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Sample records for retarded green function

  1. How to use retarded Green's functions in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Cheong, Lee Yen

    2008-10-15

    We demonstrate in examples that the covariant retarded Green's functions in electromagnetism and linearized gravity work as expected in de Sitter spacetime. We first clarify how retarded Green's functions should be used in spacetimes with spacelike past infinity such as de Sitter spacetime. In particular, we remind the reader of a general formula which gives the field for given initial data on a Cauchy surface and a given source (a charge or stress-energy tensor distribution) in its future. We then apply this formula to three examples: (i) electromagnetism in the future of a Cauchy surface in Minkowski spacetime, (ii) electromagnetism in de Sitter spacetime, and (iii) linearized gravity in de Sitter spacetime. In each example the field is reproduced correctly as predicted by the general argument. In the third example we construct a linearized gravitational field from two equal point masses located at the 'North and South Poles' which is nonsingular on the cosmological horizon and satisfies a covariant gauge condition and show that this field is reproduced by the retarded Green's function with corresponding gauge parameters.

  2. Retarded thermal Green's functions and forward scattering amplitudes at two loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, F. T.; Das, Ashok; Frenkel, J.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, we extend our earlier one loop analysis to two loops and give a simple diagrammatic description for the retarded Green's functions at finite temperature in terms of forward scattering amplitudes of on-shell thermal particles. We present a simple discussion, which can be easily generalized to any field theory, of the temperature dependent parts of the retarded two and three point functions in scalar field theory and QED. As an application of our result at two loops, we show how the infrared singularities in the thermal part of the retarded photon self-energy cancel in QED2 in the limit of vanishing electron mass.

  3. More on the covariant retarded Green's function for the electromagnetic field in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Lee, Yen Cheong; Nicholas, Jack R.

    2009-11-15

    In a recent paper 2 it was shown in examples that the covariant retarded Green's functions in certain gauges for electromagnetism and linearized gravity can be used to reproduce field configurations correctly in spite of the spacelike nature of past infinity in de Sitter spacetime. In this paper we extend the work of Ref. 2 concerning the electromagnetic field and show that the covariant retarded Green's function with an arbitrary value of the gauge parameter reproduces the electromagnetic field from two opposite charges at antipodal points of de Sitter spacetime.

  4. Measuring nonequilibrium retarded spin-spin Green's functions in an ion-trap-based quantum simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Bryce T.; Freericks, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    Recently a variant on Ramsey interferometry for coupled spin-1 /2 systems was proposed to directly measure the retarded spin-spin Green's function. In conventional experimental situations, the spin system is initially in a nonequilibrium state before the Ramsey interferometry is performed, so we examine the nonequilibrium retarded spin-spin Green's functions within the transverse-field Ising model. We derive the lowest four spectral moments to understand the short-time behavior and we employ a Lehmann-like representation to determine the spectral behavior. We simulate a Ramsey protocol for a nonequilibrium quantum spin system that consists of a coherent superposition of the ground state and diabatically excited higher-energy states via a temporally ramped transverse magnetic field. We then apply the Ramsey spectroscopy protocol to the final Hamiltonian, which has a constant transverse field. The short time allows us to extract the initial transport of many-body correlations, while the long-time behavior relates to the excitation spectra of the Hamiltonian. Compressive sensing is employed in the data analysis to efficiently extract that spectra.

  5. Description of quasiparticle and satellite properties via cumulant expansions of the retarded one-particle Green's function

    DOE PAGES

    Mayers, Matthew Z.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Reichman, David R.

    2016-08-22

    A cumulant-based GW approximation for the retarded one-particle Green's function is proposed, motivated by an exact relation between the improper Dyson self-energy and the cumulant generating function. We explore qualitative aspects of this method within a simple one-electron independent phonon model, where it is seen that the method preserves the energy moment of the spectral weight while also reproducing the exact Green's function in the weak-coupling limit. For the three-dimensional electron gas, this method predicts multiple satellites at the bottom of the band, albeit with inaccurate peak spacing. But, its quasiparticle properties and correlation energies are more accurate than bothmore » previous cumulant methods and standard G0W0. These results point to features that may be exploited within the framework of cumulant-based methods and suggest promising directions for future exploration and improvements of cumulant-based GW approaches.« less

  6. Description of quasiparticle and satellite properties via cumulant expansions of the retarded one-particle Green's function

    SciTech Connect

    Mayers, Matthew Z.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Reichman, David R.

    2016-08-22

    A cumulant-based GW approximation for the retarded one-particle Green's function is proposed, motivated by an exact relation between the improper Dyson self-energy and the cumulant generating function. We explore qualitative aspects of this method within a simple one-electron independent phonon model, where it is seen that the method preserves the energy moment of the spectral weight while also reproducing the exact Green's function in the weak-coupling limit. For the three-dimensional electron gas, this method predicts multiple satellites at the bottom of the band, albeit with inaccurate peak spacing. But, its quasiparticle properties and correlation energies are more accurate than both previous cumulant methods and standard G0W0. These results point to features that may be exploited within the framework of cumulant-based methods and suggest promising directions for future exploration and improvements of cumulant-based GW approaches.

  7. Innovative green technique for preparing of flame retardant cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, microwave-assisted or supercritical carbon dioxide high pressure reactors are considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this paper, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric ...

  8. Modeling the Schwarzschild Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Zachary; Zimmerman, Aaron; Chen, Yanbei

    2017-01-01

    At sufficiently late times, gravitational waveforms from extreme mass ratio inspirals consist of a sum of quasinormal modes, power law tails, and modes related to the matter source, such as the horizon mode (Zimmerman and Chen 2011). Due to the complexity of the exact curved spacetime Green function, making precise predictions about each component is difficult. We discuss the validity of a simple model for the scalar Schwarzschild Green's function. For observers at future null infinity, we model the Green's function as a simple function describing the direct radiation that matches to a single quasinormal mode at a retarded time related to the light ring location. As applications of the model, we describe the excitation process of the single quasinormal mode and the horizon mode, showing that waveform from the inspiralling object is in precise correspondence to the response of driven, damped harmonic oscillator.

  9. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of green flame retardant cellulosic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totolin, Vladimir

    The natural fiber-containing fabrics and composites are more environmentally friendly, and are used in transportation (automobiles, aerospace), military applications, construction industries (ceiling paneling, partition boards), consumer products, etc. Therefore, the flammability characteristics of the composites based on polymers and natural fibers play an important role. This dissertation presents the development of plasma assisted - green flame retardant coatings for cellulosic substrates. The overall objective of this work was to generate durable flame retardant treatment on cellulosic materials. In the first approach sodium silicate layers were pre-deposited onto clean cotton substrates and cross linked using low pressure, non-equilibrium oxygen plasma. A statistical design of experiments was used to optimize the plasma parameters. The modified cotton samples were tested for flammability using an automatic 45° angle flammability test chamber. Aging tests were conducted to evaluate the coating resistance during the accelerated laundry technique. The samples revealed a high flame retardant behavior and good thermal stability proved by thermo-gravimetric analysis. In the second approach flame retardant cellulosic materials have been produced using a silicon dioxide (SiO2) network coating. SiO 2 network armor was prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), prior coating the substrates, and was cross linked on the surface of the substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) technique. Due to protection effects of the SiO2 network armor, the cellulosic based fibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties and improved flame retardancy. In the third approach, the TEOS/APP treatments were extended to linen fabrics. The thermal analysis showed a higher char content and a strong endothermic process of the treated samples compared with control ones, indicating a good thermal stability. Also, the surface analysis proved

  10. [Hearing function in children with speech retardation].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Povarova, M V

    2006-01-01

    Hearing function was studied in 140 children aged between 2 and 5 years with speech retardation and perinatal pathology for formulation of further treatment policy and rehabilitation. Impedance audiometry, SEAAE, game audiometry identified hearing loss of the first, second, third, forth degree in 6 (4%), 10 (7%), 24 (17%), 31 (21%) children respectively. Deafness was registered in 17 (12%) children, 52 (37%) examinees were audiologically normal.

  11. Green application of flame retardant cotton fabric using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this poster, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant woven and nonwoven fabrics were obtained by utiliz...

  12. Coupled-cluster Green's function: Analysis of properties originating in the exponential parametrization of the ground-state wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo; Kowalski, Karol

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we derive basic properties of the Green's-function matrix elements stemming from the exponential coupled-cluster (CC) parametrization of the ground-state wave function. We demonstrate that all intermediates used to express the retarded (or, equivalently, ionized) part of the Green's function in the ω representation can be expressed only through connected diagrams. Similar properties are also shared by the first-order ω derivative of the retarded part of the CC Green's function. Moreover, the first-order ω derivative of the CC Green's function can be evaluated analytically. This result can be generalized to any order of ω derivatives. Through the Dyson equation, derivatives of the corresponding CC self-energy operator can be evaluated analytically. In analogy to the CC Green's function, the corresponding CC self-energy operator can be represented by connected terms. Our analysis can easily be generalized to the advanced part of the CC Green's function.

  13. Green functions of vortex operators

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph

    1981-03-16

    In this paper, we study the euclidean Green functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarily for abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral. We explore the requirement that the Green functions depend only on the boundary of this surface. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two-dimensional “solvable model” of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green functions of the abelian Wilson loop and abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case, an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green functions of the Wilson and vortex operators, for a general gauge theory. Finally, the surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail.

  14. Predicting Adaptive Functioning of Mentally Retarded Persons in Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, John T.; Thompson, Joy C.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of a variety of individual, residential, and community variables on adaptive functioning of 369 retarded persons (18 to 73 years old) was examined using a multiple regression analysis. Individual characteristics (especially IQ) accounted for 21 percent of the variance, while environmental variables, primarily those related to…

  15. Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, L. W.; Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Using the field emission retarding potential method true work functions have been measured for the following monocrystalline substrates: W(110), W(111), W(100), Nb(100), Ni(100), Cu(100), Ir(110) and Ir(111). The electron elastic and inelastic reflection coefficients from several of these surfaces have also been examined near zero primary beam energy.

  16. Correlation dynamics of Green functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shun-Jin, Wang; Wei, Zuo; Wolfgang, Cassing

    1994-06-01

    We generalize the methods used in the theory of correlation dynamics and establish a set of equations of motion for many-body correlation Green functions in the nonrelativistic case. These nonlinear and coupled equations of motion describe the dynamical evolution of correlation Green functions of different order and transparently show how many-body correlations are generated by the different interaction terms in a genuine nonperturbative framework. The nonperturbative results of the conventional Green function theory are included in the present formalism as two limiting cases (the so-called ladder-diagram summation and ring-diagram summation) as well as the familiar correlation dynamics of density matrices in the equal-time limit. We present explicit expressions for three- and four-body correlation functions that can be used to dynamically restore the trace relations for spin-symmetric Fermi systems and study numerically the relative importance of two-, three- and four-body correlations for nuclear configurations close to the ground state.

  17. The Green`s function method for critical heterogeneous slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the Green`s Function Method (GFM) has been employed to obtain benchmark-quality results for nuclear engineering and radiative transfer calculations. This was possible because of fast and accurate calculations of the Green`s function and the associated Fourier and Laplace transform inversions. Calculations have been provided in one-dimensional slab geometries for both homogeneous and heterogeneous media. A heterogeneous medium is analyzed as a series of homogeneous slabs, and Placzek`s lemma is used to extend each slab to infinity. This allows use of the infinite medium Green`s function (the anisotropic plane source in an infinite homogeneous medium) in the solution. To this point, a drawback of the GFM has been the limitation to media with c < 1, where c is the number of secondary particles produced in a collision. Clearly, no physical steady-state solution exists for an infinite medium that contains an infinite source and is described by c >1; however, mathematical solutions exist which result in oscillating Green`s functions. Such calculations are briefly discussing. The limitation to media with c < 1 has been relaxed so that the Green`s function may also be calculated for media with c {ge} 1. Thus, materials that contain fissionable isotopes may be modeled.

  18. Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W.; Swanson, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the theoretical foundation of the field electron retarding potential method, and review of its experimental application to the measurement of single crystal face work functions. The results obtained from several substrates are discussed. An interesting and useful fallout from the experimental approach described is the ability to accurately measure the elastic and inelastic reflection coefficient for impinging electrons to near zero-volt energy.

  19. Liquid crystal retarder spectral retardance characterization based on a Cauchy dispersion relation and a voltage transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Asticio; Donoso, Ramiro; Ramírez, Manuel; Carrión, José; del Mar Sánchez-López, María; Moreno, Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    We present a methodology for the spectral characterization of the optical modulation properties of a liquid crystal retarder (LCR). The method includes its complete description with a single Cauchy dispersion relation and a single voltage transfer function. As a result, an accurate description of the LCR retardance is achieved, both versus applied voltage and versus wavelength, with very few parameters. Finally, an imaging polarimetric system has also been developed to characterize the spatial variations in the device.

  20. On the Green functions of gravitational radiation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giampiero

    2001-06-01

    Previous work in the literature has studied gravitational radiation in black hole collisions at the speed of light. In particular, it had been proved that the perturbative field equations may all be reduced to equations in only two independent variables, by virtue of a conformal symmetry at each order in perturbation theory. The Green function for the perturbative field equations is analysed here by studying the corresponding second-order hyperbolic operator with variable coefficients, instead of using the reduction method from the retarded flat-space Green function in four dimensions. After reduction to canonical form of this hyperbolic operator, the integral representation of the solution in terms of the Riemann function is obtained. The Riemann function solves a characteristic initial-value problem for which analytic formulae leading to the numerical solution are derived.

  1. Closed-form solutions to surface Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Umerski, A.

    1997-02-01

    We obtain closed-form analytic solutions for surface Green`s functions within arbitrary multiorbital models. The formulation is completely general, and is equally valid for empirical tight binding, linear-muffin-tin-orbital tight binding, screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker and other Green`s-function equivalent formalisms, where the Hamiltonian can be put into a localized (i.e., block-band) form. The solutions are applicable to finite or semi-infinite surface systems, with quite general substrate and overlayers, or even to superlattices. This is achieved by solving Dyson`s equations by means of a matrix-valued extension of the Moebius transformation. The analytical properties of the solutions are discussed, and by considering their asymptotic limit, a simple closed form for the exact (semi-infinite) surface Green`s function is obtained. The numerical calculation of the surface Green`s function (or of observable quantities such as the density of states) using this closed form is compared with previously known iterative procedures. We find that it is far faster, far more stable, and more accurate than the best iterative method. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Functional determinants from Wronski Green functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.

    1999-11-01

    A general technique is developed for calculating functional determinants of second-order differential operators with Dirichlet, periodic, and antiperiodic boundary conditions, without the knowledge of spectral properties. As an example, we give explicit formulas for a harmonic oscillator with an arbitrary time-dependent frequency, where our result is a generalization of the Gel'fand-Yaglom famous formula for Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our technique is based on the Wronski's construction of Green functions, which does not require spectral knowledge. Our final formula expresses the ratios of functional determinants in terms of an ordinary 2×2 determinant of a constant matrix constructed from two linearly independent solutions of the homogeneous differential equations associated with second-order differential operators. For ratios of determinants encountered in semiclassical fluctuations around a classical solution, the result can further be expressed in terms of the classical solution. Special properties of operators with a zero mode are exhibited.

  3. Elementary introduction to the Green's function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Mccormick, P. T.

    1975-01-01

    A technique, using the method of variation of parameters for solving differential equations, is developed for introducing Green's functions early in an undergraduate curriculum. Various examples are presented.

  4. Brownian dynamics without Green's functions

    SciTech Connect

    Delong, Steven; Donev, Aleksandar; Usabiaga, Florencio Balboa; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Griffith, Boyce E.

    2014-04-07

    We develop a Fluctuating Immersed Boundary (FIB) method for performing Brownian dynamics simulations of confined particle suspensions. Unlike traditional methods which employ analytical Green's functions for Stokes flow in the confined geometry, the FIB method uses a fluctuating finite-volume Stokes solver to generate the action of the response functions “on the fly.” Importantly, we demonstrate that both the deterministic terms necessary to capture the hydrodynamic interactions among the suspended particles, as well as the stochastic terms necessary to generate the hydrodynamically correlated Brownian motion, can be generated by solving the steady Stokes equations numerically only once per time step. This is accomplished by including a stochastic contribution to the stress tensor in the fluid equations consistent with fluctuating hydrodynamics. We develop novel temporal integrators that account for the multiplicative nature of the noise in the equations of Brownian dynamics and the strong dependence of the mobility on the configuration for confined systems. Notably, we propose a random finite difference approach to approximating the stochastic drift proportional to the divergence of the configuration-dependent mobility matrix. Through comparisons with analytical and existing computational results, we numerically demonstrate the ability of the FIB method to accurately capture both the static (equilibrium) and dynamic properties of interacting particles in flow.

  5. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  6. Cauchy problem and Green's functions for first order differential operators and algebraic quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlhoff, Rainer

    2011-02-15

    Existence and uniqueness of advanced and retarded fundamental solutions (Green's functions) and of global solutions to the Cauchy problem is proved for a general class of first order linear differential operators on vector bundles over globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds. This is a core ingredient to CAR-/CCR-algebraic constructions of quantum field theories on curved spacetimes, particularly for higher spin field equations.

  7. Primary function analysis of human mental retardation related gene CRBN.

    PubMed

    Xin, Wang; Xiaohua, Ni; Peilin, Chen; Xin, Chen; Yaqiong, Sun; Qihan, Wu

    2008-06-01

    The mutation of human cereblon gene (CRBN) is revealed to be related with mild mental retardation. Since the molecular characteristics of CRBN have not been well presented, we investigated the general properties of CRBN. We analyzed its gene structure and protein homologues. The CRBN protein might belong to a family of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent Lon protease. We also found that CRBN was widely expressed in different tissues, and the expression level in testis is significantly higher than other tissues. This may suggested it could play some important roles in several other tissues besides brain. Transient transfection experiment in AD 293 cell lines suggested that both CRBN and CRBN mutant (nucleotide position 1,274(C > T)) are located in the whole cells. This may suggest new functions of CRBN in cell nucleolus besides its mitochondria protease activity in cytoplasm.

  8. Use of Crystalline Boron as a Burn Rate Retardant Toward the Development of Green-Colored Handheld Signal Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Table 1 M125A1 baseline formulation Components Weight, % Barium Nitrate 46 Magnesium 30=50 33 Polyvinyl Chloride 16 Laminac 4116=Lupersol 5 Crystalline... polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a known color enhancer and participated as a chlorine donor during the combustion process. Another reason for the utilization...Boron as a Burn Rate Retardant toward the Development of Green- Colored Handheld Signal Formulations Jesse J. Sabatini a , Jay C. Poret a & Russell N

  9. Eikonal Green function of the Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yanbei

    2014-03-01

    The Green function of a black hole spacetime determines its response to small perturbations. The Green function can be used to calculate the self-force correction to the motion of a small mass about the black hole. We have constructed the part of the Green function arising from perturbations which are partially trapped at the light ring, in the eikonal (high-frequency) limit. This ``quasinormal mode'' part of the Green function is important at early and intermediate response times. In the eikonal limit, it diverges where null geodesics connect a response point to the source point, and it exhibits a four-fold singularity structure. I will discuss our results, future applications of our work, and open questions.

  10. Green's Functions in Space and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, E. G. Peter

    1979-01-01

    Gives a sketch of some topics in distribution theory that is technically simple, yet provides techniques for handling the partial differential equations satisfied by the most important Green's functions in physics. (Author/GA)

  11. Green's function calculations of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, ZhongHao; Wu, Qiang; Xu, FuRong

    2016-09-01

    The influence of short-range correlations in nuclei was investigated with realistic nuclear force. The nucleon-nucleon interaction was renormalized with V lowk technique and applied to the Green's function calculations. The Dyson equation was reformulated with algebraic diagrammatic constructions. We also analyzed the binding energy of 4He, calculated with chiral potential and CD-Bonn potential. The properties of Green's function with realistic nuclear forces are also discussed.

  12. Functions of Consonant Assimilation and Reduplication in Early Word Productions of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Rex J.

    1982-01-01

    Spontaneous speech samples were elicited from eight mentally retarded children (three to six years old). Examples of consonant assimilation and reduplication found in their speech samples were separately analyzed to examine how these phonological processes function in the phonologies of retarded children. (Author)

  13. Schwinger model Green functions with topological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radożycki, Tomasz

    1999-11-01

    The fermion propagator and the four-fermion Green function in massless QED2 are explicitly found with topological effects taken into account. The corrections due to instanton sectors k=+/-1, contributing to the propagator, are shown to be just the homogenous terms admitted by the Dyson-Schwinger equation for S. In the case of the four-fermion function also sectors k=+/-2 are included in the consideration. The quark condensates are then calculated and are shown to satisfy the cluster property. The θ dependence exhibited by the Green functions corresponds to and may be removed by performing certain chiral gauge transformation.

  14. On the Green-functions of the classical off-shell electrodynamics under the manifestly covariant relativistic dynamics of Stueckelberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonovich, I.; Horwitz, L. P.

    2011-08-01

    In previous papers derivations of the Green function have been given for 5D off-shell electrodynamics in the framework of the manifestly covariant relativistic dynamics of Stueckelberg (with invariant evolution parameter τ). In this paper, we reconcile these derivations resulting in different explicit forms, and relate our results to the conventional fundamental solutions of linear 5D wave equations published in the mathematical literature. We give physical arguments for the choice of the Green function retarded in the fifth variable τ.

  15. Unified Green's Function Retrieval by Cross Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wapenaar, Kees; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2006-12-08

    It has been shown by many authors that the cross correlation of two recordings of a diffuse wave field at different receivers yields the Green's function between these receivers. Recently the theory has been extended for situations where time-reversal invariance does not hold (e.g., in attenuating media) and where source-receiver reciprocity breaks down (in moving fluids). Here we present a unified theory for Green's function retrieval that captures all these situations and, because of the unified form, readily extends to more complex situations, such as electrokinetic Green's function retrieval in poroelastic or piezoelectric media. The unified theory has a wide range of applications in ''remote sensing without a source.''.

  16. Health potential for functional green teas?

    PubMed

    Boon, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the developed and developing world. Many "functional" foods and ingredients are advocated for their effects on body composition but few have consistent scientific support for their efficacy. However, an increasing amount of mechanistic and clinical evidence is building for green tea. The tea plant is naturally rich in a group of antioxidants known as catechins. Unlike black tea, green tea production involves little processing and fermentation and therefore, green tea brews are rich in catechins. Green tea has been suggested to have a number of potential health benefits in areas such as cardiovascular disease, cancer prevention, glucose homeostasis and dental health. Although there is some promising evidence in all of these areas, more data from human intervention trials are needed. A lot of attention has lately been focused on the beneficial effects of green tea on body composition and particularly visceral fat, which has been shown to have a strong link with different components of the metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Most, but not all, of the positive results come from a number Asian studies, in which overweight subjects (men and women) consumed green tea for approximately 12 weeks. Finally, green tea may also have measurable acute effects on energy metabolism and fat oxidation and in particular during physical activity, as evidenced by other studies specifically looking at these endpoints. Small cumulative effects on energy metabolism could also be responsible for the longer-tem effects of green tea on body composition, and these long-term effects may also be most apparent in the context of moderate physical activity. However, more research is needed to further clarify the exact mechanisms of action and to extrapolate these findings to non-Asian populations.

  17. Non-equilibrium Green function method: theory and application in simulation of nanometer electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Van-Nam

    2014-09-01

    We review fundamental aspects of the non-equilibrium Green function method in the simulation of nanometer electronic devices. The method is implemented into our recently developed computer package OPEDEVS to investigate transport properties of electrons in nano-scale devices and low-dimensional materials. Concretely, we present the definition of the four real-time Green functions, the retarded, advanced, lesser and greater functions. Basic relations among these functions and their equations of motion are also presented in detail as the basis for the performance of analytical and numerical calculations. In particular, we review in detail two recursive algorithms, which are implemented in OPEDEVS to solve the Green functions defined in finite-size opened systems and in the surface layer of semi-infinite homogeneous ones. Operation of the package is then illustrated through the simulation of the transport characteristics of a typical semiconductor device structure, the resonant tunneling diodes.

  18. Two-Time Green's Functions and the Spectral Density Method in Nonextensive Classical Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, A.; Cosenza, F.; de Cesare, L.

    2001-12-01

    The two-time retarded and advanced Green's function technique is formulated in nonextensive classical statistical mechanics within the optimal Lagrange multiplier framework. The main spectral properties are presented and a spectral decomposition for the spectral density is obtained. Finally, the nonextensive version of the spectral density method is given and its effectiveness is tested by exploring the equilibrium properties of a classical ferromagnetic spin chain.

  19. World-line Green functions with momentum and source conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haru-Tada

    1999-11-01

    Based on the generating functional method with an external source function, a useful constraint on the source function is proposed for analyzing the one- and two-loop world-line Green functions. The constraint plays the same role as the momentum conservation law of a certain nontrivial form, and transforms ambiguous Green functions into the uniquely defined Green functions. We also argue reparametrizations of the Green functions defined on differently parameterized world-line diagrams.

  20. The sources of Schwinger's Green's functions

    PubMed Central

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2005-01-01

    Julian Schwinger's development of his Green's functions methods in quantum field theory is placed in historical context. The relation of Schwinger's quantum action principle to Richard Feynman's path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics is reviewed. The nonperturbative character of Schwinger's approach is stressed as well as the ease with which it can be extended to finite temperature situations. PMID:15930139

  1. Generating functionals for Green's functions in gauge field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bordag, M.; Kaschlun, L.; Matveev, V.A.; Robaschik, D.

    1987-09-01

    The structure of the generating functional of the one-particle-irreducible Green's functions in gauge field theories is investigated. Both axial as well as covariant gauge conditions are considered. For both cases, the general structure of the functionals is obtained, and a functional expansion with respect to nonlocal operators is given. The appearance of gauge-dependent operators in the case of the covariant gauge follows in a natural manner from the structure of the corresponding functional.

  2. A green approach to constructing multilayered nanocoating for flame retardant treatment of polyamide 66 fabric from chitosan and sodium alginate.

    PubMed

    Kumar Kundu, Chanchal; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Shun; Wang, Xin; Sheng, Haibo; Pan, Ying; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan

    2017-06-15

    Green polyelectrolytes including chitosan (CS), phytic acid (PA) and oxidized sodium alginate (OSA) were deposited on polyamide 66 (PA66) fabrics in a quadralayer (QL) fashion like (CS-PA-CS-OSA)n (where "n" denotes the number of quadra layers) via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to improve the flame retardant property. In the vertical burning test, the PA66 fabric with 10 and 15 QL depositions could stop the melt-dripping. Cone calorimetry results showed that a maximum reduction (24%) in the peak heat release rate was achieved for the PA66 fabric with 5 QL depositions. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the presence of the polyelectrolytes catalyzed the degradation pathway of virgin PA66 fabric where the initial decomposition temperature was reduced and the char yield was enhanced for all the coated fabrics significantly. Moreover, UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that the use of OSA could improve the durability of such a multilayered nanocoating.

  3. Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael

    2015-02-27

    We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit.

  4. Nonequilibrium diagrammatic technique for Hubbard Green functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Ochoa, Maicol A.; Galperin, Michael

    2017-03-01

    We introduce diagrammatic technique for Hubbard nonequilibrium Green functions. The formulation is an extension of equilibrium considerations for strongly correlated lattice models to description of current carrying molecular junctions. Within the technique intra-system interactions are taken into account exactly, while molecular coupling to contacts is used as a small parameter in perturbative expansion. We demonstrate the viability of the approach with numerical simulations for a generic junction model of quantum dot coupled to two electron reservoirs.

  5. PREFACE: Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's Functions IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Balzer, Karsten

    2010-04-01

    This is the fourth volume1 of articles on the theory of Nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and their modern application in various fields such as plasma physics, semiconductor physics, molecular electronics and high energy physics. It contains 23 articles written by experts in many-body theory and quantum transport who summarize recent progress in their respective area of research. The articles are based on talks given at the interdisciplinary conference Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions IV which was held 17-21 August 2009 at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. This conference continues the tradition of the previous meetings which started in 1999 and which aimed at an informal exchange across field boundaries. The previous meetings and the earlier proceedings proved to be very stimulating not only for young researchers but also for experienced scientists, and we are convinced that this fourth volume will be as successful as the previous ones. As before, this volume includes only extended review-type papers which are written in a way that they are understandable to a broad interdisciplinary audience. All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administrated by the Editors assuring highest scientific standards. In the review process some papers were substantially revised and improved and some were rejected. This conference would not have been possible without the remarkable work of the local organizing team around John Barker and Scott Roy and the generous financial support from the University of Glasgow and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB-Transregio 24. Michael Bonitz and Karsten Balzer Kiel, February 2010 1 The first two volumes are Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions, M Bonitz (ed) and Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions II, M Bonitz and D Semkat (eds), which were published by World Scientific (Singapore), in 2000 and 2003, respectively (ISBN

  6. Relativistic dynamics, Green function and pseudodifferential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

    2016-06-01

    The central role played by pseudodifferential operators in relativistic dynamics is known very well. In this work, operators like the Schrodinger one (e.g., square root) are treated from the point of view of the non-local pseudodifferential Green functions. Starting from the explicit construction of the Green (semigroup) theoretical kernel, a theorem linking the integrability conditions and their dependence on the spacetime dimensions is given. Relativistic wave equations with arbitrary spin and the causality problem are discussed with the algebraic interpretation of the radical operator and their relation with coherent and squeezed states. Also we perform by means of pure theoretical procedures (based in physical concepts and symmetry) the relativistic position operator which satisfies the conditions of integrability: it is a non-local, Lorentz invariant and does not have the same problems as the "local"position operator proposed by Newton and Wigner. Physical examples, as zitterbewegung and rogue waves, are presented and deeply analyzed in this theoretical framework.

  7. Functions of consonant assimilation and reduplication in early word productions of mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Prater, R J

    1982-01-01

    Spontaneous speech samples were elicited from eight mentally retarded children. Examples of consonant assimilation and reduplication found in their speech samples were separately analyzed to examine how these phonological processes function in the phonologies of retarded children. Results showed wide individual variability in subjects' use of consonant assimilation. Reduplication functioned to provide a method by which the subjects whose word productions were primarily monosyllabic could produce multisyllabic targets and/or to provide a method by which the subjects could produce multisyllabic words that had one syllable containing target consonants of consonant clusters absent from their phonetic repertoires.

  8. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE PAGES

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  9. Green's function asymptotics and sharp interpolation inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelik, S. V.; Ilyin, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    A general method is proposed for finding sharp constants for the embeddings of the Sobolev spaces H^m(\\mathscr{M}) on an n-dimensional Riemannian manifold \\mathscr{M} into the space of bounded continuous functions, where m\\gt n/2. The method is based on an analysis of the asymptotics with respect to the spectral parameter of the Green's function of an elliptic operator of order 2m whose square root has domain determining the norm of the corresponding Sobolev space. The cases of the n-dimensional torus {T}^n and the n-dimensional sphere {S}^n are treated in detail, as well as certain manifolds with boundary. In certain cases when \\mathscr{M} is compact, multiplicative inequalities with remainder terms of various types are obtained. Inequalities with correction terms for periodic functions imply an improvement for the well-known Carlson inequalities. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  10. Tremor Frequency Profile as a Function of Level of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Robert L.; Deutsch, Katherine M.; Newell, Karl M.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic slowness of movement initiation and execution in adult individuals with mental retardation may be driven by the slower frequency profile of the dynamics of the system. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the resting and postural finger tremor frequency profile (single and dual limb) of adults as a function of level of…

  11. Functionality of Objectives in the Program and Education Plans of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Joseph B.; Karst, Ralph R.

    This study examined the relationship between the functionality of training objectives established in Individual Program Plans (IPPs) and Individual Education Plans (IEPs) of persons with severe and profound mental retardation and different service delivery environments. Each training objective in the IPPs and IEPs of 78 individuals was classified…

  12. Retardation of quality changes of Pacific white shrimp by green tea extract treatment and modified atmosphere packaging during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-10-03

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with or without green tea extract (1g/L; GTE) in combination with or without ascorbic acid (0.05g/L; AA) during refrigerated storage of 10days was investigated. Shrimp without treatment stored under MAP had lowered psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and H(2)S-producing bacteria count (P<0.05) but similar lactic acid bacteria count (P>0.05), in comparison with shrimp stored in air (control). The coincidental lowered rate of increase in pH, total volatile base (TVB) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were obtained in shrimp stored under MAP (P<0.05). However, MAP slightly lowered melanosis formation and improved likeness score to some extent. When shrimp were treated with GTE and stored under MAP, the lower microbiological and chemical changes as well as the lowest melanosis formation were observed, compared to shrimp kept under MAP without treatment and the control (P<0.05). GTE treatment in combination with MAP could retard chemical changes and melanosis formation, regardless of AA incorporation (P>0.05). Nevertheless, GTE in combination with AA had higher inhibition on microbial growth and yielded the shrimp with higher likeness, compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Therefore, shrimp treated with GTE in combination with AA prior to MAP had the lowest losses in quality during refrigerated storage.

