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Sample records for retail market avaliacao

  1. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  2. Better-bred berries for the retail market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While there are many exciting new choices for berry cultivars for the Northwest commercial industry, very few of them are available in the retail nursery market. It’s an odd thing where the top-selling cultivars in the region haven’t seen the light of day in the retail nursery market. For many other...

  3. Directory of Post-Secondary Retailing and Marketing Vocational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This directory lists 357 general and 135 special retailing and marketing vocational programs at the post secondary level. Institutions vary somewhat in the identification of general programs; for example, they may be called retailing, merchandising, marketing, mid-management, or distributive education programs. Specialized programs offered by…

  4. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  5. Retail Merchandising. An Advanced Level Option for Marketing and Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Ross; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to prepare secondary school students for entry-level and career-level positions in the largest area of employment in distribution and marketing--retail merchandising. Developed for use in the twelfth grade competency cluster phase of New York State secondary marketing and distributive education program, this…

  6. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. Results: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Conclusions: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail–tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change. PMID:14645954

  7. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  8. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  9. A Services Marketing Perspective on E-Retailing: Implications for E-Retailers and Directions for Further Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolesar, Mark B.; Galbraith, R. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Applying a body of theory and empirical research in the study of customer loyalty drivers in the services sector, this paper sets out a number of marketing and Web site design implications for e-retailers. It then suggests several means by which e-retailers can manage customer perceptions to increase sales and develop greater customer loyalty.…

  10. FGD markets & business in an age of retail wheeling

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Dalton, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses (1) the market and technology outlook for flue gas desulfurization ({open_quotes}FGD{close_quotes}) systems, with particular emphasis on wet systems in North America and the implications of retail wheeling of electricity and emission allowances for the utility industry, and (2) implications for the utility industry of architect/engineering ({open_quotes}A/E{close_quotes}) firm tendencies to reduce greatly the FGD vendor`s scope of award. The paper concludes that (1) the FGD market will be modest domestically and robust offshore over the forecast period (5-10 years), although the utility industry`s response to federal and state air toxics rules and retail wheeling may eventually grow the FGD market domestically beyond that created by compliance with Phase II of the Clean Air Act`s Title IV acid rain program alone, (2) new designs are likely to follow trends established in the past few years, but will likely include advanced processes that use higher velocity and smaller space, and possibly multi-pollutant control to remain competitive, and (3) shrinking of the FGD vendor`s scope may have adverse implications for the utility end-user, while retail wheeling may increase third-party ownership of FGD technology

  11. Marketing. Retailing 102, Promotions 202, Relations in Business 202, Management 302, Marketing Practicum 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide contains guidelines for conducting five secondary-level marketing cluster courses--Retailing 102, Promotions 202, Relations in Business 202, Management 302, and Marketing Practicum 302. Covered first are goals and objectives, teachers' notes and suggested activities, lists of suggested materials, and guidelines for correlating…

  12. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement of Basis and Purpose: The Rule, 36 FR 8777 (May 13... Rule Concerning Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices, 54 FR 35456 (Aug. 28, 1989). \\4... CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY: Federal...

  13. Levels of biogenic amines in retail market fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Papavergou, Ekaterini J; Savvaidis, Ioannis N; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis A

    2012-12-15

    The qualitative and quantitative profile of biogenic amines (BA) in 50 samples of dry fermented sausages sold in Greek retail markets were determined by HPLC. Putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine spermidine, spermine were analysed by UV detection after pre-column derivatization with benzoyl chloride, whereas tyramine and histamine were analysed by fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA). With the exception of spermidine and spermine a wide variation of BA levels was observed among the samples. Of the BA examined, tyramine, putrescine, histamine and cadaverine showed high concentrations ranging from: 0 to 510 mg/kg (median: 197.7 mg/kg), 0 to 505 mg/kg (median: 96.5mg/kg), 0 to 515 mg/kg (median: 7.0mg/kg) and 0 to 690 mg/kg (median: 3.6 mg/kg), respectively. The histamine content of 28% of the samples exceeded the toxicity limit of 100mg/kg set for histamine in some fish species. Levels of tryptamine and β-phenyl-ethylamine never exceeded 50 and 29 mg/kg, respectively. Results of the present study suggest that the amounts of BA in dry fermented sausages, sold in Greek retail markets, may pose a potential health risk for sensitive individuals or for those undergoing classical monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) drug therapy.

  14. The role of vibrant retail electricity markets in assuring that wholesale power markets operate effectively

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A.J.; Rufin, C.; Swinand, G.

    1999-12-01

    Barriers to competitive supplier entry such as California's wholesale-price pass-through model can provide an almost insurmountable barrier to effective retail competition. The telecommunications, airline, and software industries provide lessons--positive and negative--on how creating competitive wholesale markets is insufficient to bring the benefits of competition to smaller consumers.

  15. Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Heffner, Grayson; Sedano, Richard

    2008-05-27

    The Organization of Midwest ISO States (OMS) launched the Midwest Demand Resource Initiative (MWDRI) in 2007 to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) region and develop policies to overcome them. The MWDRI stakeholders decided that a useful initial activity would be to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This additional detail could then be used to assess any"seams issues" affecting coordination and integration of retail DR resources with MISO's wholesale markets. Working with state regulatory agencies, we conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs, dynamic pricing tariffs, and their features in MISO states. Utilities were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g., seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. This report describes the results of this comprehensive survey and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into organized wholesale markets. Survey responses from 37 MISO members and 4 non-members provided information on 141 DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs with a peak load reduction potential of 4,727 MW of retail DR resource. Major findings of this study area:- About 72percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;18percent. Almost 90percent of the DR resources included in this survey are provided by investor-owned utilities. - Approximately, 90percent of the DR resources are available with less than

  16. Jumping into the healthcare retail market: our experience.

    PubMed

    Pollert, Pat; Dobberstein, Darla; Wiisanen, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Who among us has not heard of the retail-based clinic concept? Retail-based clinics have been springing up across the country in Target, Walmart, grocery stores, drugstores, and shopping malls. Due to multiple marketplace issues, others who have not traditionally been providers of healthcare saw an opportunity to meet the consumer's demand. Do retail and healthcare mix, and can this model be successful? MeritCare Health System in Fargo, ND made the decision to embrace and experiment with this new emerging consumerism model. This article reviews our experience in developing the first retail-based clinic in our service area and the state of North Dakota.

  17. Analysis of the Italian generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Italy is among the European countries with the lowest uptake of generic medicines. This paper provides a perspective on the Italian generic medicines retail market. Fast market entrance of generic medicines in Italy is hindered by several factors: the existence of Complementary Protection Certificates in the past, the large market for copies and multiple cases of patent linkage. Prices of generic medicines in Italy are low compared to other European countries. To contain pharmaceutical expenditure, pharmaceutical companies are currently forced to pay back in case of overspending, which disproportionally penalizes small and fast growing companies, to which most generic companies belong to. Current demand-side policies do not successfully stimulate the use of generic medicines. The current market environment surrounding the Italian generic medicines retail market (i.e., low prices, low volumes) threatens its long-term sustainability. Recommendations to enhance the long-term sustainability of the Italian generic medicines retail market round off this perspective paper. PMID:25138241

  18. Analysis of the Italian generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Italy is among the European countries with the lowest uptake of generic medicines. This paper provides a perspective on the Italian generic medicines retail market. Fast market entrance of generic medicines in Italy is hindered by several factors: the existence of Complementary Protection Certificates in the past, the large market for copies and multiple cases of patent linkage. Prices of generic medicines in Italy are low compared to other European countries. To contain pharmaceutical expenditure, pharmaceutical companies are currently forced to pay back in case of overspending, which disproportionally penalizes small and fast growing companies, to which most generic companies belong to. Current demand-side policies do not successfully stimulate the use of generic medicines. The current market environment surrounding the Italian generic medicines retail market (i.e., low prices, low volumes) threatens its long-term sustainability. Recommendations to enhance the long-term sustainability of the Italian generic medicines retail market round off this perspective paper.

  19. The Junior College Approach to Retail Marketing and Sales Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voris, Clyde A.

    The primary objective of this study was to ascertain from retail merchants the amount and type of formal college education desirable for optimum performance of typical mid-management retail positions, such as store manager, department manager, and buyer-merchandiser. The investigation also was concerned with any job stability differences between…

  20. CONCENTRATION AND DRUG PRICES IN THE RETAIL MARKET FOR MALARIA TREATMENT IN RURAL TANZANIA

    PubMed Central

    GOODMAN, CATHERINE; KACHUR, S. PATRICK; ABDULLA, SALIM; BLOLAND, PETER; MILLS, ANNE

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition. The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care seekers obtaining appropriate treatment. Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. PMID:19301420

  1. Moulds and mycotoxins in rice from the Swedish retail market.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, E; Thim, A-M; Gidlund, A; Brostedt, S; Nyberg, M; Olsen, M

    2009-04-01

    A survey of moulds and mycotoxins was performed on 99 rice samples taken from the Swedish retail market. The main objective was to study the mould and mycotoxin content in basmati rice and rice with a high content of fibre. Samples of jasmine rice as well as long-grain rice were also included. The samples were analysed for their content of ochratoxin A (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) (HPLC, RIDA(R)QUICK), and mould (traditional cultivation methods in combination with morphological analysis). The majority of samples were sampled according to European Commission Regulation 401/2006. Subsamples were pooled and mixed before milling and both mould and mycotoxin analyses were performed on milled rice. The results showed that the majority of basmati rice (71%) and many jasmine rice samples (20%) contained detectable levels of aflatoxin B(1) (level of quantification = 0.1 microg aflatoxin kg(-1) rice). Two samples of jasmine rice and ten basmati rice samples contained levels over the regulated European maximum limits of 2 microg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B(1) or 4 microg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins. Aspergillus was the most common mould genus isolated, but also Penicillium, Eurotium, Wallemia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Alternaria, and Trichotecium were found. The presence of Aspergillus flavus in 21% of the samples indicates that incorrect management of rice during production and storage implies a risk of mould growth and subsequent production of aflatoxin. Rough estimates showed that high rice consumers may have an intake of 2-3 ng aflatoxin kg(-1) bodyweight and day(-1) from rice alone. This survey shows that aflatoxin is a common contaminant in rice imported to Europe.

  2. Analysis of Spanish generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold G; Simoens, Steven

    2014-06-01

    The use of generic medicines in Spain is traditionally low compared to other European countries, despite efforts of the Spanish government in the past. This paper provides a perspective on the Spanish generic medicines retail market and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. The Spanish government's focus on prices of generic medicines (e.g., mandatory price cuts, reference price set at the lowest level) have made them amongst the lowest in Europe. In our opinion, this combination of continuous pressure on prices and limited diffusion of generic medicines may undermine the long-term sustainability of the Spanish generic medicines retail market. The unique experience in Spain shows the impact of demand-side policies on the use of generic medicines. Because a sustainable generic medicines retail market is important to maintain future competition in the off-patent medicines market, this perspective paper rounds off with recommendations to increase its sustainability.

  3. A Retail Center Facing Change: Using Data to Determine Marketing Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kristen L.; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Plaza del Valle is an open-air shopping center in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles. The new marketing manager must review primary and secondary data to determine a target market, a product positioning strategy, and a promotion strategy for the retail shopping center with the ultimate goal of increasing revenue for the Plaza. She is…

  4. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  5. Marketing retail health clinics: challenges and controversies arising from a health care innovation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cheryl-Ann N; Khanfar, Nile M; Harrington, Catherine; Loudon, David

    2011-01-01

    Since their founding in 2000, retail-based health care clinics, also called convenient care clinics, have flourished but continue to generate controversy. This article examines the literature with respect to the industry's background, establishment of industry standards, types of services offered, marketing of retail health clinics, industry growth with new target markets, and patient demographics. It also examines the growing relationship with insurers and third-party payers, quality-of-care concerns by medical associations, and legal regulations and their potential impact on industry growth nationwide.

  6. 76 FR 13401 - Vectren Retail, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Vectren Retail, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Vectren Retail, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. Analysis of French generic medicines retail market: why the use of generic medicines is limited.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The market share of generic medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the generic medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French generic medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy generic medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, generic medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of generic medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in generic medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of generic medicines in France round off this perspective paper.

  8. Labelling and Marketing of Bivalve and Gastropod Molluscs Retailed in Sardinia, Italy Between 2009 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35%) and open-air markets (25%) compared with the big retailing chains (20%). The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products. PMID:27800397

  9. Retailing I: A Foundation for Marketing and Distributive Education Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kathryn Scruggs

    Designed to serve as a foundation for competency-based marketing and distributive education curriculum development, this package consists of task lists, performance objectives, and performance guides for use in planning an introductory level retailing course. Job descriptions are given for receiving clerks, stock clerks, and salespersons/sales…

  10. Marketing and Retailing. A Curriculum Guide for a Two-Year Postsecondary Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, R. Jean; Proffitt, Sally

    This manual was developed to provide a comprehensive curriculum guideline for postsecondary marketing and retailing programs. It contains competence-based materials and integrates the Interstate Distributive Education Curriculum Consortium (IDECC) Learning Activity Packages into the curriculum. The first of seven chapters in this manual presents…

  11. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced. PMID:21566563

  12. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced.

  13. 75 FR 8325 - AEP Retail Energy Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AEP Retail Energy Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AEP Retail Energy Partner, LLC's application...

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella on raw poultry at retail markets in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baowei; Xi, Meili; Wang, Xin; Cui, Shenghui; Yue, Tianli; Hao, Hongshan; Wang, Yin; Cui, Yue; Alali, W Q; Meng, Jianghong; Walls, Isabel; Wong, D M Lo Fo; Doyle, M P

    2011-10-01

    Data regarding Salmonella on raw poultry are very limited in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella on raw poultry at the retail level in six provinces and two national cities in China. Whole chicken carcasses (n = 1,152) were collected from three types of retail markets (large, small, and wet). All samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella by using the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service method. Of 1,152 chicken samples, overall Salmonella prevalence was 52.2%. The highest prevalence was observed in Guangxi Province (65.3%), next in Guangdong Province (64.6%), and then in Beijing (63.9%), Shaanxi Province (50.7%), Henan Province (47.9%), Shanghai (44.4%), and Fujian Province (42.4%), and lowest prevalence was observed in Sichuan Province (38.9%). Salmonella prevalence was significantly different among the six provinces and two national cities. Salmonella prevalence was highest in the wet markets (54.4%) compared with the large markets (50.3%) and the small markets (52.1%), but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Good manufacturing practices, good agricultural practices, and hazard analysis critical control point systems for Salmonella control in poultry production at the farm, processing, and retail level should be implemented.

  15. The search for consumer content in energy marketing and retailing

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, V.K.

    1996-09-15

    The gas and electric industries in the United STates control about $900 billion in assets (production, logistical, merchant). They employ these assets to serve about 150 million customers (counted separately for gas and electric), but they manage to offer only two rudimentary products-molecules and electrons-and at only two levels of service: firm and interruptible. Such a poverty of consumer content stands without precedent in the history of U.S. business. That this game is coming to an end should elicit no surprise. True retail competition in the gas and electric industries will become a transforming and quotidian reality within five years, creating great shifts in revenue and capital: (1) a $50-billion drip in annual consumer energy spending; (2) from $200 to $300 billion extinguished over seven to 10 years in noncash book value in the pipes and wires and energy production industries; (3) tens of billions of dollars in new investments, particularly gas-fired merchant and distributed generation plants, and computing and communications systems; and (4) many more billions in new enterprise value for efficient and innovative firms. The old business model emphasized industrial technology and quantitative increases in consumption of energy commodities. The new model, supplanting the old, will accentuate information technology and qualitative increases in consumption of energy services.

  16. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  17. Green marketing in the Massachusetts electric company retail competition pilot program

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, S.M.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    With electric industry restructuring initiatives being introduced on the state and federal levels, retail access pilot programs serve an important function for examining competitive market issues, as well as marketing strategies and customer reactions to different power supply options. The experience gained through these pilots provides important insights into future power market operations, including the market for green power. The Massachusetts Electric Company`s (MECo`s) Choice: New England pilot for residential and small-business customers was a voluntary program developed primarily to test the billing and metering logistics that distribution companies will need in the competitive market. The pilot also offered a preview of program implementation and marketing under customer choice. It was the first retail competition pilot to explicitly include green power options in program design. The MECo pilot`s energy suppliers were selected through the issuance of a request for proposals (RFP). Respondents were asked to submit bids in one or more of three energy supply categories-price, green, and other options. These options were developed by the pilot administrator through internal meetings, discussions with state officials and other stakeholders, and a review of information from other similar pilots. For the green option, the pilot administrator did not establish a green standard. Instead, suppliers were allowed to submit offers that promoted environmental stewardship. Customer response to the different green options are reported. The pilot results clearly demonstrate that, in a competitive situation, there is interest in a variety of energy supply options, including green options. 2 tabs.

  18. Effects of Demand Response on Retail and Wholesale Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-26

    Demand response has grown to be a part of the repertoire of resources used by utilities to manage the balance between generation and load. In recent years, advances in communications and control technology have enabled utilities to consider continuously controlling demand response to meet generation, rather than the other way around. This paper discusses the economic applications of a general method for load resource analysis that parallels the approach used to analyze generation resources and uses the method to examine the results of the US Department of Energy’s Olympic Peninsula Demonstration Testbed. A market-based closed-loop system of controllable assets is discussed with necessary and sufficient conditions on system controllability, observability and stability derived.

  19. E-Cigarette Market Trends in Traditional U.S. Retail Channels, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, David; Corey, Catherine G.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: E-cigarette sales continue to increase in the United States. To date, little surveillance research has documented the specific product attributes driving growth. This study uses national market scanner data to describe sales trends in traditional U.S. tobacco retail channels between 2012 and 2013 and identifies product features associated with sales increases. Methods: Data on e-cigarette sales in convenience stores, drug stores, grocery stores, and mass merchandisers in the United States were obtained from the Nielsen Company. Each product was coded for attributes such as brand, flavor, and unit size. Total sales volume, market share, and percent growth were calculated for various product attributes. Results: E-cigarette sales more than doubled between 2012 and 2013, from $273.6 million to $636.2 million, respectively. Growth was particularly strong in the convenience store channel. Blu eCigs quickly emerged as the best-selling brand and in 2013 constituted nearly half (44.1%) of overall sales. Although fruit-flavored and other flavored products experienced marked growth, unflavored and menthol e-cigarettes overwhelmingly dominated the market. Sales of single unit products (likely disposable e-cigarettes) increased by 216.4%, a much faster rate than multi-unit packs and cartridge refills. Conclusions: In traditional U.S. retail channels, particularly the convenience store channel, sales of e-cigarettes continue to grow, with brands like blu and disposable products as the likely drivers. Given the rapidly-changing market, expanded surveillance is needed to monitor sales not only in traditional retail locations, but sales online and in specialty “vape shops,” as well. PMID:25542918

  20. Restrictions on the reimbursement policy with regard to retail marketing of medicinal products in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, the law of 12 May 2011 on the reimbursement of medicines, food products of special nutritional purpose and medicinal products, intended to tighten up the reimbursement system, came into force in Poland. The new legislative act has significantly altered the previous principles of retail marketing of products subject to publicly financed reimbursement. First of all, the prices of reimbursed products have been unified through the introduction of fixed margins and prices and a ban--completely unknown until now--on using free market sales practices. These regulations are intended to lead to the abolition of price competition and its replacement with competition as to the quality of services provided by pharmacies. At the same time, entities engaged in retail marketing of medicinal products have been imposed a number of new obligations and highly repressive penalties for failure to fulfill them. The paper analyzes the legislative changes and points out the consequences, both those which can already be seen and the predictable ones. The assumed priority and criterion of evaluation of the reimbursement policy in question is its impact on the functioning of pharmacies which, according to the premises of Polish pharmaceutical law, should play the role of public health protection institutions. PMID:23614291

  1. The New Hampshire retail competition pilot program and the role of green marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.A.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    Most states in the US are involved in electric industry restructuring, from considering the pros and cons in regulatory dockets to implementing legislative mandates for full restructuring and retail access for all consumers. Several states and utilities have initiated pilot programs in which multiple suppliers or service providers may compete for business and some utility customers can choose among competing suppliers. The State of New Hampshire has been experimenting with a pilot program, mandated by the State Legislature in 1995 and implemented by the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (NHPUC), before it implements full retail access. Green marketing, an attempt to characterize the supplier or service provider as environmentally friendly without referring to the energy resource used to generate electricity, was used by several suppliers or service providers to attract customers. This appeal to environmental consumerism was moderately successful, but it raised a number of consumer protection and public policy issues. This issue brief examines the marketing methods used in New Hampshire and explores what green marketing might mean for the development of renewable energy generation. It also addresses the issues raised and their implications.

  2. Restrictions on the reimbursement policy with regard to retail marketing of medicinal products in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, the law of 12 May 2011 on the reimbursement of medicines, food products of special nutritional purpose and medicinal products, intended to tighten up the reimbursement system, came into force in Poland. The new legislative act has significantly altered the previous principles of retail marketing of products subject to publicly financed reimbursement. First of all, the prices of reimbursed products have been unified through the introduction of fixed margins and prices and a ban--completely unknown until now--on using free market sales practices. These regulations are intended to lead to the abolition of price competition and its replacement with competition as to the quality of services provided by pharmacies. At the same time, entities engaged in retail marketing of medicinal products have been imposed a number of new obligations and highly repressive penalties for failure to fulfill them. The paper analyzes the legislative changes and points out the consequences, both those which can already be seen and the predictable ones. The assumed priority and criterion of evaluation of the reimbursement policy in question is its impact on the functioning of pharmacies which, according to the premises of Polish pharmaceutical law, should play the role of public health protection institutions.

  3. Phenotypic characteristics and genotypic correlation between Salmonella isolates from a slaughterhouse and retail markets in Yangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yinqiang; Tao, Jing; Jiao, Yang; Fei, Xiao; Zhou, Le; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Huijuan; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-04-01

    An epidemiological investigation of Salmonella spp. in pig and pork samples from one slaughterhouse and its downstream retail markets in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, was conducted from October 2013 to March 2014. A total of 71.8% (155/216) and 70.9% (78/110), respectively, of the slaughterhouse and retail market samples were recovered positive for Salmonella. All Salmonella isolates were characterized using serotyping, antimicrobial resistance detection, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven serotypes were shared by isolates from the two sources, with the most common serotypes being Salmonella Derby, Typhimurium, and Uganda. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing revealed that the highest antimicrobial resistance rate was against tetracycline (49.7% and 37.2% in isolates from the slaughterhouse and retail market, respectively) with many multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates in both sources. MLST analysis showed that eight sequence type (ST) patterns were shared, and ST40 occupied an absolute superiority among isolates from both sources. PFGE permitted the resolution of XbaI macrorestriction fragments of the selected 31 Salmonella Derby and 19 Salmonella Typhimurium into 30 and 10 distinct pulsotypes, displaying the high similarity between the isolates from the two sources. Our findings indicated that Salmonella isolates from a slaughterhouse and its downstream retail markets were phenotypically and genetically homologous. Additionally, Salmonella may propagate along the slaughter line and pork production chain from the slaughterhouse to retail markets.

  4. Phenotypic characteristics and genotypic correlation between Salmonella isolates from a slaughterhouse and retail markets in Yangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yinqiang; Tao, Jing; Jiao, Yang; Fei, Xiao; Zhou, Le; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Huijuan; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-04-01

    An epidemiological investigation of Salmonella spp. in pig and pork samples from one slaughterhouse and its downstream retail markets in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, was conducted from October 2013 to March 2014. A total of 71.8% (155/216) and 70.9% (78/110), respectively, of the slaughterhouse and retail market samples were recovered positive for Salmonella. All Salmonella isolates were characterized using serotyping, antimicrobial resistance detection, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven serotypes were shared by isolates from the two sources, with the most common serotypes being Salmonella Derby, Typhimurium, and Uganda. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing revealed that the highest antimicrobial resistance rate was against tetracycline (49.7% and 37.2% in isolates from the slaughterhouse and retail market, respectively) with many multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates in both sources. MLST analysis showed that eight sequence type (ST) patterns were shared, and ST40 occupied an absolute superiority among isolates from both sources. PFGE permitted the resolution of XbaI macrorestriction fragments of the selected 31 Salmonella Derby and 19 Salmonella Typhimurium into 30 and 10 distinct pulsotypes, displaying the high similarity between the isolates from the two sources. Our findings indicated that Salmonella isolates from a slaughterhouse and its downstream retail markets were phenotypically and genetically homologous. Additionally, Salmonella may propagate along the slaughter line and pork production chain from the slaughterhouse to retail markets. PMID:26851738

  5. Pulga (Flea Market) Contributions to the Retail Food Environment of Colonias in the South Texas Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; St. John, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food-sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruit and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants which served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruit and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food-source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment. PMID:21515116

  6. State of competition in gasoline marketing. The effects of refiner operation at retail (a study required by Title III of the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act)

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.B.; Fenili, R.N.

    1980-05-01

    Title III of the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act requires the Secretary of Energy to report to the Congress on the extent to which producers, refiners, and other suppliers of motor fuel subsidize the sale of such fuel at retail or wholesale with profits obtained from other operations. This is Part I of the report required under that Title. It addresses a number of questions relating to the central issue - the state of competition in the gasoline marketing industry. Part II of the report, to be issued this fall, will discuss the subpoenaed documents of nine integrated companies, and will contain recommendations for action, if deemed necessary. The basic thrust of Part I is an examination of three issues: (1) Are integrated refiners subsidizing their company operated gasoline retail outlets; (2) Are integrated refiners moving gasoline away from their branded dealer network into their own retail outlets; and (3) Are integrated refiners manipulating the allocation system in favor of their own retail outlets to the detriment of other gasoline marketers. At a series of regional hearings, independent marketers charged that integrated refiners were engaging in each of these practices. In essence, integrated refiners were portrayed as using unfair or illegal competitive practices which would ultimately lead to their domination of retail gasoline markets. This report addresses each allegation, after providing a historical and theoretical framework for today's debate.

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses from retail markets in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ta, Yen T; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; To, Phuong Bich; Pham, Da Xuan; Le, Hao Thi Hong; Alali, Walid Q; Walls, Isabel; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses collected from six regions in Vietnam. A total of 1,000 whole, dressed chicken carcasses were collected from five cities and seven provinces across the six regions in Vietnam. Of these, 900 samples were collected from wet markets and 100 from supermarkets. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella according to a method recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 45.9%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) location (Ha Noi city, 51.1%; Hai Phong city, 45.6%; Da Nang and Can Tho cities, 45.5%; Bac Ninh province and Ho Chi Minh city, 44.7%; Dong Nai province, 44.6%; Ha Tinh province, 44.4%; Phu Tho province, 43.8%; Lao Cai province, 43.5%; Kien Giang province, 41.9%; and Lam Dong province, 40.9%), (ii) market type (wet market, 46.2%; supermarket samples, 43.0%), and (iii) storage temperature at retail (ambient storage, 46.4%; chilled storage, 45.1%). Hence, Salmonella presence on poultry meat in Vietnam was not associated with a specific city or province, market type, or storage temperature at retail. Strategies to reduce Salmonella levels on raw poultry in Vietnam should be undertaken to improve the safety of poultry products and reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis from poultry consumption. PMID:23043836

  8. Salmonella on Raw Poultry in Retail Markets in Guatemala: Levels, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Serovar Distribution.

    PubMed

    Jarquin, Claudia; Alvarez, Danilo; Morales, Oneida; Morales, Ana Judith; López, Beatriz; Donado, Pilar; Valencia, Maria F; Arévalo, Alejandra; Muñoz, Fredy; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella numbers on retail raw chicken carcasses in Guatemala and to phenotypically characterize the isolates (serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility). In total, 300 chicken carcasses were collected from seven departments in Guatemala. Salmonella numbers were determined using the most-probable-number method following the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service protocol. In total, 103 isolates were obtained, all of which were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, whereas 46 isolates were serotyped. Overall, Salmonella prevalence and mean number (mean log most probable number per carcass) was 34.3% and 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 2.5), respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence were found by storage condition (refrigerated or ambient temperature), market type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent poultry stores), chicken production system (integrated or nonintegrated production company), and chicken skin color (white or yellow). Chickens produced by integrated companies had lower Salmonella numbers (P < 0.05) than nonintegrated companies, and white-skin carcasses had lower numbers (P < 0.05) than yellow-skin carcasses. Among 13 different Salmonella serovars identified, Paratyphi B (34.8%) was most prevalent, followed by Heidelberg (16.3%) and Derby (11.6%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 59.2% were resistant to one to three antibiotics and 13.6% to four or more antibiotics. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B and Heidelberg were the most resistant to the antibiotics tested. Salmonella levels and antibiotic resistant profiles among isolates from raw poultry at the retail market level were high relative to other reports from North and South America. These data can be used by Guatemalan stakeholders to develop risk assessment models and support further research opportunities to control transmission of Salmonella spp. and

  9. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-01

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention. PMID:24016262

  10. Salmonella on Raw Poultry in Retail Markets in Guatemala: Levels, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Serovar Distribution.

