a price floor regulation.

  10. Plasticizers in Brazilian food-packaging materials acquired on the retail market.

    PubMed

    Freire, M T De A; Santana, I A; Reyes, F G R

    2006-01-01

    Packaging materials intended for direct food contact were acquired on the Brazilian retail market and analysed for their plasticizer content. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Di-2-ethyl-hexyl adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP) plasticizers were identified in films and closure seals in concentrations ranging from 12 to 19% (w/w), 15 to 44% (w/w) and 10 to 11% (w/w), respectively. Brazilian regulations state that for use with foods with a fat content above 5%, the levels of DEHP and DIDP in the plastic material should be no greater than 3%. The results obtained demonstrate a lack of conformity. It would be advisable to include information on the labels of packaging materials about their restrictions of use in order to advise manufacturers and consumers about their proper usage.

  11. Streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin residues in bovine milk from the Brazilian retail market.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata C; Paschoal, Jonas A R; Reyes, Felix G R

    2010-01-01

    Pasteurised bovine milk from retail markets in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, was analysed for the presence of streptomycin (STP) and dihydrostreptomycin (DHSTP) residues. An ELISA kit was used for screening and a LC-APCI-MS/MS QToF method for confirmatory analysis. Both methods were intra-laboratory validated and found suitable for screening and confirmatory testing, respectively, for STP and DHSTP residues in pasteurised bovine milk at concentration levels below the maximum residue limit (MRL) established for these substances (200 µg kg(-1) expressed as the sum of the concentrations of STP and DHSTP). No residues of STP and DHSTP at detectable levels were found in the analysed samples (n = 299).

  12. Assessment of coumarin levels in ground cinnamon available in the Czech retail market.

    PubMed

    Blahová, Jana; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the coumarin content of ground cinnamon purchased from retail markets in the Czech Republic. No sample was labelled with information on the botanical source, but, in some cases, the countries of origin were specified. For comparison, a single cinnamon sample imported directly from a plantation in Sri Lanka that came from Cinnamomum verum was analyzed. Results from 60 ground cinnamon samples comprising twelve brands confirmed a high content of coumarin, with mean levels ranging from 2,650 to 7,017 mg · kg(-1). The high coumarin content confirmed that these cinnamon samples obtained from cassia cinnamon were in contrast to the sample from Sri Lanka, which was coumarin-free.

  13. Tracking cross-contamination transfer dynamics at a mock retail deli market using GloGerm.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Jessica; Boyer, Renee; Gallagher, Dan; Duncan, Susan; Bauer, Nate; Kause, Janell; Eifert, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats are considered a food at high risk for causing foodborne illness. Deli meats are listed as the highest risk RTE food vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. Cross-contamination in the retail deli market may contribute to spread of pathogens to deli meats. Understanding potential cross-contamination pathways is essential for reducing the risk of contaminating various products. The objective of this study was to track cross-contamination pathways through a mock retail deli market using an abiotic surrogate, GloGerm, to visually represent how pathogens may spread through the deli environment via direct contact with food surfaces. Six contamination origination sites (slicer blade, meat chub, floor drain, preparation table, employee's glove, and employee's hands) were evaluated separately. Each site was inoculated with 20 ml of GloGerm, and a series of standard deli operations were completed (approximately 10 min of work). Photographs were then taken under UV illumination to visualize spread of GloGerm throughout the deli. A sensory panel evaluated the levels of contamination on the resulting contaminated surfaces. Five of the six contamination origination sites were associated with transfer of GloGerm to the deli case door handle, slicer blade, meat chub, preparation table, and the employee's gloves. Additional locations became contaminated (i.e., deli case shelf, prep table sink, and glove box), but this contamination was not consistent across all trials. Contamination did not spread from the floor drain to any food contact surfaces. The findings of this study reinforce the need for consistent equipment cleaning and food safety practices among deli workers to minimize cross-contamination.

  14. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Brusa, Victoria; Aliverti, Virginia; Aliverti, Florencia; Ortega, Emanuel E; de la Torre, Julian H; Linares, Luciano H; Sanz, Marcelo E; Etcheverría, Analía I; Padola, Nora L; Galli, Lucía; Peral García, Pilar; Copes, Julio; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine, and manipulator hands (n = 450) obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin), rfb(O157)] (O157 lipopolysaccharide), fliC(H7) (H7 flagellin), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin) and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin), were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5%) beef samples and 16 (4.4%) environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2%) and 182 (50.5%), respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx(2)/eae/ehxA/fliC(H7) (83.4%), and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx(1)/stx(2)/saa/ehxA (29.7%); stx(2) (29.7%); and stx(2)/saa/ehxA (27%). None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19, and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected.

  15. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Brusa, Victoria; Aliverti, Virginia; Aliverti, Florencia; Ortega, Emanuel E.; de la Torre, Julian H.; Linares, Luciano H.; Sanz, Marcelo E.; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Padola, Nora L.; Galli, Lucía; Peral García, Pilar; Copes, Julio; Leotta, Gerardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine, and manipulator hands (n = 450) obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin), rfbO157] (O157 lipopolysaccharide), fliCH7 (H7 flagellin), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin) and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin), were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5%) beef samples and 16 (4.4%) environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2%) and 182 (50.5%), respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx2/eae/ehxA/fliCH7 (83.4%), and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA (29.7%); stx2 (29.7%); and stx2/saa/ehxA (27%). None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19, and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected. PMID:23346554

  16. Survey of the histamine content in fish samples randomly selected from the Greek retail market.

    PubMed

    Vosikis, V; Papageorgopoulou, A; Economou, V; Frillingos, S; Papadopoulou, C

    2008-01-01

    The histamine content of fish sold in the Greek retail market was surveyed and the performance of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) methods for the determination of histamine were compared. A total of 125 samples of fresh and canned tuna, fresh and canned sardines, deep frozen swordfish, smoked and deep frozen mackerel, anchovies, salted and smoked herring were analysed by HPLC (55 samples), ELISA (106 samples) and both methods (36 samples). Histamine levels as determined by HPLC, ranged from 2.7 mg kg(-1) to 220 mg kg(-1). The highest histamine concentrations obtained by HPLC were found in herring and anchovy samples. Eight out of the 55 samples (14.5%) analysed by HPLC, exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) limit (50 mg kg(-1)), while 16 out of the 106 samples (15%) analysed by ELISA exceeded the limit. The results show that for histamine concentrations below 50 mg kg(-1), there is good agreement between the ELISA and HPLC but above 50 mg kg(-1) big differences were found.

  17. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  18. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales.

  19. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  1. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'.

  2. Promoting Problem-Based Learning in Retailing and Services Marketing Course Curricula with Reality Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Mark S.; Otalora, Mauricio Losada; Ramírez, Germán Contreras

    2015-01-01

    This research provides business educators who teach retailing and services courses with an innovative way to encourage students to engage in problem-based learning solving by incorporating reality television into their curricula. The authors explore the reality television genre from several theoretical perspectives to lend support to the…

  3. Cholesterol and vitamin D content of eggs in the U.S. retail market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nationwide sampling in the U.S. of whole large eggs, to update values in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) (http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata), was conducted in 2000-2001 and again in 2010. Retail cartons of large eggs were obtained from 12 supermarket locations usi...

  4. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  5. [Strategy for the introduction of medications employed in delivering medical care to patients with sexually transmitted infections into the retail market].

    PubMed

    Martynenko, A V

    2002-01-01

    Tha article is devoted to the development of strategy for entering the retail market of those medications intended for medical care delivery to patients with infections caught by sexual intercourse or genital contact. The use of the proposed strategy permits the optimization of the structure of necessary expenditures on material resources and enables one to successfully compete in the market of medications winning one's share in the market from competitors.

  6. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  7. Microbiological quality of frozen shrimp and lobster tail in the retail market.

    PubMed Central

    Swartzentruber, A; Schwab, A H; Duran, A P; Wentz, B A; Read, R B

    1980-01-01

    The microbiological quality of three frozen shrimp products and frozen lobster tail at the retail level was determined. The number of retail units of the four products examined and the geometric means for aerobic plate counts at 30 and 35 degrees C, respectively, were: 1,464 units of cooked, peeled shrimp--13,000 and 7,200 per g; 1,468 units of raw, peeled shrimp--860,000 and 300,000 per g; 1,300 units of raw, in-shell shrimp--800,000 and 300,000 per g; 1,315 units of lobster tail--140,000 and 42,000 per g. Geometric means for coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus counts for all products were < 10 per g. PMID:6999997

  8. Three strikes and you`re out! An exploration of the 22 immutable laws of marketing and their implications for retail competition

    SciTech Connect

    Henneberger, T.

    1994-11-01

    The article highlights a speech on how utilities can avoid costly marketing mistakes by following the `22 Immutable Laws of Marketing` postulated by Al Ries and Jack Trout. U.S. utilities currently offer a variety of products and services that all look alike. Utilities must distinguish themselves with consumers as retail competition enters the electric power industry. The laws apply to markets with leadership, category, and resources categories; they also apply to customers with mind, perception, and focus categories. These laws do not always follow traditional marketing principles, but represent a common sense approach to successfully introduce new products and services in highly competitive markets.

  9. Retail marijuana purchases in designer and commercial markets in New York City: sales units, weights, and prices per gram.

    PubMed

    Sifaneck, Stephen J; Ream, Geoffrey L; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-09-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several varities of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for marijuana sales include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from 5 dollars to 50 dollars and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (average 8.20 dollars/g) and designer (average 18.02 dollars/g) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of 10 dollar bags, 50 dollar cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of 5 dollar and 20 dollar bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research.

  10. Retail Marijuana Purchases in Designer and Commercial Markets in New York City: Sales Units, Weights, and Prices per Gram

    PubMed Central

    Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Ream, Geoffrey L.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several strains of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially-bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for selling include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from $5 to $50 and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (avg. $8.20/gram) and designer (avg. $18.02/gram) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of $10 bags, $50 cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of $5 and $20 bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research. PMID:17055670

  11. Prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw and ready-to-eat foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) strains isolated from select raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were determined during 2011. LM was isolated from 26 (14.4%) of 180 food samples. Raw chicken breast showed the highest ...

  12. Prevalence and concentration of Listeria monocytogenes in sliced ready-to-eat meat products in the Hellenic retail market.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the prevalence and concentration of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged precut (slices or cubes) ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products available in the Hellenic retail market. Samples of these RTE meat products (n = 209) were taken from local supermarkets during a 3-month period and analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes with an automated enzymatic qualitative immunoassay followed by biochemical confirmation of positive results. The concentration of the pathogen in the positive samples was also determined. Seventeen samples (8.1%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. Eight (47.1%) of these 17 samples were from the same manufacturer; 36.4% of the products tested from this manufacturer were positive for L. monocytogenes. When bacon samples were not considered, the estimated prevalence of L. monocytogenes in sliced RTE meat products was much lower (3.1%). The L. monocytogenes populations in all positive samples were low, < or = 10 CFU/g. In 64.7% of the L. monocytogenes-positive samples, other Listeria species, including L. innocua and L. welshimeri, were also present at <10 to 690 CFU/g. These results indicate that L. monocytogenes is present in low numbers but is in a considerable proportion of the packaged precut RTE meat products that are sold in the Hellenic retail market. Cooked ham and bacon cut in cubes were the sample types most often contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The higher level of handling (e.g., cutting) associated with these products may further increase the risk of contamination with L. monocytogenes.

  13. Delivering Medical Abortion at Scale: A Study of the Retail Market for Medical Abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Acharya, Rajib; Filippi, Veronique; Ronsmans, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol) has the potential to contribute to reduced maternal mortality but little is known about the provision or quality of advice for medical abortion through the private retail sector. We examined the availability of medical abortion and the practices of pharmacists in India, where abortion has been legal since 1972. Methods We interviewed 591 pharmacists in 60 local markets in city, town and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh. One month later, we returned to 359 pharmacists with undercover patients who presented themselves unannounced as genuine customers seeking a medical abortion. Results Medical abortion was offered to undercover patients by 256 (71.3%) pharmacists and 24 different brands were identified. Two thirds (68.5%) of pharmacists stated that abortion was illegal in India. Only 106 (38.5%) pharmacists asked clients the timing of the last menstrual period and 38 (13.8%) requested to see a doctor’s prescription – a legal requirement in India. Only 59 (21.5%) pharmacists correctly advised patients on the gestational limit for medical abortion, 97 (35.3%) provided correct information on how many and when to take the tablets in a combination pack, and 78 (28.4%) gave accurate advice on where to seek care in case of complications. Advice on post-abortion family planning was almost nonexistent. Conclusions The retail market for medical abortion is extensive, but the quality of advice given to patients is poor. Although the contribution of medical abortion to women’s health in India is poorly understood, there is an urgent need to improve the practices of pharmacists selling medical abortion. PMID:25822656

  14. Comparison of the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties from internet and local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Pao, S; Ettinger, M R

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluated the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties sold at local (Virginia) and Internet (U.S.) retail markets. A total of 152 ground beef products, consisting of locally purchased raw ground beef (LRG) and frozen beef patties (LFP) and Internet-procured frozen ground beef (IFG) and frozen beef patties (IFP), were tested. Results showed that LFP had significantly lower levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms than LRG, IFG, and IFP. Furthermore, IFG had greater numbers of Escherichia coli than LRG and LFP. No sample was contaminated with E. coli 0157: H7, but one duplicate set of summer LFP samples contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 25 and 29% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. About 5.0, 11.1, 10.5, and 7.9% of LRG, LFP, IFG, and IFP samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes. This study identified differences in microbial quality between local and Internet products. Careful handling and thorough cooking of ground beef products, regardless of market source, are recommended to prevent foodborne illness.

  15. The interim regulated legal market for NPS ('legal high') products in New Zealand: The impact of new retail restrictions and product licensing.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand has recently established the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive products (NPS) (i.e. 'legal highs'). While the new regime is currently in a transitional phase, a range of retail restrictions and an interim licensing regime for NPS products and operators has been introduced. A product safety assessment framework has been developed to determine if a product should receive an interim licence. As a result of the licensing requirements, the number of NPS retail outlets fell from 3000- 4000 largely convenience stores to 156 specialty stores, and the number of legally available NPS products fell from 200 to fewer than 46. Some of the licensed products contain potent cannabinoid compounds. The licensing system provided, for the first time, information on all the products and operators involved in the sector, and this will assist future monitoring. The effectiveness of the new product safety assessment framework will depend on the quality of the data available on adverse cases. This is a challenge as self-reported information from users is often unreliable, and some emergency department cases do not have all the information required to make an accurate assessment. These data limitations indicate the need for retrospective studies of NPS adverse cases and additional test data. While the new legislation initially reduced the number of NPS retailers by prohibiting convenience outlets, new specialized NPS retail outlets may emerge as the new sector expands. Empirical research is required to measure the impact of the reduction in retail outlets and products on NPS availability.

  16. Determining Performance Levels of Competencies for Job Entry. Final Report. Marketing and Retail Sales Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillmer, Warren; And Others

    To provide input for curriculum evaluation, a study to identify basic competencies required for entry-level positions in the marketing/merchandising field was conducted in Wisconsin vocational education districts. Marketing and merchandising graduates and their employers were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to determine the degree of performance…

  17. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-07-28

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers' tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people.

  18. Microbiota of regular sodium and sodium-reduced ready-to-eat meat products obtained from the retail market.

    PubMed

    Miller, Petr; Liu, Xiaoji; McMullen, Lynn M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sodium content on the microbiota on the surface of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products purchased from the retail market in Canada. Products, including sliced and sausage-type deli meats, were analysed with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacteria were identified from 23 brands of products from different meat processors with claims of sodium content ranging from 390 to 1200 mg per 100 g of product. Out of 150 bacterial isolates, the most common were identified as Leuconostoc gelidum, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. Vacuum-packaged RTE deli sliced meat products had the largest population of bacteria. Leuconostocci were the most common isolates in this group of products, while carnobacteria were prevalent on products with moderate loads of bacteria. A higher incidence of carnobacteria and lower incidence of B. thermosphacta were detected on sodium-reduced products. Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indices showed that low sodium products (25%-50% less sodium) had an overall higher bacterial diversity. This was also observed when individual low sodium products were compared with their regular sodium counterpart.

  19. Analysis of eight organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh vegetables retailed in agricultural product markets of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Liang, Yongchao; Jiang, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A method to effectively remove pigments in fresh vegetables using activated carbon followed cleanup through solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to further reduce matrix interference and contamination, was established to determine eight organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) in this study, and it has been successfully applied for the determination of eight OPPs in various fresh vegetables with the recoveries ranging from 61.8% to 107%. To evaluate eight OPPs residue level, some fresh vegetables retailed at three agricultural product markets (APM) of Nanjing in China were detected, the results showed that phorate in Shanghai green (0.0257 microg g(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (0.0398 microg g(-1)), dimethoate in Shanghai green (0.0466-0.0810 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.077 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.118-0.124 microg g(-1)), methyl-parathion in Shanghai green (0.0903 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.157 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.0924 microg g(-1)), malathion in Shanghai green (0.0342-0.0526 microg g(-1)), chorpyrifos in spinach (0.106-0.204 microg g(-1)), and Chinese cabbage (0.149 microg g(-1)), chlorfenvinfos in carrot (0.094-0.131 microg g(-1)), were found. However, fonofos and fenthion were not detected in all the collected vegetable samples.

  20. Enron`s end run: Marriage of convenience eyes retail market

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.S.; Parish, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    Enron`s proposed entry into the electric energy business is a {open_quotes}wake-up call.{close_quotes} Open competition will continue to accelerate, and new, aggressive players will seek ways to become involved as the energy and energy services businesses converge. A combined Enron/Portland General Corp. (PGC) would join PacifiCorp, Pacific Gas & Electric Co., and Puget/Washington Energy as a substantial company operating in the Pacific Northwest, with clear ambitions to operate nationally. Enron/PGC might be able to drive prices down by exploiting differentials between electricity and gas prices, and could also challenge current players in the wholesale electric power markets in the Pacific Northwest. Those companies may find themselves under pressure to get into or expand their presence in the gas business.

  1. Effects of different contractual arrangements: the case of retail gasoline markets

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, J.M.; Umbeck, J.R.

    1984-10-01

    The change in the contractual arrangement at a gasoline station from a refiner-controlled to a franchise operation implies different incentives for the individual who sets prices and determines hours, but reflects no change in the product nor the market environment. The outcome can lead to higher prices and reduced hours at the station affected. The divorcement experience in Maryland illustrates how change can be imposed by the legal system. Average self-service and full-serve prices rose, and hours of operation fell relative to those of competitors even though refiner operations that were forced to franchise had previously had prices below the competition. The evidence of an effect on the prices and hours of competitors is less convincing. 16 references, 2 tables.

  2. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets.

  3. Learning Based Bidding Strategy for HVAC Systems in Double Auction Retail Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yannan; Somani, Abhishek; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a bidding strategy is proposed using reinforcement learning for HVAC systems in a double auction market. The bidding strategy does not require a specific model-based representation of behavior, i.e., a functional form to translate indoor house temperatures into bid prices. The results from reinforcement learning based approach are compared with the HVAC bidding approach used in the AEP gridSMART® smart grid demonstration project and it is shown that the model-free (learning based) approach tracks well the results from the model-based behavior. Successful use of model-free approaches to represent device-level economic behavior may help develop similar approaches to represent behavior of more complex devices or groups of diverse devices, such as in a building. Distributed control requires an understanding of decision making processes of intelligent agents so that appropriate mechanisms may be developed to control and coordinate their responses, and model-free approaches to represent behavior will be extremely useful in that quest.

  4. Causes for Retail Industry Globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha, M.

    2012-12-01

    The heading of this article itself pushing me to think why retail industry is globalizing! Because to increase their presence worldwide and profit on the onside and for the sake of ìname and fameî in industry is other side, but todayís trend and compitetitation force industrial giants to forget the word ìname and fameî globalization is the only strategy to compensate their market share or profit from one country to another country or domestic market. The presence of retail industry in the global level from centuries, but the global recognaization of retail industry came to limelight only two decades ago. As soon as restrictions are removed in this sector, all the retail industry big giants spread across the world to extend their operations especially in emerging markets. Is this a good sign for retailers? Off course it is good sign for some countries and some countries are stick to their own perceptions. Some of the countries welcome this move because the FDI will improve their economic structure. On the other side employment opportunity is also one of the issues in globalization of retail sector. Because retail industry needs huge workforce, so significance of retail has been undoubted.

  5. Detection of shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at local retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Rowaida K S; Gomaa, Mohamed A E; Khalil, Mahmoud I M

    2015-03-16

    Leafy green vegetables, a popular and an indispensable ingredient of the daily menus of Egyptians' diets, currently presents a great concern in terms of microbiological hazards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that provides scientific evidence for prevalence of shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at open air local retail markets and superstores in the Egyptian environment. A total of 486 conventional and organic leafy green samples that are eaten raw were collected from different areas in Alexandria, evaluated for total E. coli counts (ECCs), and screened for E. coli O157:H7 using conventional and molecular methods. Recovery of E. coli (≥10(2)CFU/g) from all studied types of leafy greens was indicative of fecal contamination. Total ECCs in conventional samples ranged from 5.47 to 2.56 log CFU/g. Based on their inability to ferment sorbitol on CT-SMAC media, 26 presumptive E. coli O157 isolates were detected in 71.4% (270/378) of the studied conventional samples. From all studied organic samples, only 2 types (organic cabbage and parsley, 16.7%) were contaminated with presumptive E. coli O157. All 28 isolates were further serotyped as E. coli O157 by latex agglutination test, and biochemically confirmed as E. coli. Multiplex PCR assays confirmed the ability of 21.4% (6/28) of the E. coli O157 strains to produce shiga-toxins (Stxs), and their virulence markers were as follows: stx1, 66.6% (4/6); stx2, 50% (3/6); stx1/stx2, 16.7% (1/6); eaeA, 83.3% (5/6); and hlyA, 16.7% (1/6). Only 2 strains recovered from conventional and organic parsley could possibly be classified as E. coli O157:H7 based on the presence of stx-genes (either stx1 or stx2 or both). Results of the present research highlight that high E. coli loads, together with recovery of STEC O157 isolates could pose serious health risks to the produce consumers. This emphasizes the urgent need for health authorities to value and utilize the existing knowledge to

  6. Exploration of Retailing Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Barbara J.

    Designed as a semester unit of instruction at the middle or junior high school level in the exploration of retailing careers, this distributive education curriculum guide is divided into two sections: The Teacher's Guide and Student Materials. One of the elective courses intended as a followup to "Orientation to Marketing Careers," it provides the…

  7. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Mills, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer

  8. Prevalence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from small Mexican retail markets of queso fresco.

    PubMed

    Soto Beltran, Marcela; Gerba, Charles P; Porto Fett, Anna; Luchansky, John B; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2015-01-01

    Queso fresco (QF) is a handmade cheese consumed and produced in Latin America. In Mexico, QF production is associated with a microbiological risk. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in QF from retail markets of the north-western State of Sinaloa, Mexico, and to assess the effect of physicochemical parameters on Listeria presence. A total of 75 QF samples were obtained. L. monocytogenes, E. coli, and coliforms were detected in 9.3, 94, and 100%, respectively. Salmonella was not detected. STEC isolates showed virulence genes. Microbial loads were above the maximum values recommended by the Official Mexican Standards. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity (aw), moisture content, pH, and salinity played a role in Listeria prevalence in QF. Rigorous control in QF made in Culiacan, Mexico is needed to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens.

  9. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    PubMed Central

    Huque, Roksana; Munshi, M. Kamruzzaman; Khatun, Afifa; Islam, Mahfuza; Hossain, Afzal; Hossain, Arzina; Akter, Shirin; Kabir, Jamiul; Nahar Jolly, Yeasmin; Islam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling) on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them. PMID:26904650

  10. Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Potentials of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Raw Meats of Slaughterhouses and Retail Markets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Yoon, Jang Won; Heo, Eun-Jeong; Ko, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Young-Jo; Yoon, Hyang-Jin; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Yong Ho; Moon, Jin San

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was investigated among raw meat or meat products from slaughterhouses and retail markets in South Korea, and their potential for antibiotic resistance and virulence was further analyzed. A total of 912 raw meats, including beef, pork, and chicken, were collected from 2008 to 2009. E. coli strains were frequently isolated in chicken meats (176/233, 75.9%), beef (102/217, 42.3%), and pork (109/235, 39.2%). Putative STEC isolates were further categorized, based on the presence or absence of the Shiga toxin (stx) genes, followed by standard O-serotyping. Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect the previously defined virulence genes in STEC, including Shiga toxins 1 and Shiga toxin 2 (stx1 and 2), enterohemolysin (ehxA), intimin (eaeA), STEC autoagglutination adhesion (saa), and subtilase cytotoxin (subAB). All carried both stx1 and eae genes, but none of them had the stx2, saa, or subAB genes. Six (50.0%) STEC isolates possessed the ehxA gene, which is known to be encoded by the 60-megadalton virulence plasmid. Our antibiogram profiling demonstrated that some STEC strains, particularly pork and chicken isolates, displayed a multiple drug-resistance phenotype. RPLA analysis revealed that all the stx1-positive STEC isolates produced Stx1 only at the undetectable level. Altogether, these results imply that the locus of enterocyte and effacement (LEE)-positive strains STEC are predominant among raw meats or meat products from slaughterhouses or retail markets in Korea.