  13. OPE of Green functions in the odd sector of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadavý, T.; Kampf, K.; Novotný, J.

    2017-03-01

    A review of familiar results of the three-point Green functions of currents in the odd-intrinsic parity sector of QCD is presented. Such Green functions include very well-known examples of VVP, VAS or AAP correlators. We also present new results for VVA and AAA Green functions that have not yet been studied extensively in the literature before, more importantly with a phenomenological study and a discussion of the highenergy behaviour and its relation to the QCD condensates.

  14. Green's function Monte Carlo in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    We review the status of Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) methods as applied to problems in nuclear physics. New methods have been developed to handle the spin and isospin degrees of freedom that are a vital part of any realistic nuclear physics problem, whether at the level of quarks or nucleons. We discuss these methods and then summarize results obtained recently for light nuclei, including ground state energies, three-body forces, charge form factors and the coulomb sum. As an illustration of the applicability of GFMC to quark models, we also consider the possible existence of bound exotic multi-quark states within the framework of flux-tube quark models. 44 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Green functions of graphene: An analytic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawlor, James A.; Ferreira, Mauro S.

    2015-04-01

    In this article we derive the lattice Green Functions (GFs) of graphene using a Tight Binding Hamiltonian incorporating both first and second nearest neighbour hoppings and allowing for a non-orthogonal electron wavefunction overlap. It is shown how the resulting GFs can be simplified from a double to a single integral form to aid computation, and that when considering off-diagonal GFs in the high symmetry directions of the lattice this single integral can be approximated very accurately by an algebraic expression. By comparing our results to the conventional first nearest neighbour model commonly found in the literature, it is apparent that the extended model leads to a sizeable change in the electronic structure away from the linear regime. As such, this article serves as a blueprint for researchers who wish to examine quantities where these considerations are important.

  16. Rossby wave Green's functions in an azimuthal wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Duba, C. T.; Hu, Q.

    2016-05-01

    Green's functions for Rossby waves in an azimuthal wind are obtained, in which the stream-function $\\psi$ depends on $r$, $\\phi$ and $t$, where $r$ is cylindrical radius and $\\phi$ is the azimuthal angle in the $\\beta$-plane relative to the easterly direction, in which the $x$-axis points east and the $y$-axis points north. The Rossby wave Green's function with no wind is obtained using Fourier transform methods, and is related to the previously known Green's function obtained for this case, which has a different but equivalent form to the Green's function obtained in the present paper. We emphasize the role of the wave eikonal solution, which plays an important role in the form of the solution. The corresponding Green's function for a rotating wind with azimuthal wind velocity ${\\bf u}=\\Omega r{\\bf e}_\\phi$ ($\\Omega=$const.) is also obtained by Fourier methods, in which the advective rotation operator in position space is transformed to a rotation operator in ${\\bf k}$ transform space. The finite Rossby deformation radius is included in the analysis. The physical characteristics of the Green's functions are delineated and applications are discussed. In the limit as $\\Omega\\to 0$, the rotating wind Green's function reduces to the Rossby wave Green function with no wind.

  17. Deterministic retrieval of complex Green's functions using hard X rays.

    PubMed

    Vine, D J; Paganin, D M; Pavlov, K M; Uesugi, K; Takeuchi, A; Suzuki, Y; Yagi, N; Kämpfe, T; Kley, E-B; Förster, E

    2009-01-30

    A massively parallel deterministic method is described for reconstructing shift-invariant complex Green's functions. As a first experimental implementation, we use a single phase contrast x-ray image to reconstruct the complex Green's function associated with Bragg reflection from a thick perfect crystal. The reconstruction is in excellent agreement with a classic prediction of dynamical diffraction theory.

  18. Executive function and depressive symptoms of retardation in nonelderly stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Sobreiro, Matildes F M; Miotto, Eliane Correa; Terroni, Luisa; Tinone, Gisela; Iosifescu, Dan V; de Lucia, Mara C S; Scaff, Milberto; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Amaro, Edson; Fraguas, Renerio

    2014-01-01

    The depression-executive dysfunction syndrome, a late-onset depression of vascular origin with executive dysfunction and psychomotor retardation, has also been described after stroke. We verified whether this syndrome also occurs in nonelderly stroke patients by investigating the association between domains of depressive symptoms with executive functions in 87 first-ever ischemic stroke patients. The retardation domain of the 31-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was associated with decreased performance on verbal fluency (assessed with FAS). The association was maintained for younger patients (aged <60 years) after adjusting for confounders. This result supports the clinical presentation of depression-executive dysfunction syndrome in younger stroke patients. Confirmation of this finding, its neural correlates, and clinical implication deserve further investigation.

  19. Transient Thermoelectric Solution Employing Green's Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The study works to formulate convenient solutions to the problem of a thermoelectric couple operating under a time varying condition. Transient operation of a thermoelectric will become increasingly common as thermoelectric technology permits applications in an increasing number of uses. A number of terrestrial applications, in contrast to steady-state space applications, can subject devices to time varying conditions. For instance thermoelectrics can be exposed to transient conditions in the automotive industry depending on engine system dynamics along with factors like driving style. In an effort to generalize the thermoelectric solution a Greens function method is used, so that arbitrary time varying boundary and initial conditions may be applied to the system without reformulation. The solution demonstrates that in thermoelectric applications of a transient nature additional factors must be taken into account and optimized. For instance, the materials specific heat and density become critical parameters in addition to the thermal mass of a heat sink or the details of the thermal profile, such as oscillating frequency. The calculations can yield the optimum operating conditions to maximize power output andor efficiency for a given type of device.

  20. On singular cases in the design derivative of Green's functional

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The author's prior development of a general abstract representation for the design sensitivities of Green's functional for linear structural systems is extended to the case where the structural stiffness vanishes at an internal location. This situation often occurs in the optimal design of structures. Most optimality criteria require that optimally designed beams be statically determinate. For clamped-pinned beams, for example, this is possible only if the flexural stiffness vanishes at some intermediate location. The Green's function for such structures depends upon the stiffness and the location where it vanishes. A precise representation for Green's function's sensitivity to the location of vanishing stiffness is presented for beams and axisymmetric plates.

  1. Biscalar and Bivector Green's Functions in de Sitter Space Time

    PubMed Central

    Narlikar, J. V.

    1970-01-01

    Biscalar and bivector Green's functions of wave equations are calculated explicitly in de Sitter space time. The calculation is performed by considering the electromagnetic field generated by the spontaneous creation of an electric charge. PMID:16591816

  2. Acoustic Green's function extraction in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaoqin

    The acoustic Green's function (GF) is the key to understanding the acoustic properties of ocean environments. With knowledge of the acoustic GF, the physics of sound propagation, such as dispersion, can be analyzed; underwater communication over thousands of miles can be understood; physical properties of the ocean, including ocean temperature, ocean current speed, as well as seafloor bathymetry, can be investigated. Experimental methods of acoustic GF extraction can be categorized as active methods and passive methods. Active methods are based on employment of man-made sound sources. These active methods require less computational complexity and time, but may cause harm to marine mammals. Passive methods cost much less and do not harm marine mammals, but require more theoretical and computational work. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be carefully tailored to fit the need of each specific environment and application. In this dissertation, we study one passive method, the noise interferometry method, and one active method, the inverse filter processing method, to achieve acoustic GF extraction in the ocean. The passive method of noise interferometry makes use of ambient noise to extract an approximation to the acoustic GF. In an environment with a diffusive distribution of sound sources, sound waves that pass through two hydrophones at two locations carry the information of the acoustic GF between these two locations; by listening to the long-term ambient noise signals and cross-correlating the noise data recorded at two locations, the acoustic GF emerges from the noise cross-correlation function (NCF); a coherent stack of many realizations of NCFs yields a good approximation to the acoustic GF between these two locations, with all the deterministic structures clearly exhibited in the waveform. To test the performance of noise interferometry in different types of ocean environments, two field experiments were performed and ambient noise

  3. Flame-Retardant Paper from Wood Fibers Functionalized via Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    PubMed

    Köklükaya, Oruç; Carosio, Federico; Grunlan, Jaime C; Wågberg, Lars

    2015-10-28

    The highly flammable character of cellulose-rich fibers from wood limits their use in some advanced materials. To suppress the flammability and introduce flame-retardant properties to individual pulp fibers, we deposited nanometer thin films consisting of cationic chitosan (CH) and anionic poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) on fibers using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The buildup of the multilayer film was investigated in the presence and absence of salt (NaCl) using model cellulose surfaces and a quartz crystal microbalance technique. Fibers were then treated with the same strategy, and the treated fibers were used to prepare paper sheets. A horizontal flame test (HFT) and cone calorimetry were conducted to evaluate the combustion behavior of paper sheets as a function of the number of bilayers deposited on fibers. In HFT, paper made of fibers coated with 20 CH/PVPA bilayers (BL), self-extinguished the flame, while uncoated fibers were completely consumed. Scanning electron microscopy of charred paper after HFT revealed that a thin shell of the charred polymeric multilayer remained after the cellulose fibers had been completely oxidized. Cone calorimetry demonstrated that the phosphorus-containing thin films (20 BL is ∼25 nm) reduced the peak heat release rate by 49%. This study identifies a unique and highly effective way to impart flame-retardant characteristic to pulp fibers and the papers made from these fibers.

  4. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert

    2016-06-01

    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.

  5. Green element simulations of multiaquifer flows with a time-dependent Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taigbenu, Akpofure E.

    2003-12-01

    A new formulation of the Green element method (GEM), based on the transient Green's function of the diffusion differential operator, is herein used to solve the problem of transient flow in multiply layered aquifers that are separated by aquitards (leaky strata) which provide hydraulic interactions between them. By adopting the commonly used hydraulic flow approximation, flow in the aquifers is considered to take place in two lateral dimensions and in one vertical direction in the aquitards. As with an earlier GE multiaquifer model, the current model solves the one-dimensional flow in the aquitards by the formulation of [Appl. Math. Model. 22 (1998) 687] but uses the transient Green's function of the diffusion operator to solve the two-dimensional aquifer flow instead of the logarithmic Green's function formulation of [Water Resour. Res. 36 (2000) 3631]. In essence, the current formulation uses the same form of Green's functions for both flows in the aquifers and aquitards. While this can be viewed as an advantage of the current formulation over the previous one, the former presents other computational challenges and intricacies that are discussed in this paper. Applying the current formulation, and incorporating a Picard-type iterative algorithm, solutions are provided for regional flows in heterogeneous multiaquifer systems of arbitrary geometries that are subjected to point and distributed recharge of arbitrary strengths.

  6. General Green's function formalism for layered systems: Wave function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The single-particle Green's function (GF) of mesoscopic structures plays a central role in mesoscopic quantum transport. The recursive GF technique is a standard tool to compute this quantity numerically, but it lacks physical transparency and is limited to relatively small systems. Here we present a numerically efficient and physically transparent GF formalism for a general layered structure. In contrast to the recursive GF that directly calculates the GF through the Dyson equations, our approach converts the calculation of the GF to the generation and subsequent propagation of a scattering wave function emanating from a local excitation. This viewpoint not only allows us to reproduce existing results in a concise and physically intuitive manner, but also provides analytical expressions of the GF in terms of a generalized scattering matrix. This identifies the contributions from each individual scattering channel to the GF and hence allows this information to be extracted quantitatively from dual-probe STM experiments. The simplicity and physical transparency of the formalism further allows us to treat the multiple reflection analytically and derive an analytical rule to construct the GF of a general layered system. This could significantly reduce the computational time and enable quantum transport calculations for large samples. We apply this formalism to perform both analytical analysis and numerical simulation for the two-dimensional conductance map of a realistic graphene p -n junction. The results demonstrate the possibility of observing the spatially resolved interference pattern caused by negative refraction and further reveal a few interesting features, such as the distance-independent conductance and its quadratic dependence on the carrier concentration, as opposed to the linear dependence in uniform graphene.

  7. OPTIMIZING POTENTIAL GREEN REPLACEMENT CHEMICALS – BALANCING FUNCTION AND RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important focus of green chemistry is the design of new chemicals that are inherently less toxic than the ones they might replace, but still retain required functional properties. A variety of methods exist to measure or model both functional and toxicity surrogates that could...

  8. Green function for three-wave coupling problems

    SciTech Connect

    Molevich, N E

    2001-07-31

    The Green function is found for three-wave coupling problems. The function was used for analysis of parametric amplification in dissipative and active media. It is shown that the parametric increment in active media can become exponential. As an example, the nonstationary stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves by sound and temperatures waves is considered. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  9. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Moore, Rosalind J; Jackson, Kim G; Minihane, Anne M

    2009-12-01

    The health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins are becoming increasingly recognised. Amongst the proposed benefits are the maintenance of endothelial function and vascular homeostasis and an associated reduction in atherogenesis and CVD risk. The mounting evidence for the influential effect of green tea catechins on vascular function from epidemiological, human intervention and animal studies is subject to review together with exploration of the potential mechanistic pathways involved. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, one of the most abundant and widely studied catechin found in green tea, will be prominent in the present review. Since there is a substantial inconsistency in the published data with regards to the impact of green tea catechins on vascular function, evaluation and interpretation of the inter- and intra-study variability is included. In conclusion, a positive effect of green tea catechins on vascular function is becoming apparent. Further studies in animal and cell models using physiological concentrations of catechins and their metabolites are warranted in order to gain some insight into the physiology and molecular basis of the observed beneficial effects.

  10. Green light for liver function monitoring using indocyanine green? An overview of current clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Vos, J J; Wietasch, J K G; Absalom, A R; Hendriks, H G D; Scheeren, T W L

    2014-12-01

    The dye indocyanine green is familiar to anaesthetists, and has been studied for more than half a century for cardiovascular and hepatic function monitoring. It is still, however, not yet in routine clinical use in anaesthesia and critical care, at least in Europe. This review is intended to provide a critical analysis of the available evidence concerning the indications for clinical measurement of indocyanine green elimination as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in two areas: its role in peri-operative liver function monitoring during major hepatic resection and liver transplantation; and its role in critically ill patients on the intensive care unit, where it is used for prediction of mortality, and for assessment of the severity of acute liver failure or that of intra-abdominal hypertension. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that indocyanine green elimination measurements in these patient populations can provide diagnostic or prognostic information to the clinician, 'hard' evidence - i.e. high-quality prospective randomised controlled trials - is lacking, and therefore it is not yet time to give a green light for use of indocyanine green in routine clinical practice.

  11. Green's function solution to spherical gradiometric boundary-value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinec, Z.

    2003-05-01

    Three independent gradiometric boundary-value problems (BVPs) with three types of gradiometric data, {orr}, {or/,or5} and {o//mo55,o/5}, prescribed on a sphere are solved to determine the gravitational potential on and outside the sphere. The existence and uniqueness conditions on the solutions are formulated showing that the zero- and the first-degree spherical harmonics are to be removed from {or/,or5} and {o//mo55,o/5}, respectively. The solutions to the gradiometric BVPs are presented in terms of Green's functions, which are expressed in both spectral and closed spatial forms. The logarithmic singularity of the Green's function at the point `=0 is investigated for the component orr. The other two Green's functions are finite at this point. Comparisons to the paper by van Gelderen and Rummel [Journal of Geodesy (2001) 75: 1-11] show that the presented solution refines the former solution.

  12. Many-body Green functions in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speth, J.; Lyutorovich, N.

    Many-body Green functions are a very efficient formulation of the many-body problem. We review the application of this method to nuclear physics problems. The formulas which can be derived are of general applicability, e.g., in self-consistent as well as in nonself-consistent calculations. With the help of the Landau renormalization, one obtains relations without any approximations. This allows to apply conservation laws which lead to important general relations. We investigate the one-body and two-body Green functions as well as the three-body Green function and discuss their connection to nuclear observables. The generalization to systems with pair correlations are also presented. Numerical examples are compared with experimental data.

  13. Slot antenna on a photonic crystal substrate: Green's function study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caloz, Christophe; Curcio, Domenico; Alvarez-Melcon, Alejandro; Skrivervik, Anja K.; Gardiol, Fred E.

    1999-11-01

    A magnetic field Green's function expressed as an eigenmodes expansion and based on the plane wave method is formulated first for an infinite magnetic current line embedded in an unbounded 2D photonic crystal (PC) and then for a magnetic dipole embedded in a 2D PC truncated by two metallic plates. The underlying idea of analyzing a slot antenna printed on a 2D PC with a standard method of moment through the principle of equivalence is shown to motivate the present investigation. A complete solution for the line problem is derived, whereas the inadequacy of the method in nits present form for the dipole problem is demonstrated rigorously. Numerical results of the Green's function for the first problem are shown for different positions of the source, and a discussion about radiation patterns, asymptotic behaviors and convergence problems of the Green's function is proposed.

  14. Multipole Matrix of Green Function of Laplace Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, K.; Górka, P.

    Multipole matrix elements of Green function of Laplace equation are calculated. The multipole matrix elements of Green function in electrostatics describe potential on a sphere which is produced by a charge distributed on the surface of a different (possibly overlapping) sphere of the same radius. The matrix elements are defined by double convolution of two spherical harmonics with the Green function of Laplace equation. The method we use relies on the fact that in the Fourier space the double convolution has simple form. Therefore we calculate the multipole matrix from its Fourier transform. An important part of our considerations is simplification of the three dimensional Fourier transformation of general multipole matrix by its rotational symmetry to the one-dimensional Hankel transformation.

  15. A passive inverse filter for Green's function retrieval.

    PubMed

    Gallot, Thomas; Catheline, Stefan; Roux, Philippe; Campillo, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Passive methods for the recovery of Green's functions from ambient noise require strong hypotheses, including isotropic distribution of the noise sources. Very often, this distribution is nonisotropic, which introduces bias in the Green's function reconstruction. To minimize this bias, a spatiotemporal inverse filter is proposed. The method is tested on a directive noise field computed from an experimental active seismic data set. The results indicate that the passive inverse filter allows the manipulation of the spatiotemporal degrees of freedom of a complex wave field, and it can efficiently compensate for the noise wavefield directivity.

  16. Permanent flame retardant finishing of textiles by allyl-functionalized polyphosphazenes.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Knittel, Dierk; Gutmann, Jochen S; Opwis, Klaus

    2015-05-13

    Despite their excellent flame retardant properties, polyphosphazenes are currently not used as flame retardant agents for textile finishing, because a permanent fixation on the substrate surface has failed so far. Here, we present the successful synthesis and characterization of a noncombustible and foam-forming polyphosphazene derivative, that can be immobilized durably on cotton and different cotton/polyester blended fabrics using photoinduced grafting reactions. The flame retardant properties are improved, a higher limiting oxygen index is found, and the modified textiles pass several standardized flammability tests. As flame retardant mechanism a synergistic effect between the immobilized polyphosphazene and the textile substrate was observed. The polyphosphazene finishing induces an earlier decomposition of the material with a reduced mass loss in thermogravimetric analysis. The decomposition of cotton and polyester leads to the formation of phosphorus oxynitride, which forms a protecting barrier layer on the fiber surface. In addition, the permanence of the flame retardant finishing was proven by laundry and abrasion tests.

  17. Interdisciplinary Team Functioning: A Case Team Approach to Habilitation in a Residential Facility for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Herbert M.

    Detailed are the functions, structure, and relationship to data gathering systems of an interdisciplinary team habilitation approach in a residential center for mentally retarded persons. Deficiencies of the system currently in operation at Willowbrook Developmental Center (New York) are reviewed. It is explained that suggested reorganization is…

  18. Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

    2015-02-17

    Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services.

  19. Green's functions in layered poroelastic half-spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, E.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, the complete Green's functions in a multilayered, isotropic, and poroelastic half-space are presented. It is the first time that all the common point sources, i.e. the total force, fluid force, fluid dilatation, and dislocation, are considered for a layered system. The Laplace transform is applied first to suppress the time variable. The cylindrical and Cartesian systems of vector functions and the propagator matrix method are then employed to derive the Green's functions. In the treatment of a point dislocation, an equivalent body-source concept is introduced, and the difference of a dislocation in a purely elastic and a poroelastic medium is discussed. While the spatial integrals involved in the Green's functions can be evaluated accurately by an adaptive Gauss quadrature with continued fraction expansions, the inverse Laplace transform can be carried out by applying a common numerical inversion technique. These complete Green's functions can be implemented into a suitable boundary element formulation to study the deformation and fracture problems in a layered poroelastic half-space.

  20. An Evaluation of Functional Variables Affecting Severe Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation by Using the Questions about Behavioral Function Scale (QABF).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Heather; Matson, Johnny L.; Cherry, Katie E.

    1999-01-01

    A study used the Questions about Behavior Function Scale to examine the functions of five severe problem behaviors (self-injurious behavior, aggression, stereotypies, pica, and rumination) in 417 institutionalized persons with mental retardation. The most common function for all behaviors except aggression was nonsocial. Aggression was maintained…

  1. A line source in Minkowski for the de Sitter spacetime scalar Green's function: Massless minimally coupled case

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yi-Zen

    2014-09-15

    Motivated by the desire to understand the causal structure of physical signals produced in curved spacetimes – particularly around black holes – we show how, for certain classes of geometries, one might obtain its retarded or advanced minimally coupled massless scalar Green's function by using the corresponding Green's functions in the higher dimensional Minkowski spacetime where it is embedded. Analogous statements hold for certain classes of curved Riemannian spaces, with positive definite metrics, which may be embedded in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces. The general formula is applied to (d ≥ 2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime, and the scalar Green's function is demonstrated to be sourced by a line emanating infinitesimally close to the origin of the ambient (d + 1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and piercing orthogonally through the de Sitter hyperboloids of all finite sizes. This method does not require solving the de Sitter wave equation directly. Only the zero mode solution to an ordinary differential equation, the “wave equation” perpendicular to the hyperboloid – followed by a one-dimensional integral – needs to be evaluated. A topological obstruction to the general construction is also discussed by utilizing it to derive a generalized Green's function of the Laplacian on the (d ≥ 2)-dimensional sphere.

  2. Variational and Green`s function Monte Carlo calculations of few-body nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Carlson, J.; Pandharipande, V.R.; Pudliner, B.S.

    1995-08-01

    We performed an extensive series of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and Green`s Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations for few-body nuclei using a Hamiltonian, H, containing the new Argonne v{sub 18} NN interaction supplemented by a model three-nucleon (3N) potential. These calculations include the ground state binding energy of {sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, {sup 6}He, {sup 6}Li and {sup 6}Be, low-lying excited states in the A = 6 nuclei, and scattering states of {sup 5}He. The variational wave functions, {Psi}{sub v}(R), include central, spin, isospin, tensor, and spin-orbit two- and three-body correlations. These trial functions give upper bounds to the ground-state binding energy {approximately}2% above exact GFMC calculations in {sup 3}H and {sup 4}He.

  3. Duality and the Polyakov N-point Green's function

    SciTech Connect

    Nepomechie, R.I.

    1982-05-15

    Recently Polyakov proposed an N-point Green's function G(p/sub 1/,...,p/sub N/) for closed strings. We consider the problem of finding poles in the external momenta and extracting on-shell scattering amplitudes from G. Moreover, we find that G is invariant under complex Moebius transformations, and is presumably dual.

  4. Local field distribution near corrugated interfaces: Green's function formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. W.; Wan, Jones T. K.

    2001-12-01

    We have developed a Green's function formalism to compute the local field distribution near an interface separating two media of different dielectric constants. The Maxwell's equations are converted into a surface integral equation; thus it greatly simplifies the solutions and yields accurate results for interfaces of arbitrary shape. The integral equation is solved and the local field distribution is obtained for a periodic interface.

  5. Calibrating the ECCO ocean general circulation model using Green's functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menemenlis, D.; Fu, L. L.; Lee, T.; Fukumori, I.

    2002-01-01

    Green's functions provide a simple, yet effective, method to test and calibrate General-Circulation-Model(GCM) parameterizations, to study and quantify model and data errors, to correct model biases and trends, and to blend estimates from different solutions and data products.

  6. Lattice Green's Function for the Body-Centered Cubic Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaji, A. J.

    2002-05-01

    An expression for the Green's function (GF) of Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) lat tice is evaluated analytically and numerically for a single impurity lattice. Th e density of states (DOS), phase shift, and scattering cross section are express ed in terms of complete elliptic integrals of the first kind.

  7. The single site Green s function and Krein s theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Stocks, George Malcolm; Faulkner, John Sam

    2014-01-01

    An important step in electronic structure calculations using multiple-scattering theory is obtaining the density of states for the central site from the Green s function for that site. We have found that the Krein s spectral displacement function for the central site contributes significantly to the understanding of these calculations. We argue that these insights can lead to improvements in the robustness of MST electronic structure codes without negatively impacting their performance.

  8. Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of /sup 4/He

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Green's Function Monte Carlo methods have been developed to study the ground state properties of light nuclei. These methods are shown to reproduce results of Faddeev calculations for A = 3, and are then used to calculate ground state energies, one- and two-body distribution functions, and the D-state probability for the alpha particle. Results are compared to variational Monte Carlo calculations for several nuclear interaction models. 31 refs.

  9. Growth, Hypothalamic Function, and Brain Ventricle Size in Mentally Retarded Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisti, S.; Iianainen, M.

    1978-01-01

    To determine whether moderate enlargement of the third brain ventricle or the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles was associated with hypothalamic dysfunction, 15 mentally retarded Ss (ages 12-25 years) with such characteristics were studies. (DLS)

  10. Thermoplasmonics modeling: A Green's function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baffou, Guillaume; Quidant, Romain; Girard, Christian

    2010-10-01

    We extend the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) and the Green’s dyadic tensor (GDT) methods—previously dedicated to all-optical simulations—to investigate the thermodynamics of illuminated plasmonic nanostructures. This extension is based on the use of the thermal Green’s function and a original algorithm that we named Laplace matrix inversion. It allows for the computation of the steady-state temperature distribution throughout plasmonic systems. This hybrid photothermal numerical method is suited to investigate arbitrarily complex structures. It can take into account the presence of a dielectric planar substrate and is simple to implement in any DDA or GDT code. Using this numerical framework, different applications are discussed such as thermal collective effects in nanoparticles assembly, the influence of a substrate on the temperature distribution and the heat generation in a plasmonic nanoantenna. This numerical approach appears particularly suited for new applications in physics, chemistry, and biology such as plasmon-induced nanochemistry and catalysis, nanofluidics, photothermal cancer therapy, or phase-transition control at the nanoscale.

  11. [Growth retardation in histiocytosis X. Evaluation of anterior pituitary function (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Calzada, L D; Chaussain, J L; Job, J C

    Among six patients with histiocytosis X of long duration and growth retardation of 3 to 4 standard deviations, three had a blunted growth hormone response to stimulation tests, associated to diabetes insipidus. In two of these three children there was a partial catchup of growth without treatment by human growth hormone. The causes and mechanisms of growth retardation in histiocytosis X, the influence of hydroelectrolytic disorders on growth in these patients and their need for treatment with human growth hormone are discussed.

  12. Stochastic summation of empirical Green's functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wennerberg, Leif

    1990-01-01

    Two simple strategies are presented that use random delay times for repeatedly summing the record of a relatively small earthquake to simulate the effects of a larger earthquake. The simulations do not assume any fault plane geometry or rupture dynamics, but realy only on the ω−2 spectral model of an earthquake source and elementary notions of source complexity. The strategies simulate ground motions for all frequencies within the bandwidth of the record of the event used as a summand. The first strategy, which introduces the basic ideas, is a single-stage procedure that consists of simply adding many small events with random time delays. The probability distribution for delays has the property that its amplitude spectrum is determined by the ratio of ω−2 spectra, and its phase spectrum is identically zero. A simple expression is given for the computation of this zero-phase scaling distribution. The moment rate function resulting from the single-stage simulation is quite simple and hence is probably not realistic for high-frequency (>1 Hz) ground motion of events larger than ML∼ 4.5 to 5. The second strategy is a two-stage summation that simulates source complexity with a few random subevent delays determined using the zero-phase scaling distribution, and then clusters energy around these delays to get an ω−2 spectrum for the sum. Thus, the two-stage strategy allows simulations of complex events of any size for which the ω−2 spectral model applies. Interestingly, a single-stage simulation with too few ω−2records to get a good fit to an ω−2 large-event target spectrum yields a record whose spectral asymptotes are consistent with the ω−2 model, but that includes a region in its spectrum between the corner frequencies of the larger and smaller events reasonably approximated by a power law trend. This spectral feature has also been discussed as reflecting the process of partial stress release (Brune, 1970), an asperity failure (Boatwright, 1984

  13. Green's function approach for quantum graphs: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Fabiano M.; Schmidt, A. G. M.; Vicentini, E.; Cheng, B. K.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2016-08-01

    Here we review the many aspects and distinct phenomena associated to quantum dynamics on general graph structures. For so, we discuss such class of systems under the energy domain Green's function (G) framework. This approach is particularly interesting because G can be written as a sum over classical-like paths, where local quantum effects are taken into account through the scattering matrix elements (basically, transmission and reflection amplitudes) defined on each one of the graph vertices. Hence, the exact G has the functional form of a generalized semiclassical formula, which through different calculation techniques (addressed in detail here) always can be cast into a closed analytic expression. It allows to solve exactly arbitrary large (although finite) graphs in a recursive and fast way. Using the Green's function method, we survey many properties of open and closed quantum graphs as scattering solutions for the former and eigenspectrum and eigenstates for the latter, also considering quasi-bound states. Concrete examples, like cube, binary trees and Sierpiński-like topologies are presented. Along the work, possible distinct applications using the Green's function methods for quantum graphs are outlined.

  14. In vivo neuronal function of the fragile X mental retardation protein is regulated by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Coffee, R Lane; Williamson, Ashley J; Adkins, Christopher M; Gray, Marisa C; Page, Terry L; Broadie, Kendal

    2012-02-15

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene product (FMRP), is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. It has been long hypothesized that the phosphorylation of serine 500 (S500) in human FMRP controls its function as an RNA-binding translational repressor. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we employed neuronally targeted expression of three human FMR1 transgenes, including wild-type (hFMR1), dephosphomimetic (S500A-hFMR1) and phosphomimetic (S500D-hFMR1), in the Drosophila FXS disease model to investigate phosphorylation requirements. At the molecular level, dfmr1 null mutants exhibit elevated brain protein levels due to loss of translational repressor activity. This defect is rescued for an individual target protein and across the population of brain proteins by the phosphomimetic, whereas the dephosphomimetic phenocopies the null condition. At the cellular level, dfmr1 null synapse architecture exhibits increased area, branching and bouton number. The phosphomimetic fully rescues these synaptogenesis defects, whereas the dephosphomimetic provides no rescue. The presence of Futsch-positive (microtubule-associated protein 1B) supernumerary microtubule loops is elevated in dfmr1 null synapses. The human phosphomimetic restores normal Futsch loops, whereas the dephosphomimetic provides no activity. At the behavioral level, dfmr1 null mutants exhibit strongly impaired olfactory associative learning. The human phosphomimetic targeted only to the brain-learning center restores normal learning ability, whereas the dephosphomimetic provides absolutely no rescue. We conclude that human FMRP S500 phosphorylation is necessary for its in vivo function as a neuronal translational repressor and regulator of synaptic architecture, and for the manifestation of FMRP-dependent learning behavior.

  15. Green`s function of Maxwell`s equations and corresponding implications for iterative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, B.S.; Fainberg, E.B.

    1996-12-31

    Energy conservation law imposes constraints on the norm and direction of the Hilbert space vector representing a solution of Maxwell`s equations. In this paper, we derive these constrains and discuss the corresponding implications for the Green`s function of Maxwell`s equations in a dissipative medium. It is shown that Maxwell`s equations can be reduced to an integral equation with a contracting kernel. The equation can be solved using simple iterations. Software based on this algorithm have successfully been applied to a wide range of problems dealing with high contrast models. The matrix corresponding to the integral equation has a well defined spectrum. The equation can be symmetrized and solved using different approaches, for instance one of the conjugate gradient methods.

  16. The combinatorics of Green's functions in planar field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch; Patras, Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this exposition is to provide a detailed description of the use of combinatorial algebra in quantum field theory in the planar setting. Particular emphasis is placed on the relations between different types of planar Green's functions. The primary object is a Hopf algebra that is naturally defined on variables representing non-commuting sources, and whose coproduct splits into two half-coproducts. The latter give rise to the notion of an unshuffle bialgebra. This setting allows a description of the relation between full and connected planar Green's functions to be given by solving a simple linear fixed point equation. We also include a brief outline of the consequences of our approach in the framework of ordinary quantum field theory.