    PubMed

    Jarquin, Claudia; Alvarez, Danilo; Morales, Oneida; Morales, Ana Judith; López, Beatriz; Donado, Pilar; Valencia, Maria F; Arévalo, Alejandra; Muñoz, Fredy; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella numbers on retail raw chicken carcasses in Guatemala and to phenotypically characterize the isolates (serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility). In total, 300 chicken carcasses were collected from seven departments in Guatemala. Salmonella numbers were determined using the most-probable-number method following the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service protocol. In total, 103 isolates were obtained, all of which were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, whereas 46 isolates were serotyped. Overall, Salmonella prevalence and mean number (mean log most probable number per carcass) was 34.3% and 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 2.5), respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence were found by storage condition (refrigerated or ambient temperature), market type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent poultry stores), chicken production system (integrated or nonintegrated production company), and chicken skin color (white or yellow). Chickens produced by integrated companies had lower Salmonella numbers (P < 0.05) than nonintegrated companies, and white-skin carcasses had lower numbers (P < 0.05) than yellow-skin carcasses. Among 13 different Salmonella serovars identified, Paratyphi B (34.8%) was most prevalent, followed by Heidelberg (16.3%) and Derby (11.6%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 59.2% were resistant to one to three antibiotics and 13.6% to four or more antibiotics. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B and Heidelberg were the most resistant to the antibiotics tested. Salmonella levels and antibiotic resistant profiles among isolates from raw poultry at the retail market level were high relative to other reports from North and South America. These data can be used by Guatemalan stakeholders to develop risk assessment models and support further research opportunities to control transmission of Salmonella spp. and

  11. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-01

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention.

  12. An empirical investigation of spatial differentiation and price floor regulations in retail markets for gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, Jean-Francois

    In the first essay of this dissertation, I study an empirical model of spatial competition. The main feature of my approach is to formally specify commuting paths as the "locations" of consumers in a Hotelling-type model of spatial competition. The main consequence of this location assumption is that the substitution patterns between stations depend in an intuitive way on the structure of the road network and the direction of traffic flows. The demand-side of the model is estimated by combining a model of traffic allocation with econometric techniques used to estimate models of demand for differentiated products (Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995)). The estimated parameters are then used to evaluate the importance of commuting patterns in explaining the distribution of gasoline sales, and compare the economic predictions of the model with the standard home-location model. In the second and third essays, I examine empirically the effect of a price floor regulation on the dynamic and static equilibrium outcomes of the gasoline retail industry. In particular, in the second essay I study empirically the dynamic entry and exit decisions of gasoline stations, and measure the impact of a price floor on the continuation values of staying in the industry. In the third essay, I develop and estimate a static model of quantity competition subject to a price floor regulation. Both models are estimated using a rich panel dataset on the Quebec gasoline retail market before and after the implementation of a price floor regulation.

  13. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products for sale on the Polish retail market.

    PubMed

    Maćkiw, Elżbieta; Rzewuska, Katarzyna; Stoś, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Korsak, Dorota

    2011-06-01

    In 2007 and 2008, a monitoring study was carried out in Poland to examine the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in raw and cooked chicken products available on the retail market. A total of 912 samples were tested: 443 samples of raw chicken meat, 146 samples of giblets, and 323 ready-to-eat poultry products (150 samples of spit-roasted chicken, 56 samples of smoked chicken, and 117 samples of pâté and cold meats). A high level of contamination of raw chicken meat (51.7% of samples) and chicken giblets (47.3% of samples) was detected. However, thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were found in only 1.2% of the ready-to-eat poultry products.

  14. Tracking cross-contamination transfer dynamics at a mock retail deli market using GloGerm.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Jessica; Boyer, Renee; Gallagher, Dan; Duncan, Susan; Bauer, Nate; Kause, Janell; Eifert, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats are considered a food at high risk for causing foodborne illness. Deli meats are listed as the highest risk RTE food vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. Cross-contamination in the retail deli market may contribute to spread of pathogens to deli meats. Understanding potential cross-contamination pathways is essential for reducing the risk of contaminating various products. The objective of this study was to track cross-contamination pathways through a mock retail deli market using an abiotic surrogate, GloGerm, to visually represent how pathogens may spread through the deli environment via direct contact with food surfaces. Six contamination origination sites (slicer blade, meat chub, floor drain, preparation table, employee's glove, and employee's hands) were evaluated separately. Each site was inoculated with 20 ml of GloGerm, and a series of standard deli operations were completed (approximately 10 min of work). Photographs were then taken under UV illumination to visualize spread of GloGerm throughout the deli. A sensory panel evaluated the levels of contamination on the resulting contaminated surfaces. Five of the six contamination origination sites were associated with transfer of GloGerm to the deli case door handle, slicer blade, meat chub, preparation table, and the employee's gloves. Additional locations became contaminated (i.e., deli case shelf, prep table sink, and glove box), but this contamination was not consistent across all trials. Contamination did not spread from the floor drain to any food contact surfaces. The findings of this study reinforce the need for consistent equipment cleaning and food safety practices among deli workers to minimize cross-contamination.

  15. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Brusa, Victoria; Aliverti, Virginia; Aliverti, Florencia; Ortega, Emanuel E.; de la Torre, Julian H.; Linares, Luciano H.; Sanz, Marcelo E.; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Padola, Nora L.; Galli, Lucía; Peral García, Pilar; Copes, Julio; Leotta, Gerardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine, and manipulator hands (n = 450) obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin), rfbO157] (O157 lipopolysaccharide), fliCH7 (H7 flagellin), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin) and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin), were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5%) beef samples and 16 (4.4%) environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2%) and 182 (50.5%), respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx2/eae/ehxA/fliCH7 (83.4%), and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA (29.7%); stx2 (29.7%); and stx2/saa/ehxA (27%). None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19, and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected. PMID:23346554

  16. Quality of fresh retail pork cuts stored in modified atmosphere under temperature conditions simulating export to distant markets.

    PubMed

    McMullen, L M; Stiles, M E

    1994-01-01

    The effect of storage temperature on microbial and sensory quality of retail cuts of pork was determined on samples stored under temperature regimens designed to simulate conditions that could be encountered in accessing distant markets with retail-ready product. Samples were packaged in modified atmosphere with 100% CO(2) and <200 ppm O(2) in plastic film with extremely low gas transmission rates. All samples were stored at -1·5°C for three weeks. Reference samples were held at -1·5°C for the duration of the study; experimental samples were transferred to 4°C (-1·5 4° C ) or 7°C (-1· 517° C ) and analyzed for microbial content and sebsory attributes including appearance, confinement and meat odours. Storage life of reference samples at -1·5°C was seven weeks before rejection for loss of acceptable appearance. With transfer of samples to 4 and 7°C after three weeks at -1·5°C, samples remained acceptable for retail sale for two weeks and one week, restpectively. The microbial flora was dominated by lactic acid bacteria under all three storage conditions. Appearance of the cuts was the principal criterion limiting storage life. Discoloration of the meat was not a problem in this study, but purge and odour, including sour and sulphur notes, became a problem with time. The study indicated that export of retail-ready pork cuts to distant markets with a three-week time for delivery to market at -1·5°C can be achieved with one to two weeks of marketing time at retail market at 4 to 7°C.

  17. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Brusa, Victoria; Aliverti, Virginia; Aliverti, Florencia; Ortega, Emanuel E; de la Torre, Julian H; Linares, Luciano H; Sanz, Marcelo E; Etcheverría, Analía I; Padola, Nora L; Galli, Lucía; Peral García, Pilar; Copes, Julio; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine, and manipulator hands (n = 450) obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin), rfb(O157)] (O157 lipopolysaccharide), fliC(H7) (H7 flagellin), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin) and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin), were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5%) beef samples and 16 (4.4%) environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2%) and 182 (50.5%), respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx(2)/eae/ehxA/fliC(H7) (83.4%), and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx(1)/stx(2)/saa/ehxA (29.7%); stx(2) (29.7%); and stx(2)/saa/ehxA (27%). None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19, and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected. PMID:23346554

  18. Tenderness assessments of top loin steaks from retail markets in four U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Igo, M W; Arnold, A N; Miller, R K; Gehring, K B; Mehall, L N; Lorenzen, C L; Delmore, R J; Woerner, D R; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of beef loin steaks from retail markets in 4 U.S. cities. Beef top loin steaks ( = 1,613) were obtained for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), and consumer sensory determinations. Personnel at 4 universities (California Polytechnic State University, Colorado State University, University of Missouri, and Texas A&M University) conducted the study over a 12-mo period. Enhanced/blade-tenderized top loin steaks had the lowest ( < 0.05) WBSF and SSF values, whereas nonenhanced top loin, bone-in steaks had the highest ( < 0.05) WBSF and SSF values. Enhanced/blade-tenderized top loin steaks received the highest ( < 0.05) ratings by consumers for palatability scores, whereas nonenhanced top loin, bone-in steaks had the lowest ( < 0.05) consumer panelist ratings. The USDA quality grade did have an effect ( < 0.05) on the tenderness of nonenhanced steaks but did not affect ( > 0.05) steaks that were enhanced/blade tenderized. The WBSF values and consumer sensory values for top loin steaks were comparable to the 2010 National Beef Tenderness Survey, signifying that no drastic changes in tenderness have occurred due to changes in antemortem or postmortem conditions.

  19. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health.

  20. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  1. Characteristics of Escherichia coli from raw vegetables at a retail market in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Skočková, Alena; Karpíšková, Renáta; Koláčková, Ivana; Cupáková, Šárka

    2013-10-15

    A large epidemic caused by shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) in spring 2011 in Germany resulted in reduction of trust in the health safety of raw vegetables and sprouted seeds. This study focused on the detection and characterization of E. coli in raw vegetables and sprouted seeds sold in the Czech Republic. Out of 91 samples, 24 (26.4%) were positive for the presence of E. coli. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was determined by the disk diffusion method and E-test. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of selected genes encoding virulence--eaeA, hly, stx1, and stx2 and genes encoding resistance to tetracycline--tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), and tet(G) and to β-lactams--blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX. The blaTEM gene was detected in two isolates, the tet(B) gene in three and tet(A) in one isolate. No hly, stx1, or stx2 genes were present, but the eaeA gene was found in three (11.1%) isolates from imported vegetables. These isolates can be considered as potentially enteropathogenic. Results of this study show that raw vegetables and sprouted seeds sold in the retail market can represent a potential risk for consumers. PMID:24135675

  2. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  3. Microbial quality of raw aquacultured fish fillets procured from Internet and local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Pao, S; Ettinger, M R; Khalid, M F; Reid, A O; Nerrie, B L

    2008-08-01

    The microbial quality of raw fillets of aquacultured catfish, salmon, tilapia, and trout was evaluated. A total of 272 fillets from nine local and nine Internet retail markets were tested. Mean values were 5.7 log CFU/g for total aerobic mesophiles, 6.3 log CFU/g for psychrotrophs, and 1.9 log most probable number (MPN) per gram for coliforms. Differences in these microbial levels between the two kinds of markets and among the four types of fish were not significant (P > 0.05), except that Internet trout fillets had about 0.8-log higher aerobic mesophiles than did trout fillets purchased locally. Although Escherichia coli was detected in 1.4, 1.5, and 5.9% of trout, salmon, and tilapia, respectively, no sample had > or = 1.0 log MPN/g. However, E. coli was found in 13.2% of catfish, with an average of 1.7 log MPN/g. About 27% of all fillets had Listeria spp., and a positive correlation between the prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was observed. Internet fillets had a higher prevalence of both Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes than did those fillets purchased locally. L. monocytogenes was present in 23.5% of catfish but in only 5.7, 10.3, and 10.6% of trout, tilapia, and salmon, respectively. Salmonella and E. coli O157 were not found in any sample. A follow-up investigation using catfish operation as a model revealed that gut waste exposed during evisceration is a potential source of coliforms and Listeria spp.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from beef at retail markets in the north Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thai, Truong Ha; Hirai, Takuya; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Shimada, Akinori; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2012-09-01

    Approximately 39.9% (63/158) of beef samples collected from retail markets in Hanoi from January to June 2009 were Salmonella-positive. Nine Salmonella serovars, Anatum (28.6%), Rissen (25.4%), Weltevreden (12.7%), Typhimurium (7.9%), Derby (7.9%), Lexington (7.9%), Dublin (4.6%), Newport (3.2%) and London (1.8%), were identified. Thirty-seven (58.7%) of the 63 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial tested, of which 29 (46%) isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR). The isolates were commonly resistant to tetracycline (46.0%), sulphonamide (39.7%), ampicilline (31.7%), streptomycin (30.2%), trimethoprim (28.6%), kanamycin (28.6%) and chloramphenicol (22.2%). Fourteen (bla(TEMV), bla(OXA-1), aadA1, aadA2, sul1, tetA, tetB, tetG, cmlA1, floR, dfrA1, dfrA12, aac (3)-IV and aphA1-1AB) out of 22 antimicrobial resistance genes were detected by PCR from the resistant isolates. The catA1, Kn, blaPSE-1 genes and plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance (PMQR) genes such as qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA and acc (6')-ib-cr were not detected. Mutations in the gyrA gene leading to the amino acid changes Ser83Phe and/or Asp87Asn were found in 6 out of the 11 quinolone-resistant isolates. The data revealed that multidrug resistant Salmonella strains were widely distributed in north Vietnam via the food chain and might contain multiple genes specifying identical resistant phenotypes. Thus, continuous studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of MDR in Salmonella and its spread in the livestock market.

  5. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. PMID:26861972

  6. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Escherichia coli O157 in ground beef from local retail markets in Pachuca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Díaz-Cruz, Claudio A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157 strains have been recognized as pathogenic bacteria, of which raw beef is a known vehicle. An evaluation was done of the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef from local retail markets in Pachuca, Hidalgo State, Mexico. A total of 120 ground beef samples (500 g) were tested for E. coli O157 by simultaneous application of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)'s Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook culture procedure 5.05, and two commercial kits, Reveal for E. coli O157:H7 and Visual Immunoprecipitate Assay (VIP) Gold for enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Two incubation times (8 and 20 h) were used with the commercial kits. Presence of stx1, stx2, and eaeA loci was determined by multiplex PCR. Of 360 subsamples (120 per procedure), 12 samples were found to be E. coli O157 positive by the FSIS culture method. With VIP, 73 subsamples were presumptive positive after 8 h of enrichment, and 60 were presumptive positive after 20 h of enrichment. Of these, only 6 (8 h) and 8 (20 h) subsamples were confirmed true positives with the FSIS method. With Reveal, 60 subsamples were presumptive positive after 8 h of enrichment and 50 were presumptive positive after 20 h of enrichment. Of these, only 6 (8 h) and 8 (20 h) subsamples were confirmed as true positives with the FSIS method. A total of 57 E. coli O157:H7 and 21 E. coli O157 strains were isolated. None of the O157 or O157:H7 strains had stx1 or stx2 loci, and only one had the eaeA locus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of E. coli O157 in commercial ground beef from Mexico, and the first report of isolation of a large number of stx-negative E. coli O157 and E. coli O157:H7 strains in Mexico.

  8. Comparison of the Microbial Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat Acquired from Internet and Local Retail Markets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chyer; Stein, Roslyn A; Pao, Steven

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial quality of lamb and goat meat sold through local (Virginia) and Internet (U. S.) retail markets. A total of 134 frozen meat products consisting of locally purchased lamb ground (LLG) and lamb chops and Internet-procured lamb ground, goat ground, lamb chops (ILC), goat chops (IGC), lamb stew, and goat stew were tested. Significantly higher levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms were found in the meat locally acquired than in the meat procured from the Internet. Similar average prevalence (27%) of Escherichia coli was observed regardless of market source. Ground meat had significantly high levels and prevalence of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, coliforms, and Listeria spp. One sample of LLG contained Campylobacter, and one sample of IGC contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 23 to 40% and 17 to 80% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of isolated E. coli strains revealed brand specificity and genomic diversity. No isolate from different brands and market sources had matching PFGE profiles. The average price of Internet meat ($23.4/kg) was about 1.2 times higher than the price of local meat, except for ILC, whose price was 2.7 times higher. This study revealed differences in microbial quality of lamb and goat meat based on market source; thus, meat products should be handled carefully regardless of market source because of the presence of high microbial levels and the high prevalence of pathogens.

  9. Comparison of the Microbial Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat Acquired from Internet and Local Retail Markets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chyer; Stein, Roslyn A; Pao, Steven

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial quality of lamb and goat meat sold through local (Virginia) and Internet (U. S.) retail markets. A total of 134 frozen meat products consisting of locally purchased lamb ground (LLG) and lamb chops and Internet-procured lamb ground, goat ground, lamb chops (ILC), goat chops (IGC), lamb stew, and goat stew were tested. Significantly higher levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms were found in the meat locally acquired than in the meat procured from the Internet. Similar average prevalence (27%) of Escherichia coli was observed regardless of market source. Ground meat had significantly high levels and prevalence of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, coliforms, and Listeria spp. One sample of LLG contained Campylobacter, and one sample of IGC contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 23 to 40% and 17 to 80% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of isolated E. coli strains revealed brand specificity and genomic diversity. No isolate from different brands and market sources had matching PFGE profiles. The average price of Internet meat ($23.4/kg) was about 1.2 times higher than the price of local meat, except for ILC, whose price was 2.7 times higher. This study revealed differences in microbial quality of lamb and goat meat based on market source; thus, meat products should be handled carefully regardless of market source because of the presence of high microbial levels and the high prevalence of pathogens. PMID:26555521

  10. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  11. Promoting Problem-Based Learning in Retailing and Services Marketing Course Curricula with Reality Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Mark S.; Otalora, Mauricio Losada; Ramírez, Germán Contreras

    2015-01-01

    This research provides business educators who teach retailing and services courses with an innovative way to encourage students to engage in problem-based learning solving by incorporating reality television into their curricula. The authors explore the reality television genre from several theoretical perspectives to lend support to the…

  12. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'.

  13. Cholesterol and vitamin D content of eggs in the U.S. retail market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nationwide sampling in the U.S. of whole large eggs, to update values in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) (http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata), was conducted in 2000-2001 and again in 2010. Retail cartons of large eggs were obtained from 12 supermarket locations usi...

  14. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'. PMID:22036836

  15. The Internet and Services Marketing--The Case of Danish Retail Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2000-01-01

    Examines various aspects of the motives, perceptions, and expectations connected with the introduction of Internet banking in Danish retail banking. Responses from questionnaires and results from a factor analysis and a hierarchical cluster analysis indicate a belief that Internet banking will become more important in the future. (Author/LRW)

  16. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  17. [Strategy for the introduction of medications employed in delivering medical care to patients with sexually transmitted infections into the retail market].

    PubMed

    Martynenko, A V

    2002-01-01

    Tha article is devoted to the development of strategy for entering the retail market of those medications intended for medical care delivery to patients with infections caught by sexual intercourse or genital contact. The use of the proposed strategy permits the optimization of the structure of necessary expenditures on material resources and enables one to successfully compete in the market of medications winning one's share in the market from competitors.

  18. Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of poultry meat from a processing plant and retail markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyanju, Gladys Taiwo; Ishola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli are the two most important food-borne pathogens of public health interest incriminated in poultry meat worldwide. This study is to access their levels in frozen poultry meat obtained in Ibadan, Oyo State and compare those obtained from a commercial Nigerian-registered poultry company having a broiler-processing plant, Sayed Farms Ltd(R), with that obtained from retail stores. These retail stores source their products as illegal imports from neighboring Benin Republic or Togo because of a ban imposed by Government policy in Nigeria since July 2002 (USDA, GAIN report #NI2025:1-6, 2002). Microbiological Standards and Guidelines by USDA (National Agricultural library) (USDA 2011) and NCCLS guidelines (from Global Salm-Surv, 2003) were used during the research work. The study was approved by the Ethical Research Review Board (ERRB, Research Management Office 2011), University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and fifty-two (152) frozen poultry meat samples comprising ninety-nine retail poultry (53 chicken and 46 turkey) and 53 chicken from the processing plant were accessed. ISO Standards catalogue 07.100.30 (2011) was used in accessing the levels of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Aerobic plate count. ISO 6579: 2002 was used for Salmonella isolation and ISO-16654:2001 for Escherichia coli isolation. There was a higher level of Aerobic plate counts and Enterobacteriaceae counts in frozen retail poultry meat than from the processing plant. Salmonella contamination from the ninety-nine poultry samples (53 chicken and 46 turkey) obtained from retail markets was at 33% [chicken 32.1% (17/53) and turkey 34.8% (16/46)] while Escherichia coli at 43.4% [chicken 47.2% (25/53) and turkey 39.1% (18/46)]. From the processing plant, twelve (12) Salmonella isolates were obtained and prevalence rate calculated as 22.6% while three (3) Escherichia coli isolates at 5.7% was obtained. Antibiotic sensitivity for

  19. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  20. Retail marijuana purchases in designer and commercial markets in New York City: sales units, weights, and prices per gram.

    PubMed

    Sifaneck, Stephen J; Ream, Geoffrey L; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-09-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several varities of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for marijuana sales include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from 5 dollars to 50 dollars and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (average 8.20 dollars/g) and designer (average 18.02 dollars/g) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of 10 dollar bags, 50 dollar cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of 5 dollar and 20 dollar bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research.

  1. Retail Marijuana Purchases in Designer and Commercial Markets in New York City: Sales Units, Weights, and Prices per Gram

    PubMed Central

    Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Ream, Geoffrey L.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several strains of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially-bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for selling include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from $5 to $50 and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (avg. $8.20/gram) and designer (avg. $18.02/gram) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of $10 bags, $50 cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of $5 and $20 bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research. PMID:17055670

  2. Retail marijuana purchases in designer and commercial markets in New York City: sales units, weights, and prices per gram.

    PubMed

    Sifaneck, Stephen J; Ream, Geoffrey L; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-09-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several varities of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for marijuana sales include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from 5 dollars to 50 dollars and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (average 8.20 dollars/g) and designer (average 18.02 dollars/g) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of 10 dollar bags, 50 dollar cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of 5 dollar and 20 dollar bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research. PMID:17055670

  3. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81) in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU) survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS) compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100%) and convenience stores (75%). They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%), cigarettes (25%) or candy (5%). Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%). "Free Trial" (24%), "Special Price" (24%), "What's Your Style?" (22%). At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243), and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents (< 40 years) were more familiar with Camel

  4. Microbiological quality of Pecorino Siciliano "primosale" cheese on retail sale in the street markets of Palermo, Italy.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Pepe, Arcangelo; Aleo, Aurora; D'Agostino, Valentina; Milone, Samuela; Mammina, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    Pecorino Siciliano (PS) "primosale" is a traditional Sicilian fresh soft cheese made from sheep's milk. Short-ripening time and production from unpasteurized or raw milk can facilitate bacterial contamination of PS "primosale". The microbiological quality of "primosale" on retail sale in the street markets of Palermo, Italy was studied by detecting the common food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and indicator microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae. In our study, 4% and 44% of the samples, respectively, did not comply with the acceptability levels fixed by European regulations for S. aureus and E. coli. A high contamination of bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae was found in 42% and 50% of the cheeses analyzed, respectively. Such results indicate poor husbandry and poor hygiene practices during milk collection or preservation or during cheese production processes and handling. In addition, the retail sale conditions may have played a role in cheese contamination since a correlation was found between poor microbiological quality and some selling parameters. This study emphasizes the need to improve production hygiene throughout the PS food chain in line with the traditional cheese-making procedures. Labelling of PS with clear information on whether the cheese was prepared from raw milk also requires improvement.

  5. Prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw and ready-to-eat foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) strains isolated from select raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were determined during 2011. LM was isolated from 26 (14.4%) of 180 food samples. Raw chicken breast showed the highest ...

  6. Prevalence and concentration of Listeria monocytogenes in sliced ready-to-eat meat products in the Hellenic retail market.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the prevalence and concentration of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged precut (slices or cubes) ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products available in the Hellenic retail market. Samples of these RTE meat products (n = 209) were taken from local supermarkets during a 3-month period and analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes with an automated enzymatic qualitative immunoassay followed by biochemical confirmation of positive results. The concentration of the pathogen in the positive samples was also determined. Seventeen samples (8.1%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. Eight (47.1%) of these 17 samples were from the same manufacturer; 36.4% of the products tested from this manufacturer were positive for L. monocytogenes. When bacon samples were not considered, the estimated prevalence of L. monocytogenes in sliced RTE meat products was much lower (3.1%). The L. monocytogenes populations in all positive samples were low, < or = 10 CFU/g. In 64.7% of the L. monocytogenes-positive samples, other Listeria species, including L. innocua and L. welshimeri, were also present at <10 to 690 CFU/g. These results indicate that L. monocytogenes is present in low numbers but is in a considerable proportion of the packaged precut RTE meat products that are sold in the Hellenic retail market. Cooked ham and bacon cut in cubes were the sample types most often contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The higher level of handling (e.g., cutting) associated with these products may further increase the risk of contamination with L. monocytogenes.

  7. The retailing of health care.

    PubMed

    Paul, T; Wong, J

    1984-01-01

    A number of striking parallels between recent developments in health care marketing and changes in the retailing industry exist. The authors have compared retailing paradigms to the area on health care marketing so strategists in hospitals and other health care institutions can gain insight from these parallels. Many of the same economic, demographic, technological and lifestyle forces may be at work in both the health care and retail markets. While the services or products offered in health care are radically different from those of conventional retail markets, the manner in which the products and services are positioned, priced or distributed is surprisingly similar. PMID:10270341

  8. Comparison of the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties from internet and local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Pao, S; Ettinger, M R

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluated the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties sold at local (Virginia) and Internet (U.S.) retail markets. A total of 152 ground beef products, consisting of locally purchased raw ground beef (LRG) and frozen beef patties (LFP) and Internet-procured frozen ground beef (IFG) and frozen beef patties (IFP), were tested. Results showed that LFP had significantly lower levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms than LRG, IFG, and IFP. Furthermore, IFG had greater numbers of Escherichia coli than LRG and LFP. No sample was contaminated with E. coli 0157: H7, but one duplicate set of summer LFP samples contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 25 and 29% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. About 5.0, 11.1, 10.5, and 7.9% of LRG, LFP, IFG, and IFP samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes. This study identified differences in microbial quality between local and Internet products. Careful handling and thorough cooking of ground beef products, regardless of market source, are recommended to prevent foodborne illness.

