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Sample records for retail poultry products

  1. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products for sale on the Bulgarian retail market.

    PubMed

    Stoyanchev, Todor; Vashin, Ivan; Ring, Christian; Atanassova, Viktoria

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products available for the consumers at retail markets in Bulgaria. Samples (n = 210) of poultry carcasses and poultry products for sale at the retail market in Bulgaria were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter spp., of these 35 frozen whole carcasses, 135 chilled poultry cuts (45 wing cuts, 45 thigh cuts and 45 fillet) and 40 thermally treated (ready-to-eat) poultry products. The results obtained showed that 35.2% of the frozen poultry carcasses for sale in the markets were Campylobacter contaminated. In the chilled poultry cuts Campylobacter was isolated at the highest percentage in wing- and thigh cuts, 91.1% and 88.9%, respectively. The fillet samples were contaminated by Campylobacter in 48.9% of cases. In the chilled poultry products as well as in the frozen carcasses C. jejuni (74.8%/70.3%) was the most commonly isolated Campylobacter species, with the remainder being C. coli (25.2%/29.7%). Campylobacter spp. were not detected in the thermally treated poultry products.

  2. Campylobacter contamination in retail poultry meats and by-products in the world: a literature survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hodaka; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2009-03-01

    Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In North America, Europe and Japan, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial illnesses and the consumption of poultry meats and/or by-products is suspected a major cause of the illness. In this survey, we summarized the research papers describing Campylobacter contamination of retail poultry meats and by-products in various countries of the world. In most of the countries, a majority of retail poultry meats and by-products were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was usually the dominant Campylobacter species isolated from retail poultry and C. coli was less frequently isolated, although the ratio of C. coli to C. jejuni was considerably different among the countries. However, in Thailand and South Africa, C. coli was the dominant Campylobacter species isolated from retail poultry. A large portion of retail poultry was contaminated with Campylobacter spp. in the world; therefore, further trials are required for finding proper countermeasures and attention should be paid for the sanitary handling of poultry products.

  3. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market.

    PubMed

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Ikonen, Ilona; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Raninen, Kaisa; Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Pelkonen, Sinikka

    2012-11-16

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria (ExPEC) exist as commensals in the human intestines and can infect extraintestinal sites and cause septicemia. The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC in human disease have been discussed previously. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the properties of ExPEC in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market with special attention to their prevalence, virulence and phylogenetic profiles. Furthermore, the isolates were screened for possible ESBL producers and their resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. The presence of ExPEC in 219 marinated and non-marinated raw poultry meat products from retail shops has been analyzed. One E. coli strain per product was analyzed further for phylogenetic groups and possession of ten virulence genes associated with ExPEC bacteria (kpsMT K1, ibeA, astA, iss, irp2, papC, iucD, tsh, vat and cva/cv) using PCR methods. The E. coli strains were also screened phenotypically for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and the susceptibility of 48 potential ExPEC isolates for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. E. coli was isolated from 207 (94.5%) of 219 poultry meat products. The most common phylogenetic groups were D (50.7%), A (37.7%), and B2 (7.7%). Based on virulence factor gene PCR, 23.2% of the strains were classified as ExPEC. Two ExPEC strains (1%) belonged to [O1] B2 svg+ (specific for virulent subgroup) group, which has been implicated in multiple forms of ExPEC disease. None of the ExPEC strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins. One isolate (2.1%) showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Potential ExPEC bacteria were found in 22% of marinated and non-marinated poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market and 0.9% were contaminated with E. coli [O1] B2 svg+ group. Marinades did not have an effect on the survival of ExPEC as strains from

  4. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria (ExPEC) exist as commensals in the human intestines and can infect extraintestinal sites and cause septicemia. The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC in human disease have been discussed previously. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the properties of ExPEC in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market with special attention to their prevalence, virulence and phylogenetic profiles. Furthermore, the isolates were screened for possible ESBL producers and their resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Methods The presence of ExPEC in 219 marinated and non-marinated raw poultry meat products from retail shops has been analyzed. One E. coli strain per product was analyzed further for phylogenetic groups and possession of ten virulence genes associated with ExPEC bacteria (kpsMT K1, ibeA, astA, iss, irp2, papC, iucD, tsh, vat and cva/cv) using PCR methods. The E. coli strains were also screened phenotypically for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and the susceptibility of 48 potential ExPEC isolates for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Results E. coli was isolated from 207 (94.5%) of 219 poultry meat products. The most common phylogenetic groups were D (50.7%), A (37.7%), and B2 (7.7%). Based on virulence factor gene PCR, 23.2% of the strains were classified as ExPEC. Two ExPEC strains (1%) belonged to [O1] B2 svg+ (specific for virulent subgroup) group, which has been implicated in multiple forms of ExPEC disease. None of the ExPEC strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins. One isolate (2.1%) showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Conclusions Potential ExPEC bacteria were found in 22% of marinated and non-marinated poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market and 0.9% were contaminated with E. coli [O1] B2 svg+ group. Marinades did not have an effect on

  5. Prevalence, seasonal occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in poultry retail products in Greece.

    PubMed

    Zdragas, A; Mazaraki, K; Vafeas, G; Giantzi, V; Papadopoulos, T; Ekateriniadou, L

    2012-10-01

    To detect the prevalence, the seasonal occurrence and distribution of Salmonella serotypes in poultry products and to determine the resistance profile of Salmonella isolates. A total of 96 skin-on chicken carcasses and 30 liver samples were analysed between May 2007 and May 2009 from twenty-two different commercial farm brands found in retail market countrywide. Salmonella was isolated from 38 (39·5%) of 96 chicken carcasses and from 10 (33·3%) of 30 liver samples. Higher isolation rate (60·4%) was observed in carcasses detected during summer (May to October), and lower isolation rate (18·7%) was observed in carcasses detected during winter (November to April); in liver samples, the positive rates were 53·4 and 13·2%, respectively. Twelve serotypes were detected with the serotypes Hadar, Enteritidis and Blockley being the most prevalent at 29·2, 22·9 and 12·5%, respectively. Nine of 11 Salm. Enteritidis isolates occurred during summer. Of 48 isolates, 38 (79%) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents used. The highest resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (64·5%), tetracycline (56·2%), nalidixic acid (39·5%), ampicillin and rifampicin (33·3%). The relatively high Salmonella spp. contamination rates of raw chicken meat and liver have been detected. Salm. Enteritidis isolates peaked in summer, increasing the risk to human health. Antibiotic resistance of Salmonella still remains a threat as resistance plasmids may be extensively shared between animal and humans. The study enabled us to improve the data on the seasonal occurrence of Salmonella and to determine the antimicrobial pattern profile and trends in Salmonella strains isolated from poultry retail products in Greece. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. The occurrence of Listeria monocytogens in retail ready-to-eat meat and poultry products related to the levels of Acetate and Lactate in the products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotrophic foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from ready-to-eat meat and poultry products (RTE meats). The purpose of this study was to quantify lactate and acetate levels in retail RTE meats that had been tested in a previous study for the presence of L. mono...

  7. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a reasonable...

  8. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a reasonable...

  9. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a reasonable...

  10. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a reasonable...

  11. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a reasonable...

  12. Antibiotic resistant coliform bacilli, isolated from freshly slaughtered poultry and from chilled poultry at retail outlets.

    PubMed

    Bensink, J C; Botham, F P

    1983-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance in coliforms isolated from poultry was investigated. Poultry carcases were examined immediately after slaughter or at retail outlets; the carcases were from the same processing plant and 100 were examined from each source. Approximately 85% of the total of 13,858 isolates examined were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic. Highly significant differences were found in the levels of antibiotic resistance from the 2 sources; ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and sulphonamide resistance was found more frequently in isolates from poultry at retail, while resistance against streptomycin and neomycin occurred more frequently in isolates from poultry examined at slaughter. The data were insufficient to explain these changes. Transfer of resistance occurred less frequently in isolates from poultry at retail; in particular the transfer of resistance from coliforms other than Escherichia coli was found to be greatly reduced.

  13. Water quality and poultry production.

    PubMed

    King, A J

    1996-07-01

    Mineral and microbial content of water affects the performance of poultry. Because poultry production can adversely affect water quality, the Environmental Protection Agency monitors and regulates its impact. Management of nonpoint source water contamination is especially important. If properly managed, litter, a valuable secondary commodity associated with poultry production, can be used as fertilizer, food, or energy.

  14. Prevalence and quantification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Italian retail poultry meat: Analysis of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Stella, Simone; Soncini, Gabriella; Ziino, Graziella; Panebianco, Antonio; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Colavita, Giampaolo; Alberghini, Leonardo; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-04-01

    Retail poultry meat is a crucial vehicle for consumers' exposure to Campylobacters, but no official controls are currently applied in Italy. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Campylobacter contamination of a wide range of poultry meats marketed in Italy. N. 472 chicken and turkey meat samples (sectioned meats, offal, meat preparations and products) were taken from slaughterhouses, deboning plants and different retailers and submitted to detection/enumeration of Campylobacter spp. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and biomolecular techniques. Campylobacter spp. was detected in 34.1% of the samples, with general low counts. Higher values were observed in offal (especially liver) and sectioned meats, with significantly higher rates in skin-on samples (86.8% vs 32.7%). Minced meat preparations showed lower prevalence (22.4% vs 58.3%) and counts than whole pieces. Decreasing rates were observed among slaughterhouses (80%), deboning plants (49%), butcher's shops (37%) and large scale retailers (25%). Sectioned chicken meats were significantly more contaminated than turkey meats. Almost all the isolates were identified as C. jejuni or C. coli, with similar prevalences (18.4% and 20.5%, respectively); C. jejuni was predominant only in samples from slaughterhouses/deboning plants. For setting future control programs, meat typology should be considered the main critical factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States...

  16. Detection of quinolones in poultry meat obtained from retail centers in Santiago Province, the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Silfrany, R O; Caba, R E; Solís de Los Santos, F; Hanning, I

    2013-02-01

    In the Dominican Republic, poultry consumption per capita is greater than 34 kg of poultry meat per year. However, antibiotics, specifically the quinolone group, may be overused and can result in residues in the poultry meat. These residues are of concern because consumers may have allergies to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can develop from overuse of antibiotics in production. Little is known concerning this issue specifically for Santiago Province in the Dominican Republic. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence of residual quinolones in poultry meat and determine whether any residues detected were higher than the residue maximum limits (100 μg/kg) established by food industry authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority. A total of 135 samples of chicken breast were taken from different retail meat centers in the nine municipalities of Santiago Province (Santiago, Tamboril, Sabana Iglesia, Villa Bisonó, Puñal, Villa González, Licey, Jánico, and San José De Las Matas) and were analyzed using the Equinox test (Immunotec, Swanton, VT). Of the 135 samples analyzed, 50% from Sabana Iglesia, 20% from Licey, 20% from San Jose De Las Matas, and 6.25% from Santiago contained residues of quinolones higher than the residue maximum limits. No quinolone residues were detected in samples obtained from Janico, Punal, Tamboril, Villa Bisono, or Villa Gonzalez. The results of this investigation suggest that some poultry meat sold for human consumption in Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic contains quinolone residues and may represent a health risk to some consumers.

  17. Method-dependent variability in determination of prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Canadian retail poultry.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Catherine D; Plante, Daniel; Iugovaz, Irène; Kenwell, Robyn; Bélanger, Ghislaine; Boucher, Francine; Poulin, Nathalie; Trottier, Yvon-Louis

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter is the most frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Canada, and the illness is commonly associated with poultry consumption. Whereas Canadian retail poultry is often contaminated with campylobacters, studies on the prevalence of this organism are inconsistent due to variability in sampling and microbiological methodology. To determine the current microbiological status of Canadian poultry, and to evaluate two commonly used microbiological methods, 348 raw poultry samples were collected at retail across Canada over a period of 3 years (2007 to 2010) and were analyzed for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found to be 42.8% by a combination of the two testing methods, with 33.9% of the samples positive for C. jejuni, 3.7% of the samples positive for C. coli, and 5.2% of the samples positive for both. Variability in Campylobacter spp. prevalence was observed in samples obtained from different regions across Canada and from poultry with or without skin, but this was not statistically significant. In co-contaminated samples, C. jejuni was preferentially recovered from Preston agar compared with mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar, with an increase in recovery of C. coli on all selective media after 48 h of enrichment. A subset of 214 of the poultry rinses were analyzed by both Health Canada's standard method, MFLP-46 (enrichment in Park and Sanders broth), and a second method requiring enrichment in Bolton broth. Significantly more positive samples were obtained with the MFLP-46 method (40.6%) than with the alternate method (35.0%). This improved recovery with MFLP-46 may be due to the omission of cycloheximide from this method. These results demonstrate that determination of prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on poultry products may be significantly impacted by the choice of microbiological methods used. Canadian poultry continues to be a source of exposure to Campylobacter spp.

  18. Characterization of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from retail poultry meats from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mueen; Toufeer, Mehdi; Narvaez Bravo, Claudia; Lai, Vita; Rempel, Heidi; Manges, Amee; Diarra, Moussa Sory

    2014-05-02

    Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) have the potential to spread through fecal waste resulting in the contamination of both farm workers and retail poultry meat in the processing plants or environment. The objective of this study was to characterize ExPEC from retail poultry meats purchased from Alberta, Canada and to compare them with 12 human ExPEC representatives from major ExPEC lineages. Fifty-four virulence genes were screened by a set of multiplex PCRs in 700 E. coli from retail poultry meat samples. ExPEC was defined as the detection of at least two of the following virulence genes: papA/papC, sfa, kpsMT II and iutA. Genetic relationships between isolates were determined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-nine (8.4%) of the 700 poultry meat isolates were identified as ExPEC and were equally distributed among the phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. Isolates of phylogenetic group A possessed up to 12 virulence genes compared to 24 and 18 genes in phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. E. coli identified as ExPEC and recovered from poultry harbored as many virulence genes as those of human isolates. In addition to the iutA gene, siderophore-related iroN and fyuA were detected in combination with other virulence genes including those genes encoding for adhesion, protectin and toxin while the fimH, ompT, traT, uidA and vat were commonly detected in poultry ExPEC. The hemF, iss and cvaC genes were found in 40% of poultry ExPEC. All human ExPEC isolates harbored concnf (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 altering cytoskeleton and causing necrosis) and hlyD (hemolysin transport) genes which were not found in poultry ExPEC. PFGE analysis showed that a few poultry ExPEC isolates clustered with human ExPEC isolates at 55-70% similarity level. Comparing ExPEC isolated from retail poultry meats provides insight into their virulence potential and suggests that poultry associated ExPEC may be important for retail meat safety

  19. Salmonella on Raw Poultry in Retail Markets in Guatemala: Levels, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Serovar Distribution.

    PubMed

    Jarquin, Claudia; Alvarez, Danilo; Morales, Oneida; Morales, Ana Judith; López, Beatriz; Donado, Pilar; Valencia, Maria F; Arévalo, Alejandra; Muñoz, Fredy; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella numbers on retail raw chicken carcasses in Guatemala and to phenotypically characterize the isolates (serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility). In total, 300 chicken carcasses were collected from seven departments in Guatemala. Salmonella numbers were determined using the most-probable-number method following the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service protocol. In total, 103 isolates were obtained, all of which were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, whereas 46 isolates were serotyped. Overall, Salmonella prevalence and mean number (mean log most probable number per carcass) was 34.3% and 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 2.5), respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence were found by storage condition (refrigerated or ambient temperature), market type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent poultry stores), chicken production system (integrated or nonintegrated production company), and chicken skin color (white or yellow). Chickens produced by integrated companies had lower Salmonella numbers (P < 0.05) than nonintegrated companies, and white-skin carcasses had lower numbers (P < 0.05) than yellow-skin carcasses. Among 13 different Salmonella serovars identified, Paratyphi B (34.8%) was most prevalent, followed by Heidelberg (16.3%) and Derby (11.6%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 59.2% were resistant to one to three antibiotics and 13.6% to four or more antibiotics. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B and Heidelberg were the most resistant to the antibiotics tested. Salmonella levels and antibiotic resistant profiles among isolates from raw poultry at the retail market level were high relative to other reports from North and South America. These data can be used by Guatemalan stakeholders to develop risk assessment models and support further research opportunities to control transmission of Salmonella spp. and

  20. Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains.

    PubMed

    Leverstein-van Hall, M A; Dierikx, C M; Cohen Stuart, J; Voets, G M; van den Munckhof, M P; van Essen-Zandbergen, A; Platteel, T; Fluit, A C; van de Sande-Bruinsma, N; Scharinga, J; Bonten, M J M; Mevius, D J

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain genotypes in Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and retail chicken meat in the Netherlands was determined and defined as 'poultry-associated' (PA). Subsequently, the proportion of E. coli isolates with PA ESBL genes, plasmids and strains was quantified in a representative sample of clinical isolates. The E. coli were derived from 98 retail chicken meat samples, a prevalence survey among poultry, and 516 human clinical samples from 31 laboratories collected during a 3-month period in 2009. Isolates were analysed using an ESBL-specific microarray, sequencing of ESBL genes, PCR-based replicon typing of plasmids, plasmid multi-locus sequence typing (pMLST) and strain genotyping (MLST). Six ESBL genes were defined as PA (bla(CTX-M-1) , bla(CTX-M-2) , bla(SHV-2) , bla(SHV-12) , bla(TEM-20) , bla(TEM-52) ): 35% of the human isolates contained PA ESBL genes and 19% contained PA ESBL genes located on IncI1 plasmids that were genetically indistinguishable from those obtained from poultry (meat). Of these ESBL genes, 86% were bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(TEM-52) genes, which were also the predominant genes in poultry (78%) and retail chicken meat (75%). Of the retail meat samples, 94% contained ESBL-producing isolates of which 39% belonged to E. coli genotypes also present in human samples. These findings are suggestive for transmission of ESBL genes, plasmids and E. coli isolates from poultry to humans, most likely through the food chain.

  1. Impact of rearing conditions on the microbiological quality of raw retail poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Bridgshe; Crilly, Nate; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Wallis, Audra; Zhang, Nan; Hanning, Irene

    2013-08-01

    There is a gap in knowledge of microbiological quality in raw chicken products produced by nonconventional methods and no studies have reported the microbiological quality of turkeys produced under different rearing environments. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the microbiological quality of conventionally and organically reared whole chicken and turkey carcasses purchased from 3 retail outlets in Knoxville, Tenn., U.S.A. A total of 100 raw broiler chickens organically (n = 50) and 50 raw turkey carcasses consisting of 3 brands reared either conventionally (n = 25) or organically (n = 25) were evaluated. The FDA BAM protocol for rinsing poultry carcasses was used to enumerate of aerobic bacteria, Campylobacter, and Staphylococcus spp., and for qualitative analysis of Salmonella. Organic chickens from one brand had the highest average counts of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. and Campylobacter (4.8, 4.8, and 4.7 Log10 CFU/mL rinsate, respectively) while the other organic brand had the lowest average counts (3.4, 3.3, and 3.1, respectively) of all 4 brands evaluated. The organic turkeys had the highest average counts of these same bacteria (4, 3.9, and 3.8, respectively) compared to the 2 brands of conventional turkeys evaluated. Salmonella (5% prevalence) was isolated only from organic chickens and turkeys. From these data, it appears that the microbiological quality of the raw product was not dependent on rearing conditions and, thus, it cannot be assumed that organic raw poultry is safer than conventionally raised poultry in terms of microbiological quality.

  2. Examination of the Source and Extended Virulence Genotypes of Escherichia coli Contaminating Retail Poultry Meat

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Logue, Catherine M.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Doetkott, Curt; DebRoy, Chitrita; White, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are major players in human urinary tract infections, neonatal bacterial meningitis, and sepsis. Recently, it has been suggested that there might be a zoonotic component to these infections. To determine whether the E. coli contaminating retail poultry are possible extraintestinal pathogens, and to ascertain the source of these contaminants, they were assessed for their genetic similarities to E. coli incriminated in colibacillosis (avian pathogenic E. coli [APEC]), E. coli isolated from multiple locations of apparently healthy birds at slaughter, and human ExPEC. It was anticipated that the retail poultry isolates would most closely resemble avian fecal E. coli since only apparently healthy birds are slaughtered, and fecal contamination of carcasses is the presumed source of meat contamination. Surprisingly, this supposition proved incorrect, as the retail poultry isolates exhibited gene profiles more similar to APEC than to fecal isolates. These isolates contained a number of ExPEC-associated genes, including those associated with ColV virulence plasmids, and many belonged to the B2 phylogenetic group, known to be virulent in human hosts. Additionally, E. coli isolated from the crops and gizzards of apparently healthy birds at slaughter also contained a higher proportion of ExPEC-associated genes than did the avian fecal isolates examined. Such similarities suggest that the widely held beliefs about the sources of poultry contamination may need to be reassessed. Also, the presence of ExPEC-like clones on retail poultry meat means that we cannot yet rule out poultry as a source of ExPEC human disease. PMID:19580453

  3. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  4. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  5. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  6. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  7. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  8. Isolation and characterization of vanA genotype vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus cecorum from retail poultry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuya; Kawahara, Ryuji; Kanki, Masashi; Taguchi, Masumi; Kumeda, Yuko

    2012-02-15

    The isolation rate of high-level vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from poultry samples in Japan has increased in recent years. As this raises concerns for the potential spread of genes encoding vancomycin resistance, poultry is routinely screened for VRE. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a vanA genotype vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus cecorum strain (E. cecorum IPHa84) from retail domestic poultry in September 2009. The species identification was performed by biochemical testing and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase genes. The vancomycin and teicoplanin susceptibility tests showed that E. cecorum IPHa84 was resistant to vancomycin and susceptible to teicoplanin, demonstrating that this isolate was VanB phenotype-vanA genotype VRE. Moreover, a vanA gene cluster was found in a chromosomally encoded Tn1546-related element, which exhibited the characteristic structure of the prototype Tn1546 element, but contained eight point mutations. The vanS sequence of E. cecorum IPHa84 contained three point mutations and was 100% identical to those of VRE isolated from different broiler droppings in Japan prior to the banning of avoparcin, indicating that the Tn1546-related element may be stable in poultry production environments, even in the absence of selective pressure. The isolation of a novel enterococcal species harboring the vanA gene reconfirms that poultry can serve as a reservoir of VanA-type VRE or vancomycin resistance genes, and suggests that the transmission of these risk factors from poultry to humans through the food chain remains a potential threat in Japan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for thermotolerant species of Campylobacter in poultry meat at retail in Europe.

    PubMed

    Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Pasquini, Marina; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-09-01

    The thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis are the causative agents of the human illness called campylobacteriosis. This infection represents a threat for the health of consumers in Europe. It is well known that poultry meat is an important food vehicle of Campylobacter infection. As emerged from the reported scientific literature published between 2006 and 2016, poultry meat sold at retail level in Europe represents an important source of the pathogen. The contamination level of poultry meat sold at retail can vary depending on pre- and post-harvest factors. Among the pre-harvest measures, strict biosecurity practices must be guaranteed; moreover, among post-harvest control measures scalding, chilling and removal of faecal residues can reduce the contamination level of Campylobacter. An additional issue is represented by increasing proportion of Campylobacter isolates resistant to tetracyclines, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, thus feeding a serious concern on the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for human campylobacteriosis in a near future. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain.

  11. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  12. Microbial challenges of poultry meat production.

    PubMed

    Voidarou, C; Vassos, D; Rozos, G; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Tsinas, A; Skoufou, M; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Food safety and shelf-life are both important microbial concerns in relation to broiler meat production. Focus is mainly placed on the absence or control of potentially pathogenic microbes such as Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. but, from the commercial point of view, other spoilage bacteria also play a role as potential threats. Regarding food safety, the primary target should be the production of pathogen-free live animals, thus allowing slaughter plants to keep the processing line free of those microorganisms. Consumers believe that quality of foods from organic production is superior to foods from conventional production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the bacterial quality of chicken meat from organic and conventional production on the basis of traditional meat quality criteria. Fresh free grazing broiler carcasses were purchased directly from rural households (n = 80) and fresh retail chicken parts from conventional broiler carcasses from the local supermarkets in the region of Epirus (Poultry Producers Association. Arta) (n = 200). The samples were microbiologically tested for the presence of bacteria such as: Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., and C. perfringens. Total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was also determined. Bacteriological tests were performed by means of standard methods of isolation and identification of individual species of bacteria according to ISO requirements. API-tests (bioMerieux) and Vitek 2 Identification System (bioMerieux) were used for biochemical determination. High levels of microbial contamination and occurrence of pathogenic bacteria at then fresh free grazing broiler carcasses reflect the poor hygienic quality of the slaughter conditions in the rural households. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from retail fresh meats and poultry.

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, M P; Schoeni, J L

    1987-01-01

    A total of 896 samples of retail fresh meats and poultry was assayed for Escherichia coli serogroup O157:H7 by a hydrophobic grid membrane filter-immunoblot procedure developed specifically to isolate the organism from foods. The procedure involves several steps, including selective enrichment, filtration of enrichment culture through hydrophobic grid membrane filters, incubation of each filter on nitrocellulose paper on selective agar, preparation of an immunoblot (by using antiserum to E. coli O157:H7 culture filtrate) of each nitrocellulose paper, selection from the filters of colonies which corresponded to immunopositive sites on blots, screening of isolates by a Biken test for precipitin lines from metabolites and antiserum to E. coli O157:H7 culture filtrate, and confirmation of isolates as Vero cell cytotoxic E. coli O157:H7 by biochemical, serological, and Vero cell cytotoxicity tests. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 6 (3.7%) of 164 beef, 4 (1.5%) of 264 pork, 4 (1.5%) of 263 poultry, and 4 (2.0%) of 205 lamb samples. One of 14 pork samples and 5 of 17 beef samples contaminated with the organism were from Calgary, Alberta, Canada, grocery stores, whereas all other contaminated samples were from Madison, Wis., retail outlets. This is the first report of the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 from food other than ground beef, and results indicate that the organism is not a rare contaminant of fresh meats and poultry. Images PMID:3322190

  14. Veterinary involvement in poultry production.

    PubMed

    Parker, Daniel

    2016-01-16

    The worldwide poultry sector is expected to grow substantially over the next few decades, as the world looks to feed a rapidly expanding population. In a further article in Veterinary Record's series looking at the state of different sectors of the veterinary profession, Daniel Parker looks at veterinary involvement in the poultry sector. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Co-selection may explain high rates of ciprofloxacin non-susceptible Escherichia coli from retail poultry reared without prior fluoroquinolone exposure.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Paul Robert; Rogers, Benjamin A; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Gibson, Justine S; Inglis, Timothy J J

    2013-11-01

    Australia has never permitted fluoroquinolone use in food-producing animals. We examined local retail poultry for contamination with fluoroquinolone non-susceptible Escherichia coli, then explored the hypothesis that their presence may be due to co-selection of resistance determinants. Between August and November 2010, samples from 30 locally produced, uncooked retail poultry carcasses from four different processing centres underwent selective enrichment culture for ciprofloxacin non-susceptible E. coli. Their chromosomal- and plasmid-mediated resistance determinants were characterized, and phylogenetic analysis and transformation experiments were performed. Unexpectedly, we found nine (30 %) of our small collection of poultry samples carried fluoroquinolone non-susceptible E. coli of which nearly half possessed aac(6')-Ib-cr, a novel plasmid-mediated gene encoding an aminoglycoside acetylating enzyme that also confers fluoroquinolone resistance. All nine isolates were co-resistant to amoxicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--all antibiotic classes that are registered for use in poultry reared for food production within Australia. Their unique phylogenetic relatedness suggested clonal dissemination driven by non-fluoroquinolone selective pressures. aac(6')-Ib-cr was successfully transformed and selected for using non-fluoroquinolone antibiotic pressure. Vertical and perhaps horizontal co-selection may be contributing to the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in poultry and could play a similar role in the human setting. This suggests that preservation of the usefulness of fluoroquinolones may require more than just restriction of their use in isolation from other interventions.

  16. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided for all poultry products intended...

  17. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for all poultry products intended for...

  18. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for all poultry products intended for...

  19. Impact of Heat Stress on Poultry Production.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lucas J; Rostagno, Marcos H

    2013-04-24

    Understanding and controlling environmental conditions is crucial to successful poultry production and welfare. Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effects of heat stress on broilers and laying hens range from reduced growth and egg production to decreased poultry and egg quality and safety. Moreover, the negative impact of heat stress on poultry welfare has recently attracted increasing public awareness and concern. Much information has been published on the effects of heat stress on productivity and immune response in poultry. However, our knowledge of basic mechanisms associated to the reported effects, as well as related to poultry behavior and welfare under heat stress conditions is in fact scarce. Intervention strategies to deal with heat stress conditions have been the focus of many published studies. Nevertheless, effectiveness of most of the interventions has been variable or inconsistent. This review focuses on the scientific evidence available on the importance and impact of heat stress in poultry production, with emphasis on broilers and laying hens.

  20. 9 CFR 94.28 - Restrictions on the importation of poultry meat and products, and live birds and poultry, from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry meat and products, and live birds and poultry, from the APHIS-defined EU Poultry Trade Region. 94... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.28 Restrictions on the importation of poultry meat and products, and live birds... from birds and poultry that were in any of the following regions or zones, unless the birds and poultry...

  1. Molecular characterization of Salmonella paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; Hume, Michael; León, Maribel; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enriqué; Vives Flores, Martha J; Clavijo, Viviana; Holguin, Ángela; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan J; Castellanos, Ricardo; Tafur, McAllister; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are pathogens of public health importance that are frequently isolated from poultry. As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance, this study characterized molecular patterns of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from poultry farms, fecal samples, and retail chicken meat using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship among isolates and to determine potential geographically predominant genotypes. Based on PFGE analysis, both serovars exhibited high heterogeneity: the chromosomal DNA fingerprints of 82 Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ isolates revealed 42 PFGE patterns, whereas the 21 isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg revealed 10 patterns. Similar genotypes of both serovars were demonstrated to be present on farms and in retail outlets. For Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+, closely genetically related strains were found among isolates coming from different farms and different integrated poultry companies within two departments (Santander and Cundinamarca) and also from farms located in the two geographically distant departments. For Salmonella Heidelberg, there were fewer farms with genetically related isolates than for Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+. A possible dissemination of similar genotypes of both serovars along the poultry production chain is hypothesized, and some facilitating factors existing in Colombia are reviewed.

  2. Prevalence, numbers and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. in retail poultry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lay, Kruy Sun; Vuthy, Yith; Song, Ping; Phol, Khem; Sarthou, Jean Louis

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastro-enteritis; and raw poultry is considered to be an important source of these bacteria. To evaluate whether the Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. bacteria could be monitored for the purpose of microbial presence, enumeration and antimicrobial resistance in raw poultry, 152 poultry carcasses were randomly selected from 10 markets in retail outlets of Phnom Penh during March 2006 to February 2007. The majority of poultry samples was contaminated by Salmonella serovars (88.2%) and Campylobacter spp. (80.9%). A very high contamination of Salmonella was found at 3-4 log₁₀ CFU/g for 22.4% of samples and of Campylobacter at 7-8 log₁₀ CFU/g for 1.3% of samples. Fifty nine different Salmonella serovars contaminated 134 poultry carcasses; five most prevalent serovars covered 29.1% of serovars isolates (Anatum, Typhimurium, Corvallis, Stanley and Enteritidis). Three Campylobacter species contaminating 123 raw poultry were Campylobacter jejuni (50.0%), Campylobacter coli (29.0%) and Campylobacter lari (21.0%). High antibiotic resistance percentages were found among Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. isolates. This study revealed that raw poultry at the retail outlets in Phnom Penh markets are contaminated with high prevalences of food-borne pathogens, and communicating the importance of minimizing this risk in reducing human infections.