  11. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  12. Microbiological quality of fish grown in wastewater-fed and non-wastewater-fed fishponds in Hanoi, Vietnam: influence of hygiene practices in local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Lan, Nguyen Thi Phong; Dalsgaard, Anders; Cam, Phung Dac; Mara, Duncan

    2007-06-01

    Mean water quality in two wastewater-fed ponds and one non-wastewater-fed pond in Hanoi, Vietnam was approximately 10(6) and approximately 10(4) presumptive thermotolerant coliforms (pThC) per 100 ml, respectively. Fish (common carp, silver carp and Nile tilapia) grown in these ponds were sampled at harvest and in local retail markets. Bacteriological examination of the fish sampled at harvest from both types of pond showed that they were of very good quality (2 - 3 pThC g(-1) fresh muscle weight), despite the skin and gut contents being very contaminated (10(2) - 10(3) pThC g(-1) fresh weight and 10(4) - 10(6) pThC g(-1) fresh weight, respectively). These results indicate that the WHO guideline quality of < or = 1000 faecal coliforms per 100 ml of pond water in wastewater-fed aquaculture is quite restrictive and represents a safety factor of approximately 3 orders of magnitude. However, when the fish from both types of pond were sampled at the point of retail sale, quality deteriorated to 10(2) - 10(5) pThC g(-1) of chopped fresh fish (mainly flesh and skin contaminated with gut contents); this was due to the practice of the local fishmongers in descaling and chopping up the fish from both types of pond with the same knife and on the same chopping block. Fishmonger education is required to improve their hygienic practices; this should be followed by regular hygiene inspections.

  13. Comparison of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Incomplete Analytic Hierarchy Process for identifying customer preferences in the Texas retail energy provider market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Christopher

    The competitive market for retail energy providers in Texas has been in existence for 10 years. When the market opened in 2002, 5 energy providers existed, offering, on average, 20 residential product plans in total. As of January 2012, there are now 115 energy providers in Texas offering over 300 residential product plans for customers. With the increase in providers and product plans, customers can be bombarded with information and suffer from the "too much choice" effect. The goal of this praxis is to aid customers in the decision making process of identifying an energy provider and product plan. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a hierarchical decomposition decision making tool, and the Incomplete Analytic Hierarchy Process (IAHP), a modified version of AHP, customers can prioritize criteria such as price, rate type, customer service, and green energy products to identify the provider and plan that best meets their needs. To gather customer data, a survey tool has been developed for customers to complete the pairwise comparison process. Results are compared for the Incomplete AHP and AHP method to determine if the Incomplete AHP method is just as accurate, but more efficient, than the traditional AHP method.

  14. Creating a GIS application for retail centers in Jeddah city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, AbdulKader A.

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the role of geographical information systems (GIS) in supporting retail planners in monitoring and analyzing retail development and growth. At first, a review about retail planning and its relevant issues is made. Second, GIS is defined together with its applications in retail planning. The third part discusses the created GIS application that is designed for two retail centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. This application is created to help planners in defining the distribution of retail demand, describing customers profile, analyzing trade areas and modeling retail flows. Two useful models have been produced by this study. One is called market penetration and the other is based on spatial interaction technique. The former is created to examine retail center catchment area, while the latter is used to model the interaction between demand areas and retail centers.

  15. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Marketing and Fashion Merchandising (Program CIP: 08.0705--General Retailing Operations). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for marketing I-II and fashion merchandising. Presented first are a program…

  16. Occurrence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) on carcasses and retail beef cuts in the marketing chain of beef in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Etcheverría, A I; Padola, N L; Sanz, M E; Polifroni, R; Krüger, A; Passucci, J; Rodríguez, E M; Taraborelli, A L; Ballerio, M; Parma, A E

    2010-10-01

    Argentina has the highest incidence of HUS in the world. HUS is produced by STEC O157 and non-O157. Cattle's faeces and hides are sources of STEC contamination of carcasses during slaughter. We investigated the presence of STEC in carcasses and cuts of meat in the marketing chain in an agricultural city located in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina). In this study, the detection of the stx gene was used as an indicator of carriage of meat with STEC. In carcasses, we detected 12.34% and 18.64% of STEC at the slaughter and sanitary control cabin (place where carcasses arrive from slaughters located outside the city), respectively. These percentages increased at butcheries (24.52%). The 25% of retail beef cuts were STEC-positive with significant differences among the different cuts of meat (chuck: 12.12%, rump roast: 12.12% and minced beef: 40.74%). The stx2 gene was the predominant gene detected in all samples at different levels of the commercialization meat chain.

  17. Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and other stored-product pests on cowpea in local markets in Accra: management strategies employed by retailers.

    PubMed

    Egbon, I N; Ayertey, J N

    2013-05-01

    In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as Sitophilus oryzae with an incidence rate of 12, 22 and 20% as against 50, 41 and 42% incidence rate of Callosobruchus maculatus after 30, 60 and 90 days respectively, of undisturbed storage of cowpea within the marketing systems in Accra, Ghana. Relatively low number of retailers (35.44%, N = 79) was aware of this occurrence, with 91.14% of this employing the energy-demanding and time-consuming sieving techniques as their main control strategies. This paper draws attention to the possible worsening of food insecurity already eminent in Africa for insects are no respecters of international or geo-political boundaries as they can spread to other countries, should this observation be left unchecked.

  18. Evaluation of the microbiological quality of conventional and organic leafy greens at the time of purchase from retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Rowaida; Gomaa, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This is a pioneer study in Egypt that provides some assessment of the microbiological quality of conventional and organic leafy green vegetables that constitute an essential component of the Egyptians' daily diet. A total of 380 samples of unpackaged whole conventional and 84 packaged whole organic leafy greens were collected from retail markets in Alexandria, and analyzed for total aerobic mesophilic count (AMC) and total E. coli count (ECC) using the standard spread plate method. Mean AMC values for organic samples were statistically less (p < 0.05) than those of the corresponding conventional samples. Conventional radish and organic parsley samples had the highest AMC of 7.17 and 7.68 log CFU/g respectively, while conventional green cabbage and organic basil had the lowest AMC of 3.63 and 3.23 log CFU/g respectively. The presence of E. coli in 100% of the studied leafy greens was indicative of potential fecal contamination, in view of open and unhygienic environmental and unsanitary handling conditions, as leafy green items are available for sale by street-vendors. Unsatisfactory AMC and ECC levels encountered in the studied samples, warrant future investigations to determine the potential prevalence of foodborne pathogens, and to identify sources of dominating microorganisms, which could make a contribution to the field of food safety

  19. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Leu, Yu-Rui; Aitken, Robert J.; Riediker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were “confirmed” and 293 were “likely” to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore. PMID:26213957

  20. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Leu, Yu-Rui; Aitken, Robert J; Riediker, Michael

    2015-07-24

    Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were "confirmed" and 293 were "likely" to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

  1. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  2. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  3. The Impact of Modern Retail Minimarket towards the Continuity of Traditional Retail Businesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masruroh, R.

    2017-03-01

    Today the business is growing rapidly minimarket with the development of socioeconomic conditions of society, and changes in value systems that result in changes to the pattern of life and needs of the community. In meeting the needs and desires, people tend to prefer a wide range of modern facilities expenditures. Thus increasing the number of modern minimarket store increasingly cornered the existence of traditional retail stores are stand-alone and based on social economy. This study aimed to analyze the changes in turnover and market traditional retail stores before and after the modern mini-market retail in the vicinity. To achieve these objectives, conducted survey research approach, this study uses primary and secondary data by distributing interviews and questionnaires to 40 respondents traditional retail store owners in the district of Kuningan which is selected by probability sampling. Descriptive qualitative were used to analyse this study. Based on the survey results revealed that there are significant differences between turnover and market traditional retail stores before and after the modern minimarket in the vicinity. This shows that the presence of modern retail stores provide a decrease in turnover and customers impact for traditional retail stores. But the research also shows that traditional retail stores that improve the quality of services and facilities are not affected by the presence of modern retail stores in the vicinity.

  4. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  5. Banning Tobacco Sales at the Retail Pharmacy: Natural Evolution of Drug Store As Responsible Health Provider Or Effective Marketing Strategy?

    PubMed

    Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes.

  6. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Käferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  7. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  8. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  9. Retail Choice Experiments: Comparing Early-AdopterExperience

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, William

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the experience with retail choice of non-residential electricity customers during the period from early 1998 through the first few months of 2000. Key findings include: (1) customers in California received a significantly smaller discount from utility tariffs than customers in other competitive markets; (2) this sample of large commercial/industrial customers believed they were benefiting significantly more from commodity savings from contracts with retail electricity service providers (RESP) than from value-added services; and,(3) market rules appear to be critical to customer experiences with retail competition, yet the relationship between market rules and market development is inadequately understood.

  10. The effects of retail concentration on retail dairy product prices in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, V; Bozic, M

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between grocery retail concentration and retail dairy product prices in the United States. The analysis was performed based on a unique data set on store-level retail prices provided by the Information Resources Inc. Further, alternative measures of retail concentration were considered, which included revenue and store selling space-based Herfindahl-Hirschman Index that were computed based on a Nielsen TDLinx data set on store characteristics. Results from a reduced-form empirical framework estimated via panel data techniques indicated that grocery retail concentration had a positive statistically significant effect on retail dairy product prices in the analyzed locations during the analyzed period of time. Specifically, a 10% increase in concentration was found to lead to a 0.46% rise in retail dairy product prices. This central result was robust to the way in which retail concentration was measured and was consistent with broader empirical evidence in the literature on retail market power.

  11. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  12. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-03-10

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living.

  13. Weaving New Retail and Consumer Landscapes in the Scottish Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Anne; Sparks, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    New retail locations and formats and changing consumer capabilities and behaviours (including "switching") have encouraged "outshopping" from rural to urban areas. Rural areas have been suffering from a decline in the provision of services, including retailing. One "solution" has been the strengthening of market towns…

  14. 77 FR 42016 - Product Change-Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Change--Every Door Direct Mail--Retail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal... Door Direct Mail--Retail to the market-dominant product list within the Mail Classification Schedule... Direct Mail--Retail to the Mail Classification Schedule, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642. Documents...

  15. Real-time and conventional PCR detection of Liberty Link rice varieties and transgenic soy in rice sampled in the Mexican and American retail markets.

    PubMed

    Quirasco, Maricarmen; Schoel, Bernd; Chhalliyil, Pradheep; Fagan, John; Gálvez, Amanda

    2008-10-01

    Samples of rice from Mexican and USA retail stores were analyzed for the presence of transgenic (GM) events using real-time PCR. In screening for the CaMV35S promoter sequence (35SP), positive results were found in 49 and 35% of the Mexican and American samples, respectively. In further investigations in Mexican samples, 43% were positive for P35S::bar, with two above the quantifiable limit; these were 0.07% and 0.05% GMO. Fourteen out of the sixteen positive samples were labeled as imported from the USA. In testing samples bought in American retail shops, 24% showed positive results, all below the quantifiable range. It could be deduced that P35S::bar positive samples were Liberty Link(R) (LL) rice. In distinguishing between LL601 and LL62, end-point PCR was used, corroborating the P35S::bar amplicon length difference of these events. LL62 was found in one rice sample purchased in Mexico and two in the USA samples. Its presence was verified with the 35S terminator sequence. All other LL positive samples contained LL601. None of the samples analyzed showed the presence of Bt63 rice. The LL rice varieties found have been identified as not being commercially cultivated, and so their presence requires further investigation. 35SP was also present in samples which did not have any LL rice. Maize sequences could not be detected in any of the samples; however, soybean DNA was found in Mexican and USA rice samples. The Roundup Ready(R) trait was detected in trace amounts in 16 and 6% of the rice samples bought in Mexico and the USA, respectively. Real-time PCR was shown to be the method of choice for the sensitive and rapid screening of commodities and retail samples for the detection of GM and other contamination.

  16. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction.

  17. Using Interactive Whiteboards in Teaching Retail Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Marla; Kirpalani, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate marketing students have sometimes been found to lack mathematical skills. It can therefore be challenging for instructors to effectively teach courses that depend on mathematical problem-solving skills. This paper discusses the use of interactive whiteboards as an innovative way to teach retail mathematics effectively. The authors…

  18. Hierarchical dispatch using two-stage optimisation for electricity markets in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Guoshan; Ma, Kai

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical dispatch method for the electricity markets consisting of wholesale markets and retail markets. In the wholesale markets, the generators and the retailers decide the generation and the purchase according to the market-clearing price. In the retail markets, the retailers set the retail price to adjust the electricity consumption of the consumers. Due to the two-way communications in smart grid, the retailers can decide the electricity purchase from the wholesale markets based on the information on electricity usage of consumers in the retail markets. We establish the hierarchical dispatch model for the wholesale markets and the retail markets and develop distributed algorithms to search for the optimal generation, purchase, and consumption. Numerical results show the balance between the supply and demand, the profits of the retailers, and the convergence of the distributed algorithms.

  19. Considering retail health clinics.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Kathy

    2009-12-01

    By gaining increasing acceptance from consumers and traditional providers, retail-based convenient care clinics have moved from the innovative fringe into the mainstream of healthcare delivery. Nationwide, resourceful administrators are experimenting with retail-based delivery systems, using the clinic's unique attributes to promote wellness, expand accessibility, reduce delivery costs, and enhance brand recognition. This article takes an in-depth look at the convenient care business model, pertinent regulatory issues, and some of the associated benefits and concerns.

  20. 78 FR 54657 - Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training... ``Tobacco Retailer Training Programs.'' The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) does not require retailers to implement retailer training programs. However, the...

  1. Ochratoxin A Concentrations in a Variety of Grain-Based and Non-Grain-Based Foods on the Canadian Retail Market from 2009 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Kolakowski, Beata; O'Rourke, Sarah M; Bietlot, Henri P; Kurz, Karl; Aweryn, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The extent of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of domestically produced foods sold across Canada was determined from 2009 to 2014 with sampling and testing occurring each fiscal year. Cereal-based, fruit-based, and soy-based food samples (n = 6,857) were analyzed. Almost half of the samples (3,200; 47%) did not contain detectable concentrations of OTA. The remaining 3,657 samples contained OTA at 0.040 to 631 ng/g. Wheat, oats, milled products of other grains (such as rye and buckwheat), and to a lesser extent corn products and their derived foods were the most significant potential sources of OTA exposure for the Canadian population. Wine, grape juice, soy products, beer, dairy-based infant formula, and licorice candy were not significant contributors to OTA consumption. Spices had the highest OTA concentrations; but because so little is ingested, these foods are not considered to be a significant source of OTA. In contrast, infant formulas and cereals can be important dietary sources of OTA. Infant cereals containing oats and infant formulas containing soy had detectable concentrations of OTA, some of which exceeded the proposed Canadian guidelines. The prevalence and concentrations of OTA in major crops (wheat, corn, and oats) varied widely across years. Because these foods were purchased at retail stores, no information was available on the OTA concentrations in the raw materials, the storage conditions before purchase of the samples, or the origin of the ingredients (may include blends of raw materials from different years and/or different geographical regions of Canada); therefore, impact of these factors could not be assessed. Overall, 2.3% of the samples exceeded the proposed Canadian OTA regulatory limits and 2.7% exceeded the current European Union (EU) OTA regulatory limits. These results are consistent with a Health Canada exposure assessment published in 2010, despite the inclusion of a wider range of products and confirm the safety of foods widely

  2. Retailing in Tennessee 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Data on retail sales compiled from sales tax records are summarized. Contained in this report are retail sales estimates for the 95 counties in the State of Tennessee and 303 cities, towns, or parts of towns which are shown in various degrees of detail depending on disclosure restrictions. Number of firms is determined by the total number of reports submitted. Sales and percent distribution of sales are shown for the State of Tennessee and counties by Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) designation and by various county groupings based on the size of largest city. A list of counties by SMSA designation and by size class of largest city is given in the Appendix. The number of firms and estimated retail sales are also shown for 10 business groups defined by the US Department of Commerce along with the total retail sales for each of the 95 counties in Tennessee and for 137 of the larger cities, towns, or parts of towns in the state. Sales for 37 smaller incorporated places or parts of towns are given. Any attempt to report retail activity in the same detail that is possible for large cities is hampered by disclosure restrictions for towns in this group. Through the use of fewer categories, the amount of information that can be revealed is maximized while maintaining confidentiality for individual businesses. A classification widely adopted by economists and planners is the use of the broad retail categories of shoppers' goods, convenience goods, and all other stores. Shoppers' goods stores include department and variety stores, apparel and accessory shops, and furniture and home furnishings outlets. Convenience goods stores are food stores, gasoline service stations, drug stores, and eating and drinking places. The remaining category of all other stores includes building materials, hardware, automotive, and miscellaneous retail stores. Total sales are given for 129 very small incorporated towns.

  3. Responding to Rapid and Unexpected Retail Innovations: Planning Retail Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Fujie

    Retail areas within cities have traditionally not only satisfied the demands for various goods and services, but also promoted community sustainability and healthy lifestyles. Since the end of World War II (WWII), retail innovations have occurred rapidly and unexpectedly. In retail development, economic efficiency is highly prioritized over other functions, in opposition to sustainable development. In retail planning, a communicative approach frequently results in the public responses by "Not In My Back Yard" sentiments, contradicting the projected cooperation between different stakeholders. This research implements the resilience theory to tackle the shocks created by these rapid and unexpected retail changes, based on a comparative case of Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) and Portland (Oregon, USA). Primarily through interviews with senior planners in both cities, it is found that adaptive retail management, polycentric retail planning, a well-informed public, and the use of consensus building could better stimulates resilient retail outcomes.

  4. Trust: The Missing Dimension in the Food Retail Transition in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Banwell, C; Kelly, M; Dixon, J; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-04-02

    Thailand has experienced dramatic growth of large national and international modern food retailers, such as supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores in large cities and regional centres in the last two decades. Nevertheless, Thai consumers continue to purchase perishables (fruits, vegetables and animal products) from fresh markets (wet markets, talat sot) contradicting predictions from analysts that modern food retail chains will rapidly replace fresh markets as the preferred venue for purchasing all types of foods. This paper examines trust in food retail systems as an under-explored dimension lying behind the continued patronage by Thais of fresh markets to purchase perishable items. It derives from a research program commenced in 2005 that includes fieldwork visits, interviews and questionnaires. In the context of the Thai food retail transition, we propose that trust affects relationships between consumers and (1) individual fresh market-based vendors, (2) the food products sold at fresh markets and (3) the food retail system more broadly. If fresh markets can be maintained in the face of sustained pressure from modern national and international food retailers, Thais will continue to use them. Meanwhile, trust is a relatively unrecognised dimension that is supporting the continued existence of traditional food retail formats.

  5. Trust: The Missing Dimension in the Food Retail Transition in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, C.; Kelly, M.; Dixon, J.; Seubsman, S-A.; Sleigh, A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thailand has experienced dramatic growth of large national and international modern food retailers, such as supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores in large cities and regional centres in the last two decades. Nevertheless, Thai consumers continue to purchase perishables (fruits, vegetables and animal products) from fresh markets (wet markets, talat sot) contradicting predictions from analysts that modern food retail chains will rapidly replace fresh markets as the preferred venue for purchasing all types of foods. This paper examines trust in food retail systems as an under-explored dimension lying behind the continued patronage by Thais of fresh markets to purchase perishable items. It derives from a research program commenced in 2005 that includes fieldwork visits, interviews and questionnaires. In the context of the Thai food retail transition, we propose that trust affects relationships between consumers and (1) individual fresh market-based vendors, (2) the food products sold at fresh markets and (3) the food retail system more broadly. If fresh markets can be maintained in the face of sustained pressure from modern national and international food retailers, Thais will continue to use them. Meanwhile, trust is a relatively unrecognised dimension that is supporting the continued existence of traditional food retail formats. PMID:27499561

  6. Retailers in social program strategy: the case of family planning.

    PubMed

    Black, T R; Farley, J U

    1977-01-01

    The provision of contraceptive agents and devices through hospitals and clinics is not a cost-efficient procedure, therefore the distribution through retailers in a preexisting network is an attractive prospect. To really distribute contraceptives, e.g., birth control pills, the retailer would have to be trained in a format of questions. Two studies of retail marketing were conducted, one in Jamaica for condoms and one in Kenya where a subsidized marketing program for condoms was started in rural areas. More urban shops, which were larger in size, carried condoms than rural shops. Retailers in both areas were completely oriented to their immediate vicinity. Their concerns were with volume and with aggregate demand both before and after subsidized programs. The distribution system requires the additional support of advertising and marketing, but since the structure is in place it can be used with relatively little capital outlay. Research of retailers' attitudes and perceptions is inexpensive and often indicates customer preference and local market conditions.

  7. An observational study of retail availability and in-store marketing of e-cigarettes in London: potential to undermine recent tobacco control gains?

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Robert; Myers, Allison E; Ribisl, Kurt M; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives E-cigarette companies and vendors claim the potential of e-cigarettes to help smokers reduce or quit tobacco use. E-cigarettes also have the potential to renormalise smoking. The purpose of this study was to describe the availability and in-store marketing of e-cigarettes in London, UK stores selling tobacco and alcohol. Design Observational study. Setting Small and large stores selling alcohol and tobacco in London, UK. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling e-cigarettes, the number of stores with an interior or exterior e-cigarette advertisement, the number of stores with an e-cigarette point-of-sale movable display, store size, deprivation index score for store's corresponding lower super output area. Results Audits were completed in 108 of 128 selected stores. 62 of the audited stores (57%) sold e-cigarettes. E-cigarette availability was unrelated to store size. There was a statistically non-significant trend towards increased availability in more deprived areas (p=0.069). 31 of the 62 stores (50%) selling e-cigarettes had a point-of-sale movable display, with all but one found in small stores. Two small stores had interior advertisements and eight had exterior advertisements. No advertisements were observed in large stores. Conclusions This audit revealed widespread availability of e-cigarettes and in-store marketing in London, UK. Even if e-cigarettes prove to be an effective cessation aid, their sale and use are resulting in an increasing public presence of cigarette-like images and smoking behaviour. After decades of work to denormalise smoking, these findings raise the question of whether e-cigarettes are renormalising smoking. PMID:24366581

  8. Combining microsimulation and spatial interaction models for retail location analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Hanaoka, Kazumasa; Clarke, Graham; Ballas, Dimitris; Yano, Keiji

    2007-12-01

    Although the disaggregation of consumers is crucial in understanding the fragmented markets that are dominant in many developed countries, it is not always straightforward to carry out such disaggregation within conventional retail modelling frameworks due to the limitations of data. In particular, consumer grouping based on sampled data is not assured to link with the other statistics that are vital in estimating sampling biases and missing variables in the sampling survey. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a useful combination of spatial interaction modelling and microsimulation approaches for the reliable estimation of retail interactions based on a sample survey of consumer behaviour being linked with other areal statistics. We demonstrate this approach by building an operational retail interaction model to estimate expenditure flows from households to retail stores in a local city in Japan, Kusatsu City.

  9. Who Wants to Be an E-tailpreneur? Experiences from an Electronic Retailing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Archana; Mukherjee, Avinandan; McGinnis, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the experiences of developing a new hands-on marketing course. The objective of the course was to simulate the real-world scenario of starting an online retailing business and let students become entrepreneurs. Students were challenged to assimilate and apply relevant e-retailing knowledge while being responsible for designing,…

  10. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  11. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... distinguishes retail customers from non-retail customers through the term eligible contract participant (ECP).\\11\\ In many cases, the CEA provides fewer protections to ECPs than retail customers, i.e., non-ECPs... preliminarily believes that treating bank funds as traditional retail customers for purposes of the retail...

  12. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  13. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  14. Retailer Adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; D’Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act’s provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. Methods We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers’ adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. Results We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, “light” cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Conclusion Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions. PMID:23557638

  15. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms recovered from retail shell eggs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many types of shell eggs are available from retail markets. Some consumers believe that eggs from hens in alternative housing systems (cage free or free roaming) or from organically fed hens will be of superior microbiological quality. Little information is available on the genera of microorganism...