  9. Comparison of the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties from internet and local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Pao, S; Ettinger, M R

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluated the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties sold at local (Virginia) and Internet (U.S.) retail markets. A total of 152 ground beef products, consisting of locally purchased raw ground beef (LRG) and frozen beef patties (LFP) and Internet-procured frozen ground beef (IFG) and frozen beef patties (IFP), were tested. Results showed that LFP had significantly lower levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms than LRG, IFG, and IFP. Furthermore, IFG had greater numbers of Escherichia coli than LRG and LFP. No sample was contaminated with E. coli 0157: H7, but one duplicate set of summer LFP samples contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 25 and 29% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. About 5.0, 11.1, 10.5, and 7.9% of LRG, LFP, IFG, and IFP samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes. This study identified differences in microbial quality between local and Internet products. Careful handling and thorough cooking of ground beef products, regardless of market source, are recommended to prevent foodborne illness. PMID:19722408

  10. Determining Performance Levels of Competencies for Job Entry. Final Report. Marketing and Retail Sales Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillmer, Warren; And Others

    To provide input for curriculum evaluation, a study to identify basic competencies required for entry-level positions in the marketing/merchandising field was conducted in Wisconsin vocational education districts. Marketing and merchandising graduates and their employers were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to determine the degree of performance…

  11. The interim regulated legal market for NPS ('legal high') products in New Zealand: The impact of new retail restrictions and product licensing.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand has recently established the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive products (NPS) (i.e. 'legal highs'). While the new regime is currently in a transitional phase, a range of retail restrictions and an interim licensing regime for NPS products and operators has been introduced. A product safety assessment framework has been developed to determine if a product should receive an interim licence. As a result of the licensing requirements, the number of NPS retail outlets fell from 3000- 4000 largely convenience stores to 156 specialty stores, and the number of legally available NPS products fell from 200 to fewer than 46. Some of the licensed products contain potent cannabinoid compounds. The licensing system provided, for the first time, information on all the products and operators involved in the sector, and this will assist future monitoring. The effectiveness of the new product safety assessment framework will depend on the quality of the data available on adverse cases. This is a challenge as self-reported information from users is often unreliable, and some emergency department cases do not have all the information required to make an accurate assessment. These data limitations indicate the need for retrospective studies of NPS adverse cases and additional test data. While the new legislation initially reduced the number of NPS retailers by prohibiting convenience outlets, new specialized NPS retail outlets may emerge as the new sector expands. Empirical research is required to measure the impact of the reduction in retail outlets and products on NPS availability.

  12. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-08-01

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers' tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people. PMID:26225987

  13. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-07-28

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers' tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people.

  14. Comparison of the microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables sold at retail markets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Minju; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung

    2014-09-01

    Fresh produce is usually eaten raw without cooking or heating, which may increase the probability of foodborne infection. The microbiological quality of 11 types of fresh, raw vegetables (romaine lettuce, sesame leaves, crown daisy, garlic chives, iceberg lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, leek, chili pepper, capsicum, and zucchini) purchased at retail markets in Iksan, Korea as affected by cultivation method (environmentally friendly vegetables [organic, pesticide-free, and low-pesticide vegetables] and conventionally grown vegetables) and harvest season was determined. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were not detected in all samples of vegetables tested. Aerobic mesophiles (>6 log cfu/g) were detected in environmentally friendly romaine lettuce and crown daisy and environmentally friendly and conventionally grown garlic chives, which also contained coliforms (>3 log cfu/g). Sesame leaf and crown daisy (regardless of cultivation method), as well as conventionally grown romaine lettuce and leek, contained >1 log cfu/g of E. coli. The overall microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables was not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, there were seasonal effects on populations of coliforms and generic E. coli on vegetables. The greatest numbers of microorganisms were isolated from environmentally friendly or conventionally grown vegetables purchased in winter. The vegetables, regardless of cultivation method or season, should be subjected to appropriate antimicrobial treatment to enhance their microbial safety. PMID:25124136

  15. Microbiota of regular sodium and sodium-reduced ready-to-eat meat products obtained from the retail market.

    PubMed

    Miller, Petr; Liu, Xiaoji; McMullen, Lynn M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sodium content on the microbiota on the surface of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products purchased from the retail market in Canada. Products, including sliced and sausage-type deli meats, were analysed with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacteria were identified from 23 brands of products from different meat processors with claims of sodium content ranging from 390 to 1200 mg per 100 g of product. Out of 150 bacterial isolates, the most common were identified as Leuconostoc gelidum, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. Vacuum-packaged RTE deli sliced meat products had the largest population of bacteria. Leuconostocci were the most common isolates in this group of products, while carnobacteria were prevalent on products with moderate loads of bacteria. A higher incidence of carnobacteria and lower incidence of B. thermosphacta were detected on sodium-reduced products. Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indices showed that low sodium products (25%-50% less sodium) had an overall higher bacterial diversity. This was also observed when individual low sodium products were compared with their regular sodium counterpart.

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat at retail markets in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thung, T Y; Mahyudin, N A; Basri, D F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, C W J; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from <3 to 15 MPN/g. The antibiogram testing revealed differential multi-drug resistance among S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolates. All the isolates were resistance to erythromycin, penicillin, and vancomycin whereas sensitivity was recorded for Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, and Trimethoprim. Our findings demonstrated that the retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia. PMID:27118863

  17. Analysis of eight organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh vegetables retailed in agricultural product markets of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Liang, Yongchao; Jiang, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A method to effectively remove pigments in fresh vegetables using activated carbon followed cleanup through solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to further reduce matrix interference and contamination, was established to determine eight organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) in this study, and it has been successfully applied for the determination of eight OPPs in various fresh vegetables with the recoveries ranging from 61.8% to 107%. To evaluate eight OPPs residue level, some fresh vegetables retailed at three agricultural product markets (APM) of Nanjing in China were detected, the results showed that phorate in Shanghai green (0.0257 microg g(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (0.0398 microg g(-1)), dimethoate in Shanghai green (0.0466-0.0810 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.077 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.118-0.124 microg g(-1)), methyl-parathion in Shanghai green (0.0903 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.157 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.0924 microg g(-1)), malathion in Shanghai green (0.0342-0.0526 microg g(-1)), chorpyrifos in spinach (0.106-0.204 microg g(-1)), and Chinese cabbage (0.149 microg g(-1)), chlorfenvinfos in carrot (0.094-0.131 microg g(-1)), were found. However, fonofos and fenthion were not detected in all the collected vegetable samples.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides in selected cereals available on the Polish retail market.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Szymczyk, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (DDT, HCH, HCB, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, aldrin, nitrophene, metoxychlor) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected types of cereals available on the Polish retail market. 191 samples of various cereals have been analyzed in total. Average EC6 concentrations ranged from 56.4 (snacks) to 442.2 pg g(-1) (bran) while the concentration of 12 dioxin-like PCBs was in 15 (groats)-37.6 pg g(-1) (snacks) range. Mean dioxin equivalency concentration calculated as lower bound results in 2005 TEF values amounted to 0.120 ± 0.445 pg TEQ g(-1), while 0.091 ± 0.338 pg TEQ g(-1) if 1998 TEF values were used. Average concentration of all 14 studied BDEs (∑14 BDE) was 112 ± 80 pg g(-1), while average concentration of 13 BDEs excluding BDE #209 was only 15 ± 6 pg g(-1). Pesticide concentrations observed in the analyzed samples were generally low in comparison to maximum residue levels (MRLs) actually permitted by the European Union. However, MRLs were exceeded in 7 out of all 191 analyzed samples. Total concentration of DDT isomers in one of the tested bran samples was as high as 0.053 mg kg(-1). DMDT concentrations slightly above MRL = 0.01 mg kg(-1)were observed in 6 other samples (2 × bran, 1 × children porridge, 2 × snacks and 1 × bread). This study has shown that levels of PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in cereal products available on the Polish market are generally low. However, elevated levels of individual pollutants were observed in several instances. PMID:23906852

  19. Enron`s end run: Marriage of convenience eyes retail market

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.S.; Parish, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    Enron`s proposed entry into the electric energy business is a {open_quotes}wake-up call.{close_quotes} Open competition will continue to accelerate, and new, aggressive players will seek ways to become involved as the energy and energy services businesses converge. A combined Enron/Portland General Corp. (PGC) would join PacifiCorp, Pacific Gas & Electric Co., and Puget/Washington Energy as a substantial company operating in the Pacific Northwest, with clear ambitions to operate nationally. Enron/PGC might be able to drive prices down by exploiting differentials between electricity and gas prices, and could also challenge current players in the wholesale electric power markets in the Pacific Northwest. Those companies may find themselves under pressure to get into or expand their presence in the gas business.

  20. The interim regulated legal market for NPS ('legal high') products in New Zealand: The impact of new retail restrictions and product licensing.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand has recently established the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive products (NPS) (i.e. 'legal highs'). While the new regime is currently in a transitional phase, a range of retail restrictions and an interim licensing regime for NPS products and operators has been introduced. A product safety assessment framework has been developed to determine if a product should receive an interim licence. As a result of the licensing requirements, the number of NPS retail outlets fell from 3000- 4000 largely convenience stores to 156 specialty stores, and the number of legally available NPS products fell from 200 to fewer than 46. Some of the licensed products contain potent cannabinoid compounds. The licensing system provided, for the first time, information on all the products and operators involved in the sector, and this will assist future monitoring. The effectiveness of the new product safety assessment framework will depend on the quality of the data available on adverse cases. This is a challenge as self-reported information from users is often unreliable, and some emergency department cases do not have all the information required to make an accurate assessment. These data limitations indicate the need for retrospective studies of NPS adverse cases and additional test data. While the new legislation initially reduced the number of NPS retailers by prohibiting convenience outlets, new specialized NPS retail outlets may emerge as the new sector expands. Empirical research is required to measure the impact of the reduction in retail outlets and products on NPS availability. PMID:24817124

  1. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets.

  2. Learning Based Bidding Strategy for HVAC Systems in Double Auction Retail Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yannan; Somani, Abhishek; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a bidding strategy is proposed using reinforcement learning for HVAC systems in a double auction market. The bidding strategy does not require a specific model-based representation of behavior, i.e., a functional form to translate indoor house temperatures into bid prices. The results from reinforcement learning based approach are compared with the HVAC bidding approach used in the AEP gridSMART® smart grid demonstration project and it is shown that the model-free (learning based) approach tracks well the results from the model-based behavior. Successful use of model-free approaches to represent device-level economic behavior may help develop similar approaches to represent behavior of more complex devices or groups of diverse devices, such as in a building. Distributed control requires an understanding of decision making processes of intelligent agents so that appropriate mechanisms may be developed to control and coordinate their responses, and model-free approaches to represent behavior will be extremely useful in that quest.

  3. Changes in microbial contamination levels of porcine carcasses and fresh pork in slaughterhouses, processing lines, retail outlets, and local markets by commercial distribution.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Park, H J; Jang, H I; Kim, S A; Imm, J Y; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in microbial contamination levels of each porcine carcass and fresh pork in a general distribution process. A total of 100 commercial pigs were sampled (six sampling sites per individual, total 600 samples) at four sequential stages: slaughterhouse (after carcass grading and boning), processing line, retail outlet, and local market. No significant differences were observed in the contaminant percentages among sampling sites and sample collection years (P>0.05) with the exception of Bacillus cereus. The contaminant percentage of B. cereus at 1st collection year was higher than these of 2nd collection year (28.31% vs. 12.26%, P<0.05). B. cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most frequently detected pathogenic bacteria in the slaughterhouse and markets, respectively. On the other hand, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica were not detected in carcasses or pork collected from any carcass sites and pork samples. However, the frequency of pathogenic bacteria in end-products at local markets was not highly related to the initial contamination of porcine carcasses in the slaughterhouse. Thus, the improvement of microbial safety for pork end-products requires hygienic control of porcine carcasses and meat cutting during all operations in the slaughterhouse, processing line, retail outlet, and local market.

  4. Significance of Biogenic Amines in Cold-Smoked Fish and Their Relation to Microbiological Characteristics of Products Available in Portuguese Retail Markets.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Manuela V; Gibbs, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Studies on microbial characterization of cold-smoked salmon and salmon trout during cold storage were performed on samples available in the Portuguese market. Samples were also classified microbiologically according to guidelines for ready-to-eat (RTE) products. Further investigations on sample variability and microbial abilities to produce tyramine and histamine were also performed. The coefficient of variation for viable counts of different groups of microorganisms of samples collected at retail market point was high in the first 2 wk of storage, mainly in the Enterobacteriaceae group and aerobic plate count (APC), suggesting that microbiological characteristics of samples were different in numbers, even within the same batch from the same producer. This variation seemed to be decreased when storage and temperature were controlled under lab conditions. The numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were influenced by storage temperature, as indicated by low microbial numbers in samples from controlled refrigeration. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae were predominant in commercial products, a significant percentage of which were tyramine and less histamine producers. These results might be influenced by (1) the technological processes in the early stages of production, (2) contamination during the smoking process, and (3) conditions and temperature fluctuations during cold storage at retail market point of sale. PMID:26167759

  5. Detection of shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at local retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Rowaida K S; Gomaa, Mohamed A E; Khalil, Mahmoud I M

    2015-03-16

    Leafy green vegetables, a popular and an indispensable ingredient of the daily menus of Egyptians' diets, currently presents a great concern in terms of microbiological hazards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that provides scientific evidence for prevalence of shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at open air local retail markets and superstores in the Egyptian environment. A total of 486 conventional and organic leafy green samples that are eaten raw were collected from different areas in Alexandria, evaluated for total E. coli counts (ECCs), and screened for E. coli O157:H7 using conventional and molecular methods. Recovery of E. coli (≥10(2)CFU/g) from all studied types of leafy greens was indicative of fecal contamination. Total ECCs in conventional samples ranged from 5.47 to 2.56 log CFU/g. Based on their inability to ferment sorbitol on CT-SMAC media, 26 presumptive E. coli O157 isolates were detected in 71.4% (270/378) of the studied conventional samples. From all studied organic samples, only 2 types (organic cabbage and parsley, 16.7%) were contaminated with presumptive E. coli O157. All 28 isolates were further serotyped as E. coli O157 by latex agglutination test, and biochemically confirmed as E. coli. Multiplex PCR assays confirmed the ability of 21.4% (6/28) of the E. coli O157 strains to produce shiga-toxins (Stxs), and their virulence markers were as follows: stx1, 66.6% (4/6); stx2, 50% (3/6); stx1/stx2, 16.7% (1/6); eaeA, 83.3% (5/6); and hlyA, 16.7% (1/6). Only 2 strains recovered from conventional and organic parsley could possibly be classified as E. coli O157:H7 based on the presence of stx-genes (either stx1 or stx2 or both). Results of the present research highlight that high E. coli loads, together with recovery of STEC O157 isolates could pose serious health risks to the produce consumers. This emphasizes the urgent need for health authorities to value and utilize the existing knowledge to

  6. Detection of shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at local retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Rowaida K S; Gomaa, Mohamed A E; Khalil, Mahmoud I M

    2015-03-16

    Leafy green vegetables, a popular and an indispensable ingredient of the daily menus of Egyptians' diets, currently presents a great concern in terms of microbiological hazards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that provides scientific evidence for prevalence of shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at open air local retail markets and superstores in the Egyptian environment. A total of 486 conventional and organic leafy green samples that are eaten raw were collected from different areas in Alexandria, evaluated for total E. coli counts (ECCs), and screened for E. coli O157:H7 using conventional and molecular methods. Recovery of E. coli (≥10(2)CFU/g) from all studied types of leafy greens was indicative of fecal contamination. Total ECCs in conventional samples ranged from 5.47 to 2.56 log CFU/g. Based on their inability to ferment sorbitol on CT-SMAC media, 26 presumptive E. coli O157 isolates were detected in 71.4% (270/378) of the studied conventional samples. From all studied organic samples, only 2 types (organic cabbage and parsley, 16.7%) were contaminated with presumptive E. coli O157. All 28 isolates were further serotyped as E. coli O157 by latex agglutination test, and biochemically confirmed as E. coli. Multiplex PCR assays confirmed the ability of 21.4% (6/28) of the E. coli O157 strains to produce shiga-toxins (Stxs), and their virulence markers were as follows: stx1, 66.6% (4/6); stx2, 50% (3/6); stx1/stx2, 16.7% (1/6); eaeA, 83.3% (5/6); and hlyA, 16.7% (1/6). Only 2 strains recovered from conventional and organic parsley could possibly be classified as E. coli O157:H7 based on the presence of stx-genes (either stx1 or stx2 or both). Results of the present research highlight that high E. coli loads, together with recovery of STEC O157 isolates could pose serious health risks to the produce consumers. This emphasizes the urgent need for health authorities to value and utilize the existing knowledge to

  7. Causes for Retail Industry Globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha, M.

    2012-12-01

    The heading of this article itself pushing me to think why retail industry is globalizing! Because to increase their presence worldwide and profit on the onside and for the sake of ìname and fameî in industry is other side, but todayís trend and compitetitation force industrial giants to forget the word ìname and fameî globalization is the only strategy to compensate their market share or profit from one country to another country or domestic market. The presence of retail industry in the global level from centuries, but the global recognaization of retail industry came to limelight only two decades ago. As soon as restrictions are removed in this sector, all the retail industry big giants spread across the world to extend their operations especially in emerging markets. Is this a good sign for retailers? Off course it is good sign for some countries and some countries are stick to their own perceptions. Some of the countries welcome this move because the FDI will improve their economic structure. On the other side employment opportunity is also one of the issues in globalization of retail sector. Because retail industry needs huge workforce, so significance of retail has been undoubted.

  8. Exploration of Retailing Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Barbara J.

    Designed as a semester unit of instruction at the middle or junior high school level in the exploration of retailing careers, this distributive education curriculum guide is divided into two sections: The Teacher's Guide and Student Materials. One of the elective courses intended as a followup to "Orientation to Marketing Careers," it provides the…

  9. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Mills, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer

  10. Prevalence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from small Mexican retail markets of queso fresco.

    PubMed

    Soto Beltran, Marcela; Gerba, Charles P; Porto Fett, Anna; Luchansky, John B; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2015-01-01

    Queso fresco (QF) is a handmade cheese consumed and produced in Latin America. In Mexico, QF production is associated with a microbiological risk. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in QF from retail markets of the north-western State of Sinaloa, Mexico, and to assess the effect of physicochemical parameters on Listeria presence. A total of 75 QF samples were obtained. L. monocytogenes, E. coli, and coliforms were detected in 9.3, 94, and 100%, respectively. Salmonella was not detected. STEC isolates showed virulence genes. Microbial loads were above the maximum values recommended by the Official Mexican Standards. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity (aw), moisture content, pH, and salinity played a role in Listeria prevalence in QF. Rigorous control in QF made in Culiacan, Mexico is needed to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens.

  11. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    PubMed Central

    Huque, Roksana; Munshi, M. Kamruzzaman; Khatun, Afifa; Islam, Mahfuza; Hossain, Afzal; Hossain, Arzina; Akter, Shirin; Kabir, Jamiul; Nahar Jolly, Yeasmin; Islam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling) on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them. PMID:26904650

  12. Prevalence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from small Mexican retail markets of queso fresco.

    PubMed

    Soto Beltran, Marcela; Gerba, Charles P; Porto Fett, Anna; Luchansky, John B; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2015-01-01

    Queso fresco (QF) is a handmade cheese consumed and produced in Latin America. In Mexico, QF production is associated with a microbiological risk. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in QF from retail markets of the north-western State of Sinaloa, Mexico, and to assess the effect of physicochemical parameters on Listeria presence. A total of 75 QF samples were obtained. L. monocytogenes, E. coli, and coliforms were detected in 9.3, 94, and 100%, respectively. Salmonella was not detected. STEC isolates showed virulence genes. Microbial loads were above the maximum values recommended by the Official Mexican Standards. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity (aw), moisture content, pH, and salinity played a role in Listeria prevalence in QF. Rigorous control in QF made in Culiacan, Mexico is needed to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens. PMID:24809389

  13. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  14. Mapping the Tobacco Retailers in Edirne, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karlıkaya, Celal; İnce, Hüseyin; Özkan, Nurcan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. Material and Methods: In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. Results: There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. Conclusion: We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment. PMID:25207039

  15. Microbiological quality of fish grown in wastewater-fed and non-wastewater-fed fishponds in Hanoi, Vietnam: influence of hygiene practices in local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Lan, Nguyen Thi Phong; Dalsgaard, Anders; Cam, Phung Dac; Mara, Duncan

    2007-06-01

    Mean water quality in two wastewater-fed ponds and one non-wastewater-fed pond in Hanoi, Vietnam was approximately 10(6) and approximately 10(4) presumptive thermotolerant coliforms (pThC) per 100 ml, respectively. Fish (common carp, silver carp and Nile tilapia) grown in these ponds were sampled at harvest and in local retail markets. Bacteriological examination of the fish sampled at harvest from both types of pond showed that they were of very good quality (2 - 3 pThC g(-1) fresh muscle weight), despite the skin and gut contents being very contaminated (10(2) - 10(3) pThC g(-1) fresh weight and 10(4) - 10(6) pThC g(-1) fresh weight, respectively). These results indicate that the WHO guideline quality of < or = 1000 faecal coliforms per 100 ml of pond water in wastewater-fed aquaculture is quite restrictive and represents a safety factor of approximately 3 orders of magnitude. However, when the fish from both types of pond were sampled at the point of retail sale, quality deteriorated to 10(2) - 10(5) pThC g(-1) of chopped fresh fish (mainly flesh and skin contaminated with gut contents); this was due to the practice of the local fishmongers in descaling and chopping up the fish from both types of pond with the same knife and on the same chopping block. Fishmonger education is required to improve their hygienic practices; this should be followed by regular hygiene inspections.

  16. Microbiological quality of fish grown in wastewater-fed and non-wastewater-fed fishponds in Hanoi, Vietnam: influence of hygiene practices in local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Lan, Nguyen Thi Phong; Dalsgaard, Anders; Cam, Phung Dac; Mara, Duncan

    2007-06-01

    Mean water quality in two wastewater-fed ponds and one non-wastewater-fed pond in Hanoi, Vietnam was approximately 10(6) and approximately 10(4) presumptive thermotolerant coliforms (pThC) per 100 ml, respectively. Fish (common carp, silver carp and Nile tilapia) grown in these ponds were sampled at harvest and in local retail markets. Bacteriological examination of the fish sampled at harvest from both types of pond showed that they were of very good quality (2 - 3 pThC g(-1) fresh muscle weight), despite the skin and gut contents being very contaminated (10(2) - 10(3) pThC g(-1) fresh weight and 10(4) - 10(6) pThC g(-1) fresh weight, respectively). These results indicate that the WHO guideline quality of < or = 1000 faecal coliforms per 100 ml of pond water in wastewater-fed aquaculture is quite restrictive and represents a safety factor of approximately 3 orders of magnitude. However, when the fish from both types of pond were sampled at the point of retail sale, quality deteriorated to 10(2) - 10(5) pThC g(-1) of chopped fresh fish (mainly flesh and skin contaminated with gut contents); this was due to the practice of the local fishmongers in descaling and chopping up the fish from both types of pond with the same knife and on the same chopping block. Fishmonger education is required to improve their hygienic practices; this should be followed by regular hygiene inspections. PMID:17674570

  17. Inaccuracy of Labeling and Visual Inspection for Microsporidian Parasites in Anglerfish Lophius litulon (Jordan, 1902) Collected from Chinese Retail Markets in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico; Arca, Costantino; Piras, Pierluigi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of labeling and the efficacy of visual inspection to detect the lesions by visible parasites in anglerfish Lophius litulon. One hundred samples were collected over a 2-year period (2011 to 2012) from Chinese retail markets in Sardinia, Italy. To assess the conformity of the items with the trade name, a preliminary visual inspection of the samples by a simple morphological analysis was performed. According to the Council Regulations (EC) 104/2000, 1224/2009, and 2074/2005, the Italian labels were examined to verify the appropriate indication of relevant information on traceability (trade name, scientific name, geographical area, and production method), and the samples of L. litulon were subjected to visual inspection to detect "visible parasites." Altogether, a high percentage of mismatching (70%) between the scientific name and trade name was pointed out. Moreover, 60% of the samples were visibly infected by Spraguea lophii, a microsporidian parasite of the nervous tissue that forms typical lesions (xenomas) in the fish flesh near the vertebral column. Although S. lophii is not pathogenic to humans, the presence of xenomas can decompose the fish flesh and render it unfit for human consumption. The high percentage of mislabeling, together with the inaccuracy in the visual inspection by Chinese food business operators highlighted the need to improve the European Union control system of fishery products imported from China and marketed in Europe.

  18. Inaccuracy of Labeling and Visual Inspection for Microsporidian Parasites in Anglerfish Lophius litulon (Jordan, 1902) Collected from Chinese Retail Markets in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico; Arca, Costantino; Piras, Pierluigi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of labeling and the efficacy of visual inspection to detect the lesions by visible parasites in anglerfish Lophius litulon. One hundred samples were collected over a 2-year period (2011 to 2012) from Chinese retail markets in Sardinia, Italy. To assess the conformity of the items with the trade name, a preliminary visual inspection of the samples by a simple morphological analysis was performed. According to the Council Regulations (EC) 104/2000, 1224/2009, and 2074/2005, the Italian labels were examined to verify the appropriate indication of relevant information on traceability (trade name, scientific name, geographical area, and production method), and the samples of L. litulon were subjected to visual inspection to detect "visible parasites." Altogether, a high percentage of mismatching (70%) between the scientific name and trade name was pointed out. Moreover, 60% of the samples were visibly infected by Spraguea lophii, a microsporidian parasite of the nervous tissue that forms typical lesions (xenomas) in the fish flesh near the vertebral column. Although S. lophii is not pathogenic to humans, the presence of xenomas can decompose the fish flesh and render it unfit for human consumption. The high percentage of mislabeling, together with the inaccuracy in the visual inspection by Chinese food business operators highlighted the need to improve the European Union control system of fishery products imported from China and marketed in Europe. PMID:26038919

  19. Comparison of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Incomplete Analytic Hierarchy Process for identifying customer preferences in the Texas retail energy provider market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Christopher

    The competitive market for retail energy providers in Texas has been in existence for 10 years. When the market opened in 2002, 5 energy providers existed, offering, on average, 20 residential product plans in total. As of January 2012, there are now 115 energy providers in Texas offering over 300 residential product plans for customers. With the increase in providers and product plans, customers can be bombarded with information and suffer from the "too much choice" effect. The goal of this praxis is to aid customers in the decision making process of identifying an energy provider and product plan. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a hierarchical decomposition decision making tool, and the Incomplete Analytic Hierarchy Process (IAHP), a modified version of AHP, customers can prioritize criteria such as price, rate type, customer service, and green energy products to identify the provider and plan that best meets their needs. To gather customer data, a survey tool has been developed for customers to complete the pairwise comparison process. Results are compared for the Incomplete AHP and AHP method to determine if the Incomplete AHP method is just as accurate, but more efficient, than the traditional AHP method.

  20. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Marketing and Fashion Merchandising (Program CIP: 08.0705--General Retailing Operations). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for marketing I-II and fashion merchandising. Presented first are a program…

  1. Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and other stored-product pests on cowpea in local markets in Accra: management strategies employed by retailers.

    PubMed

    Egbon, I N; Ayertey, J N

    2013-05-01

    In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as Sitophilus oryzae with an incidence rate of 12, 22 and 20% as against 50, 41 and 42% incidence rate of Callosobruchus maculatus after 30, 60 and 90 days respectively, of undisturbed storage of cowpea within the marketing systems in Accra, Ghana. Relatively low number of retailers (35.44%, N = 79) was aware of this occurrence, with 91.14% of this employing the energy-demanding and time-consuming sieving techniques as their main control strategies. This paper draws attention to the possible worsening of food insecurity already eminent in Africa for insects are no respecters of international or geo-political boundaries as they can spread to other countries, should this observation be left unchecked.

  2. Evaluation of the microbiological quality of conventional and organic leafy greens at the time of purchase from retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Rowaida; Gomaa, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This is a pioneer study in Egypt that provides some assessment of the microbiological quality of conventional and organic leafy green vegetables that constitute an essential component of the Egyptians' daily diet. A total of 380 samples of unpackaged whole conventional and 84 packaged whole organic leafy greens were collected from retail markets in Alexandria, and analyzed for total aerobic mesophilic count (AMC) and total E. coli count (ECC) using the standard spread plate method. Mean AMC values for organic samples were statistically less (p < 0.05) than those of the corresponding conventional samples. Conventional radish and organic parsley samples had the highest AMC of 7.17 and 7.68 log CFU/g respectively, while conventional green cabbage and organic basil had the lowest AMC of 3.63 and 3.23 log CFU/g respectively. The presence of E. coli in 100% of the studied leafy greens was indicative of potential fecal contamination, in view of open and unhygienic environmental and unsanitary handling conditions, as leafy green items are available for sale by street-vendors. Unsatisfactory AMC and ECC levels encountered in the studied samples, warrant future investigations to determine the potential prevalence of foodborne pathogens, and to identify sources of dominating microorganisms, which could make a contribution to the field of food safety

  3. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Leu, Yu-Rui; Aitken, Robert J; Riediker, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were "confirmed" and 293 were "likely" to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore. PMID:26213957

  4. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Leu, Yu-Rui; Aitken, Robert J.; Riediker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were “confirmed” and 293 were “likely” to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore. PMID:26213957

  5. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Leu, Yu-Rui; Aitken, Robert J; Riediker, Michael

    2015-07-24

    Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were "confirmed" and 293 were "likely" to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

  6. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  7. Banning Tobacco Sales at the Retail Pharmacy: Natural Evolution of Drug Store As Responsible Health Provider Or Effective Marketing Strategy?