  3. Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H9N2) viruses in chickens in retail poultry shops, Pakistan, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Mamoona; Angot, Angélique; Rashid, Hamad B; Cattoli, Giovanni; Hussain, Manzoor; Trovò, Giulia; Drago, Alessandra; Valastro, Viviana; Thrusfield, Michael; Welburn, Sue; Eisler, Mark C; Capua, Ilaria

    2015-04-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of influenza viruses collected during December 2009-February 2010 from chickens in live poultry retail shops in Lahore, Pakistan, showed influenza A(H9N2) lineage polymerase and nonstructural genes generate through inter- and intrasubtypic reassortments. Many amino acid signatures observed were characteristic of human isolates; hence, their circulation could enhance inter- or intrasubtypic reassortment.

  4. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  5. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  6. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  7. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  8. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  9. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  10. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  11. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  12. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  13. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  14. Evaluation of drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in retail poultry and beef.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, A; Rotich, E; Nahashon, S N

    2013-04-01

    There has been increasing concern on the emergence of multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens from foods of animal origin, including poultry. The current study aimed to evaluate antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from raw retail chicken/turkey parts (thigh, wings, breast, and ground) and beef meat (ground and chunks) in Middle Tennessee. Resistance of the collected Enterobacteriaceae to a panel of antibiotics was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Retail meats were also assayed for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Two hundred thirty-seven samples representing 95.2% of the total of 249 samples tested were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. The level of contamination with Enterobacteriaceae in raw meats ranged from 3.26 log10 cfu/g to 4.94 log10 cfu/g with significant differences in counts among meat types (P < 0.05). Contamination was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in ground beef, beef chucks, ground chicken, chicken breast, and turkey wings (4.92, 4.58, 4.94, 4.75, 4.13 log10 cfu/g, respectively) than ground turkey and chicken wings (3.26 and 3.26 log10 cfu/g, respectively). Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia spp., E. coli, and Haffnia alvei were most prevalent contaminants at 27.4, 14.3, 12.1, and 11.4%, respectively. Resistance of the Enterobacteriaceae to antimicrobials was most frequent with erythromycin, penicillin, and ampicillin at 100, 89, and 65.8%, respectively. Few (2.7%) of the Enterobacteriaceae were resistant to chloramphenicol. Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, Morganella morganii, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Vibrio parahemolyticus exhibited multiple drug resistance. This investigation demonstrates that raw poultry and beef are potential reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

  15. 78 FR 23902 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... operations of types traditionally and usually conducted at retail stores and restaurants when those operations are conducted at any retail store or restaurant or similar retail-type establishment for sale in...

  16. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  17. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  18. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  19. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  20. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  1. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  2. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  3. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  4. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  5. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  6. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 82165, Dec. 29, 2010. (a) Nutrition...

  7. The effects of retail concentration on retail dairy product prices in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, V; Bozic, M

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between grocery retail concentration and retail dairy product prices in the United States. The analysis was performed based on a unique data set on store-level retail prices provided by the Information Resources Inc. Further, alternative measures of retail concentration were considered, which included revenue and store selling space-based Herfindahl-Hirschman Index that were computed based on a Nielsen TDLinx data set on store characteristics. Results from a reduced-form empirical framework estimated via panel data techniques indicated that grocery retail concentration had a positive statistically significant effect on retail dairy product prices in the analyzed locations during the analyzed period of time. Specifically, a 10% increase in concentration was found to lead to a 0.46% rise in retail dairy product prices. This central result was robust to the way in which retail concentration was measured and was consistent with broader empirical evidence in the literature on retail market power. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets.

  9. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  11. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  12. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  13. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  14. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  15. Current and emerging technologies for rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella in poultry and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Hong; Aydin, Muhsin; Khatiwara, Anita; Dolan, Maureen C; Gilmore, David F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States, and one of the main contributors to salmonellosis is the consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products. Since deleterious effects of Salmonella on public health and the economy continue to occur, there is an ongoing need to develop more advanced detection methods that can identify Salmonella accurately and rapidly in foods before they reach consumers. Rapid detection and identification methods for Salmonella are considered to be an important component of strategies designed to prevent poultry and poultry product-associated illnesses. In the past three decades, there have been increasing efforts towards developing and improving rapid pathogen detection and characterization methodologies for application to poultry and poultry products. In this review, we discuss molecular methods for detection, identification and genetic characterization of Salmonella associated with poultry and poultry products. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the established and emerging rapid detection and characterization methods are addressed for Salmonella in poultry and poultry products. The methods with potential application to the industry are highlighted in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversity of Campylobacter isolates from retail poultry carcasses and from humans as demonstrated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dickins, M Avery; Franklin, Sharon; Stefanova, Rossina; Schutze, Gordon E; Eisenach, Kathleen D; Wesley, Irene; Cave, M Donald

    2002-06-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a major contaminant of poultry. Eating undercooked chicken and handling raw poultry have been identified as risk factors for campylobacteriosis in humans. Previous studies have found Campylobacter spp. on 90% of poultry carcasses. In the present study, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to assess the genetic diversity of strains on retail poultry carcasses. PFGE patterns of isolates from campylobacteriosis cases were compared to those from the poultry isolates. Over a 1-year study period (March 2000 through February 2001), whole fresh young chickens (n = 72) were obtained from three retail outlets in an urban community in the south-central United States. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 82% of these carcasses. Strains (n = 70) were defined on the basis of their PFGE pattern. Sixty-seven percent of the carcasses from which Campylobacter spp. were isolated were contaminated with more than one PFGE-distinguishable strain. During the 1-year study period, most of the PFGE patterns (59%) were limited to isolates obtained from a single carcass. Forty-one percent of the PFGE-distinguishable strains were recovered from more than one carcass. Ninety-seven percent of the carcasses contaminated with the same strain were purchased at the same time from the same store. To examine the degree of genetic stability, four strains were followed in vitro over an estimated 1,000 doublings. The PFGE pattern of one of these isolates underwent minor changes during in vitro growth. The data indicate extensive variability in the PFGE patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from humans and from poultry carcasses. In spite of difficulties caused by such diversity and the fact that some carcasses are contaminated with more than one strain, the pattern variation provides a useful method for linking a particular strain to its source.

  17. Poultry production's environmental impact on water quality.

    PubMed

    Pope, C W

    1991-05-01

    Poultry meat and eggs are rapidly becoming the major source of animal protein in the diets of American consumers. Such expansion has resulted in a similar increase in waste management problems. The national production of broilers and mature chickens was 5.68 billion, 242 million turkeys, 31 million ducks, and 69 trillion table eggs in 1989 based on the USDA National Statistics Survey. Annual production of fecal waste from poultry flocks was 8.8 million tons on a dry weight basis plus more than 106,000 metric tons of broiler hatchery waste. Add to this 37 million dead birds and condemnations at processing plants (figures are also from USDA for 1989 based on USDA National Statistics Survey). When all this waste is added together, the task of keeping the environment clean becomes monumental. The following waste management practices can and must take care of these poultry industry waste products: sanitary land fills, rendering facilities, extrusion machinery, compost plants, lagoons or holding tanks, and land application techniques.

  18. Record of Some Chemical Residues in Poultry Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadelman, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    How pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals might get into poultry meat or eggs is reviewed. Several case studies where chemicals were found in poultry products are discussed. It can be concluded that the poultry industry is striving and generally succeeding in producing safe and nutritious meat and eggs. (Author/EB)

  19. Record of Some Chemical Residues in Poultry Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadelman, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    How pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals might get into poultry meat or eggs is reviewed. Several case studies where chemicals were found in poultry products are discussed. It can be concluded that the poultry industry is striving and generally succeeding in producing safe and nutritious meat and eggs. (Author/EB)

  20. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... requirements. 9 CFR Part 94 Animal diseases, Imports, Livestock, Meat and meat products, Milk, Poultry and... 1:10 dilution of a bacteria-free, infectious allantoic fluid; (2) Any H5 or H7 virus that does...

  1. Detection of Bacillus cereus on selected retail chicken products.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P; Berrang, M E; Feldner, P W; Phillips, R W; Meinersmann, R J

    2004-08-01

    Samples from five chicken meat products, obtained at retail stores, were evaluated for the presence of Bacillus cereus. The products tested were as follows: breaded, fully cooked, frozen nuggets (NUGGETS); breaded, fully cooked, frozen tenders (TENDERS); fully cooked, frozen, white-meat fajita-style strips (STRIPS); raw, refrigerated, boneless, skinless, marinated breast fillets (FILLETS); and raw, refrigerated, cut-up, tray-pack bone-in parts (PARTS), either split breasts or thighs. Four packages of each item were obtained on three different days (n = 60). Frozen and refrigerated products were held overnight in their respective environments as appropriate; then packages were opened aseptically, and a total of 25 g of tissue was excised from multiple pieces within a package. The 25-g samples were enriched in 225 ml of Trypticase soy-polymixin broth for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C and then plated on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar and incubated for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C. Colonies characteristic of B. cereus were chosen and replated for isolation on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar. Suspect colonies were confirmed as Bacillus spp. by Gram stain, hemolysis on blood agar, and a biochemical test strip. Isolates were further confirmed as B. cereus using Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures, including tests for motility, rhizoid growth, hemolysis, and protein toxin crystal production. B. cereus was detected in 27 of 60 total samples. By product, the prevalence levels were as follows: NUGGETS, 11 of 12 positive; TENDERS, 8 of 12 positive; STRIPS, 6 of 12 positive; FILLETS, 0 of 12 positive; and PARTS, 2 of 12 positive. Isolates were tested by PCR for presence of the toxin-encoding genes bceT, nheABC, hblACD, and cytK. Results indicate that B. cereus organisms were present on four of the five retail poultry products tested in this study, with the highest rates reported for the three fully cooked items, especially the two breaded products. All strains isolated

  2. [Molecular typing of Salmonella isolates from poultry production chains in four cities of Heilongjiang province].

    PubMed

    Yu, X J; Liang, X; Bai, L; Li, W W; Yan, J; Wang, K L; Li, X

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To study the PFGE type of Salmonella (S.) strains isolated from poultry production chains (hatching, breeding, slaughter, distribution and retail) of four cities in Heilongjiang province. Methods: DNA collected from S. strains in 2012 was digested by XbaⅠ according to the standard PFGE protocol of US CDC. The PFGE patterns were then analyzed by BioNumerics software. Results: The contamination of S. appeared most serious during the process of slaughtering (13.84%). PFGE was used to determine the genetic relationships between these isolates from poultry production chains, 89 pulsotypes from 150 S. enteritidis isolates and 55 pulsotypes from 65 S. indiana isolates showed considerable diversity. The same pulsotypes of S. enteritidis can be found between different food chains and cities. In contrast, no identical pulsotypes of S. indiana were found between different food chain and cities. In these four cities, the above said two kinds of S. were from different sources. The source of S. contamination in HLJ2 city had been traced back to the chain of poultry hatching. Conclusions: The distribution of pulsetypes of the S. enteritidis and S. indiana isolates was from different regions and the dominant bands were also different between the chains of poultry production. Cross contamination existed in slaughterhouses and contamination can be traced back to the poultry hatching.

  3. 77 FR 24456 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... and restaurants (21 U.S.C. 661(c)(2) and 454(c)(2)). FSIS's regulations (9 CFR 303.1(d) and 381.10(d... processing of meat, meat food, poultry, and poultry products. Sales to Hotels, Restaurants, and Similar...

  4. Toward retail product recognition on grocery shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varol, Gül; Kuzu, Rıdvan S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of retail product recognition on grocery shelf images. We present a technique for accomplishing this task with a low time complexity. We decompose the problem into detection and recognition. The former is achieved by a generic product detection module which is trained on a specific class of products (e.g. tobacco packages). Cascade object detection framework of Viola and Jones [1] is used for this purpose. We further make use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to recognize the brand inside each detected region. We extract both shape and color information; and apply feature-level fusion from two separate descriptors computed with the bag of words approach. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset (available on request) that we have collected for similar research purposes. Results are presented on this dataset of more than 5,000 images consisting of 10 tobacco brands. We show that satisfactory detection and classification can be achieved on devices with cheap computational power. Potential applications of the proposed approach include planogram compliance control, inventory management and assisting visually impaired people during shopping.

  5. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition... was delayed until Mar. 1, 2012, at 76 FR 76890, Dec. 9, 2011. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided...

  6. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  8. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  9. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  10. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY...

  11. Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is increasing among clinical Campylobacter cases and is common among isolates from other sources, specifically retail poultry - a major source of human infection. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from a UK-wide survey of Campylobacter in retail poultry in 2001 and 2004–5 was investigated. The occurrence of phenotypes resistant to tetracycline, quinolones (ciprofloxacin and naladixic acid), erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides was quantified. This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition. Results Antimicrobial resistance was present in all lineage clusters, but statistical testing showed a non-random distribution. Erythromycin resistance was associated with Campylobacter coli. For all antimicrobials tested, resistant isolates were distributed among relatively distant lineages indicative of widespread acquisition. There was also evidence of clustering of resistance phenotypes within lineages; indicative of local expansion of resistant strains. Conclusions These results are consistent with the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among chicken associated Campylobacter isolates, either through mutation or horizontal gene transfer, and the expansion of these lineages as a proportion of the population. As Campylobacter are not known to multiply outside of the host and long-term carriage in humans is extremely infrequent in industrialized countries, the most likely location for the proliferation of resistant lineages is in farmed chickens. PMID:23855904

  12. Analysis of process water use in poultry meat production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry processing facilities use large quantities of water for chiller unit operations. The chiller is critical for temperature reduction to inhibit microbial growth and preserve product quality and safety. Process water quality can also influence product safety when bacteria present on poultry sk...

  13. Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Leslie, Natalie; Gaskill, LuAnn R.

    2006-01-01

    While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process…

  14. Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Leslie, Natalie; Gaskill, LuAnn R.

    2006-01-01

    While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process…

  15. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Bioflims in the poultry production and processing environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chapter conveys the importance of biofilm study in the environment of the poultry production and processing industires. Implications for food safety and security are established for sites of occurrences and causes of biofilm formation in poultry environments. Regulations and testing methods th...

  17. Salmonella prevalence in poultry varies greatly in emerging markets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry meat continues to be a significant source for human salmonellosis worldwide. Retail establishments serve as an end point sale for raw and processed poultry products. Food safety surveillance systems for raw poultry have been carried out mainly at the processing plants. That being said, it is...

  18. Metabolic heat production and evaporation of poultry.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Sheila T; Maia, Alex S C; Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Nascimento, Carolina C N

    2017-05-03

    Accurate measurements of gas exchange between an animal and its environment is critical in determining metabolic heat production and respiratory functions of broilers. Information on non-invasive methods to measure gas exchange of broiler chicks and chickens under uncontrolled environmental conditions is lacking in the literature. The aims of this study were: (1) to develop an indirect calorimetric system including a hood that allows gas exchange for chickens, (2) to measure gas exchange and respiratory functions (respiration rate, ventilation rate, and tidal volume) of broiler chickens weighing greater than 250 g, and (3) to calculate heat production and respiratory evaporation of the birds based on measured gas and vapor exchanges. We conducted two trials. The first trial involved 6 broiler chicks evaluated for 6 days in 6 different schedules (6 × 6 Latin square). The chicks were kept inside a heat exchanger with a continuous air flow of 150 mL min-1. The second trial involved 12 birds evaluated for 12 days in 12 different schedules (12 × 12 Latin square). Metabolic heat production and evaporation were influenced by live weight of chicks, varying between evaluation days (P < 0.05). The respiratory functions (tidal volume, ventilation rate, and respiratory rate) varied between days, and were strongly influenced by live weight of the broilers (P < 0.05). © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Trends in microbial control techniques for poultry products.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filomena; Domingues, Fernanda C; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-07-20

    Fresh poultry meat and poultry products are highly perishable foods and high potential sources of human infection due to the presence of several foodborne pathogens. Focusing on the microbial control of poultry products, the food industry generally implements numerous preventive measures based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) food safety management system certification together with technological steps, such as refrigeration coupled to modified atmosphere packaging that are able to control identified potential microbial hazards during food processing. However, in recent years, to meet the demand of consumers for minimally processed, high-quality, and additive-free foods, technologies are emerging associated with nonthermal microbial inactivation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, irradiation, and natural alternatives, such as biopreservation or the incorporation of natural preservatives in packaging materials. These technologies are discussed throughout this article, emphasizing their pros and cons regarding the control of poultry microbiota and their effects on poultry sensory properties. The discussion for each of the preservation techniques mentioned will be provided with as much detail as the data and studies provided in the literature for poultry meat and products allow. These new approaches, on their own, have proved to be effective against a wide range of microorganisms in poultry meat. However, since some of these emergent technologies still do not have full consumer's acceptability and, taking into consideration the hurdle technology concept for poultry processing, it is suggested that they will be used as combined treatments or, more frequently, in combination with modified atmosphere packaging.

  20. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or frozen...

  1. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry products required to be labeled. 381.115 Section 381.115 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.115 Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to...

  2. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products required to be labeled. 381.115 Section 381.115 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.115 Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to...

  3. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry products required to be labeled. 381.115 Section 381.115 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.115 Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to...

  4. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry products required to be labeled. 381.115 Section 381.115 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.115 Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to...

  5. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry products required to be labeled. 381.115 Section 381.115 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.115 Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to...

  6. Impact of avian influenza on village poultry production globally.

    PubMed

    Alders, Robyn; Awuni, Joseph Adongo; Bagnol, Brigitte; Farrell, Penny; de Haan, Nicolene

    2014-01-01

    Village poultry and their owners were frequently implicated in disease transmission in the early days of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 pandemic. With improved understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, it was recognized that village poultry raised under extensive conditions pose less of a threat than intensively raised poultry of homogeneous genetic stock with poor biosecurity. This paper provides an overview of village poultry production and the multiple ways that the HPAI H5N1 pandemic has impacted on village poultry, their owners, and the traders whose livelihoods are intimately linked to these birds. It reviews impact in terms of gender and cultural issues; food security; village poultry value chains; approaches to biosecurity; marketing; poultry disease prevention and control; compensation; genetic diversity; poultry as part of livelihood strategies; and effective communication. It concludes on a positive note that there is growing awareness amongst animal health providers of the importance of facilitating culturally sensitive dialogue to develop HPAI prevention and control options.

  7. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  8. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  9. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  10. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  11. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  12. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  13. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V

    2015-09-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiological analysis to establish the incidence of NTS in poultry to evaluate the risk to human health. A total of 1215 samples (including poultry meat, tissues, egg and environmental samples) were collected from 154 commercial layer farms from southern India and screened for NTS. Following identification by cultural and biochemical methods, Salmonella isolates were further characterized by multiplex PCR, allele-specific PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study, 21/1215 (1.73 %) samples tested positive for NTS. We found 12/392 (3.06 %) of tissue samples, 7/460 (1.52 %) of poultry products, and 2/363 (0.55 %) of environmental samples tested positive for NTS. All the Salmonella isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline, which is routinely used as poultry feed additive. The multiplex PCR results allowed 16/21 isolates to be classified as S. Typhimurium, and five isolates as S. Enteritidis. Of the five S. Enteritidis isolates, four were identified as group D Salmonella by allele-specific PCR. All of the isolates produced different banding patterns in ERIC PCR. Of the thirteen macro restriction profiles (MRPs) obtained by PFGE, MRP 6 was predominant which included 6 (21 %) isolates. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed higher incidence of contamination of NTS Salmonella in poultry tissue and animal protein sources used for poultry. The results of the study warrants further investigation

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  16. Symposium: experimental design for poultry production and genomics research.

    PubMed

    Pesti, Gene M; Aggrey, Samuel E; Fancher, Bryan I

    2013-09-01

    This symposium dealt with the theoretical and practical aspects of choosing and evaluating experimental designs, and how experimental results may be related to poultry production through modeling. Additionally, recent advances in techniques for generating high-throughput genomic sequencing data, genomic breeding values, genomics selection, and genome-wide association studies have provided unique computational challenges to the poultry industry. Such challenges were presented and discussed.

  17. The Persistence of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter in Poultry Production

    PubMed Central

    Price, Lance B.; Lackey, Leila G.; Vailes, Rocio; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of antibiotics in food animal production has been associated with antibiotic-resistant infections in humans. In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned fluoroquinolone use in U.S. poultry production in order to reduce the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter. Little is known about the potential efficacy of this policy. Objectives Our primary objective was to follow temporal changes in the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter among poultry products from two conventional producers who announced their cessation of fluoroquinolone use in 2002 (3 years before the FDA’s ban). Our secondary objective was to compare, over time, the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter in conventional poultry products to those from producers who claim to use no antibiotics. Methods We collected poultry samples from two conventional producers and three antibiotic-free producers over the course of 20 weeks in 2004 (n = 198) and 15 weeks in 2006 (n = 210). We compared the rates of fluoroquinolone resistance among Campylobacter isolates from the different producers. Results We found no significant change in the proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter isolates from the two conventional producers over the study period. In addition, Campylobacter strains from the two conventional producers were significantly more likely to be fluoroquinolone resistant than those from the antibiotic-free producers. Conclusions The results from this study indicate that fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter may be persistent contaminants of poultry products even after on-farm fluoroquinolone use has ceased. The FDA’s ban on fluoroquinolones in poultry production may be insufficient to reduce resistant Campylobacter in poultry products. PMID:17637919

  18. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for entry...

  19. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for entry...

  20. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for entry...

  1. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for entry...

  2. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for entry...

  3. Risk factors and spatial distribution of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing- Escherichia coli at retail poultry meat markets in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, A B; Saleha, A A; Jalila, A; Zunita, Z

    2016-08-02

    The significant role of retail poultry meat as an important exposure pathway for the acquisition and transmission of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) into the human population warrants understanding concerning those operational practices associated with dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retailing. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, spatial distribution and potential risk factors associated with the dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retail at wet-markets in Selangor, Malaysia. Poultry meat (breast, wing, thigh, and keel) as well as the contact surfaces of weighing scales and cutting boards were sampled to detect ESBL-EC by using culture and disk combination methods and polymerase chain reaction assays. Besides, questionnaire was used to obtain data and information pertaining to those operational practices that may possibly explain the occurrence of ESBL-EC. The data were analysed using logistic regression analysis at 95 % CI. The overall prevalence of ESBL-EC was 48.8 % (95 % CI, 42 - 55 %). Among the risk factors that were explored, type of countertop, sanitation of the stall environment, source of cleaning water, and type of cutting board were found to be significantly associated with the presence of ESBL-EC. Thus, in order to prevent or reduce the presence of ESBL-EC and other contaminants at the retail-outlet, there is a need to design a process control system based on the current prevailing practices in order to reduce cross contamination, as well as to improve food safety and consumer health.

  4. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production.

    PubMed

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply

  5. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Retail Poultry Meat in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ichiro; Ishihara, Tomoe; Teranishi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shioko; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Wada, Eriko; Kumagai, Yuko; Takahashi, Shiho; Konno, Takayuki; Kashio, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Kato, Naoki; Hayashi, Ken-Ichi; Fukushima, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Horikawa, Kazumi; Oishi, Akira; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Konishi, Yoshiko; Kuroki, Toshiro

    2017-05-24

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat, and to analyze the association of genetic types of these bacteria with their geographical distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles. Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates have been detected, respectively, in 54 and 71 samples out of 100 samples tested. Nine Salmonella serotypes were found, including S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (33%), Schwarzengrund (12%), Manhattan (9%), and others. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were detected in 64 (64%) and 14 (14%) samples, respectively. S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates were very frequently resistant to tetracycline (78.3%) and streptomycin (68.3%). Many C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (90.5%), nalidixic acid (47.3%), ampicillin (45.9%), and ciprofloxacin (40.5%). Cluster analysis was performed for the Salmonella isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) data. For Campylobacter isolates, the cluster analysis was based on both PFGE and comparative genomic fingerprinting. The molecular typing results were compared with the information about antimicrobial resistance and geographical locations in which the poultry meat was produced. This analysis revealed that C. jejuni strains with a particular genotype and antimicrobial resistance profile are spreading in specific areas of Japan.

  6. Isolation, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) Strains from Oklahoma Retail Poultry Meats.

    PubMed

    Abdalrahman, Lubna S; Stanley, Adriana; Wells, Harrington; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2015-05-29

    Staphylococcus aureus is one the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness in the U.S. Only a few studies are available related to the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the U.S. retail poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) in retail chicken and turkey meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their antimicrobial resistance and possession of toxin genes. A total of 167 (114 chicken and 53 turkey) retail poultry samples were used in this study. The chicken samples included 61 organic samples while the rest of the poultry samples were conventional. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 57/106 (53.8%) in the conventional poultry samples and 25/61 (41%) in the organic ones. Prevalence in the turkey samples (64.2%) was higher than in the chicken ones (42.1%). Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4%) and organic chicken samples (41%). Two chicken samples 2/114 (1.8%) were positive for MRSA. PFGE identified the two MRSA isolates as belonging to PFGE type USA300 (from conventional chicken) and USA 500 (from organic chicken) which are community acquired CA-MRSA suggesting a human based source of contamination. MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion. A total of 168 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (101 chicken isolates and 67 turkey isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates. The hemolysin hla and hld genes, enterotoxins seg and sei, and leucocidins lukE-lukD were more prevalent in the chicken isolates. The PVL gene lukS-lukF was detected only in chicken isolates including the MRSA ones. In conclusion, S. aureus is

  7. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella species in retail meat products.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Seza; Eyi, Ayla

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, a total of 225 retail meat products (poultry meat, ground beef, and beef samples) were tested for the prevalence of Salmonella. Of these, 50 (22.2%) were positive for Salmonella. Overall, the pathogen was detected in 22 (29.3%) samples of poultry meat (n = 75), 16 (21.3%) samples of ground beef (n = 75), and 12 (16%) samples of beef (n = 75). The most common isolate was Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (9.8%), followed by S. bongori species (8.9%) and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (3.5%). The Salmonella strains isolated were also examined for antimicrobial resistance patterns and production of β-lactamase enzyme. The resistance levels of the isolates against 14 different antimicrobial agents were tested by the disk diffusion method. None of the strains exhibited resistance to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, or levofloxacin. However, the highest resistance rates in the meat isolates were 64% each for ampicillin and cephazolin and 56% for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. A total of 62% of the 50 Salmonella strains were multiresistant to three or more antimicrobial agents. The exhibited multiple resistance to four or more antimicrobial drugs was 32%. Furthermore, none of the isolates had β-lactamase enzyme activity.

  8. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  9. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  10. 9 CFR 381.408 - Labeling of poultry products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of poultry products with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  11. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and...

  12. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  13. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and...

  14. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and...

  15. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  16. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.444 Section 381.444 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling...

  17. 9 CFR 381.187 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of poultry products. 381.187 Section 381.187 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  18. 9 CFR 381.408 - Labeling of poultry products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of poultry products with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  19. 9 CFR 381.187 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of poultry products. 381.187 Section 381.187 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  20. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  1. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.444 Section 381.444 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling...

  2. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  3. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  4. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  5. 9 CFR 381.408 - Labeling of poultry products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of poultry products with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  6. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.444 Section 381.444 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling...

  7. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  8. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  9. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  10. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  11. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.444 Section 381.444 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling...

  12. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  13. 9 CFR 381.408 - Labeling of poultry products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of poultry products with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  14. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  15. 9 CFR 381.408 - Labeling of poultry products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of poultry products with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  16. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and...

  17. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  18. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.444 Section 381.444 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling...

  19. 9 CFR 381.187 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of poultry products. 381.187 Section 381.187 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  20. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... Imported Poultry Products § 381.206 Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry. Shipping containers of imported poultry products are required to bear in a prominent and legible manner the...

  1. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... Imported Poultry Products § 381.206 Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry. Shipping containers of imported poultry products are required to bear in a prominent and legible manner the...

  2. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... Imported Poultry Products § 381.206 Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry. Shipping containers of imported poultry products are required to bear in a prominent and legible manner the...

  3. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... Imported Poultry Products § 381.206 Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry. Shipping containers of imported poultry products are required to bear in a prominent and legible manner the...

  4. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... Imported Poultry Products § 381.206 Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry. Shipping containers of imported poultry products are required to bear in a prominent and legible manner the...

  5. 77 FR 42016 - Product Change-Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Change--Every Door Direct Mail--Retail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal... Door Direct Mail--Retail to the market-dominant product list within the Mail Classification Schedule... Direct Mail--Retail to the Mail Classification Schedule, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642. Documents are...

  6. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  7. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  8. A new insight into cold stress in poultry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since growing animals are vulnerable to extreme temperature, climate changes become an important critical constraint to several species in the world. In poultry production, while heat stress has been a rising concern for producers and scientists, cold stress has also caused economic loss worldwide. ...

  9. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... small State-inspected establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in interstate..., ``Cooperative Inspection Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The final...

  10. Probiotics as Natural Solutions to Enteric Pathogens with Organic Production Implications in Poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic poultry production has unique challenges; the lack of consistently effective treatments for enteric diseases can adversely influence bird health and the wholesomeness of poultry products. Drugs are not permitted in organic poultry production and mortality is often higher than conventional p...

  11. Dietary plant bioactives for poultry health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R J; Oleszek, W; Franz, C; Hahn, I; Baser, K H C; Mathe, A; Teichmann, K

    2010-08-01

    1. Plants and their biologically active chemical constituents, sometimes called secondary metabolites or bioactives, present numerous opportunities for the improvement of livestock production by inclusion in the diet. 2. Many such plant derived materials have well established therapeutic values in man; however, their potential as feed additives in animal production, particularly of poultry, remains largely unexploited. 3. There is increasing evidence indicating that they can be efficient in controlling diseases, and plant bioactives may also influence production parameters such as feed efficiency and product quality. 4. It has been reported that they may even replicate some of the effects of antibiotic growth promoters, which were banned from use in Europe from 2006. 5. This review assesses the status of plant bioactives in poultry production and their mode of action on avian physiology, particularly in the digestive tract.

  12. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

  13. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  14. Safe application of regionalization for trade in poultry and poultry products during highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in the USA.

    PubMed

    Swayne, David E; Hill, Rick E; Clifford, John

    2017-04-01

    The 2014-2015 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 50.4 million poultry in the stamping-out programme that cost the US government $850 million. The outbreak had a negative $3.3 billion impact on the economy. Seventeen trading partners suspended imports of all US-origin poultry and poultry products while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States, and allowed trade in poultry and poultry products to continue from areas of the US not affected by HPAI. Disease response and control activities in addition to the use of comprehensive surveillance and regionalization (zoning) as prescribed by the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code are a scientifically valid and effective means to maintain safe trade in poultry and poultry products. This was further realized during the 2016 H7N8 HPAI outbreak in Dubois County, Indiana, with greater acceptance of regionalization and continuity in trade with a more limited cost of $30 million for eradication.