  16. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  17. To Catch a Thief: A Pedagogical Study of Retail Shoplifting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Jo Ann L.; Bristow, Dennis N.

    2000-01-01

    Marketing students (n=141) completed a pretest describing retail customers most likely to shoplift and viewed videotaped scenarios in which security personnel suspected shoplifting based on ethnic characteristics. A significant gap was apparent between participants' predispositions and actual shoplifting statistics. The videos raised awareness of…

  18. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods.

  19. Retail price as an outcome measure for the effectiveness of drug law enforcement.

    PubMed

    Bright, David A; Ritter, Alison

    2010-09-01

    One outcome measure of law enforcement effectiveness is the reduction in drug consumption which occurs as a result of law enforcement interventions. A theoretical relationship between drug consumption and retail price has promoted the use of retail price as a surrogate measure for consumption. In the current article, retail price is examined as a potential outcome measure for the effectiveness of law enforcement. The predictions regarding the relationship between law enforcement intensity and price are only partially supported by research. Explanations for the disconnect between the drug law enforcement activity and retail price include: rapid adaptation by market players, enforcement swamping, assumptions of rational actors, short-run versus long-run effects, structure of the illicit market, simultaneous changes that affect price in perverse ways, the role of violence in markets, and data limitations. Researchers who use retail price as an outcome measure need to take into account the complex relationship between drug law enforcement interventions and the retail price of illicit drugs. Viable outcome measures which can be used as complements to retail price are worth investigation.

  20. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  1. Study on spatial structure of retailing based on GIS in the city of Wuhan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-liang; Tian, Ying

    2008-10-01

    With the agility of market economy, the characteristic of market spatial structure becomes more complex since the reformation and open policy. The spatial structure has broken through the traditional framework which is non-equilibriums and scattered, and represented such modern development character as diversification, grade, network, and non-equilibrium. This paper chooses 200 stochastic retailing stores whose acreages all exceed 40m2 in the four circles of Wuhan city, after the analysis of spatial difference on acreages, number, population density, and manage forms with GIS spatial methods, and makes a conclusion that the retailing spatial structure of Wuhan city has took on figure of rating circle wholly and frame of centralization-diffusion and enchasing partially; as location is concerned, centralization and diffusion takes place simultaneously, has behaved that retailing concentrated in heartland of city with more favorable traffic and market location by the means of market infiltration, and distributed in suburb more dispersive by market monopoly.

  2. The Small Retailer and His Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstinger, Irving

    1975-01-01

    This study, through personal interviews, collected data on small retailers for three purposes: (1) to provide informative insights into small-scale retailing in New York City, (2) to explore retailers' opinions as to why customers shop at their stroes, and (3) to ascertain the more common problems experienced by retailers. (Author/BP)

  3. Marketing and Distribution: New Dimensions of Marketing Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, E. Edward

    1978-01-01

    Findings from research at Northern Illinois University on marketing positions were used to identify job levels and promotion criteria in food marketing, general retail merchandising, and wholesaling. Interviews with business executives in the three areas provided the marketing occupational information needed in vocational distributive education…

  4. Retailer's inventory system in a two-level trade credit financing with selling price discount and partial order cancelations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangam, A.

    2015-03-01

    In today's fast marketing over the Internet or online, many retailers want to trade at the same time and change their marketing strategy to attract more customers. Some of the customers may decide to cancel their orders partially with a retailer due to various reasons such as increase in customer's waiting time, loss of customer's goodwill on retailer's business, attractive promotional schemes offered by other retailers etc. Even though there is a lag in trading and order cancelation, this paper attempts to develop the retailer's inventory model with the effect of order cancelations during advance sales period. The retailer announces a price discount program during advance sales period to promote his sales and also he offers trade credit financing during the sales periods. The retailer availing trade credit period from his supplier offers a permissible delay period to his customers. The customer who gets an item has allowed paying on or before the permissible delay period which is accounted from the buying time rather than the start period of inventory sales. This accounts for significant changes in the calculations of interest payable and interest earned by the retailer. The retailer's total cost is minimized so as to find out the optimal replenishment cycle time and price discount policies through a solution procedure. The results derived in mathematical theorems are implemented in numerical examples and sensitivity analyses on several inventory parameters are obtained.

  5. Retailer's inventory system in a two-level trade credit financing with selling price discount and partial order cancellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangam, A.

    2014-02-01

    In today's fast marketing over the Internet or online, many retailers want to trade at the same time and change their marketing strategy to attract more customers. Some of the customers may decide to cancel their orders partially with a retailer due to various reasons such as increase in customer's waiting time, loss of customer's goodwill on retailer's business, and attractive promotional schemes offered by other retailers. Even though there is a lag in trading and order cancellation, this paper attempts to develop the retailer's inventory model with the effect of order cancellations during advance sales period. The retailer announces a price discount program during advance sales period to promote his sales and also offers trade credit financing during the sales periods. The retailer availing trade credit period from his supplier offers a permissible delay period to his customers. The customer who gets an item is allowed to pay on or before the permissible delay period which is accounted from the buying time rather than from the start period of inventory sales. This accounts for significant changes in the calculations of interest payable and interest earned by the retailer. The retailer's total cost is minimized so as to find out the optimal replenishment cycle time and price discount policies through a solution procedure. The results derived in mathematical theorems are implemented in numerical examples, and sensitivity analyses on several inventory parameters are obtained.

  6. Retail Location Choice with Complementary Goods: An Agent-Based Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Arthur; Levinson, David

    This paper models the emergence of retail clusters on a supply chain network comprised of suppliers, retailers, and consumers. Firstly, an agent-based model is proposed to investigate retail location distribution in a market of two complementary goods. The methodology controls for supplier locales and unit sales prices of retailers and suppliers, and a consumer’s willingness to patronize a retailer depends on the total travel distance of buying both goods. On a circle comprised of discrete locations, retailers play a non-cooperative game of location choice to maximize individual profits. Our findings suggest that the probability distribution of the number of clusters in equilibrium follows power law and that hierarchical distribution patterns are much more likely to occur than the spread-out ones. In addition, retailers of complementary goods tend to co-locate at supplier locales. Sensitivity tests on the number of retailers are also performed. Secondly, based on the County Business Patterns (CBP) data of Minneapolis-St. Paul from US Census 2000 database, we find that the number of clothing stores and the distribution of food stores at the zip code level follows power-law distribution.

  7. Adoption and Business Value of Mobile Retail Channel: A Dependency Perspective on Mobile Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yen-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Forrest Research estimated that revenues derived from mobile devices will grow at an annual rate of 39% to reach $31 billion by 2016. With the tremendous market growth, mobile banking, mobile marketing, and mobile retailing have been recently introduced to satisfy customer needs. Academic and practical articles have widely discussed unique…

  8. Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazan, Osman

    This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost

  9. Hospital-affiliated and hospital-owned retail clinics: strategic opportunities and operational challenges.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer

    2010-01-01

    Retail clinics have experienced an exponential growth in the last few years. While the majority of retail clinics are freestanding, venture-backed companies affiliated with retail hosts, an increasing number of hospital systems have decided to develop their own retail clinics or partner with existing national companies. Using a stakeholder approach, the purpose of this article is to assess the strategic considerations behind these decisions and the operational challenges associated with them and to use the results to develop a questionnaire that can be applied in future research in a national sample of healthcare executives. We conducted eight in-depth interviews with administrative and clinical leaders in seven hospital systems across the United States that have or had a relationship with retail clinics in the last three years. Our findings show that the hospital systems' association with retail clinics involves two main models: an affiliation with retail chains that operate the clinics and ownership of the clinics with an arms-length relationship with the retail chain. Hospital systems are engaging in these relationships for several strategic reasons: to increase market share through enhanced referrals to physician offices and hospitals, to become closer to consumers, and to experiment with nontraditional ways of delivering health care. Operational challenges included physician resistance and skepticism, poor financial performance, people's perception of retail clinics, staffing issues, and the newness of the business model. Six out of eight respondents thought that hospital affiliation with/ownership of retail clinics is a trend that is here to stay, although many provided caveats and stipulations. Further research is needed to provide more evidence about this emerging way of healthcare delivery.

  10. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  11. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  12. Retail applications of signature verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  13. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... management. (a) Retailer participation. (1) All authorized retailers must be afforded the opportunity...

  14. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  15. Mislabelling and Species Substitution in Fishery Products Retailed in Sardinia (Italy), 2009-2014

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Pierluigi; Mazzette, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Mislabelling and species substitution are major concerns for fishery products marketed in the EU. The present survey aimed to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community and National rules on the labelling and marketing of fishery products retailed in Sardinia (Italy) between 2009 and 2014. A total of 3000 labels for fresh unpacked fishery products have been considered. A total of 900 labels (30%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name, the wrong or missing information about the catch area and the production method. The highest percentage of mislabelling and species substitution has been detected in open-air markets (65%) and small-scale retail shops (40%) compared with the big supermarket chains (10%). The high percentage of non-compliances with the European and Italian legislation highlights the need to improve the essential information demanded by consumers on fishery products marketed in open-air markets and small-scale retail shops. While there are laws in place, it is unclear how effective they are and what type of penalties food business operators of open-air markets and small-scale retail shops may incur. PMID:27800419

  16. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

  17. Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Can Real-Time Pricing SupportRetail Competition and Demand Response?

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Hopper,Nicole; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-04-25

    As retail choice states reach the end of their transitional, rate-cap periods, state regulators must decide what type of default supply service to provide to customers that have not switched to a competitive retail supplier. In a growing number of states, regulators have adopted real-time pricing (RTP) as the default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. Although this trend is driven chiefly by policy objectives related to retail competition, default service RTP may have the added benefit of stimulating demand response. To evaluate the potential role of RTP as a means to both ends--retail market development and demand response--we conducted a comprehensive review of experience with default RTP in the U.S. and examined the emergence of RTP as a product offering by competitive retail suppliers. Across the ten utilities with default RTP in place in 2005, between 5% and 35% of the applicable load remained on the rate. Based on interviews with competitive retailers, we find evidence to suggest that a comparable amount of load in these states has switched to hourly pricing arrangements with competitive retailers. Many customers on default or competitive hourly pricing are paying prices indexed to the real-time spot market, and thus have no advance knowledge of prices. Because the price responsiveness of customers under these conditions has yet to be formally analyzed, and relatively few efforts have been undertaken to help these customers become price responsive, the actual demand response impacts from hourly pricing in retail choice states remains largely an open question. However, we find that policymakers and other stakeholders in retail choice states have various strategies at their disposal to capture the potential demand response benefits from hourly pricing, while simultaneously supporting retail competition.

  18. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section 779.328... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments ârecognizedâ As Retail âin the Particular Industryâ § 779.328 Retail and wholesale distinguished. (a)...

  19. Traditional, modern or mixed? Perspectives on social, economic, and health impacts of evolving food retail in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Sleigh, Adrian

    Transnational food retailers expanded to middle-income countries over recent decades responding to supply (liberalized foreign investment) and demand (rising incomes, urbanization, female workforce participation, and time poverty). Control in new markets diffuses along three axes: socio-economic (rich to poor), geographic (urban to rural), and product category (processed foods to fresh foods). We used a mixed method approach to study the progression of modern retail in Thailand on these three axes and consumer preferences for food retailing. In Thailand modern retail controls half the food sales but traditional fresh markets remain important. Quantitative questionnaires administered to members of a large national cohort study revealed around half of respondents were primarily traditional shoppers and half either utilized modern and traditional formats equally or primarily shopped at supermarkets. Fresh foods were mainly purchased at traditional retail formats and dry packaged foods at supermarkets. Qualitative interviews found price and quality of produce and availability of culturally important products to be significant reasons for continued support of fresh markets. Our results show socio-economic and geographic diffusion is already advanced with most respondents having access to and utilizing modern retail. Control of the fresh food sector by transnationals faces barriers in Thailand and may remain elusive. The short to mid-term outcome may be a bifurcated food system with modern and traditional retail each retaining market share, but fresh markets longer term survival may require government assistance as supermarkets become more established. Fresh markets supply affordable, healthy foods, and livelihoods for poorer Thais and are repositories of Thai food culture and social networks. If they survive they will confer cultural, social, economic, and health benefits.

  20. How satisfied are hospital systems with their ownership of retail clinics?

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer; Charland, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Retail clinics--while innovative--can no longer be considered a new model of healthcare delivery, as an increasing number of hospitals and health systems now own them. The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which hospital systems are satisfied with their ownership of retail clinics. In terms of operational challenges, respondents to our survey, administered to representatives from 19 health systems, were relatively satisfied with clinic staffing and their relationship with the retailers regarding lease terms, store locations, and shopper demographics. They expressed mostly neutral levels of satisfaction with regulations and laws related to retail clinics and low satisfaction with insurance reimbursement and clinics' seasonal patterns. The two areas that received the lowest respondent satisfaction ratings were patient volume and response to marketing initiatives. When asked to share their perceptions of their organization's satisfaction with various strategic aspects of retail clinic ownership, respondents revealed that the clinics were achieving several important strategic goals, such as improved access, increased referrals, defense against competitors, and increased brand exposure. They indicated overall dissatisfaction with profitability and cost-reduction outcomes. We conclude that serious operational challenges and strategic threats must be overcome if retail clinics are to be a successful service line for hospitals and health systems.

  1. The evolution of retail clinics in the United States, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer; Charland, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In the recent decade, retail clinics have emerged to offer routine preventative and acute care services by nonphysician providers, with predictable wait times, more convenient venues, and posted prices. This article evaluates the evolution of retail clinics between 2006 and 2012 and examines the yearly openings and closings of clinics by location, owner, operator, and other important characteristics. The Merchant Medicine database was used. It is the only database of its kind that includes every retail clinic opening and closing since 2006. The data are collected on a monthly basis through operator self-report, telephone calls to operators, and monitoring of operator Web sites and articles in local newspapers. A growth period of 2006 through 2008 can be attributed to what was referred to at the time as a "land grab," in which competing operators sought to be the first to open in new markets. In 2008, with the start of the general economic recession, numerous clinics shut down during the slow spring and summer months and others closed altogether. The industry remains dominated by large retail pharmacy operators, and the involvement of hospital systems in retail clinic ownership is a recent and interesting phenomenon. An important question to address is the following: Will retail clinics remain as just a convenient way for busy insured patients to seek care afterhours and on weekends, or can they have a more significant impact in a primary care system on the brink of collapse?

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  3. The Relationship between Retailers' Targeting and E-Commerce Strategies: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Neil F.; Ellis-Chadwick, Fiona E.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of senior marketing executives in the United Kingdom's largest retail organizations investigated the extent to which the adoption of e-commerce is influenced by the socio-demographic characteristics of their target customers. Results demonstrate that organizations are most likely to adopt the Internet if their typical customer is male,…

  4. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

  5. Retail video analytics: an overview and survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Jonathan; Fan, Quanfu; Gabbur, Prasad; Haas, Norman; Pankanti, Sharath; Trinh, Hoang

    2013-03-01

    Today retail video analytics has gone beyond the traditional domain of security and loss prevention by providing retailers insightful business intelligence such as store traffic statistics and queue data. Such information allows for enhanced customer experience, optimized store performance, reduced operational costs, and ultimately higher profitability. This paper gives an overview of various camera-based applications in retail as well as the state-ofthe- art computer vision techniques behind them. It also presents some of the promising technical directions for exploration in retail video analytics.

  6. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Supervision (OTS) was the appropriate Federal regulatory agency for Federal savings associations. The OTS did... disputes related to retail forex transactions: civil court litigation and arbitration conducted by...

  7. Exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation among New York City adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Sacks, Rachel; Rane, Madhura; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure-initiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR = 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR = 1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking.

  8. Marketing Outputs as Art? Bringing an Aesthetic Sensibility to the Marketing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.; Budeva, Desislava; Chung, Christina; Dzhogleva, Hristina

    2011-01-01

    Can marketing outputs--advertising, packaging, product design, and retail environments--be considered a form of art? This paper explores the potential for incorporating the theories and concepts of aesthetics in the marketing curriculum in order to facilitate students' capacity to interpret marketing outputs and develop effective practical…

  9. Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to day-to-day retail resources.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.

  10. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  11. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supplies are maintained in working order for retail stores equipped by the State agency or its contractor. Equipment shall be replaced or repaired within 48 hours; (7) Ensure that retail store employees are trained... food stores which opt to make home deliveries to SNAP households, house-to-house trade routes...

  12. 47 CFR 301.6 - Retailer participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retailer participation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIGITAL-TO... requires the retailers to self certify that they: (A) Have been engaged in the consumer electronics...

  13. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  14. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  15. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  16. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  17. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    SciTech Connect

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  18. The availability of electronic cigarettes in US retail outlets, 2012: results of two national studies

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Shyanika W; Barker, Dianne C; D'Angelo, Heather; Khan, Tamkeen; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-01-01

    Background Since their introduction in 2007, electronic cigarette (‘e-cigarette’) awareness and use has grown rapidly. Little is known about variation in e-cigarette availability across areas with different levels of tobacco taxes and smoke-free air policies. This paper looks at US retail availability of e-cigarettes and factors at the store, neighbourhood and policy levels associated with it. Methods In-person store audit data collected in 2012 came from two national samples of tobacco retailers in the contiguous US. Study 1 collected data from a nationally representative sample of tobacco retailers (n=2165). Study 2 collected data from tobacco retailers located in school enrolment zones for nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th and 12th grade public school students (n=2526). Results In 2012, e-cigarette retail availability was 34% in study 1 and 31% in study 2. Tobacco, pharmacy and gas/convenience stores were more likely to sell e-cigarettes than beer/wine/liquor stores. Retail availability of e-cigarettes was more likely in neighbourhoods with higher median household income (study 1), and lower percent of African–American (studies 1 and 2) and Hispanic residents (study 2). Price of traditional cigarettes was inversely related to e-cigarette availability. Stores in states with an American Lung Association Smoke-Free Air grade of F (study 1) or D (study 2) compared with A had increased likelihood of having e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, e-cigarette availability appears more likely in areas with weak tax and smoke-free air policies. Given the substantial availability of e-cigarettes at tobacco retailers nationwide, states and localities should monitor the sales and marketing of e-cigarettes at point of sale (POS). PMID:24935892

  19. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aggregate retail forex assets... FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.8 Aggregate retail forex assets. (a) Each retail foreign exchange dealer and futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex transactions shall calculate...

  20. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aggregate retail forex assets... FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.8 Aggregate retail forex assets. (a) Each retail foreign exchange dealer and futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex transactions shall calculate...

  1. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aggregate retail forex assets... FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.8 Aggregate retail forex assets. (a) Each retail foreign exchange dealer and futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex transactions shall calculate...

  2. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... merchant may not include aggregate retail forex assets as current assets or otherwise record any property... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aggregate retail forex assets... FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.8 Aggregate retail forex assets. (a) Each retail foreign exchange...

  3. 26 CFR 1.471-8 - Inventories of retail merchants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of retail merchants. 1.471-8 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-8 Inventories of retail merchants. (a) Retail merchants who employ what is known as the “retail method” of pricing inventories may make their returns upon...

  4. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  5. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  6. 29 CFR 779.24 - Retail or service establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail or service establishment. 779.24 Section 779.24... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.24 Retail or service establishment. In the 1949 amendments to the Act, the term “retail or service...

  7. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  8. 26 CFR 1.471-8 - Inventories of retail merchants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventories of retail merchants. 1.471-8 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Inventories § 1.471-8 Inventories of retail merchants. (a) Retail merchants who employ what is known as the “retail method” of pricing inventories may make their returns...

  9. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Marketing Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course is designed to familiarize the student with the mathematics used daily by the retail business. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Arithmetic and Selling, (2) Sales Records, (3) Weights and Measure, (4) Inventory Controls, (5) Checking Incoming…

  10. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  11. Presence of Multidrug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Enteropathogenic E. coli and Enterotoxigenic E. coli, on Raw Nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) and in Nopalitos Salads from Local Retail Markets in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, Mdel Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The presence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in food is a significant public health concern. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs) are foodborne bacteria. In Mexico, DEPs have been associated with diarrheal illness. There is no information about the presence of multidrug-resistant DEPs on fresh vegetables and in cooked vegetable salads in Mexico. "Nopalitos" (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is a Cactacea extensively used as a fresh green vegetable throughout Mexico. The presence of generic E. coli and multidrug-resistant DEPs on raw whole and cut nopalitos and in nopalitos salad samples was determined. One hundred raw whole nopalitos (without prickles) samples, 100 raw nopalitos cut into small square samples, and 100 cooked nopalitos salad samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli was determined using the most probable number procedures. DEPs were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEP strains by standard test. Of the 100 whole nopalitos samples, 100 cut nopalitos samples, and 100 nopalitos salad samples, generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 80% and 10%, 74% and 10%, and 64% and 8%. Eighty-two DEP strains were isolated from positive nopalitos samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least six antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of multidrug-resistant and antibiotic resistance profiles of STEC, ETEC, and EPEC on raw nopalitos and in nopalitos salads in Mexico.

  12. Retailing and Shopping on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Internet advertising and commercial activity are increasing. This article examines challenges facing the retail industry on the Internet: location; comparison shopping; security, especially financial transactions; customer base and profile; nature of the shopping experience; and legal and marketplace controls. (PEN)

  13. Green Power Partnership Top 30 Retail

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This list represents the largest green power users among retail partners within the GPP.

  14. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezey, B.; Houston, A.

    1998-02-01

    This document is the second in a series of information briefs on green power marketing activity in the United States. It includes descriptions of utility green pricing programs, green power marketing activity, retail access legislation and pilot programs, and other data and information supporting the development of green power markets.

  15. Physical space and long-tail markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Madsen, Mark E.; Ormerod, Paul

    2009-03-01

    The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number of choices on offer. Here we examine two extensions of this phenomenon. First, we introduce turnover into the long-tail distribution of sales. Although over any given period such as a week or a month, the distribution is right-skewed and often power law distributed, over time there is considerable turnover in the rankings of sales of individual products. Second, we establish some initial results on the implications for shelf-space and physical retailers in such markets.

  16. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance.

  17. Working Capital Management, Corporate Performance, and Strategic Choices of the Wholesale and Retail Industry in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance. PMID:25121141

  18. Distribution center and retail conditions affect the sensory and compositional quality of bulk and packaged slicing cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During distribution and retail display, fruits and vegetables are often exposed to undesirable temperature and humidity conditions which often result in increased waste due to weight loss and objectionable appearance. Unwaxed fresh-market slicing cucumbers (cv. Calypso) were harvested from a commerc...

  19. Improving the alcohol retail environment to reduce youth access: a randomized community trial of a best practices toolkit intervention.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Lisa S; El Ayadi, Alison M; Lyons, Nancy J; Herr-Zaya, Kathleen; Noll, Debra; Perfas, Fernando; Rots, Gisela

    2011-06-01

    Underage alcohol use remains a significant public health problem throughout the United States and has important consequences for the health of individuals and communities. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of distributing an alcohol retailer toolkit via direct mail on increasing positive alcohol retailer attitudes towards checking IDs, encouraging retail managers to formalize ID checking procedures with their employees, and promoting consumers to be prepared to show ID when purchasing alcohol. This community randomized study included five matched Massachusetts community pairs. Our analysis sample consisted of 209 retailers (77 intervention; 132 control). In models adjusted for baseline response and matching community and establishment characteristics, intervention communities reported posting, on average, one additional sign or wall decal in their establishments (β = 0.937, P = 0.0069), and a twofold higher odds of handing out written materials on ID checking to staff (OR: 2.074, 95%CI: 1.003-4.288) compared to control establishments. However, the intervention was not found to have an effect on changing establishment policies, retailer attitudes, or other establishment practices. Intervention retailers perceived all components of the toolkit to be very useful for their establishments, and nearly all reported having shared materials with their employees and customers. These results suggest that some significant changes in alcohol retailer establishment practices can be achieved among motivated owners or managers through the distribution of a toolkit targeting best retailer practices. We do, however, recommend that future program planners consider alternative dissemination and marketing strategies beyond direct mail to encourage greater utilization.