    PubMed

    Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes. PMID:26569378

  8. Banning Tobacco Sales at the Retail Pharmacy: Natural Evolution of Drug Store As Responsible Health Provider Or Effective Marketing Strategy?

    PubMed

    Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes.

  9. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  10. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retailer. 65.240 Section 65.240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  11. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retailer. 65.240 Section 65.240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  12. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retailer. 65.240 Section 65.240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  13. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retailer. 65.240 Section 65.240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  14. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retailer. 65.240 Section 65.240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  15. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  16. Presence and correlation of some enteric indicator bacteria, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes, and Salmonella serotypes in alfalfa sprouts from local retail markets in Pachuca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Data on the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs) in alfalfa sprouts and correlations between the presence of coliform bacteria (CB), fecal coliforms (FC), E. coli, DEPs, and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts are not available. The presence of and correlations between CB, FC, E. coli, DEPs, and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts were determined. One hundred sprout samples were collected from retail markets in Pachuca, Hidalgo State, Mexico. The presence of indicator bacteria and Salmonella was determined using conventional culture procedures. DEPs were identified using two multiplex PCR procedures. One hundred percent of samples were positive for CB, 90% for FC, 84% for E. coli, 10% for DEPs, and 4% for Salmonella. The populations of CB ranged from 6.2 up to 8.6 log CFU/g. The FC and E. coli concentrations were between , 3 and 1,100 most probable number (MPN)/g. The DEPs identified included enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC; 2%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; 3%), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC; 5%). No E. coli O157:H7 strains were detected in any STEC-positive samples. In samples positive for DEPs, the concentrations ranged from 210 to 240 MPN/g for ETEC, 28 to 1,100 MPN/g for EPEC, and 3.6 to 460 MPN/g for STEC. The Salmonella isolates identified included Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in three samples and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in one. STEC and Salmonella Typhimurium were identified together in one sample. Positive correlations were observed between FC and E. coli, between FC and DEPs, and between E. coli and DEPs. Negative correlations occurred between CB and DEPs and between CB and Salmonella. Neither FC nor E. coli correlated with Salmonella in the sprout samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ETEC, EPEC, and STEC isolated from alfalfa sprouts and the first report of correlations between different indicator groups versus DEPs and Salmonella.

  17. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Käferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union. PMID:17070860

  18. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Käferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  19. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  20. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  1. Retail Choice Experiments: Comparing Early-AdopterExperience

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, William

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the experience with retail choice of non-residential electricity customers during the period from early 1998 through the first few months of 2000. Key findings include: (1) customers in California received a significantly smaller discount from utility tariffs than customers in other competitive markets; (2) this sample of large commercial/industrial customers believed they were benefiting significantly more from commodity savings from contracts with retail electricity service providers (RESP) than from value-added services; and,(3) market rules appear to be critical to customer experiences with retail competition, yet the relationship between market rules and market development is inadequately understood.

  2. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  3. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  4. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-03-10

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living.

  5. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role. PMID:26627090

  6. Weaving New Retail and Consumer Landscapes in the Scottish Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Anne; Sparks, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    New retail locations and formats and changing consumer capabilities and behaviours (including "switching") have encouraged "outshopping" from rural to urban areas. Rural areas have been suffering from a decline in the provision of services, including retailing. One "solution" has been the strengthening of market towns in rural areas by the…

  7. 77 FR 42016 - Product Change-Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Change--Every Door Direct Mail--Retail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal... Door Direct Mail--Retail to the market-dominant product list within the Mail Classification Schedule... Direct Mail--Retail to the Mail Classification Schedule, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642. Documents...

  8. Real-time and conventional PCR detection of Liberty Link rice varieties and transgenic soy in rice sampled in the Mexican and American retail markets.

    PubMed

    Quirasco, Maricarmen; Schoel, Bernd; Chhalliyil, Pradheep; Fagan, John; Gálvez, Amanda

    2008-10-01

    Samples of rice from Mexican and USA retail stores were analyzed for the presence of transgenic (GM) events using real-time PCR. In screening for the CaMV35S promoter sequence (35SP), positive results were found in 49 and 35% of the Mexican and American samples, respectively. In further investigations in Mexican samples, 43% were positive for P35S::bar, with two above the quantifiable limit; these were 0.07% and 0.05% GMO. Fourteen out of the sixteen positive samples were labeled as imported from the USA. In testing samples bought in American retail shops, 24% showed positive results, all below the quantifiable range. It could be deduced that P35S::bar positive samples were Liberty Link(R) (LL) rice. In distinguishing between LL601 and LL62, end-point PCR was used, corroborating the P35S::bar amplicon length difference of these events. LL62 was found in one rice sample purchased in Mexico and two in the USA samples. Its presence was verified with the 35S terminator sequence. All other LL positive samples contained LL601. None of the samples analyzed showed the presence of Bt63 rice. The LL rice varieties found have been identified as not being commercially cultivated, and so their presence requires further investigation. 35SP was also present in samples which did not have any LL rice. Maize sequences could not be detected in any of the samples; however, soybean DNA was found in Mexican and USA rice samples. The Roundup Ready(R) trait was detected in trace amounts in 16 and 6% of the rice samples bought in Mexico and the USA, respectively. Real-time PCR was shown to be the method of choice for the sensitive and rapid screening of commodities and retail samples for the detection of GM and other contamination.

  9. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    PubMed

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.

  10. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction.

  11. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction. PMID:23797014

  12. Using Interactive Whiteboards in Teaching Retail Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Marla; Kirpalani, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate marketing students have sometimes been found to lack mathematical skills. It can therefore be challenging for instructors to effectively teach courses that depend on mathematical problem-solving skills. This paper discusses the use of interactive whiteboards as an innovative way to teach retail mathematics effectively. The authors…

  13. An Exciting Future in Retail Training Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetz, Richard

    1976-01-01

    Color video can be utilized by department stores involved in fashion retailing, such as Dayton's, to train employees while maintaining the store's reputation for quality. Its uses include product knowledge, store policies and procedures, management communication market, trip reports, trend shows, role-playing, modular courses, and executive…

  14. Hierarchical dispatch using two-stage optimisation for electricity markets in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Guoshan; Ma, Kai

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical dispatch method for the electricity markets consisting of wholesale markets and retail markets. In the wholesale markets, the generators and the retailers decide the generation and the purchase according to the market-clearing price. In the retail markets, the retailers set the retail price to adjust the electricity consumption of the consumers. Due to the two-way communications in smart grid, the retailers can decide the electricity purchase from the wholesale markets based on the information on electricity usage of consumers in the retail markets. We establish the hierarchical dispatch model for the wholesale markets and the retail markets and develop distributed algorithms to search for the optimal generation, purchase, and consumption. Numerical results show the balance between the supply and demand, the profits of the retailers, and the convergence of the distributed algorithms.

  15. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Marketing Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the fundamental concepts of the marketing and distribution field, including the operations of wholesale and retail businesses. The course is comprised of three units: (1) The Marketing Process, (2) Wholesaling, and (3) Retailing. Each unit begins with a…

  16. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  17. Ethics in Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Retailers must decide whether to make the most money or help the most people. This conflict between democratic ideals and the free enterprise system must be made within the corporate structure and thus puts a great deal of pressure on the businessman. Suggests questions that the retailer can ask himself regarding his professional ethics. (JMD)

  18. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in vacuum-packaged ready-to-eat meat products at retail markets in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Bĕrziņs, Aivars; Terentjeva, Margarita; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-06-01

    Nine groups of different retail ready-to-eat vacuum-packaged meat products from 10 Baltic meat processing plants were analyzed for presence and numbers of Listeria monocytogenes at the end of shelf life. A total of 38 (18%) of 211 samples tested positive for L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a (88%) or 1/2c (12%). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked, sliced, vacuum-packaged beef and pork products (42%) was significantly higher than in cooked, sliced, vacuum-packaged meat products (0.8%) (P < 0.001). Enumeration of L. monocytogenes showed that 84% of the positive samples contained <100 CFU/g upon expiry of product shelf life. The numbers of L. monocytogenes exceeded 100 CFU/g only in cold-smoked, sliced, vacuum-packaged beef products. Identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were recovered from different production lots of cold-smoked vacuum-packaged beef and pork products produced by the same meat processing plant, demonstrating L. monocytogenes contamination as a recurrent problem within one meat processing plant.

  19. Ready for the empowered consumer? Providers need retailer's attitude.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The aging of baby boomers and the rise in popularity of the internet are creating a new kind of consumer who demands quality, service, and convenience from health care. To find out how to meet those demands, providers are beginning to benchmark with retail companies experienced in catering to consumers. Retailers can offer help for such processes as inpatient admitting, marketing, billing, sales, product development, and recruiting and retaining employees. PMID:10345803

  20. Ready for the empowered consumer? Providers need retailer's attitude.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The aging of baby boomers and the rise in popularity of the internet are creating a new kind of consumer who demands quality, service, and convenience from health care. To find out how to meet those demands, providers are beginning to benchmark with retail companies experienced in catering to consumers. Retailers can offer help for such processes as inpatient admitting, marketing, billing, sales, product development, and recruiting and retaining employees.

  1. 77 FR 62446 - Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... product offering within Mailing Services, and ends the market test period for this initiative. DATES...-Retail a Permanent Product In December 2010, the Postal Service announced a new market test to begin in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR...

  2. Responding to Rapid and Unexpected Retail Innovations: Planning Retail Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Fujie

    Retail areas within cities have traditionally not only satisfied the demands for various goods and services, but also promoted community sustainability and healthy lifestyles. Since the end of World War II (WWII), retail innovations have occurred rapidly and unexpectedly. In retail development, economic efficiency is highly prioritized over other functions, in opposition to sustainable development. In retail planning, a communicative approach frequently results in the public responses by "Not In My Back Yard" sentiments, contradicting the projected cooperation between different stakeholders. This research implements the resilience theory to tackle the shocks created by these rapid and unexpected retail changes, based on a comparative case of Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) and Portland (Oregon, USA). Primarily through interviews with senior planners in both cities, it is found that adaptive retail management, polycentric retail planning, a well-informed public, and the use of consensus building could better stimulates resilient retail outcomes.

  3. Trust: The Missing Dimension in the Food Retail Transition in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, C.; Kelly, M.; Dixon, J.; Seubsman, S-A.; Sleigh, A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thailand has experienced dramatic growth of large national and international modern food retailers, such as supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores in large cities and regional centres in the last two decades. Nevertheless, Thai consumers continue to purchase perishables (fruits, vegetables and animal products) from fresh markets (wet markets, talat sot) contradicting predictions from analysts that modern food retail chains will rapidly replace fresh markets as the preferred venue for purchasing all types of foods. This paper examines trust in food retail systems as an under-explored dimension lying behind the continued patronage by Thais of fresh markets to purchase perishable items. It derives from a research program commenced in 2005 that includes fieldwork visits, interviews and questionnaires. In the context of the Thai food retail transition, we propose that trust affects relationships between consumers and (1) individual fresh market-based vendors, (2) the food products sold at fresh markets and (3) the food retail system more broadly. If fresh markets can be maintained in the face of sustained pressure from modern national and international food retailers, Thais will continue to use them. Meanwhile, trust is a relatively unrecognised dimension that is supporting the continued existence of traditional food retail formats. PMID:27499561

  4. Retailers in social program strategy: the case of family planning.

    PubMed

    Black, T R; Farley, J U

    1977-01-01

    The provision of contraceptive agents and devices through hospitals and clinics is not a cost-efficient procedure, therefore the distribution through retailers in a preexisting network is an attractive prospect. To really distribute contraceptives, e.g., birth control pills, the retailer would have to be trained in a format of questions. Two studies of retail marketing were conducted, one in Jamaica for condoms and one in Kenya where a subsidized marketing program for condoms was started in rural areas. More urban shops, which were larger in size, carried condoms than rural shops. Retailers in both areas were completely oriented to their immediate vicinity. Their concerns were with volume and with aggregate demand both before and after subsidized programs. The distribution system requires the additional support of advertising and marketing, but since the structure is in place it can be used with relatively little capital outlay. Research of retailers' attitudes and perceptions is inexpensive and often indicates customer preference and local market conditions.

  5. The State of Online Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamimi, Nabil; Rajan, Murli; Sebastianelli, Rose

    2003-01-01

    Benchmarks online retailing transactions against critical factors that impact online retailing. Findings suggest several areas that e-retailers should target for improvement, including the speed of home page loading, ability to translate into multiple languages, capabilities of search engines, security policies display, payment options, minimum…

  6. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care). PMID:20836416

  7. Combining microsimulation and spatial interaction models for retail location analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Hanaoka, Kazumasa; Clarke, Graham; Ballas, Dimitris; Yano, Keiji

    2007-12-01

    Although the disaggregation of consumers is crucial in understanding the fragmented markets that are dominant in many developed countries, it is not always straightforward to carry out such disaggregation within conventional retail modelling frameworks due to the limitations of data. In particular, consumer grouping based on sampled data is not assured to link with the other statistics that are vital in estimating sampling biases and missing variables in the sampling survey. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a useful combination of spatial interaction modelling and microsimulation approaches for the reliable estimation of retail interactions based on a sample survey of consumer behaviour being linked with other areal statistics. We demonstrate this approach by building an operational retail interaction model to estimate expenditure flows from households to retail stores in a local city in Japan, Kusatsu City.

  8. Management Training in Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veness, C. Rosina

    Intended for prospective members of the new Distributive Industrial Training Board in Great Britain, this training guide concentrates on managerial functions in retailing; the selection of trainees; the planning of in-company and external training programs; scheduling and continuity of training; roles of training personnel; and the use of various…

  9. Retail Training and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodworth, Margaret

    The book provides insight into training aims, principles, techniques, aids , and courses designed to meet the training needs of specific groups of staff, such as management staff, training staff, new staff, and established staff. It also covers the training and educational elements of the Certificate of Retail Management Principles. Training…

  10. E85 Retail Business Case: When and Why to Sell E85 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2007-08-30

    Agenda: {lg_bullet} Convey current state of the retail gasoline market {lg_bullet} Explore E85 as part of the solution {lg_bullet} Test the profitability of E85 as an investment {lg_bullet} Give retailers guidance to assess if E85 would be a good investment for them

  11. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  12. A Writing-Intensive Program for Teaching Retail Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darian, Jean C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents the writing-intensive design for a retailing management course developed by its instructor in accordance with writing-across-the-curriculum principles. Provides an overview of the semester-long project. Details project procedures for preparatory activities, field research, and writing the marketing plan. (SR)

  13. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  14. Retailer Adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; D’Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act’s provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. Methods We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers’ adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. Results We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, “light” cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Conclusion Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions. PMID:23557638

  15. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods.

  16. Coping with Marketing Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Ralph E.; Ross, Herbert L.

    1975-01-01

    The effective teacher-coordinator is actively aware of changes occurring in marketing today: impact of ethnic group purchasing power, retailing response to variables, marketing of services, and using data processing in decision-making. Teaching strategies and instructional materials should be chosen accordingly. (BP)

  17. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  18. Survey of Mexican retail stores for US beef product.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Valdéz, Alejandra; Belk, Keith E

    2014-02-01

    Retail packages (N=1004) containing fresh US beef in display cases in five cities across three regions of Mexico were surveyed for cut types, cutting styles, fat thickness measurements, marbling scores, and USDA Quality Grades to gain an overview of fresh US beef in Mexican retail markets. Data were analyzed to generate frequency distributions and examine the effect of city, geographical region, store chain, and socio-economic status of the targeted clientele on type, cutting style, fat measures and quality of beef cuts of US origin. Top round, bottom round and knuckle were the most common cut types. Milanesa-type slice and "bistec" (steak for grilling) were the predominant cutting styles. Over 95% of the retail cuts were trimmed to 3.2mm or less of external fat. Most cuts were USDA Select (74.5%) and USDA Choice (24.5%). External fat thickness and marbling score differed among cities and store chains (P<0.01).

  19. Study on spatial structure of retailing based on GIS in the city of Wuhan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-liang; Tian, Ying

    2008-10-01

    With the agility of market economy, the characteristic of market spatial structure becomes more complex since the reformation and open policy. The spatial structure has broken through the traditional framework which is non-equilibriums and scattered, and represented such modern development character as diversification, grade, network, and non-equilibrium. This paper chooses 200 stochastic retailing stores whose acreages all exceed 40m2 in the four circles of Wuhan city, after the analysis of spatial difference on acreages, number, population density, and manage forms with GIS spatial methods, and makes a conclusion that the retailing spatial structure of Wuhan city has took on figure of rating circle wholly and frame of centralization-diffusion and enchasing partially; as location is concerned, centralization and diffusion takes place simultaneously, has behaved that retailing concentrated in heartland of city with more favorable traffic and market location by the means of market infiltration, and distributed in suburb more dispersive by market monopoly.

  20. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a...

  1. The Small Retailer and His Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstinger, Irving

    1975-01-01

    This study, through personal interviews, collected data on small retailers for three purposes: (1) to provide informative insights into small-scale retailing in New York City, (2) to explore retailers' opinions as to why customers shop at their stroes, and (3) to ascertain the more common problems experienced by retailers. (Author/BP)

  2. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.3 Retailer management. (a) Retailer participation. (1) All authorized retailers must be afforded the opportunity...

  3. 76 FR 28358 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55409 (Sept. 10, 2010... Act. Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281 (Jan. 20, 2010) (Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule). \\13\\ See Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76...

  4. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    .... Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281 (Jan. 20, 2010). \\13\\ Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76 FR 22633 (Apr. 22, 2011). \\14\\ Id. \\15\\ Retail Foreign... proposed and final rules. \\16\\ Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76 FR 22633 (Apr. 22, 2011)....

  5. 76 FR 41375 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... income for the bank. The OCC understands that the economic model of a retail forex business may be to... CFTC's retail forex rule.\\13\\ The OCC decided to model its retail forex rule on the CFTC's rule to... documentation. \\12\\ Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75...

  6. Retail trade incentives: how tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries.

    PubMed Central

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Achabal, D D; Tyebjee, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study compared the incentive payments for premium shelf space and discounts on volume purchases paid to retailers by 5 types of companies. METHODS: Merchants were interviewed at 108 randomly selected small retail outlets that sell tobacco in Santa Clara County, California. RESULTS: Significantly more retailers reported receiving slotting/display allowances for tobacco (62.4%) than for any other product type. An average store participating in a retailer incentive program received approximately $3157 annually from all sampled product types, of which approximately $2462 (78%) came from tobacco companies. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should assess the impact of tobacco industry incentive programs on the in-store marketing and sales practices of retailers. PMID:10511841

  7. Retailer's inventory system in a two-level trade credit financing with selling price discount and partial order cancelations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangam, A.

    2015-03-01

    In today's fast marketing over the Internet or online, many retailers want to trade at the same time and change their marketing strategy to attract more customers. Some of the customers may decide to cancel their orders partially with a retailer due to various reasons such as increase in customer's waiting time, loss of customer's goodwill on retailer's business, attractive promotional schemes offered by other retailers etc. Even though there is a lag in trading and order cancelation, this paper attempts to develop the retailer's inventory model with the effect of order cancelations during advance sales period. The retailer announces a price discount program during advance sales period to promote his sales and also he offers trade credit financing during the sales periods. The retailer availing trade credit period from his supplier offers a permissible delay period to his customers. The customer who gets an item has allowed paying on or before the permissible delay period which is accounted from the buying time rather than the start period of inventory sales. This accounts for significant changes in the calculations of interest payable and interest earned by the retailer. The retailer's total cost is minimized so as to find out the optimal replenishment cycle time and price discount policies through a solution procedure. The results derived in mathematical theorems are implemented in numerical examples and sensitivity analyses on several inventory parameters are obtained.

  8. Retailer's inventory system in a two-level trade credit financing with selling price discount and partial order cancellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangam, A.

    2014-02-01

    In today's fast marketing over the Internet or online, many retailers want to trade at the same time and change their marketing strategy to attract more customers. Some of the customers may decide to cancel their orders partially with a retailer due to various reasons such as increase in customer's waiting time, loss of customer's goodwill on retailer's business, and attractive promotional schemes offered by other retailers. Even though there is a lag in trading and order cancellation, this paper attempts to develop the retailer's inventory model with the effect of order cancellations during advance sales period. The retailer announces a price discount program during advance sales period to promote his sales and also offers trade credit financing during the sales periods. The retailer availing trade credit period from his supplier offers a permissible delay period to his customers. The customer who gets an item is allowed to pay on or before the permissible delay period which is accounted from the buying time rather than from the start period of inventory sales. This accounts for significant changes in the calculations of interest payable and interest earned by the retailer. The retailer's total cost is minimized so as to find out the optimal replenishment cycle time and price discount policies through a solution procedure. The results derived in mathematical theorems are implemented in numerical examples, and sensitivity analyses on several inventory parameters are obtained.

  9. Retail Location Choice with Complementary Goods: An Agent-Based Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Arthur; Levinson, David

    This paper models the emergence of retail clusters on a supply chain network comprised of suppliers, retailers, and consumers. Firstly, an agent-based model is proposed to investigate retail location distribution in a market of two complementary goods. The methodology controls for supplier locales and unit sales prices of retailers and suppliers, and a consumer’s willingness to patronize a retailer depends on the total travel distance of buying both goods. On a circle comprised of discrete locations, retailers play a non-cooperative game of location choice to maximize individual profits. Our findings suggest that the probability distribution of the number of clusters in equilibrium follows power law and that hierarchical distribution patterns are much more likely to occur than the spread-out ones. In addition, retailers of complementary goods tend to co-locate at supplier locales. Sensitivity tests on the number of retailers are also performed. Secondly, based on the County Business Patterns (CBP) data of Minneapolis-St. Paul from US Census 2000 database, we find that the number of clothing stores and the distribution of food stores at the zip code level follows power-law distribution.

  10. Relative efficiency benefits of wholesale and retail competition in electricity: An analysis and a research agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D R; Palmer, K L

    1996-03-01

    A central issue in the debate over restructuring the electric power industry is the extent to which the market should be open to competition. One aspect of this debate is whether competition ought to be restricted to the whole sale power market or be extended to final retail consumers. This report begins to explore the potential differences in economic efficiency between wholesale and retail competition in the electric power industry. The two market-structure scenarios are defined and the factors responsible for differences in efficiency are described. The report also contains an assessment of the relative importance of the factors and recommendations for pursuing further research.

  11. Adoption and Business Value of Mobile Retail Channel: A Dependency Perspective on Mobile Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yen-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Forrest Research estimated that revenues derived from mobile devices will grow at an annual rate of 39% to reach $31 billion by 2016. With the tremendous market growth, mobile banking, mobile marketing, and mobile retailing have been recently introduced to satisfy customer needs. Academic and practical articles have widely discussed unique…

  12. Root canals and retailing. When it comes to merchandising activities in a dental office, dentists are their own worst critics.

    PubMed

    Grove, S J; Pickett, G M; Finn, D W

    1994-01-01

    As professional service providers continue to face an increasingly competitive environment, marketing becomes a more attractive prospect. One marketing activity that has emerged in recent years is the retailing of products related to one's profession directly from the office. The authors explore the retailing phenomenon from the perspective of dentists and dental patients and find that patients are less critical of the practice than dentists are themselves.

  13. Root canals and retailing. When it comes to merchandising activities in a dental office, dentists are their own worst critics.

    PubMed

    Grove, S J; Pickett, G M; Finn, D W

    1994-01-01

    As professional service providers continue to face an increasingly competitive environment, marketing becomes a more attractive prospect. One marketing activity that has emerged in recent years is the retailing of products related to one's profession directly from the office. The authors explore the retailing phenomenon from the perspective of dentists and dental patients and find that patients are less critical of the practice than dentists are themselves. PMID:10154635

  14. 18. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION. THE RETAIL STORE (AT RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION. THE RETAIL STORE (AT RIGHT) AND THE LARGE ADDITION (AT LEFT) WERE ADDED IN 1957-58 TO MEET THE MILL'S CHANGING MARKET. THE THREE-STORY METAL ELEVATOR SUPERSEDED THE ORIGINAL DOUBLE-CHAMBER BELT AND CUP TYPE STILL INTACT INSIDE THE MILL. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazan, Osman

    This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost

  16. Helping DE Keep Pace with Changes in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchen, Frank M.

    1974-01-01

    A futuristic outlook on changes in retail business and marketing is given. Distributive educational needs in developing a person in the fields of marketing, retailing and economics will increase along with the use of computers for research in the next ten or fifteen years. (DS)

  17. Hospital-affiliated and hospital-owned retail clinics: strategic opportunities and operational challenges.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer

    2010-01-01

    Retail clinics have experienced an exponential growth in the last few years. While the majority of retail clinics are freestanding, venture-backed companies affiliated with retail hosts, an increasing number of hospital systems have decided to develop their own retail clinics or partner with existing national companies. Using a stakeholder approach, the purpose of this article is to assess the strategic considerations behind these decisions and the operational challenges associated with them and to use the results to develop a questionnaire that can be applied in future research in a national sample of healthcare executives. We conducted eight in-depth interviews with administrative and clinical leaders in seven hospital systems across the United States that have or had a relationship with retail clinics in the last three years. Our findings show that the hospital systems' association with retail clinics involves two main models: an affiliation with retail chains that operate the clinics and ownership of the clinics with an arms-length relationship with the retail chain. Hospital systems are engaging in these relationships for several strategic reasons: to increase market share through enhanced referrals to physician offices and hospitals, to become closer to consumers, and to experiment with nontraditional ways of delivering health care. Operational challenges included physician resistance and skepticism, poor financial performance, people's perception of retail clinics, staffing issues, and the newness of the business model. Six out of eight respondents thought that hospital affiliation with/ownership of retail clinics is a trend that is here to stay, although many provided caveats and stipulations. Further research is needed to provide more evidence about this emerging way of healthcare delivery. PMID:21077582

  18. College-Level Education in Retailing: A Comparison of Perceptions of Retail Employment Executives and Retail Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Sue Stringer

    The tremendous changes in methods of operation experienced in the retailing field in recent years, have brought about changes in the nature and extent of formal education required of potential retail executives. The primary purpose of this study was to ascertain the relative value of various elements of college retailing programs in the…

  19. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  20. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  1. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  2. Retail applications of signature verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  3. 47 CFR 301.6 - Retailer participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... independent auditor at no expense to the retailer; (E) Will provide NTIA electronically with redemption...-compliance or error. (5) Retailers may contact NTIA for late application or dispute resolution for problems... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retailer participation. 301.6 Section...

  4. 76 FR 40779 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... individuals. \\11\\ Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR... Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281 (Jan. 20, 2010) (Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule). \\12\\ Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76 FR 22633 (Apr. 22, 2011). The FDIC is now adopting the proposed rule text as a final rule...

  5. 76 FR 22633 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55409 (Sept. 10, 2010... Act. Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281...\\ Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule, 75 FR at 3287 n.54. Section 48.6--Disclosure This section requires...