  15. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.208...

  16. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.208...

  17. 9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... importation of poultry products into the United States. 381.196 Section 381.196 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.196 Eligibility of foreign countries for importation...

  18. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  19. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  20. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.208...

  1. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  2. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.208...

  3. 9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... importation of poultry products into the United States. 381.196 Section 381.196 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.196 Eligibility of foreign countries for importation...

  4. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  5. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.208...

  6. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  7. An ecohealth assessment of poultry production clusters (PPCs) for the livelihood and biosecurity improvement of small poultry producers in Asia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libin; Basuno, Edi; Nguyen, Tuan; Aengwanich, Worapol; Ilham, Nyak; Li, Xiaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Poultry production cluster (PPC) programs are key strategies in many Asian countries to engage small commercial poultry producers in high-value production chains and to control infectious poultry diseases. This study assessed the multiple impacts of PPCs through a transdisciplinary ecohealth approach in four Asian countries, and drew the implications for small producers to improve their livelihoods and reduce the risk of spreading infectious diseases in the poultry sector. The data collection combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. It comprised: formal structured household survey questionnaires, measuring the biosecurity level of poultry farms with a biosecurity score card; and key informant interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to process the quantitative data and a content analysis was used to process the qualitative data. This research found that poultry farms in clusters do not necessarily have better economic performance than those outside PPCs. Many farmers in PPCs only consider them to be an advantage for expanding the scale of their poultry operations and improving household incomes, and they are less concerned about-and have limited capacities to-enhancing biosecurity and environmental management. We measured the biosecurity level of farms in PPCs through a 14-item checklist and found that biosecurity is generally very low across all sample sites. The increased flies, mosquitoes, rats, and smells in and around PPCs not only pollute the environment, but also cause social conflicts with the surrounding communities. This research concluded that a poultry cluster, mainly driven by economic objectives, is not necessarily a superior model for the control of infectious diseases. The level of biosecurity in PPCs was found to be low. Given the intensity of poultry operations in PPCs (farms are densely packed into clusters), and the close proximity to residential areas of some PPCs, the risk of spreading infectious diseases, in fact, increases

  8. Securing poultry production from the ever-present Eimeria challenge.

    PubMed

    Blake, Damer P; Tomley, Fiona M

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal disease coccidiosis, caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria, is one of the most important livestock diseases in the world. It has a high impact in the poultry industry where parasite transmission is favoured by high-density housing of large numbers of susceptible birds. Coccidiosis control in poultry is achieved by careful husbandry combined with in-feed anticoccidial drugs or vaccination with live parasites. However, outbreaks of coccidiosis still occur and subclinical infections, which significantly impact on productivity and food security, are common due to widespread drug resistance, high parasite prevalence, and environmental persistence. Herein, we review some recent approaches for the production of cheaper third generation vaccines, based on robust methods for identification of immunoprotective antigens and the use of transgenic Eimeria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins in poultry and swine production.

    PubMed

    Ben Lagha, Amel; Haas, Bruno; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2017-04-11

    The routine use of antibiotics in agriculture has contributed to an increase in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens in animals that can potentially be transmitted to humans. In 2000, the World Health Organization identified resistance to antibiotics as one of the most significant global threats to public health and recommended that the use of antibiotics as additives in animal feed be phased out or terminated, particularly those used to treat human infections. Research is currently being carried out to identify alternative antimicrobial compounds for use in animal production. A number of studies, mostly in vitro, have provided evidence indicating that bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin, may be promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in poultry and swine production. This review provides an update on bacteriocins and their potential for use in the poultry and swine industries.

  10. Speciation of volatile organic compounds from poultry production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei; Hatfield, Jerry

    2010-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from poultry production are leading source of air quality problems. However, little is known about the speciation and levels of VOCs from poultry production. The objective of this study was the speciation of VOCs from a poultry facility using evacuated canisters and sorbent tubes. Samples were taken during active poultry production cycle and between production cycles. Levels of VOCs were highest in areas with birds and the compounds in those areas had a higher percentage of polar compounds (89%) compared to aliphatic hydrocarbons (2.2%). In areas without birds, levels of VOCs were 1/3 those with birds present and compounds had a higher total percentage of aliphatic hydrocarbons (25%). Of the VOCs quantified in this study, no single sampling method was capable of quantifying more than 55% of compounds and in several sections of the building each sampling method quantified less than 50% of the quantifiable VOCs. Key classes of chemicals quantified using evacuated canisters included both alcohols and ketones, while sorbent tube samples included volatile fatty acids and ketones. The top five compounds made up close to 70% of VOCs and included: 1) acetic acid (830.1 μg m -3); 2) 2,3-butanedione (680.6 μg m -3); 3) methanol (195.8 μg m -3); 4) acetone (104.6 μg m -3); and 5) ethanol (101.9 μg m -3). Location variations for top five compounds averaged 49.5% in each section of the building and averaged 87% for the entire building.

  11. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  12. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.201...

  13. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  14. 9 CFR 381.107 - Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of poultry products for export to certain countries. 381.107 Section 381.107 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Procedures § 381.107 Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain...

  15. 9 CFR 381.107 - Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of poultry products for export to certain countries. 381.107 Section 381.107 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Procedures § 381.107 Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain...

  16. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  17. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  18. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.201...

  19. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  20. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  1. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.201...

  2. 9 CFR 381.107 - Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of poultry products for export to certain countries. 381.107 Section 381.107 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Procedures § 381.107 Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain...

  3. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.201...

  4. 9 CFR 381.107 - Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of poultry products for export to certain countries. 381.107 Section 381.107 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Procedures § 381.107 Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain...

  5. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  6. 9 CFR 381.107 - Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of poultry products for export to certain countries. 381.107 Section 381.107 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Procedures § 381.107 Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain...

  7. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  8. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.201...

  9. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  10. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry...

  11. Sensory impact of chemical and natural antimicrobials on poultry products: a review.

    PubMed

    Samant, Shilpa S; Crandall, Philip G; O'Bryan, Corliss; Lingbeck, Jody M; Martin, Elizabeth M; Seo, Han-Seok

    2015-07-01

    Antimicrobial agents are added to poultry products after slaughter to prevent the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and to extend the shelf-life of these products. Antimicrobials can be either natural or chemical, which may affect the sensory attributes at elevated concentrations, such as surface color, odor, flavor, taste, and texture of the poultry products. Thus, when selecting antimicrobials for use in poultry processing, it is vital to consider the antimicrobial-induced changes in sensory aspects from the consumers' perspectives. In spite of its importance, there has been no systematic review on the influences of antimicrobials on sensory aspects of poultry products. This paper reviews the major antimicrobial agents used in the poultry processing industry and their effects on sensory aspects of the poultry products. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Biogas from poultry waste-production and energy potential.

    PubMed

    Dornelas, Karoline Carvalho; Schneider, Roselene Maria; do Amaral, Adriana Garcia

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m(-2) were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days. The efficiency of the biodigestion process was evaluated by biogas production in relation to total solids (TS) added, as well as the potential for power generation. Quantified volumes ranged from 8.9 to 41.1 L of biogas for aviary 1, and 6.7 to 33.9 L of biogas for aviary 2, with the sixth bed reused from both aviaries registering the largest biogas potential. Average potential biogas in m(3) kg(-1) of TS added were 0.022 to 0.034 for aviary 1 and 0.015 to 0.022 for aviary 2. Energy values ​​of biogas produced were calculated based on calorific value and ranged from 0.06 to 0.33 kWh for chicken litter without fermentation and from 0.05 to 0.27 kWh for chicken litter with fermentation. It was concluded that the re-use of poultry litter resulted in an increase in biogas production, and the use of fermentation in the microbiological treatment of poultry litter seems to have negatively influenced production of biogas.

  13. Applications and consequences of bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  14. A survey of village poultry production in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Jansen, T; Glatz, P C; Miao, Z H

    2009-10-01

    A total of 84 farmers in 31 villages of Guadalcanal, Western, Malaita and Central Provinces of the Solomon Islands were surveyed to obtain baseline information on the current feeding practices and farmer attitudes to village poultry production. Farming of village chickens in the Solomon Islands is conducted on a small scale. Most surveyed farmers thought chickens were easy to care for, provide food for the family and was a good cash income enterprise. Some farmers were interested in keeping local chickens, but found it difficult to obtain the birds. The main feed sources are fresh coconut, copra meal, fish meal, mill run, food scraps and forage sources from the range. Some villagers believe that chickens only need to eat household scraps and did not provide drinking water. Many villagers lacked the knowledge of managing a village poultry enterprise. Some chicken houses were built by using bush materials or by purchasing construction materials. Farmers indicated they would like the government to provide funds for establishing a smallholder poultry enterprise and to provide information on feeding and management of birds.

  15. 9 CFR 381.401 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. 381.401 Section 381.401 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.401 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. Nutrition...

  16. 9 CFR 381.401 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. 381.401 Section 381.401 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.401 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. Nutrition...

  17. 9 CFR 381.401 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. 381.401 Section 381.401 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.401 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. Nutrition...

  18. 9 CFR 381.401 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. 381.401 Section 381.401 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.401 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. Nutrition...

  19. The value of anticoccidials for sustainable global poultry production.

    PubMed

    Kadykalo, Stefanie; Roberts, Tara; Thompson, Michelle; Wilson, Jeff; Lang, Marcelo; Espeisse, Olivier

    2017-09-18

    Coccidiosis is a self-limiting disease that is universally present in poultry operations, causing extensive damage to the intestinal lining of the bird. Global economic losses from coccidiosis are estimated to be $3 billion per year. In-feed anticoccidial use has been the predominant form of coccidiosis control. However, due to widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of anticoccidials and potential impact on human, animal, and environmental health. To investigate the alternatives, risks, and benefits to anticoccidial use, a comprehensive review of recent literature was conducted. A number of live vaccines are available, which when used in combination with anticoccidials have been shown to help restore sensitivity of infective parasites, however, their use has been limited due to increased cost; increased susceptibility to bacterial enteritis; challenges with consistent application; and slow immunity development. Various alternative feed products are available, but do not have a direct anticoccidial effect and few studies have demonstrated consistent field efficacy of these products. Consumer and environmental safety of anticoccidials is monitored and assessed by governing bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of current evidence to suggest that bacterial resistance poses a public health concern. The findings from this review indicate that in the absence of alternatives, poultry production is optimized by using anticoccidials, benefiting all three pillars of sustainability including social (bird health, welfare, and food safety), economic (production efficiency), and environmental aspects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Perceptual attributes of poultry and other meat products: a repertory grid application.

    PubMed

    Michel, L Martínez; Punter, P H; Wismer, W V

    2011-04-01

    Increased demand for processed poultry products through the growth of home meal replacements and ready to eat products, present an opportunity for the development of new value-added poultry products. Repertory grid interviews were conducted to generate insight into consumer driven product development of these products. Procrustes analysis revealed that healthiness, nutrition, convenience, and processing attributes were most important parameters for discriminating amongst 24 meat and meat alternatives. "White meat", "healthier", "leaner", "good source of protein", "easy to cook" and "convenient", were found to positively influence consumer preferences for unprocessed chicken products, eggs and salmon while price did not appear to be important for differentiating the products. Traditional processed fish and poultry products, such as chicken nuggets, represented undesirable composition, processing and quality concerns. Identification of consumer attributes for discriminating poultry products among other meat alternatives can guide the development of competitive value-added poultry products.

  1. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum percent of skin in certain... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.168 Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products. The poultry products listed in Table V shall have not more than the percent of skin specified in the table...

  2. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza at the time the poultry were in the... slaughtered in a region designated in § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza at a... § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza in a federally inspected processing...

  3. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza at the time the poultry were in the... slaughtered in a region designated in § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza at a... § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza in a federally inspected processing...

  4. Comparison of multilocus sequence analysis and virulence genotyping of Escherichia coli from live birds, retail poultry meat, and human extraintestinal infection.

    PubMed

    Danzeisen, Jessica L; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Nolan, Lisa K; Johnson, Timothy J

    2013-03-01

    To examine the correlations between virulence genotyping and multilocus sequence analysis of Escherichia coli from poultry and humans, 88 isolates were examined. The isolates were selected from a population of over 1000 based on their assignment to nine different virulence genotyping clusters. Clustering based on multilocus sequence analysis mostly correlated with virulence genotyping, although multilocus sequence analysis demonstrated higher discriminatory ability and greater reliability related to inferred phylogenetic relationships. No distinct patterns in host source were observed using inferred phylogeny through multilocus sequence analysis, indicating that human, avian, and retail meat isolates are diverse, and some belong to multiple shared clonal complexes. Clonal complexes with host source overlap included ST95 and ST23 and additional novel groups, underscoring the diversity of avian pathogenic E. coli and the potential importance of these novel groups as avian and zoonotic pathogens.

  5. Campylobacteriosis: the role of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Skarp, C P A; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H I K

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Campylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY... region where exotic Newcastle disease is not known to exist. (d) The foreign meat inspection certificate...

  7. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  8. Evaluating Retailer Behavior in Preventing Youth Access to Harmful Legal Products: A Feasibility Test*

    PubMed Central

    Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a feasibility study of a community effort to reduce the availability of legal products that youth can use to get “high”. The study evaluated the potential of youth purchase attempts to detect actual changes in retail availability of harmful legal products. These results were triangulated with self-reports from retailers themselves about their own policies and practices. Before the intervention less than half of retailers reported using any of six possible strategies identified as ways to reduce youth access to harmful products and less than 7% of baseline youth attempts to purchase potentially harmful legal products were refused or questioned. After the low dosage intervention, retailers reported increased use of three strategies and a statistically significant increase in the percentage of purchase attempts that were either questioned or refused by retail clerks. These findings (1) demonstrate the potential feasibility of retailer focused environmental strategies and (2) support continued use of youth purchase attempts as a measure of actual retailer behavior. PMID:18660467

  9. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Moussa S.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  10. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Moussa S; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities.

  11. Introduction to Poultry Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 31, Number 3 [and] Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Katherine

    This packet contains both teacher and student materials for a unit on poultry production in vocational agriculture courses and covers the following lessons: (1) overview of the poultry industry; (2) selection and evaluation; (3) production; (4) reproduction; (5) health issues; and (6) processing and marketing. The lessons include the following…

  12. Introduction to Poultry Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 31, Number 3 [and] Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Katherine

    This packet contains both teacher and student materials for a unit on poultry production in vocational agriculture courses and covers the following lessons: (1) overview of the poultry industry; (2) selection and evaluation; (3) production; (4) reproduction; (5) health issues; and (6) processing and marketing. The lessons include the following…

  13. Incidence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in a Poultry Processing Environment and in Poultry Products and Their Rapid Confirmation by Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, L. M.; Gilmour, A.

    1995-01-01

    Volume 60, no. 12, p. 4602: Fig. 1 should appear as shown below. FIG. 1. Incidence of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in a poultry processing environment and in raw and cooked poultry products from March to September 1992. (A) Raw (R) and cooked (C) areas within the processing environment. (B) Raw and cooked poultry products. (box), L. monocytogenes; (box), Listeria spp. (not L. monocytogenes); (symbl), no Listeria spp. PMID:16534947

  14. MRSA in Conventional and Alternative Retail Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Ashley M.; Hanson, Blake M.; Farina, Sarah A.; Wu, James Y.; Simmering, Jacob E.; Wardyn, Shylo E.; Forshey, Brett M.; Kulick, Marie E.; Wallinga, David B.; Smith, Tara C.

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus on retail pork, three hundred ninety-five pork samples were collected from a total of 36 stores in Iowa, Minnesota, and New Jersey. S. aureus was isolated from 256 samples (64.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 59.9%–69.5%). S. aureus was isolated from 67.3% (202/300) of conventional pork samples and from 56.8% (54/95) of alternative pork samples (labeled “raised without antibiotics” or “raised without antibiotic growth promotants”). Two hundred and thirty samples (58.2%, 95% CI 53.2%–63.1%) were found to carry methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). MSSA was isolated from 61.0% (183/300) of conventional samples and from 49.5% (47/95) of alternative samples. Twenty-six pork samples (6.6%, 95% CI 4.3%–9.5%) carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). No statistically significant differences were observed for the prevalence of S. aureus in general, or MSSA or MRSA specifically, when comparing pork products from conventionally raised swine and swine raised without antibiotics, a finding that contrasts with a prior study from the Netherlands examining both conventional and “biologic” meat products. In our study spa types associated with “livestock-associated” ST398 (t034, t011) were found in 26.9% of the MRSA isolates, while 46.2% were spa types t002 and t008—common human types of MRSA that also have been found in live swine. The study represents the largest sampling of raw meat products for MRSA contamination to date in the U.S. MRSA prevalence on pork products was higher than in previous U.S.-conducted studies, although similar to that in Canadian studies. PMID:22276147

  15. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and all...

  16. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and all...

  17. 9 CFR 381.145 - Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry products and other articles... AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments; Processing...

  18. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and all...

  19. 9 CFR 381.145 - Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry products and other articles... AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments; Processing...

  20. 9 CFR 381.145 - Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry products and other articles... AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments; Processing...

  1. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and all...

  2. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and all...

  3. Presence and changes in populations of yeasts on raw and processed poultry products stored at refrigeration temperature.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S A; Deak, T; El-Rahman, H A; Yassien, M A; Beuchat, L R

    2000-12-05

    A study was undertaken to determine populations and profiles of yeast species on fresh and processed poultry products upon purchase from retail supermarkets and after storage at 5 degrees C until shelf life expiration, and to assess the potential role of these yeasts in product spoilage. Fifty samples representing 15 commercial raw, marinated, smoked, or roasted chicken and turkey products were analyzed. Yeast populations were determined by plating on dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) agar and tryptone glucose yeast extract (TGY) agar. Proteolytic activity was determined using caseinate and gelatin agars and lipolytic activity was determined on plate count agar supplemented with tributyrin. Populations of aerobic microorganisms were also determined. Initial populations of yeasts (log10 cfu/g) ranged from less than 1 (detection limit) to 2.89, and increased by the expiration date to 0.37-5.06, indicating the presence of psychrotrophic species. Highest initial populations were detected in raw chicken breast, wings, and ground chicken, as well as in turkey necks and legs, whereas roasted chicken and turkey products contained less than 1 log10 cfu/g. During storage, yeast populations increased significantly (P < or = 0.05) in whole chicken, ground chicken, liver, heart and gizzard, and in ground turkey and turkey sausage. Isolates (152 strains) of yeasts from poultry products consisted of 12 species. Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida zeylanoides were predominant, making up 39 and 26% of the isolates, respectively. Six different species of basidiomycetous yeasts representing 24% of the isolates were identified. Most Y. lipolytica strains showed strong proteolytic and lipolytic activities, whereas C. zeylanoides was weakly lipolytic. Results suggest that yeasts, particularly Y. lipolytica, may play a more prominent role than previously recognized in the spoilage of fresh and processed poultry stored at 5 degrees C.

  4. Characterization of broiler poultry production system in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Mbuza, Francis; Manishimwe, Rosine; Mahoro, Janvier; Simbankabo, Thomas; Nishimwe, Kizito

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted on 37 randomly selected broiler poultry farmers in Rwanda to characterize the production system using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The data were processed in SPSS and presented as means, percentages and ranges in tables and text. All respondents kept Cobb breed and young stock was mainly (73 %) imported from abroad. The majority of respondents were males (68 %) and most farmers had attended only primary level of education (40.5 %). Most of the farms were in the peri-urban (48.6 %) and urban (37.8 %) areas and hired male youth (62.2 %) mainly aged 19-35 years. The majority of respondents (68 %) kept less than 500 birds per batch. Recordkeeping was well practiced (91.9 %) and (62.6 %) had permanent poultry houses and all farmers used deep litter system. Purchased feedstuffs were reportedly (92 %) mixed at farm level as the main feed resource. Maize bran was reported (97.06 %) the main, basal feedstuff. The mortality rates of chick and growers were 12.3 and 9.4 %, respectively. The slaughter age was reportedly 60 days with an average dressing percentage of 75.67 %. The main challenges reported were scarcity and unaffordability of quality feeds (59.5 %), lack of market access (45 %) and lack of credit (21 %). The farmers had various views on improving broiler production in Rwanda ranging from establishing feed processing industries 62.2 %, improving marketing facilities 35.1 %, increasing availability of day-old chick and access credit 27 %, to intensification of farmer training 16.2 %.

  5. Pathogen testing of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products collected at federally inspected establishments in the United States, 1990 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Levine, P; Rose, B; Green, S; Ransom, G; Hill, W

    2001-08-01

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducted microbiological testing programs for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products produced at approximately 1,800 federally inspected establishments. All samples were collected at production facilities and not at retail. We report results here for the years 1990 through 1999. Prevalence data for Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, or staphylococcal enterotoxins in nine different categories of RTE meat and poultry products are presented and discussed. The prevalence data have certain limitations that restrict statistical inferences, because these RTE product-testing programs are strictly regulatory in nature and not statistically designed. The cumulative 10-year Salmonella prevalences were as follows: jerky, 0.31%; cooked, uncured poultry products, 0.10%; large-diameter cooked sausages, 0.07%; small-diameter cooked sausages, 0.20%; cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef, 0.22%; salads, spreads, and pâtés, 0.05%; and sliced ham and luncheon meat, 0.22%. The cumulative 3-year Salmonella prevalence for dry and semidry fermented sausages was 1.43%. The cumulative 10-year L. monocytogenes prevalences were as follows: jerky, 0.52%; cooked, uncured poultry products, 2.12%; large-diameter cooked sausages, 1.31%; small-diameter cooked sausages, 3.56%; cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef, 3.09%; salads, spreads, and pâtés, 3.03%; and sliced ham and luncheon meat, 5.16%. The cumulative 3-year L. monocytogenes prevalence for dry and semidry fermented sausages was 3.25%. None of the RTE products tested for E. coli O157:H7 or staphylococcal enterotoxins was positive. Although FSIS and the industry have made progress in reducing pathogens in these products, additional efforts are ongoing to continually improve the safety of all RTE meat and poultry products manufactured in federally inspected establishments in the United States.

  6. [Survey of the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products sold in retail].

    PubMed

    Langiano, E; Lanni, L; Atrei, P; De Vito, E

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluates the presence of Listeria spp and particularly of L. monocytogenes in bovine, pork and poultry meats sold by retail in supermarkets and butchers in the city of Cassino. The sensibility to the antibiotics mostly used in the veterinary practice has been tested on the isolated strains. The different species of Listeria have shown a considerable variation of isolation based on the meat's typology and on the different store's provenance. Moreover our results show greater degree of contamination than the data currently available the Italian literature. In our study poultry meat is the most contaminated one. We can assert that omissions and poor caring errors in the manipulation and conservation of meat expose the customer to an even higher risk of infection.

  7. 76 FR 69146 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions-Reopening of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions--Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food Safety..., ``Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions.'' It is also providing... Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions'' (76 FR 44855) to amend its regulations to...

  8. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated States...

  9. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated States...

  10. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated States...

  11. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated States...

  12. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated States...

  13. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  14. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Procedures with respect to processing of frozen ready-to-heat-and-eat poultry products or stuffed ready-to... under such conditions as may be prescribed by the Administrator in specific cases, such products may be...

  15. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Procedures with respect to processing of frozen ready-to-heat-and-eat poultry products or stuffed ready-to... under such conditions as may be prescribed by the Administrator in specific cases, such products may be...

  16. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Procedures with respect to processing of frozen ready-to-heat-and-eat poultry products or stuffed ready-to... under such conditions as may be prescribed by the Administrator in specific cases, such products may be...

  17. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  18. Extent of Utilizing Electrical Equipment in Poultry Production in Ebonyi State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogba, E. I.; Ogbu, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent of utilizing electrical equipment in poultry production in the rural areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions guided the study. The population for the study was 46 respondents comprising 16 Extension agents and 30 Poultry farmers.…

  19. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... solutions are added. (a) Butter alone, or solutions of poultry broth, poultry stock, water, or edible fats... which solutions are added. 381.169 Section 381.169 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... amount and manner of introduction of the solution (such as “Injected with approximately 3 percent of a...

  20. Bio-Product Recovery from Lignocellulosic Materials Derived from Poultry Manure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Pascale; Li, Caijian

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the hydrolysis of lignocellulose extracted from poultry manure for the purpose of investigating low-cost feedstocks for ethanol production while providing an alternative solid waste management strategy for agricultural livestock manures. Poultry manure underwent various pretreatments to enhance subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis…

  1. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  2. Bio-Product Recovery from Lignocellulosic Materials Derived from Poultry Manure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Pascale; Li, Caijian

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the hydrolysis of lignocellulose extracted from poultry manure for the purpose of investigating low-cost feedstocks for ethanol production while providing an alternative solid waste management strategy for agricultural livestock manures. Poultry manure underwent various pretreatments to enhance subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis…

  3. Current aspects of Salmonella contamination in the US poultry production chain and the potential application of risk strategies in understanding emerging hazards.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Kalavathy; Shi, Zhaohao; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-05-01

    One of the leading causes of foodborne illness in poultry products is Salmonella enterica. Salmonella hazards in poultry may be estimated and possible control methods modeled and evaluated through the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) models and tools. From farm to table, there are many possible routes of Salmonella dissemination and contamination in poultry. From the time chicks are hatched through growth, transportation, processing, storage, preparation, and finally consumption, the product could be contaminated through exposure to different materials and sources. Examination of each step of the process is necessary as well as an examination of the overall picture to create effective countermeasures against contamination and prevent disease. QMRA simulation models can use either point estimates or probability distributions to examine variables such as Salmonella concentrations at retail or at any given point of processing to gain insight on the chance of illness due to Salmonella ingestion. For modeling Salmonella risk in poultry, it is important to look at variables such as Salmonella transfer and cross contamination during processing. QMRA results may be useful for the identification and control of critical sources of Salmonella contamination.

  4. Population dynamics of Salmonella enterica serotypes in commercial egg and poultry production.

    PubMed

    Foley, Steven L; Nayak, Rajesh; Hanning, Irene B; Johnson, Timothy J; Han, Jing; Ricke, Steven C

    2011-07-01

    Fresh and processed poultry have been frequently implicated in cases of human salmonellosis. Furthermore, increased consumption of meat and poultry has increased the potential for exposure to Salmonella enterica. While advances have been made in reducing the prevalence and frequency of Salmonella contamination in processed poultry, there is mounting pressure on commercial growers to prevent and/or eliminate these human pathogens in preharvest production facilities. Several factors contribute to Salmonella colonization in commercial poultry, including the serovar and the infectious dose. In the early 1900s, Salmonella enterica serovars Pullorum and Gallinarum caused widespread diseases in poultry, but vaccination and other voluntary programs helped eradicate pullorum disease and fowl typhoid from commercial flocks. However, the niche created by the eradication of these serovars was likely filled by S. Enteritidis, which proliferated in the bird populations. While this pathogen remains a significant problem in commercial egg and poultry production, its prevalence among poultry has been declining since the 1990s. Coinciding with the decrease of S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg and S. Kentucky have emerged as the predominant serovars in commercial broilers. In this review, we have highlighted bacterial genetic and host-related factors that may contribute to such shifts in Salmonella populations in commercial poultry and intervention strategies that could limit their colonization.

  5. Hormones and husbandry: control of nesting behavior in poultry production.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C

    1986-12-01

    Nesting behavior in laying hens is controlled by an interaction of internal and external factors. Initiation of nesting is under hormonal control, but the exact timing, location, and form of the behavior are all affected by husbandry practices. These have important effects on the economics of poultry production. Nesting behavior is triggered by ovulation. Estrogen and progesterone released from the post ovulatory follicle result in the initiation of nest site selection and nest building about 24 hr later. Oviposition then occurs, although it may be delayed by factors such as feeding or disturbance. Selection of nest site is important in deep litter systems, where eggs must be laid in nest boxes for efficient collection. Both the ability of hens to reach nest boxes, and their preference for boxes rather than the floor, are affected by husbandry. Genetic selection, rearing conditions, and design of houses and nest boxes all influence this behavior in different ways. In some circumstances hens show intensive activity before laying. This is particularly common when light hybrids are housed in battery cages: apparently cages do not provide adequate stimuli for sitting and nest building in these birds. This activity is wasteful of energy and may indicate reduced welfare. The problem may be reduced by modification of the environment or selection of stock.

  6. Array based detection of antibiotic resistance genes in Gram negative bacteria isolated from retail poultry meat in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    McNeece, Grainne; Naughton, Violetta; Woodward, Martin J; Dooley, James S G; Naughton, Patrick J

    2014-06-02

    The use of antibiotics in birds and animals intended for human consumption within the European Union (EU) and elsewhere has been subject to regulation prohibiting the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and the use of last resort antibiotics in an attempt to reduce the spread of multi-resistant Gram negative bacteria. Given the inexorable spread of antibiotic resistance there is an increasing need for improved monitoring of our food. Using selective media, Gram negative bacteria were isolated from retail chicken of UK-Intensively reared (n=27), Irish-Intensively reared (n=19) and UK-Free range (n=30) origin and subjected to an oligonucleotide based array system for the detection of 47 clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two integrase genes. High incidences of β-lactamase genes were noted in all sample types, acc (67%), cmy (80%), fox (55%) and tem (40%) while chloramphenicol resistant determinants were detected in bacteria from the UK poultry portions and were absent in bacteria from the Irish samples. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to qualitatively analyse the Gram negative population in the samples and showed the expected diversity based on band stabbing and DNA sequencing. The array system proved to be a quick method for the detection of antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) burden within a mixed Gram negative bacterial population.

  7. Use of plant-derived antimicrobials for improving the safety of poultry products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are the two major foodborne pathogens transmitted through poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir hosts of these pathogens, with their intestinal colonization being the most significant factor causing contamination of meat and eggs. Effective pre-...

  8. Survey of Mexican retail stores for US beef product.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Valdéz, Alejandra; Belk, Keith E

    2014-02-01

    Retail packages (N=1004) containing fresh US beef in display cases in five cities across three regions of Mexico were surveyed for cut types, cutting styles, fat thickness measurements, marbling scores, and USDA Quality Grades to gain an overview of fresh US beef in Mexican retail markets. Data were analyzed to generate frequency distributions and examine the effect of city, geographical region, store chain, and socio-economic status of the targeted clientele on type, cutting style, fat measures and quality of beef cuts of US origin. Top round, bottom round and knuckle were the most common cut types. Milanesa-type slice and "bistec" (steak for grilling) were the predominant cutting styles. Over 95% of the retail cuts were trimmed to 3.2mm or less of external fat. Most cuts were USDA Select (74.5%) and USDA Choice (24.5%). External fat thickness and marbling score differed among cities and store chains (P<0.01). © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimisation of bioflocculant production by a biofilm forming microorganism from poultry slaughterhouse wastewater for use in poultry wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Dlangamandla, C; Dyantyi, S A; Mpentshu, Y P; Ntwampe, S K O; Basitere, M

    2016-01-01

    Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater contains nutrients that are sufficient for microbial growth; moreover, the wastewater has microorganisms which can be harnessed to perform specific functions. Additionally, these microorganisms can grow either in planktonic (free floating) mode or sessile (attached) mode. This study focused on the optimisation of bioflocculant production by quantifying flocculation activity, determined using kaolin clay (4 g/L), by isolates prevalent in poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Subsequent to their identification and characterisation, six bacterial strains were initially isolated from the poultry wastewater. Although all the isolated microorganisms produced bioflocculants under different conditions, i.e. pH and temperature, the strain that produced bioflocculants with a higher flocculation activity was isolate BF-3, a Comamonas sp., achieving a flocculation activity of 93.8% at 32.9 °C and pH 6.5. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the bioflocculant of the isolate, showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl, alkane and amine functional groups, an indication that the bioflocculant was a protein constituent.