  20. Seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in retail oyster tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Yan; Shi, Xianming

    2014-03-03

    Oysters are one of the important vehicles for the transfer of foodborne pathogens. It was reported that bacteria could be bio-accumulated mainly in the gills and digestive glands. In artificially treated oysters, bacterial communities have been investigated by culture-independent methods after harvest. However, little information is available on the seasonal dynamics of bacterial accumulation in retail oyster tissues. In this study, retail oysters were collected from local market in different seasons. The seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in oyster tissues, including the gills, digestive glands and residual tissues, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was interesting that the highest bacterial diversity appeared in the Fall season, not in summer. Our results indicated that Proteobacteria was the predominant member (23/46) in oyster tissues. Our results also suggested that bacterial diversity in gills was higher than that in digestive glands and other tissues. In addition, not all the bacteria collected from surrounding water by gills were transferred to digestive glands. On the other hand, few bacteria were found in oyster tissues except in the gills. Therefore, the gills could be the best candidate target tissue for monitoring of pathogenic bacteria either to human or to oyster.

  1. Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Lock, Karen; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of retail food store, open-air food market, and restaurant observation tools adapted to the Brazilian urban context. METHODS This study is part of a cross-sectional observation survey conducted in 13 districts across the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2010-2011. Food store and restaurant observational tools were developed based on previously available tools, and then tested it. They included measures on the availability, variety, quality, pricing, and promotion of fruits and vegetables and ultra-processed foods. We used Kappa statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients to assess inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities in samples of 142 restaurants, 97 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), and of 62 restaurants and 45 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), respectively. Construct validity as the tool’s abilities to discriminate based on store types and different income contexts were assessed in the entire sample: 305 retail food stores, 8 fruits and vegetable markets, and 472 restaurants. RESULTS Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were generally high, with most Kappa values greater than 0.70 (range 0.49-1.00). Both tools discriminated between store types and neighborhoods with different median income. Fruits and vegetables were more likely to be found in middle to higher-income neighborhoods, while soda, fruit-flavored drink mixes, cookies, and chips were cheaper and more likely to be found in lower-income neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS The measures were reliable and able to reveal significant differences across store types and different contexts. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the tools may be used to reliably measure the food stores and restaurant food environment in urban settings of middle-income countries. Such studies can help .inform health promotion interventions and policies in these

  2. Real Estate Site Selection: An Application of Artificial Intelligence for Military Retail Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    selection in recent years. This project looks into possible advantages of applying artificial intelligent models to model consumer behavior in an effort...and available real estate. Basically, this process will model consumer behavior within a market related to current and potentially available real...city for retail purposes. This applied Newtonian physics to consumer behavior . The attractiveness of the location was related to the distance

  3. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    PubMed

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system.

  4. Retail firewood can transport live tree pests.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, W R; Hardin, J G; Goodrich, B A; Cleaver, C M

    2012-10-01

    Untreated firewood can harbor destructive insects and pathogens and transport them to uninfested areas. In a national survey of retail locations selling firewood in 18 states, over half (52%) of the firewood was from sources out of the purchase state and 50% showed evidence of insect infestation. In a three state survey of southern Rocky Mountain retailers, the most common retailer types carrying firewood were grocery stores and department or big box stores followed by gas stations or convenience stores. In 2007-2009, we purchased 419 firewood bundles from retailers in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming and caged the firewood to quantify insect emergence. Live insects emerged from 47% of firewood bundles over 18 mo of rearing time. Approximately 11 insects emerged on average from each infested bundle (1-520 per bundle). Pine, fir, and mixed-conifer bundles yielded the greatest number of insects. Beetles (Coleoptera) were prominent and made up the majority of individuals (3-60 individuals in each of 24 families). Most Coleoptera were bark and ambrosia beetles (subfamily Scolytinae) while wood borers (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Siricidae) occurred in lower numbers. Firewood with evidence of previous or current insect infestation was more likely to have insects emerge than firewood without such evidence. The risk of moving live native or nonindigenous insects in untreated firewood is high because insects emerged up to 558 d from purchase date. Retail firewood should be heat treated in a manner to eliminate insects that is uniformly accepted across North America.

  5. Retail Food Refrigeration and the Phaseout of HCFC-22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides information on the HCFC phaseout that is relevant to food retailers, including alternatives to the use of HCFC-22 in retail food refrigeration, other refrigerant regulations, and resources for more information.

  6. What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics

    MedlinePlus

    What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults Retail clinics are medical clinics based in pharmacies, supermarkets, ...

  7. 76 FR 49511 - Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... of the continuation of service at postal retail locations. The procedural schedule included...

  8. Retail health marketing: evaluating consumers' choice for healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Nayga, R M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables, nutrition and health related factors, attitudes, and use of nutritional labels on consumers' choice for healthier food products. Seven equations are estimated representing different food types: luncheon meat, milk, cheese, ice cream, salad dressing, dessert, and meats. The results generally indicate that individuals who are less likely to choose a healthier alternative of a food product include: blacks, younger individuals, males, those with smaller households, smokers, those who take less exercise, those who are not on a special diet, those who are less aware about the linkage between diet and disease, those who put more importance on taste when food shopping, and those who less frequently use nutrition panels and labels that describe health benefits on food packages.

  9. State Regulators Promote Consumer Choice in Retail Gas Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Restructuring of interstate pipeline companies has created new choices and challenges for local distribution companies (LDCs), their regulators, and their customers. The process of separating interstate pipeline gas sales from transportation service has been completed and has resulted in greater gas procurement options for LDCs.

  10. E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J

    2017-04-01

    The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, "E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools," by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016 [1]). We present data relating to e-cigarette specialty retailers in Orange County, California. We describe the data collection method (including the search methodology to identify e-cigarette specialty retailers), present descriptive retailer data including school proximity, and provide data from multi-level regressions predicting individual-level student use of e-cigarettes based on presence of an e-cigarette specialty retailer in proximity to schools.

  11. 29 CFR 779.207 - Related activities in retail operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related activities in retail operations. 779.207 Section... Coverage Related Activities § 779.207 Related activities in retail operations. In the case of an enterprise which has one or more retail or service establishments, all of the activities which are performed...

  12. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS AND INSURED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS § 278.2 Participation of retail food stores....

  13. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  14. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail...

  15. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  16. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales. A... under this part, is exempt from registration at that place as a retail dealer in liquors or in beer....

  17. 27 CFR 31.35 - Limited retail dealer; persons eligible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealer... Part Dealers Classified § 31.35 Limited retail dealer; persons eligible. Any person selling distilled... “limited retail dealer” if the person or organization is not otherwise engaged in business as a dealer....

  18. 27 CFR 8.54 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... retailer independence. 8.54 Section 8.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... determining retailer independence. The criteria specified in this section are indications that a particular practice, other than those in §§ 8.52 and 8.53, places retailer independence at risk. A practice need...

  19. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... determining retailer independence. The criteria specified in this section are indications that a particular practice, other than those in § 6.152, places retailer independence at risk. A practice need not meet...

  20. Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (STARS): dissemination and implementation research

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Ribisl, Kurt M; Rogers, Todd; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Barker, Dianne M; Sarris Esquivel, Nikie; Loomis, Brett; Crew, Erin; Combs, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (STARS) was designed to characterise the availability, placement, promotion and price of tobacco products, with items chosen for relevance to regulating the retail tobacco environment. This study describes the process to develop the STARS instrument and protocol employed by a collaboration of US government agencies, US state tobacco control programmes (TCPs), advocacy organisations, public health attorneys and researchers from the National Cancer Institute's State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative. Methods To evaluate dissemination and early implementation experiences, we conducted telephone surveys with state TCP leaders (n=50, response rate=100%), and with individuals recruited via a STARS download registry on the SCTC website. Website registrants were surveyed within 6 months of the STARS release (n=105, response rate=66%) and again after ∼5 months (retention rate=62%). Results Among the state TCPs, 42 reported conducting any retail marketing surveillance, with actual or planned STARS use in 34 of these states and in 12 of the 17 states where marketing surveillance was not previously reported. Within 6 months of the STARS release, 21% of surveyed registrants reported using STARS and 35% were likely/very likely to use it in the next 6 months. To investigate implementation fidelity, we compared data collected by self-trained volunteers and by trained professionals, the latter method being more typically in retail marketing surveillance studies. Results suggest high or moderate reliability for most STARS measures. Conclusion The study concludes with examples of states that used STARS to inform policy change. PMID:27697950

  1. The World of Retailing. Publication No. 0011.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondras, Robert

    Designed to introduce the world of retailing to junior high school students, the course encompasses three different activities: consumer knowledge, selling, and establishing a school store. Many of the ideas have been used with students in grades 7 and 8. The section on consumer education includes consumer influence and problems, consumer law, and…

  2. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  3. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.3...

  4. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.3...

  5. 78 FR 42439 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... settle on a T+3 or greater timeline.\\5\\ Significantly, certain types of transactions are not ``retail... subject to certain restrictions) or an alternative monetary test coupled with a non-monetary component (e... enumerated types of regulated entities; and certain governmental entities and individuals that meet...

  6. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  7. Virtual Retail Simulations in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of simulations in virtual reality to teach students the fundamental processes behind retailing and product development. The project described involved one class of students who developed their own clothing lines of "virtual merchandise." A second class of students then "purchased" the wholesale…

  8. Training Retail Managers--A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, F. G., Ed.

    This symposium focuses on training programs for managers of department stores, multiple shops, supermarkets and self-service stores, and small independent shops. The authors of each of the four sections in the publication have had experience in training managers in the retail trade. For conceptual and managerial aspects of the manager's job,…

  9. 76 FR 28358 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...The FDIC is proposing regulations that would impose requirements for foreign currency futures, options on futures, and options that an insured depository institution supervised by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation engages in with retail customers. Pursuant to section 742(c) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, such transactions will be prohibited as of July......

  10. 76 FR 22633 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ...The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is proposing a rule authorizing national banks, Federal branches or agencies of foreign banks, and their operating subsidiaries to engage in off-exchange transactions in foreign currency with retail customers. The proposed rule also describes various requirements with which national banks, Federal branches or agencies of foreign banks, and......

  11. 76 FR 40779 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...The FDIC is adopting a final rule that imposes requirements for foreign currency futures, options on futures, and options that an insured depository institution supervised by the FDIC engages in with retail customers. The final rule also imposes requirements on other foreign currency transactions that are functionally or economically similar, including so-called ``rolling spot'' transactions......

  12. 76 FR 41375 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is adopting a final rule authorizing national banks, Federal branches and agencies of foreign banks, and their operating subsidiaries to engage in off-exchange transactions in foreign currency with retail customers. The rule also describes various requirements with which national banks, Federal branches and agencies of foreign banks, and......

  13. Tracking Microbial Contamination in Retail Environments Using Fluorescent Powder - A Retail Delicatessen Environment Example

    PubMed Central

    Sirsat, Sujata A.; Kim, Kawon; Gibson, Kristen E.; Crandall, Phillip G.; Ricke, Steven C.; Neal, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens in the retail environment is a significant public health issue contributing to an increased risk for foodborne illness. Ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods such as deli meats, cheese, and in some cases fresh produce, have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks due to contamination with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With respect to L. monocytogenes, deli slicers are often the main source of cross contamination. The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent compound to simulate bacterial contamination and track this contamination in a retail setting. A mock deli kitchen was designed to simulate the retail environment. Deli meat was inoculated with the fluorescent compound and volunteers were recruited to complete a set of tasks similar to those expected of a food retail employee. The volunteers were instructed to slice, package, and store the meat in a deli refrigerator. The potential cross contamination was tracked in the mock retail environment by swabbing specific areas and measuring the optical density of the swabbed area with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the refrigerator (i.e. deli case) grip and various areas on the slicer had the highest risk for cross contamination. The results of this study may be used to develop more focused training material for retail employees. In addition, similar methodologies could also be used to track microbial contamination in food production environments (e.g. small farms), hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and hotels. PMID:24637553

  14. Tracking microbial contamination in retail environments using fluorescent powder--a retail delicatessen environment example.

    PubMed

    Sirsat, Sujata A; Kim, Kawon; Gibson, Kristen E; Crandall, Phillip G; Ricke, Steven C; Neal, Jack A

    2014-03-05

    Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens in the retail environment is a significant public health issue contributing to an increased risk for foodborne illness. Ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods such as deli meats, cheese, and in some cases fresh produce, have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks due to contamination with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With respect to L. monocytogenes, deli slicers are often the main source of cross contamination. The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent compound to simulate bacterial contamination and track this contamination in a retail setting. A mock deli kitchen was designed to simulate the retail environment. Deli meat was inoculated with the fluorescent compound and volunteers were recruited to complete a set of tasks similar to those expected of a food retail employee. The volunteers were instructed to slice, package, and store the meat in a deli refrigerator. The potential cross contamination was tracked in the mock retail environment by swabbing specific areas and measuring the optical density of the swabbed area with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the refrigerator (i.e. deli case) grip and various areas on the slicer had the highest risk for cross contamination. The results of this study may be used to develop more focused training material for retail employees. In addition, similar methodologies could also be used to track microbial contamination in food production environments (e.g. small farms), hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and hotels.

  15. Fashion Marketing. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in fashion marketing in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: program content (job duties of wholesale and retail clothing salespersons and curriculum framework and student…

  16. Going to the Market. Teacher Edition. Fashion Buying Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cindy

    This teacher's guide presents material for a unit on attending the retail fashion market. Content focuses on previewing merchandise for purchase, factors involved in a major market trip, common terms used when ordering merchandise, and pricing strategies. The guide contains 4 objectives, 6 group learning activities keyed to the objectives, 12…

  17. Value-based customer grouping from large retail data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehl, Alexander; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we propose OPOSSUM, a novel similarity-based clustering algorithm using constrained, weighted graph- partitioning. Instead of binary presence or absence of products in a market-basket, we use an extended 'revenue per product' measure to better account for management objectives. Typically the number of clusters desired in a database marketing application is only in the teens or less. OPOSSUM proceeds top-down, which is more efficient and takes a small number of steps to attain the desired number of clusters as compared to bottom-up agglomerative clustering approaches. OPOSSUM delivers clusters that are balanced in terms of either customers (samples) or revenue (value). To facilitate data exploration and validation of results we introduce CLUSION, a visualization toolkit for high-dimensional clustering problems. To enable closed loop deployment of the algorithm, OPOSSUM has no user-specified parameters. Thresholding heuristics are avoided and the optimal number of clusters is automatically determined by a search for maximum performance. Results are presented on a real retail industry data-set of several thousand customers and products, to demonstrate the power of the proposed technique.

  18. Advertising Violent Toys in Weekly Circulars of Popular Retailers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Guerra, Laura A.; Reeves, Rachel; Basch, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence is a pervasive problem in the United States. Toys, far from trivial playthings, are a reflection of society, including its beliefs and values. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which violent toys are marketed in online weekly flyers of popular retailers, how the violence is manifested, and whether violent toys are marketed differentially to boys and girls. Methods: For this cross-sectional observational study, online circulars from 5 major retailers were downloaded and examined each week for 14 weeks during the fall of 2014. For each retailer, the total number of toys, as well as the total number of violent and non-violent toys, was recorded. In addition, each violent toy was categorized into one of five groups: picturing a figure with a weapon, a figure with intent to strike (with fists drawn or an angry face), a toy with a violent name, a toy that was a weapon itself, or a set of toys that included two or more of these criteria. Results: A total number of 3,459 toys were observed, of which 1,053 (30%) were deemed violent. Of the violent toys, 95% were marketed to boys (n=1,003) versus 5% to girls (n=50). The most prevalent violent category was a figure with a weapon such as a sword, knife or gun (29%), followed by figures with fists out and aggressive faces (26%). Conclusion: Parents should be mindful of toy retailer‟s marketing of violent toys, especially toward boys, and the potential for those toys to de-sensitize their children to violence PMID:26634197

  19. 29 CFR 779.315 - Traditional local retail or service establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traditional local retail or service establishments. 779.315... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Making Sales of Goods and Services ârecognized As Retailâ § 779.315 Traditional local retail...

  20. 29 CFR 779.319 - A retail or service establishment must be open to general public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A retail or service establishment must be open to general... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Making Sales of Goods and Services ârecognized As Retailâ § 779.319 A retail...

  1. In sight, in mind: retailer compliance with legislation on limiting retail tobacco displays.

    PubMed

    Quedley, Megan; Ng, Brendan; Sapre, Nikhil; Blakiston, Matthew; Crawford, Alexandra; Devadas, Rosanne; McLaren, Hamish; Anand, Shruti; Tipu, Mahu; Dayal, Viswas; Chandrasiri, Singithi; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard

    2008-08-01

    We investigated retailer compliance with point-of-sale display legislation, using a New Zealand region as a case study. An observational survey was conducted of nonspecialist tobacco retailers in the lower North Island of New Zealand during 2006. Compliance was assessed in relation to store type (dairies, convenience stores, supermarkets, and service stations) and by characteristics of the population of the census area unit in which the store was situated. These characteristics include the level of socioeconomic deprivation and proportions of Maori (indigenous New Zealanders), Pacific Islanders, and children aged less than 19 years. Out of the 288 stores surveyed, 185 (64%) had at least one breach of the point-of-sale regulations. The most common breaches were a failure to display a "Smoking Kills" sign, visibility of tobacco from outside the premises, and displaying tobacco less than 1 m from children's products. Compliance was significantly worse in dairies (small local general stores) and convenience stores. Stores situated in areas in the top quartile for the proportion of children were much more likely to have high levels of noncompliance (> or =3 breaches) and to display tobacco products close to children's products. This study is one of very few to systematically investigate retailer compliance with point-of-sale display regulations for tobacco products. The results suggest that the implementation of legislation to partly limit retail displays of tobacco products can be difficult. A ban on retail displays of tobacco products is likely to be a more effective and enforceable policy.

  2. Fingertip dermatitis in a retail florist.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Franks, H

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of plant contact dermatitis in retail florists varies with exposure, and the number of reports of contact allergy to cut tulips is rather small. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone is better known as the cause of both Alstroemeria dermatitis in retail florists and tulip finger in wholesale floral workers who handle the bulbs. Our patient presented with prominent erythema, scaling, and peeling of the skin of the thumb, index, and middle fingers of his right hand. Results of a patch test to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone were strongly positive, and the patient determined that the exposure had occurred when he stripped leaves from the tulip stems to arrange cut flowers. Other natural sources of the antigen include Alstroemeria; Bomarea; Dioscorea hispida; Erythronium; Gagea; Fritillaria; and at least one species of onion, Allium triquetrum.

  3. Why "good jobs" are good for retailers.

    PubMed

    Ton, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Too many retail managers believe that they must offer bad jobs to keep prices low. As a result, almost one-fifth of American workers suffer low wages, poor benefits, constantly changing schedules, and few opportunitie for advancement. The author's research reveals, however, that the presumed trade-off between investment in employees and low prices is false. To meet short-term performance targets, many retailers cut labor. The unmotivated and poorly trained employees who remain often cannot keep up with their tasks in a complex operating environment. The result is a vicious cycle, in which lower sales and profits tempt managers to cut even more employees. Retailers such as QuikTrip, Mercadona, Trader Joe's, and Costco instead create a virtuous cycle of investment in employees, stellar operational execution, higher sales and profits, and larger labor budgets. They also make work more efficient and fulfilling for employees, improve customer service, and boost sales and profits through four practices: simplify operations by offering fewer products and promotions, train employees to perform multiple tasks, eliminate waste in everything but staffing, and let employees make some decisions.

  4. Retail and Real Estate: The Changing Landscape of Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mason, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    By its nature, retail medicine is founded in real estate. That retail medicine has expanded so dramatically in a relatively short period of time has taken people by surprise. This rapid growth of integrating healthcare services into retail real estate begs the question of whether real estate will eventually take on the importance in healthcare delivery that it has in retail. This article advances the view that it will. In the end, what retail and healthcare have in common is that they both reflect the attributes of demanding consumers as part of an experience-based economy, where products and services are sought based on how they fit with their lifestyles and how they make them feel (Pine and Gilmore 1998). Changing the selection process for healthcare services to be more like retail is already expanding how and where healthcare services are delivered.

  5. Price Strategies between a Dominant Retailer and Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hsun Jung; Mak, Hou Kit

    2009-08-01

    Supply chain-related game theoretical applications have been discussed for decades. This research accounts for the emergence of a dominant retailer, and the retailer Stackelberg pricing models of distribution channels. Research in the channel pricing game may use different definitions of pricing decision variables. In this research, we pay attentions to the retailer Stackelberg pricing game, and discuss the effects when choosing different decision variables. According the literature it was shown that the strategies between channel members depend critically on the form of the demand function. Two different demand forms—linear and non-linear—will be considered in our numerical example respectively. Our major finding is the outcomes are not relative to manufacturers' pricing decisions but to the retailer's pricing decision and choosing percentage margin as retailer's decision variable is the best strategy for the retailer but worst for manufacturers. The numerical results show that it is consistence between linear and non-linear demand form.

  6. Kinetic model of the Buyers’ market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhykharsky, Alexander V.

    2013-09-01

    In this work the following results are received. The closed mathematical apparatus describing the process of interaction of the Buyers’ market with retail Shop is created. The “statistical analogy” between the vacuum electrostatic diode and the Buyers’ market co-operating with retail Shop is considered. On the basis of the spent analysis the closed mathematical apparatus describing process of interaction of the Buyers’ market with retail Shop is created. The analytical expressions connecting a stream of Buyers, come to Shop, and a stream of the gain of Shop, with parameters of the Buyers’ market are received. For check of adequacy of the received model it is solved of some real “market” problems. On the basis of the spent researches principles of construction of Information-analytical Systems of new type which provide direct measurements of parameters of the Buyers’ market are developed. Actually these Systems are devices for measurement of parameters of this market. In this work it is shown that by means of the device developed for measurement of parameters of the Buyers’ market, creation of a new science-“demandodynamics” the Buyers’ market, is possible. Here the term “demandodynamics the Buyers’ market” is accepted by analogy to the term “thermodynamics” in physics. (In this work it is shown that for the Buyers’ market concept “demand” is similar to concept “temperature” in physics.) The construction methodology “demandodynamics” the Buyers’ market is defined and is shown that within the limits of this science working out of a technique of a direct control by a condition of the Buyers’ market is possible.

  7. 78 FR 28192 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand... antidumping duty order is polyethylene retail carrier bags, which are currently classified under...

  8. Trick or Treat? An Examination of Marketing Relationships in a Nondeceptive Counterfeit Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Sarah Hong; Nicholson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Who is most responsible for the proliferation of counterfeit goods--the illicit purveyor of such products or the consumer who procures them? This paper seeks to address this question by presenting a behavior analysis of counterfeit marketing firms in China and the interdependent relationships between legitimate retailers, consumers, and the…

  9. Prevalence and quantification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Italian retail poultry meat: Analysis of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Stella, Simone; Soncini, Gabriella; Ziino, Graziella; Panebianco, Antonio; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Colavita, Giampaolo; Alberghini, Leonardo; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-04-01

    Retail poultry meat is a crucial vehicle for consumers' exposure to Campylobacters, but no official controls are currently applied in Italy. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Campylobacter contamination of a wide range of poultry meats marketed in Italy. N. 472 chicken and turkey meat samples (sectioned meats, offal, meat preparations and products) were taken from slaughterhouses, deboning plants and different retailers and submitted to detection/enumeration of Campylobacter spp. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and biomolecular techniques. Campylobacter spp. was detected in 34.1% of the samples, with general low counts. Higher values were observed in offal (especially liver) and sectioned meats, with significantly higher rates in skin-on samples (86.8% vs 32.7%). Minced meat preparations showed lower prevalence (22.4% vs 58.3%) and counts than whole pieces. Decreasing rates were observed among slaughterhouses (80%), deboning plants (49%), butcher's shops (37%) and large scale retailers (25%). Sectioned chicken meats were significantly more contaminated than turkey meats. Almost all the isolates were identified as C. jejuni or C. coli, with similar prevalences (18.4% and 20.5%, respectively); C. jejuni was predominant only in samples from slaughterhouses/deboning plants. For setting future control programs, meat typology should be considered the main critical factor.

  10. Behavior analysis in consumer affairs: Retail and consumer response to publicizing food price information

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Brandon F.; Rouse, Mark; Green, Richard B.; Clay, Connie

    1984-01-01

    A popular program among consumer action groups involves publicizing comparative food price information (CFPI) gathered from retail stores. Its significance is based on the assumption that publishing CFPI maximizes retail competition (i.e., moderates price levels or price increases) and occasions more frugal store selections among consumers. We tested these assumptions during a 2-year analysis. Specifically, we monitored the prices of two distinct market baskets in the supermarkets of two midwestern cities (target and contrast cities). Following a lengthy baseline, we published the prices of only one of the market baskets at stores in the target city in the local newspaper on five different occasions. The results suggested that reductions in price inflation occurred for both market baskets at the independently operated target stores. The corporate chain stores were not similarly affected. In addition, surveys indicated that many consumers used the CFPI as a basis for store selection. Finally, the analysis included a discussion of the politics, economics, and future of CFPI programs. PMID:16795672

  11. The impacts of climate on retailing in the UK with particular reference to the anomalously hot summer of 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, M. D.; Palutikof, J. P.