  6. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  7. Mislabelling and Species Substitution in Fishery Products Retailed in Sardinia (Italy), 2009-2014

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Pierluigi; Mazzette, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Mislabelling and species substitution are major concerns for fishery products marketed in the EU. The present survey aimed to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community and National rules on the labelling and marketing of fishery products retailed in Sardinia (Italy) between 2009 and 2014. A total of 3000 labels for fresh unpacked fishery products have been considered. A total of 900 labels (30%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name, the wrong or missing information about the catch area and the production method. The highest percentage of mislabelling and species substitution has been detected in open-air markets (65%) and small-scale retail shops (40%) compared with the big supermarket chains (10%). The high percentage of non-compliances with the European and Italian legislation highlights the need to improve the essential information demanded by consumers on fishery products marketed in open-air markets and small-scale retail shops. While there are laws in place, it is unclear how effective they are and what type of penalties food business operators of open-air markets and small-scale retail shops may incur. PMID:27800419

  8. Dictionary of Marketing Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    A listing of words and definitions compiled from more than 10 college and high school textbooks are presented in this dictionary of marketing terms. Over 1,200 entries of terms used in retailing, wholesaling, economics, and investments are included. This dictionary was designed to aid both instructors and students to better understand the…

  9. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

  10. Three studies of retail gasoline pricing dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Benjamin James

    In many Canadian cities, retail gasoline prices appear to cycle, rising by large amounts in one or two days followed by several days of small consecutive price decreases. While many empirical studies examine such markets, certain questions cannot b e properly answered without high frequency, station-specific price data for an entire market. Thus, the first paper in this thesis uses bi-hourly price data collected for 27 stations in Guelph, Ontario, eight tunes per day for 103 days to examine several basic predictions of the Edgeworth cycle theory. The results are largely consistent with this theory. However, most independent firms do not tend to undercut their rivals' prices, contrary to previous findings. Furthermore, the tuning, sizes and leaders of price increases appear to be very predictable, and a specific pattern of price movements has been detected on days when prices increase. These findings suggest that leading a price increase might not be as risky as one may expect. The second paper uses these same data to examine the implications o f an informal theory of competitive gasoline pricing, as advanced by industry and government. Consistent with this theory, stations do tend to set prices to match (or set a small positive or negative differential with) a small number of other stations, which are not necessarily the closest stations. Also, while retailers frequently respond to price changes within two hours, many take considerably longer to respond than is predicted by the theory. Finally, while price decreases do ripple across the market like falling dominos, increases appear to propagate based more on geographic location and source of price control than proximity to the leaders. The third paper uses both these data and Guelph price data collected every 12 hours during the same 103 days from OntarioGasPrices.com to examine the sample selection biases that might exist in such Internet price data, as well as their implications for empirical research. It is

  11. Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Can Real-Time Pricing SupportRetail Competition and Demand Response?

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Hopper,Nicole; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-04-25

    As retail choice states reach the end of their transitional, rate-cap periods, state regulators must decide what type of default supply service to provide to customers that have not switched to a competitive retail supplier. In a growing number of states, regulators have adopted real-time pricing (RTP) as the default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. Although this trend is driven chiefly by policy objectives related to retail competition, default service RTP may have the added benefit of stimulating demand response. To evaluate the potential role of RTP as a means to both ends--retail market development and demand response--we conducted a comprehensive review of experience with default RTP in the U.S. and examined the emergence of RTP as a product offering by competitive retail suppliers. Across the ten utilities with default RTP in place in 2005, between 5% and 35% of the applicable load remained on the rate. Based on interviews with competitive retailers, we find evidence to suggest that a comparable amount of load in these states has switched to hourly pricing arrangements with competitive retailers. Many customers on default or competitive hourly pricing are paying prices indexed to the real-time spot market, and thus have no advance knowledge of prices. Because the price responsiveness of customers under these conditions has yet to be formally analyzed, and relatively few efforts have been undertaken to help these customers become price responsive, the actual demand response impacts from hourly pricing in retail choice states remains largely an open question. However, we find that policymakers and other stakeholders in retail choice states have various strategies at their disposal to capture the potential demand response benefits from hourly pricing, while simultaneously supporting retail competition.

  12. How satisfied are hospital systems with their ownership of retail clinics?

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer; Charland, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Retail clinics--while innovative--can no longer be considered a new model of healthcare delivery, as an increasing number of hospitals and health systems now own them. The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which hospital systems are satisfied with their ownership of retail clinics. In terms of operational challenges, respondents to our survey, administered to representatives from 19 health systems, were relatively satisfied with clinic staffing and their relationship with the retailers regarding lease terms, store locations, and shopper demographics. They expressed mostly neutral levels of satisfaction with regulations and laws related to retail clinics and low satisfaction with insurance reimbursement and clinics' seasonal patterns. The two areas that received the lowest respondent satisfaction ratings were patient volume and response to marketing initiatives. When asked to share their perceptions of their organization's satisfaction with various strategic aspects of retail clinic ownership, respondents revealed that the clinics were achieving several important strategic goals, such as improved access, increased referrals, defense against competitors, and increased brand exposure. They indicated overall dissatisfaction with profitability and cost-reduction outcomes. We conclude that serious operational challenges and strategic threats must be overcome if retail clinics are to be a successful service line for hospitals and health systems. PMID:23650698

  13. The evolution of retail clinics in the United States, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer; Charland, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In the recent decade, retail clinics have emerged to offer routine preventative and acute care services by nonphysician providers, with predictable wait times, more convenient venues, and posted prices. This article evaluates the evolution of retail clinics between 2006 and 2012 and examines the yearly openings and closings of clinics by location, owner, operator, and other important characteristics. The Merchant Medicine database was used. It is the only database of its kind that includes every retail clinic opening and closing since 2006. The data are collected on a monthly basis through operator self-report, telephone calls to operators, and monitoring of operator Web sites and articles in local newspapers. A growth period of 2006 through 2008 can be attributed to what was referred to at the time as a "land grab," in which competing operators sought to be the first to open in new markets. In 2008, with the start of the general economic recession, numerous clinics shut down during the slow spring and summer months and others closed altogether. The industry remains dominated by large retail pharmacy operators, and the involvement of hospital systems in retail clinic ownership is a recent and interesting phenomenon. An important question to address is the following: Will retail clinics remain as just a convenient way for busy insured patients to seek care afterhours and on weekends, or can they have a more significant impact in a primary care system on the brink of collapse? PMID:24168869

  14. The evolution of retail clinics in the United States, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer; Charland, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In the recent decade, retail clinics have emerged to offer routine preventative and acute care services by nonphysician providers, with predictable wait times, more convenient venues, and posted prices. This article evaluates the evolution of retail clinics between 2006 and 2012 and examines the yearly openings and closings of clinics by location, owner, operator, and other important characteristics. The Merchant Medicine database was used. It is the only database of its kind that includes every retail clinic opening and closing since 2006. The data are collected on a monthly basis through operator self-report, telephone calls to operators, and monitoring of operator Web sites and articles in local newspapers. A growth period of 2006 through 2008 can be attributed to what was referred to at the time as a "land grab," in which competing operators sought to be the first to open in new markets. In 2008, with the start of the general economic recession, numerous clinics shut down during the slow spring and summer months and others closed altogether. The industry remains dominated by large retail pharmacy operators, and the involvement of hospital systems in retail clinic ownership is a recent and interesting phenomenon. An important question to address is the following: Will retail clinics remain as just a convenient way for busy insured patients to seek care afterhours and on weekends, or can they have a more significant impact in a primary care system on the brink of collapse?

  15. The Relationship between Retailers' Targeting and E-Commerce Strategies: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Neil F.; Ellis-Chadwick, Fiona E.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of senior marketing executives in the United Kingdom's largest retail organizations investigated the extent to which the adoption of e-commerce is influenced by the socio-demographic characteristics of their target customers. Results demonstrate that organizations are most likely to adopt the Internet if their typical customer is male,…

  16. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Combination Rates in Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries, 70 FR 17233 (April 5... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States...

  17. Development of a Teaching Module on Soviet and Polish Retail Distribution Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Patricia

    This paper examines the development of the Merchandising Management Program at Michigan State University and the development of a teaching module which focuses on the shifting economies in eastern Europe, particularly Poland, as they change from command to market economies. An overview of Polish retail trade required the development of a study to…

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  19. Retail video analytics: an overview and survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Jonathan; Fan, Quanfu; Gabbur, Prasad; Haas, Norman; Pankanti, Sharath; Trinh, Hoang

    2013-03-01

    Today retail video analytics has gone beyond the traditional domain of security and loss prevention by providing retailers insightful business intelligence such as store traffic statistics and queue data. Such information allows for enhanced customer experience, optimized store performance, reduced operational costs, and ultimately higher profitability. This paper gives an overview of various camera-based applications in retail as well as the state-ofthe- art computer vision techniques behind them. It also presents some of the promising technical directions for exploration in retail video analytics.

  20. Training in the Retail Trade in Portugal. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdeira, Maria Conceicao; And Others

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Portugal. Employment, work, and training patterns in Portugal's retail sector were researched, and case studies of two firms in the supermarket/hypermarket group, one firm in the stationary/cigarette shop sector, and one clothing manufacturer/retailer were conducted. Teams of researchers interviewed…

  1. Exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation among New York City adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Sacks, Rachel; Rane, Madhura; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure-initiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR = 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR = 1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking.

  2. Physical quality and composition of retail shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T; Anderson, K E; Thesmar, H S

    2010-03-01

    There are a number of specialty shell eggs available to consumers in the US retail market. A survey consisting of white and brown large shell eggs with various production and nutritional differences (traditional, cage-free, free-roaming, pasteurized, nutritionally enhanced, and fertile) was conducted to determine if physical quality and compositional differences exist. Identical brands of eggs were purchased from the same retail outlets on 3 occasions (replicates) in a single city. The average range of time from processing to purchase for all eggs was 7.67 to 25.33 d, with traditional white eggs in retail having the shortest time. Haugh unit values ranged from 66.67 (cage-free, docosahexaenoic acid, and n-3 enhanced) to 84.42 (traditional white). Albumen height followed a similar pattern. Egg weight was greater for brown eggs (61.12 vs. 58.85 g). Brown eggs also had greater static compression shell strength than white eggs (4,130.61 vs. 3,690.31 g force). Vitelline membrane strength was greatest for traditional brown eggs (2.24 g force). Percentage of total solids and crude fat was greatest in the cage-free, n-3-enhanced white eggs (25.07 and 11.71%, respectively). Although significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs and production methods, average values for quality attributes varied without one egg type consistently maintaining the highest or lowest values.

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail chicken meat in Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Gaydashov, Roman; Petrova, Elena; Panin, Alexander; Tugarinov, Oleg; Kulikovskii, Alexander; Mamleeva, Dzhemile; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent various cities and districts, as well as different types of retail stores and carcass storage temperatures (i.e., chilled and frozen). All chicken samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a whole-carcass rinse method. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 31.5%. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) region-29.3% (n = 464) in Moscow, 38.5% (n = 192) in St. Petersburg, and 23.8% (n = 42) in Krasnodar; (ii) retail store type-28.8% (n = 236) in hypermarkets, 31.9% (n = 260) in supermarkets (part of chain stores), 44.3% (n = 61) in independent supermarkets, 42.9% (n = 28) in independent minimarkets, and 26.6% (n = 113) in wet markets; and (iii) poultry company-34.3% (n = 545) on chickens produced by integrated companies compared with 22.9% (n = 118) on chickens produced by nonintegrated companies. Strategies such as good agriculture and management practices should be enhanced to reduce Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in Russia and therefore increase the safety of chicken products. PMID:22856571

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail chicken meat in Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Gaydashov, Roman; Petrova, Elena; Panin, Alexander; Tugarinov, Oleg; Kulikovskii, Alexander; Mamleeva, Dzhemile; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent various cities and districts, as well as different types of retail stores and carcass storage temperatures (i.e., chilled and frozen). All chicken samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a whole-carcass rinse method. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 31.5%. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) region-29.3% (n = 464) in Moscow, 38.5% (n = 192) in St. Petersburg, and 23.8% (n = 42) in Krasnodar; (ii) retail store type-28.8% (n = 236) in hypermarkets, 31.9% (n = 260) in supermarkets (part of chain stores), 44.3% (n = 61) in independent supermarkets, 42.9% (n = 28) in independent minimarkets, and 26.6% (n = 113) in wet markets; and (iii) poultry company-34.3% (n = 545) on chickens produced by integrated companies compared with 22.9% (n = 118) on chickens produced by nonintegrated companies. Strategies such as good agriculture and management practices should be enhanced to reduce Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in Russia and therefore increase the safety of chicken products.

  5. Marketing Outputs as Art? Bringing an Aesthetic Sensibility to the Marketing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.; Budeva, Desislava; Chung, Christina; Dzhogleva, Hristina

    2011-01-01

    Can marketing outputs--advertising, packaging, product design, and retail environments--be considered a form of art? This paper explores the potential for incorporating the theories and concepts of aesthetics in the marketing curriculum in order to facilitate students' capacity to interpret marketing outputs and develop effective practical…

  6. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    SciTech Connect

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  7. Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to day-to-day retail resources.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.

  8. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... security reasons, the OCC requires that visitors make an appointment to inspect comments. You may do so by...\\ Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76 FR 41375 (July 14, 2011). \\10\\ Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76 FR 56094 (Sept. 12, 2011). B. Definition of Eligible Contract Participant The...

  9. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  10. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  11. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  12. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  13. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  14. 76 FR 62327 - Retail Inventory Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...-3(e) (75 FR 78944), the amount of an allowance, discount, or price rebate a taxpayer earns by... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ64 Retail Inventory Method AGENCY: Internal Revenue... regulations relating to the retail inventory method of accounting. The regulations restate and clarify...

  15. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  16. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Brett R; Farrelly, Matthew C; Mann, Nathan H

    2006-01-01

    Background Retail stores are the primary medium for marketing cigarettes to smokers in the US. The prevalence and characteristics of cigarette retail advertising and promotions have been described by several investigators. Less is known about the proportion of cigarette sales occurring as part of a retail promotion and about the effects of tobacco control policies on cigarette promotions. Objective To estimate the effect of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), state tobacco control programme funding and cigarette taxes on retail promotions for cigarettes in supermarkets in the US. Outcome measures Proportion of cigarette sales occurring under a retail promotion and the value of multipack promotions (eg, buy one pack, get one pack free) and cents‐off promotions, measured using scanner data in supermarkets from 50 retail market areas from 1994 to 2004. Results Promoted cigarette sales have increased significantly since the MSA (p<0.01), and are higher in market areas with high tobacco control programme funding (p<0.01) and high cigarette tax (p<0.01). The value of a multipack promotion is higher since the MSA (p<0.01) and in market areas with high cigarette tax (p<0.01). The value of a cents‐off promotion is negatively related to the MSA (p<0.01), with mixed results for tobacco control programme funding (p<0.05), and is unassociated with tax. Conclusions Higher promoted cigarette sales and increased promotional values in market areas with strong tobacco control policies, compared with market areas with weaker tobacco control policies, may partially offset the decline in smoking achieved in those areas. PMID:17130375

  17. Control your inventory in a world of lean retailing.

    PubMed

    Abernathy, F H; Dunlop, J T; Hammond, J H; Weil, D

    2000-01-01

    As retailers adopt lean retailing practices, manufacturers are feeling the pinch. Retailers no longer place large seasonal orders for goods in advance-instead, they require ongoing replenishment of stock, forcing manufacturers to predict demand and then hold substantial inventories indefinitely. Manufacturers now carry the cost of inventory risk--the possibility that demand will dry up and goods will have to be sold below cost. And as product proliferation increases, customer demand becomes harder to predict. Most manufacturers apply one inventory policy for all stock-keeping units in a product line. But the inventory demand for SKUs within the same product line can vary significantly. SKUs with high volume typically have little variation in weekly sales, while slow-selling SKUs can vary enormously in weekly sales. The greater the variation, the larger the inventory the manufacturer must hold relative to an SKU's expected weekly sales. By differentiating inventory policies at the SKU level, manufacturers can reduce inventories for the high-volume SKUs and increase them for the low-volume ones--and thereby improve the profit-ability of the entire line. SKU-level differentiation can also be applied to sourcing strategies. Instead of producing all the SKUs for a product line at a single location, either offshore at low cost or close to market at higher cost, manufacturers can typically do better by going for a mixed allocation. Low-variation goods should be produced mainly offshore, while high-variation goods are best made close to markets. PMID:11184971

  18. Powerful Retailer`s Ordering Policy Under Two-Level Delay Permitted in Supply Chain Derived Without Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang Yang, Wen; Huang, Hung-Fu; Tu, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Fu

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the retailer`s inventory policy under two-level delay permitted to reflect the supply chain management situation. In this study, we assume that the retailer maintains a powerful position. So, it is assumed that the retailer can obtain the full trade credit offered by the supplier yet the retailer just offers the partial trade credit to his customers. Under these conditions, the retailer can obtain the most benefits. Then, an algebraic approach is provided to investigate the retailer=s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer=s optimal inventory policy under the supply chain management. One ease-to-use theorem is developed to efficiently determine the optimal inventory policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the theorem.

  19. Research You Can Use: Marketing to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines marketing literature for profit-oriented organizations and discusses how those principles can be applied to public library services for children. Topics addressed include children as a source of revenue; market research; product development; promotion; retailing; and implications for public libraries, including population trends and…

  20. Presence of Multidrug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Enteropathogenic E. coli and Enterotoxigenic E. coli, on Raw Nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) and in Nopalitos Salads from Local Retail Markets in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, Mdel Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The presence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in food is a significant public health concern. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs) are foodborne bacteria. In Mexico, DEPs have been associated with diarrheal illness. There is no information about the presence of multidrug-resistant DEPs on fresh vegetables and in cooked vegetable salads in Mexico. "Nopalitos" (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is a Cactacea extensively used as a fresh green vegetable throughout Mexico. The presence of generic E. coli and multidrug-resistant DEPs on raw whole and cut nopalitos and in nopalitos salad samples was determined. One hundred raw whole nopalitos (without prickles) samples, 100 raw nopalitos cut into small square samples, and 100 cooked nopalitos salad samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli was determined using the most probable number procedures. DEPs were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEP strains by standard test. Of the 100 whole nopalitos samples, 100 cut nopalitos samples, and 100 nopalitos salad samples, generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 80% and 10%, 74% and 10%, and 64% and 8%. Eighty-two DEP strains were isolated from positive nopalitos samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least six antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of multidrug-resistant and antibiotic resistance profiles of STEC, ETEC, and EPEC on raw nopalitos and in nopalitos salads in Mexico.

  1. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  2. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  3. 24 CFR 3288.5 - Retailer notification at sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM General § 3288.5 Retailer notification at sale. Retailer notice at the time of signing. At the time of signing a contract for sale or lease for a manufactured home, the retailer must provide the purchaser with a retailer notice. This notice may be in...

  4. 24 CFR 3288.5 - Retailer notification at sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM General § 3288.5 Retailer notification at sale. Retailer notice at the time of signing. At the time of signing a contract for sale or lease for a manufactured home, the retailer must provide the purchaser with a retailer notice. This notice may be in...

  5. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aggregate retail forex assets... FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.8 Aggregate retail forex assets. (a) Each retail foreign exchange dealer and futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex transactions shall calculate...

  6. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  7. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  8. 29 CFR 779.24 - Retail or service establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry”. The application of this definition, which... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail or service establishment. 779.24 Section 779.24... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.24 Retail...

  9. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like. PMID:15912315

  10. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  11. Retailing and Shopping on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Internet advertising and commercial activity are increasing. This article examines challenges facing the retail industry on the Internet: location; comparison shopping; security, especially financial transactions; customer base and profile; nature of the shopping experience; and legal and marketplace controls. (PEN)

  12. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezey, B.; Houston, A.

    1998-02-01

    This document is the second in a series of information briefs on green power marketing activity in the United States. It includes descriptions of utility green pricing programs, green power marketing activity, retail access legislation and pilot programs, and other data and information supporting the development of green power markets.

  13. The Amherst study of hospital marketing practices.

    PubMed

    Robbins, S A; Kane, C M; Sullivan, D J

    1988-03-01

    The study findings identify two major area of concern related to marketing and the direction the field is taking. First, health care marketing--though much discussed and expensive--is still in a stage of immaturity. As practiced in hospitals today, marketing is frequently synonymous with advertising. Second, marketing in health care will not ultimately be a "clone" of marketing practices in industry and retailing. Though hospitals are looking to those areas for knowledge and expertise, the unique character of the product will cause health care marketing to evolve into a practice uniquely different from that in other industries. PMID:10286265

  14. 78 FR 54657 - Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... regulation restricting the sale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (75 FR 13225... Register of July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41498), FDA announced the availability of a draft guidance entitled... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer...

  15. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance. PMID:25121141

  16. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance.

  17. Working Capital Management, Corporate Performance, and Strategic Choices of the Wholesale and Retail Industry in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance. PMID:25121141

  18. A survey of Mexican retail chain stores for fresh U.S. pork.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Leidenz, N; Howard, S T; Ruíz Flores, A; Ngapo, T M; Belk, K E

    2016-09-01

    An overview of fresh US pork in the Mexican market was achieved by surveying fresh US pork packages (n=342) for sale in five Mexican cities. Data on cut, primal/sub-primal from which the cut was sourced, subcutaneous and seam fat thicknesses, marbling scores, and presence of bone were collated. The most prevalent identifiable retail cuts were milanesa (thin slice of pork, breaded or non-breaded) and trozos (diced pork) derived primarily from the leg and accounting for 68% of the total US pork on sale. Over 90% of the retail cuts were trimmed to 3.2mm or less of external fat and the average marbling score was 2.26. Differences in distribution and fat measures were observed with chain, location and socio-economic status of clientele indicating potential for a targeted marketing approach in Mexico.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus hirae R17, a Daptomycin-Resistant Bacterium Isolated from Retail Pork in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Wei; Hu, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Daptomycin-resistant Enterococcus hirae R17 was isolated from retail pork sold at a free-trade market in Beijing, China. The complete genome sequence of R17 contains a circular 2,886,481-bp chromosome and a circular 73,574-bp plasmid. Genes involved in cell envelope homeostasis of this bacterium were identified by whole-genome analysis. PMID:27340071

  20. Seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in retail oyster tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Yan; Shi, Xianming

    2014-03-01

    Oysters are one of the important vehicles for the transfer of foodborne pathogens. It was reported that bacteria could be bio-accumulated mainly in the gills and digestive glands. In artificially treated oysters, bacterial communities have been investigated by culture-independent methods after harvest. However, little information is available on the seasonal dynamics of bacterial accumulation in retail oyster tissues. In this study, retail oysters were collected from local market in different seasons. The seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in oyster tissues, including the gills, digestive glands and residual tissues, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was interesting that the highest bacterial diversity appeared in the Fall season, not in summer. Our results indicated that Proteobacteria was the predominant member (23/46) in oyster tissues. Our results also suggested that bacterial diversity in gills was higher than that in digestive glands and other tissues. In addition, not all the bacteria collected from surrounding water by gills were transferred to digestive glands. On the other hand, few bacteria were found in oyster tissues except in the gills. Therefore, the gills could be the best candidate target tissue for monitoring of pathogenic bacteria either to human or to oyster.

  1. Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Lock, Karen; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of retail food store, open-air food market, and restaurant observation tools adapted to the Brazilian urban context. METHODS This study is part of a cross-sectional observation survey conducted in 13 districts across the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2010-2011. Food store and restaurant observational tools were developed based on previously available tools, and then tested it. They included measures on the availability, variety, quality, pricing, and promotion of fruits and vegetables and ultra-processed foods. We used Kappa statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients to assess inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities in samples of 142 restaurants, 97 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), and of 62 restaurants and 45 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), respectively. Construct validity as the tool’s abilities to discriminate based on store types and different income contexts were assessed in the entire sample: 305 retail food stores, 8 fruits and vegetable markets, and 472 restaurants. RESULTS Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were generally high, with most Kappa values greater than 0.70 (range 0.49-1.00). Both tools discriminated between store types and neighborhoods with different median income. Fruits and vegetables were more likely to be found in middle to higher-income neighborhoods, while soda, fruit-flavored drink mixes, cookies, and chips were cheaper and more likely to be found in lower-income neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS The measures were reliable and able to reveal significant differences across store types and different contexts. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the tools may be used to reliably measure the food stores and restaurant food environment in urban settings of middle-income countries. Such studies can help .inform health promotion interventions and policies in these

  2. Diversity of Campylobacter in retail meat and liver of lambs and goat kids.

    PubMed

    Lazou, Thomai; Dovas, Chrysostomos; Houf, Kurt; Soultos, Nikolaos; Iossifidou, Eleni

    2014-04-01

    The presence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Campylobacter spp. in retail lamb and goat kid carcasses were assessed. A total of 200 samples consisting of 100 meat and 100 liver surface swabs were collected from 47 lamb and 53 goat kid carcasses at 23 retail markets in Northern Greece, and 125 Campylobacter isolates were recovered from 32 meat surfaces (32%) and 44 liver surfaces (44%). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis specified Campylobacter coli as the most frequently detected species (59.2%) followed by C. jejuni (40.8%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied in order to typify a subset of randomly selected isolates (n=80). SmaI-PFGE successfully clustered the 80 isolates in 38 SmaI-PFGE types, indicating high heterogeneity among the analyzed Campylobacter isolates, and provided data regarding the dissemination of Camplobacter among carcasses stored in the same retail market. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter isolates, assessed by the disk-diffusion method, indicated that 31 isolates (24.8%) were multidrug resistant, and the most common profile was the concurrent resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin. Overall, 56.8% of isolates (n=71, multidrug-resistant isolates included) exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial (tetracycline 34.4%, quinolones 27.2%, and streptomycin 20.8%). However, all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin and gentamicin. The findings of this study verify the contamination of retail lamb and goat kid carcasses with a heterogeneous population of thermotolerant campylobacters. These data underscore the fact that retail meat and liver of small ruminants could serve as vehicles for consumer contamination with Campylobacter and that further investigation is necessary in order to evaluate the risk imposed by such products within the epidemiology of human campylobacteriosis cases.

  3. State Regulators Promote Consumer Choice in Retail Gas Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Restructuring of interstate pipeline companies has created new choices and challenges for local distribution companies (LDCs), their regulators, and their customers. The process of separating interstate pipeline gas sales from transportation service has been completed and has resulted in greater gas procurement options for LDCs.

  4. Retail health marketing: evaluating consumers' choice for healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Nayga, R M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables, nutrition and health related factors, attitudes, and use of nutritional labels on consumers' choice for healthier food products. Seven equations are estimated representing different food types: luncheon meat, milk, cheese, ice cream, salad dressing, dessert, and meats. The results generally indicate that individuals who are less likely to choose a healthier alternative of a food product include: blacks, younger individuals, males, those with smaller households, smokers, those who take less exercise, those who are not on a special diet, those who are less aware about the linkage between diet and disease, those who put more importance on taste when food shopping, and those who less frequently use nutrition panels and labels that describe health benefits on food packages.

  5. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    PubMed

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system. PMID:24685399

  6. Retail food safety risks for populations of different races, ethnicities, and income levels.

    PubMed

    Signs, Renata J; Darcey, Valerie L; Carney, Trish A; Evans, Alison A; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2011-10-01

    Research has found that populations with low socioeconomic status (SES) and minority populations have greater access to small corner markets and less access to supermarkets than high-SES and Caucasian populations. This represents a significant difference in the farm-to-fork continuum that these populations experience. This research examined whether differential retail access to foods results in different food safety risks at the retail level for consumers with different demographics. U.S. Census Bureau census tracts with high African American, Asian, Hispanic, Caucasian, low-SES, and high-SES populations were identified in Philadelphia, PA. Approximately 60 retail food establishments were sampled in each census tract category from June 2008 to June 2010. Food samples collected at stores included milk, eggs, lunchmeat, sandwiches, and ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh fruit, greens, and herbs, when available. With the exception of milk and eggs, only food that had been handled and/or prepared at the retail level was sampled. Food samples were tested for temperature, aerobic plate count, coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The results indicated that internal egg temperatures were higher in samples from low-SES census tracts than in eggs from Caucasian census tracts, and eggs were more often found unrefrigerated in markets in low-SES and Asian census tracts. Milk samples from markets in Hispanic and low-SES census tracts had higher aerobic plate counts than high-SES census tract samples. Sandwiches from markets in high-SES census tracts had higher coliform counts than sandwiches from markets in all other census tract categories. Markets in Asian census tracts had a higher incidence of fecal coliform contamination on sandwiches than markets in Caucasian census tracts. Fecal coliforms were present in a percentage of RTE greens from markets in all census tracts except African American, with the highest percentages of

  7. 26 CFR 1.471-8 - Inventories of retail merchants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on actual reduction of retail sale prices, such as mark-downs based on depreciation and obsolescence, be recognized in determining the retail selling prices of the goods on hand at the end of...