  17. Green's function approach of an anisotropic Heisenberg ferrimagnetic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Gülistan

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the influence of the exchange anisotropy parameter on the magnetization, critical and compensation temperatures and susceptibility of the anisotropic Heisenberg ferrimagnetic system with the single-ion anisotropy under an external magnetic field using the double-time temperature-dependent Green's function theory. In order to decouple the higher order Green's functions, Anderson-Callen's decoupling and random phase approximations have been used. This model is useful for understanding the temperature dependence of total magnetization of Lithium-chromium ferrites Li0.5Fe1.25Cr1.25O4 for which negative magnetization is characteristic. We observe that the critical temperature increases when the exchange anisotropy increases. When the system is under an external magnetic field, one obtains the first-order phase transition where the magnetization jumps for all the values of the exchange anisotropy parameters.

  18. Fast convolution with free-space Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Felipe; Greengard, Leslie; Ferrando, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a fast algorithm for computing volume potentials - that is, the convolution of a translation invariant, free-space Green's function with a compactly supported source distribution defined on a uniform grid. The algorithm relies on regularizing the Fourier transform of the Green's function by cutting off the interaction in physical space beyond the domain of interest. This permits the straightforward application of trapezoidal quadrature and the standard FFT, with superalgebraic convergence for smooth data. Moreover, the method can be interpreted as employing a Nystrom discretization of the corresponding integral operator, with matrix entries which can be obtained explicitly and rapidly. This is of use in the design of preconditioners or fast direct solvers for a variety of volume integral equations. The method proposed permits the computation of any derivative of the potential, at the cost of an additional FFT.

  19. Approximate Green's function methods for HZE transport in multilayered materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Shinn, Judy L.; Costen, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    A nonperturbative analytic solution of the high charge and energy (HZE) Green's function is used to implement a computer code for laboratory ion beam transport in multilayered materials. The code is established to operate on the Langley nuclear fragmentation model used in engineering applications. Computational procedures are established to generate linear energy transfer (LET) distributions for a specified ion beam and target for comparison with experimental measurements. The code was found to be highly efficient and compared well with the perturbation approximation.

  20. Extracting the Green Function Between two Stations From Coda Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.; Campillo, M.

    2001-12-01

    The imaging of the Earth crust often requires active experiments since natural sources implied numerous uncertainties concerning location, origin time and propagation effects outside of the region of interest. We propose to extract the Green function between two seismic stations where earthquake codas are recorded. We make use of the same principle that was applied in helioseismology and recently in acoustics. We demonstrated that, for records in Mexico, the late coda is made up of multiply scattered waves that verify the principle of equipartition (Shapiro et al., 2000, Hennino et al., 2001). Equipartition means that all modes of propagation are statistically equally represented in the wave field. Under this assumption and considering that we use a set of sources that sample the whole space, it can be shown that the average cross correlation between the records of every earthquake at the two stations is an approximation of the Green function between the two stations. We use records from stations of the Mexican national network to test this idea. We use 108 time windows of late coda records at stations YAIG and PLIG. The stacking of the cross correlation indicates that a low frequency coherent signal is present with a signal to noise ratio that was of about 0.3 for a single signal and therefore raises to about 3 after stacking. We know the structure of the crust in the region from Rayleigh wave dispersion analysis and we compute the theoretical Green function. The Green function between two points at the surface is widely dominated by the Rayleigh wave. The signal that we extracted from coda presents the characteristics expected: elliptical polarization in the radial-vertical plane and adequate group velocity. We conclude that we effectively extracted the Rayleigh wave from a limited set of coda records. There are several limitations when applying this technique to seismological data but the preliminary results of the practical application presented here are

  1. Green polymer chemistry: enzyme catalysis for polymer functionalization.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sanghamitra; Puskas, Judit E

    2015-05-21

    Enzyme catalyzed reactions are green alternative approaches to functionalize polymers compared to conventional methods. This technique is especially advantageous due to the high selectivity, high efficiency, milder reaction conditions, and recyclability of enzymes. Selected reactions can be conducted under solventless conditions without the application of metal catalysts. Hence this process is becoming more recognized in the arena of biomedical applications, as the toxicity created by solvents and metal catalyst residues can be completely avoided. In this review we will discuss fundamental aspects of chemical reactions biocatalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B, and their application to create new functionalized polymers, including the regio- and chemoselectivity of the reactions.

  2. Functional Concepts in Mental Retardation: Finding the Natural Essence of an Artificial Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Although there have always been people considered to have mental retardation (MR), the category has proven surprisingly difficult to define adequately. This is because it includes a subcategory of mild MR whose members are part of a larger population of marginally competent people, some of whom may be considered to have other forms of disability…

  3. Treatment Effects of Methylphenidate on Cognitive Functioning in Children with Mental Retardation and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Santos, Cynthia W.; Casat, Charles D.; Lane, David M.; Jerger, Susan W.; Roache, John D.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Lachar, David; Faria, Laura P.; Payne, Christa D.; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive effects of stimulant medication were investigated in children with mental retardation (MR) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Performance on tasks tapping sustained attention, visual and auditory selective attention, inhibition, and immediate memory was assessed for 24 children (mean age 10.9 years)…

  4. Sensorimotor Functioning and Prelinguistic Communication of Severely and Profoundly Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobato, Debra; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In a study involving 40 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded children and adolescents, more competent sensorimotor performance was associated with higher frequency of more sophisticated gestural communication, and Ss generally used more complex gestures to communicate in the imperative than in the declarative tasks. (Author/CL)

  5. Zfrp8 forms a complex with fragile-X mental retardation protein and regulates its localization and function.

    PubMed

    Tan, William; Schauder, Curtis; Naryshkina, Tatyana; Minakhina, Svetlana; Steward, Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Fragile-X syndrome is the most commonly inherited cause of autism and mental disabilities. The Fmr1 (Fragile-X Mental Retardation 1) gene is essential in humans and Drosophila for the maintenance of neural stem cells, and Fmr1 loss results in neurological and reproductive developmental defects in humans and flies. FMRP (Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, involved in mRNA silencing and translational repression. Both Zfrp8 and Fmr1 have essential functions in the Drosophila ovary. In this study, we identified FMRP, Nufip (Nuclear Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein-interacting Protein) and Tral (Trailer Hitch) as components of a Zfrp8 protein complex. We show that Zfrp8 is required in the nucleus, and controls localization of FMRP in the cytoplasm. In addition, we demonstrate that Zfrp8 genetically interacts with Fmr1 and tral in an antagonistic manner. Zfrp8 and FMRP both control heterochromatin packaging, also in opposite ways. We propose that Zfrp8 functions as a chaperone, controlling protein complexes involved in RNA processing in the nucleus.

  6. Green's functional for a higher order ordinary integro-differential equation with nonlocal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özen, Kemal

    2016-12-01

    One of the little-known techniques for ordinary integro-differential equations in literature is Green's functional method, the origin of which dates back to Azerbaijani scientist Seyidali S. Akhiev. According to this method, Green's functional concepts for some simple forms of such equations have been introduced in the several studies. In this study, we extend Green's functional concept to a higher order ordinary integro-differential equation involving generally nonlocal conditions. A novel kind of adjoint problem and Green's functional are constructed for completely nonhomogeneous problem. By means of the obtained Green's functional, the solution to the problem is identified.

  7. First-principles nonequilibrium Green's-function approach to transient photoabsorption: Application to atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfetto, E.; Uimonen, A.-M.; van Leeuwen, R.; Stefanucci, G.

    2015-09-01

    We put forward a first-principle nonequilibrium Green's-function (NEGF) approach to calculate the transient photoabsorption spectrum of optically thin systems. The method can deal with pump fields of arbitrary strength, frequency, and duration as well as overlapping and nonoverlapping pump and probe pulses. The electron-electron repulsion is accounted for by the correlation self-energy, and the resulting numerical scheme deals with matrices that scale quadratically with the system size. Two recent experiments, the first on helium and the second on krypton, are addressed. For the first experiment we explain the bending of the Autler-Townes absorption peaks with increasing pump-probe delay τ and relate the bending to the thickness and density of the gas. For the second experiment we find that sizable spectral structures of the pump-generated admixture of Kr ions are fingerprints of dynamical correlation effects, and hence they cannot be reproduced by time-local self-energy approximations. Remarkably, the NEGF approach also captures the retardation of the absorption onset of Kr2 + with respect to Kr1 + as a function of τ .

  8. PREFACE: Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's Functions V (PNGF V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Robert; Tuovinen, Riku; Bonitz, Michael

    2013-03-01

    (The PDF contains: an obituary and in memoriam for David C. Langreth, a list of the conference participants, a complete list of the conference talks and posters and several photographs taken during the conference. ) The fifth interdisciplinary conference 'Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's Functions' (PNGF5) was held at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, on 27--31 August 2012. The conference continued the successful tradition of its predecessors (Rostock 1999, Dresden 2002, Kiel 2005 and Glasgow 2009) to bring together different communities for an interdisciplinary exchange of recent results and theoretical concepts. The conference focused on recent developments, current challenges and future perspectives in nonequilibrium Green's functions theory in various fields of physics but included also other many-body methods. Roughly 20 invited talks were given by some of the top scientists in the field, accompanied by 10 contributed talks. (Slides of several presentations can be found online at www.jyu.fi/physics/pngf5.) Also a poster session was set up to enhance scientific discussions, building up new collaborations and enriching views and ideas. As at the previous meetings, the atmosphere was interactive and stimulating, benefitting both experienced scientists and young researchers and students. The present volume contains 14 articles based on works presented at this conference. The articles partly have review character so they should be of use for an interdisciplinary community working or interested in nonequilibrium Green's functions. All papers were refereed according to high scientific standards. The conference would not have been possible without financial support from the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies, Finnish Academy of Science and Letters and Nanoscience Center of the university of Jyväskylä which are greatly acknowledged. The local organizing committee is also grateful to the administration personnel, Marjut Hilska and Riitta-Liisa Kuittinen

  9. Parametric design calculations using Green's function to determine unique source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. L.; Lan, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    The energy dependence of the current incident on a macrocell can in principle be determined if the Green's function and the interior flux due to the total current are known. The Green's function is the flux within some portion of the macrocell due to a unit source in each energy group. It was demonstrated that the appropriate solution for the current is obtained for the higher energy groups in a fast reactor example. However, the lower energy groups are very sensitive to the downscattering and the solution even led to negative values for the incident partial current in some energy groups, which is not physical. In this particular example, the preliminary design study was insensitive to the incident current of the lower energy groups. For problems where the lower groups are important, it would seem prudent to abandon the exact solution and use a weighted least squares solution. Such a weighted least squares solution could assign importance for obtaining nearly the exact solution for as many energy groups as possible, while simultaneously making slight adjustments in the higher energy currents to obtain downscatter contributions that will approximately perserve the flux in the lower energy groups.

  10. Green's function formalism for calculating spin-wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryasetiawan, F.; Karlsson, K.

    1999-09-01

    We propose a formalism for calculating ab initio spin-wave spectra which is based on the many-body temperature Green's function. The main quantity to be calculated is the linear magnetic susceptibility from which all magnetic excitations involving the creation of an additional spin in the system can formally be obtained. The Schwinger functional derivative technique is employed in calculating the self-energy. The approach avoids both the assumption of local spins (Heisenberg model) and the use of a local exchange and correlation interaction (local-density approximation). Starting from the GW approximation we obtain a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the kernel describing the interaction between electrons in both spin channels. However, this kernel exhibits a nonlocal screened interaction.

  11. Scattering and bound state Green's functions on a plane via so(2,1) Lie algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, P. F.; Boschi-Filho, H.; Vaidya, A. N.

    2006-11-15

    We calculate the Green's functions for the particle-vortex system, for two anyons on a plane with and without a harmonic regulator and in a uniform magnetic field. These Green's functions which describe scattering or bound states (depending on the specific potential in each case) are obtained exactly using an algebraic method related to the SO(2,1) Lie group. From these Green's functions we obtain the corresponding wave functions and for the bound states we also find the energy spectra.

  12. Eco-friendly functionalized superhydrophobic recycled paper with enhanced flame-retardancy.

    PubMed

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-09-01

    Recycled paper with superhydrophobicity and flame-retardancy has been demonstrated here due to the synergistic action of dopamine-silica trimethylsilyl modified gel powder and stearic acid modified Mg(OH)2. This multifunctional recycled paper displays great self-cleaning and anti-fouling ability and can be used for oil-water separation. Surprisingly, the absorbed organic can be reused as fuel via simple combustion method for multiple cycles. This work will not only expand the usable range of paper but also ease the energy and environment crisis.

  13. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  14. Neurobehavioral function and low-level exposure to brominated flame retardants in adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal and in vitro studies demonstrated a neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants, a group of chemicals used in many household and commercial products to prevent fire. Although the first reports of detrimental neurobehavioral effects in rodents appeared more than ten years ago, human data are sparse. Methods As a part of a biomonitoring program for environmental health surveillance in Flanders, Belgium, we assessed the neurobehavioral function with the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES-3), and collected blood samples in a group of high school students. Cross-sectional data on 515 adolescents (13.6-17 years of age) was available for the analysis. Multiple regression models accounting for potential confounders were used to investigate the associations between biomarkers of internal exposure to brominated flame retardants [serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] and cognitive performance. In addition, we investigated the association between brominated flame retardants and serum levels of FT3, FT4, and TSH. Results A two-fold increase of the sum of serum PBDE’s was associated with a decrease of the number of taps with the preferred-hand in the Finger Tapping test by 5.31 (95% CI: 0.56 to 10.05, p = 0.029). The effects of the individual PBDE congeners on the motor speed were consistent. Serum levels above the level of quantification were associated with an average decrease of FT3 level by 0.18 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.34, p = 0.020) for PBDE-99 and by 0.15 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.004 to 0.29, p = 0.045) for PBDE-100, compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. PBDE-47 level above the level of quantification was associated with an average increase of TSH levels by 10.1% (95% CI: 0.8% to 20.2%, p = 0.033), compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. We did not observe effects of

  15. An improved version of the Green's function molecular dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ling Ti; Denniston, Colin; Müser, Martin H.

    2011-02-01

    This work presents an improved version of the Green's function molecular dynamics method (Kong et al., 2009; Campañá and Müser, 2004 [1,2]), which enables one to study the elastic response of a three-dimensional solid to an external stress field by taking into consideration only atoms near the surface. In the previous implementation, the effective elastic coefficients measured at the Γ-point were altered to reduce finite size effects: their eigenvalues corresponding to the acoustic modes were set to zero. This scheme was found to work well for simple Bravais lattices as long as only atoms within the last layer were treated as Green's function atoms. However, it failed to function as expected in all other cases. It turns out that a violation of the acoustic sum rule for the effective elastic coefficients at Γ (Kong, 2010 [3]) was responsible for this behavior. In the new version, the acoustic sum rule is enforced by adopting an iterative procedure, which is found to be physically more meaningful than the previous one. In addition, the new algorithm allows one to treat lattices with bases and the Green's function slab is no longer confined to one layer. New version program summaryProgram title: FixGFC/FixGFMD v1.12 Catalogue identifier: AECW_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECW_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 206 436 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 314 850 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: All Operating system: Linux Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Code has been parallelized using MPI directives. RAM: Depends on the problem Classification: 7.7 External routines: LAMMPS ( http://lammps.sandia.gov/), MPI ( http

  16. Fragile X mental retardation protein replacement restores hippocampal synaptic function in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Z; Kumar, A; Bodhinathan, K; Feller, J A; Foster, T C; Bloom, D C

    2009-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a mutation that silences the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1), which encodes the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). To determine whether FMRP replacement can rescue phenotypic deficits in a fmr1-knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS, we constructed an adeno-associated virus-based viral vector that expresses the major central nervous system (CNS) isoform of FMRP. Using this vector, we tested whether FMRP replacement could rescue the fmr1-KO phenotype of enhanced long-term depression (LTD), a form of synaptic plasticity that may be linked to cognitive impairments associated with FXS. Extracellular excitatory postsynaptic field potentials were recorded from CA3-CA1 synaptic contacts in hippocampal slices from wild-type (WT) and fmr1-KO mice in the presence of AP-5 and anisomycin. Paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation (PP-LFS)-induced LTD is enhanced in slices obtained from fmr1 KO compared with WT mice. Analyses of hippocampal synaptic function in fmr1-KO mice that received hippocampal injections of vector showed that the PP-LFS-induced LTD was restored to WT levels. These results indicate that expression of the major CNS isoform of FMRP alone is sufficient to rescue this phenotype and suggest that post-developmental protein replacement may have the potential to improve cognitive function in FXS.

  17. On the relation between Green's functions of the SUSY theory with and without soft terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashuk, I.

    1999-12-01

    We study possible relations between the full Green's functions of softly broken supersymmetric theories and the full Green's functions of rigid supersymmetric theories on the example of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that algebraic relations can exist and can be written in a simple form. These algebraic relations between the Green's functions have been derived by transforming the path integral of the rigid theory. In this approach soft terms appear as the result of general changes of coordinates in the superspace.

  18. Electron Systems Out of Equilibrium: Nonequilibrium Green's Function Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špička, Václav Velický, Bedřich Kalvová, Anděla

    2015-10-01

    This review deals with the state of the art and perspectives of description of non-equilibrium many body systems using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NGF) method. The basic aim is to describe time evolution of the many-body system from its initial state over its transient dynamics to its long time asymptotic evolution. First, we discuss basic aims of transport theories to motivate the introduction of the NGF techniques. Second, this article summarizes the present view on construction of the electron transport equations formulated within the NGF approach to non-equilibrium. We discuss incorporation of complex initial conditions to the NGF formalism, and the NGF reconstruction theorem, which serves as a tool to derive simplified kinetic equations. Three stages of evolution of the non-equilibrium, the first described by the full NGF description, the second by a Non-Markovian Generalized Master Equation and the third by a Markovian Master Equation will be related to each other.

  19. Dynamic Green's function for homogeneous and isotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Pratap N.

    2001-12-01

    The source terms that are meaningful in dynamic poroelasticity are those exciting the centre-of-mass field and the internal field. These fields are the sum of the mass weighted motion and the difference motion of the solid and fluid constituents, respectively. The corresponding homogeneous and isotropic Green's function valid for a uniform whole-space is obtained using Kupradze's method after the vector differential equations for these two fields are combined and expressed as a 6×6 matrix differential operator. The solution is quite amenable to numerical calculations and the results for a saturated Berea sandstone show that the fast P and S waves correspond to those usually detected by geophones at large distances from the source. The slow P wave, which is associated with fluid flow, is rapidly attenuated with distance from the source while the slow S wave, which is part of the solution, dies off rapidly in the near-neighbourhood of the source.

  20. Coupled cluster Green function: Model involving single and double excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Kowalski, Karol; Shelton, William A.

    2016-04-14

    In this paper we report on the parallel implementation of the coupled-cluster (CC) Green function formulation (GF-CC) employing single and double excitations in the cluster operator (GF-CCSD). The detailed description of the underlying algorithm is provided, including the structure of ionization-potential- and electron-affinity-type intermediate tensors which enable to formulate GF-CC approach in a computationally feasible form. Several examples including calculations of ionization-potentials and electron a*ffinities for benchmark systems, which are juxtaposed against the experimental values, provide an illustration of the accuracies attainable in the GFCCSD simulations. We also discuss the structure of the CCSD self energies and discuss approximation that are geared to reduce the computational cost while maintaining the pole structure of the full GF-CCSD approach.

  1. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  2. Communication forms and functions of children and adults with severe mental retardation in community and institutional settings.

    PubMed

    McLean, L K; Brady, N C; McLean, J E; Behrens, G A

    1999-02-01

    The forms and functions of expressive communication produced by 84 individuals with severe mental retardation were assessed, using a structured communication sampling procedure. Symbolic communication acts were produced by 39 participants, and 27 of these symbolic communicators produced one or more multiword/multisymbol utterances. Of the remaining participants, 38 produced intentional but nonsymbolic communication acts; 7 were not observed to produce any intentional communication. For all participants who produced intentional communication, there were significantly more imperative than declarative communication acts. Significant differences in the frequencies and functions of communication acts produced by these participants were associated with differences in their communication levels (contact gesture, distal gesture, or symbolic), age (child vs. adult), and residential status (community home vs. large facility).

  3. Computer Derivation of Green’s Functions for Structural Dynamic Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-21

    dynamical systems governed by differential equations of the Sturm - Liouville class, spectral techniques were used to derive the Green’s functions as an...approach. For dynamical systems governed by differential equations of the Sturm - Liouville class. spectral techniques can be used to derive the Green’s...spectral form 2 of the Green’s functions for systems governed by equations of the Sturm - Liouville class. are presented; followed by the result of

  4. Exact Green's function of the Aharonov-Bohm-Coulomb system via the Feynman-Kac formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuu, Der-San; Lin, De-Hone

    1999-10-01

    The Green's function of the relativistic Aharonov-Bohm-Coulomb system is given by the Feynman-Kac formula. The earlier treatment is based on the multiple-valued transformation of Levi-Civitá. The method used in this contribution involves only the explicit form of a simple Green's function and an explicit path integral is avoided.

  5. An Improved Green's Function for Ion Beam Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, J.; Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    Ion beam transport theory allows testing of material transmission properties in the laboratory environment generated by particle accelerators. This is a necessary step in materials development and evaluation for space use. The approximations used in solving the Boltzmann transport equation for the space setting are often not sufficient for laboratory work and those issues are the main emphasis of the present work. In consequence, an analytic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation is pursued in the form of a Green's function allowing flexibility in application to a broad range of boundary value problems. It has been established that simple solutions can be found for the high charge and energy (HZE) by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift with dispersion associated with nuclear events. Recently, we have found global solutions including these effects providing a broader class of HZE ion solutions.

  6. An improved Green's function for ion beam transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, J.; Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2004-01-01

    Ion beam transport theory allows testing of material transmission properties in the laboratory environment generated by particle accelerators. This is a necessary step in materials development and evaluation for space use. The approximations used in solving the Boltzmann transport equation for the space setting are often not sufficient for laboratory work and those issues are the main emphasis of the present work. In consequence, an analytic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation is pursued in the form of a Green's function allowing flexibility in application to a broad range of boundary value problems. It has been established that simple solutions can be found for high charge and energy (HZE) ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift with dispersion associated with nuclear events. Recently, we have found global solutions including these effects providing a broader class of HZE ion solutions. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Side-branch resonators modelling with Green's function methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrey-Debain, E.; Maréchal, R.; Ville, J. M.

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with strategies for computing efficiently the propagation of sound waves in ducts containing passive components. In many cases of practical interest, these components are acoustic cavities which are connected to the duct. Though standard Finite Element software could be used for the numerical prediction of sound transmission through such a system, the method is known to be extremely demanding, both in terms of data preparation and computation, especially in the mid-frequency range. To alleviate this, a numerical technique that exploits the benefit of the FEM and the BEM approach has been devised. First, a set of eigenmodes is computed in the cavity to produce a numerical impedance matrix connecting the pressure and the acoustic velocity on the duct wall interface. Then an integral representation for the acoustic pressure in the main duct is used. By choosing an appropriate Green's function for the duct, the integration procedure is limited to the duct-cavity interface only. This allows an accurate computation of the scattering matrix of such an acoustic system with a numerical complexity that grows very mildly with the frequency. Typical applications involving Helmholtz and Herschel-Quincke resonators are presented.

  8. A Green's function method for heavy ion beam transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.; Schimmerling, W.; Shavers, M. R.; Miller, J.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Badavi, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    The use of Green's function has played a fundamental role in transport calculations for high-charge high-energy (HZE) ions. Two recent developments have greatly advanced the practical aspects of implementation of these methods. The first was the formulation of a closed-form solution as a multiple fragmentation perturbation series. The second was the effective summation of the closed-form solution through nonperturbative techniques. The nonperturbative methods have been recently extended to an inhomogeneous, two-layer transport media to simulate the lead scattering foil present in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL) biomedical beam line used for cancer therapy. Such inhomogeneous codes are necessary for astronaut shielding in space. The transport codes utilize the Langley Research Center atomic and nuclear database. Transport code and database evaluation are performed by comparison with experiments performed at the LBL Bevalac facility using 670 A MeV 20Ne and 600 A MeV 56Fe ion beams. The comparison with a time-of-flight and delta E detector measurement for the 20Ne beam and the plastic nuclear track detectors for 56Fe show agreement up to 35%-40% in water and aluminium targets, respectively.

  9. Computation of the lattice Green function for a dislocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Anne Marie Z.; Trinkle, Dallas R.

    2016-08-01

    Modeling isolated dislocations is challenging due to their long-ranged strain fields. Flexible boundary condition methods capture the correct long-range strain field of a defect by coupling the defect core to an infinite harmonic bulk through the lattice Green function (LGF). To improve the accuracy and efficiency of flexible boundary condition methods, we develop a numerical method to compute the LGF specifically for a dislocation geometry; in contrast to previous methods, where the LGF was computed for the perfect bulk as an approximation for the dislocation. Our approach directly accounts for the topology of a dislocation, and the errors in the LGF computation converge rapidly for edge dislocations in a simple cubic model system as well as in BCC Fe with an empirical potential. When used within the flexible boundary condition approach, the dislocation LGF relaxes dislocation core geometries in fewer iterations than when the perfect bulk LGF is used as an approximation for the dislocation, making a flexible boundary condition approach more efficient.

  10. Application of the Green's function method to some nonlinear problems of an electron storage ring: Part 1, The Green's function for the Fokker-Planck equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, S.

    1982-07-01

    For an electron storage ring the beam size evaluation including beam-beam interaction gives an example of such a problem. Another good example is finding the beam size for a nonlinear machine. The present work gives a way to solve some of these problems, at least in principle. The approach described here is an application of the well known Green's function method, which in this case is applied to the Fokker-Planck equation governing the distribution function in the phase space of particle motion. The new step made in this paper is to consider the particle motion in two degrees of freedom rather than in one dimension, a characteristic of all the previous work. This step seems to be necessary for an adequate description of the problem, at least for the class of problems which are considered below. This work consists of the formal solution of the Fokker-Planck equation in terms of its Green's function and describing the Green's function itself. The Green's function and the description of some of its properties can be found in the Appendices. I discuss the distribution function in the transverse phase space of a particle and it's Fokker-Planck equation for a simple case of a weak focusing machine. Part of this paper is devoted to describing the Green's function and solution of this equation. Then this technique is applied to a strong focusing machine and finally there is a discussion of applicability of this method, its limitations and relation to other methods. 13 refs.

  11. Sound source identification in a noisy environment based on inverse patch transfer functions with evanescent Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Shang; Jiang, Weikang; Pan, Siwei

    2015-12-01

    A modified inverse patch transfer function (iPTF) method is used to reconstruct the normal velocities of the target source in a noisy environment. The iPTF method simplifies the Helmholtz integral equation to one term by constructing a Green's function satisfying Neumann boundary conditions for an enclosure, which is generally constructed by slowly convergent modal expansions. The main objective of the present work is to provide an evanescent Green's function to improve the convergence of calculations. A brief description of the iPTF method and two sets of Green's functions for a rectangular cavity are presented firstly. In simulations, both the Green's functions are used to calculate the condition numbers of impedance matrices describing the relation between source and measurement patches, and the time cost of calculation based on the two sets of Green's functions at 450 Hz is compared. Double pressure measurements are then employed as the input data instead of pressure and velocity measurements. The normal velocities of two baffled loudspeakers are reconstructed by the combination of a measurement method and a Green's function in the presence of a disturbing source in the frequency range of 50-1000 Hz. In addition, the double pressure measurements are examined by an experiment. The precise identification of the sources indicates that the double pressure measurements are capable of localizing sources in a noisy environment. It is also found that the reconstruction with the evanescent Green's functions is slightly better than that with the modal expansions.

  12. The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior. Measures of Program Development for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded. Section 1. Skills of Functional Independence. Part Three: Program Scoring Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The scoring form for functional independence skills for the mentally retarded includes a section for recording subjects' demographic characteristics as well as tests used, date administered, and raw score. Other sections provide for a brief description of the program being used, an item scoring sheet for the Eating Scales (dependent feeding,…

  13. Green's-function formalism for waveguide QED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Michael P.; Sproll, Tobias; Stawiarski, Christina; Schmitteckert, Peter; Busch, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantum-field-theoretical framework based on path integrals and Feynman diagrams for the investigation of the quantum-optical properties of one-dimensional waveguiding structures with embedded quantum impurities. In particular, we obtain the Green's functions for a waveguide with an embedded two-level system in the single- and two-excitation sector for arbitrary dispersion relations both in the time and the frequency domains. In the single-excitation sector, we show how to sum the diagrammatic perturbation series to all orders and thus obtain explicit expressions for physical quantities such as the spectral density and the scattering matrix. In the two-excitation sector, we show that strictly linear dispersion relations exhibit the special property that the corresponding diagrammatic perturbation series terminates after two terms, again allowing for closed-form expressions for physical quantities. In the case of general dispersion relations, notably those exhibiting a band edge or waveguide cutoff frequencies, the perturbation series cannot be summed explicitly. Instead, we derive a self-consistent T -matrix equation that reduces the computational effort to that of a single-excitation computation. This analysis allows us to identify a Fano resonance between the occupied quantum impurity and a free photon in the waveguide as a unique signature of the few-photon nonlinearity inherent in such systems. In addition, our diagrammatic approach allows for the classification of different physical processes such as the creation of photon-photon correlations and interaction-induced radiation trapping, the latter being absent for strictly linear dispersion relations. Our framework can serve as the basis for further studies that involve more complex scenarios such as several and many-level quantum impurities, networks of coupled waveguides, disordered systems, and nonequilibrium effects.

  14. Empirical Green's function analysis: Taking the next step

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    An extension of the empirical Green's function (EGF) method is presented that involves determination of source parameters using standard EGF deconvolution, followed by inversion for a common attenuation parameter for a set of colocated events. Recordings of three or more colocated events can thus be used to constrain a single path attenuation estimate. I apply this method to recordings from the 1995-1996 Ridgecrest, California, earthquake sequence; I analyze four clusters consisting of 13 total events with magnitudes between 2.6 and 4.9. I first obtain corner frequencies, which are used to infer Brune stress drop estimates. I obtain stress drop values of 0.3-53 MPa (with all but one between 0.3 and 11 MPa), with no resolved increase of stress drop with moment. With the corner frequencies constrained, the inferred attenuation parameters are very consistent; they imply an average shear wave quality factor of approximately 20-25 for alluvial sediments within the Indian Wells Valley. Although the resultant spectral fitting (using corner frequency and ??) is good, the residuals are consistent among the clusters analyzed. Their spectral shape is similar to the the theoretical one-dimensional response of a layered low-velocity structure in the valley (an absolute site response cannot be determined by this method, because of an ambiguity between absolute response and source spectral amplitudes). I show that even this subtle site response can significantly bias estimates of corner frequency and ??, if it is ignored in an inversion for only source and path effects. The multiple-EGF method presented in this paper is analogous to a joint inversion for source, path, and site effects; the use of colocated sets of earthquakes appears to offer significant advantages in improving resolution of all three estimates, especially if data are from a single site or sites with similar site response.

  15. Accurate calculation of Green functions on the d-dimensional hypercubic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Yen Lee

    2011-07-01

    We write the Green function of the d-dimensional hypercubic lattice in a piecewise form covering the entire real frequency axis. Each piece is a single integral involving modified Bessel functions of the first and second kinds. The smoothness of the integrand allows both real and imaginary parts of the Green function to be computed quickly and accurately for any dimension d and any real frequency, and the computational time scales only linearly with d.

  16. Children's Knowledge of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budoff, Milton; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 normal students in grades 4 through 12 indicated that they knew very little about mental retardation and the mentally retarded. Only about half of the respondents made reference to "subaverage general intellectual functioning," while references to physical impairment were frequent. (DLS)

  17. Use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of two-point boundary value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaher, L. J.; Perlin, I. E.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigates the use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of the two-point boundary value problem. The first part deals with the role of the Green's function in solving both linear and nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations with boundary conditions and systems of such equations. The second part describes procedures for numerical construction of Green's functions and considers briefly the conditions for their existence. Finally, there is a description of some numerical experiments using nonlinear problems for which the known existence, uniqueness or convergence theorems do not apply. Examples here include some problems in finding rendezvous orbits of the restricted three body system.