  10. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating Retailer Behavior in Preventing Youth Access to Harmful Legal Products: A Feasibility Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results from a feasibility study of a community effort to reduce the availability of legal products that youth can use to get high. The study evaluated the potential of youth purchase attempts to detect actual changes in retail availability of harmful legal products. These results were triangulated with self-reports from…

  12. Application of Probiotics for the Production of Safe and High-quality Poultry Meat

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Ha; Hamidon, Farizal; Rajangan, Chandraprasad; Soh, Kim Pong; Gan, Chee Yuen; Lim, Theam Soon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry industry has always been a dynamic and integral part of national economies in many countries. Economic losses incur especially in large-scale rearing facilities, often attributed to the deterioration of environmental conditions, poultry exposure to stressors and development of diseases. While antibiotics have been commonly used for prophylactic purposes and as growth stimulants, extensive documentation of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria due to indiscriminate utilization of antibiotic in the industry has led to public and governmental outcries. Elimination of antibiotics from poultry production has thus encouraged intensive search for alternatives. In this review, we discuss the immense potential of probiotics to fill the gap as alternative growth promoters and evidences of beneficial effects of probiotic application in poultry production. PMID:27857531

  13. Mislabelling and Species Substitution in Fishery Products Retailed in Sardinia (Italy), 2009-2014

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Pierluigi; Mazzette, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Mislabelling and species substitution are major concerns for fishery products marketed in the EU. The present survey aimed to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community and National rules on the labelling and marketing of fishery products retailed in Sardinia (Italy) between 2009 and 2014. A total of 3000 labels for fresh unpacked fishery products have been considered. A total of 900 labels (30%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name, the wrong or missing information about the catch area and the production method. The highest percentage of mislabelling and species substitution has been detected in open-air markets (65%) and small-scale retail shops (40%) compared with the big supermarket chains (10%). The high percentage of non-compliances with the European and Italian legislation highlights the need to improve the essential information demanded by consumers on fishery products marketed in open-air markets and small-scale retail shops. While there are laws in place, it is unclear how effective they are and what type of penalties food business operators of open-air markets and small-scale retail shops may incur. PMID:27800419

  14. The Effect of Implicit and Explicit Rules on Customer Greeting and Productivity in a Retail Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca A.; Houmanfar, Ramona; Smith, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of presenting organizational information through implicit and explicit rules on sales-related target behaviors in a retail setting. Results indicated that when organizational information was presented in a specific form, productivity was increased and maintained longer than when presented in…

  15. The Effect of Implicit and Explicit Rules on Customer Greeting and Productivity in a Retail Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca A.; Houmanfar, Ramona; Smith, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of presenting organizational information through implicit and explicit rules on sales-related target behaviors in a retail setting. Results indicated that when organizational information was presented in a specific form, productivity was increased and maintained longer than when presented in…

  16. Pretreatment of poultry litter improves Bacillus thuringiensis-based biopesticides production.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Orhan; Icgen, Bulent; Ozcengiz, Gulay

    2010-04-01

    Pretreated poultry litter was used in batch cultures for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticide of lepidoptera- and diptera-specific Cry1 and Cry2, diptera-specific Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa and coleoptera-specific Cry3Aa toxins by Bt subsp. kurstaki 81, subsp. israelensis HD500 and subsp. tenebrionis 3203, respectively. Bt kurstaki 81 showed improved growth and produced more toxin in this medium as compared to other subspecies. Base and acid hydrolysis were tested as the methods of substrate pretreatment. The use of poultry litter pretreated with 2N HCl yielded 94% more bioinsecticidal protein than 2N NaOH-pretreated poultry litter when Bt kurstaki 81 was cultured. With appropriate pretreatment, poultry litter demonstrated potential as a valuable raw material for a low-cost complex medium to produce Bt-based biopesticides.

  17. Management of environmental temperature and rations for poultry production in the hot and humid tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.; Atuahene, C. C.

    1988-12-01

    This paper reviews studies that have been conducted to determine how environmental temperature affects productivity of poultry and how these effects can be alleviated so that the bird will realise its full productive capacity. It is shown that temperature primarily affects production of poultry meat and eggs through food consumption. A key factor in efficient weight gain and/or egg production of poultry is optimum nutrient intake. High environmental temperatures cause food intake to decrease and often result in inadequate nutrient intake contributing to poor performance. When nutrient intake is shifted by the influence of temperature on food intake, the adverse effect on productivity (growth or egg output) may be alleviated through improved feed formulation by adjusting the nutrient density to compensate for the altered intake of food. Improved feed management and better housing systems can partially compensate for low feed intake caused by high environmental temperatures.

  18. A summary of ammonia emission factors and quality criteria for commercial poultry production in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, David; Cowherd, Savannah; Van Heyst, Bill

    2015-08-01

    Efforts to quantify emissions of ammonia to the atmosphere from poultry housing in North America have been underway for the past two decades. In order to accurately estimate emissions from facilities in each poultry sector, emission factors used to derive the average must be of sufficiently high quality. However, it has become evident that current methods are inadequate and emission factors do not accurately reflect North American poultry production. Using an initial screening, based on measurement methods for ammonia and ventilation rates as well as study duration, a collection of studies have been identified that report the highest quality emission factors currently available. Each study was rated for data quality and then an average emission factor was developed for each sector of poultry production and rated based its ability to represent that sector. The laying hen sector, using deep pit manure storage, received a C (average) emission factor quality rating, which is the highest of all the poultry sectors evaluated. Laying hen with manure belts, broiler chicken, and turkey sectors received quality ratings considered to be below average or poor. This study highlights the need for additional research that needs to be conducted in order to accurately quantify ammonia releases from housing in most poultry sectors in North America.

  19. In-package pasteurization of ready-to-eat meat and poultry product

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products are generally thermal processed to eliminate any foodborne pathogens in the final products. However, additional p processing steps follow the thermal process may recontaminate the products with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escheri...

  20. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - 'silent' reformulation of retailer-brand food products.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-08-23

    Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a 'silent' reformulation strategy, where a retail chain's private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product. Using an ecological study design, we analyse 52 weeks' sales data - enriched with data on products' energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases, the reformulation led to indirect substitution effects that were counterproductive with regard to reducing calorie turnover. However, except in two insignificant cases, these indirect substitution effects were dominated by the direct effect of the reformulation, leading to net reductions in calorie sales between -3.1 and 7.5%. For all considered product reformulations, the reformulation had either positive, zero or very moderate negative effects on the sales value of the product category to which the reformulated product belonged. Based on these findings, 'silent' reformulation of retailer's private brands towards lower energy density seems to contribute to lowering the calorie intake in the population (although to a moderate extent) with moderate losses in retailer's sales revenues.

  1. Production and physical characteristics of composted poultry carcases.

    PubMed

    Lawson, M J; Keeling, A A

    1999-12-01

    1. Experiments were designed to determine whether composting could be a safe and effective method for the disposal of poultry carcases in the UK climate. Laying hen carcases (125) were composted in a wooden compost bin over autumn and winter months, using the United States Department of Agriculture method. 2. The process took 8 weeks and effectively decomposed the carcases to leave only leg and breast bones. The compost was turned once, which ensured that all the material reached the high temperatures (60 degrees to 70 degrees C) required to control pathogens. Salmonella was fully heat-inactivated, indicating that many poultry-associated bacterial pathogens would also have been inactivated. 3. It is concluded that this method is suitable for use in the UK and provides a sanitised fertiliser supplement.

  2. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin (AFB₁) in poultry production.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Luisa; Malta-Vacas, Joana; Sabino, Raquel; Figueredo, Paula; Almeida, Ana; Viegas, Carla; Carolino, Elisabete

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) has been recognized to produce cancer in human liver. In addition, epidemiological and laboratory studies demonstrated that the respiratory system was a target for AFB₁. Exposure occurs predominantly through the food chain, but inhalation represents an additional route of exposure. The present study aimed to examine AFB₁ exposure among poultry workers in Portugal. Blood samples were collected from a total of 31 poultry workers from six poultry farms. In addition, a control group (n = 30) was included comprised of workers who undertook administrative tasks. Measurement of AFB₁ in serum was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For examining fungi contamination, air samples were collected through an impaction method. Air sampling was obtained in pavilion interior and outside the premises, since this was the place regarded as the reference location. Using molecular methods, toxicogenic strains (aflatoxin-producing) were investigated within the group of species belonging to Aspergillus flavus complex. Eighteen poultry workers (59%) had detectable levels of AFB₁ with values ranging from <1 ng/ml to 4.23 ng/ml and with a mean value of 2 ± 0.98 ng/ml. AFB₁ was not detected in the serum sampled from any of the controls. Aspergillus flavus was the fungal species third most frequently found in the indoor air samples analyzed (7.2%) and was the most frequently isolated species in air samples containing only Aspergillus genus (74.5%). The presence of aflatoxigenic strains was only confirmed in outdoor air samples from one of the units, indicating the presence of a source inside the building in at least one case. Data indicate that AFB₁ inhalation represents an additional risk in this occupational setting that needs to be recognized, assessed, and prevented.

  3. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    PubMed

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of microarray analysis of foodborne Salmonella in poultry production: a review.

    PubMed

    Ricke, Steven C; Khatiwara, Anita; Kwon, Young Min

    2013-09-01

    Salmonellosis in the United States is one of the most costly foodborne diseases. Given that Salmonella can originate from a wide variety of environments, reduction of this organism at all stages of poultry production is critical. Salmonella species can encounter various environmental stress conditions that can dramatically influence their survival and virulence. Previous knowledge of Salmonella species genomic regulation of metabolism and physiology in relation to poultry is based on limited information of a few well-characterized genes. Consequently, although there is some information about environmental signals that control Salmonella growth and pathogenesis, much still remains unknown. Advancements in DNA sequencing technologies revolutionized the way bacteria were studied and molecular tools such as microarrays have subsequently been used for comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of Salmonella. With microarray analysis, the expression levels of each single gene in the Salmonella genome can be directly assessed and previously unknown genetic systems that are required for Salmonella growth and survival in the poultry production cycle can be elucidated. This represents an opportunity for development of novel approaches for limiting Salmonella establishment in all phases of poultry production. In this review, recent advances in transcriptome-microarray technologies that are facilitating a better understanding of Salmonella biology in poultry production and processing are discussed.

  5. 9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for substitute... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Composition § 381.172 Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed...

  6. 9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for substitute... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Composition § 381.172 Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed...

  7. 9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for substitute... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Composition § 381.172 Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed...

  8. 9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for substitute... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Composition § 381.172 Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed...

  9. 9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for substitute... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Composition § 381.172 Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed...

  10. 9 CFR 381.445 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw poultry products that are not ground or chopped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of single... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.445 Nutrition... § 381.401. (a)(1) Nutrition information on the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw poultry products...

  11. 9 CFR 381.445 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw poultry products that are not ground or chopped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of single... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.445 Nutrition... § 381.401. (a)(1) Nutrition information on the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw poultry products...

  12. 78 FR 14635 - HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... prevalence of Salmonella in NRTE comminuted poultry product announced in the document. The Agency is taking... into account several recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with consumption of comminuted NRTE turkey... NRTE meat or poultry product with an illness outbreak would make subsequently-produced like product...

  13. Comparison of public health impact of Listeria monocytogenes product-to-product and environment-to-product contamination of deli meats at retail.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the relative public health impact in deli meats at retail contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes by either (i) other products or (ii) the retail environment. Modeling was performed using the risk of listeriosis-associated deaths as a public health outcome of interest and using two deli meat products (i.e., ham and turkey, both formulated without growth inhibitors) as model systems. Based on reported data, deli meats coming to retail were assumed to be contaminated at a frequency of 0.4%. Three contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) a baseline scenario, in which no additional cross-contamination occurred at retail, (ii) a scenario in which an additional 2.3% of products were cross-contaminated at retail due to transfer of L. monocytogenes cells from already contaminated ready-to-eat deli meats, and (iii) a scenario in which an additional 2.3% of products were contaminated as a result of cross-contamination from a contaminated retail environment. By using a previously reported L. monocytogenes risk assessment model that uses product-specific growth kinetic parameters, cross-contamination of deli ham and turkey was estimated to increase the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths by 5.9- and 6.1-fold, respectively, for contamination from other products and by 4.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively, for contamination from the retail environment. Sensitivity and scenario analyses indicated that the frequency of cross-contamination at retail from any source (other food products or environment) was the most important factor affecting the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths. Overall, our data indicate that retail-level cross-contamination of ready-to-eat deli meats with L. monocytogenes has the potential to considerably increase the risk of human listeriosis cases and deaths, and thus precise estimates of cross-contamination frequency are critical for accurate risk assessments.

  14. Axone, an ethnic probiotic containing food, reduces age of sexual maturity and increases poultry production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, R K

    2014-06-01

    Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5% (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ≤ 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ≤ 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value.

  15. Comparison of the prevalence of bacterial enteropathogens, potentially zoonotic bacteria and bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in organic and conventional poultry, swine and beef production: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Rajić, A; Wilhelm, B J; Waddell, L; Parker, S; McEwen, S A

    2009-09-01

    The prevalences of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic bacteria or bacteria resistant to antimicrobials in organic and conventional poultry, swine and beef production were compared using systematic review and meta-analysis methodology. Thirty-eight articles were included in the review. The prevalence of Campylobacter was higher in organic broiler chickens at slaughter, but no difference in prevalence was observed in retail chicken. Campylobacter isolates from conventional retail chicken were more likely to be ciprofloxacin-resistant (odds ratio 9.62, 95% confidence interval 5.67-16.35). Bacteria isolated from conventional animal production exhibited a higher prevalence of resistance to antimicrobials; however, the recovery of some resistant strains was also identified in organic animal production, where there is an apparent reduced antimicrobial selection pressure. Limited or inconsistent research was identified in studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic bacteria in other food-animal species. There is a need for further research of sufficient quality in this area.

  16. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  17. Potential of fructooligosaccharide prebiotics in alternative and nonconventional poultry production systems.

    PubMed

    Ricke, S C

    2015-06-01

    Fructooligosaccharide and inulin prebiotics are carbohydrate-based polymers derived from natural sources that can be utilized by certain gastrointestinal tract bacteria but not by the host animal. They are attractive as feed additives for nonconventional poultry production systems because they select for beneficial microorganisms that are thought to promote nutritional benefits to the bird and potentially limit foodborne pathogen establishment. There have been numerous studies conducted with prebiotic supplements to assess their impact in humans, animals, and conventionally raised poultry but only limited research has been conducted with birds grown under nonconventional production conditions. Much remains unknown about the specific mechanism(s) associated with their impact on the host as well as the gastrointestinal tract microflora. Utilization of several recently developed approaches such as microbiome and metabolomic analyses should offer more insight on how dietary prebiotic additives influence the development of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and these subsequent changes correspond with alterations in a bird's physiology as it matures. As more detailed and precise studies are done with nonconventional poultry, it is likely that structurally distinct prebiotics will influence not only the gastrointestinal tract microbiota differently, but potentially interact directly and/or indirectly with the bird host in distinguishable patterns as well. These functions will be important to delineate if further applications are to be developed for specific prebiotics in nonconventional poultry production systems. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Organic poultry: Developing natural solutions for reducing pathogens and improving production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic poultry production is one of the fastest growing segments of organic agriculture (20% increase/year since the establishment of the National Organic Program). Although most management practices in organic production are designed to promote bird health and prevent disease, lack of consistentl...

  19. Molecular Characterization of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Hospitalized Patients and Poultry Products in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van den Braak, Nicole; van Belkum, Alex; van Keulen, Marrit; Vliegenthart, John; Verbrugh, Henri A.; Endtz, Hubert P.

    1998-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) pose an emerging health risk, but little is known about the precise epidemiology of the genes coding for vancomycin resistance. To determine whether the bacterial flora of consumer poultry serves as a gene reservoir, the level of contamination of poultry products with VRE was determined. VRE were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and transposon structure mapping was done by PCR. The vanX-vanY intergenic regions of several strains were further analyzed by sequencing. A total of 242 of 305 (79%) poultry products were found to be contaminated with VRE. Of these VRE, 142 (59%) were high-level-vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains (VREF). PFGE revealed extensive VREF heterogeneity. Two genotypes were found nationwide on multiple occasions: type A (22 of 142 VREF [15%]) and type B (14 of 142 VREF [10%]). No PFGE-deduced genetic overlap was found when VREF from humans were compared with VREF from poultry. Two vanA transposon types were identified among poultry strains. In 59 of 142 (42%) of the poultry VREF, the size of the intergenic region between vanX and vanY was ∼1,300 bp. This transposon type was not found in human VREF. In contrast, all human strains and 83 of 142 (58%) of the poultry VREF contained an intergenic region 543 bp in size. Sequencing of this 543-bp intergenic vanX-vanY region demonstrated full sequence conservation. Though preliminary, these data suggest that dissemination of the resistance genes carried on transposable elements may be of greater importance than clonal dissemination of resistant strains. This observation is important for developing strategies to control the spread of glycopeptide resistance. PMID:9650938

  20. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from hospitalized patients and poultry products in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van den Braak, N; van Belkum, A; van Keulen, M; Vliegenthart, J; Verbrugh, H A; Endtz, H P

    1998-07-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) pose an emerging health risk, but little is known about the precise epidemiology of the genes coding for vancomycin resistance. To determine whether the bacterial flora of consumer poultry serves as a gene reservoir, the level of contamination of poultry products with VRE was determined. VRE were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and transposon structure mapping was done by PCR. The vanX-vanY intergenic regions of several strains were further analyzed by sequencing. A total of 242 of 305 (79%) poultry products were found to be contaminated with VRE. Of these VRE, 142 (59%) were high-level-vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains (VREF). PFGE revealed extensive VREF heterogeneity. Two genotypes were found nationwide on multiple occasions: type A (22 of 142 VREF [15%]) and type B (14 of 142 VREF [10%]). No PFGE-deduced genetic overlap was found when VREF from humans were compared with VREF from poultry. Two vanA transposon types were identified among poultry strains. In 59 of 142 (42%) of the poultry VREF, the size of the intergenic region between vanX and vanY was approximately 1,300 bp. This transposon type was not found in human VREF. In contrast, all human strains and 83 of 142 (58%) of the poultry VREF contained an intergenic region 543 bp in size. Sequencing of this 543-bp intergenic vanX-vanY region demonstrated full sequence conservation. Though preliminary, these data suggest that dissemination of the resistance genes carried on transposable elements may be of greater importance than clonal dissemination of resistant strains. This observation is important for developing strategies to control the spread of glycopeptide resistance.

  1. [Effect of supply of fresh poultry products on reducing environment contamination of avian influenza virus in markets].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chaojun; Su, Wenzhe; Li, Kuibiao; Chen, Jiandong; Liu, Jianping; Feng, Jing; Liu, Yanhui; Ma, Xiaowei; Liu, Yufei; Yuan, Jun; Wang, Ming

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of supply of fresh poultry products on reducing environment contamination of avian influenza virus (AIV) in markets in Guangzhou. A total of 40 markets, including 20 selling alive poultry and 20 selling fresh poultry products, were selected randomly in Guangzhou to conduct environment surveillance in 80 poultry stalls every 4 months from July 2014 to April 2015. Four smear samples were collected from different sites of each poultry stall to detect nucleic acid of AIV. The positive samples were further detected for AIV subtype H5, H7 and H9 nucleic acids. Among 40 alive poultry stalls, 95.0% (38/40) kept alive poultry overnight, 25.0% (10/40) were disinfected daily, 95.0% (38/40) were cleaned up weekly, 95.0% (38/40) were closed for one day every month. Among 40 fresh poultry product stalls, 20.0% (8/40) were disinfected daily, 90.0% (36/40) were cleaned up weekly, and 96.0% (38/40) ever sold dressed poultry from alive poultry markets. The positive rate of AIV in alive poultry markets was 40.4% (252/623), higher than that in fresh poultry product markets (32.3%, 197/610), the difference was significant (χ(2)=8.85, P=0.003), and the positive rate of subtype H9 virus in alive poultry markets was 28.6% (178/623), higher than that in fresh poultry product markets (16.2%, 99/610), the difference was significant (χ(2)=26.95, P<0.001). In fresh poultry product markets, the positive rate of AIV in stalls selling dressed poultry was 37.3% (180/482), higher than that in stalls selling no dressed poultry (13.3%, 17/128), the difference was significant (χ(2)=26.78, P<0.001), and the positive rate of subtype H9 virus in stalls selling dressed poultry was 19.1% (92/482), higher than that in stalls selling no dressed poultry (5.5%, 7/128), the difference was significant (χ(2)=13.80, P<0.001). Both the positive rate of AIV and the positive rate of subtype H9 virus were highest in the second round surveillance (October 2014). The differences in AIV and its

  2. Compatibility of ammonia suppressants used in poultry litter with mushroom compost preparation and production.

    PubMed

    González-Matute, Ramiro; Rinker, Danny Lee

    2006-09-01

    Ammonia suppressants are applied to chicken litter to decrease ammonia levels. And mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) producers use poultry litter to increase the nitrogen in the compost. To determine the influence of ammonia suppressants used in poultry litter on compost preparation and mushroom production, four mushroom crops were cultivated from compost prepared using litter treated with PLT, Barn Fresh and Impact-P at 25.22 kg/100 m2, 40 kg/100 m2, and 0.49 kg/100 m2, respectively, during the poultry production process. In general, no significant differences (P>0.05) were noted between treatments for total nitrogen, ammonia, pH, EC, ash, and moisture when compost or the headspace air was sampled during compost preparation throughout all stages. Nor were mushroom yields or counts significantly affected (P>0.05) by the presence of ammonia suppressants in the poultry litter. Thus, the mushroom industry can confidently use poultry litter amended with PLT, Impact-P, and Barn Fresh when used at the recommended rates.

  3. The numbers game: Campylobacter survival in poultry products through the pH effects of polyphosphate additives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter species are responsible for the largest number of food-borne gastrointestinal bacterial infections in the developed world. Poultry products are a primary pathway for the introduction of Campylobacter into the food supply. Undercooked poultry products and the cross-contamination of ot...

  4. International perspectives on impacts of reproductive technologies for world food production in Asia associated with poultry production.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Sultana, Halima; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat and eggs are valuable sources of dietary protein in almost every country in the world. A number of breeding techniques, methods, and technology have been applied to obtain maximum production under different environmental and economic conditions. Indigenous and local breeds share 90 % of the total population of poultry in many developing countries in Asia. However, indigenous chickens are low in productivity. Many studies have found that crossbreeding of exotic with indigenous chickens resulted in birds that performed better, even superior to pure exotic chickens, with respect to body weight, egg production, survivability, fertility, hatchability, and egg quality. There are some other technologies for efficient use of male genetic resource and conservation of rare genetic make-up, namely artificial insemination and chimeric chicken, respectively. It was reported that 25 % of the world's meat supply is derived from poultry, and the proportion is increasing rapidly. The continent of Asia produces almost one third of the world's eggs. However, there are still many scopes to improve the production of poultry in many developing countries in Asia. Therefore, continuous research works would be essential to determine the suitable technologies for more poultry production to feed the increasing habitants on earth.

  5. Genetic Relationships of Carcass Traits with Retail Cut Productivity of Hanwoo Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Daeyoung; Lee, Jeongkoo; Won, Seunggun; Lee, Chaeyoung; Kim, Jongbok

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic correlation between carcass grading and retail productivity traits and to estimate the correlated response on retail productivity traits through selection for carcass grading traits in order to assess the efficacy of indirect selection. Genetic parameters were estimated with the data from 4240 Hanwoo steers using mixed models, and phenotypes included carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye muscle area (EMA), marbling (MAR), and estimated lean yield percentage (ELP) as the carcass grading traits, and weight and portion of retail cuts (RCW and RCP), trimmed fats (TFW and TFP) and trimmed bones (TBW and TBP) as the lean productivity traits. The CWT had positive genetic correlations with RCW (0.95) and TFW (0.73), but its genetic correlation with RCP was negligible (0.02). The BFT was negatively correlated with RCP (−0.63), but positively correlated with TFW and TFP (0.77 and 0.70). Genetic correlations of MAR with TFW and TFP were low. Among the carcass grading traits, only EMA was positively correlated with both RCW (0.60) and RCP (0.72). The EMA had a relatively strong negative genetic correlation with TFW (−0.64). The genetic correlation coefficients of ELP with RCP, TFW, and TFP were 0.76, −0.90, and −0.82, respectively. These correlation coefficients suggested that the ELP and EMA might be favorable traits in regulating lean productivity of carcass. PMID:25178288

  6. 75 FR 82148 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is amending the Federal meat and poultry products inspection regulations to require nutrition labeling of the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat and poultry products on labels or at point-of-purchase, unless an exemption applies. FSIS is also amending its regulations to require nutrition labels on all ground or chopped meat and poultry products, with or without added seasonings, unless an exemption applies. In addition, the rule provides that, when a ground or chopped product does not meet the regulatory criteria to be labeled ``low fat,'' a lean percentage statement may be included on the label or in labeling as long as a statement of the fat percentage that meets the specified criteria also is displayed on the label or in labeling.

  7. Beta-resorcylic acid, a phytophenolic compound, reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this s...

  8. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term.

  9. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork and poultry products during chilling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of C. perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in ten commercially prepared acidified beef, pork and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted using organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commer...

  10. Assessing the performance of Clostridium perfringens cooling models for cooked, uncured meat and poultry products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat-resistant spores of C. perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products if the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP Uncured Beef, Chicken, and Pork Models; Smith-Schaffner (version 3); a...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  12. Meta-analysis as a tool to study crop productivity response to poultry litter application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extensive research on the use of poultry litter (PL) under different agricultural practices in the USA has shown both negative and positive effects on crop productivity (either yield or aboveground biomass). However, these experimental results are substantially dependent on the experimental set-up, ...

  13. The effects of high pressure treatments on C. jejuni in ground poultry products containing polyphosphate additives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marinades containing polyphosphates have been previously implicated in the enhanced survival of Campylobacter spp. in poultry product exudates. The enhanced Campylobacter survival was attributed primarily to the ability of some polyphosphates to change the pH of the exudate to one more amenable to ...

  14. Poultry Production for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 19, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timko, Joseph J.; Stewart, Bob R.

    This unit is designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. Intended to be taught to ninth-grade students of vocational agriculture, the unit contains six lessons for developing competencies needed in poultry production. The lessons are as follows: (1) the importance of the poultry…

  15. Poultry Production for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 19, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timko, Joseph J.; Stewart, Bob R.

    This unit is designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. Intended to be taught to ninth-grade students of vocational agriculture, the unit contains six lessons for developing competencies needed in poultry production. The lessons are as follows: (1) the importance of the poultry…

  16. Use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the analysis of poultry products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy is evaluated as a potential method to characterize a wide range of poultry product quality and safety characteristics. In one part of this study, breast meat quality indices, including pH and water holding capacity, were treated as dependent variables for correla...

  17. Environmental improvement of product supply chains: proposed best practice techniques, quantitative indicators and benchmarks of excellence for retailers.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; Schoenberger, Harald; Galvez-Martos, Jose-Luis

    2012-11-15

    Retailers are strategically positioned to leverage environmental improvement over product supply chains through actions targeted at suppliers and consumers. Informed by scientific evidence on environmental hotspots and control points across 14 priority product groups, and a review of 25 major European retailers' actions, this paper proposes a framework to guide and assess retailer best practice in supply chain environmental improvement. Commonly used product standards and improvement measures are classified into "basic" or "good" levels of environmental protection. A hierarchy of eight Best Environmental Management Practices (BEMPs) is proposed to systematically identify and improve the most environmentally damaging supply chains across retail assortments. Widespread third party environmental certification is the most transparent and verifiable mechanism of improvement but may not be appropriate for some supply chains. The enforcement of retailer-defined environmental requirements, and supplier improvement programmes based on performance benchmarking and dissemination of better management practices, are alternative BEMPs that may be used in combination with third party certification. Facilitating consumer selection of frontrunner ecological products is a lower priority BEMP owing to the well documented limitations of this approach. From available data, the highest current or credible-target sales shares of products improved according to the highest priority BEMP and environmental protection level were used to derive "benchmarks of excellence" for each of the 14 product groups. The assessment framework is demonstrated through application to three retailers.

  18. Phosphorus and Potassium Content of Enhanced Meat and Poultry Products: Implications for Patients Who Receive Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ojas

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Uncooked meat and poultry products are commonly enhanced by food processors using phosphate salts. The addition of potassium and phosphorus to these foods has been recognized but not quantified. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We measured the phosphorus, potassium, and protein content of 36 uncooked meat and poultry products: Phosphorus using the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) official method 984.27, potassium using AOAC official method 985.01, and protein using AOAC official method 990.03. Results: Products that reported the use of additives had an average phosphate-protein ratio 28% higher than additive free products; the content ranged up to almost 100% higher. Potassium content in foods with additives varied widely; additive free products all contained <387 mg/100 g, whereas five of the 25 products with additives contained at least 692 mg/100 g (maximum 930 mg/100 g). Most but not all foods with phosphate and potassium additives reported the additives (unquantified) on the labeling; eight of 25 enhanced products did not list the additives. The results cannot be applied to other products. The composition of the food additives used by food processors may change over time. Conclusions: Uncooked meat and poultry products that are enhanced may contain additives that increase phosphorus and potassium content by as much as almost two- and three-fold, respectively; this modification may not be discernible from inspection of the food label. PMID:19628683

  19. Bacteriophage application on red meats and poultry: Effects on Salmonella population in final ground products.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Y; Purushothaman, P; Gupta, N; Ragnone, M; Verma, S C; de Mello, A S

    2017-05-01

    This research was conducted to study the effects of bacteriophage application during tumbling on Salmonella populations in ground meat and poultry. Red meat trim and poultry were inoculated with a Salmonella cocktail to result in a contamination level of 7logCFU/g in ground products. A commercial preparation containing bacteriophages S16 and Felix-O1a (FO1a) was applied during tumbling at 10(7) and 10(8)PFU/ml. Samples were held at 4°C for 6h and 18h (red meat) and 30min and 6h (poultry). Overall, bacteriophage application on trim reduced 1 and 0.8logCFU/g of Salmonella in ground beef and ground pork, respectively. For ground chicken and ground turkey, Salmonella was reduced by 1.1 and 0.9logCFU/g, respectively. This study shows that bacteriophage application during tumbling of red meat trim and poultry can provide additional Salmonella control in ground products.