    1999-11-01

    The impacts on the UK retailing sector of the extreme climate of 1995 are analysed in the context of monthly climate conditions in the previous two decades. Over the period from November 1994 to October 1995, the mean monthly Central England temperature (CET) was 1.6°C above the 1961-1990 normal, the highest mean 12-month temperature since the CET records began in 1659. Retail activities are geared towards average conditions and are therefore affected in the short-term by any unexpected change in supply and demand. This study focuses on those areas of retailing where the responses to climate in terms of a change in consumer demand are most likely to be clear: first, clothing and footwear and, second, food and drink. Economic time series are extracted from official government publications (1972-1995). Stepwise multiple regressions are performed to assess the amount of variance in the retail series accounted for by monthly temperature, rainfall and sunshine indices.Statistically significant associations are found between retail and climate indices over the 1972-1995 study period, these are generally strongest in winter and spring, and weakest in summer. There is some indication of an increase in the climate-sensitivity of the retail series in unusually hot years. This may be a function of factors such as: just-in-time supply chains, refrigeration and changes in the trading environment. The anomalous climate of 1995 has the greatest economic impact on the clothing and footwear market, with extreme temperatures at the end of the summer associated with a decline in the market. An attempt is made to place a monetary value on the 1995 impacts. It is estimated that the clothing and footwear market sustained a loss of #383 million (1.7% of turnover). However, the extreme climate of 1995 brought gains to the beer and wine industries of #123 million (0.9% of turnover) and #11 million (0.2% of turnover), respectively, and a gain of approximately #25 million (1.8% of turnover

  12. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  13. Soft targets or partners in health? Retail pharmacies and their role in Tanzania's malaria control program.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Vinay R; Nyato, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    The retail sector has been at the center of recent policy debates concerning its role in malaria control programs in Africa. This article closely examines the perspectives of owners and managers of retail pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, toward the dominant public health discourse and practices surrounding the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as a way forward in malaria control. Drawing on fieldwork conducted between May-August 2007, and July-August 2009, involving in-depth interviews and participant observation in pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, the article describes the social realities facing people who manage retail pharmacies, the nature of their interactions with customers, the kinds of antimalarials they sell, and their perspective on how the new malaria treatment guidelines have affected their business. Findings suggest that for most pharmacy owners and managers, it is 'business as usual' concerning the sale of conventional antimalarials, with a majority reporting that the introduction of ACT in public health facilities had not negatively affected their business. Implications of the research findings are examined in the context of proposed interventions to make pharmacy owners and managers more socially responsible and adhere to government health regulations. The article makes a case for actively involving pharmacy owners and managers in decision making processes surrounding the implementation of new treatment guidelines, and training programs that have an impact on their business, social responsibility, and community health. In considering regulatory interventions, health planners must explicitly address the concern that retail pharmacies fill an important role in the country's health care system, and that the complex nexus that drives the global pharmaceutical market often governs their operations at the local level.

  14. 76 FR 59466 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Disapproving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... discounts as a ``carrot'' to attract additional retail order flow to the exchange.\\34\\ NASDAQ believes that... purchase both products in high volumes, and use market data discounts as a ``carrot'' to attract...

  15. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,528 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008 and Food ...

  16. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2005-06

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,549 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006 and Food ...

  17. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2003-04

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,272 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004 and Food ...

  18. The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed the LBNL Water Heater Price Database to compile and organize information used in the revision of U.S. energy efficiency standards for water heaters. The Database contains all major components that contribute to the consumer cost of water heaters, including basic retail prices, sales taxes, installation costs, and any associated fees. In addition, the Database provides manufacturing data on the features and design characteristics of more than 1100 different water heater models. Data contained in the Database was collected over a two-year period from 1997 to 1999.

  19. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  20. Characteristics of tobacco retailers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Louise; Doscher, Crile; Robertson, Lindsay A

    2013-09-01

    Using data on known tobacco outlets throughout NZ, GIS was used to map outlets, deprivation and secondary schools. A total of 5008 tobacco outlets were identified, giving a density of one outlet per 617 people or one outlet per 129 smokers. One-half of secondary schools had an outlet within 500 m. Tobacco outlets were more densely located in areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation. One third of all tobacco outlets had a licence to sell alcohol. This study indicates the widespread retail availability of tobacco and the need for a mandatory system of registration for better enforcement of smokefree legislation.

  1. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retailer association activities. The following acts by an industry member participating in retailer... rental fee is the same as paid by all exhibitors at the event; (c) Providing its own hospitality which is... associations at a convention or trade show if the total payments made by an industry member for all...

  2. An Approach to Teaching the Retail Advertising Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Thomas A.

    One approach to teaching a college-level retail advertising course emphasizes the use of newspapers and shopping guides. The course objectives are (1) to acquaint students with practices and problems of retailing, with particular emphasis on promotion and advertising; (2) to acquaint them with ways local advertising media meet promotional and…

  3. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  4. 21 CFR 1314.30 - Recordkeeping for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recordkeeping for retail transactions. 1314.30 Section 1314.30 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF... seller may use a point-of-sale and bar code reader. Such electronic records must be provided pursuant...

  5. 21 CFR 1314.30 - Recordkeeping for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recordkeeping for retail transactions. 1314.30 Section 1314.30 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF... capture through bar code reader or similar technology. Such electronic records must be provided...

  6. 21 CFR 1314.30 - Recordkeeping for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recordkeeping for retail transactions. 1314.30 Section 1314.30 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF... capture through bar code reader or similar technology. Such electronic records must be provided...

  7. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  8. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  9. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  10. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  11. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  12. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  13. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  14. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  15. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  16. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  17. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail...

  18. 19 CFR 146.14 - Retail trade within a zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail trade within a zone. 146.14 Section 146.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.14 Retail trade within a zone....

  19. Policy Implications of the Use of Retail Clinics.

    PubMed

    Weinick, Robin M; Pollack, Craig Evan; Fisher, Michael P; Gillen, Emily M; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2011-01-01

    Retail clinics, located within larger retail stores, treat a limited number of acute conditions and offer a small set of preventive services. Although there are nearly 1,200 such clinics in the United States, a great deal about their utilization, relationships with other parts of the health care system, and quality of care remains unknown. The federal government has taken only limited action regarding retail clinics, and little evidence exists about the potential costs and benefits of integrating retail clinics into federal programs and initiatives. Through a literature review, semistructured interviews, and a panel of experts, the authors show that retail clinics have established a niche in the health care system based on their convenience and customer service. Levels of patient satisfaction and of the quality and appropriateness of care appear comparable to those of other provider types. However, we know little about the effects of retail clinic use on preventive services, care coordination, and care continuity. As clinics begin to expand into other areas of care, including chronic disease management, and as the number of patients with insurance increases and the shortage of primary care physicians continues, answering outstanding questions about retail clinics' role in the health care system will become even more important. These changes will create new opportunities for health policy to influence both how retail clinics function and the ways in which their care is integrated with that of other providers.

  20. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  1. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  2. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  3. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  4. Teenagers and the Minimum Wage in Retail Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterill, Philip G.; Wadycki, Walter J.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of minimum wage policy on the hiring of teenagers in relation to adult laborers in retail trade has been assessed through analysis of a study sample of 353 male and 391 female retail trade employees who were part of the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. (LH)

  5. 78 FR 35656 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval to Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval to Proposed... as ``Retail Orders'' June 7, 2013. I. Introduction On February 19, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC..., Managing Director and Associate General Counsel, Securities Industry and Financial Markets...

  6. Distributor- Retailer Interface in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Service Quality Measurement Scale.

    PubMed

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Babapour, Jafar; Peiravian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive market, service quality management is the key to the survival and success of businesses. SERVQUAL is a popular service quality measurement scale (SQMS) that has served as a basis for subsequent research on service quality; it has been used for testing different aspects of service quality in a market. The purpose of our study is, therefore, to develop a service quality measurement scale (SQMS) for the distributor-retailer interface of Pharm supply chains (PSC) in Iran. A survey was performed to collect data from pharmacies located in Tehran. A valid and reliable questionnaire delivered to pharmacies, and 400 pharmacies were intended to participate in our survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to develop an SQMS in this study. Sufficient sampling was undertaken to do CFA. Consistent with other service quality studies, this Res developed an SQMS with five dimensions and 20 items for PSC, and contributes to mangers to regularly measure service quality. This is an initial study to develop a framework for measuring service quality in Iranian PCS. The framework can be used effectively to achieve competitive advantage at the distributor-retailer interface.

  7. Distributor– Retailer Interface in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Service Quality Measurement Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Babapour, Jafar; peiravian, farzad

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive market, service quality management is the key to the survival and success of businesses. SERVQUAL is a popular service quality measurement scale (SQMS) that has served as a basis for subsequent research on service quality; it has been used for testing different aspects of service quality in a market. The purpose of our study is, therefore, to develop a service quality measurement scale (SQMS) for the distributor–retailer interface of Pharm supply chains (PSC) in Iran. A survey was performed to collect data from pharmacies located in Tehran. A valid and reliable questionnaire delivered to pharmacies, and 400 pharmacies were intended to participate in our survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to develop an SQMS in this study. Sufficient sampling was undertaken to do CFA. Consistent with other service quality studies, this Res developed an SQMS with five dimensions and 20 items for PSC, and contributes to mangers to regularly measure service quality. This is an initial study to develop a framework for measuring service quality in Iranian PCS. The framework can be used effectively to achieve competitive advantage at the distributor–retailer interface. PMID:28243297

  8. Bigger Stores, More Stores, or No Stores: Paths of Retail Restructuring in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vias, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    Changes such as the development of large international retail chains, retail concentration, locational changes, technological innovation, new labor practices, and the increasing scale of individual stores, have revolutionized the retail sector. This broad restructuring will have profound impacts in rural America because employment in retail is a…

  9. 29 CFR 779.413 - Methods of compensation of retail store employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methods of compensation of retail store employees. 779.413... Retail or Service Establishments Employees Compensated Principally by Commissions § 779.413 Methods of compensation of retail store employees. (a) Retail or service establishment employees are generally...

  10. 29 CFR 779.413 - Methods of compensation of retail store employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of compensation of retail store employees. 779.413... Retail or Service Establishments Employees Compensated Principally by Commissions § 779.413 Methods of compensation of retail store employees. (a) Retail or service establishment employees are generally...

  11. Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Leslie, Natalie; Gaskill, LuAnn R.

    2006-01-01

    While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process…

  12. 29 CFR 779.411 - Employee of a “retail or service establishment”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Retail or Service Establishments Employees Compensated Principally by Commissions § 779.411 Employee of a “retail or service establishment”. In order for an employee to come within the exemption from the overtime... must be employed by a retail or service establishment. The term “retail or service establishment”...

  13. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  14. 29 CFR 779.245 - Conditions for coverage of retail or service enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditions for coverage of retail or service enterprises... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Retail Enterprise § 779.245 Conditions for coverage of retail or service enterprises. (a) Retail or service enterprises may be covered under section 3(s)(1) of the...

  15. 16 CFR 233.2 - Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fountain pens at $10, it is not dishonest for retailer Doe to advertise: “Brand X Pens, Price Elsewhere $10... technique. Retailer Doe advertises Brand X pens as having a “Retail Value $15.00, My Price $7.50,” when the... outlets in the area. For example, retailer Doe advertises Brand X pen as having “Comparable Value...

  16. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... establishments to which the retail concept does not apply. In other words this test requires that the establishment as a whole be recognized as a retail establishment although it makes or processes at the..., optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  17. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... establishments to which the retail concept does not apply. In other words this test requires that the establishment as a whole be recognized as a retail establishment although it makes or processes at the..., optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  18. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... establishments to which the retail concept does not apply. In other words this test requires that the establishment as a whole be recognized as a retail establishment although it makes or processes at the..., optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  19. Social marketing of condoms in India.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R

    1994-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed.

  20. Tobacco retail policy landscape: a longitudinal survey of US states

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Douglas A; Sorg, Amy A; Combs, Todd; Robichaux, Christopher B; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M; Henriksen, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background There are ∼380 000 tobacco retailers in the USA, where the largest tobacco companies spend almost $9 billion a year to promote their products. No systematic survey has been conducted of state-level activities to regulate the retail environment, thus little is known about what policies are being planned, proposed or implemented. Methods This longitudinal study is the first US survey of state tobacco control programmes (TCPs) about retail policy activities. Surveyed in 2012 and 2014, programme managers (n=46) reported activities in multiple domains: e-cigarettes, retailer density and licensing, non-tax price increases, product placement, advertising and promotion, health warnings and other approaches. Policy activities were reported in one of five levels: no formal activity, planning or advocating, policy was proposed, policy was enacted or policy was implemented. Overall and domain-specific activity scores were calculated for each state. Results The average retail policy activity almost doubled between 2012 and 2014. States with the largest increase in scores included: Minnesota, which established a fee-based tobacco retail licensing system and banned self-service for e-cigarettes and all other tobacco products (OTP); Oregon, Kansas and Maine, all of which banned self-service for OTP; and West Virginia, which banned some types of flavoured OTP. Conclusions Retail policy activities in US states increased dramatically in a short time. Given what is known about the impact of the retail environment on tobacco use by youth and adults, state and local TCPs may want diversify policy priorities by implementing retail policies alongside tax and smoke-free air laws. PMID:27697947

  1. What can health care marketing learn from bank marketing?

    PubMed

    Mindak, W A

    1988-01-01

    A useful technique in assessing opportunities for international marketers is called "lead lag" analysis. It suggests that one can predict developments, such as demand patterns, in one country by looking at an analogous country. Applying such a technique to the domestic scene, what could we predict about the development and application of marketing to the health care sector if we looked at an analogous service such as banking? Many experts believe that health care is following in the footsteps of banking and point to environmental similarities such as changes in government regulation, new forms of nontraditional competition, increased concern about retail sectors, and pressures on scarce resources. Are there lessons that health care marketers can learn from bankers that might help them avoid some false starts or expensive mistakes?

  2. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  3. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  4. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  5. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  6. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  7. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on retail yields of subprimals from beef and calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Haneklaus, A N; Hodgen, J M; Delmore, R J; Lawrence, T E; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W

    2011-09-01

    Retail cutting tests were conducted on subprimals from cattle fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to determine if the improved carcass composition and red meat yield resulting from ZH feeding would translate into increased retail yields of ready-to-cook products. As part of a 3-phase study, selection of carcasses from Holstein steers was done once (fall 2008), followed by the collection of carcasses from beef-type steers on 2 separate occasions (beef study I: summer 2009; beef study II: spring 2010). Each of the 3 groups of steers was assigned previously to 1 of 2 treatments, treated (fed 8.3 mg/kg of ZH for 20 d) or control (not fed ZH). All steers were slaughtered and carcasses were fabricated in commercial beef-processing establishments. Only those carcasses grading USDA Choice or higher were used. Five subprimals were used for both the calf-fed Holstein study (n = 546 subprimals) and beef study I (n = 576 subprimals): beef chuck, chuck roll; beef chuck, shoulder clod; beef round, sirloin tip (knuckle), peeled; beef round, top round; and beef round, outside round (flat). Seven subprimals were used in beef study II (n = 138 subprimals): beef chuck, chuck roll; beef round, sirloin tip (knuckle), peeled; beef round, top round; beef round, eye of round; beef loin, strip loin, boneless; beef loin, top sirloin butt, boneless; and beef loin, tenderloin. A simulated retail market environment was created, and 3 retail meat merchandisers prepared retail cuts from each subprimal so salable yields and processing times could be obtained. Differences in salable yields were found for the calf-fed Holstein steer chuck rolls (96.54% for ZH vs. 95.71% for control; P = 0.0045) and calf-fed Holstein steer top rounds (91.30% for ZH vs. 90.18% for control; P = 0.0469). However, other than heavier subprimals and an increased number of retail cuts obtained, total salable yields measured on a percentage basis and processing times were mostly unaffected by ZH. Cutability advantages of

  8. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves.

  9. Colored light application in retail display window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Milena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2002-06-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the usefulness of colored LEDs in retail display window applications. Human subjects viewed two side-by-side, identical mock-up display windows, and rated their preference. Subjects showed strong preference for the colored background, compared to the white background. In general, subjects disliked the modulated intensity background. Furthermore, the use of colored light (static red and blue) on the background allowed the accent light to be decreased without sacrificing visual appeal, ability to capture attention, and ability to see displayed objects clearly. It appears from this initial laboratory study that the amount of accent light can be reduced significantly, which could provide energy savings. We believe a field study would be greatly beneficial for further confirming these results and for quantifying the total energy savings in an actual store.

  10. A Multicultural Service Sensitivity Exercise for Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Mark S.; Moraru, Ioana; Labrecque, Lauren I.

    2013-01-01

    Services marketing and retailing courses place service quality at the heart of the curriculum, painting service providers as defenders of their customers' welfare and thwarters of service failures by ushering in recovery solutions. Yet academic literature and the popular press provide evidence that in some cases, service providers act as…

  11. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Advanced Salesmanship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers wholesale and retail selling techniques, sales performance analysis, and intensive sales presentation practice. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Sales Preparation, (2) The Selling Process, (3) Special Selling Techniques, and (4) Sales…

  12. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Basic Salesmanship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the basic elements of retail salesmanship, plus simulation and practice in making sales demonstrations. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Steps of the Sale and (2) Suggestion Selling. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that…

  13. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Advertising and Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the planning and writing of advertisements and organizing sales promotion and public relation activities in wholesale and retail businesses. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Advertising Fundamentals and (2) Promotion. Each unit begins with a Unit…

  14. Apparel Marketing. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn

    This document on apparel marketing contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 16 assignments: (1) introduction to fashion and fashion merchandising; (2) current fashion; (3) careers in fashion; (4) buying; (5) retailing; (6) merchandise basics; (7) merchandise--promotion and…

  15. Marketing the Products and Services of Information Analysis Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, H. William; Grattidge, Walter

    Information analysis centers must perform the function of evaluation as well as compilation, in order to generate products and services with increased utility and user acceptance. Also, these centers must perform a dual role as wholesaler and retailer. These roles, as well as problems and examples of production and marketing experiences, are…

  16. Food for Thought: Building a High-Quality School Choice Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Although the for-profit retail and nonprofit education markets are not identical, many of the strategies used by reformers to improve markets for banking and food services could nonetheless benefit public education. As district and community leaders, charter school authorizers, and policymakers expand the marketplace of schools, they would be…

  17. 75 FR 48686 - Tops Markets LLC; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... product categories, including bread and dairy products, refrigerated and frozen food and beverage products... the retail sale of food and other grocery products in supermarkets. II. The Parties Tops is a New York... Markets. III. The Proposed Complaint As outlined in the proposed Complaint, the relevant product market...

  18. Muscle profiling to improve the value of retail meat cuts.

    PubMed

    Jung, E Y; Hwang, Y H; Joo, S T

    2016-10-01

    Nutrition and meat quality are always important to consumers, but vary by individual muscle or muscle groups in retail meat cuts. Muscle profiling of nutrient content and palatability for all retail beef cuts is necessary to suggest healthy and tasty beef cuts and to inform consumers of the benefits of beef consumption. The current paper reviews numerous studies that provide muscle profiles for nutrients and palatability attributes of muscles or muscle groups in retail beef cuts. The composition of nutrients including protein, fat, moisture, vitamins, and minerals in beef cuts is documented as well as the nutritive role as a part of a healthy diet. In addition, this review presents knowledge in relation to innovative carcass fabrication and value-added cuts to improve the value of beef carcass. Finally, the current work emphasize the palatability assessment of individual beef muscles, and concludes that all retail beef cuts should be merchandised for proper cooking according to the palatability profiles of beef muscles.

  19. A Comparison of Three Policy Approaches for Tobacco Retailer Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Isgett, Lisa F.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine recommends that public health agencies restrict the number and regulate the location of tobacco retailers as a means of reducing tobacco use. However, the best policy strategy for tobacco retailer reduction is unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study is to test the percent reduction in the number and density of tobacco retailers in North Carolina resulting from three policies: (1) prohibiting sales of tobacco products in pharmacies or stores with a pharmacy counter, (2) restricting sales of tobacco products within 1,000 feet of schools, and (3) regulating to 500 feet the minimum allowable distance between tobacco outlets. Methods This study uses data from two lists of tobacco retailers gathered in 2012, one at the statewide level, and another “gold standard” three-county list. Retailers near schools were identified using point and parcel boundaries in ArcMap. Python programming language generated a random lottery system to remove retailers within 500 feet of each other. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results A minimum allowable distance policy had the single greatest impact and would reduce density by 22.1% at the state level, or 20.8% at the county level (range 16.6% to 27.9%). Both a pharmacy and near-schools ban together would reduce density by 29.3% at the state level, or 29.7% at the county level (range 26.3 to 35.6%). Conclusions The implementation of policies restricting tobacco sales in pharmacies, near schools, and/or in close proximity to another tobacco retailer would substantially reduce the number and density of tobacco retail outlets. PMID:25689540

  20. 17 CFR 5.5 - Distribution of “Risk Disclosure Statement” by retail foreign exchange dealers, futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. (a) Except as provided in § 5.23 of this part, no retail... introducing broker, may open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail...

  1. 17 CFR 5.5 - Distribution of “Risk Disclosure Statement” by retail foreign exchange dealers, futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. (a) Except as provided in § 5.23 of this part, no retail... introducing broker, may open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail...

  2. 17 CFR 5.5 - Distribution of “Risk Disclosure Statement” by retail foreign exchange dealers, futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. (a) Except as provided in § 5.23 of this part, no retail... introducing broker, may open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail...

  3. 17 CFR 5.5 - Distribution of “Risk Disclosure Statement” by retail foreign exchange dealers, futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. (a) Except as provided in § 5.23 of this part, no retail... introducing broker, may open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail...

  4. 29 CFR 779.312 - “Retail or service establishment”, defined in section 13(a)(2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âRetail or service establishmentâ, defined in section 13(a... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Statutory Meaning of Retail Or Service Establishment § 779.312 “Retail or...

  5. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  6. Institutional Change in Delivery of Dental Services: A Marketing Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Capon, Noel

    1982-01-01

    The recent appearance and growth of new delivery systems for dental services is examined from a marketing perspective. Analysis reveals that the growth of low priced, high throughput operations is consistent not only with marketing principles, but with the development of American retail institutions in general. Options for independent dentists in the face of this new competitive environment are discussed. (Am J Public Health 1982; 72:679-683.) PMID:7091457

  7. Lessons and Impressions of the Czech Capital Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-13

    traditionally focused on basic retail and commercial lending with little exposure to exotic instruments like Mortgage-backed Securities or Credit Default Swaps ... determining selection factors. Prior to the trip, the team built a social network model of the Czech Capital Markets using mainly information about firms...members of the Capital Market Network and determine the “structural holes” (both people and organizations) that exist in our initial model. The list

  8. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

  9. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  10. Toward retail product recognition on grocery shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varol, Gül; Kuzu, Rıdvan S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of retail product recognition on grocery shelf images. We present a technique for accomplishing this task with a low time complexity. We decompose the problem into detection and recognition. The former is achieved by a generic product detection module which is trained on a specific class of products (e.g. tobacco packages). Cascade object detection framework of Viola and Jones [1] is used for this purpose. We further make use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to recognize the brand inside each detected region. We extract both shape and color information; and apply feature-level fusion from two separate descriptors computed with the bag of words approach. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset (available on request) that we have collected for similar research purposes. Results are presented on this dataset of more than 5,000 images consisting of 10 tobacco brands. We show that satisfactory detection and classification can be achieved on devices with cheap computational power. Potential applications of the proposed approach include planogram compliance control, inventory management and assisting visually impaired people during shopping.

  11. Survey for Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat foods from retail establishments in the United States (2010-2013): assessing potential changes of pathogen prevalence and levels in a decade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-year Interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey (Lm MBS) was undertaken for selected categories of refrigerated ready-to eat (RTE) foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the U.S. Eighteen product types were sampled, including RTE seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs,...