  18. Habitat connectivity and local conditions shape taxonomic and functional diversity of arthropods on green roofs.

    PubMed

    Braaker, Sonja; Obrist, Martin Karl; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Moretti, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Increasing development of urban environments creates high pressure on green spaces with potential negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. There is growing evidence that green roofs - rooftops covered with vegetation - can contribute mitigate the loss of urban green spaces by providing new habitats for numerous arthropod species. Whether green roofs can contribute to enhance taxonomic and functional diversity and increase connectivity across urbanized areas remains, however, largely unknown. Furthermore, only limited information is available on how environmental conditions shape green roof arthropod communities. We investigated the community composition of arthropods (Apidae, Curculionidae, Araneae and Carabidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 green sites at ground level in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. We assessed how the site's environmental variables (such as area, height, vegetation, substrate and connectivity among sites) affect species richness and functional diversity using generalized linear models. We used an extension of co-inertia analysis (RLQ) and fourth-corner analysis to highlight the mechanism underlying community assemblages across taxonomic groups on green roof and ground communities. Species richness was higher at ground-level sites, while no difference in functional diversity was found between green roofs and ground sites. Green roof arthropod diversity increased with higher connectivity and plant species richness, irrespective of substrate depth, height and area of green roofs. The species trait analysis reviewed the mechanisms related to the environmental predictors that shape the species assemblages of the different taxa at ground and roof sites. Our study shows the important contribution of green roofs in maintaining high functional diversity of arthropod communities across different taxonomic groups, despite their lower species richness compared with ground sites. Species communities on green roofs revealed to be characterized

  19. An accurate solution of elastodynamic problems by numerical local Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, F. S.; Silva, J. E. A.; Mansur, W. J.

    2015-09-01

    Green's function based methodologies for elastodynamics in both time and frequency domains, which can be either numerical or analytical, appear in many branches of physics and engineering. Thus, the development of exact expressions for Green's functions is of great importance. Unfortunately, such expressions are known only for relatively few kinds of geometry, medium and boundary conditions. In this way, due to the difficulty in finding exact Green's functions, specially in the time domain, the present paper presents a solution of the transient elastodynamic equations by a time-stepping technique based on the Explicit Green's Approach method written in terms of the Green's and Step response functions, both being computed numerically by the finite element method. The major feature is the computation of these functions separately by the central difference time integration scheme and locally owing to the principle of causality. More precisely, Green's functions are computed only at t = Δt adopting two time substeps while Step response functions are computed directly without substeps. The proposed time-stepping method shows to be quite accurate with distinct numerical properties not presented in the standard central difference scheme as addressed in the numerical example.

  20. A new regulatory function of the region proximal to the RGG box in the fragile X mental retardation protein.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Ernest; Ceman, Stephanie

    2011-09-15

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is required for normal cognition. FMRP has two autosomal paralogs, which although similar to FMRP, cannot compensate for the loss of FMRP expression in brain. The arginine- and glycine-rich region of FMRP (the RGG box) is unique; it is the high-affinity RNA-binding motif in FMRP and is encoded by exon 15. Alternative splicing occurs in the 5' end of exon 15, which is predicted to affect the structure of the distally encoded RGG box. Here, we provide evidence that isoform 3, which removes 25 amino acids from the 5' end of exon 15, has an altered conformation that reduces binding of a specific antibody and renders the RGG box unable to efficiently associate with polyribosomes. Isoform 3 is also compromised in its ability to form granules and to associate with a key messenger ribonucleoprotein Yb1 (also known as p50, NSEP1 and YBX1). Significantly, these functions are similarly compromised when the RGG box is absent from FMRP, suggesting an important regulatory role of the N-terminal region encoded by exon 15.

  1. The gauge invariant quark Green's function in two-dimensional QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sazdjian, H.

    2010-12-22

    The gauge invariant quark Green's function, defined with a path-ordered phase factor along a straight-line, is studied in two-dimensional QCD in the large-N{sub c} limit by means of an exact integrodifferential equation. It is found to be infrared finite with singularities represented by an infinite number of threshold type branch points with a power of -3/2, starting at positive mass squared values. The Green's function is analytically determined.

  2. Nonequilibrium Green's function formulation of intersubband absorption for nonparabolic single-band effective mass Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Kolek, Andrzej

    2015-05-04

    The formulas are derived that enable calculations of intersubband absorption coefficient within nonequilibrium Green's function method applied to a single-band effective-mass Hamiltonian with the energy dependent effective mass. The derivation provides also the formulas for the virtual valence band components of the two-band Green's functions which can be used for more exact estimation of the density of states and electrons and more reliable treatment of electronic transport in unipolar n-type heterostructure semiconductor devices.

  3. Green's function study of a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Heisenberg ferrimagnetic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Gülistan

    2012-09-01

    The magnetic properties of a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Heisenberg ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice are investigated by using the double-time temperature-dependent Green's function technique. In order to decouple the higher order Green's functions, Anderson and Callen's decoupling and random phase approximations have been used. The nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions and the single-ion anisotropies are considered and their effects on compensation and critical temperature are studied.

  4. Semiclassical Green's function for electron motion in combined Coulomb and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambalampitiya, Harindranath; Fabrikant, Ilya

    2016-05-01

    We are developing an extension of the Green-function approach to the theory of ionization of a multielectron atom in a strong laser field by using the semiclassical Van Vleck-Gutzwiller propagator. For a static field the exact quantum mechanical Green's function can be calculated with an arbitrary accuracy. Therefore, as a first step towards solution of the problem, we apply the semiclassical method to the static field case for the energies above the ionization threshold where all classical trajectories contributing to the Green's function are real. Required trajectories are determined by solving the problem of finding initial velocity and traveling time corresponding to two position points. For the pure electric field case of two trajectories the semiclassical Green's function agrees very well with the exact Green's function. With the inclusion of the Coulomb field, the number of classical trajectories between two points grows rapidly and here we observe that the agreement between the semiclassical and exact Green's functions increases when more trajectories are included in the computation. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  5. Unified Green's function retrieval by cross-correlation; connection with energy principles.

    PubMed

    Snieder, Roel; Wapenaar, Kees; Wegler, Ulrich

    2007-03-01

    It has been shown theoretically and observationally that the Green's function for acoustic and elastic waves can be retrieved by cross-correlating fluctuations recorded at two locations. We extend the concept of the extraction of the Green's function to a wide class of scalar linear systems. For systems that are not invariant under time reversal, the fluctuations must be excited by volume sources in order to satisfy the energy balance (equipartitioning) that is needed to extract the Green's function. The general theory for retrieving the Green's function is illustrated with examples that include the diffusion equation, Schrödinger's equation, a vibrating string, the acoustic wave equation, a vibrating beam, and the advection equation. Examples are also shown of situations where the Green's function cannot be extracted from ambient fluctuations. The general theory opens up new applications for the extraction of the Green's function from field correlations that include flow in porous media, quantum mechanics, and the extraction of the response of mechanical structures such as bridges.

  6. Small molecule-sensing strategy and techniques for understanding the functionality of green tea.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Various low-molecular-weight phytochemicals in green tea (Camellia sinensis L.), especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), are known to be involved in health promotion and disease risk reduction. However, the underlying mechanism has remained elusive because of the absence of an analytical technique that can easily detect the precise behavior of such a small molecule. Recently, we have identified a cell-surface EGCG-sensing receptor and the related signaling molecules that control the physiological functions of EGCG. We also developed a novel in situ label-free imaging technique for visualizing spatially resolved biotransformations based on simultaneous mapping of EGCG and its phase II metabolites. Furthermore, we established a chemometric method capable of evaluating the functionality of multicomponent green tea extracts by focusing on their compositional balances. This review highlights our proposed small molecule-sensing techniques for detecting the complex behavior of green tea components and linking such information to an enhanced understanding of green tea functionality.

  7. Green's function of a heat problem with a periodic boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzhanov, Nurzhan E.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper, a nonlocal initial-boundary value problem for a non-homogeneous one-dimensional heat equation is considered. The domain under consideration is a rectangle. The classical initial condition with respect to t is put. A nonlocal periodic boundary condition by a spatial variable x is put. It is well-known that a solution of problem can be constructed in the form of convergent orthonormal series according to eigenfunctions of a spectral problem for an operator of multiple differentiation with periodic boundary conditions. Therefore Green's function can be also written in the form of an infinite series with respect to trigonometric functions (Fourier series). For classical first and second initial-boundary value problems there also exists a second representation of the Green's function by Jacobi function. In this paper we find the representation of the Green's function of the nonlocal initial-boundary value problem with periodic boundary conditions in the form of series according to exponents.

  8. Coupled-cluster Green's function: Analysis of properties originating in the exponential parametrization of the ground-state wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Bo; Kowalski, Karol

    2016-12-23

    In this paper we derive basic properties of the Green’s function matrix elements stemming from the exponential coupled cluster (CC) parametrization of the ground-state wave function. We demon- strate that all intermediates used to express retarded (or equivalently, ionized) part of the Green’s function in the ω-representation can be expressed through connected diagrams only. Similar proper- ties are also shared by the first order ω-derivatives of the retarded part of the CC Green’s function. This property can be extended to any order ω-derivatives of the Green’s function. Through the Dyson equation of CC Green’s function, the derivatives of corresponding CC self-energy can be evaluated analytically. In analogy to the CC Green’s function, the corresponding CC self-energy is expressed in terms of connected diagrams only. Moreover, the ionized part of the CC Green’s func- tion satisfies the non-homogeneous linear system of ordinary differential equations, whose solution may be represented in the exponential form. Our analysis can be easily generalized to the advanced part of the CC Green’s function.

  9. Green functions for nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping on the Bethe lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollar, M.; Eckstein, M.; Byczuk, K.; Blümer, N.; van Dongen, P.; Radke de Cuba, M. H.; Metzner, W.; Tanaskovi, D.; Dobrosavljevi, V.; Kotliar, G.; Vollhardt, D.

    2005-09-01

    [Dedicated to Bernhard Mühlschlegel on the occasion ofhis 80th birthday]We calculate the local Green function for a quantum-mechanical particle with hopping between nearest and next-nearest neighbors on the Bethe lattice, where the on-site energies may alternate on sublattices. For infinite connectivity the renormalized perturbation expansion is carried out by counting all non-self-intersecting paths, leading to an implicit equation for the local Green function. By integrating out branches of the Bethe lattice the same equation is obtained from a path integral approach for the partition function. This also provides the local Green function for finite connectivity. Finally, a recently developed topological approach is extended to derive an operator identity which maps the problem onto the case of only nearest-neighbor hopping. We find in particular that hopping between next-nearest neighbors leads to an asymmetric spectrum with additional van-Hove singularities.

  10. Band-limited Green's Functions for Quantitative Evaluation of Acoustic Emission Using the Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, William P.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Leser, William P.

    2013-01-01

    A method of numerically estimating dynamic Green's functions using the finite element method is proposed. These Green's functions are accurate in a limited frequency range dependent on the mesh size used to generate them. This range can often match or exceed the frequency sensitivity of the traditional acoustic emission sensors. An algorithm is also developed to characterize an acoustic emission source by obtaining information about its strength and temporal dependence. This information can then be used to reproduce the source in a finite element model for further analysis. Numerical examples are presented that demonstrate the ability of the band-limited Green's functions approach to determine the moment tensor coefficients of several reference signals to within seven percent, as well as accurately reproduce the source-time function.

  11. Green synthesis and catalytic function of tungsten oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Zheng, Yi Fan; Yin, Hao Yong; Song, Xu Chun

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, a green chemical synthetic route was developed to synthesize WO3 nanoparticles with an average size of 70 nm. The products were characterized in detail by multiform techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photoluminescence of the obtained WO3 nanoparticles was also investigated. The effects of the hydrothermal temperature on the crystalline phase and morphology of the products have been studied systematically. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution. The electrocatalytic activity was characterized using voltammetric techniques. The results showed that the obtained WO3 nanoparticles have an excellent photocatalytic and electrocatalytic performance for the MB.

  12. Flat histogram diagrammatic Monte Carlo method: calculation of the Green's function in imaginary time.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Nikolaos G; Manousakis, Efstratios

    2013-10-01

    The diagrammatic Monte Carlo (DiagMC) method is a numerical technique which samples the entire diagrammatic series of the Green's function in quantum many-body systems. In this work, we incorporate the flat histogram principle in the diagrammatic Monte Carlo method, and we term the improved version the "flat histogram diagrammatic Monte Carlo" method. We demonstrate the superiority of this method over the standard DiagMC in extracting the long-imaginary-time behavior of the Green's function, without incorporating any a priori knowledge about this function, by applying the technique to the polaron problem.

  13. Flat histogram diagrammatic Monte Carlo method: Calculation of the Green's function in imaginary time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantis, Nikolaos G.; Manousakis, Efstratios

    2013-10-01

    The diagrammatic Monte Carlo (DiagMC) method is a numerical technique which samples the entire diagrammatic series of the Green's function in quantum many-body systems. In this work, we incorporate the flat histogram principle in the diagrammatic Monte Carlo method, and we term the improved version the “flat histogram diagrammatic Monte Carlo” method. We demonstrate the superiority of this method over the standard DiagMC in extracting the long-imaginary-time behavior of the Green's function, without incorporating any a priori knowledge about this function, by applying the technique to the polaron problem.

  14. Tic-Tac-Toe Performance as a Function of Maturational Level of Retarded Adolescents and Nonretarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.; Winters, Emilia A.

    1977-01-01

    Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. Two groups (36 Ss) of educable and trainable mentally retarded adolescents in an institution were compared with two groups (38 Ss) of nonretarded children (ages 8-9 years old) on a modified tic-tac-toe game for foresight in logical problem solving. (MH)

  15. Generalization of Naming Responses to Objects in the Natural Environment as a Function of Training Stimulus Modality with Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Steven J.; Pear, Joseph J.

    1980-01-01

    Picture cards, photographs, and real objects were compared as training stimuli in order to determine which best facilitated the generalization of naming responses learned in a special training room to real objects in the natural environments of four severely retarded children (ages 5, 6, 9, and 14). (Author)

  16. The Green's function density functional tight-binding (gDFTB) method for molecular electronic conduction.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; Solomon, Gemma C; Gagliardi, Alessio; Bilić, Ante; Hush, Noel S; Frauenheim, Thomas; Di Carlo, Aldo; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2007-07-05

    A review is presented of the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method "gDFTB" for evaluating elastic and inelastic conduction through single molecules employing the density functional tight-binding (DFTB) electronic structure method. This focuses on the possible advantages that DFTB implementations of NEGF have over conventional methods based on density functional theory, including not only the ability to treat large irregular metal-molecule junctions with high nonequilibrium thermal distributions but perhaps also the ability to treat dispersive forces, bond breakage, and open-shell systems and to avoid large band lineup errors. New results are presented indicating that DFTB provides a useful depiction of simple gold-thiol interactions. Symmetry is implemented in DFTB, and the advantages it brings in terms of large savings of computational resources with significant increase in numerical stability are described. The power of DFTB is then harnessed to allow the use of gDFTB as a real-time tool to discover the nature of the forces that control inelastic charge transport through molecules and the role of molecular symmetry in determining both elastic and inelastic transport. Future directions for the development of the method are discussed.

  17. Comparison of eigeninference based on one- and two-point Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drogosz, Zbigniew; Jurkiewicz, Jerzy; Łukaszewski, Grzegorz; Nowak, Maciej A.

    2015-08-01

    We compare two methods of eigeninference from large sets of data. Our analysis points at the superiority of our eigeninference method based on one-point Green's functions and Padé approximants over a method based on fluctuations and two-point Green's functions. The first method is orders of magnitude faster than the second one; moreover, we found a source of potential instability of the second method and identified it as arising from the spurious zero and negative modes of the estimator for the variance operator of a certain multidimensional Gaussian distribution, inherent for that method. We also present eigeninference based on spectral moments of negative orders, for strictly positive spectra. Finally, we compare the cases of eigeninference of real-valued and complex-valued correlated Wishart distributions, reinforcing our conclusions on the advantage of the one-point Green's function method.

  18. Green's function and image system for the Laplace operator in the prolate spheroidal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Changfeng; Deng, Shaozhong

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, electrostatic image theory is studied for Green's function for the Laplace operator in the case where the fundamental domain is either the exterior or the interior of a prolate spheroid. In either case, an image system is developed to consist of a point image inside the complement of the fundamental domain and an additional symmetric continuous surface image over a confocal prolate spheroid outside the fundamental domain, although the process of calculating such an image system is easier for the exterior than for the interior Green's function. The total charge of the surface image is zero and its centroid is at the origin of the prolate spheroid. In addition, if the source is on the focal axis outside the prolate spheroid, then the image system of the exterior Green's function consists of a point image on the focal axis and a line image on the line segment between the two focal points.

  19. Elastodynamic Green's function retrieval through single-sided Marchenko inverse scattering.

    PubMed

    da Costa Filho, Carlos Alberto; Ravasi, Matteo; Curtis, Andrew; Meles, Giovanni Angelo

    2014-12-01

    The solution of the inverse scattering problem for the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation is given by the Marchenko equation. Recently, a Marchenko-type equation has been derived for three-dimensional (3D) acoustic wave fields, whose solution has been shown to recover the Green's functions from points within the medium to its exterior, using only single-sided scattered data. Here we extend this approach to 3D vectorial wave fields that satisfy the elastodynamic wave equation and recover Green's functions from points interior to an elastic, solid-state medium from purely external and one-sided measurements. The method is demonstrated in a solid-earth-like model to construct Green's functions using only subsurface sources, from earth-surface force and deformation sources and particle velocity and stress measurements.

  20. The Green function for the BFKL pomeron and the transition to DGLAP evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, H.; Lipatov, L. N.; Ross, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    We consider the (process-independent) Green function for the BFKL equation with running coupling, and explain how, within the semi-classical approximation, it is related to Green function of the Airy equation. The unique Green function is obtained from a combination of its required ultraviolet behaviour compatible with asymptotic freedom and an infrared limit phase imposed by the non-perturbative sector of QCD. We show that at sufficiently large gluon transverse momenta the corresponding gluon density matches that of the DGLAP analysis, whereas for relatively small values of the gluon transverse momentum the gluon distribution is sensitive to the Regge poles, whose positions are determined both by the non-perturbative QCD dynamics and physics at large transverse momenta.

  1. Direct calculation of the lattice Green function with arbitrary interactions for general crystals.

    PubMed

    Yasi, Joseph A; Trinkle, Dallas R

    2012-06-01

    Efficient computation of lattice defect geometries such as point defects, dislocations, disconnections, grain boundaries, interfaces, and free surfaces requires accurate coupling of displacements near the defect to the long-range elastic strain. Flexible boundary condition methods embed a defect in infinite harmonic bulk through the lattice Green function. We demonstrate an efficient and accurate calculation of the lattice Green function from the force-constant matrix for general crystals with an arbitrary basis by extending a method for Bravais lattices. New terms appear due to the presence of optical modes and the possible loss of inversion symmetry. By separately treating poles and discontinuities in reciprocal space, numerical accuracy is controlled at all distances. We compute the lattice Green function for a two-dimensional model with broken symmetry to elucidate the role of different coupling terms. The algorithm is generally applicable in two and three dimensions to crystals with arbitrary number of atoms in the unit cell, symmetry, and interactions.

  2. Studying Regional Wave Source Time Functions Using the Empirical Green's Function Method: Application to Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Schaff, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Schult, F.

    2013-12-01

    Reliably estimated source time functions (STFs) from high-frequency regional waveforms, such as Lg, Pn and Pg, provide important input for seismic source studies, explosion detection and discrimination, and minimization of parameter trade-off in attenuation studies. We have searched for candidate pairs of larger and small earthquakes in and around China that share the same focal mechanism but significantly differ in magnitudes, so that the empirical Green's function (EGF) method can be applied to study the STFs of the larger events. We conducted about a million deconvolutions using waveforms from 925 earthquakes, and screened the deconvolved traces to exclude those that are from event pairs that involved different mechanisms. Only 2,700 traces passed this screening and could be further analyzed using the EGF method. We have developed a series of codes for speeding up the final EGF analysis by implementing automations and user-graphic interface procedures. The codes have been fully tested with a subset of screened data and we are currently applying them to all the screened data. We will present a large number of deconvolved STFs retrieved using various phases (Lg, Pn, Sn and Pg and coda) with information on any directivities, any possible dependence of pulse durations on the wave types, on scaling relations for the pulse durations and event sizes, and on the estimated source static stress drops.

  3. Dyadic Green's function for aplanatic solid immersion lens based sub-surface microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li; Chen, Rui; Agarwal, Krishna; Sheppard, Colin J R; Phang, Jacob C H; Chen, Xudong

    2011-09-26

    We present the derivation of the dyadic Green's function for the aplanatic solid immersion lens based microscopy system. The presented dyadic Green's function is general and is applicable at non-aplanatic points as well in the object plane. Thus, the electromagnetic wave formulation is used to describe the optical system without paraxial assumptions. Various important and useful properties of SIL based microscopy system are also presented. The effect of the numerical aperture of the objective on the peak intensities, resolutions and the depth of field are also reported. Some interesting longitudinal effects are also reported.

  4. Computing Green's function on unbounded doubly connected regions via integral equation with the generalized Neumann kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspon, Siti Zulaiha; Murid, Ali Hassan Mohamed; Rahmat, Hamisan

    2014-07-01

    This research is about computing the Green's functions on unbounded doubly connected regions by using the method of boundary integral equation. The method depends on solving an exterior Dirichlet problem. The Dirichlet problem is then solved using a uniquely solvable Fredholm integral equation on the boundary of the region. The kernel of this integral equation is the generalized Neumann kernel. The method for solving this integral equation is by using the Nyström method with trapezoidal rule to discretize it to a linear system. The linear system is then solved by the Gaussian elimination method. Mathematica plots of Green's functions for several test regions are also presented.

  5. A Green's function formulation for a nonlinear potential flow solution applicable to transonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.; Fox, C. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Routine determination of inviscid subsonic flow fields about wing-body-tail configurations employing a Green's function approach for numerical solution of the perturbation velocity potential equation is successfully extended into the high subsonic subcritical flow regime and into the shock-free supersonic flow regime. A modified Green's function formulation, valid throughout a range of Mach numbers including transonic, that takes an explicit accounting of the intrinsic nonlinearity in the parent governing partial differential equations is developed. Some considerations pertinent to flow field predictions in the transonic flow regime are discussed.

  6. Atom-light interactions in quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures: A Green's-function perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asenjo-Garcia, A.; Hood, J. D.; Chang, D. E.; Kimble, H. J.

    2017-03-01

    Based on a formalism that describes atom-light interactions in terms of the classical electromagnetic Green's function, we study the optical response of atoms and other quantum emitters coupled to one-dimensional photonic structures, such as cavities, waveguides, and photonic crystals. We demonstrate a clear mapping between the transmission spectra and the local Green's function, identifying signatures of dispersive and dissipative interactions between atoms. We also demonstrate the applicability of our analysis to problems involving three-level atoms, such as electromagnetically induced transparency. Finally we examine recent experiments, and anticipate future observations of atom-atom interactions in photonic band gaps.

  7. Functional Green-Tuned Proteorhodopsin from Modern Stromatolites.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Kraiselburd, Ivana; Bamann, Christian; Wood, Phillip G; Bamberg, Ernst; Farias, María Eugenia; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genome of the poly-extremophile Exiguobacterium sp. S17, isolated from modern stromatolites at Laguna Socompa (3,570 m), a High-Altitude Andean Lake (HAAL) in Argentinean Puna revealed a putative proteorhodopsin-encoding gene. The HAAL area is exposed to the highest UV irradiation on Earth, making the microbial community living in the stromatolites test cases for survival strategies under extreme conditions. The heterologous expressed protein E17R from Exiguobacterium (248 amino acids, 85% sequence identity to its ortholog ESR from E. sibiricum) was assembled with retinal displaying an absorbance maximum at 524 nm, which makes it a member of the green-absorbing PR-subfamily. Titration down to low pH values (eventually causing partial protein denaturation) indicated a pK value between two and three. Global fitting of data from laser flash-induced absorption changes gave evidence for an early red-shifted intermediate (its formation being below the experimental resolution) that decayed (τ1 = 3.5 μs) into another red-shifted intermediate. This species decayed in a two-step process (τ2 = 84 μs, τ3 = 11 ms), to which the initial state of E17-PR was reformed with a kinetics of 2 ms. Proton transport capability of the HAAL protein was determined by BLM measurements. Additional blue light irradiation reduced the proton current, clearly identifying a blue light absorbing, M-like intermediate. The apparent absence of this intermediate is explained by closely matching formation and decay kinetics.

  8. Functional Green-Tuned Proteorhodopsin from Modern Stromatolites

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Kraiselburd, Ivana; Bamann, Christian; Wood, Phillip G.; Bamberg, Ernst; Farias, María Eugenia; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genome of the poly-extremophile Exiguobacterium sp. S17, isolated from modern stromatolites at Laguna Socompa (3,570 m), a High-Altitude Andean Lake (HAAL) in Argentinean Puna revealed a putative proteorhodopsin-encoding gene. The HAAL area is exposed to the highest UV irradiation on Earth, making the microbial community living in the stromatolites test cases for survival strategies under extreme conditions. The heterologous expressed protein E17R from Exiguobacterium (248 amino acids, 85% sequence identity to its ortholog ESR from E. sibiricum) was assembled with retinal displaying an absorbance maximum at 524 nm, which makes it a member of the green-absorbing PR-subfamily. Titration down to low pH values (eventually causing partial protein denaturation) indicated a pK value between two and three. Global fitting of data from laser flash-induced absorption changes gave evidence for an early red-shifted intermediate (its formation being below the experimental resolution) that decayed (τ1 = 3.5 μs) into another red-shifted intermediate. This species decayed in a two-step process (τ2 = 84 μs, τ3 = 11 ms), to which the initial state of E17-PR was reformed with a kinetics of 2 ms. Proton transport capability of the HAAL protein was determined by BLM measurements. Additional blue light irradiation reduced the proton current, clearly identifying a blue light absorbing, M-like intermediate. The apparent absence of this intermediate is explained by closely matching formation and decay kinetics. PMID:27187791

  9. Strong ground motion synthesis along the Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone using empirical Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Foxall, W.; Kasameyer, P.; Wu, F.T.; Rau, R.-J.; Jarpe, S.

    1997-01-01

    We synthesize strong ground motion from a M=7.25 earthquake along the NW-trending Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone. This trend extends from Houlong to Taichung and forms a nearly continuous 78 km long seismic zone identified by the occurrence of M<5 events. It extends from a shallow depth all the way down to about 40 km. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital CWBSN data now provided routinely by CWBSN, it becomes possible to use these data as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. the synthesized ground motions obtained for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute acceleration response values.

  10. From green to blue: site-directed mutagenesis of the green fluorescent protein to teach protein structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Girón, María D; Salto, Rafael

    2011-07-01

    Structure-function relationship studies in proteins are essential in modern Cell Biology. Laboratory exercises that allow students to familiarize themselves with basic mutagenesis techniques are essential in all Genetic Engineering courses to teach the relevance of protein structure. We have implemented a laboratory course based on the site-directed mutagenesis of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The GFP is ideal because the students are able to correlate the changes introduced into the structure of the protein with the observable modification of its fluorescence properties. By using noncommercial kits, we set up a non PCR-thermocycling reaction using mutagenic primers, followed by removal of the original plasmid template by DpnI digestion. By introducing only one (Y66H) or two mutations (Y66H/Y145F) in the "cycle 3" variant of GFP (F99S, M153T, and V163A) or GFPuv, students are able to analyze the changes from green to blue in the fluorescence emission of the mutated proteins and to correlate these differences in fluorescence with the structural changes using three-dimensional structure visualization software. This inexpensive laboratory course familiarizes the students with the design of mutagenic oligonucleotides, site-directed mutagenesis, bacterial transformation, restriction analysis of the mutated plasmids, and protein characterization by SDS-PAGE and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  11. Evaluating green infrastructure in urban environments using a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Pedro; Correia, Otília; Lecoq, Miguel; Munzi, Silvana; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Gonçalves, Paula; Rebelo, Rui; Antunes, Cristina; Silva, Patrícia; Freitas, Catarina; Lopes, Nuno; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Forested areas within cities host a large number of species, responsible for many ecosystem services in urban areas. The biodiversity in these areas is influenced by human disturbances such as atmospheric pollution and urban heat island effect. To ameliorate the effects of these factors, an increase in urban green areas is often considered sufficient. However, this approach assumes that all types of green cover have the same importance for species. Our aim was to show that not all forested green areas are equal in importance for species, but that based on a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach it is possible to value green infrastructure in urban environments. After evaluating the diversity of lichens, butterflies and other-arthropods, birds and mammals in 31 Mediterranean urban forests in south-west Europe (Almada, Portugal), bird and lichen functional groups responsive to urbanization were found. A community shift (tolerant species replacing sensitive ones) along the urbanization gradient was found, and this must be considered when using these groups as indicators of the effect of urbanization. Bird and lichen functional groups were then analyzed together with the characteristics of the forests and their surroundings. Our results showed that, contrary to previous assumptions, vegetation density and more importantly the amount of urban areas around the forest (matrix), are more important for biodiversity than forest quantity alone. This indicated that not all types of forested green areas have the same importance for biodiversity. An index of forest functional diversity was then calculated for all sampled forests of the area. This could help decision-makers to improve the management of urban green infrastructures with the goal of increasing functionality and ultimately ecosystem services in urban areas.

  12. Influence of green and gold kiwifruit on indices of large bowel function in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Ansell, Juliet

    2014-08-01

    The effects of kiwifruit on large bowel health were investigated in healthy rats. Four-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing 10% homogenized green kiwifruit, gold kiwifruit or 10% glucose solution (control) over 4 or 6 wk. Green kiwifruit increased the fecal output compared to control. Growth of certain bacterial species in cecum was influenced by both green and gold kiwifruit. A significant increase in cecal Lachnospiraceae in rats fed the green kiwifruit diet was observed at week 4. At week 6, green and gold kiwifruit diets assisted in improving colonic barrier function by upregulating the expression of mucin (MUC)-2, MUC3, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 or trefoil factor-3 genes. Gold kiwifruit consumption increased the colonic goblet cells per crypt at week 6. Significant negative correlations between E. coli and β-defensin 1 and TLR4 expression were observed. Consuming green and gold kiwifruit for 6 wk significantly altered the biomarkers of large bowel health; indicating that regularly consuming kiwifruit helps attain optimal digestive health.

  13. Introduction of uncertainty of Green's function into waveform inversion for seismic source processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Yuji; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2011-08-01

    In principle, we can never know the true Green's function, which is a major error source in seismic waveform inversion. So far, many studies have devoted their efforts to obtain a Green's function as precise as possible. In this study, we propose a new strategy to cope with this problem. That is to say, we introduce uncertainty of Green's function into waveform inversion analyses. Due to the propagation law of errors, the uncertainty of Green's function results in a data covariance matrix with significant off-diagonal components, which naturally reduce the weight of observed data in later phases. Because the data covariance matrix depends on the model parameters that express slip distribution, the inverse problem to be solved becomes non-linear. Applying the developed inverse method to the teleseismic P-wave data of the 2006 Java, Indonesia, tsunami earthquake, we obtained a reasonable slip-rate distribution and moment-rate function without the non-negative slip constraint. The solution was independent of the initial values of the model parameters. If we neglect the modelling errors due to Green's function as in the conventional formulation, the total slip distribution is much rougher with significant opposite slip components, whereas the moment-rate function is much smoother. If we use a stronger smoothing constraint, more plausible slip distribution can be obtained, but then the moment-rate function becomes even smoother. By comparing the observed waveforms with the synthetic waveforms, we found that high-frequency components were well reproduced only by the new formulation. The modelling errors are essentially important in waveform inversion analyses, although they have been commonly neglected.