  8. Retail wheeling: Is this revolution necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    As of a former state regulator and a once enthusiastic practitioner of public utility law, I find it fascinating to see the latest nostrum to burst on the electric utility scene: retail wheeling. Wheeling became a personal interest in the Texas interconnection fight of the late seventies and may have led to the interconnection and wheeling provision of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Retail wheeling contemplates that every electric power customer should be given an opportunity to seek out the lowest cost source of power wherever it can be found. As a practical matter, the drums for retail wheeling are presently being beaten by large industrial users, who believe that they have the capability to find low cost sources and to make advantageous commercial arrangements to acquire electricity. Large industrials have long been fighting the utilities for cheaper electricity, frequently using the threat of self-generation and cogeneration.

  9. Enumeration and characterization of campylobacter species from retail chicken carcasses in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yao; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Xiao; Li, Fengqin

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological data have implicated contaminated raw or undercooked chicken as primary vehicles of Campylobacter transmission to humans. Risk assessment relating to Campylobacter contamination of poultry products in China is frequently hampered by the lack of quantitative data. In this study, whole chicken carcasses (n=240) were collected from the retail markets of Beijing. The level of Campylobacter contamination was enumerated by the plate-counting method. The representative Campylobacter isolates were characterized for antimicrobial resistance. Selected representative isolates were further analyzed by the multilocus sequencing typing method for genetic relatedness. Overall, 26.3% (63/240) of the retail whole chicken carcasses were contaminated by Campylobacter, and the values ranged from 2.5 to 7050 colony-forming units (CFU)/g. The 50th percentile of Campylobacter value was 45 CFU/g in chicken carcass. Multidrug-resistant profiles were observed in 33 (39.2%) C. jejuni isolates (from 27 chicken carcasses) and 57 (86.4%) C. coli isolates (from 30 chicken carcasses). One dominant ST (ST6322) and one dominant clonal complex (CC828) consisting of multidrug-resistant C. coli isolates were identified. Our findings showed a high prevalence of Campylobacter contamination in retail chicken carcasses, which could be a source of exposure to multidrug-resistant isolates for consumers. This study provided baseline enumeration data for the quantitative risk assessment and evaluation of new control measures of Campylobacter contamination in retail chicken products in China.

  10. Enumeration and characterization of Salmonella isolates from retail chicken carcasses in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeru; Chen, Qian; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Xiao; Zhu, Jianghui; Luo, Haipeng; Wang, Di; Li, Fengqin

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological reports have implicated contaminated raw or undercooked chicken as primary vehicles of Salmonella transmission to human beings. Risk assessments relating to Salmonella contamination of poultry products in China are frequently hampered by the lack of quantitative data. In this study, whole chicken carcasses (n=395) were collected from the retail markets of Beijing, and the level of Salmonella contamination was enumerated by most probable number (MPN) analysis and all Salmonella isolates were further characterized for their serotypes and antimicrobial resistance. Overall, 49.9% (197/395) of the retail whole chicken carcasses were contaminated by Salmonella and the MPN values ranged from 1.5 to >550 MPN/100 g. The 50% percentile of Salmonella MPN value was 7.5 MPN/100 g in chicken carcass. The predominant serotypes isolated were Salmonella Enteritidis (n=309, 94 samples), Salmonella Indiana (n=205, 54 samples) and Salmonella Infantis (n=89, 23 samples). Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates were recovered from 100 chicken carcass samples; 102 isolates (from 41 chicken carcasses) even showed resistance to both ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. Our findings showed a high prevalence of Salmonella contamination in retail chicken carcasses, which could be a source of exposure for consumers to multidrug-resistant isolates. This study provided baseline enumeration data for the risk assessment and evaluation of new control measures of Salmonella contamination in retail chicken products.

  11. Review of centralized packaging systems for distribution of retail-ready meat.

    PubMed

    Jeyamkondan, S; Jayas, D S; Holley, R A

    2000-06-01

    There is growing interest in centralized preparation of retail-ready meat cuts for distribution to widely dispersed retail stores due to the convenience of having high-quality ready-to-go products that are consistently provided to consumers at lower cost. Various centralized packaging techniques are described. Of all packaging techniques, master packaging is the most economical and shows promise for commercial application. Nevertheless, the master-packaging technique must be integrated with strict temperature control in a narrow range just above freezing (- 1.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C), good processing hygiene, and maintenance of a completely anoxic atmosphere in the package headspace throughout the distribution period to maximize storage life. Packaging using the CAPTECH process reduces the residual O2 present in the headspace to 300 ppm. Oxygen scavengers must be incorporated in the package to absorb the residual O2 and preserve the metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat tissues. Integration of all these technologies can provide a storage life of retail-ready meat up to 10 weeks in the master package followed by 3 days of retail display life. This extension of storage life is sufficient for transporting meat to distant markets.

  12. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail...

  13. 29 CFR 779.207 - Related activities in retail operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related activities in retail operations. 779.207 Section... Coverage Related Activities § 779.207 Related activities in retail operations. In the case of an enterprise which has one or more retail or service establishments, all of the activities which are performed...

  14. 27 CFR 31.35 - Limited retail dealer; persons eligible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealer... Part Dealers Classified § 31.35 Limited retail dealer; persons eligible. Any person selling distilled... “limited retail dealer” if the person or organization is not otherwise engaged in business as a dealer....

  15. Development of a Cooperative Retailing Program for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzinger, F. Donald; And Others.

    This report presents a two-year junior college retailing curriculum for the disadvantaged, proposed on the basis of answers to questionnaires sent to retailing industries in the Metropolitan Rochester area. The questionnaires were designed to assess the need and feasibility of such a retailing program and to ascertain qualifications required to…

  16. 27 CFR 8.54 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retailer independence. 8.54 Section 8.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... determining retailer independence. The criteria specified in this section are indications that a particular practice, other than those in §§ 8.52 and 8.53, places retailer independence at risk. A practice need...

  17. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... determining retailer independence. The criteria specified in this section are indications that a particular practice, other than those in § 6.152, places retailer independence at risk. A practice need not meet...

  18. 24 CFR 3286.113 - Information provided by retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... change. (e) Record retention requirements. The retailer or distributor must maintain a copy of the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information provided by retailer...-Administered States § 3286.113 Information provided by retailer. (a) Tracking information. Within 30 days...

  19. 76 FR 46652 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... (76 FR 40779). The retail forex rule proposed today provides for banking institutions to notify the... (other than the banking institution itself). \\26\\ Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule, 75 FR at 3287 n.54... Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55409 (Sept. 10,...

  20. 78 FR 21019 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55409 (Sept. 10, 2010) (Final CFTC Retail Forex Rule). The... Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281 (Jan. 20, 2010) (Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule). \\12\\ 76 FR 46652 (August 3, 2011). II. Section-by-Section Analysis Section...

  1. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  2. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  3. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  4. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which is recognized in an industry as the subject of a retail sale. Quantities which are materially in... industry is such that a discount from the normal retail price is not regarded in the industry as... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section...

  5. Training in the Retail Trade of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoden, Nadine

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Luxembourg. During the study, information was gathered on employment, work, and training patterns in Luxembourg's retail sector, and case studies of a retail clothing firm and a large supermarket with permanent continuing vocational training for all employees were conducted. The general/personnel…

  6. Business's Best Seller--It's Called Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Louise

    This address, given at a workshop on distributive education, dealt primarily with the coordination of classroom theories of retail selling with their application in the store. The teacher-coordinator, who is responsible for this step, often has such a full program that he tends to overlook it. The teacher must work with the merchant for an…

  7. 76 FR 41676 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE.... See Exchange Act Release No. 63452 (Dec. 7, 2010), 75 FR 80174 (Dec. 21, 2010). Because transactions... Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55410 (Sept. 10, 2010) (``Final CFTC Retail Forex Rule''). The CFTC...

  8. 78 FR 42439 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... customer's purchase or sale of a security. We also described potentially abusive practices, such as lack of... maintained that it is in the best interest of retail customers to have the opportunity to conduct forex... broker-dealers have risk management and customer suitability practices in place to monitor...

  9. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  10. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... verification) for redeeming Program benefits from eligible SNAP customers. These retailers include stationary food stores which opt to make home deliveries to SNAP households, house-to-house trade routes which... utilized solely for SNAP. In addition, if Program equipment is deployed under contract to the State...

  11. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... verification) for redeeming Program benefits from eligible SNAP customers. These retailers include stationary food stores which opt to make home deliveries to SNAP households, house-to-house trade routes which... utilized solely for SNAP. In addition, if Program equipment is deployed under contract to the State...

  12. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... verification) for redeeming Program benefits from eligible SNAP customers. These retailers include stationary food stores which opt to make home deliveries to SNAP households, house-to-house trade routes which... utilized solely for SNAP. In addition, if Program equipment is deployed under contract to the State...

  13. The World of Retailing. Publication No. 0011.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondras, Robert

    Designed to introduce the world of retailing to junior high school students, the course encompasses three different activities: consumer knowledge, selling, and establishing a school store. Many of the ideas have been used with students in grades 7 and 8. The section on consumer education includes consumer influence and problems, consumer law, and…

  14. Virtual Retail Simulations in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of simulations in virtual reality to teach students the fundamental processes behind retailing and product development. The project described involved one class of students who developed their own clothing lines of "virtual merchandise." A second class of students then "purchased" the wholesale virtual goods and…

  15. The old pillars of new retailing.

    PubMed

    Berry, L L

    2001-04-01

    Despite the harsh realities of retailing, the illusion persists that magical tools can help companies overcome the problems of fickle consumers, price-slashing competitors, and mood swings in the economy. Such wishful thinking holds that retailers will thrive if only they communicate better with customers through e-mail, employ hidden cameras to learn how customers make purchase decisions, and analyze scanner data to tailor special offers and manage inventory. But the truth is, there are no quick fixes. In the course of his extensive research on dozens of retailers, Leonard Berry found that the best companies create value for their customers in five interlocking ways. Whether you're running a physical store, a catalog business, an e-commerce site, or a combination of the three, you have to offer your customers superior solutions to their needs, treat them with respect, and connect with them on an emotional level. You also have to set prices fairly and make it easy for people to find what they need, pay for it quickly, and then move on. None of these pillars is new, and each sounds exceedingly simple, but don't be fooled--implementing these axioms in the real world is surprisingly difficult. The author illustrates how some retailers have built successful operations by attending to these commonsense ways of dealing with their customers and how others have failed to do so. PMID:11299689

  16. Retail Trade. International Trends and National Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Olivier

    1991-01-01

    This brief examines trends in the retail trade, especially in grocery stores, from an international perspective. A comparison of recent national studies finds the following: (1) significant differences in structure and organization exist, especially in the role of traditional small shops versus large chain grocery stores; (2) increasing store size…

  17. Retail Trade. Industry Training Monograph No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's retailing sector is the largest single industry of employment, with more than 1.2 million workers. It is characterized by high levels of part-time and casual employment; a young work force, including many young people still in full-time education; and employment widely distributed geographically. Over the past 10 years, employment has…

  18. Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

  19. Tracking microbial contamination in retail environments using fluorescent powder--a retail delicatessen environment example.

    PubMed

    Sirsat, Sujata A; Kim, Kawon; Gibson, Kristen E; Crandall, Phillip G; Ricke, Steven C; Neal, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens in the retail environment is a significant public health issue contributing to an increased risk for foodborne illness. Ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods such as deli meats, cheese, and in some cases fresh produce, have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks due to contamination with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With respect to L. monocytogenes, deli slicers are often the main source of cross contamination. The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent compound to simulate bacterial contamination and track this contamination in a retail setting. A mock deli kitchen was designed to simulate the retail environment. Deli meat was inoculated with the fluorescent compound and volunteers were recruited to complete a set of tasks similar to those expected of a food retail employee. The volunteers were instructed to slice, package, and store the meat in a deli refrigerator. The potential cross contamination was tracked in the mock retail environment by swabbing specific areas and measuring the optical density of the swabbed area with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the refrigerator (i.e. deli case) grip and various areas on the slicer had the highest risk for cross contamination. The results of this study may be used to develop more focused training material for retail employees. In addition, similar methodologies could also be used to track microbial contamination in food production environments (e.g. small farms), hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and hotels. PMID:24637553

  20. Fashion Marketing. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in fashion marketing in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: program content (job duties of wholesale and retail clothing salespersons and curriculum framework and student…

  1. Going to the Market. Teacher Edition. Fashion Buying Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cindy

    This teacher's guide presents material for a unit on attending the retail fashion market. Content focuses on previewing merchandise for purchase, factors involved in a major market trip, common terms used when ordering merchandise, and pricing strategies. The guide contains 4 objectives, 6 group learning activities keyed to the objectives, 12…

  2. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in retailed foods in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ananchaipattana, Chiraporn; Hosotani, Yukie; Kawasaki, Susumu; Pongsawat, Sirikae; Latiful, Bari Md; Isobe, Seiichiro; Inatsu, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The consumption of foodborne pathogens contaminated in food is one of the major causes of diarrheal diseases in Thailand. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and types of contaminating bacteria in retailed foodstuffs in Thailand. Food from four categories (137 samples total), including meat (51 samples), vegetables (38 samples), fish or seafood (37 samples), and fermented food (11 samples), was purchased randomly from seven different open-markets and seven supermarkets in Thailand from August 2010 to March 2011. Seven types of major foodborne pathogens were identified using conventional culture methods. Approximately 80% of meat samples tested was contaminated with Salmonella spp. In contrast, the Salmonella spp. contamination rate of vegetable (5%) or fermented food (9%) samples was comparatively low. Six strains of Cronobacter sakazakii and two strains of Yersinia enterocolitica were also isolated. A substantially higher rate of contamination by Bacillus cereus was observed in fermented food (82%) than in samples of meat (2%) and fish or seafood (5%). Seven Listeria spp. isolates were obtained from meat and fish or seafood samples. Approximately 39% of samples tested were found to be contaminated with Staphylococcus spp. (54 isolates). The rate of bacterial contamination of meat did not depend on the type of market. However, the contamination rate of Staphylococcus spp. in vegetables was higher in open markets than in supermarkets, and the contamination rate of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in fish or seafood samples purchased in open markets was likewise higher than in those purchased in supermarkets. Therefore, improvement of hygienic practices throughout the food chain may be required to reduce the risk of food poisoning.

  3. Musculoskeletal disorder costs and medical claim filing in the US retail trade sector.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anasua; Leigh, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    The average costs of Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) and odds ratios for filing medical claims related to MSD were examined. The medical claims were identified by ICD 9 codes for four US Census regions within retail trade. Large private firms' medical claims data from Thomson Reuters Inc. MarketScan databases for the years 2003 through 2006 were used. Average costs were highest for claims related to lumbar region (ICD 9 Code: 724.02) and number of claims were largest for low back syndrome (ICD 9 Code: 724.2). Whereas the odds of filing an MSD claim did not vary greatly over time, average costs declined over time. The odds of filing claims rose with age and were higher for females and southerners than men and non-southerners. Total estimated national medical costs for MSDs within retail trade were $389 million (2007 USD).

  4. Retail sector distribution chains for malaria treatment in the developing world: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In many low-income countries, the retail sector plays an important role in the treatment of malaria and is increasingly being considered as a channel for improving medicine availability. Retailers are the last link in a distribution chain and their supply sources are likely to have an important influence on the availability, quality and price of malaria treatment. This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review on the retail sector distribution chain for malaria treatment in low and middle-income countries. Methods Publication databases were searched using key terms relevant to the distribution chain serving all types of anti-malarial retailers. Organizations involved in malaria treatment and distribution chain related activities were contacted to identify unpublished studies. Results A total of 32 references distributed across 12 developing countries were identified. The distribution chain had a pyramid shape with numerous suppliers at the bottom and fewer at the top. The chain supplying rural and less-formal outlets was made of more levels than that serving urban and more formal outlets. Wholesale markets tended to be relatively concentrated, especially at the top of the chain where few importers accounted for most of the anti-malarial volumes sold. Wholesale price mark-ups varied across chain levels, ranging from 27% to 99% at the top of the chain, 8% at intermediate level (one study only) and 2% to 67% at the level supplying retailers directly. Retail mark-ups tended to be higher, and varied across outlet types, ranging from 3% to 566% in pharmacies, 29% to 669% in drug shops and 100% to 233% in general shops. Information on pricing determinants was very limited. Conclusions Evidence on the distribution chain for retail sector malaria treatment was mainly descriptive and lacked representative data on a national scale. These are important limitations in the advent of the Affordable Medicine Facility for Malaria, which aims to

  5. Value-based customer grouping from large retail data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehl, Alexander; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we propose OPOSSUM, a novel similarity-based clustering algorithm using constrained, weighted graph- partitioning. Instead of binary presence or absence of products in a market-basket, we use an extended 'revenue per product' measure to better account for management objectives. Typically the number of clusters desired in a database marketing application is only in the teens or less. OPOSSUM proceeds top-down, which is more efficient and takes a small number of steps to attain the desired number of clusters as compared to bottom-up agglomerative clustering approaches. OPOSSUM delivers clusters that are balanced in terms of either customers (samples) or revenue (value). To facilitate data exploration and validation of results we introduce CLUSION, a visualization toolkit for high-dimensional clustering problems. To enable closed loop deployment of the algorithm, OPOSSUM has no user-specified parameters. Thresholding heuristics are avoided and the optimal number of clusters is automatically determined by a search for maximum performance. Results are presented on a real retail industry data-set of several thousand customers and products, to demonstrate the power of the proposed technique.

  6. Advertising Violent Toys in Weekly Circulars of Popular Retailers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Guerra, Laura A.; Reeves, Rachel; Basch, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence is a pervasive problem in the United States. Toys, far from trivial playthings, are a reflection of society, including its beliefs and values. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which violent toys are marketed in online weekly flyers of popular retailers, how the violence is manifested, and whether violent toys are marketed differentially to boys and girls. Methods: For this cross-sectional observational study, online circulars from 5 major retailers were downloaded and examined each week for 14 weeks during the fall of 2014. For each retailer, the total number of toys, as well as the total number of violent and non-violent toys, was recorded. In addition, each violent toy was categorized into one of five groups: picturing a figure with a weapon, a figure with intent to strike (with fists drawn or an angry face), a toy with a violent name, a toy that was a weapon itself, or a set of toys that included two or more of these criteria. Results: A total number of 3,459 toys were observed, of which 1,053 (30%) were deemed violent. Of the violent toys, 95% were marketed to boys (n=1,003) versus 5% to girls (n=50). The most prevalent violent category was a figure with a weapon such as a sword, knife or gun (29%), followed by figures with fists out and aggressive faces (26%). Conclusion: Parents should be mindful of toy retailer‟s marketing of violent toys, especially toward boys, and the potential for those toys to de-sensitize their children to violence PMID:26634197

  7. Why are product prices in online markets not converging?

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Why are product prices in online markets dispersed in spite of very small search costs? To address this question, we construct a unique dataset from a Japanese price comparison site, which records price quotes offered by e-retailers as well as customers' clicks on products, which occur when they proceed to purchase the product. The novelty of our approach is that we seek to extract useful information on the source of price dispersion from the shape of price distributions rather than focusing merely on the standard deviation or the coefficient of variation of prices, as previous studies have done. We find that the distribution of prices retailers quote for a particular product at a particular point in time (divided by the lowest price) follows an exponential distribution, showing the presence of substantial price dispersion. For example, 20 percent of all retailers quote prices that are more than 50 percent higher than the lowest price. Next, comparing the probability that customers click on a retailer with a particular rank and the probability that retailers post prices at a particular rank, we show that both decline exponentially with price rank and that the exponents associated with the probabilities are quite close. This suggests that the reason why some retailers set prices at a level substantially higher than the lowest price is that they know that some customers will choose them even at that high price. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that price dispersion in online markets stems from heterogeneity in customers' preferences over retailers; that is, customers choose a set of candidate retailers based on their preferences, which are heterogeneous across customers, and then pick a particular retailer among the candidates based on the price ranking.

  8. Why Are Product Prices in Online Markets Not Converging?

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Why are product prices in online markets dispersed in spite of very small search costs? To address this question, we construct a unique dataset from a Japanese price comparison site, which records price quotes offered by e-retailers as well as customers’ clicks on products, which occur when they proceed to purchase the product. The novelty of our approach is that we seek to extract useful information on the source of price dispersion from the shape of price distributions rather than focusing merely on the standard deviation or the coefficient of variation of prices, as previous studies have done. We find that the distribution of prices retailers quote for a particular product at a particular point in time (divided by the lowest price) follows an exponential distribution, showing the presence of substantial price dispersion. For example, 20 percent of all retailers quote prices that are more than 50 percent higher than the lowest price. Next, comparing the probability that customers click on a retailer with a particular rank and the probability that retailers post prices at a particular rank, we show that both decline exponentially with price rank and that the exponents associated with the probabilities are quite close. This suggests that the reason why some retailers set prices at a level substantially higher than the lowest price is that they know that some customers will choose them even at that high price. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that price dispersion in online markets stems from heterogeneity in customers’ preferences over retailers; that is, customers choose a set of candidate retailers based on their preferences, which are heterogeneous across customers, and then pick a particular retailer among the candidates based on the price ranking. PMID:24015219

  9. In sight, in mind: retailer compliance with legislation on limiting retail tobacco displays.

    PubMed

    Quedley, Megan; Ng, Brendan; Sapre, Nikhil; Blakiston, Matthew; Crawford, Alexandra; Devadas, Rosanne; McLaren, Hamish; Anand, Shruti; Tipu, Mahu; Dayal, Viswas; Chandrasiri, Singithi; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard

    2008-08-01

    We investigated retailer compliance with point-of-sale display legislation, using a New Zealand region as a case study. An observational survey was conducted of nonspecialist tobacco retailers in the lower North Island of New Zealand during 2006. Compliance was assessed in relation to store type (dairies, convenience stores, supermarkets, and service stations) and by characteristics of the population of the census area unit in which the store was situated. These characteristics include the level of socioeconomic deprivation and proportions of Maori (indigenous New Zealanders), Pacific Islanders, and children aged less than 19 years. Out of the 288 stores surveyed, 185 (64%) had at least one breach of the point-of-sale regulations. The most common breaches were a failure to display a "Smoking Kills" sign, visibility of tobacco from outside the premises, and displaying tobacco less than 1 m from children's products. Compliance was significantly worse in dairies (small local general stores) and convenience stores. Stores situated in areas in the top quartile for the proportion of children were much more likely to have high levels of noncompliance (> or =3 breaches) and to display tobacco products close to children's products. This study is one of very few to systematically investigate retailer compliance with point-of-sale display regulations for tobacco products. The results suggest that the implementation of legislation to partly limit retail displays of tobacco products can be difficult. A ban on retail displays of tobacco products is likely to be a more effective and enforceable policy.

  10. Fingertip dermatitis in a retail florist.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Franks, H

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of plant contact dermatitis in retail florists varies with exposure, and the number of reports of contact allergy to cut tulips is rather small. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone is better known as the cause of both Alstroemeria dermatitis in retail florists and tulip finger in wholesale floral workers who handle the bulbs. Our patient presented with prominent erythema, scaling, and peeling of the skin of the thumb, index, and middle fingers of his right hand. Results of a patch test to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone were strongly positive, and the patient determined that the exposure had occurred when he stripped leaves from the tulip stems to arrange cut flowers. Other natural sources of the antigen include Alstroemeria; Bomarea; Dioscorea hispida; Erythronium; Gagea; Fritillaria; and at least one species of onion, Allium triquetrum.

  11. Social marketing of contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Schellstede, W P; Derr, B B

    1986-12-01

    Application of commercial marketing techniques has not only increased awareness, acceptability, and use of modern contraceptives in developing countries, but also overcome logistic problems in service delivery. The ability of contraceptive social marketing to reach large numbers and to treat contraceptives as common consumer products has helped to diminish social and religious constraints associated with family planning. Each contraceptive social marketing program is built around a theme tailored to meet specific cultural, social, and management requirements. The primary target populations are those who cannot afford regular commercial products and those who are not adequately reached by government programs. In countries such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica, profit is not a primary sales objective and retail prices are highly subsidized to make products affordable to low-income people. In contrast, the Colombian and Thai programs use contraceptive social marketing to help offset the operating costs of rural community-based programs and seek profits. The most impressive contraceptive social marketing sales performances have been recorded in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, and Jamaica. The main reason contraceptive social marketing is more cost-efficient than other modes of contraceptive distribution is that the cost of product delivery is assumed by the commercial system. Although there has been some interest in making these programs self-sufficient financially, this step has tended to undermine the purpose of serving lower income groups. PMID:12341233

  12. Kinetic model of the Buyers’ market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhykharsky, Alexander V.

    2013-09-01

    In this work the following results are received. The closed mathematical apparatus describing the process of interaction of the Buyers’ market with retail Shop is created. The “statistical analogy” between the vacuum electrostatic diode and the Buyers’ market co-operating with retail Shop is considered. On the basis of the spent analysis the closed mathematical apparatus describing process of interaction of the Buyers’ market with retail Shop is created. The analytical expressions connecting a stream of Buyers, come to Shop, and a stream of the gain of Shop, with parameters of the Buyers’ market are received. For check of adequacy of the received model it is solved of some real “market” problems. On the basis of the spent researches principles of construction of Information-analytical Systems of new type which provide direct measurements of parameters of the Buyers’ market are developed. Actually these Systems are devices for measurement of parameters of this market. In this work it is shown that by means of the device developed for measurement of parameters of the Buyers’ market, creation of a new science-“demandodynamics” the Buyers’ market, is possible. Here the term “demandodynamics the Buyers’ market” is accepted by analogy to the term “thermodynamics” in physics. (In this work it is shown that for the Buyers’ market concept “demand” is similar to concept “temperature” in physics.) The construction methodology “demandodynamics” the Buyers’ market is defined and is shown that within the limits of this science working out of a technique of a direct control by a condition of the Buyers’ market is possible.

  13. Price Strategies between a Dominant Retailer and Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hsun Jung; Mak, Hou Kit

    2009-08-01

    Supply chain-related game theoretical applications have been discussed for decades. This research accounts for the emergence of a dominant retailer, and the retailer Stackelberg pricing models of distribution channels. Research in the channel pricing game may use different definitions of pricing decision variables. In this research, we pay attentions to the retailer Stackelberg pricing game, and discuss the effects when choosing different decision variables. According the literature it was shown that the strategies between channel members depend critically on the form of the demand function. Two different demand forms—linear and non-linear—will be considered in our numerical example respectively. Our major finding is the outcomes are not relative to manufacturers' pricing decisions but to the retailer's pricing decision and choosing percentage margin as retailer's decision variable is the best strategy for the retailer but worst for manufacturers. The numerical results show that it is consistence between linear and non-linear demand form.

  14. Retail and Real Estate: The Changing Landscape of Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mason, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    By its nature, retail medicine is founded in real estate. That retail medicine has expanded so dramatically in a relatively short period of time has taken people by surprise. This rapid growth of integrating healthcare services into retail real estate begs the question of whether real estate will eventually take on the importance in healthcare delivery that it has in retail. This article advances the view that it will. In the end, what retail and healthcare have in common is that they both reflect the attributes of demanding consumers as part of an experience-based economy, where products and services are sought based on how they fit with their lifestyles and how they make them feel (Pine and Gilmore 1998). Changing the selection process for healthcare services to be more like retail is already expanding how and where healthcare services are delivered. PMID:26495550

  15. Retail and Real Estate: The Changing Landscape of Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mason, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    By its nature, retail medicine is founded in real estate. That retail medicine has expanded so dramatically in a relatively short period of time has taken people by surprise. This rapid growth of integrating healthcare services into retail real estate begs the question of whether real estate will eventually take on the importance in healthcare delivery that it has in retail. This article advances the view that it will. In the end, what retail and healthcare have in common is that they both reflect the attributes of demanding consumers as part of an experience-based economy, where products and services are sought based on how they fit with their lifestyles and how they make them feel (Pine and Gilmore 1998). Changing the selection process for healthcare services to be more like retail is already expanding how and where healthcare services are delivered.