  12. Prevalence, types, and geographical distribution of Listeria monocytogenes from a survey of retail Queso Fresco and associated cheese processing plants and dairy farms in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Enriquez, R I; Garcia-Galaz, A; Acedo-Felix, E; Gonzalez-Rios, I H; Call, J E; Luchansky, J B; Diaz-Cinco, M E

    2007-11-01

    In the first part of this study, samples were collected from farms, cheese processing plants (CPPs), and retail markets located in various geographical areas of Sonora, Mexico, over a 12-month period during the summer of 2004 and winter of 2005. Four (all Queso Fresco [QF] from retail markets) of 349 total samples tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Of these four positive samples, three were collected in the northern region and one in the southern region of Sonora. Additionally, two were collected during the winter months, and two were collected during the summer months. For the second part of the study, a total of 39 samples from a farm, a CPP, and retail markets were collected and processed according to a combination of the Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-143-SSA1-1995.10 method (NOM) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, and 27 samples from these same locations were collected and processed according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service method (USDA-FSIS). The NOM-FDA method recovered the pathogen from 6 (15%) of 39 samples (one cheese and five product contact surfaces), while the USDA-FSIS method recovered the pathogen from 5 (18.5%) of 27 samples (all product contact surfaces). In addition, the 40 isolates recovered from the 15 total samples that tested positive for Lm grouped into five distinct pulsotypes that were ca. 60% related, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The results of this study confirmed a 3.4% prevalence of Lm in QF collected from retail markets located in Sonora and no appreciable difference in the effectiveness of either the NOM-FDA or USDA-FSIS method to recover the pathogen from cheese or environmental samples.

  13. An audit of retail beef loin steak tenderness conducted in eight U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    George, M H; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E; Smith, G C

    1999-07-01

    An audit of supermarkets in eight U.S. cities was conducted to characterize retail beef loin steaks with respect to grade, postfabrication aging, and tenderness and to provide an interim measure of progress in industry efforts to improve retail beef tenderness. Top sirloin steaks (n = 819) and strip loin steaks (n = 827 paired steaks) were purchased at retail markets in Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Philadelphia, Phoenix, San Francisco, and Seattle and shipped to Colorado State University for measurement of shear force (both cut types) and evaluation by a trained sensory panel (strip loins only). Approximately 80% of the steaks originated from beef plants in Kansas, Texas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Postfabrication aging periods ranged from 2 to 87 d (mean = 20.8 d) for top sirloin steaks and from 2 to 91 d (mean = 19.2 d) for strip loin steaks, although most top sirloin (85%) and strip loin (91%) steaks were available for purchase 7 to 35 d after fabrication. The mix of quality grades was similar for both cuts: 60% Select, 31% "commodity" Choice, 6 to 7% "Certified" Choice, and 2 to 3% Prime. Shear force averaged 3.46 kg (SD = .74) for top sirloins and 3.05 kg (SD = .95) for strip loins; 75% of both steak types had shear force values between 2 and 4 kg. Postfabrication periods shorter than 7 d were associated with reduced (P < .05) tenderness, especially for top sirloin steaks. Higher quality grades were associated with greater (P < .05) tenderness (Prime > Choice > Select) for both cuts. Based on panel tenderness ratings, the approximate odds of obtaining a "slightly tough" or tougher strip loin steak at a retail supermarket were: 0 for Prime, 1 in 10 for "Certified" Choice, 1 in 5 for "commodity" Choice, and 1 in 4 for Select. Audit results suggest that tenderness characteristics of loin steaks have not changed materially since the National Beef Tenderness Survey was conducted in 1991 and that two primary focal points of the beef industry's efforts to improve

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  15. Changes in retail tobacco promotions in a cohort of stores before, during, and after a tobacco product display ban.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joanna E; Planinac, Lynn; Lavack, Anne; Robinson, Daniel; O'Connor, Shawn; DiNardo, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    We used a longitudinal design to investigate the impact of a government policy banning the display of tobacco products at the point of sale. The extent of tobacco promotions in 481 randomly selected stores was documented at 4 points in time (2005-2009). Tobacco promotions were greatly reduced after implementation of the display ban. A ban on the display of tobacco products and other signage and promotions at retail is a critical tobacco-control policy to reduce people's exposure to tobacco marketing.

  16. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  17. Occurence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. in retail fish samples in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ertas Onmaz, Nurhan; Abay, Secil; Karadal, Fulden; Hizlisoy, Harun; Telli, Nihat; Al, Serhat

    2015-01-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins, as well as Salmonella spp. and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates from fish samples. A total of 100 fish samples were analysed consisting of 30 anchovy, 35 trout and 35 sea bream. The presence of SEs was detected using ELISA and its genes confirmed by mPCR. Also, S. aureus and Salmonella spp. were detected in 9 (9%) and 5 (5%) samples, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates had SEs and SEs genes. The resistance rates of the S. aureus isolates to erythromycin, tetracycline, and penicillin G were found to be 33% while Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and neomycine in 20%, 20% and 80%, respectively of the samples. It is of utmost important for public health that retail fish markets need to use hygienic practices in handling and processing operations.

  18. How to Conduct Store Observations of Tobacco Marketing and Products.

    PubMed

    Feld, Ashley L; Johnson, Trent O; Byerly, Katherine W; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-02-18

    As tobacco companies continue to heavily market their products at the point of sale, tobacco control groups seek strategies to combat the negative effects of this marketing. Store observations, which have been widely used by researchers and practitioners alike, are an excellent surveillance tool. This article provides a guide for public health practitioners interested in working in the tobacco retail environment by detailing the steps involved in conducting store observations of tobacco marketing and products including 1) obtaining tobacco product retailer lists, 2) creating measures, 3) selecting a mode of data collection, 4) training data collectors, and 5) analyzing data. We also highlight issues that may arise while in the field and provide information on disseminating results of store observations, including the potential policy implications.

  19. How to Conduct Store Observations of Tobacco Marketing and Products

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Ashley L.; Johnson, Trent O.; Byerly, Katherine W.

    2016-01-01

    As tobacco companies continue to heavily market their products at the point of sale, tobacco control groups seek strategies to combat the negative effects of this marketing. Store observations, which have been widely used by researchers and practitioners alike, are an excellent surveillance tool. This article provides a guide for public health practitioners interested in working in the tobacco retail environment by detailing the steps involved in conducting store observations of tobacco marketing and products including 1) obtaining tobacco product retailer lists, 2) creating measures, 3) selecting a mode of data collection, 4) training data collectors, and 5) analyzing data. We also highlight issues that may arise while in the field and provide information on disseminating results of store observations, including the potential policy implications. PMID:26890408

  20. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  1. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility--Listening Sessions AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... regarding Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) retailer eligibility requirements (78 FR...

  2. Library of Congress: Status of Retail Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34 positions within the past 9 months, • completing the first draft of a business planning and marketing strategy for the Photoduplication Service...groups to the process of business planning and transition, • beginning discussions with an outside consultant experienced in launching e-commerce...Financial Management Services, and we reviewed related documents, including agency memorandums, financial data, business planning documentation and

  3. A Retailer's Experience with Irradiated Foods

    SciTech Connect

    James P. Corrigan

    2000-11-12

    A food irradiation success story comes from Northbrook, Illinois, where Carrot Top, Inc., has been routinely carrying irradiated food for more than 7 yr. This paper presents the experiences of Carrot Top during those years, details the marketing approaches used, and summarizes the resulting sales figures.

  4. High prevalence of Cfr-producing Staphylococcus species in retail meat in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The emergence and wide distribution of the transferable gene for linezolid resistance, cfr, in staphylococci of human and animal origins is of great concern as it poses a serious threat to the public health. In the present study, we investigated the emergence and presence of the multiresistance gene, cfr, in retail meat sourced from supermarkets and free markets of Guangzhou, China. Results A total of 118 pork and chicken samples, collected from Guangzhou markets, were screened by PCR for cfr. Twenty-two Staphylococcus isolates obtained from 12 pork and 10 chicken samples harbored cfr. The 22 cfr-positive staphylococci isolates, including Staphylococcus equorum (n = 8), Staphylococcus simulans (n = 7), Staphylococcus cohnii (n = 4), and Staphylococcus sciuri (n = 3), exhibited 17 major SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. In 14 isolates, cfr was located on the plasmids. Sequence analysis revealed that the genetic structures (including ΔtnpA of Tn558, IS21-558, ΔtnpB, and tnpC of Tn558, orf138, fexA) of cfr in plasmid pHNTLD18 of a S. sciuri strain and in the plasmid pHNLKJC2 (including rep, Δpre/mob, cfr, pre/mob and partial ermC) of a S. equorum strain were identical or similar to the corresponding regions of some plasmids in staphylococcal species of animal and human origins. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the presence of the multiresistance gene, cfr, in animal meat. A high occurrence of cfr was observed in the tested retail meat samples. Thus, it is important to monitor the presence of cfr in animal foods in China. PMID:24913069

  5. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  6. The Growth of Halal Meat Markets in Europe: An Exploration of the Supply Side Theory of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, John; Miele, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years dedicated markets for halal meat have emerged in a number of European countries. While ethnic stores still constitute the major retail outlet for halal meat in most countries, "halal" labelled meat and meat products are increasingly available in supermarkets and fast food restaurants. Market expansion has also…

  7. 27 CFR 31.94 - Retail dealers “At Large.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealers âAt Large.â 31.94 Section 31.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Locations § 31.94 Retail dealers “At Large.” A retail dealer in liquors or a retail dealer in beer...

  8. Cost and Utilization of Retail Clinics vs. Other Providers for Treatment of Pediatric Acute Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ian; Clark, Kara; Wang, Stacy

    2016-10-01

    A common acute condition seen by providers in retails clinics is the evaluation and treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children younger than age 20. Annual direct treatment costs for AOM were US $5.3 billion in 1998 dollars. Based on the experience of a large retail pharmacy employer, the authors compared AOM episodes in covered dependents younger than age 20 in retail clinic states to those in states without retail clinic access. Relative costs as well as frequency of visits and antibiotic prescriptions were analyzed for both retail clinic-based, and non-retail clinic-based episodes. Rates of AOM episodes were lower in retail clinic than in non-retail clinic states (62.5 vs. 76.9 per 1000 members per year; P < .0001). The average number of visits per episode was similar between retail clinic and non-retail clinic states (1.417 vs. 1.430, respectively; P = 0.657), suggesting that retail clinics do not result in an increase in overall utilization. On a risk-adjusted basis, retail clinic episodes cost approximately $30-$130 less than community episodes, depending on year. In retail clinic states, the antibiotic prescription fill rate was 95.4% for retail clinic episodes and 82.8% for community episodes, consistent with rates in the literature. This study confirms results of earlier studies that retail clinics are a less costly setting than the community for the treatment of episodes of otitis media There also is little evidence that retail clinics lead to duplication of services (patients receiving follow-up care in other settings).

  9. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, Mary; Jackson, Robert

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  10. Retail access pilot programs: Where`s the beef?

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, J.H.; Kahn, E.P.

    1996-12-01

    Retail access pilot programs are today`s pet rock. Unless they are well-defined and incorporated in a carefully designed experimental approach, retail access pilots will serve only to delay real change while creating the illusion that we`re actually learning something. Starting with the initiative of the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission and that state`s legislature, a flurry of interest in retail access pilot programs has developed. Exactly what experiment these programs are designed to implement remains some-what unclear, however. In this paper, the authors attempt to define the set of possible experimental goals and assess the potential benefits of this kind of experiment. They feel that there is less here than meets the eye, that these programs will either test trivial propositions or provide no real test of interesting questions. This does not mean the activity is worthless, but that a little care and honesty about the nature of these programs will go a long way to sort out what they can and cannot teach an interested public policy maker or corporate executive. The authors begin the discussion in Section I, looking briefly at the mother of all retail pilot programs, the New Hampshire experiment. Many issues raised by this experiment are generic. In Section II they discuss the time frame and scale of retail pilots. Section III addresses technical and administrative issues, where most of the substance may actually lie. In Section IV they discuss some examples of how a retail pilot might be linked to other objectives. The authors summarize their views in Section V.

  11. A Study of Central Auction Based Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola

    The deregulation of electricity markets produced significant economic benefits, reducing prices to customers and opening several opportunities for new actors, e.g., new generators and distributors. A prominent scientific and technological challenge is the automation of such markets. In particular, we focus our attention on wholesale electricity markets based on a central auction. In these markets, generators sell electricity by means of a central auction to a public authority. Instead, the distribution of electricity to customers takes part in retail markets. The main works presented in the literature model wholesale markets as oligopolies, neglecting thus the specific auction mechanism. In this paper, we enrich these models by introducing an auction mechanism shaped on that used in the Italian wholesale electricity market, we solve the winner determination problem, and we preliminarily study the problem of searching for equilibria.

  12. 75 FR 43182 - Voluntary Registration by Authorized Officials of Non-Covered Retail Food Establishments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... (hereinafter ``chain retail food establishments''), and for certain foods sold in vending machines operated by... (hereinafter ``chain vending machine operators''). For chain retail food establishments, as that term is used... regulations. B. What is the effect of voluntary registration under section 4205? Unlike chain retail...

  13. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  14. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  15. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  16. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  17. 76 FR 70965 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand for the period... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See...

  18. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on polyethylene retail carrier bags from China, Malaysia... Publication 4160 (June 2010), entitled Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from China, Malaysia, and...

  19. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for...) published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August...

  20. 75 FR 34699 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping... order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2008, through... September 22, 2009, in response to requests from the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and...

  1. 77 FR 2959 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Dongguan... PRCBs from the PRC. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the...

  2. 76 FR 68137 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... On September 28, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published Polyethylene Retail... ministerial error pursuant to 19 CFR 351.224(c) from the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and...

  3. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... imports from Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00 of... (April 2010), entitled Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and...

  4. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Dongguan... Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9,...

  5. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... rescinding its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs..., through July 31, 2012.\\1\\ On August 31, 2012, the petitioners, the Polyethylene Retail Carrier...

  6. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  7. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  8. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption limited to ârecognized retail establishmentâ... Retail or Service Establishments Engaging in Manufacturing and Processing Activities; Section 13(a)(4) § 779.347 Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt. The section...

  9. Retailing. Instructor's Guide Sheets and Instructor's Package, Modules R 1-45. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This package contains instructor's guide sheets and student task assignment sheets for Modules R 1-45 of the competency-based curriculum in retailing developed for use in secondary and postsecondary schools in Kentucky. Some of the topics covered in the modules include the following: retailing--past, present, and future; retailing occupations;…

  10. HUMAN RELATIONS IN RETAILING, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRADONI, E. JOHN; SHERRILL, HUNTING

    THIS IS A GUIDE FOR THE POTENTIAL RETAIL SUPERVISOR, OR ACTUAL SUPERVISOR, WHICH SUGGESTS SOUND APPROACHES TO BUILDING GOOD INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SUPERVISOR AND HIS STAFF, AND BETWEEN THE RETAIL STORE AND THE CUSTOMERS. THE COURSE IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) A PROFILE OF THE RETAIL SUPERVISOR, (2) ON-THE-JOB BEHAVIOR OF THE…

  11. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Practices which put... which put retailer independence at risk. The practices specified in this section put retailer... practices that put retailer independence at risk. (a) The act by an industry member of resetting stock on...

  12. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes at the retail level. 779.262 Section 779.262... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.262 Excise taxes at the retail level. (a) Federal excise taxes are imposed at the retail level on highway vehicle fuels other than gasoline under the provisions of 26 U.S.C....

  13. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  14. 29 CFR 779.263 - Excise taxes not at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes not at the retail level. 779.263 Section 779... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.263 Excise taxes not at the retail level. There are also a wide variety of taxes levied at the manufacturer's or distributor's level and not at the retail level. It should...

  15. Information Systems and Technology Sourcing Strategies and Performance of E-Retailers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Juliana Yuh-Shun

    2012-01-01

    The e-Retail industry has grown rapidly over the last few years and is projected to continue its upward trend as consumers shift from traditional channels to online channels. In March 2010, Forrester Research forecasted that online retail sales will grow by 10% a year for the next 5 years and e-Retail sales will amount to $249 billion by 2014.…

  16. 16 CFR 1616.62 - Policy regarding retail display requirements for items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy regarding retail display requirements...) Interpretations and Policies § 1616.62 Policy regarding retail display requirements for items. For purposes of the retail display and identification requirements of § 1616.31(c), and for those purposes only, any...

  17. 16 CFR 1616.62 - Policy regarding retail display requirements for items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy regarding retail display requirements...) Interpretations and Policies § 1616.62 Policy regarding retail display requirements for items. For purposes of the retail display and identification requirements of § 1616.31(c), and for those purposes only, any...

  18. 16 CFR 1616.62 - Policy regarding retail display requirements for items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy regarding retail display requirements...) Interpretations and Policies § 1616.62 Policy regarding retail display requirements for items. For purposes of the retail display and identification requirements of § 1616.31(c), and for those purposes only, any...

  19. 16 CFR 1616.62 - Policy regarding retail display requirements for items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy regarding retail display requirements...) Interpretations and Policies § 1616.62 Policy regarding retail display requirements for items. For purposes of the retail display and identification requirements of § 1616.31(c), and for those purposes only, any...

  20. 16 CFR 1616.62 - Policy regarding retail display requirements for items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy regarding retail display requirements...) Interpretations and Policies § 1616.62 Policy regarding retail display requirements for items. For purposes of the retail display and identification requirements of § 1616.31(c), and for those purposes only, any...

  1. Influence of Image Interactivity on Approach Responses towards an Online Retailer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Ann Marie; Jin, Hyun-Jeong

    2003-01-01

    Measured the effect of exposure to an image interactivity function from an apparel retailer's Web site on approach responses towards the retailer. Dependent variables included attitude towards the online store, willingness to purchase, probability of spending more time than planned shopping, and likelihood of patronizing the online retailer's…

  2. Training in the Retail Sector. A Survey for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Wilfried; And Others

    Training in the retail sector throughout the 12 European Community (EC) member countries was examined through in-depth case studies of 55 retail firms that were selected as representing a wide range of firm types (19 multinational, 36 national, 4 cooperative, 7 family-owned firms), forms of retailing (department stores, supermarkets, and chain and…

  3. Occurrence and Characterization of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuhong; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that potentially causes infant and adult diarrhea. The occurrence and characteristics of EPEC in retail ready-to-eat (RTE) foods have not been thoroughly investigated in China. This study aimed to investigate EPEC occurrence in retail RTE foods sold in the markets of China and to characterize the isolated EPEC by serotyping, virulence gene analyses, antibiotic susceptibility test, and molecular typing based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). From May 2012 to April 2013, 459 RTE food samples were collected from retail markets in 24 cities of China. E. coli in general, and EPEC specifically, were detected in 144 (31.4%) and 39 (8.5%) samples, respectively. Cold vegetable in sauce was the food type most frequently contaminated with EPEC (18.6%). Of 39 EPEC isolates, 38 were atypical EPEC (eae+) and 1 was typical EPEC (eae+bfpA+) by multiplex PCR assays. The virulence genes espA, espB, tir, and iha were detected in 12, 9, 2, and 1 of 39 isolates, respectively, while genes toxB, etpD, katP, and saa were not detected. O-antigen serotyping results showed that among 28 typeable isolates, the most common serotype was O119, followed by O26, O111, and O128. Many isolates were resistant to tetracycline (64.1%; 25/39), ampicillin (48.7%; 19/39), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (48.7%; 19/39). ERIC-PCR indicated high genetic diversity in EPEC strains, which classified 42 strains (39 isolates and 3 reference strains) into 32 different profiles with a discrimination index of 0.981. The findings of this study highlight the need for close surveillance of the RTE foods at the level of production, packaging, and storage to minimize risks of foodborne disease.

  4. “Smoking Revolution” A Content Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Retail Websites

    PubMed Central

    Grana, Rachel A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. Purpose To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Methods Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Results Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%), increased social status (44%), enhanced social activity (32%), romance (31%), and use by celebrities (22%). Conclusions Health claims and smoking cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. PMID:24650842

  5. Multiscale agent-based consumer market modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.; Macal, C. M.; St. Aubin, J.; Thimmapuram, P.; Bragen, M.; Hahn, J.; Karr, J.; Brigham, N.; Lacy, M. E.; Hampton, D.; Decision and Information Sciences; Procter & Gamble Co.

    2010-05-01

    Consumer markets have been studied in great depth, and many techniques have been used to represent them. These have included regression-based models, logit models, and theoretical market-level models, such as the NBD-Dirichlet approach. Although many important contributions and insights have resulted from studies that relied on these models, there is still a need for a model that could more holistically represent the interdependencies of the decisions made by consumers, retailers, and manufacturers. When the need is for a model that could be used repeatedly over time to support decisions in an industrial setting, it is particularly critical. Although some existing methods can, in principle, represent such complex interdependencies, their capabilities might be outstripped if they had to be used for industrial applications, because of the details this type of modeling requires. However, a complementary method - agent-based modeling - shows promise for addressing these issues. Agent-based models use business-driven rules for individuals (e.g., individual consumer rules for buying items, individual retailer rules for stocking items, or individual firm rules for advertizing items) to determine holistic, system-level outcomes (e.g., to determine if brand X's market share is increasing). We applied agent-based modeling to develop a multi-scale consumer market model. We then conducted calibration, verification, and validation tests of this model. The model was successfully applied by Procter & Gamble to several challenging business problems. In these situations, it directly influenced managerial decision making and produced substantial cost savings.

  6. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W.; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues. PMID:26180986

  7. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues.

  8. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  9. Prevalence, numbers and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. in retail poultry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lay, Kruy Sun; Vuthy, Yith; Song, Ping; Phol, Khem; Sarthou, Jean Louis

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastro-enteritis; and raw poultry is considered to be an important source of these bacteria. To evaluate whether the Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. bacteria could be monitored for the purpose of microbial presence, enumeration and antimicrobial resistance in raw poultry, 152 poultry carcasses were randomly selected from 10 markets in retail outlets of Phnom Penh during March 2006 to February 2007. The majority of poultry samples was contaminated by Salmonella serovars (88.2%) and Campylobacter spp. (80.9%). A very high contamination of Salmonella was found at 3-4 log₁₀ CFU/g for 22.4% of samples and of Campylobacter at 7-8 log₁₀ CFU/g for 1.3% of samples. Fifty nine different Salmonella serovars contaminated 134 poultry carcasses; five most prevalent serovars covered 29.1% of serovars isolates (Anatum, Typhimurium, Corvallis, Stanley and Enteritidis). Three Campylobacter species contaminating 123 raw poultry were Campylobacter jejuni (50.0%), Campylobacter coli (29.0%) and Campylobacter lari (21.0%). High antibiotic resistance percentages were found among Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. isolates. This study revealed that raw poultry at the retail outlets in Phnom Penh markets are contaminated with high prevalences of food-borne pathogens, and communicating the importance of minimizing this risk in reducing human infections.

  10. Farm-to-Consumer Retail Outlet Use, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, and Obesity Status among WIC Program Participants in Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Baskin, Monica; Levitan, Emily B.; Sen, Bisakha; Affuso, Ermanno; Affuso, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We studied whether use of farm-to-consumer (FTC) retail outlets (eg, farmers market, farm/roadside stand) was associated with daily fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake or obesity status among women who participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Birmingham, AL. Methods We used a cross-sectional study design and recruited a convenience sample of 312 women (mean age = 27.6; 67.0% non-Hispanic black; 45.6% obese) participating in Birmingham’s WIC Program. Participants were recruited between October 2014 and January 2015. Participants who self-reported purchasing produce from a FTC outlet during the 2014 farmers’ market season were classified as FTC outlet users. Multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to examine associations between FTC outlet use, daily F&V intake, and obesity status (ie, body mass index ≥ 30). Results Approximately 26.1% of participants were classified as FTC outlet users. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors and WIC Cash Value Voucher redemption, FTC outlet use was associated with increased odds of consuming ≥ 5 servings of F&Vs per day (OR: 2.01; 95%: 1.15 – 3.50), but not obesity status (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.39 – 1.20). Conclusions FTC retail outlet use was associated with F&V intake among program participants but not obesity status. PMID:27338991

  11. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  12. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  13. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  14. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022 Section 10.1022 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  15. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022 Section 10.1022 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  16. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022 Section 10.1022 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  17. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO; Eff. 6-22-10 Prohibition of Sale and... sales of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to any person comply with the following requirements: (a) No retailer may sell cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to any person younger than 18 years of age; (b)(1)...

  18. Tobacco retail regulation: the next frontier in tobacco control?

    PubMed

    Smyth, Colleen; Freeman, Becky; Maag, Audrey

    2015-07-09

    Australia has experienced significant reductions in smoking rates in recent decades, and public health scrutiny is turning to how further gains will be made. Regulatory controls, such as licensing to reduce retailer density or limit tobacco proximity to schools or licensed premises, have been suggested by some public health advocates as appropriate next steps. This paper summarises best-practice evidence in relation to tobacco retailer regulation, noting measures undertaken in New South Wales (NSW). Research on controlling the display of tobacco products and supply of tobacco to minors is well established. The evidence shows that a combination of licensing, enforcement, education, promotion restrictions at the point of sale and a well-funded compliance program to prevent sales to minors is a best-practice approach to tobacco retail regulation. The evidence for other measures - such as restricting the number of retail outlets, and restricting how and where tobacco is sold - is far less developed. There is insufficient evidence to determine if a positive licensing system and controls on the density and location of tobacco outlets would be effective in the Australian context. More evidence is required from jurisdictions that have implemented a positive licensing scheme to evaluate the effect of such schemes on smoking rates, the potential cost benefits and any unintended consequences.