  14. Frequency-domain Green's functions for radar waves in heterogeneous 2.5D media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Croize, D.; Mazzella, A.T.; McKenna, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Green's functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous 2.5D media might be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid method. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties might vary in the x- and z-directions, but not in the y-direction. Wave propagation in the x- and z-directions is simulated with the finite-difference method, and wave propagation in the y-direction is simulated with an analytic function. The absorbing boundaries on the finite-difference grid are perfectly matched layers that have been modified to make them compatible with the hybrid method. The accuracy of these numerical Greens functions is assessed by comparing them with independently calculated Green's functions. For a homogeneous model, the magnitude errors range from -4.16% through 0.44%, and the phase errors range from -0.06% through 4.86%. For a layered model, the magnitude errors range from -2.60% through 2.06%, and the phase errors range from -0.49% through 2.73%. These numerical Green's functions might be used for forward modeling and full waveform inversion. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  15. Brazilian Green Propolis Improves Antioxidant Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liting; Pu, Lingling; Wei, Jingyu; Li, Jinghua; Wu, Jianquan; Xin, Zhonghao; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang

    2016-01-01

    Propolis contains a variety of bioactive components and possesses many biological properties. This study was designed to evaluate potential effects of Brazilian green propolis on glucose metabolism and antioxidant function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the 18-week randomized controlled study, enrolled patients with T2DM were randomly assigned to Brazilian green propolis group (900 mg/day) (n = 32) and control group (n = 33). At the end of the study, no significant difference was found in serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, aldose reductase or adiponectin between the two groups. However, serum GSH and total polyphenols were significantly increased, and serum carbonyls and lactate dehydrogenase activity were significantly reduced in the Brazilian green propolis group. Serum TNF-α was significantly decreased, whereas serum IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased in the Brazilian green propolis group. It is concluded that Brazilian green propolis is effective in improving antioxidant function in T2DM patients. PMID:27187435

  16. Green fluorescent protein nanopolygons as monodisperse supramolecular assemblies of functional proteins with defined valency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Eun; Kim, Yu-Na; Kim, Jung A.; Kim, Ho Min; Jung, Yongwon

    2015-05-01

    Supramolecular protein assemblies offer novel nanoscale architectures with molecular precision and unparalleled functional diversity. A key challenge, however, is to create precise nano-assemblies of functional proteins with both defined structures and a controlled number of protein-building blocks. Here we report a series of supramolecular green fluorescent protein oligomers that are assembled in precise polygonal geometries and prepared in a monodisperse population. Green fluorescent protein is engineered to be self-assembled in cells into oligomeric assemblies that are natively separated in a single-protein resolution by surface charge manipulation, affording monodisperse protein (nano)polygons from dimer to decamer. Several functional proteins are multivalently displayed on the oligomers with controlled orientations. Spatial arrangements of protein oligomers and displayed functional proteins are directly visualized by a transmission electron microscope. By employing our functional protein assemblies, we provide experimental insight into multivalent protein-protein interactions and tools to manipulate receptor clustering on live cell surfaces.

  17. Computing Green's function of elasticity in a half-plane with impedance boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, Mario; Godoy, Eduardo; Nédélec, Jean-Claude

    2006-12-01

    This Note presents an effective and accurate method for numerical calculation of the Green's function G associated with the time harmonic elasticity system in a half-plane, where an impedance boundary condition is considered. The need to compute this function arises when studying wave propagation in underground mining and seismological engineering. To theoretically obtain this Green's function, we have drawn our inspiration from the paper by Durán et al. (2005), where the Green's function for the Helmholtz equation has been computed. The method consists in applying a partial Fourier transform, which allows an explicit calculation of the so-called spectral Green's function. In order to compute its inverse Fourier transform, we separate Gˆ as a sum of two terms. The first is associated with the whole plane, whereas the second takes into account the half-plane and the boundary conditions. The first term corresponds to the Green's function of the well known time-harmonic elasticity system in R (cf. J. Dompierre, Thesis). The second term is separated as a sum of three terms, where two of them contain singularities in the spectral variable (pseudo-poles and poles) and the other is regular and decreasing at infinity. The inverse Fourier transform of the singular terms are analytically computed, whereas the regular one is numerically obtained via an FFT algorithm. We present a numerical result. Moreover, we show that, under some conditions, a fourth additional slowness appears and which could produce a new surface wave. To cite this article: M. Durán et al., C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  18. The Prediction of Jet Noise Ground Effects Using an Acoustic Analogy and a Tailored Green's Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of an acoustic analogy for the mixing noise component of jet noise in the presence of an infinite surface is presented. The reflection of jet noise by the ground changes the distribution of acoustic energy and is characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns. The equivalent sources are modeled based on the two-point cross- correlation of the turbulent velocity fluctuations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Propagation effects, due to reflection by the surface and refaction by the jet shear layer, are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations (LEE). The vector Green's function of the LEE is written in relation to Lilley's equation; that is, approximated with matched asymptotic solutions and the Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation. The Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation for an infinite flat plane with impedance is the Weyl-van der Pol equation. Predictions are compared with an unheated Mach 0.95 jet produced by a nozzle with an exit diameter of 0.3302 meters. Microphones are placed at various heights and distances from the nozzle exit in the peak jet noise direction above an acoustically hard and an asphalt surface. The predictions are shown to accurately capture jet noise ground effects that are characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns in the mid- and far-field and capture overall trends in the near-field.

  19. Equivalence of Green's function and the Fourier series representation of composites with periodic microstructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Kevin P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Freed, Alan D.

    1990-01-01

    A computer program which is being developed to analyze the heterogeneous stress and strain history variation at the 'damage critical' locations of a composite structure operating at elevated temperatures is described. The theoretical foundations behind this program are described. The relationship between Fourier series and Green's function approaches is elucidated.

  20. Green's functions for dislocations in bonded strips and related crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Luo, H. A.

    1990-01-01

    Green's functions are derived for the plane elastostatics problem of a dislocation in a bimaterial strip. Using these fundamental solutions as kernels, various problems involving cracks in a bimaterial strip are analyzed using singular integral equations. For each problem considered, stress intensity factors are calculated for several combinations of the parameters which describe loading, geometry and material mismatch.

  1. The "Mixed" Green's Function Approach to Quantum Kinetics with Initial Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, V. G.; Röpke, G.

    1999-12-01

    A method for deriving quantum kinetic equations with initial correlations is developed on the basis of the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. The method is applicable to a wide range of correlated initial states described by nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics. Initial correlations and the real-time evolution are treated by a unified technique employing many-component "mixed" Green's functions. The Dyson equation for the mixed Green's function leads to a set of equations for real-time Green's functions and new (cross) components linking initial correlations with dynamical processes. These equations are used to formulate a generalized Kadanoff-Baym ansatz for correlated initial states. A non-Markovian short-time kinetic equation is derived within the T-matrix approximation for the self-energies. The properties of the memory kernels in this equation are considered in detail in Born approximation for the T-matrices. The kinetic equation is demonstrated to conserve the total energy of the system. An explicit expression for the time-dependent correlation energy is obtained.

  2. Step-by-Step Simulation of Radiation Chemistry Using Green Functions for Diffusion-Influenced Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiolytic species are formed approximately 1 ps after the passage of ionizing radiation through matter. After their formation, they diffuse and chemically react with other radiolytic species and neighboring biological molecules, leading to various oxidative damage. Therefore, the simulation of radiation chemistry is of considerable importance to understand how radiolytic species damage biological molecules [1]. The step-by-step simulation of chemical reactions is difficult, because the radiolytic species are distributed non-homogeneously in the medium. Consequently, computational approaches based on Green functions for diffusion-influenced reactions should be used [2]. Recently, Green functions for more complex type of reactions have been published [3-4]. We have developed exact random variate generators of these Green functions [5], which will allow us to use them in radiation chemistry codes. Moreover, simulating chemistry using the Green functions is which is computationally very demanding, because the probabilities of reactions between each pair of particles should be evaluated at each timestep [2]. This kind of problem is well adapted for General Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GPGPU), which can handle a large number of similar calculations simultaneously. These new developments will allow us to include more complex reactions in chemistry codes, and to improve the calculation time. This code should be of importance to link radiation track structure simulations and DNA damage models.

  3. Toward proving a new identity for Green's functions in N = 1 supersymmetric electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanyantz, K. V.

    2009-01-15

    A method that may underlie an attempt at proving the previously proposed new identity for Green's functions is described for N = 1 supersymmetric massless electrodynamics regularized by higher derivatives. With the aid of this method, it is shown that some contributions to the identity in question do indeed vanish.

  4. Retarded gravitation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    We propose a Lorentz-covariant theory of gravity, and explain its theoretical origins in the problem of time in Newtonian physics. In this retarded gravitation theory (RGT), the gravitational force depends upon both retarded position and velocity, and the equations of motion are time-asymmetric retarded functional differential equations. We explicitly solve these equations, under simplifying assumptions, for various NASA spacecraft. This shows that the differences from Newtonian gravity, though tiny within the solar system, are just appropriate to explain the flyby anomaly as a ν/c effect due to earth's rotation. The differences can, however, be large in the case of a spiral galaxy, and we show that the combined velocity drag from a large number of co-rotating stars enormously speeds up a test particle. Thus, the non-Newtonian behaviour of rotation curves in a spiral galaxy may be explained as being due to velocity drag rather than dark matter. RGT can also be tested in the laboratory. It necessitates a reappraisal of current laboratory methods of determining the Newtonian gravitational constant G. Since RGT makes no speculative assumptions, its refutation would have serious implications across physics.

  5. The time domain moving Green function of a railway track and its application to wheel-rail interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, X.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, S.

    2016-09-01

    When dealing with wheel-rail interactions for a high-speed train using the time domain Green function of a railway track, it would be more reasonable to use the moving Green function associated with a reference frame moving with the train, since observed from this frame wheel/rail forces are stationary. In this paper, the time domain moving Green function of a railway track as an infinitely long periodic structure is defined, derived, discussed and applied. The moving Green function is defined as the Fourier transform, from the load frequency domain to the time domain, of the response of the rail due to a moving harmonic load. The response of the rail due to a moving harmonic load is calculated using the Fourier transform-based method. A relationship is established between the moving Green function and the conventional impulse response function of the track. Properties of the moving Green function are then explored which can largely simplify the calculation of the Green function. And finally, the moving Green function is applied to deal with interactions between wheels and a track with or without rail dampers, allowing non-linearity in wheel-rail contact and demonstrating the effect of the rail dampers.

  6. Green's function method for handling radiative effects on false vacuum decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Björn; Millington, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a Green's function method for handling radiative effects on false vacuum decay. In addition to the usual thin-wall approximation, we achieve further simplification by treating the bubble wall in the planar limit. As an application, we take the λ Φ4 theory, extended with N additional heavier scalars, wherein we calculate analytically both the functional determinant of the quadratic fluctuations about the classical soliton configuration and the first correction to the soliton configuration itself.

  7. Linked-cluster expansion for the Green's function of the infinite-U Hubbard model.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ehsan; Perepelitsky, Edward; Rigol, Marcos; Shastry, B Sriram

    2014-06-01

    We implement a highly efficient strong-coupling expansion for the Green's function of the Hubbard model. In the limit of extreme correlations, where the onsite interaction is infinite, the evaluation of diagrams simplifies dramatically enabling us to carry out the expansion to the eighth order in powers of the hopping amplitude. We compute the finite-temperature Green's function analytically in the momentum and Matsubara frequency space as a function of the electron density. Employing Padé approximations, we study the equation of state, Kelvin thermopower, momentum distribution function, quasiparticle fraction, and quasiparticle lifetime of the system at temperatures lower than, or of the order of, the hopping amplitude. We also discuss several different approaches for obtaining the spectral functions through analytic continuation of the imaginary frequency Green's function, and show results for the system near half filling. We benchmark our results for the equation of state against those obtained from a numerical linked-cluster expansion carried out to the eleventh order.

  8. Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes with Phosphorus- and Nitrogen-Containing Agents: Effective Reinforcer for Thermal, Mechanical, and Flame-Retardant Properties of Polystyrene Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Xing, Weiyi; Yang, Wei; Yang, Wenjie; Hu, Qihang; Si, Jingyu; Lu, Hongdian; Yang, Benhong; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Yuen, Richard K K

    2016-10-05

    Aminated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (A-MWCNT) were reacted with diphenylphosphinic chloride (DPP-Cl) to prepare the functionalized MWCNT (DPPA-MWCNT). A-MWCNT and DPPA-MWCNT were respectively mixed with polystyrene (PS) to obtain composites through the melt compounding method. SEM observations demonstrated that the DPPA-MWCNT nanofillers were more uniformly distributed within the PS matrix than A-MWCNT. PS/DPPA-MWCNT showed improved thermal stability, glass transition temperature, and tensile strength in comparison with PS/A-MWCNT, resulting from good dispersion and interfacial interactions between DPPA-MWCNT and PS matrix. The incorporation of DPPA-MWCNT to PS significantly reduced peak heat release rate, smoke production rate, and carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide release in cone calorimeter tests. The enhanced fire-retardant properties should be ascribed to the barrier effect of carbon nanotubes, which could provide enough time for DPPA-MWCNT and its functionalized groups to trap the degrading polymer radicals to catalyze char formation. The char layer served as an efficient insulating barrier to reduce the exposure of polymer matrix to an external heat source as well as retarding the flammable gases from feeding the flame.

  9. Spectral properties of the gauge invariant quark Green's function in two-dimensional QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sazdjian, H.

    2010-06-01

    The gauge invariant quark Green's function with a path-ordered phase factor along a straight line is studied in two-dimensional QCD in the large-N{sub c} limit by means of an exact integrodifferential equation. Its spectral functions are analytically determined. They are infrared finite and lie on the positive real axis of the complex plane of the momentum squared variable, corresponding to momenta in the forward light cone. Their singularities are represented by an infinite number of threshold type branch points with power-law -3/2, starting at positive mass values, characterized by an integer number n and increasing with n. The analytic expression of the Green's function for all momenta is presented. The appearance of strong threshold singularities is suggestive of the fact that quarks could not be observed as asymptotic states.

  10. Green tea: a novel functional food for the oral health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Sumit; Agnihotri, Rupali

    2014-04-01

    Functional foods are foods with positive health effects that extend beyond their nutritional value. They affect the function of the body and help in the management of specific health conditions. Green tea, a time-honoured Chinese herb, might be regarded as a functional food because of its inherent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties. They are attributed to its reservoir of polyphenols, particularly the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Owing to these beneficial actions, this traditional beverage was used in the management of chronic systemic diseases including cancer. Recently, it has been emphasized that the host immuno-inflammatory reactions destroy the oral tissues to a greater extent than the microbial activity alone. Green tea with its wide spectrum of activities could be a healthy alternative for controlling these damaging reactions seen in oral diseases, specifically, chronic periodontitis, dental caries and oral cancer, which are a common occurrence in the elderly population.

  11. Green's function of the heat equation with periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanbaev, Nurlan; Erzhanov, Nurzhan

    2016-12-01

    In this work a non-local initial-boundary value problem for a non-homogeneous one-dimensional heat equation is con-sidered. The domain under consideration is a rectangle. The classical initial condition with respect to t is put. A non-local periodic boundary condition with respect to a spatial variable x is put. It is well-known that a solution of problem can be constructed in the form of convergent orthonormal series according to eigenfunctions of a spectral problem for an operator of multiple differentiation with periodic boundary conditions. Therefore Green's function can be also written in the form of an infinite series with respect to trigonometric functions (Fourier series). For classical first and second initial-boundary value problems there also exists a second representation of the Green's function by Jacobi function. In this paper we find the representation of the Green's function of the non-local initial-boundary value problem with periodic boundary conditions in the form of series according to exponents.

  12. Dispersive and dissipative medium response to an ultrashort pulse: A Green's function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Hans; Trombert, Jean-Hughes; Eloy, Jean-François

    1995-07-01

    The propagation of an ultrashort pulse in a dispersive and dissipative medium may conveniently be described by using a Green's function analysis. The advantage would be that all details of the initial pulse, however short, could be probed by an "infinitely" sharp δ-pulse and subsequently deciphered in a modified form, after the influence of the medium, at a later time and at a new observation point. The Green's function for a dispersive and dissipative, plasma or dielectric (molecular) medium, is constructed for an infinitely extended three-dimensional case by using symbolic algebra for time-differential operators. The solution consists of two parts: a displaced δ-function part and a Bessel-function part, describing a wake field which for dominating dispersion is of oscillatory nature. For a certain ratio between the dispersive and dissipative parameters (plasma frequency and damping) a critical limit is found where the wake oscillations disappear completely. In the particular limits of vanishing dispersion or vanishing dissipation one recovers from the generalized solution the well-known results for a pure conductor (metal) and a pure dispersive medium (cold collisionless plasma) described by the Klein-Gordon equation. The response of the medium to an initially localized ulrashort electromagnetic pulse, of an arbitrary shape, can be expressed by an integral in time and space, of the product of the Green's function and the initial pulse.

  13. A Compact Cylindrical Green's Function Expansion for the Solution of Potential Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohl, Howard S.; Tohline, Joel E.

    1999-12-01

    We show that an exact expression for the Green's function in cylindrical coordinates is1/(|x-x'|)=1/(πsqrt(RR'))Σm=-∞∞eim(φ-φ')Qm-1/2(χ) , where χ≡[R2+R'2+(z-z')2]/(2RR'), and Qm-1/2 is the half-integer degree Legendre function of the second kind. This expression is significantly more compact and easier to evaluate numerically than the more familiar cylindrical Green's function expression, which involves infinite integrals over products of Bessel functions and exponentials. It also contains far fewer terms in its series expansion--and is therefore more amenable to accurate evaluation--than does the familiar expression for |x-x'|-1 that is given in terms of spherical harmonics. This compact Green's function expression is well suited for the solution of potential problems in a wide variety of astrophysical contexts because it adapts readily to extremely flattened (or extremely elongated), isolated mass distributions.

  14. Casimir force in brane worlds: Coinciding results from Green's and zeta function approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, Roman; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A.; Pedraza, Omar

    2010-06-15

    Casimir force encodes the structure of the field modes as vacuum fluctuations and so it is sensitive to the extra dimensions of brane worlds. Now, in flat spacetimes of arbitrary dimension the two standard approaches to the Casimir force, Green's function, and zeta function yield the same result, but for brane world models this was only assumed. In this work we show that both approaches yield the same Casimir force in the case of universal extra dimensions and Randall-Sundrum scenarios with one and two branes added by p compact dimensions. Essentially, the details of the mode eigenfunctions that enter the Casimir force in the Green's function approach get removed due to their orthogonality relations with a measure involving the right hypervolume of the plates, and this leaves just the contribution coming from the zeta function approach. The present analysis corrects previous results showing a difference between the two approaches for the single brane Randall-Sundrum; this was due to an erroneous hypervolume of the plates introduced by the authors when using the Green's function. For all the models we discuss here, the resulting Casimir force can be neatly expressed in terms of two four-dimensional Casimir force contributions: one for the massless mode and the other for a tower of massive modes associated with the extra dimensions.

  15. Protection of renal function by green tea extract during Plasmodium berghei infection.

    PubMed

    Somsak, Voravuth; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Uthaipibull, Chairat

    2013-12-01

    Impairment of renal function from oxidative stress during malaria infection is one of the leading causes of death in endemic areas. Since blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in plasma can be used as markers for monitoring renal damage, this study investigated the effect of green tea extract on reduction of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels during malaria infection using Plasmodium berghei ANKA infected mice as in vivo model. For in vivo testing, ICR mice were infected with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes and green tea extract was subsequently administered orally twice a day for 10 consecutive days. Parasitemia was estimated by standard microscopy, and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in plasma were also measured. It was found that parasitemia kept increasing until animal death, and is strongly correlated with high blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. The highest levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in plasma were found on day 10 after infection. However, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in plasma were reduced and decreased significantly (p<0.01) in green tea extract treated mice, compared with untreated group. It can be concluded that green tea extract can protect and maintain renal function during malaria infection, and this extract can be developed for use as a supplement and combination therapy.

  16. Phytochrome from Green Plants: Properties and biological Function

    SciTech Connect

    Quail, Peter H.

    2014-07-25

    Pfr conformer reverses this activity upon initial light exposure, inducing the switch to photomorphogenic development. This reversal involves light-triggered translocation of the photoactivated phy molecule into the nucleus where it interacts with PIF-family members, inducing rapid phosphorylation and degradation of the PIFs via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This degradation in turn elicits rapid alterations in gene expression that drive the deetiolation transition. This project has made considerable progress in defining phy-PIF signaling activity in controlling the SAR. The biological functions of the multiple PIF-family members in controlling the SAR, including dissection of the relative contributions of the individual PIFs to this process, as well as to diurnal growth-control oscillations, have been investigated using higher-order pif-mutant combinations. Using microarray analysis of a quadruple pif mutant we have defined the shade-induced, PIF-regulated transcriptional network genome-wide. This has revealed that a dynamic antagonism between the phys and PIFs generates selective reciprocal responses during deetiolation and the SAR in a rapidly light-responsive transcriptional network. Using integrated RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analysis of higher order pif-mutant combinations, we have defined the direct gene-targets of PIF transcriptional regulation, and have obtained evidence that this regulation involves differential direct targeting of rapidly light-responsive genes by the individual PIF-family members. This project has provided significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the phy-PIF photosensory signaling pathway regulates an important bioenergy-related plant response to the light environment. The identification of molecular targets in the primary transcriptional-regulatory circuitry of this pathway has the potential to enable genetic or reverse-genetic manipulation of the partitioning of carbon between reproductive and

  17. A Green's function decoupling scheme for the Edwards fermion-boson model.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D M; Ejima, S; Alvermann, A; Fehske, H

    2010-11-03

    Holes in a Mott insulator are represented by spinless fermions in the fermion-boson model introduced by Edwards. Although the physically interesting regime is for low to moderate fermion density, the model has interesting properties over the whole density range. It has previously been studied at half-filling in the one-dimensional (1D) case by numerical methods, in particular using exact diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). In the present study the one-particle Green's function is calculated analytically by means of a decoupling scheme for the equations of motion, valid for arbitrary density in 1D, 2D and 3D with fairly large boson energy and zero boson relaxation parameter. The Green's function is used to compute some ground state properties, and the one-fermion spectral function, for fermion densities n = 0.1, 0.5 and 0.9 in the 1D case. The results are generally in good agreement with numerical results obtained using the DMRG and dynamical DMRG, and new light is shed on the nature of the ground state at different fillings. The Green's function approximation is sufficiently successful in 1D to justify future application to the 2D and 3D cases.

  18. Transient difference solutions of the inhomogeneous wave equation: Simulation of the Green's function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeiste, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent finite difference formulation to the inhomogeneous wave equation is derived for plane wave propagation with harmonic noise sources. The difference equation and boundary conditions are developed along with the techniques to simulate the Dirac delta function associated with a concentrated noise source. Example calculations are presented for the Green's function and distributed noise sources. For the example considered, the desired Fourier transformed acoustic pressures are determined from the transient pressures by use of a ramping function and an integration technique, both of which eliminates the nonharmonic pressure associated with the initial transient.

  19. Analysis of Green functions obtained by cross-correlations for MASE stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, G. V. Vera

    2012-04-01

    We used continuous records of broadband seismic stations of the MASE experiment to obtain observed Green's functions using the method of ambient noise cross-correlations. The experiment consisted of 100 stations distributed along a perpendicular line to the Mesoamerican trench across the Valley of Mexico. The stations recorded continuously at 100 sps for more than two years. The geometry of the array provide a good opportunity to study the attenuation effects along the coast-perpendicular structure. The method we used to compute Green functions involves a strong data pre-processing (temporal normalization and spectral whitening). However, our results show that the amplitude of the cross-correlations still contains information about the surface waves attenuation and probably local amplification effects. Records from two regional earthquakes located close to Acapulco were used for comparison.

  20. Charge dynamics in molecular junctions: Nonequilibrium Green's function approach made fast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latini, S.; Perfetto, E.; Uimonen, A.-M.; van Leeuwen, R.; Stefanucci, G.

    2014-02-01

    Real-time Green's function simulations of molecular junctions (open quantum systems) are typically performed by solving the Kadanoff-Baym equations (KBE). The KBE, however, impose a serious limitation on the maximum propagation time due to the large memory storage needed. In this work we propose a simplified Green's function approach based on the generalized Kadanoff-Baym ansatz (GKBA) to overcome the KBE limitation on time, significantly speed up the calculations, and yet stay close to the KBE results. This is achieved through a twofold advance: First, we show how to make the GKBA work in open systems and then construct a suitable quasiparticle propagator that includes correlation effects in a diagrammatic fashion. We also provide evidence that our GKBA scheme, although already in good agreement with the KBE approach, can be further improved without increasing the computational cost.

  1. Effect of dispersion on the convergence rate for Green's function retrieval.

    PubMed

    Yoritomo, John Y; Weaver, Richard L

    2016-12-01

    Much information about wave propagation in a variety of structures has been obtained from Green's function retrieval by noise correlation. Here it is examined how dispersion affects Green's function retrieval and, in particular, its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On recalling how the inherent spread of a signal due to band limitation is augmented by spread due to dispersion and propagation distance, and how both affect amplitude, it is argued that SNR in highly dispersive media can be substantially lowered by strong dispersion. It is argued that this is most relevant for gravity waves over large propagation distances in the ocean or atmosphere. In particular, it is discussed that dispersion could explain recent retrieval failure from surface gravity wave noise in the ocean. Methods are considered to ameliorate the poor SNR due to dispersion. Numerical simulation is used to substantiate the analytic results.

  2. Monte Carlo Green's function formalism for the propagation of partially coherent light.

    PubMed

    Prahl, Scott A; Fischer, David G; Duncan, Donald D

    2009-07-01

    We present a Monte Carlo-derived Green's function for the propagation of partially spatially coherent fields. This Green's function, which is derived by sampling Huygens-Fresnel wavelets, can be used to propagate fields through an optical system and to compute first- and second-order field statistics directly. The concept is illustrated for a cylindrical f/1 imaging system. A Gaussian copula is used to synthesize realizations of a Gaussian Schell-model field in the pupil plane. Physical optics and Monte Carlo predictions are made for the first- and second-order statistics of the field in the vicinity of the focal plane for a variety of source coherence conditions. Excellent agreement between the physical optics and Monte Carlo predictions is demonstrated in all cases. This formalism can be generally employed to treat the interaction of partially coherent fields with diffracting structures.

  3. Green's-function approach to nonresonance multiphoton absorption in the alkali-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    An exact Green's function is constructed for the one-electron Schrödinger equation using a central potential obtained from a piecewise linear approximation to -rV(r) of Herman and Skillman. With the Green's function two- and three-photon ionization cross sections are calculated for He(1s)(2s) 1S, 3S, and the alkali metals, and compared to other calculations and experiments. Resonances in the cross sections occur at model eigenvalues rather than experimental energy levels. It is demonstrated that the resonances can be made to occur at experimental values either by simple shifts in the wavelength scale, by adjusting the ionization energy in the calculation, or by including the eigenvalue differences in a finite sum. However, as these are perturbation-theory calculations and not applicable at very high intensities or on resonance, only the wings of the resonance structure are included in the calculation.

  4. Improved recursive Green's function formalism for quasi one-dimensional systems with realistic defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichert, Fabian; Zienert, Andreas; Schuster, Jörg; Schreiber, Michael

    2017-04-01

    We derive an improved version of the recursive Green's function formalism (RGF), which is a standard tool in the quantum transport theory. We consider the case of disordered quasi one-dimensional materials where the disorder is applied in form of randomly distributed realistic defects, leading to partly periodic Hamiltonian matrices. The algorithm accelerates the common RGF in the recursive decimation scheme, using the iteration steps of the renormalization decimation algorithm. This leads to a smaller effective system, which is treated using the common forward iteration scheme. The computational complexity scales linearly with the number of defects, instead of linearly with the total system length for the conventional approach. We show that the scaling of the calculation time of the Green's function depends on the defect density of a random test system. Furthermore, we discuss the calculation time and the memory requirement of the whole transport formalism applied to defective carbon nanotubes.

  5. Analytical calculation of the Green's function and Drude weight for a correlated fermion-boson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvermann, A.; Edwards, D. M.; Fehske, H.

    2010-04-01

    In classical Drude theory the conductivity is determined by the mass of the propagating particles and the mean free path between two scattering events. For a quantum particle this simple picture of diffusive transport loses relevance if strong correlations dominate the particle motion. We study a situation where the propagation of a fermionic particle is possible only through creation and annihilation of local bosonic excitations. This correlated quantum transport process is outside the Drude picture, since one cannot distinguish between free propagation and intermittent scattering. The characterization of transport is possible using the Drude weight obtained from the f-sum rule, although its interpretation in terms of free mass and mean free path breaks down. For the situation studied we calculate the Green's function and Drude weight using a Green's functions expansion technique, and discuss their physical meaning.

  6. Surface Green's function calculations: a nonrecursive scheme with an infinite number of principal layers.

    PubMed

    Kletsov, Aleksey; Dahnovsky, Yuri; Ortiz, J V

    2007-04-07

    A novel computational method for a surface Green's function matrix is introduced for the calculation of electrical current in molecular wires. The proposed nonrecursive approach includes an infinite number of principal layers and yields the second-order matrix equation for the transformed Green's function matrix. The solution is found by the direct diagonalization of the auxiliary matrix without any iteration process. As soon as complex roots of the auxiliary matrix (approximately GS) are calculated, the gaps and the bands in the surface electronic structure are found. It is shown that the solution of a second-order matrix equation determines the spectral density matrix, that is, the density of states for noninteracting electrons. Single and double principal layer models are studied both analytically and numerically. The energy interval for nonvanishing spectral matrices is determined. This method is applicable to matrices of any rank.

  7. Mass-density Green's functions for the gravitational gradient tensor at different heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinec, Zdeněk

    2014-03-01

    Four different forms of the tensor Green's function for the gravitational gradient tensor, derived in this article, give a theoretical basis for geophysical interpretations of the GOCE-based gravitational gradients in terms of the Earth's mass-density structure. The first form is an invariant expression of the tensor Green's function that can be used to evaluate numerically the gravitational gradients in different coordinate systems (e.g. Cartesian). The second form expresses the gravitational gradients in spherical coordinates (ϑ, ϕ) with the origin at the north pole as a series of tensor spherical harmonics. This form is convenient to apply when the GOCE data are represented in terms of the gravitational potential as a scalar spherical harmonic series, such as the GOCO03S satellite gravity model. The third form expresses gravitational gradients in spherical coordinates (ψ, α) with the pole at the computation point. The fourth form then expresses the corresponding isotropic kernels in a closed form. The last two forms are used to analyse the sensitivity of the gravitational gradients with respect to lateral distribution of the Earth's mass-density anomalies. They additionally provide a tool for evaluating the omission error of geophysically modelled gravitational gradients and its amplification when the bandwidth-limited GOCE-based gravitational gradients are interpreted at different heights above the Earth's surface. We show that the omission error of the bandwidth-limited mass-density Green's functions for gradiometric data at the GOCE satellite's altitude does not exceed 1 per cent in amplitude when compared to the full-spectrum Green's functions. However, when evaluating the bandwidth-limited Green's functions at lower altitudes, their omission errors are significantly amplified. In this case, we show that the short-wavelength content of the forward-modelled gravitational gradients generated by an a priori density structure of the Earth must be filtered

  8. Effect of green tea extracts on liver functions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bun, S S; Bun, H; Guédon, D; Rosier, C; Ollivier, E

    2006-07-01

    An herbal medicinal product (Exolise) containing as active ingredient an hydro-alcoholic extract of green tea named AR25 (standardized to 25% catechins) has been implicated in hepatic failures, leading to the withdrawal of the marketing authorization. The active ingredient of Exolise being manufactured with 80% ethanol, the question to know whether the extraction solvent could introduce some toxic components was hypothesized. Two investigations were conducted in Wistar rats to determine if repeated oral administration of different green tea extracts could corroborate the reported hepatotoxicity in humans. In a preliminary 6 week-study, experimental groups (n=9/group) received either the vehicle or a methylene chloride extract (2500 mg/kg body weight) where potential non-polar hepatotoxin(s) could be concentrated. In a second experiment (12 week-study), rats were divided in three groups (n=10/group) and treated with either the vehicle, or an aqueous extract (1400 mg/kg) or AR25 green tea extract (2000 mg/kg). Rat liver functions were assessed by serum biochemistry of hepatotoxicity markers. No sign of evidence of characteristic hepatotoxicity was found in rats treated with very high amount of different green tea extracts in these two experiments (respectively a daily dosage, which was about 900 and 80 times higher to the therapeutic daily dosage of Exolise.

  9. Characterizing classical periodic orbits from quantum Green's functions in two-dimensional integrable systems: Harmonic oscillators and quantum billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. F.; Tung, J. C.; Tuan, P. H.; Yu, Y. T.; Liang, H. C.; Huang, K. F.

    2017-01-01

    A general method is developed to characterize the family of classical periodic orbits from the quantum Green's function for the two-dimensional (2D) integrable systems. A decomposing formula related to the beta function is derived to link the quantum Green's function with the individual classical periodic orbits. The practicality of the developed formula is demonstrated by numerically analyzing the 2D commensurate harmonic oscillators and integrable quantum billiards. Numerical analyses reveal that the emergence of the classical features in quantum Green's functions principally comes from the superposition of the degenerate states for 2D harmonic oscillators. On the other hand, the damping factor in quantum Green's functions plays a critical role to display the classical features in mesoscopic regime for integrable quantum billiards, where the physical function of the damping factor is to lead to the coherent superposition of the nearly degenerate eigenstates.