  16. Trick or Treat? An Examination of Marketing Relationships in a Nondeceptive Counterfeit Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Sarah Hong; Nicholson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Who is most responsible for the proliferation of counterfeit goods--the illicit purveyor of such products or the consumer who procures them? This paper seeks to address this question by presenting a behavior analysis of counterfeit marketing firms in China and the interdependent relationships between legitimate retailers, consumers, and the…

  17. Gasoline marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Metzenbaum, H.M.

    1991-02-01

    Consumers have the option of purchasing several different grades of unleaded gasoline regular, mid-grade, and premium which are classified according to an octane rating. Because of concern that consumers may be needlessly buying higher priced premium unleaded gasoline for their automobiles when regular unleaded gasoline would meet their needs, this paper determines whether consumers were buying premium gasoline that they may not need, whether the higher retail price of premium gasoline includes a price mark-up added between the refinery and the retail pump which is greater than that included in the retail price for regular gasoline, and possible reasons for the price differences between premium and regular gasoline.

  18. Macrodynamic trends in health care: a distribution and retailing perspective.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J

    1988-01-01

    Recent macrodynamic developments have created a turbulent health care environment. A distribution and retailing perspective can provide related knowledge and experience for health care providers PMID:3384652

  19. Retail Building Guide for Entrance Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.; Kung, F.

    2012-03-01

    This booklet is based on the findings of an infiltration analysis for supermarkets and large retail buildings without refrigerated cases. It enables retail building managers and engineers to calculate the energy savings potential for vestibule additions for supermarkets; and bay door operation changes in large retail stores without refrigerated cases. Retail managers can use initial estimates to decide whether to engage vendors or contractors of vestibules for pricing or site-specific analyses, or to decide whether to test bay door operation changes in pilot stores, respectively.

  20. The impacts of climate on retailing in the UK with particular reference to the anomalously hot summer of 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, M. D.; Palutikof, J. P.

    1999-11-01

    The impacts on the UK retailing sector of the extreme climate of 1995 are analysed in the context of monthly climate conditions in the previous two decades. Over the period from November 1994 to October 1995, the mean monthly Central England temperature (CET) was 1.6°C above the 1961-1990 normal, the highest mean 12-month temperature since the CET records began in 1659. Retail activities are geared towards average conditions and are therefore affected in the short-term by any unexpected change in supply and demand. This study focuses on those areas of retailing where the responses to climate in terms of a change in consumer demand are most likely to be clear: first, clothing and footwear and, second, food and drink. Economic time series are extracted from official government publications (1972-1995). Stepwise multiple regressions are performed to assess the amount of variance in the retail series accounted for by monthly temperature, rainfall and sunshine indices.Statistically significant associations are found between retail and climate indices over the 1972-1995 study period, these are generally strongest in winter and spring, and weakest in summer. There is some indication of an increase in the climate-sensitivity of the retail series in unusually hot years. This may be a function of factors such as: just-in-time supply chains, refrigeration and changes in the trading environment. The anomalous climate of 1995 has the greatest economic impact on the clothing and footwear market, with extreme temperatures at the end of the summer associated with a decline in the market. An attempt is made to place a monetary value on the 1995 impacts. It is estimated that the clothing and footwear market sustained a loss of #383 million (1.7% of turnover). However, the extreme climate of 1995 brought gains to the beer and wine industries of #123 million (0.9% of turnover) and #11 million (0.2% of turnover), respectively, and a gain of approximately #25 million (1.8% of turnover

  1. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  2. Soft targets or partners in health? Retail pharmacies and their role in Tanzania's malaria control program.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Vinay R; Nyato, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    The retail sector has been at the center of recent policy debates concerning its role in malaria control programs in Africa. This article closely examines the perspectives of owners and managers of retail pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, toward the dominant public health discourse and practices surrounding the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as a way forward in malaria control. Drawing on fieldwork conducted between May-August 2007, and July-August 2009, involving in-depth interviews and participant observation in pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, the article describes the social realities facing people who manage retail pharmacies, the nature of their interactions with customers, the kinds of antimalarials they sell, and their perspective on how the new malaria treatment guidelines have affected their business. Findings suggest that for most pharmacy owners and managers, it is 'business as usual' concerning the sale of conventional antimalarials, with a majority reporting that the introduction of ACT in public health facilities had not negatively affected their business. Implications of the research findings are examined in the context of proposed interventions to make pharmacy owners and managers more socially responsible and adhere to government health regulations. The article makes a case for actively involving pharmacy owners and managers in decision making processes surrounding the implementation of new treatment guidelines, and training programs that have an impact on their business, social responsibility, and community health. In considering regulatory interventions, health planners must explicitly address the concern that retail pharmacies fill an important role in the country's health care system, and that the complex nexus that drives the global pharmaceutical market often governs their operations at the local level.

  3. Presence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli recovered from retail chicken in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Xi, Meili; Lv, Xiaoying; Xu, Yunfeng; Feng, Yuqing; Li, Qiong; Yang, Qinnan; Xia, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli in retail whole chicken in the People 9 s Republic of China. Five hundred seventy-six raw whole chicken samples, randomly purchased from 146 farmers' markets or supermarkets in four provinces from March through December 2010, were analyzed for E. coli contamination, and the E. coli isolates were further tested for the presence of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility. The overall positive rate for E. coli in retail chicken was 69.1%. E. coli prevalence was the highest in Beijing (86.8%), followed by Henan province (78.5%), Shaanxi province (65.3%), and the lowest prevalence was found in Sichuan province (45.8%). Among 398 isolates recovered, only the eae gene was detected in one isolate; no other virulence genes were detected. Resistance was most common to tetracycline (84.4%), followed by nalidixic acid (74.1%), ampicillin (71.1%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70.1%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (68.8%), and streptomycin (58.5%). Lower resistance was detected to chloramphenicol (43.7%), kanamycin (42.7%), ciprofloxacin (30.2%), gentamicin (29.4%), cefoperazone (13.6%), amikacin (12.6%), gatifloxacin (8%), and cefoxitin (7.8%). Only 3.8% of the isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. Six percent of the isolates displayed resistance to one antimicrobial, 6.3% to two, and 83.9% to three or more of the antimicrobials. Our findings indicate that retail chicken in China was commonly contaminated with E. coli, and many E. coli strains exhibited multiple drug resistance. The implementation of good manufacturing practices throughout the poultry production chain is necessary to reduce E. coli contamination in retail chicken, and the prudent use of antibiotics is imperative in poultry production in China. PMID:25285496

  4. The Education of Retail Managers through Management Training Programs in Apparel Retail Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Irene M.

    A study was conducted to determine the nature and extent of continuing education and management training programs used by apparel retail companies and to document program content, objectives, methods, assessment techniques, and evaluation procedures. Information was gathered through qualitative research, using the multiple-case study method, with…

  5. Working with other partners--the retail sector.

    PubMed

    Fridd, Petrina

    2007-10-01

    Animal testing to demonstrate the safety of cosmetic and toiletries has been used for many years. However, such testing, now viewed by many consumers as an emotive issue, has been banned within the UK, and is severely restricted in the European Union. Consumer knowledge and understanding have been challenged by the use of focus group studies, which showed that consumers were often confused and potentially misled by claims on labels and in leaflets. Despite the fact that some pressure groups had taken positive action, even holding store demonstrations, in attempts to stop such testing or claims, there was still a legal requirement to demonstrate the safety of products, and this involved the use of animal testing. Nevertheless, there was great pressure to move away from animal testing, clarify marketing and pack claims, and provide general transparency to the consumer. Therefore, the decision was taken to actively seek out and work with organisations which were working toward the validation of alternative testing. A number of potential organisations were approached and, after careful consideration of their respective aims and aspirations, it was decided that, for the retailer in question, FRAME was the most appropriate organisation with which to work.

  6. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  7. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to any person comply with the following requirements: (a) No retailer may sell...

  8. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  9. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  10. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  11. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  12. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  13. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  14. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  15. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  16. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  17. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  18. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  19. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  20. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  1. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  2. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  3. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  4. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  5. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  6. 76 FR 49511 - Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... the Federal Register of August 4, 2011, FR Doc. 2011-19725, on page 47276, in the Procedural Schedule... Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... of the continuation of service at postal retail locations. The procedural schedule included...

  7. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail...

  8. 19 CFR 146.14 - Retail trade within a zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Board as contained in 15 CFR part 400. ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail trade within a zone. 146.14 Section 146.14... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.14 Retail trade within a zone....

  9. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  10. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  11. Teenagers and the Minimum Wage in Retail Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterill, Philip G.; Wadycki, Walter J.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of minimum wage policy on the hiring of teenagers in relation to adult laborers in retail trade has been assessed through analysis of a study sample of 353 male and 391 female retail trade employees who were part of the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. (LH)

  12. 24 CFR 3288.5 - Retailer notification at sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retailer notification at sale. 3288... sale. Retailer notice at the time of signing. At the time of signing a contract for sale or lease for a... separate document from the sales contract or may be incorporated clearly in a separate section on...

  13. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  14. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  15. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  16. An Approach to Teaching the Retail Advertising Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Thomas A.

    One approach to teaching a college-level retail advertising course emphasizes the use of newspapers and shopping guides. The course objectives are (1) to acquaint students with practices and problems of retailing, with particular emphasis on promotion and advertising; (2) to acquaint them with ways local advertising media meet promotional and…

  17. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section 779.328 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR...

  18. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... retailer association activities. The following acts by an industry member participating in retailer association activities do not constitute a means to induce within the meaning of section 105(b)(3) of the...

  19. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... retailer association activities. The following acts by an industry member participating in retailer association activities do not constitute a means to induce within the meaning of section 105(b)(3) of the...

  20. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  1. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  2. National Apprenticeship Standards for the Retail Meatcutting Industry. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

    These national standards are intended to serve as a guide for the establishment of thorough and complete apprenticeship programs to produce trained retail meatcutters to carry on the tradition of quality in the retail meatcutting industry. Covered in the individual sections are the following topics: definitions, the National Joint Apprenticeship…

  3. 78 FR 15392 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... in securities, and to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market and a... perfect the mechanism of a free and open market and a national market system because it will allow member... competition for retail orders. B. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on Burden on Competition...

  4. Social marketing of condoms in India.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R

    1994-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed. PMID:12159235

  5. What can health care marketing learn from bank marketing?

    PubMed

    Mindak, W A

    1988-01-01

    A useful technique in assessing opportunities for international marketers is called "lead lag" analysis. It suggests that one can predict developments, such as demand patterns, in one country by looking at an analogous country. Applying such a technique to the domestic scene, what could we predict about the development and application of marketing to the health care sector if we looked at an analogous service such as banking? Many experts believe that health care is following in the footsteps of banking and point to environmental similarities such as changes in government regulation, new forms of nontraditional competition, increased concern about retail sectors, and pressures on scarce resources. Are there lessons that health care marketers can learn from bankers that might help them avoid some false starts or expensive mistakes? PMID:10312408

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella in broilers at retail outlets, processing plants and farms in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rusul, G; Khair, J; Radu, S; Cheah, C T; Yassin, R M

    1996-12-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella among broilers retailed at wet-markets and processing plants. Litter and feed samples obtained from both broiler and breeder farms were also examined for Salmonella. A total of 158 out of 445 (35.5%) and 52 out of 104 (50.0%) broiler carcasses obtained from wet-markets and processing plants were contaminated with Salmonella, respectively. Salmonella was isolated from 14 out of 98 (14.3%) samples of intestinal content. Litter samples from broiler and breeder farms were positive for Salmonella, 8/40 (20%) and 2/10 (20%), respectively. Salmonella isolates (230) belonging to 15 different serovars were isolated. Predominant serovars were S. enteritidis, S. muenchen, S. kentucky and S. blockley. PMID:8930704

  7. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed.

  8. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed. PMID:19748884

  9. 29 CFR 779.368 - Printing and engraving establishments not recognized as retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retail. 779.368 Section 779.368 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or... recognized as retail. (a) An establishment which is engaged in printing and engraving is not recognized as...

  10. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  11. Bigger Stores, More Stores, or No Stores: Paths of Retail Restructuring in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vias, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    Changes such as the development of large international retail chains, retail concentration, locational changes, technological innovation, new labor practices, and the increasing scale of individual stores, have revolutionized the retail sector. This broad restructuring will have profound impacts in rural America because employment in retail is a…

  12. 29 CFR 779.413 - Methods of compensation of retail store employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of compensation of retail store employees. 779.413... Retail or Service Establishments Employees Compensated Principally by Commissions § 779.413 Methods of compensation of retail store employees. (a) Retail or service establishment employees are generally...

  13. Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Leslie, Natalie; Gaskill, LuAnn R.

    2006-01-01

    While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process…

  14. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... which put retailer independence at risk. The practices specified in this section put retailer... practices that put retailer independence at risk. (a) The act by an industry member of resetting stock on...

  15. 29 CFR 779.411 - Employee of a “retail or service establishment”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Retail or Service Establishments Employees Compensated Principally by Commissions § 779.411 Employee of a “retail or service establishment”. In order for an employee to come within the exemption from the overtime... must be employed by a retail or service establishment. The term “retail or service establishment”...

  16. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  17. Escherichia coli in retail processed food.

    PubMed

    Pinegar, J A; Cooke, E M

    1985-08-01

    Four thousand two hundred and forty six samples of retail processed food were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Overall 12% of samples contained this organism, cakes and confectionery being more frequently contaminated (28%) than meat and meat based products (9%). Contamination was more frequent in the summer months than in the colder weather and 27% of the contaminated foods contained greater than 10(3) E. coli/g. E. coli from meat and meat based products were more commonly resistant to one or more antibiotics (14%) than were confectionery strains (1%). The significance of these findings in relation to the E. coli population of the human bowel is discussed. PMID:3894508

  18. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves. PMID:24779907

  19. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves.

  20. Overweight and obesity: can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    PubMed

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S; Maroko, Andrew R; Schechter, Clyde B; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Maantay, Juliana

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction. Consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities.

  1. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on retail yields of subprimals from beef and calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Haneklaus, A N; Hodgen, J M; Delmore, R J; Lawrence, T E; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W

    2011-09-01

    Retail cutting tests were conducted on subprimals from cattle fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to determine if the improved carcass composition and red meat yield resulting from ZH feeding would translate into increased retail yields of ready-to-cook products. As part of a 3-phase study, selection of carcasses from Holstein steers was done once (fall 2008), followed by the collection of carcasses from beef-type steers on 2 separate occasions (beef study I: summer 2009; beef study II: spring 2010). Each of the 3 groups of steers was assigned previously to 1 of 2 treatments, treated (fed 8.3 mg/kg of ZH for 20 d) or control (not fed ZH). All steers were slaughtered and carcasses were fabricated in commercial beef-processing establishments. Only those carcasses grading USDA Choice or higher were used. Five subprimals were used for both the calf-fed Holstein study (n = 546 subprimals) and beef study I (n = 576 subprimals): beef chuck, chuck roll; beef chuck, shoulder clod; beef round, sirloin tip (knuckle), peeled; beef round, top round; and beef round, outside round (flat). Seven subprimals were used in beef study II (n = 138 subprimals): beef chuck, chuck roll; beef round, sirloin tip (knuckle), peeled; beef round, top round; beef round, eye of round; beef loin, strip loin, boneless; beef loin, top sirloin butt, boneless; and beef loin, tenderloin. A simulated retail market environment was created, and 3 retail meat merchandisers prepared retail cuts from each subprimal so salable yields and processing times could be obtained. Differences in salable yields were found for the calf-fed Holstein steer chuck rolls (96.54% for ZH vs. 95.71% for control; P = 0.0045) and calf-fed Holstein steer top rounds (91.30% for ZH vs. 90.18% for control; P = 0.0469). However, other than heavier subprimals and an increased number of retail cuts obtained, total salable yields measured on a percentage basis and processing times were mostly unaffected by ZH. Cutability advantages of

  2. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  3. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Advanced Salesmanship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers wholesale and retail selling techniques, sales performance analysis, and intensive sales presentation practice. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Sales Preparation, (2) The Selling Process, (3) Special Selling Techniques, and (4) Sales…

  4. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Customer Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the various credit plans, shopping conveniences, and advisory services provided by wholesale and retail businesses to their customers. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Credit and (2) Shopping Services. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning…

  5. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Advertising and Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the planning and writing of advertisements and organizing sales promotion and public relation activities in wholesale and retail businesses. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Advertising Fundamentals and (2) Promotion. Each unit begins with a Unit…

  6. Preparing for the Market. Teacher Edition. Fashion Buying Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cindy

    This teacher's guide presents material for a unit on preparing for the retail fashion market. Content focuses on merchandise plans, computing open-to-buy, computing turnover, the components of a model stock plan, and criteria used when selecting a supplier. The guide contains 5 objectives, 6 group learning activities keyed to the objectives, 21…

  7. Apparel Marketing. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn

    This document on apparel marketing contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 16 assignments: (1) introduction to fashion and fashion merchandising; (2) current fashion; (3) careers in fashion; (4) buying; (5) retailing; (6) merchandise basics; (7) merchandise--promotion and…

  8. A Multicultural Service Sensitivity Exercise for Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Mark S.; Moraru, Ioana; Labrecque, Lauren I.

    2013-01-01

    Services marketing and retailing courses place service quality at the heart of the curriculum, painting service providers as defenders of their customers' welfare and thwarters of service failures by ushering in recovery solutions. Yet academic literature and the popular press provide evidence that in some cases, service providers act as…

  9. Greed and Good Intentions: What Really Happened in California's Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.; Grover, Stephen

    2002-03-01

    This article gives a detailed account of the 2000-2001 energy crisis in California. Deregulation of California's electric power industry is described and factors leading up to the failure of retail power markets are explained. The current state of the power market in California is also reported.

  10. Food for Thought: Building a High-Quality School Choice Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Although the for-profit retail and nonprofit education markets are not identical, many of the strategies used by reformers to improve markets for banking and food services could nonetheless benefit public education. As district and community leaders, charter school authorizers, and policymakers expand the marketplace of schools, they would be…

  11. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

  12. Subsidising artemisinin-based combination therapy in the private retail sector

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Newton; Yamey, Gavin; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria causes ill health and death in Africa. Treating illness promptly with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is likely to cure people and avoid the disease progressing to more severe forms and death. In many countries, ACT use remains low. Part of the problem is that most people seek treatment from the retail sector where ACTs are expensive; this expense is a barrier to their use. The Global Fund and other international organisations are subsidising the cost of ACTs for private retail providers to improve access to ACTs. The subsidy was initially organised through a stand-alone initiative, called the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm), but has since been integrated into the Global Fund core grant management and financial processes. Objectives To assess the effect of programmes that include ACT price subsidies for private retailers on ACT use, availability, price and market share. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 1, The Cochrane Library, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register); MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EbscoHost), EconLit (ProQuest), Global Health (OvidSP), Regional Indexes (Global Health Library, WHO), LILACS (Global Health Library, WHO), Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index (ISI Web of Science) and Health Management (ProQuest). All databases were searched February 2015, except for Health Management which was searched November 2013, without any date, language or publication status restrictions. We also searched the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; WHO), ClinicalTrials.gov (NIH) and various grey literature sources. We also conducted a cited reference search for all included studies in ISI Web of Knowledge, checked references of identified articles and contacted authors to identify additional studies. Selection criteria Randomised trials, non

  13. A Comparison of Three Policy Approaches for Tobacco Retailer Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Isgett, Lisa F.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine recommends that public health agencies restrict the number and regulate the location of tobacco retailers as a means of reducing tobacco use. However, the best policy strategy for tobacco retailer reduction is unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study is to test the percent reduction in the number and density of tobacco retailers in North Carolina resulting from three policies: (1) prohibiting sales of tobacco products in pharmacies or stores with a pharmacy counter, (2) restricting sales of tobacco products within 1,000 feet of schools, and (3) regulating to 500 feet the minimum allowable distance between tobacco outlets. Methods This study uses data from two lists of tobacco retailers gathered in 2012, one at the statewide level, and another “gold standard” three-county list. Retailers near schools were identified using point and parcel boundaries in ArcMap. Python programming language generated a random lottery system to remove retailers within 500 feet of each other. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results A minimum allowable distance policy had the single greatest impact and would reduce density by 22.1% at the state level, or 20.8% at the county level (range 16.6% to 27.9%). Both a pharmacy and near-schools ban together would reduce density by 29.3% at the state level, or 29.7% at the county level (range 26.3 to 35.6%). Conclusions The implementation of policies restricting tobacco sales in pharmacies, near schools, and/or in close proximity to another tobacco retailer would substantially reduce the number and density of tobacco retail outlets. PMID:25689540

  14. Institutional Change in Delivery of Dental Services: A Marketing Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Capon, Noel

    1982-01-01

    The recent appearance and growth of new delivery systems for dental services is examined from a marketing perspective. Analysis reveals that the growth of low priced, high throughput operations is consistent not only with marketing principles, but with the development of American retail institutions in general. Options for independent dentists in the face of this new competitive environment are discussed. (Am J Public Health 1982; 72:679-683.) PMID:7091457

  15. Awareness promotion about excessive gambling among video lottery retailers.

    PubMed

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boutin, Claude; Doucet, Céline; Dumont, Michel; Provencher, Martin; Giroux, Isabelle; Boucher, Christiane

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates "As luck would have it," an awareness program completed by retailers in Quebec Province. This program, which is presented as a two-hour awareness promotion workshop, aimed to inform retailers about excessive gambling. More specifically, it provided answers to the following questions: (1) What is chance and randomness? (2) Is there a link between misunderstanding the concept of chance and excessive gambling? (3) How does one recognise the symptoms of this disorder? (4) How should retailers intervene if they decide to do so? Results showed that retailers developed a better understanding of problem gambling, could recognise its main symptoms, felt more capable of coping with excessive gamblers, and of choosing the most appropriate moment to do so. In the follow-up phase, retailers who had attended the workshop reported that they approached a problem gambler significantly more often than the retailers who had not attended the workshop, and had discussed how to help problem gamblers significantly more often. The practical implications of these results are briefly discussed. PMID:15060333

  16. Retail Price and Point of Sale Display of Tobacco in the UK: A Descriptive Study of Small Retailers

    PubMed Central

    Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Ratschen, Elena; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the implementation of the 2002 Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act, point-of-sale (PoS) tobacco displays are one of few remaining means of communication between the tobacco industry and customers in the UK. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of tobacco displays in a UK city, and particularly to assess the tobacco prices and promotional offers, types and pack sizes on display. Methods Digital pictures of PoS displays were taken in 117 small retail shops in Nottingham in mid 2010. Data were analysed using Windows Photo Gallery software and SPSS version 16. Results Just over half (52%) of cigarette packs on display were packs of 20, and 43% packs of 10. Cigarette prices differed substantially between brands, ranging from £4.19 to £6.85 for 20-packs, and from £2.12 to £3.59 for 10-packs. Forty four percent of cigarette packs and 40% of RYO (Roll-Your-Own) tobacco pouches, almost exclusively lower priced brands, were displayed with a pricemark, implying a promotional price offer. Eighty percent of 20-pack cigarette brand or brand variants on sale were priced below the EU-defined Most Popular Price Category (MPPC) for the UK in 2010; 45% were priced below the Weighted Average Price (WAP), which replaced the MPPC in 2011. Conclusion PoS displays communicate value by displaying a high proportion of lower cost brands, and smaller and hence lower-cost packs, and by displaying price discounts on packs. The MPPC substantially overestimated the prices at which most 20-cigarette packs were available. Removal of PoS displays will prevent this means of price marketing but our study also suggests that minimum pricing of 20-pack cigarettes, prohibition of sale of cigarettes in packs less than 20, and plain packaging to prevent pricemarking are necessary if price is to be used effectively as a tobacco control measure. PMID:22242183

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Vibrio spp. in retail shrimps in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tra, Vu Thi Thu; Meng, Lu; Pichpol, Duangporn; Pham, Ngan Hong; Baumann, Maximilian; Alter, Thomas; Huehn, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Vibrio (V.) spp. isolated from retail shrimp in Hanoi, Vietnam A total of 202 shrimp samples were collected from retail markets located in ten urban districts of Hanoi. Among those, 201 (99.5%) samples were positive for Vibrio spp. The most common species detected was V parahaemolyticus (96.5%), followed by V. alginolyticus (56.4%), V. cholerae (2%) and V. vulnificus (1.5%). Multiple Vibrio spp. were found in 114 (56.4%) samples. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh (thermostable direct haemolysin) and trh (tdh-related haemolysin) genes. In total, 195 V. parahaemolyticus isolates, four V. cholerae isolates and three V. vulnificus isolates were tested for resistance to eight antimicrobial agents. V. parahaemolyticus isolates showed high rates of resistance against ampicillin (87.2%), while a moderate rate was observed for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (18.5%) and intermediate resistance towards tetracycline (24.6%). Low resistance rates (0.5%) were recorded against both ciprofloxacin and cefalothin. Only one V. cholerae isolate with resistance to ampicillin and two V. cholerae isolates with resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were found. All V. vulnificus isolates were susceptible to the eight antimicrobial agents tested. However, the number of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae was small. Multi-resistant isolates were found in V. parahaemolyticus with a low frequency (16.9%). The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous nature of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail. To reduce the potential risk of Vibrio infections due to handling or consumption of undercooked seafood, good manufacturing practice as well as safe handling and processing should be encouraged. PMID:26904896

  18. Power marketers: Let`s make a deal

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, W.L.

    1995-02-01

    Power marketers do not just want to belong to the electric industry; they want to change it forever. Their future depends upon it. Over 89 entities applied to become power marketers last year, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has acted on approximately half those applications so far. yet only a handful of companies currently are actively engaged in buying and selling electricity. Many are merely positioning themselves for the day when competition inevitably pushes beyond the $70-billion wholesale power market into the $200-billion retail market.

  19. 17 CFR 5.5 - Distribution of “Risk Disclosure Statement” by retail foreign exchange dealers, futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. (a) Except as provided in § 5.23 of this part, no retail... introducing broker, may open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail...

  20. 17 CFR 5.5 - Distribution of “Risk Disclosure Statement” by retail foreign exchange dealers, futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. (a) Except as provided in § 5.23 of this part, no retail... introducing broker, may open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail...

  1. 17 CFR 5.5 - Distribution of “Risk Disclosure Statement” by retail foreign exchange dealers, futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. (a) Except as provided in § 5.23 of this part, no retail... introducing broker, may open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail...

  2. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  3. Counts, serovars, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of Salmonella on raw chicken meat at retail in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Clavijo, Viviana; León, Maribel; Arevalo, Alejandra; Castellanos, Ricardo; Bernal, Johan; Tafur, Mc Allister; Ovalle, Maria Victoria; Alali, Walid Q; Hume, Michael; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan Jose; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serovars, and antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes on retail raw chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 301 chicken carcasses were collected from six departments (one city per department) in Colombia. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella counts using the most-probable-number method as recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service protocol. A total of 378 isolates (268 from our previous study) were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The overall Salmonella count (mean log most probable number per carcass ± 95% confidence interval) and prevalence were 2.1 (2.0 to 2.3) and 37%, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) by Salmonella levels (i.e., counts and prevalence) by storage temperature (i.e., frozen, chilled, or ambient), retail store type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent markets), and poultry company (chicken produced by integrated or nonintegrated company). Frozen chicken had the lowest Salmonella levels compared with chicken stored at other temperatures, chickens from wet markets had higher levels than those from other retail store types, and chicken produced by integrated companies had lower levels than nonintegrated companies. Thirty-one Salmonella serovars were identified among 378 isolates, with Salmonella Paratyphi B tartrate-positive (i.e., Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+) the most prevalent (44.7%), followed by Heidelberg (19%), Enteritidis (17.7%), Typhimurium (5.3%), and Anatum (2.1%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 35.2% were resistant to 1 to 5 antimicrobial agents, 24.6% to 6 to 10, and 33.9% to 11 to 15. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg were the most antimicrobial resistant. Salmonella prevalence was determined to be high, whereas cell numbers were relatively low. These data can be used in developing risk assessment models for preventing the

  4. Counts, serovars, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of Salmonella on raw chicken meat at retail in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Clavijo, Viviana; León, Maribel; Arevalo, Alejandra; Castellanos, Ricardo; Bernal, Johan; Tafur, Mc Allister; Ovalle, Maria Victoria; Alali, Walid Q; Hume, Michael; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan Jose; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serovars, and antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes on retail raw chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 301 chicken carcasses were collected from six departments (one city per department) in Colombia. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella counts using the most-probable-number method as recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service protocol. A total of 378 isolates (268 from our previous study) were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The overall Salmonella count (mean log most probable number per carcass ± 95% confidence interval) and prevalence were 2.1 (2.0 to 2.3) and 37%, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) by Salmonella levels (i.e., counts and prevalence) by storage temperature (i.e., frozen, chilled, or ambient), retail store type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent markets), and poultry company (chicken produced by integrated or nonintegrated company). Frozen chicken had the lowest Salmonella levels compared with chicken stored at other temperatures, chickens from wet markets had higher levels than those from other retail store types, and chicken produced by integrated companies had lower levels than nonintegrated companies. Thirty-one Salmonella serovars were identified among 378 isolates, with Salmonella Paratyphi B tartrate-positive (i.e., Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+) the most prevalent (44.7%), followed by Heidelberg (19%), Enteritidis (17.7%), Typhimurium (5.3%), and Anatum (2.1%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 35.2% were resistant to 1 to 5 antimicrobial agents, 24.6% to 6 to 10, and 33.9% to 11 to 15. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg were the most antimicrobial resistant. Salmonella prevalence was determined to be high, whereas cell numbers were relatively low. These data can be used in developing risk assessment models for preventing the

  5. Toward retail product recognition on grocery shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varol, Gül; Kuzu, Rıdvan S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of retail product recognition on grocery shelf images. We present a technique for accomplishing this task with a low time complexity. We decompose the problem into detection and recognition. The former is achieved by a generic product detection module which is trained on a specific class of products (e.g. tobacco packages). Cascade object detection framework of Viola and Jones [1] is used for this purpose. We further make use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to recognize the brand inside each detected region. We extract both shape and color information; and apply feature-level fusion from two separate descriptors computed with the bag of words approach. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset (available on request) that we have collected for similar research purposes. Results are presented on this dataset of more than 5,000 images consisting of 10 tobacco brands. We show that satisfactory detection and classification can be achieved on devices with cheap computational power. Potential applications of the proposed approach include planogram compliance control, inventory management and assisting visually impaired people during shopping.