  20. Poultry production: a model for developing interactive Internet-based distance education.

    PubMed

    Emmert, J L; Shortridge, A M; Sexton, S L

    2003-05-01

    Over the last several decades, many poultry science programs have merged with other departments, but the poultry industry has undergone tremendous expansion worldwide, leading to a growing instructional void with regard to poultry production information. The objective of this project was to address the demand for information by developing two Web-based poultry production courses that cover management of broilers, turkeys, breeders, and layers. The Internet was chosen as the platform because it is asynchronous and may be accessed from any connected site around the world. To be effective, web-based courseware must be theoretically grounded and interactive, but university-level web-based distance education courses often fail to meet these standards. During courseware development, the impact of instructional techniques and technologies on interactivity and learning outcomes was explored. A content expert, an instructional designer, and a graphic artist carefully reviewed a variety of instructional techniques to increase interactivity. Concept mapping was chosen because it has been shown to be a superior learning tool for enhancing the exchange of ideas and knowledge between instructors, students, and content. A unique instructional interface was established that includes threaded e-mail discussion, thought questions, animation, hypertext, rollover interactions, video clips, and concept mapping exercises. Results indicate that the integration of concept mapping into web-based learning environments successfully increased interactivity and learning outcomes.

  1. Molecular characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are human pathogens frequently isolated from poultry. As a step towards implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance (COIPARS), this study characterized molecular patt...

  2. Integration of a linear accelerator into a production line of mechanically deboned separated poultry meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat, Theo; Volle, Christophe

    2000-03-01

    Linear accelerators, commonly called Linacs, are being used for different industrial processes. This kind of machine produces high power electron beams and can treat many products with a high throughput. The main application of a Linac is the sterilization of medical disposable devices, polymerization and decontamination of food products. Salmonella commonly contaminates poultry. Thanks to E-beam treatment, it eradicates the pathogen quickly and permits the use of meat that should have been thrown away because of its infection. The world's first Linac dedicated to treat mechanically deboned poultry meat is located in Brittany at the Société des Protéines Industrielles. It is a Thomson CSF Linac product, the CIRCE II, with an energy of 10 MeV and a power of 10 kW. This Linac has been used for more than 8 years, and its technology is fully proven.

  3. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    PubMed

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-12

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented.

  5. Comparative evaluation of biogas production from poultry droppings, cow dung and lemon grass.

    PubMed

    Alfa, I M; Dahunsi, S O; Iorhemen, O T; Okafor, C C; Ajayi, S A

    2014-04-01

    The study explored the production of biogas from Lemon grass, Cow dung and Poultry droppings. The three substrates were pre-fermented according to standard methods. Six (6) kg of each pre-fermented substrate was mixed with water in ratio 1:1 v/v to form slurry and digested for 30days. A total of 0.125m(3), 0.191m(3) and 0.211m(3) of biogas were respectively produced from the Lemon grass, Cow dung and Poultry droppings with deviations of 0.00234m(3), 0.00289 m(3) and 0.00484 m(3) respectively. The cooking test carried out revealed that the scrubbed gas had higher cooking rates for water (0.12L/min, 0.085L/min and 0.079L/min for Lemon grass, Cow dung and Poultry droppings respectively) while the cooking rates for unscrubbed gas were 0.079L/min, 0.064L/min and 0.06L/min respectively. The pH of the medium fluctuated optimally between 6.5 and 7.8. The research demonstrated that Lemon grass produced less volume but better quality biogas compared to Cow dung and Poultry droppings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production, characterization and antioxidant potential of protease from Streptomyces sp. MAB18 using poultry wastes.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Poultry waste is an abundant renewable source for the recovery of several value-added metabolites with potential industrial applications. This study describes the production of protease on poultry waste, with the subsequent use of the same poultry waste for the extraction of antioxidants. An extracellular protease-producing strain was isolated from Cuddalore coast, India, and identified as Streptomyces sp. MAB18. Its protease was purified 17.13-fold with 21.62% yield with a specific activity of 2398.36 U/mg and the molecular weight was estimated as 43 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 8-10 and temperature 50-60 ° C and it was most stable up to pH 12 and 6-12% of NaCl concentration. The enzyme activity was reduced when treated with Hg(2+), Pb(2+), and SDS and stimulated by Fe(2+), Mg(2+), Triton X-100, DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), sodium sulphite, and β-mercaptoethanol. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of protease were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant assays, such as DPPH radical-scavenging activity, O2 scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, Fe(2+) chelating activity, and reducing power. The enzyme showed important antioxidant potential with an IC50 value of 78 ± 0.28 mg/mL. Results of the present study indicate that the poultry waste-derived protease may be useful as supplementary protein and antioxidant in the animal feed formulations.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production

    PubMed Central

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R.; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B.; Hiott, Lari M.; Chambers, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  8. Vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis ameliorates drug resistance in commercial poultry production

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, H. David; Jeffers, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a problem wherever livestock are raised under intensive conditions and drugs are used to combat parasitic infections. This is particularly true for the anticoccidial agents used for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by protozoa of the apicomplexan genus Eimeria in poultry. Resistance has been documented for all the dozen or so drugs approved for use in chickens and varying levels of resistance is present for those currently employed. A possible solution may be the introduction of drug-sensitive parasites into the houses where poultry are raised so that they may replace such drug-resistant organisms. This can be achieved by utilizing live vaccines that contain strains of Eimeria that were isolated before most anticoccidial compounds were introduced. Such strains are inherently drug-sensitive. Practical proposals to achieve this objective involve the alternation of vaccination with medication (known as rotation programs) in successive flocks reared in the same poultry house. A proposal for a yearly broiler production cycle involving chemotherapy and vaccination is presented. There are few, if any, examples in veterinary parasitology where it has proved possible to restore sensitivity to drugs used to control a widespread parasite. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether this can result in sustainable and long-term control of Eimeria infections in poultry. PMID:25516830

  9. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Windisch, W; Schedle, K; Plitzner, C; Kroismayr, A

    2008-04-01

    This article summarizes the experimental knowledge on efficacy, possible modes of action, and aspects of application of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Phytogenic feed additives comprise a wide variety of herbs, spices, and products derived thereof, and are mainly essential oils. The assumption that phytogenic compounds might improve the palatability of feed has not yet been confirmed by choice-feeding studies. Although numerous studies have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. The same applies to the supposition that phytogenic compounds may specifically enhance activities of digestive enzymes and nutrient absorption. Nevertheless, a limited number of experimental comparisons of phytogenic feed additives with antibiotics and organic acids have suggested similar effects on the gut, such as reduced bacterial colony counts, fewer fermentation products (including ammonia and biogenic amines), less activity of the gut-associated lymphatic system, and a greater prececal nutrient digestion, probably reflecting an overall improved gut equilibrium. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. Such effects may explain a considerable number of practical studies with swine and poultry reporting improved production performance after providing phytogenic feed additives. In total, available evidence indicates that phytogenic feed additives may add to the set of nonantibiotic growth promoters for use in livestock, such as organic acids and probiotics. However, a systematic approach toward the efficacy and safety of phytogenic compounds used as feed additives for swine and poultry is still missing.

  10. Restrictions on the reimbursement policy with regard to retail marketing of medicinal products in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, the law of 12 May 2011 on the reimbursement of medicines, food products of special nutritional purpose and medicinal products, intended to tighten up the reimbursement system, came into force in Poland. The new legislative act has significantly altered the previous principles of retail marketing of products subject to publicly financed reimbursement. First of all, the prices of reimbursed products have been unified through the introduction of fixed margins and prices and a ban--completely unknown until now--on using free market sales practices. These regulations are intended to lead to the abolition of price competition and its replacement with competition as to the quality of services provided by pharmacies. At the same time, entities engaged in retail marketing of medicinal products have been imposed a number of new obligations and highly repressive penalties for failure to fulfill them. The paper analyzes the legislative changes and points out the consequences, both those which can already be seen and the predictable ones. The assumed priority and criterion of evaluation of the reimbursement policy in question is its impact on the functioning of pharmacies which, according to the premises of Polish pharmaceutical law, should play the role of public health protection institutions.

  11. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT41 in Danish poultry production.

    PubMed

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hintzmann, Ann-Sofie; Sørensen, Gitte; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2015-07-09

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most prevalent serovars in Europe - where both poultry and poultry related products are common sources of human salmonellosis. Due to efficient control programs, the prevalence of S. Typhimurium in Danish poultry production is very low. Despite this, during the past decades there has been a reoccurring problem with infections with S. Typhimurium phage type DT41 in the Danish poultry production without identifying a clear source. In the end of 2013 and beginning of 2014 an increased isolation of S. Typhimurium DT41 was noted mainly in this production, but also in other samples. To investigate this is in more detail, 47 isolates from egg layers (n=5, 1 flock), broilers (n=33, 13 flocks), broiler breeding flocks and hatches (n=5; 2 flocks and 1 environmental hatchery sample), feed (n=1), poultry slaughter house (n=3, environmental sample and meat) were typed with multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to investigate the epidemiology of the outbreak. Based on PFGE results isolates were divided into four groups (Simpson's index of diversity (DI)=0.24±0.15). Due to the low DI, PFGE was not sufficient to provide information to unravel the outbreak. Based on MLVA typing the DT41 (42/47 isolates) and the RDNC isolates (5/47) were split into nine groups (DI=0.65±0.14). When a maximum divergence at one locus was permitted these could be gathered into four groups. Using this criterion, combined with epidemiological information, a spread of one type from broiler breeders to broilers and further to the poultry slaughter house was plausible. In conclusion, although it could be concluded that a spread within the broiler production pyramid had taken place the source of the sudden increase of S. Typhimurium DT41 remains unclear. To investigate this in more detail, further studies using whole genome sequencing to obtain a

  12. Thermochemical pre- and biological co-treatments to improve hydrolysis and methane production from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Costa, J C; Barbosa, S G; Alves, M M; Sousa, D Z

    2012-05-01

    The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of raw poultry litter waste was assessed in batch assays. Biological co-treatment with Clostridium cellulolyticum, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum as bioaugmentation strains, and thermochemical pre-treatments with lime and sodium hydroxide performed at different temperatures and pressures were applied as strategies to improve the BMP by favouring the hydrolysis of the cellulolytic material in the waste. Anaerobic digestion of the raw waste allowed a specific methane production of 145 ± 14 LCH(4)kg(-1)VS, with 1% total solids and 0.72 g VS(inoculum)g(-1)VS(waste). The pre- and co-treatments contributed to a significant increase (up to 74%) in the waste solubilisation when using C. saccharolyticum, but methane production did not improve considerably. Therefore, the conversion of soluble organic matter to methane was the limiting step of the anaerobic digestion process of poultry litter waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of Campylobacter on the outer surface of retail broiler chicken meat packages and on product within

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare prevalence of Campylobacter on the outside of broiler meat packages to the product inside the same packages. Chicken meat products were purchased at retail. Samples comprised whole carcasses and six different cut-up part products. Fifteen packages of eac...

  14. Detection of Clostridium difficile in retail ground meat products in Manitoba

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Monique; Sepehrim, Shadi; Olson, Nancy; Du, Tim; Mulvey, Michael R; Alfa, Michelle J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether Clostridium difficile was present in uncooked retail ground beef and ground pork products sold in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Using an alcohol treatment protocol and inoculation of cultures on C difficile Moxalactam Norfloxacin (CDMN), toxigenic C difficile was found in 6.3% of 48 meat samples. The C difficile isolates belonged to different pulsotypes, all of which had been previously isolated from the stool of Manitoba patients with C difficile disease. Because cooking of meat will not eradicate C difficile spores, this raises a concern regarding potential foodborne transmissibility of this organism. PMID:23450202

  15. Survey of sensitizing components of oxidative hair dyes (retail and professional products) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kirchlechner, Stephan; Hübner, Anja; Uter, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Components of oxidative hair dyes, such as p-toluylenediamine, are very potent contact sensitizers to which many consumers as well as hairdressers and their clients are commonly exposed. Based on the qualitative composition of both retail and professional haircare products as determined by package labeling (according to INCI), we conducted a survey on the exposure to active components of oxidative hair dyes in Germany. The joint occurrence of components is also discussed. Nearly all of the 20 most commonly used substances are potent or very potent contact sensitizers. Contained in 88 % of all products, p-toluylenediamine is the most common component. There are only minor differences between retail and professional products. A frequent combination of substances includes p-toluylenediamine (sulfate), resorcinol as well as m-aminophenol. However, their actual concentrations (which were not investigated in this study) may vastly differ depending on the shade of the individual hair dye. Descriptive univariate analysis reveals that the currently used patch test series "Hairdressing Chemicals", as recommended by the German Contact Allergy Research Group (DKG), does not adequately cover the spectrum of allergens consumers and professionals are exposed to. Other studies have also suggested that a number of other allergens should be tested as well. Taking into account the dynamic kinetics of oxidative hair dyes with respect to allergy development, the effects of combined simultaneous exposure to multiple allergens on the risk of sensitization requires further research. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prevalence, Virulence Genes, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus from Retail Aquatic Products in China

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Dongli; Wu, Qingping; Xu, Mingfang; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes severe blood and tissue infections or even fatal illnesses. Although S. aureus has been extensively studied in livestock and poultry foods in China, limited information has been reported in aquatic products. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to characterize S. aureus in aquatic products purchased from retail markets in China. In total, 320 aquatic food samples were collected from 32 provincial capitals in China. The results showed that 119 samples (37.2%, 119/320) were positive for S. aureus by both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The contamination levels of 78.2% of samples ranged from 0.3 to 10 MPN/g, and six samples exceeded 110 MPN/g. A total of 119 S. aureus isolates from positive samples were selected to evaluate virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characteristics. All S. aureus isolates were evaluated for the presence of 11 virulence genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and α-hemolysin (hlα, 84.9%), fibronectin-binding protein A (fnbA, 79.0%), S. aureus enterotoxin E (see, 53.8%), and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (pvl, 50.4%) were identified as the major genes. These genes formed 56 different profiles, with the major profile identified as pvl-hlα-fnbA (28.6%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all isolates was analyzed through the disk diffusion method, and the results showed high resistance to β-lactams, macrolides and tetracyclines, but susceptibility to linezolid and vancomycin. In addition, 26 sequence types (STs) were obtained via multilocus sequence typing, including seven novel STs, among which ST1 (20.2%), ST15 (18.5%), and ST188 (13.4%) were the most common STs. All the isolates were mecC negative, but nine isolates carrying mecA were evaluated by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, all of which were SCCmecIII or SCCmecIV types. Isolates of SCCmecIII showed a high prevalence and were multidrug

  17. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica strains isolated from Brazilian poultry production.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Samara P; Drescher, Guilherme; Barth, Valdir C; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles and presence of resistance determinants and integrons were evaluated in Salmonella enterica strains from Brazilian poultry. The analysis of 203 isolates showed that those from the poultry environment (88 isolates) were significantly more resistant to antimicrobials than isolates from other sources, particularly those isolated from poultry by-product meal (106 isolates). Thirty-seven isolates were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes. Class 1 integrons were detected in 26 isolates, and the analysis of the variable region between the 5' conserved segment (CS) and 3' CS of each class 1 integron-positive isolate showed that 13 contained a typical 3' CS and 14 contained an atypical 3' CS. One Salmonella Senftenberg isolate harbored two class 1 integrons, showing both typical and atypical 3' CSs. The highest percentage of resistance was found to sulfonamides, and sul genes were detected in the majority of the resistant isolates. Aminoglycoside resistance was detected in 50 isolates, and aadA and aadB were present in 28 and 32 isolates, respectively. In addition, strA and strB were detected in 78.1 and 65.6% isolates resistant to streptomycin, respectively. Twenty-one isolates presented reduced susceptibility to β-lactams and harbored bla(TEM), bla(CMY), and/or bla(CTX-M). Forty isolates showed reduced susceptibility to tetracycline, and most presented tet genes. These results highlight the importance of the environment as a reservoir of resistant Salmonella, which may enable the persistence of resistance determinants in the poultry production chain, contributing, therefore, to the debate regarding the impacts that antimicrobial use in animal production may exert in human health.

  18. Assessing the Performance of Clostridium perfringens Cooling Models for Cooked, Uncured Meat and Poultry Products.

    PubMed

    Mohr, T B; Juneja, V K; Thippareddi, H H; Schaffner, D W; Bronstein, P A; Silverman, M; Cook, L V

    2015-08-01

    Heat-resistant spores of Clostridium perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products when the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP uncured beef, chicken, and pork models; Smith-Schaffner version 3; and UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor) were evaluated for relative performance in predicting growth of C. perfringens under dynamic temperature conditions encountered during cooling of cooked, uncured meat and poultry products. The predicted growth responses from the models were extensively compared with those observed in food. Data from 188 time-temperature cooling profiles (176 for single-rate exponential cooling and 12 for dual-rate exponential cooling) were collected from 17 independent sources (16 peer-reviewed publications and one report) for model evaluation. Data were obtained for a variety of cooked products, including meat and poultry slurries, ground meat and poultry products with and without added ingredients (e.g., potato starch, sodium triphosphate, and potassium tetrapyrophosphate), and processed products such as ham and roast beef. Performance of the models was evaluated using three sets of criteria, and accuracy was defined within a 1- to 2-log range. The percentages of accurate, fail-safe, or fail-dangerous predictions for each cooling model differed depending on which criterion was used to evaluate the data set. Nevertheless, the combined percentages of accurate and fail-safe predictions based on the three performance criteria were 34.66 to 42.61% for the PMP 7.0 beef broth model, 100% for the PMIP cooling models for uncured beef, uncured pork and uncured chicken, 80.11 to 93.18% for the Smith-Schaffner cooling model, and 74.43 to 85.23% for the UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor model during single-rate exponential chilling. Except for the PMP 7.0 broth model, the other five cooling models (PMIP, Smith-Schaffner, and UK IFR ComBase) are

  19. Safe application of regionalization for trade in poultry and poultry products during highly pathogenic Avian Influenza outbreaks in USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2014-15 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 49.7 million poultry in the stamping-out...

  20. Biogas production from poultry rendering plant anaerobic digesters: systems comparison

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  1. Comparing Occupational Health and Safety Management System Programming with Injury Rates in Poultry Production.

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Douphrate, David I; Román-Muñiz, Ivette N; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses in animal production agriculture are sorely needed. One approach that may be helpful for agriculture producers is the adoption of occupational health and safety management systems. In this replication study, the authors compared the injury rates on 32 poultry growing operations with the level of occupational health and safety management system programming at each farm. Overall correlations between injury rates and programming level were determined, as were correlations between individual management system subcomponents to ascertain which parts might be the most useful for poultry producers. It was found that, in general, higher levels of occupational health and safety management system programming were associated with lower rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, and that Management Leadership was the system subcomponent with the strongest correlation. The strength and significance of the observed associations were greater on poultry farms with more complete management system assessments. These findings are similar to those from a previous study of the dairy production industry, suggesting that occupational health and safety management systems may hold promise as a comprehensive way for producers to improve occupational health and safety performance. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such systems to reduce farm work injuries and illnesses. These results are timely given the increasing focus on occupational safety and health management systems.

  2. Public Health Effects of Restricting Retail Tobacco Product Displays and Ads.

    PubMed

    Levy, David T; Lindblom, Eric N; Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James; Mohlman, Mary Kate; Zhang, Yian; Monshouwer, Karin; Nagelhout, Gera E

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the public health impact from restricting US retail point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays and advertising. Based on existing research, this paper estimates the effects on initiation and cessation rates from restricting POS tobacco product displays and ads in the US and uses the SimSmoke simulation model to project related smoking declines and health benefits. New comprehensive POS restrictions are projected to reduce smoking prevalence by approximately 16% [range=3%-31%] relative to the status quo by 2065, preventing about 630,000 smoking-attributable deaths [range=108,000-1,225,000], 215,000 low birth weight births [range=33,000-421,000], 140,000 preterm births [range=22,000-271,000], and 1900 infant deaths from SIDSs [range=300-3800]. Federal, state, or local action to restrict POS tobacco product displays and ads would contribute to a substantial reduction in smoking-attributed death and disease.

  3. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equivalency. (2) Stabilization. There can be no multiplication of toxigenic microorganisms such as Clostridium botulinum, and no more than a 1 log10 multiplication of Clostridium perfringens within the product. (b...

  4. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... equivalency. (2) Stabilization. There can be no multiplication of toxigenic microorganisms such as Clostridium botulinum, and no more than a 1 log10 multiplication of Clostridium perfringens within the product. (b...

  5. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... equivalency. (2) Stabilization. There can be no multiplication of toxigenic microorganisms such as Clostridium botulinum, and no more than a 1 log10 multiplication of Clostridium perfringens within the product. (b...

  6. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equivalency. (2) Stabilization. There can be no multiplication of toxigenic microorganisms such as Clostridium botulinum, and no more than a 1 log10 multiplication of Clostridium perfringens within the product. (b...

  7. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equivalency. (2) Stabilization. There can be no multiplication of toxigenic microorganisms such as Clostridium botulinum, and no more than a 1 log10 multiplication of Clostridium perfringens within the product. (b...

  8. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  9. High pressure inactivation of relevant target microorganisms in poultry meat products and the evaluation of pressure-induced protein denaturation of marinated poultry under different high pressure treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidgall, Johanna; Hertel, Christian; Bindrich, Ute; Heinz, Volker; Toepfl, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the possibility of extending shelf life of marinated poultry meat products by high pressure processing was evaluated. Relevant spoilage and pathogenic strains were selected and used as target microorganisms (MOs) for challenge experiments. Meat and brine were inoculated with MOs and treated at 450 MPa, 4 °C for 3 min. The results of inactivation show a decreasing pressure tolerance in the series Lactobacillus > Arcobacter > Carnobacterium > Bacillus cereus > Brochothrix thermosphacta > Listeria monocytogenes. Leuconostoc gelidum exhibited the highest pressure tolerance in meat. A protective effect of poultry meat was found for L. sakei and L. gelidum. In parallel, the influence of different marinade formulations (pH, carbonates, citrates) on protein structure changes during a pressure treatment was investigated. Addition of sodium carbonate shows a protection against denaturation of myofibrillar proteins and provides a maximum water-holding capacity. Caustic marinades allowed a higher retention of product characteristics than low-pH marinades.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from different poultry production systems at slaughterhouse level.

    PubMed

    Fraqueza, M J; Martins, A; Borges, A C; Fernandes, M H; Fernandes, M J; Vaz, Y; Bessa, R J B; Barreto, A S

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current work was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolated from different chicken production systems at the slaughterhouse level. Chicken sampling at slaughterhouse was performed for cecum, carcass, and breast meat from flocks of organic (n = 6), extensive indoor (n = 14), and intensive production (n = 14), totaling 34 ceca pools, 64 neck skin pools, and 132 breasts, representing 96,386 chickens. A collection of 167 strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (n = 85) and Campylobacter jejuni (n = 82) and were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. The frequency of Campylobacter in chicken samples from different production systems was between 79 and 100%. Campylobacter isolated from all origins were resistant to the fluoroquinolones studied (80-98%). However, for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, the Campylobacter isolates from extensive indoor chicken were significantly (P < 0.05) less resistant (77 and 58%) than that from organic (97 and 91%) and intensive production (96 and 95%). A high probability of tetracycline resistance occurrence was also found for the Campylobacter spp. tested (58% for C. jejuni and 76% for C. coli). A more frequent profile of multidrug resistance was noticed for isolates from intensive and organic production than for extensive indoor production. These results reinforce the need of efficient strategy implementation to control and reduce Campylobacter in chickens at production and slaughter levels, and the necessity to reduce the use of antimicrobials in poultry sector. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  12. The interim regulated legal market for NPS ('legal high') products in New Zealand: The impact of new retail restrictions and product licensing.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand has recently established the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive products (NPS) (i.e. 'legal highs'). While the new regime is currently in a transitional phase, a range of retail restrictions and an interim licensing regime for NPS products and operators has been introduced. A product safety assessment framework has been developed to determine if a product should receive an interim licence. As a result of the licensing requirements, the number of NPS retail outlets fell from 3000- 4000 largely convenience stores to 156 specialty stores, and the number of legally available NPS products fell from 200 to fewer than 46. Some of the licensed products contain potent cannabinoid compounds. The licensing system provided, for the first time, information on all the products and operators involved in the sector, and this will assist future monitoring. The effectiveness of the new product safety assessment framework will depend on the quality of the data available on adverse cases. This is a challenge as self-reported information from users is often unreliable, and some emergency department cases do not have all the information required to make an accurate assessment. These data limitations indicate the need for retrospective studies of NPS adverse cases and additional test data. While the new legislation initially reduced the number of NPS retailers by prohibiting convenience outlets, new specialized NPS retail outlets may emerge as the new sector expands. Empirical research is required to measure the impact of the reduction in retail outlets and products on NPS availability.

  13. Seasonal variation in Campylobacter-contaminated retail chicken products: a year-round investigation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kanako; Takahashi, Ryuta; Andoh, Masako; Ueno, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Tamura, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter was isolated from retail meat samples collected during the fiscal year 2009 in Japan. The higher percentages of contamination of chicken products were observed from June (39.3%) to November (83.3%). However, the highest number of human campylobacteriosis cases was reported in June in the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report. The chicken isolates with distinct clusters IVb and I, based on the restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene, were predominantly obtained during the periods between April and November 2009 and between February and March 2010, respectively. Extensive monitoring of Campylobacter contamination in chickens produced in various places is needed to analyse the seasonal variations between contamination of the meat products and the number of human cases with campylobacteriosis.

  14. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  15. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  16. Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Commercial Poultry Production Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Joshua R.; English, Linda L.; Carr, Lewis E.; Wagner, David D.; Joseph, Sam W.

    2004-01-01

    The potential impact of food animals in the production environment on the bacterial population as a result of antimicrobial drug use for growth enhancement continues to be a cause for concern. Enterococci from 82 farms within a poultry production region on the eastern seaboard were isolated to establish a baseline of susceptibility profiles for a number of antimicrobials used in production as well as clinical environments. Of the 541 isolates recovered, Enterococcus faecalis (53%) and E. faecium (31%) were the predominant species, while multiresistant antimicrobial phenotypes were observed among all species. The prevalence of resistance among isolates of E. faecalis was comparatively higher among lincosamide, macrolide, and tetracycline antimicrobials, while isolates of E. faecium were observed to be more frequently resistant to fluoroquinolones and penicillins. Notably, 63% of the E. faecium isolates were resistant to the streptogramin quinupristin-dalfopristin, while high-level gentamicin resistance was observed only among the E. faecalis population, of which 7% of the isolates were resistant. The primary observations are that enterococci can be frequently isolated from the poultry production environment and can be multiresistant to antimicrobials used in human medicine. The high frequency with which resistant enterococci are isolated from this environment suggests that these organisms might be useful as sentinels to monitor the development of resistance resulting from the usage of antimicrobial agents in animal production. PMID:15466544

  17. National Meat Case Study 2004: Fresh product types and allocation of retail space.

    PubMed

    Reicks, A L; Brooks, J C; Kelly, J M; Kuecker, W G; Boillot, K; Irion, R; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    Fresh meat retail cases in 104 supermarkets across 5 regions of the United States were audited for product space allocation, percentage of space allocated to each fresh meat category and frequency of species among all stock keeping units (n = 14,863). The United States was divided into Mountain/Southwest, Midwest, Northeast, Southeast, and West Coast regions. Fresh meat categories for self-service cases included beef muscle cuts, ground beef, pork, veal, lamb, chicken, turkey, fresh sausage, value-added, heat and serve, ham-bone-in, ham-boneless, ham steak, other processed meats, seafood, and nonmeat items. Fresh meat categories for the full-service case included seafood, beef, pork, chicken, and other. Whole muscle beef, pork, and chicken products were available in all stores. Ground beef products and turkey were reported in almost all stores, 94.5 to 100%, respectively. The majority of the self-service meat case was dedicated to beef in all regions except for the Northeast, where chicken occupied the majority of the self-service case. Linear meters of self-service fresh meat case were greatest in the Northeast region, which was similar to Mountain and Midwest regions, but different (P = 0.003) than the Southeast and West Coast regions. However, the West Coast region best utilized the retail meat case by providing consumers with the greatest number of offerings per linear meter. The percentage of stores audited with a full-service meat case was 37.5%, and the percentage with a full-service seafood case was 60.6%. The full-service meat case was the smallest (number of linear meters, P = 0.039) in the Southeast and largest (number of linear meters, P = 0.039) in the Midwest.

  18. Assessment of the Microbial Level for Livestock Products in Retail Meat Shops Implementing HACCP System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-hyun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the microbial contamination levels in livestock products at retail stores. Beef, pork, and chicken samples from raw materials and final products were obtained between January and December 2015. All homogenized meat samples (25 g) were tested for the aerobic plate count (APC), coliform count (CC), and Escherichia coli count (E. coli). The highest APCs in meat samples, by month, at retail shops were obtained in September, followed by July, May, and October (p<0.001). However, APC was the highest in summer and the lowest in winter (p<0.001). Average APCs for beef, pork, and chicken samples were 2.90, 3.19, and 3.79 Log CFU/g, respectively (p<0.05). A comparison between different months revealed that, CC levels in meat samples ranged from 0 to 1.13 CFU/g, and the highest CC was obtained in August (p<0.001). By season, the highest CC was found in the summer, followed by autumn, and spring (p<0.001). All meat samples were negative for E. coli. The average log10APC and CC for all samples was 3.10 and 0.37 Log CFU/g, respectively. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between the season and coliform presence (p<0.001). There was also a positive correlation between the APC and CC (r = 0.517, p<0.001). The microbiological APCs for livestock products were in most cases below 106 CFU/g. PMID:27857534

  19. Assessment of the Microbial Level for Livestock Products in Retail Meat Shops Implementing HACCP System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Yim, Dong-Gyun

    2016-10-31

    This study aimed to examine the microbial contamination levels in livestock products at retail stores. Beef, pork, and chicken samples from raw materials and final products were obtained between January and December 2015. All homogenized meat samples (25 g) were tested for the aerobic plate count (APC), coliform count (CC), and Escherichia coli count (E. coli). The highest APCs in meat samples, by month, at retail shops were obtained in September, followed by July, May, and October (p<0.001). However, APC was the highest in summer and the lowest in winter (p<0.001). Average APCs for beef, pork, and chicken samples were 2.90, 3.19, and 3.79 Log CFU/g, respectively (p<0.05). A comparison between different months revealed that, CC levels in meat samples ranged from 0 to 1.13 CFU/g, and the highest CC was obtained in August (p<0.001). By season, the highest CC was found in the summer, followed by autumn, and spring (p<0.001). All meat samples were negative for E. coli. The average log10APC and CC for all samples was 3.10 and 0.37 Log CFU/g, respectively. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between the season and coliform presence (p<0.001). There was also a positive correlation between the APC and CC (r = 0.517, p<0.001). The microbiological APCs for livestock products were in most cases below 10(6) CFU/g.