  10. Characterizing classical periodic orbits from quantum Green's functions in two-dimensional integrable systems: Harmonic oscillators and quantum billiards.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y F; Tung, J C; Tuan, P H; Yu, Y T; Liang, H C; Huang, K F

    2017-01-01

    A general method is developed to characterize the family of classical periodic orbits from the quantum Green's function for the two-dimensional (2D) integrable systems. A decomposing formula related to the beta function is derived to link the quantum Green's function with the individual classical periodic orbits. The practicality of the developed formula is demonstrated by numerically analyzing the 2D commensurate harmonic oscillators and integrable quantum billiards. Numerical analyses reveal that the emergence of the classical features in quantum Green's functions principally comes from the superposition of the degenerate states for 2D harmonic oscillators. On the other hand, the damping factor in quantum Green's functions plays a critical role to display the classical features in mesoscopic regime for integrable quantum billiards, where the physical function of the damping factor is to lead to the coherent superposition of the nearly degenerate eigenstates.

  11. Double plane wave reverse time migration with plane wave Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Sen, M. K.; Stoffa, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is effective in obtaining complex subsurface structures from seismic data. By solving the two-way wave equation, RTM can use entire wavefield for imaging. Although powerful computer are becoming available, the conventional pre-stack shot gather RTM is still computationally expensive. Solving forward and backward wavefield propagation for each source location and shot gather is extremely time consuming, especially for large seismic datasets. We present an efficient, accurate and flexible plane wave RTM in the frequency domain where we utilize a compressed plane wave dataset, known as the double plane wave (DPW) dataset. Provided with densely sampled seismic dataset, shot gathers can be decomposed into source and receiver plane wave components with minimal artifacts. The DPW RTM is derived under the Born approximation and utilizes frequency domain plane wave Green's function for imaging. Time dips in the shot profiles can help to estimate the range of plane wave components present in shot gathers. Therefore, a limited number of plane wave Green's functions are needed for imaging. Plane wave Green's functions can be used for imaging both source and receiver plane waves. Source and receiver reciprocity can be used for imaging plane wave components at no cost and save half of the computation time. As a result, the computational burden for migration is substantially reduced. Plane wave components can be migrated independently to recover specific targets with given dips, and ray parameter common image gathers (CIGs) can be generated after migration directly. The ray parameter CIGs can be used to justify the correctness of velocity models. Subsurface anisotropy effects can also be included in our imaging condition, provided with plane wave Green's functions in the anisotropic media.

  12. Extraction of Broadband Basin-Scale Green's Functions from the Ambient Seismic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viens, L.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Sakai, S.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Many large cities in the world, including Tokyo and Los Angeles, are located atop sedimentary basins that have the potential to significantly amplify ground motions. The Kanto sedimentary basin, which underlies the Tokyo Metropolitan area, is filled by soft sediments and has a resonance period of 7-10 s, similar to the natural period of some tall buildings. To assess seismic hazard in this particularly seismically active area, we use the information carried by the ambient seismic field continuously recorded by more than 600 seismic stations that have been deployed in the basin. These stations equipped with three-component seismometers are a part of different networks, including the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), Hi-net and F-net of NIED, and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) network. We extracted the 9 components of the Green's function tensors from the ambient seismic field using deconvolution for each pair of stations, regarding one as the virtual source and the other one as the receiver. We show that the extracted Green's functions contain body and surface waves having phase and amplification similar to the ones of earthquake records that occurred close to the virtual sources. For inter-station distances shorter than 30 km, time-frequency analyses suggest that Green's functions with energy higher than 1 Hz can be recovered. We use this dense array to investigate the effect of inter-station distance variations and azimuth dependences on the Green's function retrieval. Results show that the ambient seismic field recorded by stations situated at less than a few kilometers from each other can provide insights on seismic hazard assessment over a broad period range.

  13. Dyadic Green{close_quote}s function calculations on a layered dielectric/ferrite structure

    SciTech Connect

    How, Hoton; Zuo, Xu; Vittoria, Carmine

    2001-06-01

    Dyadic Green{close_quote}s function techniques have been applied to solve the transmission properties of a microstrip line fabricated on top of a single-crystal Y-type hexaferrite substrate. Current potentials are used to construct the Galerkin elements to facilitate solution accuracy even in the FMR region. Transmission coefficients of a microstrip line fabricated on a Y-type hexaferrite substrate were thus calculated, which compared reasonably well with measurements. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Green's-function solutions to dynamical-simulated annealing and steepest-descents equations of motion

    SciTech Connect

    Benedek, R.; Min, B.I.; Garner, J.

    1987-08-01

    Solutions to the dynamical-simulated-annealing and the steepest-descents equations of motion for electron states are presented. The relations proposed by Payne et al. and by Williams and Soler can be obtained from the first-born approximation by applying additional decoupling approximations. A numerical example is presented to contrast the behavior of the Green's function and finite-difference solutions to the steepest-descents dynamics. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Green function of the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation with nonuniform refraction index, using quaternion analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fathi, S. M. Saberi

    2010-12-15

    In this paper we first show in the framework of quaternion analysis how the fundamental solutions of the Dirac operators with vector potential can be obtained. Then, we use the obtained results to present a derivation of the exact analytic Green function for the Helmholtz equation, i.e., ({Delta}+|a(x)|{sup 2})G{sub 0}(x)={delta}(x), for the case a(x) is a monogenic (analytic) vector potential.

  16. Green's function calculation of through-bond electronic coupling in donor bridge acceptor model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santana, O. L.; da Gama, A. A. S.

    1999-12-01

    The Green's function formalism is applied for the calculation of the effective through-bond donor-acceptor coupling in model molecular systems. The calculation is performed at a Hartree-Fock (self-consistent) level, by using semiempirical AM1 and CNDO/S, and ab initio STO-3G methods. The results are compared with that obtained from the splitting of the appropriate levels, by using the Koopmans' theorem, within each one of the selected quantum chemical methods.

  17. One- and two-dimensional dyadic Green's functions in chiral media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engheta, Nader; Bassiri, Sassan

    1989-01-01

    The one-dimensional and two-dimensional dyadic Green functions are determined for an unbounded lossless reciprocal chiral medium which is electromagnetically described by a set of symmetric constitutive relations. It is shown that, as in the three-dimensional case, the medium supports two eigenmodes of propagation with two different wavenumbers, corresponding to the right- and left-circularly polarized waves, respectively. The eigenmode amplitudes a and b are similar to those of the three-dimensional case.

  18. Relativistic extension of the complex scaled Green's function method for resonances in deformed nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Min; Shi, Xin-Xing; Niu, Zhong-Ming; Sun, Ting-Ting; Guo, Jian-You

    2017-03-01

    We have extended the complex scaled Green's function method to the relativistic framework describing deformed nuclei with the theoretical formalism presented in detail. We have checked the applicability and validity of the present formalism for exploration of the resonances in deformed nuclei. Furthermore, we have studied the dependences of resonances on nuclear deformations and the shape of potential, which are helpful to recognize the evolution of resonant levels from stable nuclei to exotic nuclei with axially quadruple deformations.

  19. AC Power Consumption of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Interconnects: Non-Equilibrium Green's Function Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Sasaoka, Kenji; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the emittance and dynamic dissipation of a nanoscale interconnect consisting of a metallic single-walled carbon nanotube using the non-equilibrium Green's function technique for AC electronic transport. We show that the emittance and dynamic dissipation depend strongly on the contact conditions of the interconnect and that the power consumption can be reduced by adjusting the contact conditions. We propose an appropriate condition of contact that yields a high power factor and low apparent power.

  20. Approach to calculate normal modes by decomposing the dyadic Green's function.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenhai; Yue, Wencheng; Yao, Peijun; Lu, Yonghua; Liu, Wen

    2014-11-03

    Normal mode is a very fundamental notion in quantum and classical optics. In this paper, we present a method to calculate normal modes by decomposing dyadic Green's function, where the modes are excited by dipoles. The modes obtained by our method can be directly normalized and their degeneracies can be easily removed. This method can be applied to many theoretical descriptions of cavity electrodynamics and is of interest to nanophotonics.

  1. The Successful Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albizu-Miranda, Carlos; And Others

    To study the prevalence of mental retardation in Puerto Rico, the proportional distribution of successful retardates, and the processes accounting for success and failure, a random sample of 4,771 adults between the ages of 23 and 49 was screened by the Stanford Binet Form L and a vocabulary test. From this sample, the estimated retardation rate…

  2. A Green's function exchange platform for seismological research and education: applications and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, T.; Heimann, S.; Kriegerowski, M.; Cesca, S.; Wang, R.

    2015-12-01

    The study of seismic sources from measured waveforms requires synthetic elementary seismograms (Green's functions, GFs) calculated for specific earth models and source receiver geometries. Since the calculation of GFs is computationally expensive and requires careful parameter testing and quality control, pre-calculated GF databases, which can be re-used for different types of applications, can be of advantage. We developed a GF database web platform for the seismological community, where a researcher can share Green's function stores and retrieve synthetic seismograms on the fly for various point and extended earthquake source models for many different earth models at local, regional and global scale. This web service is part of a rich new toolset for the creation and handling of Green's functions and synthetic seismograms. It can be used off-line or in client mode. We demonstrate core features of the GF platform with different applications on global, regional and local scales. These include the automatic inversion of kinematic source parameters from teleseismic body waves, the improved depth estimate of shallow induced earthquakes from regional seismological arrays, or the relative moment tensor inversion of volcanic earthquakes.

  3. An extended diffraction tomography method for quantifying structural damage using numerical Green's functions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eugene; Rose, L R Francis; Wang, Chun H

    2015-05-01

    Existing damage imaging algorithms for detecting and quantifying structural defects, particularly those based on diffraction tomography, assume far-field conditions for the scattered field data. This paper presents a major extension of diffraction tomography that can overcome this limitation and utilises a near-field multi-static data matrix as the input data. This new algorithm, which employs numerical solutions of the dynamic Green's functions, makes it possible to quantitatively image laminar damage even in complex structures for which the dynamic Green's functions are not available analytically. To validate this new method, the numerical Green's functions and the multi-static data matrix for laminar damage in flat and stiffened isotropic plates are first determined using finite element models. Next, these results are time-gated to remove boundary reflections, followed by discrete Fourier transform to obtain the amplitude and phase information for both the baseline (damage-free) and the scattered wave fields. Using these computationally generated results and experimental verification, it is shown that the new imaging algorithm is capable of accurately determining the damage geometry, size and severity for a variety of damage sizes and shapes, including multi-site damage. Some aspects of minimal sensors requirement pertinent to image quality and practical implementation are also briefly discussed.

  4. A Green's function database platform for seismological research and education: applications and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Sebastian; Kriegerowski, Marius; Dahm, Torsten; Simone, Cesca; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-04-01

    The study of seismic sources from measured waveforms requires synthetic elementary seismograms (Green's functions, GF) calculated for specific earth models and source receiver geometries. Since the calculation of GFs is computationally expensive and requires careful parameter testing and quality control, pre-calculated GF databases, which can be re-used for different types of applications, can be of advantage. We developed a GF database web platform for the seismological community (http://kinherd.org/), where a researcher can share Green's function stores and retrieve synthetic seismograms on the fly for various point and extended earthquake source models for many different earth models at local, regional and global scale. This web service is part of a rich new toolset for the creation and handling of Green's functions and synthetic seismograms (http://emolch.github.com/pyrocko/gf). It can be used off-line or in client mode. We demonstrate core features of the GF platform with different applications on global, regional and local scales. These include the automatic inversion of kinematic source parameter from teleseismic body waves, the improved depth estimate of shallow induced earthquakes from regional seismological arrays, or the relative moment tensor inversion of local earthquakes from volcanic induced seismicity.

  5. 3-D, bluff body drag estimation using a Green's function/Gram-Charlier series approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; De Chant, Lawrence Justin

    2004-05-01

    In this study, we describe the extension of the 2-d preliminary design bluff body drag estimation tool developed by De Chant to apply for 3-d flows. As with the 2-d method, the 3-d extension uses a combined approximate Green's function/Gram-Charlier series approach to retain the body geometry information. Whereas, the 2-d methodology relied solely upon the use of small disturbance theory for the inviscid flow field associated with the body of interest to estimate the near-field initial conditions, e.g. velocity defect, the 3-d methodology uses both analytical (where available) and numerical inviscid solutions. The defect solution is then used as an initial condition in an approximate 3-d Green's function solution. Finally, the Green's function solution is matched to the 3-d analog of the classical 2-d Gram-Charlier series and then integrated to yield the net form drag on the bluff body. Preliminary results indicate that drag estimates computed are of accuracy equivalent to the 2-d method for flows with large separation, i.e. less than 20% relative error. As was the lower dimensional method, the 3-d concept is intended to be a supplement to turbulent Navier-Stokes and experimental solution for estimating drag coefficients over blunt bodies.

  6. 3-D, bluff body drag estimation using a Green's function/Gram-Charlier series approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; De Chant, Lawrence Justin

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we describe the extension of the 2-d preliminary design bluff body drag estimation tool developed by De Chant1 to apply for 3-d flows. As with the 2-d method, the 3-d extension uses a combined approximate Green's function/Gram-Charlier series approach to retain the body geometry information. Whereas, the 2-d methodology relied solely upon the use of small disturbance theory for the inviscid flow field associated with the body of interest to estimate the near-field initial conditions, e.g. velocity defect, the 3-d methodology uses both analytical (where available) and numerical inviscid solutions. The defect solution is then used as an initial condition in an approximate 3-d Green's function solution. Finally, the Green's function solution is matched to the 3-d analog of the classical 2-d Gram-Charlier series and then integrated to yield the net form drag on the bluff body. Preliminary results indicate that drag estimates computed are of accuracy equivalent to the 2-d method for flows with large separation, i.e. less than 20% relative error. As was the lower dimensional method, the 3-d concept is intended to be a supplement to turbulent Navier-Stokes and experimental solution for estimating drag coefficients over blunt bodies.

  7. Adiabatic Green's function technique and transient behavior in time-dependent fermion-boson coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Yun-Tak; Higashi, Yoichi; Chan, Ching-Kit; Han, Jung Hoon

    2016-08-01

    The Lang-Firsov Hamiltonian, a well-known solvable model of interacting fermion-boson system with sideband features in the fermion spectral weight, is generalized to have the time-dependent fermion-boson coupling constant. We show how to derive the two-time Green's function for the time-dependent problem in the adiabatic limit, defined as the slow temporal variation of the coupling over the characteristic oscillator period. The idea we use in deriving the Green's function is akin to the use of instantaneous basis states in solving the adiabatic evolution problem in quantum mechanics. With such "adiabatic Green's function" at hand we analyze the transient behavior of the spectral weight as the coupling is gradually tuned to zero. Time-dependent generalization of a related model, the spin-boson Hamiltonian, is analyzed in the same way. In both cases the sidebands arising from the fermion-boson coupling can be seen to gradually lose their spectral weights over time. Connections of our solution to the two-dimensional Dirac electrons coupled to quantized photons are discussed.

  8. Statistical properties of the Green function in finite size for Anderson localization models with multifractal eigenvectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2017-03-01

    For Anderson localization models with multifractal eigenvectors on disordered samples containing N sites, we analyze in a unified framework the consequences for the statistical properties of the Green function. We focus in particular on the imaginary part of the Green function at coinciding points GxxI≤ft(E-\\text{i}η \\right) and study the scaling with the size N of the moments of arbitrary indices q when the broadening follows the scaling η =\\frac{c}{{{N}δ}} . For the standard scaling regime δ =1 , we find in the two limits c\\ll 1 and c\\gg 1 that the moments are governed by the anomalous exponents Δ (q) of individual eigenfunctions, without the assumption of strong correlations between the weights of consecutive eigenstates at the same point. For the non-standard scaling regimes 0<δ <1 , we obtain that the imaginary Green function follows some Fréchet distribution in the typical region, while rare events are important to obtain the scaling of the moments. We describe the application to the case of Gaussian multifractality and to the case of linear multifractality.

  9. Modeling the Excited States of Biological Chromophores within Many-Body Green's Function Theory.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuchen; Rohlfing, Michael; Molteni, Carla

    2010-01-12

    First-principle many-body Green's function theory (MBGFT) has been successfully used to describe electronic excitations in many materials, from bulk crystals to nanoparticles. Here we assess its performance for the calculations of the excited states of biological chromophores. MBGFT is based on a set of Green's function equations, whose key ingredients are the electron's self-energy Σ, which is obtained by Hedin's GW approach, and the electron-hole interaction, which is described by the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE). The GW approach and the BSE predict orbital energies and excitation energies with high accuracy, respectively. We have calculated the low-lying excited states of a series of model biological chromophores, related to the photoactive yellow protein (PYP), rhodopsin, and the green fluorescent protein (GFP), obtaining a very good agreement with the available experimental and accurate theoretical data; the order of the excited states is also correctly predicted. MBGFT bridges the gap between time-dependent density functional theory and high-level quantum chemistry methods, combining the efficiency of the former with the accuracy of the latter: this makes MBGFT a promising method for studying excitations in complex biological systems.

  10. Source Process of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake Using New Fault Geometry and 3-D Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, R.; Koketsu, K.

    2005-12-01

    The September 1, 1923, Kanto earthquake caused severe damage and more than 100,000 fatalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area. This earthquake is an interplate event along the Sagami trough where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath a continental plate. We have investigated the source process of this earthquake using the geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion data (Kobayashi and Koketsu, 2005). The resultant slip distributions show that two asperities (areas of large slips) are located around the base of the Izu peninsula and the Uraga channel. In 2002 and 2003, four seismic surveys were carried out to determine crustal structures and fault locations in the Kanto region (Sato et al., 2005). The seismic reflections from the surface of the Philippine Sea slab suggested that the slab surface should be shallower than the previous models (e.g., Ishida, 1992; Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The fault model of Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) was also based on Matsu'ura et al. (1980). In this study, we adopt new fault geometry consistent with the result of the reflection surveys and perform another source process inversion. The new slip distribution showed that the western asperity moved from the Uraga channel to the tip of the Miura peninsula, while the western asperity did not move considerably. Green's functions that Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) used were calculated in a halfspace for geodetic data or in a 1-D model for strong motions. However, the real structure in the Kanto region is three-dimensionally complex as suggested by the geographical setting and seismic surveys. In fact, Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) showed that the long coda of the observed seismogram at Hongo, Tokyo, was not reproduced in the synthetic one. The forward modeling with a 3-D structure (Sato et al., 1999) suggested that surface waves excited along the boundary between the Kanto mountains and Kanto basin can explain the large coda. Thus we calculate 3-D Green's functions for the strong motion

  11. Analysis of Discontinuities in a Rectangular Waveguide Using Dyadic Green's Function Approach in Conjunction with Method of Moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    The dyadic Green's function for an electric current source placed in a rectangular waveguide is derived using a magnetic vector potential approach. A complete solution for the electric and magnetic fields including the source location is obtained by simple differentiation of the vector potential around the source location. The simple differentiation approach which gives electric and magnetic fields identical to an earlier derivation is overlooked by the earlier workers in the derivation of the dyadic Green's function particularly around the source location. Numerical results obtained using the Green's function approach are compared with the results obtained using the Finite Element Method (FEM).

  12. Generalization of naming responses to objects in the natural environment as a function of training stimulus modality with retarded children.

    PubMed

    Welch, S J; Pear, J J

    1980-01-01

    Picture-cards, photographs, and real objects were compared as training stimuli in order to determine which best facilitated the generalization of naming responses learned in a special training room to real objects in the natural environments of four retarded children. The amount of transfer of naming behavior between the three stimulus modes and the average amount of training time required per stimulus mode were also assessed. Three of the four children displayed considerably more generalization to the real objects in the natural environment when they were trained with real objects. The fourth child displayed substantial generalization regardless of the training stimulus mode. No particular training stimulus mode clearly facilitated the transfer of naming responses to other modes or greatly reduced training time. The results of two supplementary procedures conducted with one child showed that: (1) training in several environments facilitated generalization to real objects in the natural environment when real objects were used as training stimuli but not when picture-cards were used, and (2) transfer from picture-cards to real objects was facilitated by training other picture-cards and the real objects portrayed by them at the same time.

  13. Exploring connections between statistical mechanics and Green's functions for realistic systems: Temperature dependent electronic entropy and internal energy from a self-consistent second-order Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welden, Alicia Rae; Rusakov, Alexander A.; Zgid, Dominika

    2016-11-01

    Including finite-temperature effects from the electronic degrees of freedom in electronic structure calculations of semiconductors and metals is desired; however, in practice it remains exceedingly difficult when using zero-temperature methods, since these methods require an explicit evaluation of multiple excited states in order to account for any finite-temperature effects. Using a Matsubara Green's function formalism remains a viable alternative, since in this formalism it is easier to include thermal effects and to connect the dynamic quantities such as the self-energy with static thermodynamic quantities such as the Helmholtz energy, entropy, and internal energy. However, despite the promising properties of this formalism, little is known about the multiple solutions of the non-linear equations present in the self-consistent Matsubara formalism and only a few cases involving a full Coulomb Hamiltonian were investigated in the past. Here, to shed some light onto the iterative nature of the Green's function solutions, we self-consistently evaluate the thermodynamic quantities for a one-dimensional (1D) hydrogen solid at various interatomic separations and temperatures using the self-energy approximated to second-order (GF2). At many points in the phase diagram of this system, multiple phases such as a metal and an insulator exist, and we are able to determine the most stable phase from the analysis of Helmholtz energies. Additionally, we show the evolution of the spectrum of 1D boron nitride to demonstrate that GF2 is capable of qualitatively describing the temperature effects influencing the size of the band gap.

  14. Currents and Green's functions of impurities out of equilibrium: Results from inchworm quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, Andrey E.; Dong, Qiaoyuan; Kleinhenz, Joseph; Cohen, Guy; Gull, Emanuel

    2017-02-01

    We generalize the recently developed inchworm quantum Monte Carlo method to the full Keldysh contour with forward, backward, and equilibrium branches to describe the dynamics of strongly correlated impurity problems with time-dependent parameters. We introduce a method to compute Green's functions, spectral functions, and currents for inchworm Monte Carlo and show how systematic error assessments in real time can be obtained. We then illustrate the capabilities of the algorithm with a study of the behavior of quantum impurities after an instantaneous voltage quench from a thermal equilibrium state.

  15. Multipoint Green's functions in 1 + 1 dimensional integrable quantum field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babujian, H. M.; Karowski, M.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    We calculate the multipoint Green's functions in 1+1 dimensional integrable quantum field theories. We use the crossing formula for general models and calculate the 3 and 4 point functions taking in to account only the lower nontrivial intermediate states contributions. Then we apply the general results to the examples of the scaling Z2 Ising model, sinh-Gordon model and Z3 scaling Potts model. We demonstrate this calculations explicitly. The results can be applied to physical phenomena as for example to the Raman scattering.

  16. Amino-functionalized green fluorescent carbon dots as surface energy transfer biosensors for hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyu; Zhao, Ning; Cheng, Zhen; Liu, Hongguang

    2015-04-21

    Amino-functionalized fluorescent carbon dots have been prepared by hydrothermal treatment of glucosamine with excess pyrophosphate. The produced carbon dots showed stabilized green emission fluorescence at various excitation wavelengths and pH environments. Herein, we demonstrate the surface energy transfer between the amino-functionalized carbon dots and negatively charged hyaluronate stabilized gold nanoparticles. Hyaluronidase can degrade hyaluronate and break down the hyaluronate stabilized gold nanoparticles to inhibit the surface energy transfer. The developed fluorescent carbon dot/gold nanoparticle system can be utilized as a biosensor for sensitive and selective detection of hyaluronidase by two modes which include fluorescence measurements and colorimetric analysis.

  17. Fragile X mental retardation protein has a unique, evolutionarily conserved neuronal function not shared with FXR1P or FXR2P.

    PubMed

    Coffee, R Lane; Tessier, Charles R; Woodruff, Elvin A; Broadie, Kendal

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), resulting solely from the loss of function of the human fragile X mental retardation 1 (hFMR1) gene, is the most common heritable cause of mental retardation and autism disorders, with syndromic defects also in non-neuronal tissues. In addition, the human genome encodes two closely related hFMR1 paralogs: hFXR1 and hFXR2. The Drosophila genome, by contrast, encodes a single dFMR1 gene with close sequence homology to all three human genes. Drosophila that lack the dFMR1 gene (dfmr1 null mutants) recapitulate FXS-associated molecular, cellular and behavioral phenotypes, suggesting that FMR1 function has been conserved, albeit with specific functions possibly sub-served by the expanded human gene family. To test evolutionary conservation, we used tissue-targeted transgenic expression of all three human genes in the Drosophila disease model to investigate function at (1) molecular, (2) neuronal and (3) non-neuronal levels. In neurons, dfmr1 null mutants exhibit elevated protein levels that alter the central brain and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synaptic architecture, including an increase in synapse area, branching and bouton numbers. Importantly, hFMR1 can, comparably to dFMR1, fully rescue both the molecular and cellular defects in neurons, whereas hFXR1 and hFXR2 provide absolutely no rescue. For non-neuronal requirements, we assayed male fecundity and testes function. dfmr1 null mutants are effectively sterile owing to disruption of the 9+2 microtubule organization in the sperm tail. Importantly, all three human genes fully and equally rescue mutant fecundity and spermatogenesis defects. These results indicate that FMR1 gene function is evolutionarily conserved in neural mechanisms and cannot be compensated by either FXR1 or FXR2, but that all three proteins can substitute for each other in non-neuronal requirements. We conclude that FMR1 has a neural-specific function that is distinct from its paralogs, and that the unique FMR1 function

  18. Ecological structure and function differs between habitats dominated by seagrasses and green seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Tuya, Fernando; Png-Gonzalez, Lydia; Riera, Rodrigo; Haroun, Ricardo; Espino, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Marine vegetated habitats, e.g. seagrass meadows, deliver essential functions and services to coastal ecosystems and human welfare. Impacts induced by humans, however, have facilitated the replacement of seagrasses by alternative vegetation, e.g. green rhizophytic seaweeds. The implications of habitat shifts for ecosystem attributes and processes and the services they deliver remain poorly known. In this study, we compared ecosystem structure and function between Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows and bottoms dominated by Caulerpa prolifera, a green, native, rhizophytic seaweed, through 5 ecological proxies: (i) primary production (via community metabolism), (ii) composition and abundance of epifauna (a proxy for provision of habitat for epifauna), composition and abundance of (iii) small-sized (juvenile) and (iv) large-sized (adult) fishes (proxies for provision of habitat for fishes), and (v) sediment retention (a proxy for sediment stabilization). Four of these proxies were greater in C. nodosa seagrass meadows than in C. prolifera beds: gross primary productivity (∼1.4 times), the total abundance, species density and biomass of small-sized fishes (∼2.1, 1.3 and 1.3 times, respectively), the total abundance and species density of large-sized fishes (∼3.6 and 1.5 times, respectively), and sediment stabilization (∼1.4 times). In contrast, the total abundance and species density of epifauna was larger (∼3.1 and 1.7 times, respectively) in C. prolifera than in C. nodosa seagrass beds. These results suggest that ecosystem structure and function may differ if seagrasses are replaced by green rhizophytic seaweeds. Importantly, ecosystem functions may not be appropriate surrogates for one another. As a result, assessments of ecosystem services associated with ecosystem functions cannot be based on exclusively one service that is expected to benefit other services.

  19. Mental Retardation: The Search for Cures. Research Monograph Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald

    The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…

  20. Time autocorrelation function and Green-Kubo formula: study on a disordered harmonic chain.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Anupam

    2010-09-01

    We have considered heat conduction in a one-dimensional mass-disordered harmonic chain of N particles connected to two Langevin type reservoirs at different temperatures. An exact expression for the boundary heat current-current autocorrelation function in the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is obtained in terms of nonequilibrium phonon Green's functions. The time integral of the correlation function gives expected result, both in nonequilibrium as well as equilibrium cases. Using the form of this correlation function we show that asymptotic system size dependence of current fluctuation in NESS for a mass-disordered harmonic chain is N(-α) for different boundary conditions. For free and fixed boundary conditions we get α=1/2 and 3/2, respectively, while for pinned case the fluctuation decays exponentially with system size.

  1. Empirical Synthesis of Green functions from the correlation of diffuse waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campillo, M.; Larose, E.; Margerin, L.; Paul, A.; van Tiggelen, B.; Derode, A.; Abers, G.

    2003-12-01

    We show the existence of long range field correlations in the seismic coda of regional records in both Mexico and Alaska. The cross-correlation tensor between the coda records at two points is measured for a set of distant earthquakes. Remarkably, while individual correlations have a random character, the source- averaged correlations exhibit deterministic arrivals that obey the same symmetry rules as the Green tensor between the two points. In addition, the arrival times of these waves coincide with propagating surface waves between the two stations. Thus, we propose to identify the averaged correlation signals with the surface wave part of the Green tensor. However, while time reversal symmetry theoretically imposes that the Green function appears at both negative and positive times, we find experimentally this symmetry to be broken when the distribution of earthquakes is not isotropic around the stations. We explain this observation by the long lasting anisotropy of the diffuse field. This point is further discussed in a companion paper where we prove both experimentally and theoretically that a dominant flux of energy coming from the source can persist in the late coda. Finally, we show that averaged cross-correlations of ambient noise enable the reconstruction of some coherent arrivals. These examples illustrate a novel empirical method that provides synthetic seismograms between two stations, without the knowledge of the precise location and origin times of the sources.

  2. A Radiation Chemistry Code Based on the Greens Functions of the Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation produces several radiolytic species such as.OH, e-aq, and H. when interacting with biological matter. Following their creation, radiolytic species diffuse and chemically react with biological molecules such as DNA. Despite years of research, many questions on the DNA damage by ionizing radiation remains, notably on the indirect effect, i.e. the damage resulting from the reactions of the radiolytic species with DNA. To simulate DNA damage by ionizing radiation, we are developing a step-by-step radiation chemistry code that is based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE), which is able to follow the trajectories of all particles and their reactions with time. In the recent years, simulations based on the GFDE have been used extensively in biochemistry, notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space and are often used as the "gold standard" to validate diffusion-reaction theories. The exact GFDE for partially diffusion-controlled reactions is difficult to use because of its complex form. Therefore, the radial Green's function, which is much simpler, is often used. Hence, much effort has been devoted to the sampling of the radial Green's functions, for which we have developed a sampling algorithm This algorithm only yields the inter-particle distance vector length after a time step; the sampling of the deviation angle of the inter-particle vector is not taken into consideration. In this work, we show that the radial distribution is predicted by the exact radial Green's function. We also use a technique developed by Clifford et al. to generate the inter-particle vector deviation angles, knowing the inter-particle vector length before and after a time step. The results are compared with those predicted by the exact GFDE and by the analytical angular functions for free diffusion. This first step in the creation of the radiation chemistry code should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the

  3. Empirical Green's functions from small earthquakes: A waveform study of locally recorded aftershocks of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Wu, F. )

    1990-02-10

    Seismograms from 52 aftershocks of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake recorded at 25 stations distributed across the San Fernando Valley are examined to identify empirical Green's functions, and characterize the dependence of their waveforms on moment, focal mechanism, source and recording site spatial variations, recording site geology, and recorded frequency band. Recording distances ranged from 3.0 to 33.0 km, hypocentral separations ranged from 0.22 to 28.4 km, and recording site separations ranged from 0.185 to 24.2 km. The recording site geologies are diorite gneiss, marine and nonmarine sediments, and alluvium of varying thicknesses. Waveforms of events with moment below about 1.5 {times} 10{sup 21} dyn cm are independent of the source-time function and are termed empirical Green's functions. Waveforms recorded at a particular station from events located within 1.0 to 3.0 km of each other, depending upon site geology, with very similar focal mechanism solutions are nearly identical for frequencies up to 10 Hz. There is no correlation to waveforms between recording sites at least 1.2 km apart, and waveforms are clearly distinctive for two sites 0.185 km apart. The geologic conditions of the recording site dominate the character of empirical Green's functions. Even for source separations of up to 20.0 km, the empirical Green's functions at a particular site are consistent in frequency content, amplification, and energy distribution. Therefore, it is shown that empirical Green's functions can be used to obtain site response functions. The observations of empirical Green's functions are used as a basis for developing the theory for using empirical Green's functions in deconvolution for source pulses and synthesis of seismograms of larger earthquakes.

  4. Radiative transfer in multilayered random medium with laminar structure - Green's function approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    For a multilayered random medium with a laminar structure a Green's function approach is introduced to obtain the emitted intensity due to an arbitrary point source. It is then shown that the approach is applicable to both active and passive remote sensing. In active remote sensing, the computed radar backscattering cross section for the multilayered medium includes the effects of both volume multiple scattering and surface multiple scattering at the layer boundaries. In passive remote sensing, the brightness temperature is obtained for arbitrary temperature profiles in the layers. As an illustration the brightness temperature and reflectivity are calculated for a bounded layer and compared with results in the literature.

  5. Determination of Green's function matrix for multiconductor and anisotropic multidielectric planar transmission lines: a variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, F.; Horno, M.