  6. Prevalence, types, and geographical distribution of Listeria monocytogenes from a survey of retail Queso Fresco and associated cheese processing plants and dairy farms in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Enriquez, R I; Garcia-Galaz, A; Acedo-Felix, E; Gonzalez-Rios, I H; Call, J E; Luchansky, J B; Diaz-Cinco, M E

    2007-11-01

    In the first part of this study, samples were collected from farms, cheese processing plants (CPPs), and retail markets located in various geographical areas of Sonora, Mexico, over a 12-month period during the summer of 2004 and winter of 2005. Four (all Queso Fresco [QF] from retail markets) of 349 total samples tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Of these four positive samples, three were collected in the northern region and one in the southern region of Sonora. Additionally, two were collected during the winter months, and two were collected during the summer months. For the second part of the study, a total of 39 samples from a farm, a CPP, and retail markets were collected and processed according to a combination of the Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-143-SSA1-1995.10 method (NOM) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, and 27 samples from these same locations were collected and processed according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service method (USDA-FSIS). The NOM-FDA method recovered the pathogen from 6 (15%) of 39 samples (one cheese and five product contact surfaces), while the USDA-FSIS method recovered the pathogen from 5 (18.5%) of 27 samples (all product contact surfaces). In addition, the 40 isolates recovered from the 15 total samples that tested positive for Lm grouped into five distinct pulsotypes that were ca. 60% related, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The results of this study confirmed a 3.4% prevalence of Lm in QF collected from retail markets located in Sonora and no appreciable difference in the effectiveness of either the NOM-FDA or USDA-FSIS method to recover the pathogen from cheese or environmental samples.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  8. How to Conduct Store Observations of Tobacco Marketing and Products.

    PubMed

    Feld, Ashley L; Johnson, Trent O; Byerly, Katherine W; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-01-01

    As tobacco companies continue to heavily market their products at the point of sale, tobacco control groups seek strategies to combat the negative effects of this marketing. Store observations, which have been widely used by researchers and practitioners alike, are an excellent surveillance tool. This article provides a guide for public health practitioners interested in working in the tobacco retail environment by detailing the steps involved in conducting store observations of tobacco marketing and products including 1) obtaining tobacco product retailer lists, 2) creating measures, 3) selecting a mode of data collection, 4) training data collectors, and 5) analyzing data. We also highlight issues that may arise while in the field and provide information on disseminating results of store observations, including the potential policy implications. PMID:26890408

  9. How to Conduct Store Observations of Tobacco Marketing and Products.

    PubMed

    Feld, Ashley L; Johnson, Trent O; Byerly, Katherine W; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-02-18

    As tobacco companies continue to heavily market their products at the point of sale, tobacco control groups seek strategies to combat the negative effects of this marketing. Store observations, which have been widely used by researchers and practitioners alike, are an excellent surveillance tool. This article provides a guide for public health practitioners interested in working in the tobacco retail environment by detailing the steps involved in conducting store observations of tobacco marketing and products including 1) obtaining tobacco product retailer lists, 2) creating measures, 3) selecting a mode of data collection, 4) training data collectors, and 5) analyzing data. We also highlight issues that may arise while in the field and provide information on disseminating results of store observations, including the potential policy implications.

  10. How to Conduct Store Observations of Tobacco Marketing and Products

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Ashley L.; Johnson, Trent O.; Byerly, Katherine W.

    2016-01-01

    As tobacco companies continue to heavily market their products at the point of sale, tobacco control groups seek strategies to combat the negative effects of this marketing. Store observations, which have been widely used by researchers and practitioners alike, are an excellent surveillance tool. This article provides a guide for public health practitioners interested in working in the tobacco retail environment by detailing the steps involved in conducting store observations of tobacco marketing and products including 1) obtaining tobacco product retailer lists, 2) creating measures, 3) selecting a mode of data collection, 4) training data collectors, and 5) analyzing data. We also highlight issues that may arise while in the field and provide information on disseminating results of store observations, including the potential policy implications. PMID:26890408

  11. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  12. A Retailer's Experience with Irradiated Foods

    SciTech Connect

    James P. Corrigan

    2000-11-12

    A food irradiation success story comes from Northbrook, Illinois, where Carrot Top, Inc., has been routinely carrying irradiated food for more than 7 yr. This paper presents the experiences of Carrot Top during those years, details the marketing approaches used, and summarizes the resulting sales figures.

  13. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-05-01

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium model, we find that price elasticity both increases the retailers revenue risk exposure and decreases the spot price. Since the latter induces the retailer to reduce forward electricity purchases, while the former has the opposite effect, the overall impact of price responsive demand on the relative magnitudes of its risk exposure and end-user price elasticity. Nevertheless, price elasticity decreases cumulative electricity consumption. By extending the analysis to allow for early settlement of demand, we find that forward stage end-user price responsiveness decreases the electricity forward price relative to the case with price-elastic demand only in real time. Moreover, we find that only if forward stage end-user demand is price elastic will the equilibrium electricity forward price be reduced.

  14. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, Mary; Jackson, Robert

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  15. A Study of Central Auction Based Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola

    The deregulation of electricity markets produced significant economic benefits, reducing prices to customers and opening several opportunities for new actors, e.g., new generators and distributors. A prominent scientific and technological challenge is the automation of such markets. In particular, we focus our attention on wholesale electricity markets based on a central auction. In these markets, generators sell electricity by means of a central auction to a public authority. Instead, the distribution of electricity to customers takes part in retail markets. The main works presented in the literature model wholesale markets as oligopolies, neglecting thus the specific auction mechanism. In this paper, we enrich these models by introducing an auction mechanism shaped on that used in the Italian wholesale electricity market, we solve the winner determination problem, and we preliminarily study the problem of searching for equilibria.

  16. The Growth of Halal Meat Markets in Europe: An Exploration of the Supply Side Theory of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, John; Miele, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years dedicated markets for halal meat have emerged in a number of European countries. While ethnic stores still constitute the major retail outlet for halal meat in most countries, "halal" labelled meat and meat products are increasingly available in supermarkets and fast food restaurants. Market expansion has also facilitated…

  17. 29 CFR 779.321 - Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Retailâ § 779.321 Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment. (a) Only those sales or services to which the retail concept applies may be recognized as retail... have a concept of retailability, in that it makes sales of types which may be recognized as retail,...

  18. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; Determinations, 74 FR... Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty Determination with ] Final Antidumping Duty Determination, 74 FR... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of...

  19. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  20. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  1. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  2. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  3. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  4. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  5. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  6. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation. PMID:14753323

  7. 27 CFR 31.94 - Retail dealers “At Large.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealers âAt Large.â 31.94 Section 31.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Locations § 31.94 Retail dealers “At Large.” A retail dealer in liquors or a retail dealer in beer...

  8. Competition, retail pricing and service design

    SciTech Connect

    Caves, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation covered major approaches to a competitive industry and competitive prices. Major pricing approaches addressed service differentiation, non-linear structures and market based levels. Highly differentiated competitive prices were illustrated by an Airline Industry pricing schedule for one flight on a given day. The major utilities involved in Real Time Pricing (RTP) programs with the number of customers are identified, along with the status of the RTP for each utility.

  9. National Retail Data Monitor for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael M; Tsui, F C; Espino, J; Hogan, W; Hutman, J; Hersh, J; Neill, D; Moore, A; Parks, G; Lewis, C; Aller, R

    2004-09-24

    The National Retail Data Monitor (NRDM) is a public health surveillance tool that collects and analyzes daily sales data for over-the-counter (OTC) health-care products. NRDM collects sales data for selected OTC health-care products in near real time from >15,000 retail stores and makes them available to public health officials. NRDM is one of the first examples of a national data utility for public health surveillance that collects, redistributes, and analyzes daily sales-volume data of selected health-care products, thereby reducing the effort for both data providers and health departments.

  10. Retail Environments as a Venue for Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Odoms-Young, Angela; Singleton, Chelsea R; Springfield, Sparkle; McNabb, Leilah; Thompson, Terry

    2016-06-01

    Increasing attention has been given to the role of retail food environments in shaping dietary behavior and obesity risk. Studies have generally shown an association between living in a neighborhood with or in close proximity to certain types of food outlets and/or the availability of healthy food options and better dietary quality, higher fruit/vegetable intakes, and a lower risk of overweight, even after controlling for individual/family level characteristics. However, research in this area has yielded mixed results, overall. Future research needs to identify consistent approaches for defining and measuring food retail environments. PMID:27099166

  11. Multiscale agent-based consumer market modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.; Macal, C. M.; St. Aubin, J.; Thimmapuram, P.; Bragen, M.; Hahn, J.; Karr, J.; Brigham, N.; Lacy, M. E.; Hampton, D.; Decision and Information Sciences; Procter & Gamble Co.

    2010-05-01

    Consumer markets have been studied in great depth, and many techniques have been used to represent them. These have included regression-based models, logit models, and theoretical market-level models, such as the NBD-Dirichlet approach. Although many important contributions and insights have resulted from studies that relied on these models, there is still a need for a model that could more holistically represent the interdependencies of the decisions made by consumers, retailers, and manufacturers. When the need is for a model that could be used repeatedly over time to support decisions in an industrial setting, it is particularly critical. Although some existing methods can, in principle, represent such complex interdependencies, their capabilities might be outstripped if they had to be used for industrial applications, because of the details this type of modeling requires. However, a complementary method - agent-based modeling - shows promise for addressing these issues. Agent-based models use business-driven rules for individuals (e.g., individual consumer rules for buying items, individual retailer rules for stocking items, or individual firm rules for advertizing items) to determine holistic, system-level outcomes (e.g., to determine if brand X's market share is increasing). We applied agent-based modeling to develop a multi-scale consumer market model. We then conducted calibration, verification, and validation tests of this model. The model was successfully applied by Procter & Gamble to several challenging business problems. In these situations, it directly influenced managerial decision making and produced substantial cost savings.

  12. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  13. 78 FR 50376 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122- 34124 (June 18... Review, 72 FR 1982, 1983 (January 17, 2007), Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Final... Administrative Review, 72 FR 64580 (November 16, 2007), Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand:...

  14. 29 CFR 779.263 - Excise taxes not at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes not at the retail level. 779.263 Section 779... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.263 Excise taxes not at the retail level. There are also a wide variety of taxes levied at the manufacturer's or distributor's level and not at the retail level. It should...

  15. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes at the retail level. 779.262 Section 779.262... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.262 Excise taxes at the retail level. (a) Federal excise taxes are imposed at the retail level on highway vehicle fuels other than gasoline under the provisions of 26 U.S.C....

  16. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  17. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  18. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  19. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  20. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  1. Information Systems and Technology Sourcing Strategies and Performance of E-Retailers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Juliana Yuh-Shun

    2012-01-01

    The e-Retail industry has grown rapidly over the last few years and is projected to continue its upward trend as consumers shift from traditional channels to online channels. In March 2010, Forrester Research forecasted that online retail sales will grow by 10% a year for the next 5 years and e-Retail sales will amount to $249 billion by 2014.…

  2. Retailing. Instructor's Guide Sheets and Instructor's Package, Modules R 1-45. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This package contains instructor's guide sheets and student task assignment sheets for Modules R 1-45 of the competency-based curriculum in retailing developed for use in secondary and postsecondary schools in Kentucky. Some of the topics covered in the modules include the following: retailing--past, present, and future; retailing occupations;…

  3. 78 FR 57227 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 1 and 2 RIN 0579-AD57 Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and...: We are revising the definition of retail pet store and related regulations in order to ensure that the definition of retail pet store in the regulations is consistent with the Animal Welfare Act...

  4. Influence of Image Interactivity on Approach Responses towards an Online Retailer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Ann Marie; Jin, Hyun-Jeong

    2003-01-01

    Measured the effect of exposure to an image interactivity function from an apparel retailer's Web site on approach responses towards the retailer. Dependent variables included attitude towards the online store, willingness to purchase, probability of spending more time than planned shopping, and likelihood of patronizing the online retailer's…

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-17 - Tax-free retail sales to certain nonprofit educational organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES... organization; general rule. To establish the right to exemption, the retailer must obtain from the purchaser... exemption from retailers excise taxes for use by a nonprofit educational organization, other than a...

  6. 75 FR 43182 - Voluntary Registration by Authorized Officials of Non-Covered Retail Food Establishments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... (hereinafter ``chain retail food establishments''), and for certain foods sold in vending machines operated by... (hereinafter ``chain vending machine operators''). For chain retail food establishments, as that term is used... regulations. B. What is the effect of voluntary registration under section 4205? Unlike chain retail...

  7. 77 FR 41716 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 1 and 2 RIN 0579-AC36 Animal Welfare; Retail Pet... animals sold at retail under the protection of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). We are also announcing the... regulations to bring more pet animals sold at retail under the protection of the Animal Welfare Act...

  8. 17 CFR 5.10 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers. 5.10 Section 5.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers. (a) Requirement to maintain and preserve information. (1) Each retail foreign exchange dealer registered with the Commission pursuant to section...

  9. 17 CFR 5.12 - Financial reports of retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Financial reports of retail... COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.12 Financial reports of retail foreign exchange dealers. (a)(1) Each person who files an application for registration as a retail foreign exchange...

  10. 39 CFR 602.2 - Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail Services Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail... OTHER THAN PATENTS § 602.2 Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail Services Department. In accordance with the foregoing policy, the Postal Service Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail...

  11. 39 CFR 602.2 - Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail Services Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail... OTHER THAN PATENTS § 602.2 Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail Services Department. In accordance with the foregoing policy, the Postal Service Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail...

  12. Training in the Retail Sector. A Survey for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Wilfried; And Others

    Training in the retail sector throughout the 12 European Community (EC) member countries was examined through in-depth case studies of 55 retail firms that were selected as representing a wide range of firm types (19 multinational, 36 national, 4 cooperative, 7 family-owned firms), forms of retailing (department stores, supermarkets, and chain and…

  13. “Smoking Revolution” A Content Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Retail Websites

    PubMed Central

    Grana, Rachel A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. Purpose To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Methods Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Results Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%), increased social status (44%), enhanced social activity (32%), romance (31%), and use by celebrities (22%). Conclusions Health claims and smoking cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. PMID:24650842

  14. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues. PMID:26180986

  15. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues.

  16. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W.; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues. PMID:26180986

  17. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  18. Energy and environmental efficiency in competitive power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    For years the electric utility industry operated as a regulated monopoly, largely immune to market forces except those of competing fuels. That era came to an end with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1974, which created a market for non-utility generated power. Within twenty years, non-regulated, non-utility generators had become the primary supplier of new energy resources. Their market power is matched by their political power, as evidenced in the Energy Policy Act of 1994 (EPAct), which requires open access to utility transmission lines to facilitate inter-utility bulk power sales. The conventional wisdom is that active wholesale power markets with competition among alternative generators will lead to lower power-development costs and cheaper retail power prices. The trend towards alternative bulk power sources at low prices intersects with large retail power customers` interest in accessing alternative power supplies. In most cases, these alternatives to local utilities are at a lower cost than retail rates. For the most part, proponents of generation competition have remained silent about potential environmental consequences. However, skeptics of increased competition, including major environmental groups, cite environmental impacts among their concerns. This report examines these concerns.

  19. Prevalence, numbers and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. in retail poultry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lay, Kruy Sun; Vuthy, Yith; Song, Ping; Phol, Khem; Sarthou, Jean Louis

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastro-enteritis; and raw poultry is considered to be an important source of these bacteria. To evaluate whether the Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. bacteria could be monitored for the purpose of microbial presence, enumeration and antimicrobial resistance in raw poultry, 152 poultry carcasses were randomly selected from 10 markets in retail outlets of Phnom Penh during March 2006 to February 2007. The majority of poultry samples was contaminated by Salmonella serovars (88.2%) and Campylobacter spp. (80.9%). A very high contamination of Salmonella was found at 3-4 log₁₀ CFU/g for 22.4% of samples and of Campylobacter at 7-8 log₁₀ CFU/g for 1.3% of samples. Fifty nine different Salmonella serovars contaminated 134 poultry carcasses; five most prevalent serovars covered 29.1% of serovars isolates (Anatum, Typhimurium, Corvallis, Stanley and Enteritidis). Three Campylobacter species contaminating 123 raw poultry were Campylobacter jejuni (50.0%), Campylobacter coli (29.0%) and Campylobacter lari (21.0%). High antibiotic resistance percentages were found among Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. isolates. This study revealed that raw poultry at the retail outlets in Phnom Penh markets are contaminated with high prevalences of food-borne pathogens, and communicating the importance of minimizing this risk in reducing human infections.

  20. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cigarette Prices in Military Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher Keith; Hyder, Melissa L.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Williams, Larry N.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of tobacco pricing in military retail outlets, including trends within each service branch. Methods. We determined the price of a single pack of Marlboro Red cigarettes at military retail stores located in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii and at their nearest Walmarts in spring 2011 and 2013 (n = 128 for pairs available at both assessments). Results. The average difference between cigarettes sold in military retail outlets and Walmarts decreased from 24.5% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2013. The decrease was partially attributable to significant price decreases at Walmarts. The largest increases in cigarette prices occurred on naval installations. Potential savings at stores on several installations remained substantial in 2013; the largest approached $6 per pack. Stores on 17 military installations decreased cigarette prices during the study period. Conclusions. Tobacco can be purchased in military retail stores at substantial savings over civilian stores. If tobacco pricing is to cease to be an incentive for use among personnel, a revised military tobacco pricing policy is needed. PMID:24524503

  1. Gendering Occupational Identities and IT in the Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Janice

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the influence of gendered occupational identities in the social construction of skill and technology in a retail company introducing an information-technology system. Focuses on female shop floor supervisors and considers the impact that femininity had on definitions and role during a period of change. (JOW)

  2. Real-time video analysis for retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ehtesham; Maurya, Avinash K.

    2015-03-01

    With the advancement in video processing technologies, we can capture subtle human responses in a retail store environment which play decisive role in the store management. In this paper, we present a novel surveillance video based analytic system for retail stores targeting localized and global traffic estimate. Development of an intelligent system for human traffic estimation in real-life poses a challenging problem because of the variation and noise involved. In this direction, we begin with a novel human tracking system by an intelligent combination of motion based and image level object detection. We demonstrate the initial evaluation of this approach on available standard dataset yielding promising result. Exact traffic estimate in a retail store require correct separation of customers from service providers. We present a role based human classification framework using Gaussian mixture model for this task. A novel feature descriptor named graded colour histogram is defined for object representation. Using, our role based human classification and tracking system, we have defined a novel computationally efficient framework for two types of analytics generation i.e., region specific people count and dwell-time estimation. This system has been extensively evaluated and tested on four hours of real-life video captured from a retail store.

  3. Tobacco retail regulation: the next frontier in tobacco control?

    PubMed

    Smyth, Colleen; Freeman, Becky; Maag, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced significant reductions in smoking rates in recent decades, and public health scrutiny is turning to how further gains will be made. Regulatory controls, such as licensing to reduce retailer density or limit tobacco proximity to schools or licensed premises, have been suggested by some public health advocates as appropriate next steps. This paper summarises best-practice evidence in relation to tobacco retailer regulation, noting measures undertaken in New South Wales (NSW). Research on controlling the display of tobacco products and supply of tobacco to minors is well established. The evidence shows that a combination of licensing, enforcement, education, promotion restrictions at the point of sale and a well-funded compliance program to prevent sales to minors is a best-practice approach to tobacco retail regulation. The evidence for other measures - such as restricting the number of retail outlets, and restricting how and where tobacco is sold - is far less developed. There is insufficient evidence to determine if a positive licensing system and controls on the density and location of tobacco outlets would be effective in the Australian context. More evidence is required from jurisdictions that have implemented a positive licensing scheme to evaluate the effect of such schemes on smoking rates, the potential cost benefits and any unintended consequences. PMID:26243488

  4. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... financial institution in areas where an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) system has been implemented. (h... to use the coupons, the food retailer should request the person to show the ID card of the household to establish the right of that person to use the coupons. Where photo ID cards are in use, the...

  5. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... financial institution in areas where an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) system has been implemented. (h... to use the coupons, the food retailer should request the person to show the ID card of the household to establish the right of that person to use the coupons. Where photo ID cards are in use, the...

  6. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... financial institution in areas where an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) system has been implemented. (h... to use the coupons, the food retailer should request the person to show the ID card of the household to establish the right of that person to use the coupons. Where photo ID cards are in use, the...

  7. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... financial institution in areas where an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) system has been implemented. (h... to use the coupons, the food retailer should request the person to show the ID card of the household to establish the right of that person to use the coupons. Where photo ID cards are in use, the...

  8. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601 Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  9. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601 Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  10. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601 Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  11. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601 Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  12. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: In-Store Retailing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the in-store retailing cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards…

  13. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising in retailer publications. 6.54 Section 6.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service §...

  14. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO; Eff. 6-22-10 Prohibition of Sale and... sales of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to any person comply with the following requirements: (a) No retailer may sell cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to any person younger than 18 years of age; (b)(1)...

  15. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for... or the quantity in which to purchase them for sale to consumers. (b) The industry member obligates the retailer to participate in the promotion to obtain the industry member's product. (c) The...

  16. 27 CFR 8.54 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.54 Criteria for... purchase or the quantity in which to purchase them for sale to consumers. (b) The industry member obligates the retailer to participate in the promotion to obtain the industry member's product. (c) The...

  17. Retail Flower Shop Operation and Management. A Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Richard F.; And Others

    Field tested by teachers attending an institute in landscape horticulture July 5-22, 1966, this teacher's manual is one of a series of instructional aids developed by the Department of Agricultural Education at the Pennsylvania State University. The content includes problem areas of: (1) Exploring Occupational Opportunities in the Retail Flower…

  18. 75 FR 37378 - Exemption for Retail Store Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ..., poultry and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions... but for poultry products is being increased from $49,400 to $50,200. FSIS is retaining or changing the... Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et...

  19. 78 FR 23902 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...) is announcing the dollar limitations on the amount of meat and meat food products, poultry, and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... $67,300 to $69,600 and for poultry products from $51,700 to $54,500. FSIS is changing the...

  20. 76 FR 19741 - Exemption for Retail Store Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ..., poultry and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions... from $60,200 to $61,900 but for poultry products will remain at $50,200. FSIS is retaining or changing... Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et...

  1. 24 CFR 3286.113 - Information provided by retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the time a purchaser or lessee enters into a contract to purchase or lease a manufactured home, the retailer or distributor of the home must provide HUD with the following information: (1) The home's serial... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION PROGRAM Certification of Installation in...

  2. Retail E-Commerce Security Status among Fortune 500 Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the "Fortune 500" corporations' retail e-commerce security to identify their strengths and weaknesses for improvement. They used online content analysis, information security auditing, and network security mapping for data collection and analysis. The findings indicate that most sites posted security policies; however, only…

  3. Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Retail Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Retail Federation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is part of a series demonstrating the scope of employer involvement in school-to-careers, highlights the efforts of three retail employers and two "intermediary" organizations connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning for secondary education students. The introduction presents a series overview and lists the names,…

  4. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

  5. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  6. Clostridium difficile in retail meat and processing plants in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile (Cd) have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains of Cd. Toxigenic Cd has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer ...

  7. 77 FR 24456 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... and restaurants (21 U.S.C. 661(c)(2) and 454(c)(2)). FSIS's regulations (9 CFR 303.1(d) and 381.10(d... processing of meat, meat food, poultry, and poultry products. Sales to Hotels, Restaurants, and...

  8. Muscle profiling to improve the value of retail meat cuts.

    PubMed

    Jung, E Y; Hwang, Y H; Joo, S T

    2016-10-01

    Nutrition and meat quality are always important to consumers, but vary by individual muscle or muscle groups in retail meat cuts. Muscle profiling of nutrient content and palatability for all retail beef cuts is necessary to suggest healthy and tasty beef cuts and to inform consumers of the benefits of beef consumption. The current paper reviews numerous studies that provide muscle profiles for nutrients and palatability attributes of muscles or muscle groups in retail beef cuts. The composition of nutrients including protein, fat, moisture, vitamins, and minerals in beef cuts is documented as well as the nutritive role as a part of a healthy diet. In addition, this review presents knowledge in relation to innovative carcass fabrication and value-added cuts to improve the value of beef carcass. Finally, the current work emphasize the palatability assessment of individual beef muscles, and concludes that all retail beef cuts should be merchandised for proper cooking according to the palatability profiles of beef muscles. PMID:27134030

  9. Perspective view of IOOF Building (5 North F Street), retail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of IOOF Building (5 North F Street), retail store (11 North F Street), and general merchandise (15 North F Street), all historic-contributing features of the district - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  10. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  11. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  12. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  13. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for which preferential tariff treatment under the CAFTA-DR is claimed, will be disregarded in determining whether all non-originating materials used in...

  14. The Skills Implications of Electronic Retailing. IES Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackey, Nii Djan; Hillage, Jim; Jagger, Nick; Bates, Peter

    The skills and education/training implications of the development of electronic commerce in the United Kingdom's retail industry and its associated supply chain were examined. The major data collection activities were as follows: a literature review; consultation with leading academics and advisers; an e-mail-based call for information from…

  15. A Relevant New Undergraduate Track in Retail Pharmacy Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Philip W., Jr.; Fitzpatrick, Peter G.

    1995-01-01

    An undergraduate track in retail pharmacy management was designed to prepare students better for everyday needs in community pharmacy. Multiple teaching approaches were used. Student response has been positive and enrollment has increased substantially. Graduate recommendations for course improvement are minimal. Course descriptions are appended.…

  16. Weekly Feedback vs. Daily Feedback: An Application in Retail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Jennifer E.; Mullin, Jill; Wilder, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in a retail setting to (a) assess the effectiveness of a multi-component performance management intervention and (b) compare the effectiveness of weekly and daily feedback. During the first experiment, a multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of task clarification, goal setting, access to…

  17. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  18. Retail Flower Shop Salesperson and Floral Designer. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This document consists of the student manual for a course in retail flower shop sales and floral design for use in vocational education courses in high schools in South Carolina. The guide consists of 22 learning modules that incorporate the subject matter needed by workers in these jobs. Each learning module consists of an introduction,…

  19. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  20. NVQs and the Retail Industry--The Experience of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Sally J.

    1997-01-01

    Case studies of five British retail companies with National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) identified factors affecting implementation: (1) their motivation to offer NVQs; (2) their initial reactions; (3) extent of implementation; (4) resource requirements; and (5) benefits/disadvantages of competency-based qualifications. It is recommended that…