  19. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: In-Store Retailing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the in-store retailing cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards…

  20. 77 FR 24456 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...) is announcing the dollar limitations on the amount of meat and meat food products and poultry and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... $61,900 to $67,300 and for poultry products from $50,200 to $51,700. FSIS is changing the...

  1. 75 FR 37378 - Exemption for Retail Store Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ..., poultry and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions... but for poultry products is being increased from $49,400 to $50,200. FSIS is retaining or changing the... Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et...

  2. 76 FR 19741 - Exemption for Retail Store Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ..., poultry and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions... from $60,200 to $61,900 but for poultry products will remain at $50,200. FSIS is retaining or changing... Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et...

  3. 78 FR 23902 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...) is announcing the dollar limitations on the amount of meat and meat food products, poultry, and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... $67,300 to $69,600 and for poultry products from $51,700 to $54,500. FSIS is changing the...

  4. Perspective view of IOOF Building (5 North F Street), retail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of IOOF Building (5 North F Street), retail store (11 North F Street), and general merchandise (15 North F Street), all historic-contributing features of the district - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  5. 76 FR 47275 - Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... promulgated by the Postal Service concerning the methods to close or consolidate postal retail facilities.\\3..., the Commission expects parties to make judicious use of discovery, discovery objections, and motions.... See 39 CFR 3001.20 and 3001.20a. Discovery may be propounded upon filing a notice of...

  6. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  7. The Skills Implications of Electronic Retailing. IES Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackey, Nii Djan; Hillage, Jim; Jagger, Nick; Bates, Peter

    The skills and education/training implications of the development of electronic commerce in the United Kingdom's retail industry and its associated supply chain were examined. The major data collection activities were as follows: a literature review; consultation with leading academics and advisers; an e-mail-based call for information from…

  8. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes...

  9. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes...

  10. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes...

  11. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes...

  12. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  13. Volatile organic compounds in fourteen U.S. retail stores.

    PubMed

    Nirlo, E L; Crain, N; Corsi, R L; Siegel, J A

    2014-10-01

    Retail buildings have a potential for both short-term (customer) and long-term (occupational) exposure to indoor pollutants. However, little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the retail sector and influencing factors, such as ventilation, in-store activities, and store type. We measured VOC concentrations and ventilation rates in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania. With the exception of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, VOCs were present in retail stores at concentrations well below health guidelines. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 4.6 ppb to 67 ppb. The two mid-sized grocery stores in the sample had the highest levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde, with concentrations up to 2.6 ppm and 92 ppb, respectively, possibly due to the preparation of dough and baking activities. Indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratios indicated that indoor sources were the main contributors to indoor VOC concentrations for the majority of compounds. There was no strong correlation between ventilation and VOC concentrations across all stores. However, increasing the air exchange rates at two stores led to lower indoor VOC concentrations, suggesting that ventilation can be used to reduce concentrations for some specific stores.

  14. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

  15. Retail E-Commerce Security Status among Fortune 500 Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the "Fortune 500" corporations' retail e-commerce security to identify their strengths and weaknesses for improvement. They used online content analysis, information security auditing, and network security mapping for data collection and analysis. The findings indicate that most sites posted security policies; however, only…

  16. Retail Flower Shop Salesperson and Floral Designer. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This document consists of the student manual for a course in retail flower shop sales and floral design for use in vocational education courses in high schools in South Carolina. The guide consists of 22 learning modules that incorporate the subject matter needed by workers in these jobs. Each learning module consists of an introduction,…

  17. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  18. 24 CFR 3286.113 - Information provided by retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Administered States § 3286.113 Information provided by retailer. (a) Tracking information. Within 30 days from... Manufactured Housing Programs, HUD, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Room 9164, Washington, DC 20410-8000, or to a fax... under § 3286.115....

  19. 24 CFR 3286.113 - Information provided by retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Administered States § 3286.113 Information provided by retailer. (a) Tracking information. Within 30 days from... Manufactured Housing Programs, HUD, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Room 9164, Washington, DC 20410-8000, or to a fax... under § 3286.115....

  20. 24 CFR 3286.113 - Information provided by retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Administered States § 3286.113 Information provided by retailer. (a) Tracking information. Within 30 days from... Manufactured Housing Programs, HUD, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Room 9164, Washington, DC 20410-8000, or to a fax... under § 3286.115....

  1. 24 CFR 3286.113 - Information provided by retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Administered States § 3286.113 Information provided by retailer. (a) Tracking information. Within 30 days from... Manufactured Housing Programs, HUD, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Room 9164, Washington, DC 20410-8000, or to a fax... under § 3286.115....

  2. 24 CFR 3286.113 - Information provided by retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Administered States § 3286.113 Information provided by retailer. (a) Tracking information. Within 30 days from... Manufactured Housing Programs, HUD, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Room 9164, Washington, DC 20410-8000, or to a fax... under § 3286.115....

  3. Clostridium difficile in retail meat and processing plants in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile (Cd) have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains of Cd. Toxigenic Cd has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer ...

  4. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cigarette Prices in Military Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher Keith; Hyder, Melissa L.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Williams, Larry N.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of tobacco pricing in military retail outlets, including trends within each service branch. Methods. We determined the price of a single pack of Marlboro Red cigarettes at military retail stores located in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii and at their nearest Walmarts in spring 2011 and 2013 (n = 128 for pairs available at both assessments). Results. The average difference between cigarettes sold in military retail outlets and Walmarts decreased from 24.5% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2013. The decrease was partially attributable to significant price decreases at Walmarts. The largest increases in cigarette prices occurred on naval installations. Potential savings at stores on several installations remained substantial in 2013; the largest approached $6 per pack. Stores on 17 military installations decreased cigarette prices during the study period. Conclusions. Tobacco can be purchased in military retail stores at substantial savings over civilian stores. If tobacco pricing is to cease to be an incentive for use among personnel, a revised military tobacco pricing policy is needed. PMID:24524503

  5. Real-time video analysis for retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ehtesham; Maurya, Avinash K.

    2015-03-01

    With the advancement in video processing technologies, we can capture subtle human responses in a retail store environment which play decisive role in the store management. In this paper, we present a novel surveillance video based analytic system for retail stores targeting localized and global traffic estimate. Development of an intelligent system for human traffic estimation in real-life poses a challenging problem because of the variation and noise involved. In this direction, we begin with a novel human tracking system by an intelligent combination of motion based and image level object detection. We demonstrate the initial evaluation of this approach on available standard dataset yielding promising result. Exact traffic estimate in a retail store require correct separation of customers from service providers. We present a role based human classification framework using Gaussian mixture model for this task. A novel feature descriptor named graded colour histogram is defined for object representation. Using, our role based human classification and tracking system, we have defined a novel computationally efficient framework for two types of analytics generation i.e., region specific people count and dwell-time estimation. This system has been extensively evaluated and tested on four hours of real-life video captured from a retail store.

  6. 17 CFR 5.6 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by retail foreign exchange dealers and futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... engaging in retail forex transactions. 5.6 Section 5.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex... engage in retail forex transactions and each person registered as a retail foreign exchange dealer or...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15b12-1 - Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a retail forex business. 240.15b12-1 Section 240.15b12-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... § 240.15b12-1 Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business. (a) Definitions. In addition to the...) Retail forex business means engaging in one or more retail forex transactions with the intent to...

  8. 17 CFR 5.6 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by retail foreign exchange dealers and futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... engaging in retail forex transactions. 5.6 Section 5.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex... engage in retail forex transactions and each person registered as a retail foreign exchange dealer or...

  9. 17 CFR 5.6 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by retail foreign exchange dealers and futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... engaging in retail forex transactions. 5.6 Section 5.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex... engage in retail forex transactions and each person registered as a retail foreign exchange dealer or...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15b12-1T - Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a retail forex business. 240.15b12-1T Section 240.15b12-1T Commodity and Securities Exchanges... § 240.15b12-1T Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business. (a) Definitions. In addition to... et seq.). (2) Retail forex business means engaging in one or more retail forex transactions with...

  11. 17 CFR 5.6 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by retail foreign exchange dealers and futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... engaging in retail forex transactions. 5.6 Section 5.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex... engage in retail forex transactions and each person registered as a retail foreign exchange dealer or...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15b12-1T - Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a retail forex business. 240.15b12-1T Section 240.15b12-1T Commodity and Securities Exchanges... § 240.15b12-1T Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business. (a) Definitions. In addition to... et seq.). (2) Retail forex business means engaging in one or more retail forex transactions with...

  13. 29 CFR 779.316 - Establishments outside “retail concept” not within statutory definition; lack first requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Retailâ § 779.316 Establishments outside “retail concept” not within statutory definition; lack first... insurance company are not ordinarily thought of as retail transactions. The same is true of an electric..., therefore, a concept of retail selling or servicing does not exist. That it was the intent of Congress...

  14. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand within the 120- day time limit due...

  15. 29 CFR 779.330 - Third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.330 Third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment.” The third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service...

  16. Energy and environmental efficiency in competitive power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    For years the electric utility industry operated as a regulated monopoly, largely immune to market forces except those of competing fuels. That era came to an end with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1974, which created a market for non-utility generated power. Within twenty years, non-regulated, non-utility generators had become the primary supplier of new energy resources. Their market power is matched by their political power, as evidenced in the Energy Policy Act of 1994 (EPAct), which requires open access to utility transmission lines to facilitate inter-utility bulk power sales. The conventional wisdom is that active wholesale power markets with competition among alternative generators will lead to lower power-development costs and cheaper retail power prices. The trend towards alternative bulk power sources at low prices intersects with large retail power customers` interest in accessing alternative power supplies. In most cases, these alternatives to local utilities are at a lower cost than retail rates. For the most part, proponents of generation competition have remained silent about potential environmental consequences. However, skeptics of increased competition, including major environmental groups, cite environmental impacts among their concerns. This report examines these concerns.

  17. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  18. Tobacco retail clustering around schools in New York City: examining "place" and "space".

    PubMed

    Frick, Mike; Castro, Marcia C

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether tobacco retailers cluster around schools in New York City. Retail clustering is assessed through two measures: (1) proximity of retailers to schools and (2) density of retailers around schools. Through exploratory spatial statistics and OLS regression, we analyze how retailer density and proximity to schools vary in relation to socio-demographic differences across NYC community districts. As a secondary objective, we test whether patterns of retail clustering differ when assessed by proximity versus density. We identify areas of positive spatial autocorrelation in lower Manhattan and the Bronx, indicating that some NYC community districts have significantly higher density of tobacco retailers around schools than others. The density and proximity of tobacco retailers to schools co-vary with population density, commercial land use and broad indicators of social disadvantage including health insurance coverage. We also find that patterns of retail clustering differ when assessed using either density or proximity, suggesting that land use interventions that restrict tobacco retail proximity to schools might not address retailer density around schools.

  19. Pockets of opportunity: multicultural marketing strategies for BEP growth.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Ranked among the 50 largest food service corporations in America, the Randolph-Sheppard Business Enterprise Program (BEP) represents a challenging and rewarding career opportunity for Americans who are legally blind. In recent years, however, the number of facilities and facility managers has declined. Multicultural consumers represent a major emerging growth market. The multicultural market is one of the most overlooked retail markets in the United States--and the one with the most buying power and growth potential. Multicultural marketing is among the least understood strategies available to facility managers, vocational rehabilitation counselors and BEP directors. Four major minority markets are discussed and marketing strategies are offered to help BEPs target and serve these unique consumers.

  20. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  1. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers.

  2. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers. PMID:22345238

  3. Probabilistic model for Listeria monocytogenes growth during distribution, retail storage, and domestic storage of pasteurized milk.

    PubMed

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos; Pavlis, Athanasios; Nychas, George-John E; Xanthiakos, Konstantinos

    2010-04-01

    A survey on the time-temperature conditions of pasteurized milk in Greece during transportation to retail, retail storage, and domestic storage and handling was performed. The data derived from the survey were described with appropriate probability distributions and introduced into a growth model of Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk which was appropriately modified for taking into account strain variability. Based on the above components, a probabilistic model was applied to evaluate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the chill chain of pasteurized milk using a Monte Carlo simulation. The model predicted that, in 44.8% of the milk cartons released in the market, the pathogen will grow until the time of consumption. For these products the estimated mean total growth of L. monocytogenes during transportation, retail storage, and domestic storage was 0.93 log CFU, with 95th and 99th percentiles of 2.68 and 4.01 log CFU, respectively. Although based on EU regulation 2073/2005 pasteurized milk produced in Greece belongs to the category of products that do not allow the growth of L. monocytogenes due to a shelf life (defined by law) of 5 days, the above results show that this shelf life limit cannot prevent L. monocytogenes from growing under the current chill chain conditions. The predicted percentage of milk cartons-initially contaminated with 1 cell/1-liter carton-in which the pathogen exceeds the safety criterion of 100 cells/ml at the time of consumption was 0.14%. The probabilistic model was used for an importance analysis of the chill chain factors, using rank order correlation, while selected intervention and shelf life increase scenarios were evaluated. The results showed that simple interventions, such as excluding the door shelf from the domestic storage of pasteurized milk, can effectively reduce the growth of the pathogen. The door shelf was found to be the warmest position in domestic refrigerators, and it was most frequently used by the

  4. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    Customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States are often compensated at the customer’s underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Calculations of the customer economics of PV, meanwhile, often assume that retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms will not change and that retail electricity prices will increase (or remain constant) over time, thereby also increasing (or keeping constant) the value of bill savings from PV. Given the multitude of potential changes to retail rates and PV compensation mechanisms in the future, however, understanding how such changes might impact the value of bill savings from PV is critical for policymakers, regulators, utilities, the solar industry, and potential PV owners, i.e., any stakeholder interested in understanding uncertainties in and potential changes to the long-term customer economics of PV. This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV.

  5. The super practice: a marketing and professionalism hybrid.

    PubMed

    Farran, H

    2000-04-01

    The old standard dental practice of yesterday, with a stubborn dentist who thinks marketing and advertising (concepts key to retail establishment success) are "unethical" doesn't cut it anymore. The practical retail concepts discussed about in this article allow dentists to create a marketing and professionalism hybrid. Providing first-class, customer-service treatment is the underlying principle. Patients who feel their dentist and staff know them will always feel at ease and a great sense of loyalty. The reward for treating patients like customers, consumers, and friends is that patients patronize businesses, including dental practices that meet or exceed their expectations. There's a man driving down your street right now with a toothache. Will it be your practice or the one down the block.

  6. Price regulation and generic competition in the pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Strøm, Steinar; Haabeth, Tonje

    2006-09-01

    In March 2003 the Norwegian government implemented yardstick-based price regulation schemes on a selection of drugs subjected to generic competition. The retail price cap, termed the "index price," on a drug (chemical substance) was set equal to the average of the three lowest producer prices on that drug, plus a fixed wholesale and retail margin. This is supposed to lower barriers of entry for generic drugs and to trigger price competition. Using monthly data over the period 1998-2004 for the six drugs (chemical entities) included in the index price system, we estimate a structural model enabling us to examine the impact of the reform on both demand and market power. Our results suggest that the index price helped to increase the market shares of generic drugs and succeeded in triggering price competition.

  7. A dynamic agent-based analysis for the environmental impacts of conventional and novel book retailing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Allenby, Braden; Kim, Junbeum; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2009-04-15

    The dynamics of an e-commerce market and the associated environmental impacts from a bottom-up perspective using an agent-based model is explored. A conceptual meta-theory from psychology is adopted to form the behavioral rules of artificial consumers choosing different methods of buying a book, including conventional bookstores, e-commerce, and a proposed self-pick-up option. Given the energy and emissions savings that result from a shift to e-commerce from bookstore purchase, it appears that reductions in environmental impacts are relatively probable. Additionally, our results suggest that the shift to e-commerce is mainly due to the growth of Internet users, which ties energy and emissions savings to Internet penetration. Moreover, under any scenario, the energy and emissions savings will be provided by the introduction of the proposed self-pick-up option. Our model thus provides insights into market behaviors and related environmental impacts of the growing use of e-commerce systems at the retail level, and provides a basis for the development and implementation of more sustainable policies and practices.

  8. 7 CFR 46.24 - Records of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Records of...

  9. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  10. Harried LP-gas marketers recount the recent price/supply nightmare

    SciTech Connect

    Prowler, S

    1990-02-01

    This article presents a survey of several LP-gas marketers, who discuss how their companies responded to the propane fuel crisis during the winter of 1989-1990. wholesale and retail pricing, as well as consumer response during this period are described. Supply strategies for the future are discussed.

  11. Bridging Marketing Theory and Practice for Consumer Behaviour Master's Students: A Case Study from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Malin; Hagberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the planning, implementation and outcome of a graduate-level consumer behaviour course taught in autumn 2008 at the University of Boras in Sweden. The course was jointly developed by marketing academics and business representatives in order to combine research-oriented studies with practical experience in a retail context. The…

  12. Occurrence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen associated with severe disease in humans. We determined the prevalence, levels, antimicrobial susceptibility, and pulsotypes of L. monocytogenes in foodstuffs of common sale in three retail markets of Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. The pathogen was isolate...

  13. Contraceptive social marketing: a continuous cycle of planning, testing and evaluating.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    This article outlines the contraceptive marketing process used by the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project. The 1st stage of the process involves analysis of the market, the consumer, and the social marketing organization's capabilities. In the 2nd stage, planning, data collected in the analysis stage are used to define objectives, segment target markets, and devise strategies for each element in the marketing mix. In the 3rd stage, all the elements in the marketing mix are developed and tested (e.g. product concepts, pricing, packaging, communication messages) and refined on the basis of test results. In stage 4, the action plan is implemented and marketing progress and institutional performance are monitored. Stage 5 includes an assessment of in-market effectiveness in terms of responses from consumers, retailers, and health professionals. The last stage feeds back to the 1st. All the reviewed data are recycled into analysis to begin again the continuous process of refinement and improvement.

  14. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report, Sixth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2003-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, nearly 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 350 investor-owned utilities, rural electric cooperatives, and other publicly owned utilities in 33 states offer green power programs. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. It describes green power product offerings, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The three distinct markets for green power are discussed in turn.

  15. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  16. Microbiological quality of retail spices in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Koohy-Kamaly-Dehkordy, Paliz; Nikoopour, Houshang; Siavoshi, Farideh; Koushki, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The microbiological quality of 351 samples of nine types of spices including black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, cow parsnip, curry powder, garlic powder, red pepper, sumac, and turmeric, collected from retail shops in Tehran during 2007, was determined. The numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and molds exceeded Iran's National Standard limits, at 63.2% (>5 × 10(5) CFU/g), 23.4% (>0.3 MPN/g), and 21.9% (>5 × 10(3) CFU/g) of the studied samples, respectively. Coliform contamination was more than 10(3) MPN/g in 24.8% of samples. High contamination of retail spices is considered an indication of environmental or fecal contamination due to unhygienic practices in their production. Use of spices with high microbial content could increase the chance of food spoilage and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Accordingly, application of food safety measurements to reduce microbial counts in spices is strongly recommended.

  17. Embedded Vision Sensor Network for Planogram Maintenance in Retail Environments

    PubMed Central

    Frontoni, Emanuele; Mancini, Adriano; Zingaretti, Primo

    2015-01-01

    A planogram is a detailed visual map that establishes the position of the products in a retail store. It is designed to supply the best location of a product for suppliers to support an innovative merchandising approach, to increase sales and profits and to better manage the shelves. Deviating from the planogram defeats the purpose of any of these goals, and maintaining the integrity of the planogram becomes a fundamental aspect in retail operations. We propose an embedded system, mainly based on a smart camera, able to detect and to investigate the most important parameters in a retail store by identifying the differences with respect to an “approved” planogram. We propose a new solution that allows concentrating all the surveys and the useful measures on a limited number of devices in communication among them. These devices are simple, low cost and ready for immediate installation, providing an affordable and scalable solution to the problem of planogram maintenance. Moreover, over an Internet of Things (IoT) cloud-based architecture, the system supplies many additional data that are not concerning the planogram, e.g., out-of-shelf events, promptly notified through SMS and/or mail. The application of this project allows the realization of highly integrated systems, which are economical, complete and easy to use for a large number of users. Experimental results have proven that the system can efficiently calculate the deviation from a normal situation by comparing the base planogram image with the images grabbed. PMID:26343659

  18. Embedded Vision Sensor Network for Planogram Maintenance in Retail Environments.

    PubMed

    Frontoni, Emanuele; Mancini, Adriano; Zingaretti, Primo

    2015-08-27

    A planogram is a detailed visual map that establishes the position of the products in a retail store. It is designed to supply the best location of a product for suppliers to support an innovative merchandising approach, to increase sales and profits and to better manage the shelves. Deviating from the planogram defeats the purpose of any of these goals, and maintaining the integrity of the planogram becomes a fundamental aspect in retail operations. We propose an embedded system, mainly based on a smart camera, able to detect and to investigate the most important parameters in a retail store by identifying the differences with respect to an "approved" planogram. We propose a new solution that allows concentrating all the surveys and the useful measures on a limited number of devices in communication among them. These devices are simple, low cost and ready for immediate installation, providing an affordable and scalable solution to the problem of planogram maintenance. Moreover, over an Internet of Things (IoT) cloud-based architecture, the system supplies many additional data that are not concerning the planogram, e.g., out-of-shelf events, promptly notified through SMS and/or mail. The application of this project allows the realization of highly integrated systems, which are economical, complete and easy to use for a large number of users. Experimental results have proven that the system can efficiently calculate the deviation from a normal situation by comparing the base planogram image with the images grabbed.

  19. Clostridium difficile in retail meat and processing plants in Texas.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Roger B; Norman, Keri N; Andrews, Kathleen; Norby, Bo; Hume, Michael E; Scanlan, Charles M; Hardin, Margaret D; Scott, Harvey M

    2011-07-01

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to human beings. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile in pork from sausage manufacturing plants and retail meat in Texas. Twenty-three C. difficile isolates were detected from 243 meat samples (9.5%) from 3 sausage-manufacturing plants and 5 retail meat outlets from 2004 to 2009. Twenty-two isolates were positive for toxins A, B, and binary toxin, and were characterized as toxinotype V, PFGE type-NAP7, or "NAP7-variant." Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents in the current study were similar to those reported previously for toxinotype V isolates, although the results suggested somewhat reduced resistance than reported for other meat, animal, or human clinical toxinotype V isolates.

  20. Recordkeeping practices of beef grinding activities at retail establishments.

    PubMed

    Gould, L Hannah; Seys, Scott; Everstine, Karen; Norton, Dawn; Ripley, Danny; Reimann, David; Dreyfuss, Moshe; Chen, Wu San; Selman, Carol A

    2011-06-01

    Ground beef has been implicated as a transmission vehicle in foodborne outbreaks of infection with pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. During outbreak investigations, traceback of contaminated beef to the producing facility is often unsuccessful because of inadequate recordkeeping at retail establishments that grind beef products. We conducted a survey in three states participating in the Environmental Health Specialists Network to describe beef grinding and recordkeeping practices at retail establishments. In each establishment that maintained grinding logs, three randomly selected records were reviewed to determine whether important data elements for traceback investigations were recorded. One hundred twenty-five stores were surveyed, of which 60 (49%) kept grinding logs, including 54 (74%) of 73 chain stores and 6 (12%) of 51 independent stores. One hundred seventy-six grinding records from 61 stores were reviewed. Seventy-three percent of the records included the establishment code of the source beef, 72% included the grind date and time, and 59% included the lot number of the source beef. Seventy-five percent of records noted whether trimmings were included in grinds, and 57% documented cleanup activities. Only 39 (22%) records had all of these variables completed. Of stores that did not keep grinding logs, 40% were unaware of their purpose. To facilitate effective and efficient traceback investigations by regulatory agencies, retail establishments should maintain records more detailed and complete of all grinding activities.