    1985-10-01

    In this paper, a set of simple recurrence formulas to evaluate the Green's function matrix for a generic multiconductor and multidielectric planar transmission system with arbitrary rectangular boundary conditions is obtained. Combining these formulas with the variational technique in the spectral domain, two useful algorithms to calculate the capacitance matrix of a very wide range of practical configurations are proposed. Upper and lower bounds on mode capacitances are obtained by using both algorithms. A number of practical structures have been analyzed and their most interesting features discussed. The method is very versatile and can handle a large class of MIC configurations, no matter how complex the planar structure.

  6. A Green's function method for high charge and energy ion transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, S. Y.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    A heavy-ion transport code using Green's function methods is developed. The low-order perturbation terms exhibiting the greatest energy variation are used as dominant energy-dependent terms, and the higher order collision terms are evaluated using nonperturbative methods. The recently revised NUCFRG database is used to evaluate the solution for comparison with experimental data for 625A MeV 20Ne and 517A MeV 40Ar ion beams. Improved agreements with the attenuation characteristics for neon ions are found, and reasonable agreement is obtained for the transport of argon ions in water.

  7. Dyadic green functions and their applications in classical and quantum nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Vlack, Cole P.

    Research in solid-state nanophotonics and quantum optics has been recently pushing the limits in semiconductor microcavity design. High quality microcavities that confine light into small volumes are now able to drastically alter the local density of states (LDOS). Plasmonic systems can provide smaller effective confinements, however it is unclear if the benefits of confinement are good enough to balance material losses due to non-radiative processes. This thesis presents a compendium of techniques for calculating photonic Green functions in various lossy, inhomogeneous magneto-dielectric systems. Subsequently we derive a rigorous theory of quantum light-matter interactions, valid in both weak and strong coupling limits, and show how the classical photonic Green function is developed to calculate Purcell factors, Lamb shifts, and the near and far field spectra from a single photon emitter. Using these techniques, this work investigates the classical and quantum optical properties of a variety of inhomogeneous structures, including their coupling to single photon emitters. This includes examining Purcell factors above negative index slabs and showing the convergence of many slow-light modes leads to a drastic increase in the LDOS along with large Lamb shifts. The optical trapping of metallic nanoparticles is examined above a negative index slab and a silver half-space, showing the importance of interparticle coupling on the optical forces. Then the interaction between a quantum dot and a metallic nanoparticle is studied where far-field strong coupling effects are observed only when the metallic nanoparticle is considered beyond the dipole approximation. Finally, this work addresses the issue of the LDOS diverging in lossy materials, which necessitates a description of spontaneous emission beyond the dipole approximation; the "local field problem'' in quantum optics is revisited and generalized to include local field corrections for use in any photonic medium. The

  8. On the emergence of the Green's function in the correlations of a diffuse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobkis, Oleg I.; Weaver, Richard L.

    2001-12-01

    A diffuse acoustic field is shown to have correlations equal to the Green's function of the body. Simple plausibility arguments for this assertion are followed by a more detailed proof. A careful version of the statement is found to include caveats in regard to how diffuse the field truly is, the spectrum of the diffuse field, and the phase of the receivers. Ultrasonic laboratory tests confirm the assertion. The main features of the direct signal between two transducers are indeed recovered by cross correlating their responses to a diffuse field generated by a third transducer. The quality of the recovery improves with increased averaging and the use of multiple sources. Applications are discussed.

  9. Time domain half-space dyadic Green's functions for eddy-current calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, J. R.

    1999-12-01

    The field due to an impulsive current dipole embedded in a half-space conductor adjoining a nonconducting half space is given by an exact solution of the quasistatic field equations. This solution has been used to construct a half-space dyadic Green's function containing a term for an unbounded conductor plus terms representing the field reflected at the interface between conducting and nonconducting regions. The resulting kernel can be used in the formulation of time-dependent scattering problems to express the electric field in a conductor as an integral over an electric dipole distribution.

  10. Spectral properties of a double-quantum-dot structure: A causal Green's function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, J. Q.; Zheng, Hou-Zhi

    1999-09-01

    Spectral properties of a double quantum dot (QD) structure are studied by a causal Green's function (GF) approach. The double QD system is modeled by an Anderson-type Hamiltonian in which both the intra- and interdot Coulomb interactions are taken into account. The GF's are derived by an equation-of-motion method and the real-space renormalization-group technique. The numerical results show that the average occupation number of electrons in the QD exhibits staircase features and the local density of states depends appreciably on the electron occupation of the dot.

  11. Green's functions of the forced vibration of Timoshenko beams with damping effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. Y.; Zhao, X.; Li, Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the dynamic solutions for forced vibrations of Timoshenko beams in a systematical manner. Damping effects on the vibrations of the beam are taken into consideration by introducing two characteristic parameters. Laplace transform method is applied in the present study and corresponding Green's functions are presented explicitly for beams with various boundaries. The present solutions can be readily reduced to those for others classical beam models by setting corresponding parameters to zero or infinite. Numerical calculations are performed to validate the present solutions and the effects of various important physical parameters are investigated.

  12. Green's function solution to heat transfer of a transparent gas through a tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankel, J. I.

    1989-01-01

    A heat transfer analysis of a transparent gas flowing through a circular tube of finite thickness is presented. This study includes the effects of wall conduction, internal radiative exchange, and convective heat transfer. The natural mathematical formulation produces a nonlinear, integrodifferential equation governing the wall temperature and an ordinary differential equation describing the gas temperature. This investigation proposes to convert the original system of equations into an equivalent system of integral equations. The Green's function method permits the conversion of an integrodifferential equation into a pure integral equation. The proposed integral formulation and subsequent computational procedure are shown to be stable and accurate.

  13. Recent Developments in Three Dimensional Radiation Transport Using the Green's Function Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockell, Candice; Tweed, John; Blattnig, Steve R.; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    In the future, astronauts will be sent into space for longer durations of time compared to previous missions. The increased risk of exposure to dangerous radiation, such as Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Particle Events, is of great concern. Consequently, steps must be taken to ensure astronaut safety by providing adequate shielding. In order to better determine and verify shielding requirements, an accurate and efficient radiation transport code based on a fully three dimensional radiation transport model using the Green's function technique is being developed

  14. Origin of the tail in Green's functions in odd-dimensional space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that the scalar field Green's function in odd dimensions has a tail, i.e. a non-zero support inside the light cone, which in turn implies that the Huygens' principle is violated. However, the reason behind this behavior is still not quite clear. In this paper we shed more light on the physical origin of the tail by regularizing the term which is usually ignored in the literature since it vanishes due to the action of the delta function. With this extra term the Green's function does not satisfy the source-free wave equation (in the region outside of the source). We show that this term corresponds to a charge imprinted on the light-cone shell. Unlike the vector field charge, a moving scalar field charge is not Lorentz invariant and is contracted by a factor. If a scalar charge is moving at the speed of light, it appears to be zero in the static (with respect to the original physical charge) observer's frame. However, the field it sources is not entirely on the light cone. Thus, it is likely that this hidden charge sources the mysterious tail in odd dimensions.

  15. A DATABASE OF >20 keV ELECTRON GREEN'S FUNCTIONS OF INTERPLANETARY TRANSPORT AT 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Agueda, N.; Sanahuja, B.; Vainio, R.

    2012-10-15

    We use interplanetary transport simulations to compute a database of electron Green's functions, i.e., differential intensities resulting at the spacecraft position from an impulsive injection of energetic (>20 keV) electrons close to the Sun, for a large number of values of two standard interplanetary transport parameters: the scattering mean free path and the solar wind speed. The nominal energy channels of the ACE, STEREO, and Wind spacecraft have been used in the interplanetary transport simulations to conceive a unique tool for the study of near-relativistic electron events observed at 1 AU. In this paper, we quantify the characteristic times of the Green's functions (onset and peak time, rise and decay phase duration) as a function of the interplanetary transport conditions. We use the database to calculate the FWHM of the pitch-angle distributions at different times of the event and under different scattering conditions. This allows us to provide a first quantitative result that can be compared with observations, and to assess the validity of the frequently used term beam-like pitch-angle distribution.

  16. Two-time Green's functions and spectral density method in nonextensive quantum statistical mechanics.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, A; Cosenza, F; De Cesare, L

    2008-05-01

    We extend the formalism of the thermodynamic two-time Green's functions to nonextensive quantum statistical mechanics. Working in the optimal Lagrangian multiplier representation, the q -spectral properties and the methods for a direct calculation of the two-time q Green's functions and the related q -spectral density ( q measures the nonextensivity degree) for two generic operators are presented in strict analogy with the extensive (q=1) counterpart. Some emphasis is devoted to the nonextensive version of the less known spectral density method whose effectiveness in exploring equilibrium and transport properties of a wide variety of systems has been well established in conventional classical and quantum many-body physics. To check how both the equations of motion and the spectral density methods work to study the q -induced nonextensivity effects in nontrivial many-body problems, we focus on the equilibrium properties of a second-quantized model for a high-density Bose gas with strong attraction between particles for which exact results exist in extensive conditions. Remarkably, the contributions to several thermodynamic quantities of the q -induced nonextensivity close to the extensive regime are explicitly calculated in the low-temperature regime by overcoming the calculation of the q grand-partition function.

  17. Calculation of the vacuum Green's function valid for high toroidal mode number in tokamaks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Morrell; Turnbull, Alan

    2005-10-01

    The present evaluation of the Green's function used for the magmetic scalar potential in vacuum calculations for axisymmetric geometry in the vacuum segments of gato, pest and other mhd stability codes has been found to be deficient for moderately high toroidal mode numbers. This was due to the loss of numerical precision arising from the upward recursion relation used for generating the functions to high mode numbers. The recursion is initiated from the complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds. To ameliorate this, a direct integration of the integral representation of the function was crafted to achieve the necessary high accuracy for moderately high mode numbers. At very high mode numbers the loss of numerical precision due to the oscillatory behavior of the integrand is further avoided by judiciously deforming the integration contour in the complex plane. Machine precision, roughly 14 -- 16 digits, accuracy can be achieved by using a combination of both these techniques.

  18. Semiclassical Green's functions and an instanton formulation of electron-transfer rates in the nonadiabatic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Jeremy O.; Bauer, Rainer; Thoss, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We present semiclassical approximations to Green's functions of multidimensional systems, extending Gutzwiller's work to the classically forbidden region. Based on steepest-descent integrals over these functions, we derive an instanton method for computing the rate of nonadiabatic reactions, such as electron transfer, in the weak-coupling limit, where Fermi's golden-rule can be employed. This generalizes Marcus theory to systems for which the environment free-energy curves are not harmonic and where nuclear tunnelling plays a role. The derivation avoids using the Im F method or short-time approximations to real-time correlation functions. A clear physical interpretation of the nuclear tunnelling processes involved in an electron-transfer reaction is thus provided. In Paper II [J. O. Richardson, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 134116 (2015)], we discuss numerical evaluation of the formulae.

  19. Considering the inaccurate Green's functions and the errors of source models during finite fault source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, C.; Crempien, J. G. F.; Archuleta, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    With recent improvements in geophysical observations and computational capability, the rupture processes of large earthquakes are routinely imaged with seismic and geodetic data. However, similar to other geophysical problems, the inverted solutions are contaminated with uncertainties caused by various limitations, such as data coverage, observational noise, inaccurate earth response, fault parameterization, inversion algorithms, etc. While it is difficult to estimate the exact impact that each source of uncertainty has on the inverted solutions, their potential effects should be honored in the data mining procedure, especially in the design of the misfit function. We notice that for most finite fault inversion algorithms using seismic data, the misfit between observed and synthetic seismograms is assumed to be temporally homoscedastic. However, considering the errors of subfault Green's functions and the inverted model, the error associated with the waveform misfit should be heteroscedastic, gradually increasing with time. As a result, the misfits associated with early stages of a large rupture should be weighted more compared with those associated with the later stages. In this study, we develop a series of new objective functions to measure waveform misfits in a sense of weighted least squares. The weights are defined as the reciprocals of standard deviations of combined synthetic and observed noise, which are functions of time and are numerically estimated after assuming different noise characterizations of subfault Green's functions, observations, and inverted source itself. Fast algorithms are developed so that the weights can be updated iteratively even during the nonlinear finite fault inversions. The justifications and potential impacts of these new objective functions are addressed using both the SIV examples and the recent earthquakes. In the end, it is noteworthy that the proposed approaches could be incorporated into other linear and nonlinear finite

  20. Clocks in the green lineage: comparative functional analysis of the circadian architecture of the picoeukaryote ostreococcus.

    PubMed

    Corellou, Florence; Schwartz, Christian; Motta, Jean-Paul; Djouani-Tahri, El Batoul; Sanchez, Frédéric; Bouget, François-Yves

    2009-11-01

    Biological rhythms that allow organisms to adapt to the solar cycle are generated by endogenous circadian clocks. In higher plants, many clock components have been identified and cellular rhythmicity is thought to be driven by a complex transcriptional feedback circuitry. In the small genome of the green unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri, two of the master clock genes Timing of Cab expression1 (TOC1) and Circadian Clock-Associated1 (CCA1) appear to be conserved, but others like Gigantea or Early-Flowering4 are lacking. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines and tools for gene functional analysis were therefore developed to characterize clock gene function in this simple eukaryotic system. This approach revealed several features that are comparable to those in higher plants, including the circadian regulation of TOC1, CCA1, and the output gene Chlorophyll a/b Binding under constant light, the relative phases of TOC1/CCA1 expression under light/dark cycles, arrhythmic overexpression phenotypes under constant light, the binding of CCA1 to a conserved evening element in the TOC1 promoter, as well as the requirement of the evening element for circadian regulation of TOC1 promoter activity. Functional analysis supports TOC1 playing a central role in the clock, but repression of CCA1 had no effect on clock function in constant light, arguing against a simple TOC1 /CCA1 one-loop clock in Ostreococcus. The emergence of functional genomics in a simple green cell with a small genome may facilitate increased understanding of how complex cellular processes such as the circadian clock have evolved in plants.

  1. Temperature-dependent striped antiferromagnetism of LaFeAsO in a Green's function approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui-Bin; Liu, Bang-Gui

    2009-05-13

    We use a Green's function method to study the temperature-dependent average moment and magnetic phase-transition temperature of the striped antiferromagnetism of LaFeAsO, and other similar compounds, as the parents of FeAs-based superconductors. We consider the nearest and the next-nearest couplings in the FeAs layer, and the nearest coupling for inter-layer spin interaction. The dependence of the transition temperature T(N) and the zero-temperature average spin on the interaction constants is investigated. We obtain an analytical expression for T(N) and determine our temperature-dependent average spin from zero temperature to T(N) in terms of unified self-consistent equations. For LaFeAsO, we obtain a reasonable estimation of the coupling interactions with the experimental transition temperature T(N) = 138 K. Our results also show that a non-zero antiferromagnetic (AFM) inter-layer coupling is essential for the existence of a non-zero T(N), and the many-body AFM fluctuations reduce substantially the low-temperature magnetic moment per Fe towards the experimental value. Our Green's function approach can be used for other FeAs-based parent compounds and these results should be useful to understand the physical properties of FeAs-based superconductors.

  2. The Green's function for the Hückel (tight binding) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movassagh, Ramis; Strang, Gilbert; Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald

    2017-03-01

    Applications of the Hückel (tight binding) model are ubiquitous in quantum chemistry and solid state physics. The matrix representation of this model is isomorphic to an unoriented vertex adjacency matrix of a bipartite graph, which is also the Laplacian matrix plus twice the identity. In this paper, we analytically calculate the determinant and, when it exists, the inverse of this matrix in connection with the Green's function, G, of the N ×N Hückel matrix. A corollary is a closed form expression for a Harmonic sum (Eq. (12)). We then extend the results to d- dimensional lattices, whose linear size is N. The existence of the inverse becomes a question of number theory. We prove a new theorem in number theory pertaining to vanishing sums of cosines and use it to prove that the inverse exists if and only if N + 1 and d are odd and d is smaller than the smallest divisor of N + 1. We corroborate our results by demonstrating the entry patterns of the Green's function and discuss applications related to transport and conductivity.

  3. Entropy production in photovoltaic-thermoelectric nanodevices from the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Fabienne; Crépieux, Adeline; Beltako, Katawoura

    2017-05-04

    We discuss some thermodynamic aspects of energy conversion in electronic nanosystems able to convert light energy into electrical or/and thermal energy using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. In a first part, we derive the photon energy and particle currents inside a nanosystem interacting with light and in contact with two electron reservoirs at different temperatures. Energy conservation is verified, and radiation laws are discussed from electron non-equilibrium Green's functions. We further use the photon currents to formulate the rate of entropy production for steady-state nanosystems, and we recast this rate in terms of efficiency for specific photovoltaic-thermoelectric nanodevices. In a second part, a quantum dot based nanojunction is closely examined using a two-level model. We show analytically that the rate of entropy production is always positive, but we find numerically that it can reach negative values when the derived particule and energy currents are empirically modified as it is usually done for modeling realistic photovoltaic systems.

  4. Root finding in the complex plane for seismo-acoustic propagation scenarios with Green's function solutions.

    PubMed

    McCollom, Brittany A; Collis, Jon M

    2014-09-01

    A normal mode solution to the ocean acoustic problem of the Pekeris waveguide with an elastic bottom using a Green's function formulation for a compressional wave point source is considered. Analytic solutions to these types of waveguide propagation problems are strongly dependent on the eigenvalues of the problem; these eigenvalues represent horizontal wavenumbers, corresponding to propagating modes of energy. The eigenvalues arise as singularities in the inverse Hankel transform integral and are specified by roots to a characteristic equation. These roots manifest themselves as poles in the inverse transform integral and can be both subtle and difficult to determine. Following methods previously developed [S. Ivansson et al., J. Sound Vib. 161 (1993)], a root finding routine has been implemented using the argument principle. Using the roots to the characteristic equation in the Green's function formulation, full-field solutions are calculated for scenarios where an acoustic source lies in either the water column or elastic half space. Solutions are benchmarked against laboratory data and existing numerical solutions.

  5. Two-Flux Green's Function Analysis for Transient Spectral Radiation in a Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Robert

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is developed for obtaining transient temperatures in a two-layer semitransparent composite with spectrally dependent properties. Each external boundary of the composite is subjected to radiation and convection. The two-flux radiative transfer equations are solved by deriving a Green's function. This yields the local radiative heat source needed to numerically solve the transient energy equation. An advantage of the two-flux method is that isotropic scattering is included without added complexity. The layer refractive indices are larger than one. This produces internal reflections at the boundaries and the internal interface; the reflections are assumed diffuse. Spectral results using the Green's function method are verified by comparing with numerical solutions using the exact radiative transfer equations. Transient temperature distributions are given to illustrate the effect of radiative heating on one side of a composite with external convective cooling. The protection of a material from incident radiation is illustrated by adding scattering to the layer adjacent to the radiative source.

  6. A first-order time-domain Green's function approach to supersonic unsteady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, M. I.; Tseng, K.

    1985-01-01

    A time-domain Green's Function Method for unsteady supersonic potential flow around complex aircraft configurations is presented. The focus is on the supersonic range wherein the linear potential flow assumption is valid. The Green's function method is employed in order to convert the potential-flow differential equation into an integral one. This integral equation is then discretized, in space through standard finite-element technique, and in time through finite-difference, to yield a linear algebraic system of equations relating the unknown potential to its prescribed co-normalwash (boundary condition) on the surface of the aircraft. The arbitrary complex aircraft configuration is discretized into hyperboloidal (twisted quadrilateral) panels. The potential and co-normalwash are assumed to vary linearly within each panel. Consistent with the spatial linear (first-order) finite-element approximations, the potential and co-normalwash are assumed to vary linearly in time. The long range goal of our research is to develop a comprehensive theory for unsteady supersonic potential aerodynamics which is capable of yielding accurate results even in the low supersonic (i.e., high transonic) range.

  7. Polymorphism of Mhc-DRB alleles in Cercopithecus aethiops (green monkey): generation and functionality.

    PubMed

    Rosal-Sánchez, M; Paz-Artal, E; Moreno-Pelayo, M A; Martínez-Quiles, N; Martínez-Laso, J; Martín-Villa, J M; Arnaiz-Villena, A

    1998-05-01

    DRB genes have been studied for the first time in green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Eleven new DRB alleles (exon 2, exon 3) have been obtained and sequenced from cDNA. A limited number of lineages have been identified: DRB1*03 (4 alleles), DRB1*07 (3 alleles), DRB5 (1 allele), DRB*w6 (1 allele), and DRB*w7 (2 alleles). The existence of Ceae-DRB1 duplications is supported by the finding of 3 DRB1 alleles in 3 different individuals. Ceae-DRB1*0701 may be non-functional because it bears serine at position 82, which hinders molecule surface expression in mice; the allele is only found in Ceae-DRB duplicated haplotypes. Base changes in cDNA Ceae-DRB alleles are consistent with the generation of polymorphism by point mutations or short segment exchanges between alleles. The eleven green monkey DRB alleles meet the requirements for functionality as antigen-presenting molecules (perhaps, excluding DRB1*0701), since: 1) they have been isolated from cDNA and do not present deletions, insertions or stop codons: 2) structural motifs necessary for a correct folding of the molecule, for the formation of DR/DR dimers and for CD4 interactions are conserved, and 3) the number of non-synonymous substitutions is higher than the number of synonymous substitutions in the peptide binding region (PBR), while the contrary holds true for the non-PBR region.

  8. Cancellation of spurious arrivals in Green's function extraction and the generalized optical theorem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snieder, R.; Van Wijk, K.; Haney, M.; Calvert, R.

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of the Green's function by cross correlation of waves recorded at two receivers nowadays finds much application. We show that for an arbitrary small scatterer, the cross terms of scattered waves give an unphysical wave with an arrival time that is independent of the source position. This constitutes an apparent inconsistency because theory predicts that such spurious arrivals do not arise, after integration over a complete source aperture. This puzzling inconsistency can be resolved for an arbitrary scatterer by integrating the contribution of all sources in the stationary phase approximation to show that the stationary phase contributions to the source integral cancel the spurious arrival by virtue of the generalized optical theorem. This work constitutes an alternative derivation of this theorem. When the source aperture is incomplete, the spurious arrival is not canceled and could be misinterpreted to be part of the Green's function. We give an example of how spurious arrivals provide information about the medium complementary to that given by the direct and scattered waves; the spurious waves can thus potentially be used to better constrain the medium. ?? 2008 The American Physical Society.

  9. Late-onset intermittent fasting dietary restriction as a potential intervention to retard age-associated brain function impairments in male rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rumani; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Sandeep; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-08-01

    Lifelong dietary restriction (DR) is known to have many potential beneficial effects on brain function as well as delaying the onset of neurological diseases. In the present investigation, the effect of late-onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen was studied on motor coordination and cognitive ability of ageing male rats. These animals were further used to estimate protein carbonyl content and mitochondrial complex I-IV activity in different regions of brain and peripheral organs, and the degree of age-related impairment and reversion by late-onset short-term IF-DR was compared with their levels in 3-month-old young rats. The results of improvement in motor coordination by rotarod test and cognitive skills by Morris water maze in IF-DR rats were found to be positively correlated with the decline in the oxidative molecular damage to proteins and enhanced mitochondrial complex IV activity in different regions of ageing brain as well as peripheral organs. The work was further extended to study the expression of synaptic plasticity-related proteins, such as synaptophysin, calcineurin and CaM kinase II to explore the molecular basis of IF-DR regimen to improve cognitive function. These results suggest that even late-onset short-term IF-DR regimen have the potential to retard age-associated detrimental effects, such as cognitive and motor performance as well as oxidative molecular damage to proteins.

  10. Role of Mental Retardation-Associated Dystrophin-Gene Product Dp71 in Excitatory Synapse Organization, Synaptic Plasticity and Behavioral Functions

    PubMed Central

    Daoud, Fatma; Candelario-Martínez, Aurora; Billard, Jean-Marie; Avital, Avi; Khelfaoui, Malik; Rozenvald, Yael; Guegan, Maryvonne; Mornet, Dominique; Jaillard, Danielle; Nudel, Uri; Chelly, Jamel; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Laroche, Serge; Yaffe, David; Vaillend, Cyrille

    2009-01-01

    Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by deficient expression of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. One third of DMD patients also have mental retardation (MR), likely due to mutations preventing expression of dystrophin and other brain products of the DMD gene expressed from distinct internal promoters. Loss of Dp71, the major DMD-gene product in brain, is thought to contribute to the severity of MR; however, the specific function of Dp71 is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Complementary approaches were used to explore the role of Dp71 in neuronal function and identify mechanisms by which Dp71 loss may impair neuronal and cognitive functions. Besides the normal expression of Dp71 in a subpopulation of astrocytes, we found that a pool of Dp71 colocalizes with synaptic proteins in cultured neurons and is expressed in synaptic subcellular fractions in adult brains. We report that Dp71-associated protein complexes interact with specialized modular scaffolds of proteins that cluster glutamate receptors and organize signaling in postsynaptic densities. We then undertook the first functional examination of the brain and cognitive alterations in the Dp71-null mice. We found that these mice display abnormal synapse organization and maturation in vitro, altered synapse density in the adult brain, enhanced glutamatergic transmission and reduced synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampus. Dp71-null mice show selective behavioral disturbances characterized by reduced exploratory and novelty-seeking behavior, mild retention deficits in inhibitory avoidance, and impairments in spatial learning and memory. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest that Dp71 expression in neurons play a regulatory role in glutamatergic synapse organization and function, which provides a new mechanism by which inactivation of Dp71 in association with that of other DMD-gene products may lead to increased severity of MR. PMID:19649270

  11. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  12. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  13. Two-Particle Coulomb Green Function Method with Projected Potential: Application to He Double Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, Luca; Colle, Renato

    2009-08-01

    A new method to compute fully differential double photoionization cross sections of atoms has been devised and fully developed for two-electron systems. The method exploits the Green function for two noninteracting electrons in the field of a nuclear charge to infer the effects of the residual potential projected on a set of L2-basis functions. Test calculations on helium at 100 eV excess energy indicate that, as long as the relevant part of the interaction potential is accounted for, the fully differential cross sections calculated in acceleration and velocity gauges converge in absolute value and reproduce measured angular distributions with a tunable accuracy. Generalization of the method to treat double photoionization of many-electron atoms is sketched.

  14. Two-particle coulomb Green function method with projected potential: application to He double photoionization.

    PubMed

    Argenti, Luca; Colle, Renato

    2009-12-31

    A new method to compute fully differential double photoionization cross sections of atoms has been devised and fully developed for two-electron systems. The method exploits the Green function for two noninteracting electrons in the field of a nuclear charge to infer the effects of the residual potential projected on a set of L(2)-basis functions. Test calculations on helium at 100 eV excess energy indicate that, as long as the relevant part of the interaction potential is accounted for, the fully differential cross sections calculated in acceleration and velocity gauges converge in absolute value and reproduce measured angular distributions with a tunable accuracy. Generalization of the method to treat double photoionization of many-electron atoms is sketched.

  15. Off-Shell Green Functions: One-Loop with Growing Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.; Delbourgo, R.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2008-07-02

    One loop calculations in gauge theories in arbitrary gauge and dimensions become exceedingly hard with growing number of external off-shell legs. Let alone higher point functions, such a calculation for even the three point one-loop vertices for quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has been made available only recently. In this article, we discuss how Ward-Fradkin-Green-Takahashi identities (WFGTI) may provide a helpful tool in these computations. After providing a glimpse of our suggestion for the case of the 3-point vertex, we present our preliminary findings towards our similar efforts for the 4-point function. We restrict ourselves to the example of scalar quantum electrodynamics (SQED)

  16. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  17. Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a truncated basis set: An augmented-KKR formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Suffian N.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nicholson, D. M.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-11-01

    The Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function, multiple-scattering theory is an efficient site-centered, electronic-structure technique for addressing an assembly of N scatterers. Wave functions are expanded in a spherical-wave basis on each scattering center and indexed up to a maximum orbital and azimuthal number Lmax=(l,mmax), while scattering matrices, which determine spectral properties, are truncated at Lt r=(l,mt r) where phase shifts δl >ltr are negligible. Historically, Lmax is set equal to Lt r, which is correct for large enough Lmax but not computationally expedient; a better procedure retains higher-order (free-electron and single-site) contributions for Lmax>Lt r with δl >ltr set to zero [X.-G. Zhang and W. H. Butler, Phys. Rev. B 46, 7433 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevB.46.7433]. We present a numerically efficient and accurate augmented-KKR Green's function formalism that solves the KKR equations by exact matrix inversion [R3 process with rank N (ltr+1 ) 2 ] and includes higher-L contributions via linear algebra [R2 process with rank N (lmax+1) 2 ]. The augmented-KKR approach yields properly normalized wave functions, numerically cheaper basis-set convergence, and a total charge density and electron count that agrees with Lloyd's formula. We apply our formalism to fcc Cu, bcc Fe, and L 1 0 CoPt and present the numerical results for accuracy and for the convergence of the total energies, Fermi energies, and magnetic moments versus Lmax for a given Lt r.

  18. Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a truncated basis set: An augmented-KKR formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Suffian N.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nicholson, D. M.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-11-04

    Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function, multiple-scattering theory is an ecient sitecentered, electronic-structure technique for addressing an assembly of N scatterers. Wave-functions are expanded in a spherical-wave basis on each scattering center and indexed up to a maximum orbital and azimuthal number Lmax = (l,m)max, while scattering matrices, which determine spectral properties, are truncated at Ltr = (l,m)tr where phase shifts δl>ltr are negligible. Historically, Lmax is set equal to Ltr, which is correct for large enough Lmax but not computationally expedient; a better procedure retains higher-order (free-electron and single-site) contributions for Lmax > Ltr with δl>ltr set to zero [Zhang and Butler, Phys. Rev. B 46, 7433]. We present a numerically ecient and accurate augmented-KKR Green's function formalism that solves the KKR equations by exact matrix inversion [R3 process with rank N(ltr + 1)2] and includes higher-L contributions via linear algebra [R2 process with rank N(lmax +1)2]. Augmented-KKR approach yields properly normalized wave-functions, numerically cheaper basis-set convergence, and a total charge density and electron count that agrees with Lloyd's formula. We apply our formalism to fcc Cu, bcc Fe and L10 CoPt, and present the numerical results for accuracy and for the convergence of the total energies, Fermi energies, and magnetic moments versus Lmax for a given Ltr.

  19. Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a truncated basis set: An augmented-KKR formalism

    DOE PAGES

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Suffian N.; Smirnov, A. V.; ...

    2014-11-04

    Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function, multiple-scattering theory is an ecient sitecentered, electronic-structure technique for addressing an assembly of N scatterers. Wave-functions are expanded in a spherical-wave basis on each scattering center and indexed up to a maximum orbital and azimuthal number Lmax = (l,m)max, while scattering matrices, which determine spectral properties, are truncated at Ltr = (l,m)tr where phase shifts δl>ltr are negligible. Historically, Lmax is set equal to Ltr, which is correct for large enough Lmax but not computationally expedient; a better procedure retains higher-order (free-electron and single-site) contributions for Lmax > Ltr with δl>ltr set to zero [Zhang andmore » Butler, Phys. Rev. B 46, 7433]. We present a numerically ecient and accurate augmented-KKR Green's function formalism that solves the KKR equations by exact matrix inversion [R3 process with rank N(ltr + 1)2] and includes higher-L contributions via linear algebra [R2 process with rank N(lmax +1)2]. Augmented-KKR approach yields properly normalized wave-functions, numerically cheaper basis-set convergence, and a total charge density and electron count that agrees with Lloyd's formula. We apply our formalism to fcc Cu, bcc Fe and L10 CoPt, and present the numerical results for accuracy and for the convergence of the total energies, Fermi energies, and magnetic moments versus Lmax for a given Ltr.« less

  20. Investigation of the Effects of an Aquatics Program on the Psycho-Motor Function of Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James F.; Throop, Robert K.

    To determine the effects of an aquatics program on the psycho-motor functions and body image of trainable mentally handicapped children, 60 children under 16 years of age were selected, and 39 children instructed three days per week over a period of one year. Results did not support the hypothesis that subjects in instructional aquatic classes…

  1. Analytic and numeric Green's functions for a two-dimensional electron gas in an orthogonal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Cresti, Alessandro . E-mail: cresti@df.unipi.it; Grosso, Giuseppe . E-mail: grosso@df.unipi.it; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori . E-mail: pastori@fisicavolta.unipv.it

    2006-05-15

    We have derived closed analytic expressions for the Green's function of an electron in a two-dimensional electron gas threaded by a uniform perpendicular magnetic field, also in the presence of a uniform electric field and of a parabolic spatial confinement. A workable and powerful numerical procedure for the calculation of the Green's functions for a large infinitely extended quantum wire is considered exploiting a lattice model for the wire, the tight-binding representation for the corresponding matrix Green's function, and the Peierls phase factor in the Hamiltonian hopping matrix element to account for the magnetic field. The numerical evaluation of the Green's function has been performed by means of the decimation-renormalization method, and quite satisfactorily compared with the analytic results worked out in this paper. As an example of the versatility of the numerical and analytic tools here presented, the peculiar semilocal character of the magnetic Green's function is studied in detail because of its basic importance in determining magneto-transport properties in mesoscopic systems.