  20. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, I.; Joardar, S. N.; Ganguli, D.; Das, P. K.; Sarkar, U.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coliweek post-hatch period chicks were contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05). As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock) in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock) which also differs significantly (p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production. PMID:27047068

  1. Next-generation sequencing: the future of molecular genetics in poultry production and food safety.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, S; Hanning, I; Pendleton, Sean; D'Souza, Doris

    2013-02-01

    The era of molecular biology and automation of the Sanger chain-terminator sequencing method has led to discovery and advances in diagnostics and biotechnology. The Sanger methodology dominated research for over 2 decades, leading to significant accomplishments and technological improvements in DNA sequencing. Next-generation high-throughput sequencing (HT-NGS) technologies were developed subsequently to overcome the limitations of this first generation technology that include higher speed, less labor, and lowered cost. Various platforms developed include sequencing-by-synthesis 454 Life Sciences, Illumina (Solexa) sequencing, SOLiD sequencing (among others), and the Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing technologies that use different detection principles. As technology advances, progress made toward third generation sequencing technologies are being reported, which include Nanopore Sequencing and real-time monitoring of PCR activity through fluorescent resonant energy transfer. The advantages of these technologies include scalability, simplicity, with increasing DNA polymerase performance and yields, being less error prone, and even more economically feasible with the eventual goal of obtaining real-time results. These technologies can be directly applied to improve poultry production and enhance food safety. For example, sequence-based (determination of the gut microbial community, genes for metabolic pathways, or presence of plasmids) and function-based (screening for function such as antibiotic resistance, or vitamin production) metagenomic analysis can be carried out. Gut microbialflora/communities of poultry can be sequenced to determine the changes that affect health and disease along with efficacy of methods to control pathogenic growth. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the principles of these current technologies and their potential application to improve poultry production and food safety as well as public health.

  2. 9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States. 381.196 Section 381.196 Animals and Animal Products...) Random sampling and testing at the point of slaughter of carcasses, including internal organs and fat...

  3. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) exists. (a) Products or byproducts...

  4. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) exists. (a) Products or byproducts...

  5. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) exists. (a) Products or byproducts...

  6. Riding in shopping carts and exposure to raw meat and poultry products: prevalence of, and factors associated with, this risk factor for salmonella and campylobacter infection in children younger than 3 years.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Mary E; Mahon, Barbara E; Zansky, Shelley M; Hurd, Sharon; Scallan, Elaine

    2010-06-01

    Riding in a shopping cart next to raw meat or poultry is a risk factor for Salmonella and Campylobacter infections in infants. To describe the frequency of, and factors associated with, this behavior, we surveyed parents of children aged younger than 3 years in Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network sites. We defined exposure as answering yes to one of a series of questions asking if packages of raw meat or poultry were near a child in a shopping cart, or if a child was in the cart basket at the same time as was raw meat or poultry. Among 1,273 respondents, 767 (60%) reported that their children visited a grocery store in the past week and rode in shopping carts. Among these children, 103 (13%) were exposed to raw products. Children who rode in the baskets were more likely to be exposed than were those who rode only in the seats (odds ratio [OR], 17.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0 to 28.9). In a multivariate model, riding in the basket (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 9.2 to 26.1), income less than $55,000 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5) were associated with exposure. Our study shows that children can be exposed to raw meat and poultry products while riding in shopping carts. Parents should separate children from raw products and place children in the seats rather than in the baskets of the cart. Retailer use of leak-proof packaging, customer placement of product in a plastic bag and on the rack underneath the cart, use of hand sanitizers and wipes, and consumer education may also be helpful.

  7. A review of the capacity for nutritional strategies to address environmental challenges in poultry production.

    PubMed

    Powers, W; Angel, R

    2008-10-01

    Poultry production faces increasing environmental challenges, in the United States and globally. Although the environmental impact of poultry production has been decreased, regulatory and social pressures mandate that further improvements be made to decrease the pollution potential even more. Concerns over air and water quality to date have been related primarily to nutrient issues, specifically N and P. Air emission concerns include N and sulfur emissions. More recently, states have addressed emissions of volatile organic compounds. Although no regulations have been developed that are targeted at food production, greenhouse gas emissions are receiving a great deal of attention in the United States. Nutrient-related water quality concerns have focused on N and P contributions to ground and surface waters, respectively. To address nutrient-related air and water quality concerns, nutritional strategies have focused on reducing nutrient excretions. These strategies have been very successful. However, strategies beyond just reducing nutrient excesses will be needed to meet future challenges that are not nutrient-related. Challenges such as pathogens, antimicrobials, and endocrine-disrupting compounds have received considerable attention recently. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the findings from nutrition research with respect to reducing environmental impact and to identify areas that merit attention in the near future, recognizing that many of the emerging environmental issues are not nutrient-related.

  8. Evaluation of detection methods for screening meat and poultry products for the presence of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, Valerie M; Gensler, Gary E; King, Robin K; Wu, John T; McMullen, Lynn M

    2005-12-01

    Rapid and molecular technologies such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation can reduce the time and labor involved in screening food products for the presence of pathogens. These technologies were compared with conventional culture methodology for the detection of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in raw and processed meat and poultry products. Recommended protocols were modified so that the same enrichment broths used in the culture methods were also used in the ELISA, PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation assays. The percent agreement between the rapid technologies and culture methods ranged from 80 to 100% depending on the pathogen detected and the method used. ELISA, PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation all performed well, with no statistical difference, compared with the culture method for the detection of E. coli O157:H7. ELISA performed better for the detection of Salmonella, with sensitivity and specificity rates of 100%. PCR performed better for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni, with 100% agreement to the culture method. PCR was highly sensitive for the detection of all the foodborne pathogens tested except Listeria monocytogenes. Although the lateral flow immunoprecipitation tests were statistically different from the culture methods for Salmonella and Listeria because of false-positive results, the tests did not produce any false negatives, indicating that this method would be suitable for screening meat and poultry products for these pathogens.

  9. Effect of poultry by-product meal on pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure and ascites in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Richard J.; Caston, Linda J.; Mirsalimi, S. Medhi; Leeson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that poultry by-product meal would produce a thermogenic response (an increased requirement for oxygen) resulting in an increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure and ascites in commercial broiler chickens. Four treatment groups, each with three replicates of 40 chicks, were fed a commercial broiler starter to day 21, grower to day 35, and the following experimental diets after day 35: group 1, commercial chicken broiler finisher; group 2, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry by-product meal added to replace part of the soyabean meal; group 3, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry fat added to replace the animal-vegetable (AV) fat; group 4, commercial chicken broiler finisher with both poultry by-product meal and poultry fat added to replace soyabean meal and AV fat. On day 35, pen temperature was reduced to 15°C, and on day 42 to 12°C. Mortality from ascites between days 35 and 56 was 11(9%) in group 2, 5(4%) in group 4 and 3(2.5%) in groups 1 and 3 The incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as measured by an increased right ventricle: total ventricle (RV:TV) ratio (RV:TV > 0.249) at processing on day 57, was higher in the groups receiving poultry by-product and poultry fat: 27(22.5%) in group 2, 26(21.7%) in group 3, and 20(16.7%) in group 4 compared to that of the controls 12(10%). PMID:17424018

  10. Salmonella enterica isolates from pasture-raised poultry exhibit antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons.

    PubMed

    Melendez, S N; Hanning, I; Han, J; Nayak, R; Clement, A R; Wooming, A; Hererra, P; Jones, F T; Foley, S L; Ricke, S C

    2010-12-01

    While considerable foodborne pathogen research has been conducted on conventionally produced broilers and turkeys, few studies have focused on free-range (organic) or pastured poultry. The current surveillance study was designed to isolate, identify and genetically characterize Salmonella from pastured poultry farm environment and from retail samples. In this study, 59 isolates were collected from two pastured poultry farms (n = 164; pens, feed, water and insect traps) and retail carcasses (n = 36) from a local natural foods store and a local processing plant. All isolates were serotyped and analysed phenotypically (antimicrobial resistance profiles) and genotypically (DNA fingerprints, plasmid profiles and integron analysis). Salmonella enterica was detected using standard microbiological methods. Salmonella Kentucky was the most prevalent serotype detected from the sampled sources (53%), followed by Salmonella Enteritidis (24%), Bareilly (10%), Mbandaka (7%), Montevideo (5%) or Newport (2%). All isolates were resistant to sulfisoxazole and novobiocin, and the majority (40/59) possessed class I integrons shown by PCR detection. Each Salmonella serotype elicited a distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprint profile, and unique differences were observed among the serotypes.  The findings of this study show that Salmonella serotypes isolated from pasture-raised poultry exhibit antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons.  This study demonstrates that despite the cessation of antibiotic usage in poultry production, antibiotic resistant Salmonella may still be recovered from the environment and poultry products. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 exists. (a...

  12. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 exists. (a...

  13. Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Roger B; Norman, Keri N; Andrews, Kathleen; Hume, Michael E; Scanlan, Charles M; Callaway, Todd R; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2011-12-01

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to human beings. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile in chickens and retail poultry meat in Texas. Seven C. difficile isolates were detected in fecal samples of 300 (2.3%) broiler chickens. Three cultivation procedures were evaluated for isolation of C. difficile from poultry meat and detected 1/32 (3.1%), 2/32 (6.2%), and 4/32 (12.5%) for the three procedures, respectively. Chicken and poultry meat isolates were characterized as toxinotype V and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis gel type-NAP7 or NAP7-variant. Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents in the current study suggested somewhat reduced resistance than reported for other meat or animal toxinotype V isolates.

  14. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with retail aquaculture products from Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Lu, Zhang; Li, Xinhui; Shi, Lei; Huang, Ying; Wang, Hua H

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant (ART) bacteria and representative antibiotic resistance (AR)-encoding genes associated with several aquaculture products from retail markets in Guangzhou, China. ART commensal bacteria were found in 100% of the products examined. Among 505 multidrug-resistant isolates examined, close to one-fourth contained intI and sul1 genes: 15% contained sul2 and 5% contained tet (E). Incidences of β-lactamase-encoding genes bla(TEM), bla(CMY) and erythromycin resistance determinants ermB and ermC were 4.5, 1.7, 1.3, and 0.3%, respectively. Most of the ART isolates identified from the rinse water were Aeromonas spp.; those from intestines belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae. Plasmid-associated intI and AR-encoding genes were identified in several ART isolates by Southern hybridization. Three multidrug resistance-encoding plasmids were transferred into Escherichia coli DH5 a by chemical transformation and led to acquired AR in the transformants. In addition, the AR traits in many isolates were quite stable, even in the absence of selective pressure. Further studies are needed to reveal risk factors associated with the aquaculture production chain for targeted AR mitigation.

  15. Public Health Effects of Restricting Retail Tobacco Product Displays and Ads

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David T.; Lindblom, Eric N.; Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James; Mohlman, Mary Kate; Zhang, Yian; Monshouwer, Karin; Nagelhout, Gera E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the public health impact from restricting US retail point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays and advertising. Methods Based on existing research, this paper estimates the effects on initiation and cessation rates from restricting POS tobacco product displays and ads in the US and uses the SimSmoke simulation model to project related smoking declines and health benefits. Results New comprehensive POS restrictions are projected to reduce smoking prevalence by approximately 16% [range=3%–31%] relative to the status quo by 2065, preventing about 630,000 smoking-attributable deaths [range=108,000–1,225,000], 215,000 low birth weight births [range=33,000–421,000], 140,000 preterm births [range=22,000–271,000], and 1900 infant deaths from SIDSs [range=300–3800]. Conclusions Federal, state, or local action to restrict POS tobacco product displays and ads would contribute to a substantial reduction in smoking-attributed death and disease. PMID:26191538

  16. Zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products and eggs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Natalie M; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha

    2015-02-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Zoonotic Potential of Escherichia coli Isolates from Retail Chicken Meat Products and Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Natalie M.; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. PMID:25480753

  18. Comprehensive resistome analysis reveals the prevalence of NDM and MCR-1 in Chinese poultry production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Rongmin; Li, Jiyun; Wu, Zuowei; Yin, Wenjuan; Schwarz, Stefan; Tyrrell, Jonathan M; Zheng, Yongjun; Wang, Shaolin; Shen, Zhangqi; Liu, Zhihai; Liu, Jianye; Lei, Lei; Li, Mei; Zhang, Qidi; Wu, Congming; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Yongning; Walsh, Timothy R; Shen, Jianzhong

    2017-02-06

    By 2030, the global population will be 8.5 billion, placing pressure on international poultry production, of which China is a key producer(1). From April 2017, China will implement the withdrawal of colistin as a growth promoter, removing over 8,000 tonnes per year from the Chinese farming sector(2). To understand the impact of banning colistin and the epidemiology of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli (using blaNDM and mcr-1 as marker genes), we sampled poultry, dogs, sewage, wild birds and flies. Here, we show that mcr-1, but not blaNDM, is prevalent in hatcheries, but blaNDM quickly contaminates flocks through dogs, flies and wild birds. We also screened samples directly for resistance genes to understand the true breadth and depth of the environmental and animal resistome. Direct sample testing for blaNDM and mcr-1 in hatcheries, commercial farms, a slaughterhouse and supermarkets revealed considerably higher levels of positive samples than the blaNDM- and mcr-1-positive E. coli, indicating a substantial segment of unseen resistome-a phenomenon we have termed the 'phantom resistome'. Whole-genome sequencing identified common blaNDM-positive E. coli shared among farms, flies, dogs and farmers, providing direct evidence of carbapenem-resistant E. coli transmission and environmental contamination.

  19. An original system for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial use in poultry production in France.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, C; Le Bouquin-Leneveu, S; Hardy, A; Haguet, D; Orand, J P; Sanders, P

    2005-12-01

    Data collection at the flock level on a continuous basis, for antimicrobial use surveillance purposes, provides a complex challenge. Using existing on-farm records, produced as part of the regulations for meat inspection, a sampling scheme was implemented to collect on a simple, representative and continuous basis, the forms providing history of antimicrobial consumption of poultry flocks slaughtered in Brittany. Relational database-stored information provided by the forms includes treatment purpose, antimicrobial drug administered, age at treatment and treatment duration. The aim of this study was to collect information describing antimicrobial drug use quantitatively and qualitatively, by computing the frequency of antimicrobial use according to species, therapeutic class, treatment purpose, duration, and animal age at treatment. A study was carried out to check the validity of farmers' declarations. Examples of data and results are presented such as the relative importance of the different antimicrobial classes in relation to the live weight treated, which shows that beta-lactams and tetracyclines are the main classes used in broilers and turkeys respectively. Average bird weight at treatment was 0.5 kg for a broiler and 3 kg for a turkey. Nevertheless, several 'at-risk' periods could be identified. Initial results after 1 year of data collection showed that this surveillance system provides valid, detailed and useful data about antimicrobial drug use in poultry production at a low cost and with only a moderate time involvement.

  20. Incidence of Salmonella Infantis in poultry meat and products and the resistance of isolates to antimicrobials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaba, V.; Golić, B.; Sladojević, Ž.; Kalaba, D.

    2017-09-01

    Globalisation, climate change, changes in eating habits and the food industry, modern animal husbandry and market demands often have a negative impact on quality assurance, food safety and animal health. After the eradication of some zoonotic diseases that previously often jeopardized the human population, today in developed countries, the focus is mainly on the control of zoonoses transmitted by food. Salmonella is one of the most common pathogens that can be transmitted from animals to humans, and its reservoirs are poultry, cattle and pigs, so one transmission route to humans is from contaminated food of animal origin. Multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella, which can transfer their resistance genes to other microorganisms, are considered a serious threat to public health. Control of Salmonella primarily depends on a good monitoring system and knowledge of the presence of serovars and strains in an epizootiological area. During the first nine months of 2016, 1321 samples of poultry meat and products were examined, among which 108 harboured Salmonella. Altogether, 29 of the 108 isolates (26.85%) were Salmonella Infantis. For all 29 S. Infantis isolates, antimicrobial resistance was tested by the disc diffusion method. The isolates showed 100% resistance to amoxicillin, and nalidixic acid.

  1. Hazards associated with Clostridium perfringens in particular reference to predictive models applicable to cooling of cooked meat and poultry products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The incidence of C. perfringens food-poisoning is quite common and costly. Although somewhat fastidious in growth characteristics using synthetic laboratory media, the microorganism is very prolific when found in food products. Inadequate cooling of foods in retail food operations is a major safety ...

  2. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry.

    PubMed

    Nayak, G D; Behura, N C; Sardar, K K; Mishra, P K

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. The overall regression was significant (p<0.01) in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R(2) value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values) for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on 5(th) week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH) was significant (p<0.05) for 5(th) week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05) for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05) on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling these variables in adverse weathers may increase

  3. Prevalence and Characterization of Enterotoxin Gene-Carrying Clostridium perfringens Isolates from Retail Meat Products in Japan▿

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kaneko-Hirano, Ikuko; Fujiuchi, Kanako; Akimoto, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important anaerobic pathogen causing food-borne gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in humans and animals. It is thought that C. perfringens food poisoning isolates typically carry the enterotoxin gene (cpe) on their chromosome, while isolates from other GI diseases, such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, carry cpe on a transferable plasmid. However, food-borne GI disease outbreaks associated with C. perfringens isolates carrying plasmid-borne cpe (plasmid cpe isolates) were recently reported in Japan and Europe. To investigate whether retail food can be a reservoir for food poisoning generally, we evaluated Japanese retail meat products for the presence of two genotypes of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens. Our results demonstrated that approximately 70% of the Japanese retail raw meat samples tested were contaminated with low numbers of C. perfringens bacteria and 4% were contaminated with cpe-positive C. perfringens. Most of the cpe-positive C. perfringens isolates obtained from Japanese retail meat carried cpe on a plasmid. The plasmid cpe isolates exhibited lower spore heat resistance than did chromosomal cpe isolates. Collectively, these plasmid cpe isolates might be causative agents of food poisoning when foods are contaminated with these isolates from equipment and/or the environment after cooking, or they may survive in food that has not been cooked at a high enough temperature. PMID:18606797

  4. Prevalence and characterization of enterotoxin gene-carrying Clostridium perfringens isolates from retail meat products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kaneko-Hirano, Ikuko; Fujiuchi, Kanako; Akimoto, Shigeru

    2008-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important anaerobic pathogen causing food-borne gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in humans and animals. It is thought that C. perfringens food poisoning isolates typically carry the enterotoxin gene (cpe) on their chromosome, while isolates from other GI diseases, such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, carry cpe on a transferable plasmid. However, food-borne GI disease outbreaks associated with C. perfringens isolates carrying plasmid-borne cpe (plasmid cpe isolates) were recently reported in Japan and Europe. To investigate whether retail food can be a reservoir for food poisoning generally, we evaluated Japanese retail meat products for the presence of two genotypes of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens. Our results demonstrated that approximately 70% of the Japanese retail raw meat samples tested were contaminated with low numbers of C. perfringens bacteria and 4% were contaminated with cpe-positive C. perfringens. Most of the cpe-positive C. perfringens isolates obtained from Japanese retail meat carried cpe on a plasmid. The plasmid cpe isolates exhibited lower spore heat resistance than did chromosomal cpe isolates. Collectively, these plasmid cpe isolates might be causative agents of food poisoning when foods are contaminated with these isolates from equipment and/or the environment after cooking, or they may survive in food that has not been cooked at a high enough temperature.

  5. Effect of poultry litter biochar on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Oumou

    The use of ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass for transportation fuel offers solutions in reducing environmental emission and the use of non-renewable fuels. However, lignocellulosic ethanol production is still hampered by economic and technical obstacles. For instance, the inhibitory effect of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment was reported to inhibit the fermenting microorganisms, hence there was a decrease in ethanol yield and productivity. Thus, there is a need to improve the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in order to promote its commercialization. The research reported here investigated the use of poultry litter biochar to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover. The effect of poultry litter biochar was first studied on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508/S288C growth, and second on the enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of two steam-exploded biomasses: (poplar and corn stover). The third part of the study investigated optimal process parameters (biochar loading, biomass loading, and enzyme loading) on the reducing sugars production, and ethanol yield from steam-exploded corn stover. In this study, it has been shown that poultry litter biochar improved the S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol productivity; therefore poultry litter biochar could potentially be used to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded lignocellulosic biomass.

  6. Poultry Products Management. 2+2+2 Articulated Curriculum in Agricultural Technology: First Year Final Report. July 1, 1989-June 30, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Texas Community Coll., Mount Pleasant.

    This guide is for an articulated two-year high school, two-year college curriculum for poultry products management developed by two postsecondary and five secondary institutions and representatives of the private sector in Texas. The guide includes the following: (1) a brief description of the occupation of poultry products manager; (2) the basic…

  7. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Kudirkienė, Eglė; Bunevičienė, Jurgita; Šernienė, Loreta; Ramonaitė, Sigita; Olsen, John E; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-07-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of these pathogens on raw broiler meat products from different producers were examined. Out of 312 broiler meat product samples examined, 46.8% were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni was identified in 51.4% and Campylobacter coli in 37.7% of positive samples. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequently found in the warm period (April-October) and C. coli in the cold period (November-March) of the year (P < 0.05). The overall mean count of Campylobacter spp. was 3.55 and 3.50 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) on wings and drumsticks respectively. The occurrence and counts of Campylobacter spp. varied significantly between producers examined (P < 0.05). Analysis of flaA-RFLP genotyping revealed C. jejuni genotypes common to all producers as well as producer-specific genotypes. Both the occurrence and counts of Campylobacter spp. on broiler meat products were producer-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    PubMed

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  9. Impact of irradiation on the safety and quality of poultry and meat products: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C; Olson, Dennis G

    2008-05-01

    For more than 100 years research on food irradiation has demonstrated that radiation will make food safer and improve the shelf life of irradiated foods. Using the current food safety technology, we may have reached the point of diminishing returns even though recent figures from the CDC show a significant drop in the number of foodborne illnesses. However, too many people continue to get sick and die from eating contaminated food. New and under utilized technologies such as food irradiation need to be re-examined to achieve new levels of safety for the food supply. Effects of irradiation on the safety and quality of meat and poultry are discussed. Irradiation control of the principle microbial pathogens including viruses, the differences among at-risk sub-populations, factors affecting the diminished rate of improvement in food safety and published D values for irradiating raw meat and poultry are presented. Currently permitted levels of irradiation are probably not sufficient to control pathogenic viruses. Typical gram-negative spoilage organisms are very sensitive to irradiation. Their destruction leads to a significant increase in the acceptable shelf life. In addition, the destruction of these normal spoilage organisms did not provide a competitive growth advantage for irradiation injured food pathogens. Another of the main focuses of this review is a detailed compilation of the effects of most of the food additives that have been proposed to minimize the negative quality effect of irradiation. Most of the antimicrobials and antioxidants used singly or in combination produced an increased lethality of irradiation and a decrease in oxidation by-products. Combinations of dosage, temperature, dietary and direct additives, storage temperature and packaging atmosphere can produce meats that the average consumer will find indistinguishable from non-irradiated meats. A discussion of the production of unique radiological by-products is also included.

  10. Assessment of the microbiological safety of dried spices and herbs from production and retail premises in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sagoo, S K; Little, C L; Greenwood, M; Mithani, V; Grant, K A; McLauchlin, J; de Pinna, E; Threlfall, E J

    2009-02-01

    A study of dried spices and herbs from retail and production premises to determine the microbiological status of such products was undertaken in the UK during 2004. According to EC Recommendation 2004/24/EC and European Spice Association specifications, 96% of 2833 retail samples and 92% of 132 production batches were of satisfactory/acceptable quality. Salmonella spp. were detected in 1.5% and 1.1% of dried spices and herbs sampled at production and retail, respectively. Overall, 3.0% of herbs and spices contained high counts of Bacillus cereus (1%, > or =10(5) cfu g(-1)), Clostridium perfringens (0.4%, > or =10(3) cfu g(-1)) and/or Escherichia coli (2.1%, > or =10(2) cfu g(-1)). Ninety percent of samples examined were recorded as being 'ready-to-use', 96% of which were of satisfactory/acceptable quality. The potential public health risk of using spices and herbs as an addition to ready-to-eat foods that potentially undergo no further processing is therefore highlighted in this study. Prevention of microbial contamination in dried herbs and spices lies in the application of good hygiene practices during growing, harvesting and processing from farm to fork, and effective decontamination. In addition, the importance of correct food handling practices and usage of herbs and spices by end users cannot be overemphasised.

  11. Dietary strategies to improve nutritional value, oxidative stability, and sensory properties of poultry products.

    PubMed

    Bou, Ricard; Codony, Rafael; Tres, Alba; Decker, Eric A; Guardiola, Francesc

    2009-10-01

    Consumers demand both safer and more nutritious food products exempt of non-natural origin preservatives or other food additives. In this frame, products with lower fat content and/or a higher ratio in unsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 fatty acids, are desired because these lipids can help prevent the development of cardiovascular and inflammatory pathologies. The intake of meat products is of interest because they are an excellent source of vitamins and minerals. In addition, the shelf-life of meat products can be extended by the presence of natural antioxidants coming from different sources such as plant extracts. Therefore, different strategies have been studied to improve the nutritional value, oxidative stability, and sensory characteristics of meat products and eggs through different mineral and natural dietary supplements. In comparison to other strategies, dietary supplements present the advantage that first the living animals may efficiently distribute the compounds throughout the tissues and second, the dietary supplementation is safer because the resulting enriched meat products and eggs ensure tolerable amounts in humans. Poultry meats and eggs are widely consumed and their fatty acid profile and tocopherol content can be easily modified through different dietary strategies thus being excellent models to improve their nutritional value and oxidative stability.

  12. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring Campylobacter in the poultry production chain—from culture to genes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Josefsen, Mathilde H; Bhunia, Arun K; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Fachmann, Mette S R; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in poultry production. Standardized reference culture methods issued by national and international standardization organizations are time-consuming, cumbersome and not amenable to automation for screening of large numbers of samples. The ultimate goal for rapid monitoring of Campylobacter is to prevent contaminated meat from entering the food market. Currently, real-time PCR is fulfilling abovementioned criteria to a certain extent. Further development of real-time PCR, microarray PCR, miniaturized biosensors, chromatographic techniques and DNA sequencing can improve our monitoring capacity at a lower cost. Combined with innovative sampling and sample treatment, these techniques could become realistic options for on-farm and liquid-sample monitoring at slaughterhouses.

  14. Use of FTA Cards for the Transport of DNA Samples of Salmonella spp. from Poultry Products from Southern Brazil.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The contamination of products with Salmonella is a major threat to the poultry industry because the possible transmission to humans and animals can produce a huge negative impact. The diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes complicates the diagnostic systems and the transport of live ...

  15. Buying higher welfare poultry products? Profiling Flemish consumers who do and do not.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W

    2009-12-01

    A substantial number of studies has already investigated differences within the consumer market with regard to attitudes and perceptions in relation to farm animal welfare. Likewise, several studies focused on the gap that exists between positive attitudes and reported consumption or purchase intentions for sustainable food products in general and higher welfare products more specific, and on the factors influencing this attitude-behavior gap. Little or no studies, however, have started from reported pro-welfare behavior to distinguish between consumer groups and to explore the motivations of the respective behavior. With this study, we aim to group consumers according to their reported buying frequency of higher welfare eggs and higher welfare chicken meat. Similarities and dissimilarities between these groups are mapped in terms of individual characteristics, product attribute importance, perceived consumer effectiveness, perception of higher welfare products, and attitude toward a welfare label. The research methodology applied was a quantitative study with cross-sectional consumer survey data collected in Flanders in spring 2007 (n = 469). Pro-welfare behavior was unevenly distributed across different consumer segments, despite a general interest and concern for bird welfare. A consistent choice for standard (no welfare premium) poultry products was related to strong perceived price and availability barriers, to a low importance attached to ethical issues as product attributes, and to a low perceived consumer effectiveness. A consistent choice for products with higher welfare standards to the contrast associated with a high importance attached to ethical issues; a low effect of price and availability perception; a strong association of higher welfare products with product attributes like health, taste, and quality; and a high perceived consumer effectiveness. The identification of market segments with common characteristics is essential for positioning higher

  16. Prevalence of Putative Virulence Genes in Campylobacter and Arcobacter Species Isolated from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Hassena, Amal Ben; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C. jejuni and 8 C. coli. All the Campylobacter isolates were positive for the cadF gene. The plasmid gene virB11 was not detected in any strain. The invasion associated marker was not detected in C. jejuni. Lower detection rates were observed for flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC. The presence of nine putative Arcobacter virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, tlyA, irgA, hecA, and hecB) was checked in a set of 22 Arcobacter butzleri and 4 Arcobacter cryaerophilus isolates. The pldA and mviN genes were predominant (88.64%). Lower detection rates were observed for tlyA (84.76%), ciaB (84.61%), cadF and cj1349 (76.92%), IrgA and hecA (61.53%), and hecB (57.69%). The findings revealed that a majority of the Campylobacteraceae strains have these putative virulence genes that may lead to pathogenic effects in humans.

  17. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. Soybean and Lactose in Meat Products and Preparations Sampled at Retail

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Filomena; Vollano, Lucia; Base, Giuseppe; Girasole, Mariagrazia; Smaldone, Giorgio; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies and intolerances have increased during the last decades and regulatory authorities have taken different measures to prevent and manage consumers’ adverse reactions, including correct labelling of foods. Aim of this work was to search for soybean and lactose in meat products and meat preparations taken from retail in some provinces of Campania Region (Southern Italy) and to evaluate the food labels compliance with Regulation (EU) n.1169/2011. Soybean and lactose were searched using commercial kits in n. 58 samples of meat products produced in or distributed by 19 establishments, and in n. 55 samples of meat products and n. 8 of meat preparations produced in 21 plants. All samples were selected on the basis of the absence of any information on the labels about the presence of the two searched allergens, with the exception of n. 5 samples tested for lactose. Traces of soybean were detected in 50 out of the 58 examined samples, at concentrations up to 0.93 mg kg–1. Only two samples contained levels above the detection limit of 0.31 mg kg–1. Lactose levels ranging from 0.11 to 2.95 g/100 g, i.e. above the detection limit, were found in all the tested samples (n. 63). The results of the present research underline the need for careful controls and planning by operators as part of the self-control plans, and deserve attention from the competent authorities considering not only the consumers’ health but also the great attention media pay to regulations providing consumers with information on food. PMID:27853709

  19. Soybean and Lactose in Meat Products and Preparations Sampled at Retail.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Filomena; Vollano, Lucia; Base, Giuseppe; Girasole, Mariagrazia; Smaldone, Giorgio; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2016-06-03

    Food allergies and intolerances have increased during the last decades and regulatory authorities have taken different measures to prevent and manage consumers' adverse reactions, including correct labelling of foods. Aim of this work was to search for soybean and lactose in meat products and meat preparations taken from retail in some provinces of Campania Region (Southern Italy) and to evaluate the food labels compliance with Regulation (EU) n.1169/2011. Soybean and lactose were searched using commercial kits in n. 58 samples of meat products produced in or distributed by 19 establishments, and in n. 55 samples of meat products and n. 8 of meat preparations produced in 21 plants. All samples were selected on the basis of the absence of any information on the labels about the presence of the two searched allergens, with the exception of n. 5 samples tested for lactose. Traces of soybean were detected in 50 out of the 58 examined samples, at concentrations up to 0.93 mg kg(-1). Only two samples contained levels above the detection limit of 0.31 mg kg(-1). Lactose levels ranging from 0.11 to 2.95 g/100 g, i.e. above the detection limit, were found in all the tested samples (n. 63). The results of the present research underline the need for careful controls and planning by operators as part of the self-control plans, and deserve attention from the competent authorities considering not only the consumers' health but also the great attention media pay to regulations providing consumers with information on food.