  1. Occupant Perceptions and a Health Outcome in Retail Stores

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Mingjie; Kim, Yang-Seon; Srebric, Jelena

    2015-11-02

    Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in commercial buildings, such as retail stores, can affect employee satisfaction, productivity, and health. This study administered an IEQ survey to retail employees and found correlations between measured IEQ parameters and the survey responses. The survey included 611 employees in 14 retail stores located in Pennsylvania (climate zone 5A) and Texas (climate zone 2A). The survey questionnaire featured ratings of different aspects of IEQ, including thermal comfort, lighting and noise level, indoor smells, overall cleanness, and environmental quality. Simultaneously with the survey, on-site physical measurements were taken to collect data of relative humidity levels, air exchange rates, dry bulb temperatures, and contaminant concentrations. This data was analyzed using multinomial logit regression with independent variables being the measured IEQ parameters, employees’ gender, and age. This study found that employee perception of stuffy smells is related to formaldehyde and PM10 concentrations. Furthermore, the survey also asked the employees to report an annual frequency of common colds as a health indicator. The regression analysis showed that the cold frequency statistically correlates with the measured air exchange rates, outdoor temperatures, and indoor PM concentrations. Overall, the air exchange rate is the most influential parameter on the employee perception of the overall environmental quality and self-reported health outcome.

  2. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Design Observational study. Setting Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Results Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). Conclusions This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. PMID:27266774

  3. Stochastic cooperative advertising in a manufacturer-retailer decentralized supply channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezimadu, Peter E.; Nwozo, Chukwuma R.

    2016-08-01

    This work considers cooperative advertising in a manufacturer-retailer supply chain. While the manufacturer is the Stackelberg leader, the retailer is the follower. Using Sethi model it models the dynamic effect of the manufacturer and retailer's advertising efforts on sale. It uses optimal control technique and stochastic differential game theory to obtain the players' advertising strategies and the long-run value of the awareness share. Further, it models the relationship between the payoffs of both players and the awareness share. The work shows that with the provision of subsidy the retail advertising effort increases while the manufacturer's advertising effort reduces. It further shows that the total channel payoff is higher for subsidised retail advertising. However, the subsidy can only be possible if the rate of growth of the manufacturer's payoff is twice higher than that of the retailer.

  4. Retail Clinic Visits For Low-Acuity Conditions Increase Utilization And Spending.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, J Scott; Gaynor, Martin; Setodji, Claude M; Reid, Rachel O; Weber, Ellerie; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2016-03-01

    Retail clinics have been viewed by policy makers and insurers as a mechanism to decrease health care spending, by substituting less expensive clinic visits for more expensive emergency department or physician office visits. However, retail clinics may actually increase spending if they drive new health care utilization. To assess whether retail clinic visits represent new utilization or a substitute for more expensive care, we used insurance claims data from Aetna for the period 2010-12 to track utilization and spending for eleven low-acuity conditions. We found that 58 percent of retail clinic visits for low-acuity conditions represented new utilization and that retail clinic use was associated with a modest increase in spending, of $14 per person per year. These findings do not support the idea that retail clinics decrease health care spending.

  5. A Relationship-Building Model for the Web Retail Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fang; Head, Milena; Archer, Norm

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the effects of the Web on marketing practices. Introduces the concept and theory of relationship marketing. The relationship network concept, which typically is only applied to the business-to-business market, is discussed within the business-to-consumer market, and a new relationship-building model for the Web marketplace is proposed.…

  6. Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens: an Interagency Risk Assessment-model and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Gallagher, Daniel; Tang, Jia; Hoelzer, Karin; Kause, Janell; Dennis, Sherri B

    2015-01-01

    The Interagency Risk Assessment-Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in Retail Delicatessens provides a scientific assessment of the risk of listeriosis associated with the consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods commonly prepared and sold in the delicatessen (deli) of a retail food store. The quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model simulates the behavior of retail employees in a deli department and tracks the Lm potentially present in this environment and in the food. Bacterial growth, bacterial inactivation (following washing and sanitizing actions), and cross-contamination (from object to object, from food to object, or from object to food) are evaluated through a discrete event modeling approach. The QRA evaluates the risk per serving of deli-prepared RTE food for the susceptible and general population, using a dose-response model from the literature. This QRA considers six separate retail baseline conditions and provides information on the predicted risk of listeriosis for each. Among the baseline conditions considered, the model predicts that (i) retail delis without an environmental source of Lm (such as niches), retail delis without niches that do apply temperature control, and retail delis with niches that do apply temperature control lead to lower predicted risk of listeriosis relative to retail delis with niches and (ii) retail delis with incoming RTE foods that are contaminated with Lm lead to higher predicted risk of listeriosis, directly or through cross-contamination, whether the contaminated incoming product supports growth or not. The risk assessment predicts that listeriosis cases associated with retail delicatessens result from a sequence of key events: (i) the contaminated RTE food supports Lm growth; (ii) improper retail and/or consumer storage temperature or handling results in the growth of Lm on the RTE food; and (iii) the consumer of this RTE food is susceptible to listeriosis. The risk assessment model, therefore, predicts that cross

  7. ARN Integrated Retail Module (IRM) System at Ft. Bliss - Central Issue Facility (CIF) Local Tariff

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-14

    Number SP0103-02-D-0018 / Delivery Order 0014 ARN Integrated Retail Module (IRM) System at Ft. Bliss Prepared for: Defense Logistics Agency March...February 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ARN Integrated Retail Module (IRM) System at Ft. Bliss - Central Issue Facility (CIF) Local Tariff 5. FUNDING...Visibility System (AAVS) and other databases over the Internet, and AdvanTech established ARN Integrated Retail Module (IRM) at Ft. Bliss, TX Page

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among Salmonella from retail foods of animal origin: NARMS retail meat surveillance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; McDermott, P F; Friedman, S; Abbott, J; Ayers, S; Glenn, A; Hall-Robinson, E; Hubert, S K; Harbottle, H; Walker, R D; Chiller, T M; White, D G

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella isolates were recovered from a monthly sampling of chicken breasts, ground turkey, ground beef, and pork chops purchased from selected grocery stores in six participating FoodNet sites (Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Oregon, and Tennessee) in 2002 and an additional two sites in 2003 (California and New York). In 2002 and 2003, a total of 6,046 retail meats were examined, including 1,513 chicken breasts, 1,499 ground turkey samples, 1,522 ground beef samples, and 1,502 pork chops. Retail meat samples tested increased to 3,533 in 2003 as compared to 2,513 in 2002. Overall, six percent of 6,046 retail meat samples (n = 365) were contaminated with Salmonella, the bulk recovered from either ground turkey (52%) or chicken breast (39%). Salmonella isolates were serotyped and susceptibility tested using a panel of 16 antimicrobial agents. S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype identified (23%), followed by S. Saintpaul (12%), S. Typhimurium (11%), and S. Kentucky (10%). Overall, resistance was most often observed to tetracycline (40%), streptomycin (37%), ampicillin (26%), and sulfamethoxazole (25%). Twelve percent of isolates were resistant to cefoxitin and ceftiofur, though only one isolate was resistant to ceftriaxone. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin; however, 3% of isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and were almost exclusive to ground turkey samples (n = 11/12). All Salmonella isolates were analyzed for genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns generated by digestion with Xba1 or Xba1 plus Bln1. PFGE fingerprinting profiles showed that Salmonella, in general, were genetically diverse with a total of 175 Xba1 PFGE profiles generated from the 365 isolates. PFGE profiles showed good correlation with serotypes and in some instances, antimicrobial resistance profiles. Results demonstrated a varied spectrum of antimicrobial resistance and PFGE patterns, including several multidrug

  9. Determining the optimum beef longissimus muscle size for retail consumers.

    PubMed

    Sweeter, K K; Wulf, D M; Maddock, R J

    2005-11-01

    Research was conducted in two phases to determine the optimum beef LM size for retail consumers. In Phase I, 50 USDA Choice beef carcass sides were selected at a commercial packing plant and assigned to five different categories (10 sides per category) based on LM size: 61 to 68 cm2 (A), 70 to 78 cm2 (B), 80 to 90 cm2 (C), 92 to 103 cm2 (D), and 105 to 119 cm2 (E). Ribeye rolls were retrieved from all carcass sides. Steaks (2.5-cm thick; 14 per ribeye roll) were cut as needed and transported in groups of 35 steaks (seven per LM size category) to a retail grocery store in Brookings, SD, where they were placed into a designated section of the retail meat case. Steaks were tallied every 4 h on weekdays and every 2 h on weekends and holidays to determine the number of monitoring periods that each steak remained in the retail case. Steaks that did not sell within an allotted time were removed from the case and termed "pulled." Time in case and percentage of steaks pulled from the case did not differ among LM size categories (P > 0.16). Quadratic regression indicated that larger LM steaks sold faster (P < 0.05) than average and small LM steaks. Steaks from rib locations 6 and 7 spent more (P < 0.05) time in the case than steaks from rib locations 8 through 12. Steaks from the 7th rib location were more (P < 0.05) likely to be pulled than steaks from the 8th through 12th rib locations. In Phase II, 15 USDA Choice ribeye rolls were selected from a commercial packing plant to represent two LM size categories: 80 to 90 cm2 (AVG; n = 5); and 105 to 119 cm2 (LARGE; n = 10) and cut into 2.5-cm-thick steaks. A portion of the LARGE steaks was subsequently cut in half (HALF). Four display steaks represented each treatment group in each of five random nth price auctions. Seventy-five people were recruited from the Brookings, SD area to participate in the auctions to determine their willingness to pay for the three different types of ribeye steak. Consumers were willing to pay a

  10. 76 FR 12700 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ..., convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants, to their customers to package and... the HTSUS subheading is provided for convenience and customs purposes, the written description of...

  11. 76 FR 59999 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... (HTSUS). Furthermore, although the HTSUS subheading is provided for convenience and customs purposes,...

  12. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ..., e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants to... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of this investigation is...

  13. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of this investigation is...

  14. 29 CFR 779.110 - Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retail or service field whose individual activities constitute engagement in interstate or foreign... individual activities ordinarily constitute engagement in commerce or in the production of goods for...

  15. Reshaping power markets: Lessons from South America

    SciTech Connect

    Lalor, R.P.; Garcia, H.

    1996-03-01

    Does restructuring enhance efficiency and give consumers a portion of these gains? Evidence from Chile and Argentina - whose restructuring is well ahead of that in the U.S. - demonstrates that more efficient power markets can be created, and that the need remains for appropriate treatment of the competitive and monopolistic portions of the market. Centrally planned electric systems have a long history in industrial states around the world: Marxist and capitalist, totalitarian and democratic. A growing enthusiasm world-wide for economic democracy has recently brought the concept of central planning under greater scrutiny, and alternative solutions have been sought. This paper describes experiences with the deregulation of the utility industry in Chile and Argentina and assesses the relevance of those experiences to the ongoing evolution of market-based systems in the United States. The lessons of the Southern Cone are very relevant to the ongoing dialogue on deregulation in the U.S. Experience there suggests a number of conditions that are important for the creation of competitive and efficient energy markets: (1) Mandatory separation of regulated functions, and clear delineation of the limits of involvement by regulated entities in competitive markets; (2) Unbundling of transmission charges and provision of {open_quotes}comparable{close_quotes} fair transmission access; (3) Clearly defined, published nodal or zonal transmission prices reflecting incremental operating and upgrade costs; (4) Establishment of a centrally dispatched commodity market, spot markets for both capacity and energy priced at system marginal cost, and a parallel bilateral market based on long term contracts; and (5) Access by generators and marketers to at least a portion of the retail market.

  16. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Goldman, Charles

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  17. Antibiotic Susceptibility and Molecular Screening of Class I Integron in Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Retail Raw Chicken Carcasses in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zengfeng; Li, Keting; Wang, Yin; Xia, Xiaodong; Wang, Xin; Xi, Meili; Meng, Jianghong; Cui, Shenghui; Yang, Baowei

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella is one of the leading causes for foodborne diseases. Foods, particularly those of animal origin, act as an important role for Salmonella transmission. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibility of 743 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail raw chicken carcasses in eight provinces was tested, and the isolates were also screened for the presence of class I integron and drug-resistant gene cassettes. One hundred thirteen (15.21%) isolates were harboring class I integron. A higher percentage of integron-positive Salmonella isolates were found in retail chicken in Sichuan Province (29.33%), followed by Beijing (22.14%), Shaanxi (19.15%), Guangxi (14.13%), Henan (12.50%), Shanghai (7.25%), Fujian (8.22%), and Guangdong (6.25%) Provinces. The respective prevalence of class I integron in Salmonella isolates recovered from retail chickens in large, free, and small markets was 16.31%, 14.04%, and 15.27%. Moreover, 20.13%, 14.02%, and 13.74% of Salmonella isolates recovered from retail chickens stored in frozen, chilled, and ambient conditions, respectively, were positive for class I integron. Subsequent sequencing of class I integron revealed the presence of 10 gene cassettes harboring resistance genes (dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA12-aadA2, dfrA17-aadA5-aadA4, dfrA1-aadA1-aadA2, dfrA1, dfrA5, aadA2, aacA4-catB8-aadA1-dfrA1-(aac6-II)-(blaCARB-8), blaPSE-1-blaP1). The most prevalent gene cassette was dfrA17-aadA5 (59.62%). Class I integron-positive isolates were significantly more resistant to multiple antibiotics, and they commonly exhibited corresponding antibiotic resistance profiles to the antibiotic resistance gene cassettes harbored in their class I integron. The results indicated that class I integron with different antibiotic resistance gene cassettes that were prevalent in Salmonella isolates differed from provinces, marketplaces, and chicken storage conditions.

  18. A review of market monitoring activities at U.S. independent system operators

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Goldman, Charles; Bartholomew, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Policymakers have increasingly recognized the structural impediments to effective competition in electricity markets, which has resulted in a renewed emphasis on the need for careful market design and market monitoring in wholesale and retail electricity markets. In this study, we review the market monitoring activities of four Independent System Operators in the United States, focusing on such topics as the organization of an independent market monitoring unit (MMU), the role and value of external market monitors, performance metrics and indices to aid in market analysis, issues associated with access to confidential market data, and market mitigation and investigation authority. There is consensus across the four ISOs that market monitoring must be organizationally independent from market participants and that ISOs should have authority to apply some degree of corrective actions on the market, though scope and implementation differ across the ISOs. Likewise, current practices regarding access to confidential market data by state energy regulators varies somewhat by ISO. Drawing on our interviews and research, we present five examples that illustrate the impact and potential contribution of ISO market monitoring activities to enhance functioning of wholesale electricity markets. We also discuss several key policy and implementation issues that Western state policymakers and regulators should consider as market monitoring activities evolve in the West.

  19. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  20. Market potential for guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris) products.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Saina, Happyson; Ngorora, Grace P K

    2011-12-01

    The survey evaluated the market potential for guinea fowl (GF; Numidia meleagris) products in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to traders/producers (n = 17), retailers (n = 12), cafeteria industry (n = 33) and consumers (n = 1,680) to establish their perceptions on guinea fowl products. The average household size was 6 ± 2. Each trader sold 10 ± 6.30 keets (mean ± standard error), 33 ± 15.05 growers, 20 ± 12.69 breeders and 20 ± 10.1 crates of 30 eggs per month. Each household consumed 2.5 ± 1.39 kg of GF meat and 3 ± 0.65 dozens of GF eggs per month. Retailers purchased 52 ± 44.42 crates of GF eggs and 41 ± 30.50/kg of GF meat whilst cafeteria purchased 33.6 ± 14 crates of GF eggs and 65.5 ± 33.52 kg of GF meat per month. Growers for breeding were the major product for sale by traders (94.1%) at a price of US$7.50 ± 1.74/bird. Different industries were offering different prices for guinea fowl products because of their scarcity on the market. The mean purchase price per crate of 30 guinea fowl eggs sold to the retail and cafeteria were US$3.00 ± 0.58 and US$4.50 ± 0.50, respectively. The mean purchase prices for GF meat was lower (P < 0.05) for retailers (US$2.5 ± 0.81/kg) than cafeteria (US$3.67 ± 0.83/kg). The challenges faced by producers in the marketing of guinea fowl products included poor supply due to the absence of good road networks to connect source areas and the market, perishability of dressed chickens due to power cuts and poor publicity. Overall, the study showed that there is greater market potential for guinea fowl products and farmers can channel their products through traders, cafeteria and retail industries.

  1. An analysis of the Illinois Retail Rate Law and the Cook County waste-to-energy siting battles, 1987--2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendzik, Mark Edward

    2002-01-01

    The analysis explores the environmental justice impacts of the 1998 Illinois Retail Rate Law and Cook County waste-to-energy siting proposals on the Chicago metropolitan area. Particular attention is given to the dynamics of the grassroots environmental organizations which emerged to fight the siting proposals. The organizations are examined in the context of NIMBYism, the antitoxic movement, the environmental justice movement, and mainstream environmentalism. In addition, the underlying causes for the unintended consequences of the Retail Rate Law are analyzed against the backdrop of market and government failure. Face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with forty-one persons familiar with the battles over the Cook County siting proposals and the efforts to repeal the Retail Rate Law. The term "environmental justice" became controversial as siting opponents and supporters both appropriated the issue to support dueling positions on the proposed sitings. However, environmental justice did not play an instrumental role in repealing the Retail Rate Law or the siting proposals. Economic concerns led to the repeal of the legislation and demise of the original siting proposals. The circumstances of the siting battles and opposition groups raise questions about the future effectiveness of the environmental justice movement. A combination of market and government failure led to the unintended consequences from the retail Rate Law. Strategic maneuvering by state legislative leaders delayed the repeal of the legislation by several years. The resulting delay placed considerable cost on individuals, communities, corporations, and the State of Illinois. A bivariate analysis was conducted to examine whether the distribution patterns of ground level concentrations from the proposed facilities would have had a disproportionate distribution in lower-income and minority populations in the Chicago metropolitan area. The statistical analysis did discover evidence that

  2. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  3. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  4. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  5. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  6. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics ofCommercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2007-07-03

    To achieve a sizable and self-sustaining market for grid-connected, customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, solar will likely need to be competitive with retail electricity rates. In this report, we examine the impact of retail rate design on the economic value of commercial PV systems in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial customer retail rates currently offered in the state. We find that the specifics of the rate structure, combined with the characteristics of the customer's underlying load and the size of the PV system, can have a substantial impact on the customer-economics of commercial PV systems. Key conclusions for policymakers that emerge from our analysis are as follows: {sm_bullet} Rate design is fundamental to the economics of commercial PV. The rate-reduction value of PV for our sample of commercial customers, considering all available retail tariffs, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh, reflecting differences in rate structures, the revenue requirements of the various utilities, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shapes. For the average customer in our sample, differences in rate structure, alone, alter the value of PV by 25% to 75%, depending on the size of the PV system relative to building load. {sm_bullet} TOU-based energy-focused rates can provide substantial value to many PV customers. Retail rates that wrap all or most utility cost recovery needs into time-of-use (TOU)-based volumetric energy rates, and which exclude or limit demand-based charges, provide the most value to PV systems across a wide variety of circumstances. Expanding the availability of such rates will increase the value of many commercial PV systems. {sm_bullet} Offering commercial customers a variety of rate options would be of value to PV. Despite the advantages of energy-focused rates for PV

  7. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances... between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances. Prescription information may be provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a...

  8. A Robust Ordering Strategy for Retailers Facing a Free Shipping Option

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing-chun; Wan, Xiao-le; Rong, Xiao-xia

    2015-01-01

    Free shipping with conditions has become one of the most effective marketing tools available. An increasing number of companies, especially e-businesses, prefer to offer free shipping with some predetermined condition, such as a minimum purchase amount by the customer. However, in practice, the demands of buyers are uncertain; they are often affected by many factors, such as the weather and season. We begin by modeling the centralized ordering problem in which the supplier offers a free shipping service and retailers face stochastic demands. As these random data are considered, only partial information such as the known mean, support, and deviation is needed. The model is then analyzed via a robust optimization method, and the two types of equivalent sets of uncertainty constraints that are obtained provide good mathematical properties with consideration of the robustness of solutions. Subsequently, a numerical example is used to compare the results achieved from a robust optimization method and the linear decision rules. Additionally, the robustness of the optimal solution is discussed, as it is affected by the minimum quantity parameters. The increasing cost-threshold relationship is divided into three periods. In addition, the case study shows that the proposed method achieves better stability as well as computational complexity. PMID:25993533

  9. A robust ordering strategy for retailers facing a free shipping option.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-chun; Wan, Xiao-le; Rong, Xiao-xia

    2015-01-01

    Free shipping with conditions has become one of the most effective marketing tools available. An increasing number of companies, especially e-businesses, prefer to offer free shipping with some predetermined condition, such as a minimum purchase amount by the customer. However, in practice, the demands of buyers are uncertain; they are often affected by many factors, such as the weather and season. We begin by modeling the centralized ordering problem in which the supplier offers a free shipping service and retailers face stochastic demands. As these random data are considered, only partial information such as the known mean, support, and deviation is needed. The model is then analyzed via a robust optimization method, and the two types of equivalent sets of uncertainty constraints that are obtained provide good mathematical properties with consideration of the robustness of solutions. Subsequently, a numerical example is used to compare the results achieved from a robust optimization method and the linear decision rules. Additionally, the robustness of the optimal solution is discussed, as it is affected by the minimum quantity parameters. The increasing cost-threshold relationship is divided into three periods. In addition, the case study shows that the proposed method achieves better stability as well as computational complexity.

  10. Economic benefits of midseason reordering in apparel retailing

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A.; Elayat, H.

    1995-09-27

    This report presents a method for determining the value of reordering, explores factors that affect its value, and provides an estimate of the value under a range of conditions. The method is based on a stochastic process model of the demands the retailer faces. It uses a dynamic programming model to determine the optimal quantities to order and the expected profits. The analysis shows that the benefits of reordering are quite sensitive to the uncertainties in the demand and to the assumptions about the markdown of unsold merchandise at the end of the season.

  11. Analyzing the Localization of Retail Stores with Complex Systems Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Pablo

    Measuring the spatial distribution of locations of many entities (trees, atoms, economic activities, ...), and, more precisely, the deviations from purely random configurations, is a powerful method to unravel their underlying interactions. I study here the spatial organization of retail commercial activities. From pure location data, network analysis leads to a community structure that closely follows the commercial classification of the US Department of Labor. The interaction network allows to build a ’quality’ index of optimal location niches for stores, which has been empirically tested.

  12. Subsidising artemisinin-based combination therapy in the private retail sector

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Newton; Yamey, Gavin; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria causes ill health and death in Africa. Treating illness promptly with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is likely to cure people and avoid the disease progressing to more severe forms and death. In many countries, ACT use remains low. Part of the problem is that most people seek treatment from the retail sector where ACTs are expensive; this expense is a barrier to their use. The Global Fund and other international organisations are subsidising the cost of ACTs for private retail providers to improve access to ACTs. The subsidy was initially organised through a stand-alone initiative, called the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm), but has since been integrated into the Global Fund core grant management and financial processes. Objectives To assess the effect of programmes that include ACT price subsidies for private retailers on ACT use, availability, price and market share. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 1, The Cochrane Library, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register); MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EbscoHost), EconLit (ProQuest), Global Health (OvidSP), Regional Indexes (Global Health Library, WHO), LILACS (Global Health Library, WHO), Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index (ISI Web of Science) and Health Management (ProQuest). All databases were searched February 2015, except for Health Management which was searched November 2013, without any date, language or publication status restrictions. We also searched the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; WHO), ClinicalTrials.gov (NIH) and various grey literature sources. We also conducted a cited reference search for all included studies in ISI Web of Knowledge, checked references of identified articles and contacted authors to identify additional studies. Selection criteria Randomised trials, non

  13. Live-bird market closure activities in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, R

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses have been isolated from the live-bird markets (LBMs) of the Northeast. Despite educational efforts, surveillance, and increased state regulatory efforts, the number of positive markets has persisted and increased. In an effort to address the continued levels of LPAI in the retail LBM and address the question of persistence and circulation of the virus within the LBM system itself, these markets were closed for a continuous 3-day period. This effort was a cooperative effort between the State Departments of Agriculture and coordinated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and led to the first successful system-wide closure of the retail LBMs in the Northeast.

  14. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps... of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For oxygenated gasoline programs with a minimum... following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a...

  15. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps... of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For oxygenated gasoline programs with a minimum... following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a...

  16. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps... of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For oxygenated gasoline programs with a minimum... following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a...

  17. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps... of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For oxygenated gasoline programs with a minimum... following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a...

  18. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps... of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For oxygenated gasoline programs with a minimum... following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a...

  19. An Econometric Examination of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of Norwegian Retailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…

  20. Let's Drum Up Some Business: Developing Entrepreneurship through the Retail Florist Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    The retail florist industry is composed of many small businesses. A flower shop is unique as a retail outlet because it sells a highly perishable agricultural product that involves customized work requiring a high degree of product knowledge and skill. Qualifications of a successful florist include being a good businessperson, able to design,…