  20. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of the Hepatitis E Virus in Retail Pork Products Marketed in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mykytczuk, Oksana; Harlow, Jennifer; Bidawid, Sabah; Corneau, Nathalie; Nasheri, Neda

    2017-06-01

    Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is very common worldwide. HEV causes acute viral hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year. While HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause large waterborne and foodborne outbreaks with a significant mortality in developing countries, genotypes 3 and 4 are more prevalent in developed countries with transmission being mostly zoonotic. In North America and Europe, HEV has been increasingly detected in swine, and exposure to pigs and pork products is considered to be the primary source of infection. Therefore we set out to investigate the prevalence of HEV in retail pork products available in Canada, by screening meal-size portions of pork pâtés, raw pork sausages, and raw pork livers. The presence of the HEV genomes was determined by RT-PCR and viral RNA was quantified by digital droplet PCR. Overall, HEV was detected in 47% of the sampled pork pâtés and 10.5% of the sampled raw pork livers, but not in the sampled pork sausages, and sequencing confirmed that all HEV strains belonged to genotype 3. Further phylogenetic analysis revealed that except for one isolate that clusters with subtype 3d, all isolates belong to subtype 3a. Amino acid variations between the isolates were also observed in the sequenced capsid region. In conclusion, the prevalence of HEV in pâtés and raw pork livers observed in this study is in agreement with the current HEV distribution in pork products reported in other developed countries.

  1. Resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from poultry carcasses in a big Swiss poultry slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Frediani-Wolf, V; Stephan, R

    2003-12-31

    The aim of this study was to determine resistance patterns of strains of Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry carcasses in one of the two big Swiss poultry slaughterhouses. A variety of antibiotics with clinical relevance in human and/or in veterinary medicine was tested. In addition, the results of the disc diffusion method, E-test and microdilution broth methods were compared. Of the 195 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 195 poultry carcasses from 21 flocks, 134 strains were susceptible in vitro to all tested antibiotics. Sixty-one strains (31.3%, from eight flocks) showed resistance. Forty-one strains were resistant to a single antibiotic-34 to streptomycin, 6 to ampicillin and 1 to ciprofloxacin. Eighteen strains (from two flocks) showed combined resistance to erythromycin and streptomycin, two strains to ciprofloxacin and streptomycin. None of the isolates was resistant to tetracycline. The data of this first study in Switzerland show a favourable resistance situation for C. jejuni strains against erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. The disc diffusion method was found to be a reliable and easy tool for monitoring the prevalence of resistant C. jejuni strains. For surveillance of changes in the susceptibility concentration levels to antimicrobial agents, however, a MIC method should be used. Further investigations along the whole poultry production chain (farm, slaughterhouse and retail levels) are now necessary in order to confirm the resistance situation.

  2. Optimum poultry litter rates for maximum profit vs. yield in cotton production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton lint yield responds well to increasing rates of poultry litter fertilization, but little is known of how optimum rates for yield compare with optimum rates for profit. The objectives of this study were to analyze cotton lint yield response to poultry litter application rates, determine and co...

  3. A microbial approach to understanding the production of ammonia in poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As fertilizer costs increase, poultry litter has become an increasingly valuable commodity. Reducing ammonia (NH3) volatilization from poultry litter is therefore important not only to reduce ventilation costs and improve bird performance but also to retain the fertilizer value of the litter. The g...

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail chicken meat in Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Gaydashov, Roman; Petrova, Elena; Panin, Alexander; Tugarinov, Oleg; Kulikovskii, Alexander; Mamleeva, Dzhemile; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent various cities and districts, as well as different types of retail stores and carcass storage temperatures (i.e., chilled and frozen). All chicken samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a whole-carcass rinse method. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 31.5%. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) region-29.3% (n = 464) in Moscow, 38.5% (n = 192) in St. Petersburg, and 23.8% (n = 42) in Krasnodar; (ii) retail store type-28.8% (n = 236) in hypermarkets, 31.9% (n = 260) in supermarkets (part of chain stores), 44.3% (n = 61) in independent supermarkets, 42.9% (n = 28) in independent minimarkets, and 26.6% (n = 113) in wet markets; and (iii) poultry company-34.3% (n = 545) on chickens produced by integrated companies compared with 22.9% (n = 118) on chickens produced by nonintegrated companies. Strategies such as good agriculture and management practices should be enhanced to reduce Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in Russia and therefore increase the safety of chicken products.

  5. The effects of high-pressure treatments on Campylobacter jejuni in ground poultry products containing polyphosphate additives.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Nereus W; Sites, Joseph; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Marinades containing polyphosphates have been previously implicated in the enhanced survival of Campylobacter spp. in poultry product exudates. The enhanced Campylobacter survival has been attributed primarily to the ability of some polyphosphates to change the pH of the exudate to one more amenable to Campylobacter. In this study a ground poultry product contaminated with a 6 strain Campylobacter jejuni cocktail was utilized to determine if the efficiency of high-hydrostatic-pressure treatments was negatively impacted by the presence of commonly utilized polyphosphates. Two polyphosphates, hexametaphosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate, used at 2 concentrations, 0.25 and 0.5%, failed to demonstrate any significant negative effects on the efficiency of inactivation of C. jejuni by high-pressure treatment. However, storage at 4°C of the ground poultry samples containing C. jejuni after high-pressure treatment appeared to provide a synergistic effect on Campylobacter inactivation. High-pressure treatment in conjunction with 7 d of storage at 4°C resulted in a mean reduction in C. jejuni survival that was larger than the sum of the individual reductions caused by high pressure or 4°C storage when applied separately. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Consumer-reported handling of raw poultry products at home: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter cause an estimated combined total of 1.8 million foodborne infections each year in the United States. Most cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are associated with eating raw or undercooked poultry or with cross-contamination. Between 1998 and 2008, 20% of Salmonella and 16% of Campylobacter foodborne disease outbreaks were associated with food prepared inside the home. A nationally representative Web survey of U.S. adult grocery shoppers (n = 1,504) was conducted to estimate the percentage of consumers who follow recommended food safety practices when handling raw poultry at home. The survey results identified areas of low adherence to current recommended food safety practices: not washing raw poultry before cooking, proper refrigerator storage of raw poultry, use of a food thermometer to determine doneness, and proper thawing of raw poultry in cold water. Nearly 70% of consumers reported washing or rinsing raw poultry before cooking it, a potentially unsafe practice because "splashing" of contaminated water may lead to the transfer of pathogens to other foods and other kitchen surfaces. Only 17.5% of consumers reported correctly storing raw poultry in the refrigerator. Sixty-two percent of consumers own a food thermometer, and of these, 26% or fewer reported using one to check the internal temperature of smaller cuts of poultry and ground poultry. Only 11% of consumers who thaw raw poultry in cold water reported doing so correctly. The study results, coupled with other research findings, will inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  7. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, G. D.; Behura, N. C.; Sardar, K. K.; Mishra, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. Result: The overall regression was significant (p<0.01) in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R2 value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values) for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on 5th week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH) was significant (p<0.05) for 5th week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05) for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05) on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. Conclusion: The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling these

  8. Effects of inclusion of poultry by-product meal and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation in grower diets on performance and feed digestibility of broilers.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Açikgöz, Z; Bozkurt, M; Ayhan, V

    2004-04-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of level of inclusion of poultry by-product and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation on grower diet digestibility and the performance of broilers. 2. Six grower diets were formulated to provide a similar nutrient profile with the exception of using three graded levels of poultry by-product, namely 0, 25, 40 g/kg of the diet with and without supplementation of enzyme preparation at the rate of 1 kg per tonne of feed and prebiotic preparation at the rate of 2 kg per tonne of feed. The experimental diets were used from 3 to 6 weeks of age. 3. Body weights, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were not affected by poultry by-product; however, enzyme-prebiotic had a significant positive effect on feed conversion efficiency at 0 to 6 weeks in experiment 1. 4. Crude protein digestibility was decreased by feeding the diet containing poultry by-product while ether extract digestibility was increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 25 g per kg of feed only. Dry matter retention, crude fibre digestibility and organic matter retention were not affected by poultry by-product. Dry matter and organic matter retentions, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre digestibilities were not affected by enzyme-prebiotic. 5. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) values were increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 40 g per kg of feed and addition of enzyme-prebiotic.

  9. How tobacco companies ensure prime placement of their advertising and products in stores: interviews with retailers about tobacco company incentive programmes

    PubMed Central

    Feighery, E; Ribisl, K; Clark, P; Haladjian, H

    2003-01-01

    Background: About 81% of cigarette manufacturers' marketing expenditures in the USA is spent to promote cigarette sales in stores. Relatively little is known about how these expenditures help the manufacturers achieve their marketing goals in stores. A better understanding of how tobacco companies influence the retail environment would help researchers and tobacco control activists to monitor industry presence in stores. Objective: To describe the types of tobacco company incentive programmes offered to retailers, how these programmes impact the store environments, and possible visual indicators of retailer participation in incentive programmes. Study design: In-depth qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 29 tobacco retailers were conducted in 2001. Setting: USA. Main outcome measures: The types and requirements of retailer incentive programmes provided by tobacco companies, and how participation in a programme alters their stores. Results: The retailers provided insights into how tobacco companies convey promotional allowances and special offers to them and how these incentives shape the retail environment. Retailers noted that tobacco companies exert substantial control over their stores by requiring placement of products in the most visible locations, and of specific amounts and types of advertising in prime locations in the store. Retailers also described how tobacco companies reduce prices by offering them volume based discounts, "buy two, get one free" specials, and "buying down" the price of existing product. Conclusions: Tobacco companies are concentrating their marketing dollars at the point-of-sale to the extent that the store is their primary communication channel with customers. As a result, all shoppers regardless of age or smoking status are exposed to pro-smoking messages. Given the financial resources spent by tobacco companies in stores, this venue warrants closer scrutiny by researchers and tobacco control advocates. PMID:12773729

  10. Comparison of alginate and pectin based beads for production of poultry probiotic cells.

    PubMed

    Voo, Wan-Ping; Ravindra, Pogaku; Tey, Beng-Ti; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2011-03-01

    A comparative study on the stability and potential of alginate and pectin based beads for production of poultry probiotic cells using MRS medium in repeated batch fermentation was conducted. The bead cores, made of three types of materials, i.e., ca-alginate, ca-pectinate and ca-alginate/pectinate, were compared. The effect of single and double layer coatings using chitosan and core material, respectively, on the bead stability and cell production were also studied. The pectin based beads were found to be more stable than that of the alginate beads and their stability was further improved by coating with chitosan. The cell concentration in pectin based beads was comparable to that in the alginate beads. On the other hand, pectin based beads gave significantly lower cell concentration in the growth medium for the initial fermentation cycles when compared to the alginate beads. In conclusion, pectin was found to be potential encapsulation material for probiotic cell production owing to its stability and favourable microenvironment for cell growth.

  11. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Maduka, C. V.; Igbokwe, I. O.; Atsanda, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = −0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak. PMID:27200208

  12. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Maduka, C V; Igbokwe, I O; Atsanda, N N

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = -0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak.

  13. Changing risk of environmental Campylobacter exposure with emerging poultry production systems in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Brena, M C; Mekonnen, Y; Bettridge, J M; Williams, N J; Wigley, P; Sisay Tessema, T; Christley, R M

    2016-02-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of diarrhoea, and its presence in chickens is a significant risk for zoonotic infection. Poultry production is becoming increasingly intensive in Ethiopia and is incorporating more high-producing breeds into traditionally managed smallholdings, especially in peri-urban areas. This cross-sectional study sampled 219 household environments in one peri-urban and two rural areas of Ethiopia, and an additional 20 semi-intensive farms in the peri-urban district. Campylobacter was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific assays in 44 samples; 16 of which could be identified as C. jejuni. Flocks in the peri-urban area were at significantly greater odds of detection, including those which only kept indigenous birds under a scavenging system. It was also noted that scavenging flocks of exotic high-production birds (Rhode Island Red) were at slightly greater risk, perhaps as exotic birds are under more stress when kept under traditional management systems. We suggest that changes to the system of chicken production may alter the ecology and epidemiology of Campylobacter in the environment, chickens and people, which may drive emergence of new epidemiological patterns of disease. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which the current management intensification and the distribution programmes of exotic and/or improved indigenous birds may alter Campylobacter epidemiology, ecology and public health risk, before their widespread adoption.

  14. Changes in retail tobacco promotions in a cohort of stores before, during, and after a tobacco product display ban.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joanna E; Planinac, Lynn; Lavack, Anne; Robinson, Daniel; O'Connor, Shawn; DiNardo, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    We used a longitudinal design to investigate the impact of a government policy banning the display of tobacco products at the point of sale. The extent of tobacco promotions in 481 randomly selected stores was documented at 4 points in time (2005-2009). Tobacco promotions were greatly reduced after implementation of the display ban. A ban on the display of tobacco products and other signage and promotions at retail is a critical tobacco-control policy to reduce people's exposure to tobacco marketing.

  15. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds.

  16. Zoning and compartmentalisation as risk mitigation measures: an example from poultry production.

    PubMed

    Ratananakorn, L; Wilson, D

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses the application of compartmentalisation in the Thai commercial poultry industry. The concept was adopted to address Thailand's inability to export fresh poultry meat because of endemic avian influenza. Owing to the nature of compartmentalisation, implementation required a strong partnership between government and the private sector (the Thai poultry exporters). The paper describes the processes implemented to ensure that appropriate risk mitigation measures were in place and to guarantee the continued biosecurity of the compartments. Other Members of the World Organisation for Animal Health may be able to adapt the compartment system used in Thailand to their own similar situations and the formal international recognition of such systems would be beneficial.

  17. An Evaluation of Retail Outlets as Part of a Community Prevention Trial to Reduce Sales of Harmful Legal Products to Youth

    PubMed Central

    Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation have become increasingly concerned about inhalant use and use of harmful legal products among youth because of increasing prevalence rates and deleterious health consequences from abusing these products. The increasing concern of communities about inhaling and ingesting legal products has been coupled with increasing awareness and concern about ability of youth to access and abuse a variety of other legal retail products. There are few examples of scientifically designed community prevention projects that seek to reduce youth abuse of such legal products. This article describes a community prevention trial that is designed to reduce sales of inhalants and other harmful legal products to youth and demonstrates how the retailer component of the trial can be rigorously evaluated. It also shows how data from youth purchase attempts can complement survey data from retailers. PMID:17620660

  18. Controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production in poultry feed using carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsin-Bai; Chen, Chi-Hung; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites primarily produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to severe economic losses stemming from poor performance, reduced egg production, and diminished egg hatchability. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of 2 generally regarded as safe (GRAS), natural plant compounds, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), on A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in potato dextrose broth (PDB) and in poultry feed. In broth culture, PDB supplemented with CR (0%, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08%) or TC (0%, 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) was inoculated with A. flavus or A. parasiticus (6 log CFU/mL), and mold counts and AF production were determined on days 0, 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, 200 g portions of poultry feed supplemented with CR or TC (0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) were inoculated with each mold, and their counts and AF concentrations in the feed were determined at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of storage. Moreover, the effect of CR and TC on the expression of AF synthesis genes in A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflC, nor1, norA, and ver1) was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated 3 times. Results indicated that CR and TC reduced A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in broth culture and chicken feed (P<0.05). All tested concentrations of CR and TC decreased AF production in broth culture and chicken feed by at least 60% when compared to controls (P<0.05). In addition, CR and TC down-regulated the expression of major genes associated with AF synthesis in the molds (P<0.05). Results suggest the potential use of CR and TC as feed additives to control AF contamination in poultry feed. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Project Economic Stew: A Study of Poultry and Rice. A Third-grade Economics Project [and] A Bird's Eye View of an Economic Stew: A Study of Poultry and Rice Production in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Penny

    An economics project for third grade children is described and lessons for teaching basic economic concepts are provided. In the first semester, students studied basic economic concepts; in the second semester, they learned about the origin, production, and distribution of rice and poultry and how these products affect the local and state…

  20. Isolation, screening and production studies of uricase producing bacteria from poultry sources.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Pooja; Babu, P E Jagadeesh

    2014-01-01

    Uricase (urate oxidase EC 1.7.3.3) is a therapeutic enzyme that is widely used to catalyze the enzymatic oxidation of uric acid in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout diseases. In this study, three bacterial species capable of producing extracellular uricase were isolated from a poultry source and screened based on the size of the clear zone using a uric acid agar plate. The bacterial species capable of producing uricase with the highest uricolytic activity was identified as Bacillus cereus strain DL3 using a 16SrRNA gene sequencing approach. The time-course study of uricase production was performed and the medium was optimized. Carboxymethylcellulose and asparagine were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources. Maximum uricolytic activity was observed at pH 7.0 with an inducer concentration of 2.0 g/L. Inoculum size of 5% gave maximum uricolytic activity. The maximum uricolytic activity of 15.43 U/mL was achieved at optimized conditions, which is 1.61 times more than the initial activity. Further, enzymatic stability was determined at different pH and temperature.

  1. Development and application of novel SNP-based serotyping assays in targeting Salmonella enterica within the poultry production and processing continuum.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide. While some S. enterica serotypes are specific to birds, many represent human zoonotic pathogens, thus their presence and survival throughout the continuum of poultry production...

  2. Twenty-Two Years of U.S. Meat and Poultry Product Recalls: Implications for Food Safety and Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Gorton, Acton; Stasiewicz, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service maintains a recall case archive of meat and poultry product recalls from 1994 to the present. In this study, we collected all recall records from 1994 to 2015 and extracted the recall date, meat or poultry species implicated, reason for recall, recall class, and pounds of product recalled and recovered. Of a total of 1,515 records analyzed, the top three reasons for recall were contamination with Listeria, undeclared allergens, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . Class I recalls (due to a hazard with a reasonable probability of causing adverse health consequences or death) represented 71% (1,075 of 1,515) of the total recalls. The amounts of product recalled and recovered per event were approximately lognormally distributed. The mean amount of product recalled and recovered was 6,800 and 1,000 lb (3,087 and 454 kg), respectively (standard deviation, 1.23 and 1.56 log lb, respectively). The total amount of product recalled in the 22-year evaluation period was 690 million lb (313 million kg), and the largest single recall involved 140 million lb (64 million kg) (21% of the total). In every data category subset, the largest recall represented >10% of the total product recalled in the set. The amount of product recovered was known for only 944 recalls. In 12% of those recalls (110 of 944), no product was recovered. In the remaining recalls, the median recovery was 29% of the product. The number of recalls per year was 24 to 150. Recall counts and amounts of product recalled over the 22-year evaluation period did not regularly increase by year, in contrast to the regular increase in U.S. meat and poultry production over the same time period. Overall, these data suggest that (i) meat and poultry recalls were heavily skewed toward class I recalls, suggesting recalls were focused on improving food safety, (ii) numbers of products and amounts of each product recalled were highly variable but did

  3. A review of the incidence and transmission of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat products in retail and food service environments.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Sofos, John N

    2007-09-01

    Contamination of ready-to-eat products with Listeria monocytogenes may occur at several stages before consumption. Accessibility to the public and relatively limited control interventions at retail and food service establishments (compared with the processing sector of the food industry) and the lack of a specific regulatory framework increase the likelihood of introduction of this pathogen into some foods in these establishments. This review is a compilation of available information on the incidence and transmission of L. monocytogenes through ready-to-eat products at the retail and food service level. The potential transmission of L. monocytogenes within retail and food service operations has been indicated in epidemiological investigations and by survey data. Potential sources of the organism in these operations include the environment, food handlers, and incoming raw ingredients or processed products that have become contaminated after the lethality treatment at the manufacturing facility. L. monocytogenes may be present at retail and food service establishments in various ready-to-eat products, both prepackaged and those packaged in the store, and occasionally at high concentrations. This issue dictates the need for development and application of effective control measures, and potential control approaches are discussed here. Good manufacturing practices, appropriate cleaning, sanitation and hygiene programs, and temperature control required for prevention or inhibition of growth of the pathogen to high levels are critical for control of L. monocytogenes in the retail and food service sector. A comprehensive food safety system designed to be functional in retail and food service operations and based on the philosophy of hazard analysis and critical control point systems and a series of sound prerequisite programs can provide effective control of L. monocytogenes in these environments. However, competent delivery of food safety education and training to retail

  4. Retail Pharmacy Policy to End the Sale of Tobacco Products: What Is the Impact on Disparity in Neighborhood Density of Tobacco Outlets?

    PubMed

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Bezold, Carla P; James, Peter; Miller, Melecia; Wallington, Sherrie F

    2016-09-01

    Population-level research on the implications of retail pharmacy policies to end the sale of tobacco products is scant, and the impact of such policies on racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities across neighborhoods in access to tobacco products remains unexplored. We investigated the association between neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco retail density in Rhode Island (RI; N = 240 census tracts). We also investigated whether the CVS Health (N = 60) policy to end the sale of tobacco products reduces the disparity in the density of tobacco retail across neighborhoods, and we conducted a prospective policy analysis to determine whether a similar policy change in all pharmacies in RI (N = 135) would reduce the disparity in tobacco retail density. The results revealed statistically significant associations between neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco retail outlet density across RI neighborhoods. The results when excluding the CVS Health locations, as well as all pharmacies as tobacco retailers, revealed no change in the pattern for this association. The results of this study suggest that while a commendable tobacco control policy, the CVS Health policy appears to have no impact on the neighborhood racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in the density of tobacco retailers in RI. Prospective policy analyses showed no impact on this disparity even if all other pharmacies in the state adopted a similar policy. Policy efforts aimed at reducing the disparity in access to tobacco products should focus on reducing the density of tobacco outlets in poor and racial/ethnic neighborhoods. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(9); 1305-10. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

    PubMed

    Ally, Abdallah K; Meng, Yang; Chakraborty, Ratula; Dobson, Paul W; Seaton, Jonathan S; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Guo, Yelan; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra S

    2014-12-01

    Effective use of alcohol duty to reduce consumption and harm depends partly on retailers passing duty increases on to consumers via price increases, also known as 'pass-through'. The aim of this analysis is to provide evidence of UK excise duty and sales tax (VAT) pass-through rates for alcohol products at different price points. March 2008 to August 2011, United Kingdom. Panel data quantile regression estimating the effects of three duty changes, two VAT changes and one combined duty and VAT change on UK alcohol prices, using product-level supermarket price data for 254 alcohol products available weekly. Products were analysed in four categories: beers, ciders/ready to drink (RTDs), spirits and wines. Within all four categories there exists considerable heterogeneity in the level of duty pass-through for cheaper versus expensive products. Price increases for the cheapest 15% of products fall below duty rises (undershifting), while products sold above the median price are overshifted (price increases are higher than duty increases). The level of undershifting is greatest for beer [0.85 (0.79, 0.92)] and spirits [0.86 (0.83, 0.89)]. Undershifting affects approximately 67% of total beer sales and 38% of total spirits sales. Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheaper products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their more expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase). This is likely to impact negatively on tax policy effectiveness, because high-risk groups favour cheaper alcohol and undershifting is likely to produce smaller consumption reductions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Tracking Campylobacter contamination along a broiler chicken production chain from the farm level to retail in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Licai; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming

    2014-07-02

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Campylobacter species along a broiler production chain from farm to retail, and to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter isolates. A total of 259 Campylobacter isolates (C. jejuni n=106, C. coli n=153) were isolated from broiler ceca samples (72.5%, 103/142), broiler carcasses (34.1%, 46/135), and retail broiler meat (31.3%, 40/128) samples collected in Shanghai, China. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobials were determined using the agar dilution method. High prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin (C. jejuni: 99.1%;C. coli: 100%) and tetracycline (C. jejuni: 100%;C. coli: 98.7%) was detected among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. The vast majority of C. coli were resistant to clindamycin (92.2%), gentamicin (95.4%), and erythromycin (94.1%), but only 25.5%, 53.8%, and 16.0% of C. jejuni exhibited resistance to these three antimicrobials, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of florfenicol resistance in C. jejuni (37.7%) was significantly higher than that in C. coli (7.8%) (P<0.05). It is noteworthy that all Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 71.7% of C. jejuni and 98.0% of C. coli isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance (resistant to three or more antimicrobials). Fifty-five C. jejuni and sixty C. coli isolates, selected from different production stages, species, and antimicrobial resistance patterns, were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), among which 15 unique PFGE patterns (PFGE patterns represented by a single strain) and 31 clusters (PFGE patterns represented by multiple strains) were detected. Furthermore, nearly all of the PFGE patterns of the Campylobacter strains isolated from retail broiler meats overlapped with those of the strains from ceca and slaughterhouse carcasses. Together, these findings revealed the high prevalence of Campylobacter species in a broiler chicken

  7. Edible apple film wraps containing plant antimicrobials inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Sadhana; Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl W; McHugh, Tara H; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-10-01

    Apple-based edible films containing plant antimicrobials were evaluated for their activity against pathogenic bacteria on meat and poultry products. Salmonella enterica or E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g) cultures were surface inoculated on chicken breasts and Listeria monocytogenes (10(6) CFU/g) on ham. The inoculated products were then wrapped with edible films containing 3 concentrations (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3%) of cinnamaldehyde or carvacrol. Following incubation at either 23 or 4 degrees C for 72 h, samples were stomached in buffered peptone water, diluted, and plated for enumeration of survivors. The antimicrobial films exhibited concentration-dependent activities against the pathogens tested. At 23 degrees C on chicken breasts, films with 3% antimicrobials showed the highest reductions (4.3 to 6.8 log CFU/g) of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7. Films with 1.5% and 0.5% antimicrobials showed 2.4 to 4.3 and 1.6 to 2.8 log reductions, respectively. At 4 degrees C, carvacrol exhibited greater activity than did cinnamaldehyde. Films with 3%, 1.5%, and 0.5% carvacrol reduced the bacterial populations by about 3, 1.6 to 3, and 0.8 to 1 logs, respectively. Films with 3% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde induced 1.2 to 2.8 and 1.2 to 1.3 log reductions, respectively. For L. monocytogenes on ham, carvacrol films induced greater reductions than did cinnamaldehyde films at all concentrations tested. In general, the reduction of L. monocytogenes on ham at 23 degrees C was greater than at 4 degrees C. Added antimicrobials had minor effects on physical properties of the films. The results suggest that the food industry and consumers could use these films as wrappings to control surface contamination by foodborne pathogenic microorganisms.

  8. Survival of artificially inoculated Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium on the surface of raw poultry products subjected to crust freezing.

    PubMed

    Chaves, B D; Han, I Y; Dawson, P L; Northcutt, J K

    2011-12-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are ubiquitous in the poultry production environment, and hence, their transmission to poultry products is of concern. Industry has widely used freezing as a strategy to halt pathogen growth, and more recently, crust freezing has been suggested as a means to improve mechanical operations, quality, and safety of poultry products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of crust freezing on the survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium that were artificially inoculated on the surface of raw poultry products with or without adhering skin. Ampicillin-resistant (AR) E. coli JM 109 and nalidixic acid-resistant (NAR) Salmonella Typhimurium were used in the experiments. A set of cultures was subjected to cold-shock stress by storage at 4°C for 10 d. After being either cold-shocked or non-cold-shocked, commercial chicken breasts without skin and chicken thighs with skin were inoculated in separate experiments with each bacterium. Samples were crust frozen at -85°C for 20 min or completely frozen at -85°C for 60 min. The E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were recovered on appropriate selective and nonselective media containing the corresponding antibiotic. Log reductions and extent of injury were calculated and treatments were compared using ANOVA. No significant differences were observed in the reduction of cold-shocked or non-cold-shocked bacteria on products with or without skin that were crust or completely frozen. The average reduction for E. coli was 0.15 log(10) cfu/mL of rinse, and for Salmonella Typhimurium 0.10 log(10) cfu/mL of rinse; therefore, none of the final reductions were greater than the desired target (1 log). Bacterial cell injury was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among any of the treatments. Data showed no practical significance for initial reduction of these pathogens from crust freezing and thus, this technology should not be considered as a strategy for the reduction of E

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  10. Health risks associated with unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk on retail sale in England and Wales. A PHLS Dairy Products Working Group Study.

    PubMed Central

    Little, C. L.; De Louvois, J.

    1999-01-01

    A pilot study to determine the microbiological quality of unpasteurized milk from goats and ewes sampled from farm shops, health food shops, and other retail premises found that 47%, (47/100) of goats' and 50% (13/26) of ewes' milk samples failed the standards prescribed by the Dairy Products (Hygiene) Regulations 1995. In addition, Staphylococcus aureus, haemolytic streptococci or enterococci, were present in excess of 10(2) c.f.u./ml in 9 (7 %) 2 (2 %) and 19 (15%) samples, respectively. Salmonella, campylobacter, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in the samples. At the time of purchase approximately half of the milk samples (58 %) were frozen, the rest were liquid. Farm outlets sold predominantly liquid milk, other retail premises sold a frozen product. The microbiological quality of goats' and ewes' milk, whether frozen or liquid, was not significantly different. Milk sold from farm shops was of lower quality than that from health food shops and other retail premises. In this pilot study most producers (92 %) supplied, and most retailers (76 %) sold unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk that contained unacceptable levels of indicator organisms. The study was carried out during the winter when goats' milk production is reduced. The results indicate the need for a full representative study of unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk on retail sale throughout the year. PMID:10459642

  11. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In California, some 40, 000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. Methods We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies) that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. Results For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers) were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing this made them more likely to

  12. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-11-08

    In California, some 40,000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies) that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers) were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing this made them more likely to shop at the store. Most

  13. Detection of Salmonella in fresh cheese, poultry products, and dried egg products by the ISO 6579 Salmonella culture procedure and the AOAC official method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Feldsine, Philip T; Lienau, Andrew H; Leung, Stephanie C; Mui, Linda A; Humbert, Florence; Bohnert, Marylène; Mooijman, Kirsten; Schulten, Saskia; Veld, Paul in't; Rollier, Patricia; Leuschner, Renata; Capps, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Three food types were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella by the AOAC culture method and by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 6579:2002) culture method. Paired test portions of each food type were simultaneously analyzed by both methods. A total of 21 laboratories representing federal government agencies and private industry, in the United States and Europe, participated in this interlaboratory study. Foods were artificially contaminated with Salmonella and competing microflora if naturally contaminated sources were not available. No statistical differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the AOAC and ISO culture methods for fresh cheese and dried egg products. A statistically significant difference was observed for one of the 2 lots of poultry from the first trial. The poultry meat used in this run was radiation sterilized, artificially contaminated with Salmonella and competitive flora, and then lyophilized. A second trial was conducted with 2 separate lots of raw ground chicken that were naturally contaminated. The results from the second trial showed no statistical difference between the 2 culture methods. A third trial involving 4 laboratories was conducted on 2 separate lots of naturally contaminated raw poultry. Again, no statistically significant differences occurred. It is recommended that ISO 6579:2002 culture method for Salmonella be adopted Official First Action for the analysis of fresh cheese, fresh chilled and frozen poultry, and dried egg products.

  14. Prevalence and concentration of Listeria monocytogenes in sliced ready-to-eat meat products in the Hellenic retail market.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the prevalence and concentration of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged precut (slices or cubes) ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products available in the Hellenic retail market. Samples of these RTE meat products (n = 209) were taken from local supermarkets during a 3-month period and analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes with an automated enzymatic qualitative immunoassay followed by biochemical confirmation of positive results. The concentration of the pathogen in the positive samples was also determined. Seventeen samples (8.1%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. Eight (47.1%) of these 17 samples were from the same manufacturer; 36.4% of the products tested from this manufacturer were positive for L. monocytogenes. When bacon samples were not considered, the estimated prevalence of L. monocytogenes in sliced RTE meat products was much lower (3.1%). The L. monocytogenes populations in all positive samples were low, < or = 10 CFU/g. In 64.7% of the L. monocytogenes-positive samples, other Listeria species, including L. innocua and L. welshimeri, were also present at <10 to 690 CFU/g. These results indicate that L. monocytogenes is present in low numbers but is in a considerable proportion of the packaged precut RTE meat products that are sold in the Hellenic retail market. Cooked ham and bacon cut in cubes were the sample types most often contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The higher level of handling (e.g., cutting) associated with these products may further increase the risk of contamination with L. monocytogenes.

  15. Microbiota of regular sodium and sodium-reduced ready-to-eat meat products obtained from the retail market.

    PubMed

    Miller, Petr; Liu, Xiaoji; McMullen, Lynn M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sodium content on the microbiota on the surface of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products purchased from the retail market in Canada. Products, including sliced and sausage-type deli meats, were analysed with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacteria were identified from 23 brands of products from different meat processors with claims of sodium content ranging from 390 to 1200 mg per 100 g of product. Out of 150 bacterial isolates, the most common were identified as Leuconostoc gelidum, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. Vacuum-packaged RTE deli sliced meat products had the largest population of bacteria. Leuconostocci were the most common isolates in this group of products, while carnobacteria were prevalent on products with moderate loads of bacteria. A higher incidence of carnobacteria and lower incidence of B. thermosphacta were detected on sodium-reduced products. Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indices showed that low sodium products (25%-50% less sodium) had an overall higher bacterial diversity. This was also observed when individual low sodium products were compared with their regular sodium counterpart.

  16. The Antibiofilm Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract Against Salmonella and Listeria Isolates from Poultry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Park, Keun Cheol; Choi, Beom Geun; Park, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. are common foodborne pathogens in poultry and have caused a large number of outbreaks worldwide. Biofilm formation is common in the food industry and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract against the biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates from poultry at retail markets. Bacteria detection, isolation, and enumeration were carried out on 27 chicken and 29 ducks at retail markets. The effects of temperature and G. biloba extract against biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates were measured using the crystal violet assay and swimming and swarming motilities. The monitoring results of Salmonella and Listeria in 56 poultry carcasses at retail markets in Korea showed that the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in poultry was low (5.4%), but the prevalence of Listeria spp (78.6%) was high. L. innocua was the predominant serotype (80%) in the isolated Listeria species. Temperature, strain, and surface affected the biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. L. innocua showed the best biofilm formation ability on a 96-well plate, while Salmonella Enteritidis formed the most biofilm on a glass slide. Biofilm formation abilities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were increased with the increase of temperature. G. biloba extract at 75 μg/mL significantly inhibited biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp (p < 0.05). The mechanism of the antibiofilm effect of the G. biloba extract showed that the motility reduction may be one of the mechanisms of G. biloba extract against some serotypes of Salmonella and Listeria, but not L. monocytogenes. The findings of this study provided the basis for the application of G. biloba extract as a food additive to promote the quality and safety of poultry products.

  17. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to <1 log, regardless of the inoculum level. In addition, no growth was observed in any product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While <1-log growth of C. perfringens from spores was observed in the pH 5.63 product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore

  18. Effect of five-year continuous poultry litter use in cotton production on major soil nutrients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Repeated application of poultry litter to crop lands may lead to nitrate leaching and build up of P and other elements in the soil profile, which are prone to loss from runoff and erosion. A study was conducted for five years at Belle Mina, AL on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typi...

  19. Animal Well-Being in Small Poultry Flocks: Improving bird health and product quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumer interest in farm animal welfare is increasing and, while there is little legislation, voluntary welfare assurance programs exist; however, most small poultry producers do not participate in these programs. Raising birds in small flocks has some inherent welfare advantages, such as ample sp...

  20. First detection and characterization of Salmonella spp. in poultry and swine raised in backyard production systems in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Alegria-Moran, R; Rivera, D; Toledo, V; Moreno-Switt, A I; Hamilton-West, C

    2017-09-20

    Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile. Faecal samples were taken from swine, poultry, geese, ducks, turkeys and peacocks, as well as environmental faecal samples. Confirmation of Salmonella spp. was performed using invA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Identification of serovars was carried out using a molecular serotyping approach, where serogroups were confirmed by a multiplex PCR of Salmonella serogroup genes for five Salmonella O antigens (i.e., D, B, C1, C2-C3, and E1), along with two PCR amplifications, followed by sequencing of fliC and fljB genes. A total of 25 samples (1·4% of total samples) from 15 BPS (4·6 % of total sampled BPS) were found positive for Salmonella. Positive samples were found in poultry (chickens and ducks), swine and environmental sources. Molecular prediction of serovars on Salmonella isolated showed 52·0% of S. Typhimurium, 16·0% of S. Infantis, 16·0% S. Enteritidis, 8·0% S. Hadar, 4·0% S. Tennessee and 4·0% S. Kentucky. Poor biosecurity measures were found on sampled BPS, where a high percentage of mixed confinement systems (72·8%); and almost half of the sampled BPS with improper management of infected mortalities (e.g. selling the carcasses of infected animals for consumption). Number of birds other than chickens (P = 0·014; OR = 1·04; IC (95%) = 1·01-1·07), mixed productive objective (P = 0·030; OR = 5·35; IC (95%) = 1·24-27·59) and mixed animal replacement origin (P = 0017; OR = 5·19; IC (95%) = 1·35-20·47) were detected as

  1. Effect of oxygen level on the oxidative stability of two different retail pork products stored using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).

    PubMed

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Christensen, Mette; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics and the oxidative stability of pork steaks and of pork mince were investigated during 2, 5 and 7days of refrigerated storage using oxygen (O2) levels of 0%, 20%, 50% and 80% in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Steaks stored during 7days were not affected by an increase in O2 concentration, as revealed by lipid and protein oxidation markers. In contrast, the mince was characterised by an altered protein profile, loss of free thiol groups and increased protein oxidation, early during storage. The oxidative stability of pork mince was improved by using intermediate (50%) O2 MAP. The results show that fresh pork products are affected differently by the MAP O2 concentration and strongly indicate that optimisation of MAP based on the retail product type would be of considerable benefit to their oxidative stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection, identification and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from retail food products.

    PubMed

    Garver, K I; Muriana, P M

    1993-09-01

    Forty bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from food samples purchased from retail supermarkets and local farms. Of the 40 Bac+ isolates, 18 were isolated from 85 food samples by enrichment (21% isolation rate) whereas eight were obtained from 63 samples by direct plating (13% isolation rate). By direct plating, Bac+ LAB were detected at levels up to 2.4 x 10(5) cfu/g in ready-to-eat meats. The Bac+ isolates were identified by carbohydrate fermentation patterns, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, and other biochemical characteristics; SDS-PAGE proved invaluable in identifying strains that could not be identified by other means. Differential inhibitory spectra against indicator microorganisms assisted in the identification of 19 unique Bac+ isolates. Bac+ LAB included Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lb. delbrueckii, Lb. plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and Pediococcus acidilactici. Lb. curvatus (four strains) and Lc. lactis (nine strains) were the only isolates inhibitory to foodborne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus. Some Lc. lactis isolates inhibited as many as nine Gram-positive genera. Lb. curvatus FS47 and FS65 grew to high cell densities and produced bacteriocin at 6 degrees C; however, Lc. lactis FS56 produced greater levels of bacteriocin at lower cell densities. The high incidence of Bac+ LAB detected in retail foods indicates that the public is consuming a wide variety of Bac+ LAB that occur as natural contaminants. These data suggest a greater role for bacteriocins as biopreservatives in food.

  3. Retail sales of scheduled listed chemical products; self-certification of regulated sellers of scheduled listed chemical products. Interim final rule with request for comment.

    PubMed

    2006-09-26

    In March 2006, the President signed the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, which establishes new requirements for retail sales of over-the-counter (nonprescription) products containing the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine. The three chemicals can be used to manufacture methamphetamine illegally. DEA is promulgating this rule to incorporate the statutory provisions and make its regulations consistent with the new requirements. This action establishes daily and 30-day limits on the sales of scheduled listed chemical products to individuals and requires recordkeeping on most sales.

  4. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  5. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  6. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  7. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  8. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  9. Prevalence and antibiogram study of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Ali; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the presence and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in retail poultry meat products. Methods Foodborne pathogens (Salmonella and S. aureus) were isolated from poultry meat and confirmed with the help of biochemical and immunological test. Antibiogram of the isolates were examined by following CLSI methods. Results A total number of 209 poultry meat samples were collected and studied in this study. Out of which, 5.26% were found contaminated with Salmonella while 18.18% were found contaminated with S. aureus. All the Salmonella and S. aureus isolates were found resistant to at least one antibiotic. About 72.72% of the Salmonella isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, while S. aureus isolates were also found highly resistant to tetracycline equal to 44.73%. One of the Salmonella isolates showed multi-drug resistance to almost six antibiotics out of nine antibiotics used in the study. Multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates were also found in the study. Conclusions The study confirmed the presence of Salmonella and S. aureus in retail poultry meat. It is a potential threat to consumer health. To reduce the risk of contamination, good hygiene practices are necessary from processing to storage. PMID:23593598

  10. Prevalence and antibiogram study of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Ali; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the presence and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in retail poultry meat products. Foodborne pathogens (Salmonella and S. aureus) were isolated from poultry meat and confirmed with the help of biochemical and immunological test. Antibiogram of the isolates were examined by following CLSI methods. A total number of 209 poultry meat samples were collected and studied in this study. Out of which, 5.26% were found contaminated with Salmonella while 18.18% were found contaminated with S. aureus. All the Salmonella and S. aureus isolates were found resistant to at least one antibiotic. About 72.72% of the Salmonella isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, while S. aureus isolates were also found highly resistant to tetracycline equal to 44.73%. One of the Salmonella isolates showed multi-drug resistance to almost six antibiotics out of nine antibiotics used in the study. Multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates were also found in the study. The study confirmed the presence of Salmonella and S. aureus in retail poultry meat. It is a potential threat to consumer health. To reduce the risk of contamination, good hygiene practices are necessary from processing to storage.

  11. Practices associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in traditional poultry marketing chains: Social and economic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathilde; Baritaux, Virginie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François; Bonnet, Pascal; Ducrot, Christian

    2013-04-01

    In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  13. Did the recommended retail price of tobacco products fall in Australia following the implementation of plain packaging?

    PubMed Central

    Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the extent of any fall in recommended retail prices (RRPs) of tobacco products sold in Australia following the 2012 implementation of plain packaging. Methods RRPs published in price lists by the New South Wales Retail Tobacco Traders Association covering the months of November 2011, November 2012 and November 2013 were recorded for all listed brands and pack sizes. Average prices per stick were computed in 2013 dollars for cigarette brands in each of 10 possible pack sizes, for each major tobacco manufacturer, and across market segments. Average prices per gram in Australian dollars adjusted to 2013 prices (AUD2013) were calculated for roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco brands for each major manufacturer. Results Inflation-adjusted average RRPs per stick in November 2013 were on average 6.4% higher than in November 2011 and 3.4% higher than in November 2012. The average RRP per gram of RYO products in November 2013 was 10.2% and 5.4% higher than in November 2011 and November 2012, respectively. Within cigarette brands, the highest increases in RRP from 2011 to 2013 were seen among mainstream and premium brands (10.0% and 10.1%, respectively) and among packs of 30s (18.3%) and 50s (12.5%). Conclusions The RRPs of tobacco products were higher in real terms 1 year after Australia's plain packaging legislation was implemented. These increases exceeded increases resulting from Consumer Price Index (CPI) indexation of duty and occurred across all three major manufacturers for both factory made and RYO brands, all three cigarette market segments and all major pack sizes. PMID:28407617

  14. Evaluation of hygiene practices and microbiological quality of cooked meat products during slicing and handling at retail.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Castro, R; Posada-Izquierdo, G D; Valero, A; Carrasco, E; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2010-10-01

    Cooked meat ready-to-eat products are recognized to be contaminated during slicing which, in the last years, has been associated with several outbreaks. This work aimed to find out possible relation between the hygiene practice taking place at retail point during slicing of cooked meat products in small and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) and large-sized establishments (LEs) and the microbiological quality of sliced cooked meat products. For that, a checklist was drawn up and filled in based on scoring handling practice during slicing in different establishments in Cordoba (Southern Spain). In addition, sliced cooked meats were analyzed for different microbiological indicators and investigated for the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that SMEs showed a more deficient handling practices compared to LEs. In spite of these differences, microbiological counts indicated similar microbiological quality in cooked meat samples for both types of establishments. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria inocua were isolated from 7.35% (5/68) and 8.82% (6/68) of analyzed samples, respectively. Positive samples for Listeria spp. were found in establishments which showed acceptable hygiene levels, though contamination could be associated to the lack of exclusiveness of slicers at retail points. Moreover, Listeria spp presence could not be statistically linked to any microbiological parameters; however, it was observed that seasonality influenced significantly (P<0.05) L. monocytogenes presence, being all samples found during warm season (5/5). As a conclusion, results suggested that more effort should be made to adequately educate handlers in food hygiene practices, focused specially on SMEs.

  15. Did the recommended retail price of tobacco products fall in Australia following the implementation of plain packaging?

    PubMed

    Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent of any fall in recommended retail prices (RRPs) of tobacco products sold in Australia following the 2012 implementation of plain packaging. RRPs published in price lists by the New South Wales Retail Tobacco Traders Association covering the months of November 2011, November 2012 and November 2013 were recorded for all listed brands and pack sizes. Average prices per stick were computed in 2013 dollars for cigarette brands in each of 10 possible pack sizes, for each major tobacco manufacturer, and across market segments. Average prices per gram in Australian dollars adjusted to 2013 prices (AUD2013) were calculated for roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco brands for each major manufacturer. Inflation-adjusted average RRPs per stick in November 2013 were on average 6.4% higher than in November 2011 and 3.4% higher than in November 2012. The average RRP per gram of RYO products in November 2013 was 10.2% and 5.4% higher than in November 2011 and November 2012, respectively. Within cigarette brands, the highest increases in RRP from 2011 to 2013 were seen among mainstream and premium brands (10.0% and 10.1%, respectively) and among packs of 30s (18.3%) and 50s (12.5%). The RRPs of tobacco products were higher in real terms 1 year after Australia's plain packaging legislation was implemented. These increases exceeded increases resulting from Consumer Price Index (CPI) indexation of duty and occurred across all three major manufacturers for both factory made and RYO brands, all three cigarette market segments and all major pack sizes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT SYMPOSIUM: Measurement and mitigation of reactive nitrogen species from swine and poultry production.

    PubMed

    Powers, W; Capelari, M

    2017-05-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production. Systems and practices associated with dry manure handling and bedded systems emit more NH than NO. Results from a turkey grow-out study estimated that just under 1% of consumed N was emitted as NO from housing, compared with just under 11% emitted as NH. Despite generally less NO emissions from animal housing compared with crop field emissions, NO emissions from housing are often greater than estimated. Lagoon systems emit more NO than either slurry or deep pit swine systems. Deep pit swine buildings emit only one-third the NO that is emitted from deep bedded swine systems. Laying hen, broiler chicken, and turkey buildings emit over 4 times as much NO as swine housing, on a weight-adjusted basis. Critical control points for mitigation center on: 1) reducing the amount of N excreted and, therefore, excreted N available for loss to air or water during housing, manure storage, or following land application of manures; 2) capturing excreted N to prevent release of N-containing compounds to air, water, or soil resources; or 3) conversion or treatment of N-containing compounds to non-reactive N gas.

  17. Can Probiotics Improve the Environmental Microbiome and Resistome of Commercial Poultry Production?

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, Adriana A.; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L.; Zedek, Andrea S.; Kwan, Tiffany W.; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L.; Oakley, Brian B.; Collett, Stephen R.; Maurer, John J.; Lee, Margie D.

    2013-01-01

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more “natural” and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no

  18. Measuring the costs of biosecurity on poultry farms: a case study in broiler production in Finland.

    PubMed

    Siekkinen, Kirsi-Maarit; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Tammiranta, Niina; Rosengren, Heidi

    2012-02-28

    Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler producers and from 5 hatching egg producers, corresponding to about 10% of all producers in Finland. Our results indicate that the average cost of biosecurity is some 3.55 eurocent per bird for broiler producers (0.10 eurocent per bird per rearing day) and 75.7 eurocent per bird for hatching egg producers (0.27 eurocent per bird per rearing day). For a batch of 75,000 broilers, the total cost would be €2,700. The total costs per bird are dependent on the annual number of birds: the higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. This impact is primarily due to decreasing labour costs rather than direct monetary costs. Larger farms seem to utilise less labour per bird for biosecurity actions. There are also differences relating to the processor with which the producer is associated, as well as to the gender of the producer, with female producers investing more in biosecurity. Bird density was found to be positively related to the labour costs of biosecurity. This suggests that when the bird density is higher, greater labour resources need to be invested in their health and welfare and hence disease prevention. The use of coccidiostats as a preventive measure to control coccidiosis was found to have the largest cost variance between the producers, contributing to the direct costs. The redesign of cost-sharing in animal diseases is currently ongoing in the European Union. Before we can assert how the risk should be shared or resort to the 'polluter pays' principle, we need to understand how the costs are

  19. Can probiotics improve the environmental microbiome and resistome of commercial poultry production?

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L; Zedek, Andrea S; Kwan, Tiffany W; Jordan, Andrea P O; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L; Oakley, Brian B; Collett, Stephen R; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2013-09-25

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more "natural" and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no statistically

  20. Measuring the costs of biosecurity on poultry farms: a case study in broiler production in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. Methods We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler producers and from 5 hatching egg producers, corresponding to about 10% of all producers in Finland. Results Our results indicate that the average cost of biosecurity is some 3.55 eurocent per bird for broiler producers (0.10 eurocent per bird per rearing day) and 75.7 eurocent per bird for hatching egg producers (0.27 eurocent per bird per rearing day). For a batch of 75,000 broilers, the total cost would be €2,700. The total costs per bird are dependent on the annual number of birds: the higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. This impact is primarily due to decreasing labour costs rather than direct monetary costs. Larger farms seem to utilise less labour per bird for biosecurity actions. There are also differences relating to the processor with which the producer is associated, as well as to the gender of the producer, with female producers investing more in biosecurity. Bird density was found to be positively related to the labour costs of biosecurity. This suggests that when the bird density is higher, greater labour resources need to be invested in their health and welfare and hence disease prevention. The use of coccidiostats as a preventive measure to control coccidiosis was found to have the largest cost variance between the producers, contributing to the direct costs. Conclusions The redesign of cost-sharing in animal diseases is currently ongoing in the European Union. Before we can assert how the risk should be shared or resort to the 'polluter pays' principle

  1. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display microbial population of beef strip loins from two different production systems.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging during storage of strip loins (to simulate export shipment) from steers fattened on intensive grazing systems (Uruguay; UR) or on a high-concentrate diet (United States; US) on retail display life microbial growth. Four or 3 different packaging treatments were applied to UR and US strip loin roasts or steaks during 35 d of storage; treatments were applied 7 d following slaughter. After 35 d of storage, the samples were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, the treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with N and CO (MAP/CO), low-oxygen MAP with N plus CO and CO, and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2, block 1, the treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl--lauroyl--arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2, block 2, the treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. For retail display, VP treatments were sliced and repackaged in PVC overwrap, and MAP treatments were actually PVC overwrap trays that were removed from a master bag with the prescribed gas treatment. Regardless of production system and packaging treatment, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts of 6.9 to 7.8 and 6.7 to 7.7 log10 CFU/cm, respectively, were obtained at the end of retail display, except for US samples in Exp. 2 (5.5 to 6.3 log CFU/cm). No differences ( > 0.05) were detected for spp. counts among packaging treatments in US steaks at the end of the display time in Exp.1, whereas, for UR steaks, both MAP treatments had lower ( < 0.05) spp. counts than VP treatments. spp. counts were lower ( < 0.05) in the MAP/CO treatment than in the other 3 treatments in US samples on d 6 of retail display for Exp. 2. At the end of display time and for Exp. 1, US steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( < 0.05) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts than samples in both VP treatments; no differences ( > 0

  2. Various Ready-to-Eat Products from Retail Stores Linked to Occurrence of Diverse Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. Isolates.

    PubMed

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Fuangpaiboon, Janejira; Turner, Matthew P; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2016-02-01

    Listeriosis outbreaks have been associated with a variety of foods. This study investigated the prevalence and diversity of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat (RTE) products and evaluated the performance of a rapid detection method, the 3M molecular detection assay for L. monocytogenes (MDA-LM), for detection of L. monocytogenes. Assay results were compared with those obtained using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard culture method described in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Products (n = 200) were purchased from retail stores: 122 aquatic products, 22 products of animal origin, 18 vegetarian products, 15 deli meat products, 13 salad and vegetable products, 4 desserts, 2 egg-based products, and 4 other products. L. monocytogenes prevalence was comparable with both methods. Overall, 15 (7.5%) of 200 samples were positive for L. monocytogenes: 3% of aquatic products, 1.5% of products of animal origin, 1% of vegetarian products, and 2% of deli meat products. Compared with the standard culture method, the sensitivity, specificity, and the accuracy of the MDA-LM were 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 58.4 to 97.7%), 98.4% (95% confidence interval, 95.0 to 99.6%), and 97.5%, respectively. Using the culture-based method, 18 (9%) of 200 samples were positive for Listeria species other than L. monocytogenes. Listeria isolates from these samples were classified into nine allelic types (ATs). The majority of isolates were classified as ATs 58 and 74, which were identified as L. monocytogenes lineages I and IV, respectively. Listeria innocua and Listeria welshimeri also were represented by isolates of multiple ATs. The MDA-LM is a rapid and reliable technique for detecting L. monocytogenes in various RTE foods. Further study is needed to develop effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination in RTE foods.

  3. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk differing in label claims based on production management practices.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, A M; Spatny, K P; Vicini, J L; Bauman, D E

    2010-05-01

    Consumers are becoming increasingly health conscious, and food product choices have expanded. Choices in the dairy case include fluid milk labeled according to production management practices. Such labeling practices may be misunderstood and perceived by consumers to reflect differences in the quality or nutritional content of milk. Our objective was to investigate nutritional differences in specialty labeled milk, specifically to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of conventional milk with milk labeled as recombinant bST (rbST)-free or organic. The retail milk samples (n=292) obtained from the 48 contiguous states of the United States represented the consumer supply of pasteurized, homogenized milk of 3 milk types: conventionally produced milk with no specialty labeling, milk labeled rbST-free, and milk labeled organic. We found no statistical differences in the FA composition of conventional and rbST-free milk; however, these 2 groups were statistically different from organic milk for several FA. When measuring FA as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was higher in saturated FA (65.9 vs. 62.8%) and lower in monounsaturated FA (26.8 vs. 29.7%) and polyunsaturated FA (4.3 vs. 4.8%) compared with the average of conventional and rbST-free retail milk samples. Likewise, among bioactive FA compared as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was slightly lower in trans 18:1 FA (2.8 vs. 3.1%) and higher in n-3 FA (0.82 vs. 0.50%) and conjugated linoleic acid (0.70 vs. 0.57%). From a public health perspective, the direction for some of these differences would be considered desirable and for others would be considered undesirable; however, without exception, the magnitudes of the differences in milk FA composition among milk label types were minor and of no physiological importance when considering public health or dietary recommendations. Overall, when data from our analysis of FA composition of conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free or organic were combined

  4. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified...

  5. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  6. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  7. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  8. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified...

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, W.; Heath, Garvin; Sandor, Debra; Steward, Darlene; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Warner, Ethan; Webster, Karen W.

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  10. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  11. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  12. A hybrid DNA extraction method for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities from poultry production samples.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, Michael J; Hiett, Kelli L; Gamble, John; Caudill, Andrew C; Cicconi-Hogan, Kellie M; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2014-12-10

    The efficacy of DNA extraction protocols can be highly dependent upon both the type of sample being investigated and the types of downstream analyses performed. Considering that the use of new bacterial community analysis techniques (e.g., microbiomics, metagenomics) is becoming more prevalent in the agricultural and environmental sciences and many environmental samples within these disciplines can be physiochemically and microbiologically unique (e.g., fecal and litter/bedding samples from the poultry production spectrum), appropriate and effective DNA extraction methods need to be carefully chosen. Therefore, a novel semi-automated hybrid DNA extraction method was developed specifically for use with environmental poultry production samples. This method is a combination of the two major types of DNA extraction: mechanical and enzymatic. A two-step intense mechanical homogenization step (using bead-beating specifically formulated for environmental samples) was added to the beginning of the "gold standard" enzymatic DNA extraction method for fecal samples to enhance the removal of bacteria and DNA from the sample matrix and improve the recovery of Gram-positive bacterial community members. Once the enzymatic extraction portion of the hybrid method was initiated, the remaining purification process was automated using a robotic workstation to increase sample throughput and decrease sample processing error. In comparison to the strict mechanical and enzymatic DNA extraction methods, this novel hybrid method provided the best overall combined performance when considering quantitative (using 16S rRNA qPCR) and qualitative (using microbiomics) estimates of the total bacterial communities when processing poultry feces and litter samples.

  13. A Hybrid DNA Extraction Method for the Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Bacterial Communities from Poultry Production Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rothrock, Michael J.; Hiett, Kelli L.; Gamble, John; Caudill, Andrew C.; Cicconi-Hogan, Kellie M.; Caporaso, J. Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of DNA extraction protocols can be highly dependent upon both the type of sample being investigated and the types of downstream analyses performed. Considering that the use of new bacterial community analysis techniques (e.g., microbiomics, metagenomics) is becoming more prevalent in the agricultural and environmental sciences and many environmental samples within these disciplines can be physiochemically and microbiologically unique (e.g., fecal and litter/bedding samples from the poultry production spectrum), appropriate and effective DNA extraction methods need to be carefully chosen. Therefore, a novel semi-automated hybrid DNA extraction method was developed specifically for use with environmental poultry production samples. This method is a combination of the two major types of DNA extraction: mechanical and enzymatic. A two-step intense mechanical homogenization step (using bead-beating specifically formulated for environmental samples) was added to the beginning of the “gold standard” enzymatic DNA extraction method for fecal samples to enhance the removal of bacteria and DNA from the sample matrix and improve the recovery of Gram-positive bacterial community members. Once the enzymatic extraction portion of the hybrid method was initiated, the remaining purification process was automated using a robotic workstation to increase sample throughput and decrease sample processing error. In comparison to the strict mechanical and enzymatic DNA extraction methods, this novel hybrid method provided the best overall combined performance when considering quantitative (using 16S rRNA qPCR) and qualitative (using microbiomics) estimates of the total bacterial communities when processing poultry feces and litter samples. PMID:25548939

  14. A Bifidobacterium-based synbiotic product to reduce the transmission of C. jejuni along the poultry food chain.

    PubMed

    Baffoni, Loredana; Gaggìa, Francesca; Di Gioia, Diana; Santini, Cecilia; Mogna, Luca; Biavati, Bruno

    2012-07-02

    With the ban of dietary antimicrobial agents, the use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics has attracted a great deal of attention in order to improve intestinal health and control food-borne pathogens, which is an important concern for the production of safe meat and meat products. Recently, Campylobacter jejuni has emerged as a leading bacterial cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans, and epidemiological evidences indicate poultry and poultry products as the main source of human infection. This work aimed at the development of a synbiotic mixture capable of modulating the gut microbiota of broiler chickens to obtain an increase of the beneficial bacteria (i.e. bifidobacteria, lactobacilli) and a competitive reduction of C. jejuni. The prebiotic compound used in the mixture was chosen after an in vivo trial: a fructooligosaccharide and a galactooligosaccharide were separately administered to broilers mixed with normal feed at a concentration of 0.5% and 3%, respectively. Quantitative PCR on DNA extracted from fecal samples revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase of Bifidobacterium spp. in broilers treated with the galactooligosaccharide, coupled to a decrease (p<0.05) of Campylobacter spp. The galactooligosaccharide was then combined with a probiotic Bifidobacterium strain (B. longum subsp. longum PCB133), possessing in vitro antimicrobial activity against C. jejuni. The strain was microencapsulated in a lipid matrix to ensure viability into the feed and resistance to stomach transit. Finally, the synbiotic mixture was administered to broiler chickens for 14 days mixed with normal feed in order to have an intake of 10(9)CFU of PCB133/day. Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Campylobacter spp., B. longum subsp. longum and C. jejuni were quantified in fecal samples. PCB133 was recovered in feces of all animals. C. jejuni concentration in poultry feces was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in chickens administered with the synbiotic mixture. This study

  15. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part. (b...

  16. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part. (b...

  17. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep at...

  18. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part. (b...

  19. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  20. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part. (b...

  1. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep at...

  2. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep at...

  3. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  4. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  5. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep at...

  6. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  7. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part. (b...

  8. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep at...

  9. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  10. Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases 2016 Research Update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Viral infections of the avian gastrointestinal tract negatively impact poultry production; however, determining the complex etiologies of the viral enteric diseases in poultry has been difficult. Project scientists are continuing to investigate the species specificity, molecular phylogenetics, and p...

  11. Salmonella detection in poultry meat and meat products by the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella method, a LightCycler polymerase chain reaction system, and the International Organization for Standardization method 6579.

    PubMed

    Temelli, S; Eyigor, A; Carli, K T

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella (VIDAS ESLM) method and a specific real-time PCR system (LightCycler, LCPCR) to complement the International Organization for Standardization Method 6579 (ISO) in detecting Salmonella from a total of 105 naturally contaminated samples comprised of poultry meat and poultry meat products. The detection limit of ISO and LCPCR was 9 cfu/mL for both poultry meat and poultry meat products, whereas that of VIDAS ESLM with both sample types was determined to be 90 cfu/mL. Twelve (33.33%), 11 (30.55%), and 18 (50.00%) out of 36 poultry meat samples were positive for Salmonella by ISO, VIDAS ESLM, and LCPCR, respectively. Salmonella detection rates from poultry meat products were 5.80% for ISO and 8.69% for LCPCR, whereas none of these products tested positive by VIDAS ESLM. In poultry meat samples, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR detection results were in substantial agreement with ISO, with the relative accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates of 97.2, 91.7, and 100%, respectively, for VIDAS ESLM and 83.3, 100, and 75%, respectively, for LCPCR. This is the first report on the evaluation of both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR to complement ISO for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry meat and meat products. We determined that both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR have the potential to complement the ISO standard culture method in the rapid screening of Salmonella from naturally contaminated poultry meats. For the poultry meat products, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR can be used for rapid primary screening, and they should be complemented absolutely by ISO. Although LCPCR can preferentially be used for initial screening poultry meat products, the results should definitely be confirmed by ISO. Also, the VIDAS ESLM did not seem to be a suitable method for detecting Salmonella in poultry meat products.

  12. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  13. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  14. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  15. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  17. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  18. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  19. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  20. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...