  2. Cadmium accumulation retard activity of functional components of photo assimilation and growth of rice cultivars amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake mediated alterations in functional components of photo assimilation during conversion of cow dung and poultry cast to vermicompost were studied in two Indian rice cultivars; MO 16 and MTU 7029. It was found that higher amount of Cd accumulate in plants grown in soil amended with vermicompost which in turn damaged functional components in photo assimilation. Enhancement of root growth was recognized as reason for Cd accumulation. Metabolic alterations noticed among plants were not taken place during application of raw materials used for vermicomposting such as cow dung and poultry cast amendment. Rice varieties accumulated Cd differentially where MTU 7029 accumulated more Cd compare to MO 16. It was also noticed that existence of negative correlation between zinc status of the plant and Cd accumulation.

  3. Green tea catechins based functional drink (Green cool) improves the antioxidant status of SD rats fed on high cholesterol and sucrose diets.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Huma, Nuzhat; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2013-07-01

    In the recent epoch, functional and nutraceuticals foods are gaining wide range of acceptability from the consumers. In the present research investigation, efforts were directed to exploit the green tea phytochemicals. Functional beverage was prepared with catechins and epigallocatechins gallate (EGCG) added individually @550 mg/500mL in respective drink. Prepared drinks were evaluated for their physicochemical analysis. Efficacy trial was also conducted, in which diets consisting of high sucrose and cholesterol were provided to rats with concurrent intake of functional drinks. CIE-Lab Color analysis of functional drinks showed that indices of color tonality were non-significantly affected. However, decreasing trend in pH and increased tendency in acidity of drink was noted. While scores for sensory evaluation remained in acceptable range showing suitability for industrial applications. Results of efficacy trial revealed that functional drinks improved serum antioxidant potential of rats. Thus results paved the way for the development of functional beverages using green tea catechins for vulnerable segments.

  4. High risk of ESRD in type 1 diabetes: New strategies are needed to retard progressive renal function decline

    PubMed Central

    Krolewski, Andrzej S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    Care of patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has changed during the last 30 years. Tools to control glycemia have improved and it was demonstrated that improvement in glycemic control diminished the risk of late diabetic complications, including nephropathy. Moreover, in patients with impaired renal function, aggressive treatment of hypertension and reno-protective blockade of the renin-angiotensin system were shown to postpone end-stage renal disease (ESRD), albeit for a short while. Despite these achievements, the incidence of ESRD due to T1D in the US population has not decreased but rather has increased over the last 20 years, although it now occurs at slightly older ages. This state of affairs is a call to action. This should begin with adopting a new model of diabetic nephropathy in humans. In that model, instead of microalbuminuria or proteinuria, the focus should be on diagnosis and treatment of progressive renal function decline that leads to ESRD. Such a model has received significant support in clinical and epidemiological studies. Investigation of mechanisms of such progressive renal function decline should help in the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new interventions. To evaluate these interventions, accurate diagnostic algorithms are needed so T1D patients will be stratified according to time to onset to ESRD. Consistent with concepts of personalized medicine, the new interventions should be tailored to and evaluated in patients predicted to have rapid, moderate or even slow progression to ESRD. PMID:23062980

  5. Green leaf volatiles: biosynthesis, biological functions and their applications in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    ul Hassan, Muhammad Naeem; Zainal, Zamri; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2015-08-01

    Plants have evolved numerous constitutive and inducible defence mechanisms to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. These stresses induce the expression of various genes to activate defence-related pathways that result in the release of defence chemicals. One of these defence mechanisms is the oxylipin pathway, which produces jasmonates, divinylethers and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) through the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). GLVs have recently emerged as key players in plant defence, plant-plant interactions and plant-insect interactions. Some GLVs inhibit the growth and propagation of plant pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. In certain cases, GLVs released from plants under herbivore attack can serve as aerial messengers to neighbouring plants and to attract parasitic or parasitoid enemies of the herbivores. The plants that perceive these volatile signals are primed and can then adapt in preparation for the upcoming challenges. Due to their 'green note' odour, GLVs impart aromas and flavours to many natural foods, such as vegetables and fruits, and therefore, they can be exploited in industrial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to review the progress and recent developments in research on the oxylipin pathway, with a specific focus on the biosynthesis and biological functions of GLVs and their applications in industrial biotechnology.

  6. Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, Robert E.

    2005-06-10

    Most chlorophyll-type pigments in a photosynthetic organism function as an antenna, absorbing light and transferring excitations to a photochemical reaction center where energy storage takes place by a series of chemical reactions. The green photosynthetic bacteria are characterized by large antenna complexes known as chlorosomes, in which pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanisms of excitation transfer and regulation of this unique antenna system, including how it is integrated into the rest of the photosynthetic energy transduction apparatus. Techniques that are being used in this research include biochemical analysis, spectroscopy, microscopy, X-ray structural studies, and reconstitution from purified components. Our recent results indicate that the chlorosome baseplate structure, which is the membrane attachment site for the chlorosome to the membrane, is a unique pigment-protein that contains large amounts of carotenoids and small amounts of bacteriochlorophyll a. Reconstitution of directed energy transfer in chlorosomes will be carried out using purified baseplates and oligomeric pigments. The integral membrane B808-866 antenna complex from Chloroflexus aurantiacus and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein-reaction center complex from green sulfur bacteria will be characterized by spectroscopic and structural techniques.

  7. The proportion of cells with functional X disomy is associated with the severity of mental retardation in mosaic ring X Turner syndrome females.

    PubMed

    Kubota, T; Wakui, K; Nakamura, T; Ohashi, H; Watanabe, Y; Yoshino, M; Kida, T; Okamoto, N; Matsumura, M; Muroya, K; Ogata, T; Goto, Y; Fukushima, Y

    2002-01-01

    Turner syndrome females (45,X) do not have mental retardation (MR), whereas some mosaic ring X Turner syndrome females, with 45,X/46,X,r(X), have severe MR. The MR is believed to be caused by a failure of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) of the small ring X chromosome, which leads to functional X disomy (FXD), To explore this hypothesis, we examined the proportion of FXD cells in the peripheral blood of four ring X Turner syndrome females with various levels of MR, using two newly developed XCI assays based on DNA methylation of X-linked genes. As a result, the two patients with extremely severe MR showed complete FXD patterns, whereas the remaining two patients with relatively milder MR showed partial FXD patterns. These results indicate that the proportion of FXD cells may be associated with the severity of MR in mosaic ring X Turner syndrome females, although this association should be confirmed by examining brain cells during development. One of the cases with severe MR and a complete FXD pattern neither lacked the XIST gene nor had uniparental X isodisomy, and we discuss the mechanism of the failure of XCI in this case.

  8. A New Green's Function for the Wake Potential Calculation of the SLAC S-band Constant Gradient Accelerating Section

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A,; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    The behavior of the longitudinal wake fields excited by a very short bunch in the SLAC S-band constant gradient accelerating structures has been studied. Wake potential calculations were performed for a bunch length of 10 microns using the author's code to obtain a numerical solution of Maxwell's equations in the time domain. We have calculated six accelerating sections in the series (60-ft) to find the stationary solution. While analyzing the computational results we have found a new formula for the Green's function. Wake potentials, which are calculated using this Green's function are in amazingly good agreement with numerical results over a wide range of bunch lengths. The Green's function simplifies the wake potential calculations and can be easily incorporated into the tracking codes. This is very useful for beam dynamics studies of the linear accelerators of LCLS and FACET.

  9. The research of far infrared flame retardant polyester staple fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingshan; Zhang, Kaijun; Luo, Jinqong; Li, Ji’an; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Qianqian; Jin, Yongxia; Liu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Far infrared flame retardant slices was prepared, fiber with far infrared flame retardant composite function was also prepared by the method of melt spinning. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the fibrous microscopic structure. In the SEM images, functional ultrafine powder particle size and distribution in the fiber were visible. The results show that the functional ultrafine powder is evenly distributed on the fibrous surface, which is closely combined with fiber, and the far infrared emissivity is F, which is more than (8 to 14 microns) 0.88. Far infrared flame retardant polyester fiber has not only good flame retardant, but also environmental health effect: releasing negative ions and launch far-infrared, which shows wide application prospect. The fiber was processed into far-infrared flame retardant electric blanket, whose functional indicators and flame retardant properties are not reduced.

  10. EPILEPSY AND MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Thuppal; Narayan, Jayanthi

    1992-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequently associated conditions with mental retardation which interferes with the learning process. Vie present study investigates the 1207 cases (Male -8I4, Female-393) registered at NIMH, Secunderabad, over a period of two years. Vie factors studied were the prevalence of epilepsy, degree of mental retardation, aetiology and associated factors. Ten mentally retarded persons with epilepsy were followed up longitudinally to study the effect of epilepsy on learning. It was observed that an attack of seizure resulted in a setback in the learning of skills. The results are discussed. PMID:21776089

  11. Magnon specific heat and free energy of Heisenberg ferromagnetic single-walled nanotubes: Green's function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Bin-Zhou; Zhai, Liang-Jun; Hua, Ling-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The effect of magnetic spin correlation on the thermodynamic properties of Heisenberg ferromagnetic single-walled nanotubes are comprehensively investigated by use of the double-time Green's function method. The influence of temperature, spin quantum number, diameter of the tube, anisotropy strength and external magnetic field to internal energy, free energy, and magnon specific heat are carefully calculated. Compared to the mean field approximation, the consideration of the magnetic correlation effect significantly improves the internal energy values at finite temperature, while it does not so near zero temperature, and this effect is related to the diameter of the tube, anisotropy strength, and spin quantum number. The magnetic correlation effect lowers the internal energy at finite temperature. As a natural consequence of the reduction of the internal energy, the specific heat is reduced, and the free energy is elevated.

  12. A Study of Green's Function Methods Applied to Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the propagation of galactic ions through various materials. Galactic light ions result from the break up of heavy ion particles and their propagation through materials is modeled using the one-dimensional Boltzmann equation. When ions enter materials there can occur (i) the interaction of ions with orbital electrons which causes ionization within the material and (ii) ions collide with atoms causing production of secondary particles which penetrate deeper within the material. These processes are modeled by a continuum model. The basic idea is to place a control volume within the material and examine the change in ion flux across this control volume. In this way on can derive the basic equations for the transport of light and heavy ions in matter. Green's function perturbation methods can then be employed to solve the resulting equations using energy dependent nuclear cross sections.

  13. Green{close_quote}s function approach to infrared factorization and finite eikonal corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Gellas, G.C.; Karanikas, A.I.; Ktorides, C.N. |

    1997-04-01

    The infrared sector of a generic gauge theory with spin-1/2 matter fields and, for simplicity, only one mass scale, is factored out via a procedure which relies on a path integral (worldline) casting of the field system. The basic idea is to employ a velocity expansion which imposes the spin-1/2 particle{close_quote}s mass as a cutoff for the factorized sector. Anomalous dimensions characterizing the infrared regime are derived in connection with two- and three-point Green{close_quote}s functions. Finally, an off mass shell expansion of the propagator is achieved which contains genuine corrections to the eikonal approximation. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.

  14. A Sparse Reformulation of the Green's Function Formalism Allows Efficient Simulations of Morphological Neuron Models.

    PubMed

    Wybo, Willem A M; Boccalini, Daniele; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver

    2015-12-01

    We prove that when a class of partial differential equations, generalized from the cable equation, is defined on tree graphs and the inputs are restricted to a spatially discrete, well chosen set of points, the Green's function (GF) formalism can be rewritten to scale as O(n) with the number n of inputs locations, contrary to the previously reported O(n(2)) scaling. We show that the linear scaling can be combined with an expansion of the remaining kernels as sums of exponentials to allow efficient simulations of equations from the aforementioned class. We furthermore validate this simulation paradigm on models of nerve cells and explore its relation with more traditional finite difference approaches. Situations in which a gain in computational performance is expected are discussed.

  15. Multiscale simulations of anisotropic particles combining molecular dynamics and Green's function reaction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaykumar, Adithya; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2017-03-01

    The modeling of complex reaction-diffusion processes in, for instance, cellular biochemical networks or self-assembling soft matter can be tremendously sped up by employing a multiscale algorithm which combines the mesoscopic Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (GFRD) method with explicit stochastic Brownian, Langevin, or deterministic molecular dynamics to treat reactants at the microscopic scale [A. Vijaykumar, P. G. Bolhuis, and P. R. ten Wolde, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 214102 (2015)]. Here we extend this multiscale MD-GFRD approach to include the orientational dynamics that is crucial to describe the anisotropic interactions often prevalent in biomolecular systems. We present the novel algorithm focusing on Brownian dynamics only, although the methodology is generic. We illustrate the novel algorithm using a simple patchy particle model. After validation of the algorithm, we discuss its performance. The rotational Brownian dynamics MD-GFRD multiscale method will open up the possibility for large scale simulations of protein signalling networks.

  16. A full-potential approach to the relativistic single-site Green's function

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Xianglin; Wang, Yang; Eisenbach, Markus; ...

    2016-07-07

    One major purpose of studying the single-site scattering problem is to obtain the scattering matrices and differential equation solutions indispensable to multiple scattering theory (MST) calculations. On the other hand, the single-site scattering itself is also appealing because it reveals the physical environment experienced by electrons around the scattering center. In this study, we demonstrate a new formalism to calculate the relativistic full-potential single-site Green's function. We implement this method to calculate the single-site density of states and electron charge densities. Lastly, the code is rigorously tested and with the help of Krein's theorem, the relativistic effects and full potentialmore » effects in group V elements and noble metals are thoroughly investigated.« less

  17. Random sampling of the Green's Functions for reversible reactions with an intermediate state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2013-06-01

    Exact random variate generators were developed to sample Green's functions used in Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithms for the simulations of chemical systems. These algorithms, which use less than a kilobyte of memory, provide a useful alternative to the table look-up method that has been used in similar work. The cases that are studied with this approach are (1) diffusion-influenced reactions; (2) reversible diffusion-influenced reactions and (3) reactions with an intermediate state such as enzymatic catalysis. The results are validated by comparison with those obtained by the Independent Reaction Times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of radiation chemistry in the radiation effects on human body and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risk.

  18. Charge-Transfer Excited States in Aqueous DNA: Insights from Many-Body Green's Function Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Huabing; Ma, Yuchen; Mu, Jinglin; Liu, Chengbu; Rohlfing, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Charge-transfer (CT) excited states play an important role in the excited-state dynamics of DNA in aqueous solution. However, there is still much controversy on their energies. By ab initio many-body Green's function theory, together with classical molecular dynamics simulations, we confirm the existence of CT states at the lower energy side of the optical absorption maximum in aqueous DNA as observed in experiments. We find that the hydration shell can exert strong effects (˜1 eV) on both the electronic structure and CT states of DNA molecules through dipole electric fields. In this case, the solvent cannot be simply regarded as a macroscopic screening medium as usual. The influence of base stacking and base pairing on the CT states is also discussed.

  19. A full-potential approach to the relativistic single-site Green's function

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xianglin; Wang, Yang; Eisenbach, Markus; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2016-07-07

    One major purpose of studying the single-site scattering problem is to obtain the scattering matrices and differential equation solutions indispensable to multiple scattering theory (MST) calculations. On the other hand, the single-site scattering itself is also appealing because it reveals the physical environment experienced by electrons around the scattering center. In this study, we demonstrate a new formalism to calculate the relativistic full-potential single-site Green's function. We implement this method to calculate the single-site density of states and electron charge densities. Lastly, the code is rigorously tested and with the help of Krein's theorem, the relativistic effects and full potential effects in group V elements and noble metals are thoroughly investigated.

  20. Non-equilibrium Green's functions method: Non-trivial and disordered leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yu; Wang, Yu; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2014-11-01

    The non-equilibrium Green's function algorithm requires contact self-energies to model charge injection and extraction. All existing approaches assume infinitely periodic leads attached to a possibly quite complex device. This contradicts today's realistic devices in which contacts are spatially inhomogeneous, chemically disordered, and impacting the overall device characteristics. This work extends the complex absorbing potentials method for arbitrary, ideal, or non-ideal leads in atomistic tight binding representation. The algorithm is demonstrated on a Si nanowire with periodic leads, a graphene nanoribbon with trumpet shape leads, and devices with leads of randomly alloyed Si0.5Ge0.5. It is found that alloy randomness in the leads can reduce the predicted ON-state current of Si0.5Ge0.5 transistors by 45% compared to conventional lead methods.

  1. Noise analysis of coaxial Schottky barrier carbon nanotube fets using non equilibrium Green's function formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassaninia, Iman; Ghayour, Rahim; Abiri, Habib; Sheikhi, Mohammad

    2009-12-01

    The effect of noise on the performance of Schottky Barrier Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors (SB-CNTFETs) has been investigated under various bias conditions. In order to calculate the noise power spectral density, the Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism (NEGF) is used to obtain the transmission coefficient and the number of carriers inside the channel. Results are presented in two sections: In the first section the Hooge's empirical rule is used to investigate the flicker noise properties of SB-CNTFETs with defects in the gate oxide region, while in the second section the thermal and shot noise properties of SB-CNTFETs are studied. Finally, the best bias points in the ON and OFF states have been suggested according to the total noise power spectral density and the device signal to noise ratio.

  2. Development of multi-functional streetscape green infrastructure using a performance index approach.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, A; Williams, I D; Heidrich, O; Namdeo, A; Bandaru, V; Calfapietra, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation framework for streetscape vegetation. A performance index (PI) is conceived using the following seven traits, specific to the street environments - Pollution Flux Potential (PFP), Carbon Sequestration Potential (CSP), Thermal Comfort Potential (TCP), Noise Attenuation Potential (NAP), Biomass Energy Potential (BEP), Environmental Stress Tolerance (EST) and Crown Projection Factor (CPF). Its application is demonstrated through a case study using fifteen street vegetation species from the UK, utilising a combination of direct field measurements and inventoried literature data. Our results indicate greater preference to small-to-medium size trees and evergreen shrubs over larger trees for streetscaping. The proposed PI approach can be potentially applied two-fold: one, for evaluation of the performance of the existing street vegetation, facilitating the prospects for further improving them through management strategies and better species selection; two, for planning new streetscapes and multi-functional biomass as part of extending the green urban infrastructure.

  3. A rewired green fluorescent protein: folding and function in a nonsequential, noncircular GFP permutant.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Philippa J; Huang, Yao-Ming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Bystroff, Christopher

    2010-12-28

    The sequential order of secondary structural elements in proteins affects the folding and activity to an unknown extent. To test the dependence on sequential connectivity, we reconnected secondary structural elements by their solvent-exposed ends, permuting their sequential order, called "rewiring". This new protein design strategy changes the topology of the backbone without changing the core side chain packing arrangement. While circular and noncircular permutations have been observed in protein structures that are not related by sequence homology, to date no one has attempted to rationally design and construct a protein with a sequence that is noncircularly permuted while conserving three-dimensional structure. Herein, we show that green fluorescent protein can be rewired, still functionally fold, and exhibit wild-type fluorescence excitation and emission spectra.

  4. Ray-trace modeling of acoustic Green's function based on the semiclassical (eikonal) approximation.

    PubMed

    Prislan, Rok; Veble, Gregor; Svenšek, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The Green's function (GF) for the scalar wave equation is numerically constructed by an advanced geometric ray-tracing method based on the eikonal approximation related to the semiclassical propagator. The underlying theory is first briefly introduced, and then it is applied to acoustics and implemented in a ray-tracing-type numerical simulation. The so constructed numerical method is systematically used to calculate the sound field in a rectangular (cuboid) room, yielding also the acoustic modes of the room. The simulated GF is rigorously compared to its analytic approximation. Good agreement is found, which proves the devised numerical approach potentially useful also for low frequency acoustic modeling, which is in practice not covered by geometrical methods.

  5. Dynamics of charge transfer: Rate processes formulated with nonequilibrium Green's functions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeganeh, Sina; Ratner, Mark A.; Mujica, Vladimiro

    2007-04-28

    The authors examine the connection between electron transport under bias in a junction and nonadiabatic intramolecular electron transfer (ET). It is shown that under certain assumptions it is possible to define a stationary current that allows the computation of the intramolecular transfer rate using the same formalism that is employed in the description of transport. They show that the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism of quantum transport can be used to calculate the ET rate. The formal connection between electron transport and electron transfer is made, and they work out the simple case of an electronic level coupled to a vibrational mode representing a thermal bath and show that the result is the same as expected from a Fermi golden rule treatment, and in the high-temperature limit yields the Marcus electron transfer theory. The usefulness of this alternative formulation of rates is discussed.

  6. Structure, Function, and Regulation of Antenna Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Blankenship

    2001-04-27

    This project is concerned with the structure and function of the chlorosome antennas found in green photosynthetic bacteria. Chlorosomes are ellipsoidal structures attached to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane. These antenna complexes provide a very large absorption cross section for light capture. Evidence is overwhelming that the chlorosome represents a very different type of antenna from that found in any other photosynthetic system yet studied. It is now clear that chlorosomes do not contain traditional pigment-proteins, in which the pigments bind to specific sites on proteins. Instead, the chlorosome pigments are organized in vivo into pigment oligomers in which direct pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. Our group has used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate this unique system, including model systems, ultrafast spectroscopy, molecular biology, protein chemistry and X-ray crystallography.

  7. Segmental analysis of indocyanine green pharmacokinetics for the reliable diagnosis of functional vascular insufficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yujung; Lee, Jungsul; An, Yuri; Jeon, Jongwook; Choi, Chulhee

    2011-03-01

    Accurate and reliable diagnosis of functional insufficiency of peripheral vasculature is essential since Raynaud phenomenon (RP), most common form of peripheral vascular insufficiency, is commonly associated with systemic vascular disorders. We have previously demonstrated that dynamic imaging of near-infrared fluorophore indocyanine green (ICG) can be a noninvasive and sensitive tool to measure tissue perfusion. In the present study, we demonstrated that combined analysis of multiple parameters, especially onset time and modified Tmax which means the time from onset of ICG fluorescence to Tmax, can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for RP. To validate the method, we performed the conventional thermographic analysis combined with cold challenge and rewarming along with ICG dynamic imaging and segmental analysis. A case-control analysis demonstrated that segmental pattern of ICG dynamics in both hands was significantly different between normal and RP case, suggesting the possibility of clinical application of this novel method for the convenient and reliable diagnosis of RP.

  8. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of single, few, and many molecules; nonequilibrium Green's function QED approach.

    PubMed

    Marx, Christoph A; Harbola, Upendra; Mukamel, Shaul

    2008-02-01

    Nonlinear optical signals from an assembly of N noninteracting particles consist of an incoherent and a coherent component, whose magnitudes scale ~ N and ~ N(N - 1), respectively. A unified microscopic description of both types of signals is developed using a quantum electrodynamical (QED) treatment of the optical fields. Closed nonequilibrium Green's function expressions are derived that incorporate both stimulated and spontaneous processes. General (n + 1)-wave mixing experiments are discussed as an example of spontaneously generated signals. When performed on a single particle, such signals cannot be expressed in terms of the nth order polarization, as predicted by the semiclassical theory. Stimulated processes are shown to be purely incoherent in nature. Within the QED framework, heterodyne-detected wave mixing signals are simply viewed as incoherent stimulated emission, whereas homodyne signals are generated by coherent spontaneous emission.

  9. Quantum annealing of an Ising spin-glass by Green's function Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Stella, Lorenzo; Santoro, Giuseppe E

    2007-03-01

    We present an implementation of quantum annealing (QA) via lattice Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), focusing on its application to the Ising spin glass in transverse field. In particular, we study whether or not such a method is more effective than the path-integral Monte Carlo- (PIMC) based QA, as well as classical simulated annealing (CA), previously tested on the same optimization problem. We identify the issue of importance sampling, i.e., the necessity of possessing reasonably good (variational) trial wave functions, as the key point of the algorithm. We performed GFMC-QA runs using such a Boltzmann-type trial wave function, finding results for the residual energies that are qualitatively similar to those of CA (but at a much larger computational cost), and definitely worse than PIMC-QA. We conclude that, at present, without a serious effort in constructing reliable importance sampling variational wave functions for a quantum glass, GFMC-QA is not a true competitor of PIMC-QA.

  10. "Green" functionalization of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes with long-chain aliphatic amines.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, Elena V; Ochoa-Olmos, Omar; Contreras-Torres, Flavio F; Meza-Laguna, Víctor; Alvarez-Zauco, Edgar; Puente-Lee, Iván; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2011-06-01

    Short pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were functionalized with a series of long-chain (including polymeric) aliphatic amines, namely octadecylamine (ODA), 1,8-diaminooctane (DO), polyethylene glycol diamine (PEGDA) and polyethylenimine (PEI), via two "green" approaches: (1) gas-phase functionalization (for volatile ODA and DO) and (2) direct heating in the melt (for polymeric PEGDA and PEI). Both of them consist in one-step reaction between MWNTs and amine without the use of organic solvents. The nanostructures obtained were characterized by using infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that both solvent-free methods were efficient in the nanotube functionalization, and the nanostructures of variable solubility and morphology were obtained depending on the amines attached. ODA, PEGDA and PEI-functionalized MWNTs were found to be soluble in propanol, meanwhile the MWNTs-PEGDA and MWNTs-PEI were soluble in water as well. The attachment of 1,8-diaminooctane onto MWNTs resulted in cross-linked stable nanostructure.

  11. Intermolecular Singlet and Triplet Exciton Transfer Integrals from Many-Body Green's Functions Theory.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Jens; Baumeier, Björn

    2017-03-08

    A general approach to determine orientation and distance-dependent effective intermolecular exciton transfer integrals from many-body Green's functions theory is presented. On the basis of the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE), a projection technique is employed to obtain the excitonic coupling by forming the expectation value of a supramolecular BSE Hamiltonian with electron-hole wave functions for excitations localized on two separated chromophores. Within this approach, accounting for the effects of coupling mediated by intermolecular charge transfer (CT) excitations is possible via perturbation theory or a reduction technique. Application to model configurations of pyrene dimers shows an accurate description of short-range exchange and long-range Coulomb interactions for the coupling of singlet and triplet excitons. Computational parameters, such as the choice of the exchange-correlation functional in the density-functional theory (DFT) calculations that underly the GW-BSE steps and the convergence with the number of included CT excitations, are scrutinized. Finally, an optimal strategy is derived for simulations of full large-scale morphologies by benchmarking various approximations using pairs of dicyanovinyl end-capped oligothiophenes (DCV5T), which are used as donor material in state-of-the-art organic solar cells.

  12. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiaoying; Hu, Zhongai Hu, Haixiong; Qiang, Ruibin; Li, Li; Li, Zhimin; Yang, Yuying; Zhang, Ziyu; Wu, Hongying

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g{sup −1}. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g{sup −1} to 20 A g{sup −1}) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode.

  13. Source Model Of 1999 November 12 Duzce, Turkey Earthquake Using Empirical Green's Function Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgoren, G.; Miyake, H.; Irikura, K.

    2001-12-01

    On 12 November 1999, an earthquake of moment magnitude 7.1, Io=X (MSK) occurred on Duzce Fault, in the eastern part of the Marmara Region just 3 months after Kocaeli (Mw:7.4) Earthquake. The strong motion networks deployed by several national and international institutes supplied us remarkable data to form the source model of this particular event. We examined the source model of Duzce event using 3 strong motion data, taken place in eastern and western side of the fault rupture within the radius of 65 km. We performed the simulation by the method of Irikura (1986) which essentially uses the small events as empirical Green's function and sums them up to follow the omega-squared scaling law. The best source model was decided by fitting synthetic acceleration, velocity and displacement traces to observed waveforms. Since there is no information about the mechanism of the element event used as green's function, for initial model, it is assumed that the source mechanism of the main and element events are the same. Even though the length of rupture area was calculated as approximately 20km by 40 km based on surface rupture observation as well as aftershock distribution, the strong motion generation area might be relatively smaller compared to the previous estimations. The size of the asperity was calculated as about 8km by 13km. The rupture started at the western bottom of the asperity and propagated radially from the hypocenter. Regarding the S-P time calculation of the Bolu (BLU) Station data, the possibility of existence of super shear velocity in eastern side of the fault were suggested by Bouchon et.al. (2001). We also take into consideration of this phenomenon during the simulation.

  14. Earthquake source tensor inversion with the gCAP method and 3D Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Zhu, L.; Ross, Z.

    2013-12-01

    We develop and apply a method to invert earthquake seismograms for source properties using a general tensor representation and 3D Green's functions. The method employs (i) a general representation of earthquake potency/moment tensors with double couple (DC), compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD), and isotropic (ISO) components, and (ii) a corresponding generalized CAP (gCap) scheme where the continuous wave trains are broken into Pnl and surface waves (Zhu & Ben-Zion, 2013). For comparison, we also use the waveform inversion method of Zheng & Chen (2012) and Ammon et al. (1998). Sets of 3D Green's functions are calculated on a grid of 1 km3 using the 3-D community velocity model CVM-4 (Kohler et al. 2003). A bootstrap technique is adopted to establish robustness of the inversion results using the gCap method (Ross & Ben-Zion, 2013). Synthetic tests with 1-D and 3-D waveform calculations show that the source tensor inversion procedure is reasonably reliable and robust. As initial application, the method is used to investigate source properties of the March 11, 2013, Mw=4.7 earthquake on the San Jacinto fault using recordings of ~45 stations up to ~0.2Hz. Both the best fitting and most probable solutions include ISO component of ~1% and CLVD component of ~0%. The obtained ISO component, while small, is found to be a non-negligible positive value that can have significant implications for the physics of the failure process. Work on using higher frequency data for this and other earthquakes is in progress.

  15. Green polymer chemistry: The role of Candida antarctica lipase B in polymer functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano Gil, Yenni Marcela

    The synthesis of functional polymers with well-defined structure, end-group fidelity and physico-chemical properties useful for biomedical applications has proven challenging. Chemo-enzymatic methods are an alternative strategy to increase the diversity of functional groups in polymeric materials. Specifically, enzyme-catalyzed polymer functionalization carried out under solventless conditions is a great advancement in the design of green processes for biomedical applications, where the toxicity of solvents and catalyst residues need to be considered. Enzymes offer several distinct advantages, including high efficiency, catalyst recyclability, and mild reaction conditions. This reseach aimed to precisely functionalized polymers using two methods: enzyme-catalyzed functionalization via polymerization and chemo-enzymatic functionalization of pre-made polymers for drug delivery. In the first method, well-defined poly(caprolactone)s were generated using alkyne-based initiating systems catalyzed by CALB. Propargyl alcohol and 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO) were shown to efficiently initiate the ring opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone under metal free conditions and yielded polymers with Mn ~4 to 24 KDa and relatively narrow molecular mass distribution. In the second methodology, we present quantitative enzyme-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and ethyl esters with poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG)s that will serve as building blocks for dendrimer synthesis, followed by introducing a new process for the exclusive gamma-conjugation of folic acid. Specifically, fluorescein-acrylate was enzymatically conjugated with PEG. Additionally, halo-ester functionalized PEGs were successfully prepared by the transesterification of alkyl halo-esters with PEGs. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, SEC and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry confirmed the structure and purity of the products.

  16. Self-response multi-functional composite material base on carbon nanotube paper using deicing, flame retardancy, thermal insulation, and lightning-strike protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hetao; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanotube paper (CNP) based multi-functional composite material is an attractive candidate for deicing, flame retardancy, thermal insulation and lighting strike protection due to the excellent conductivity, light weight and thin dimensions. In this article, multi-functional carbon nanotube paper was fabricated successfully by using commercial carbon nanotube. As a deicing composite material, carbon nanotube was used directly without pretreatment in fabricating carbon nanotube paper. The conductivities of the carbon nanotube paper and deicing composite were 77.8S/cm and 64.9S/ respectively. Electrical heating and deicing performance were test by infrared camera with deicing time less than 220s and 450s to melt a certain amount of ice under different ambient condition. CNT was grafted by zirconium (IV) butoxide solution and dimethyl dichlorosilicane to form co-oligomers on the tube surface while oligomers decompose under a certain temperature to develop an inorganic layer of silicon zirconium oxide. The oxidizing temperature of carbon nanotube increases more than 20°C and the weight loss rate decreases 20% than the untreated carbon nanotube. Lightning protection material required high electro conductivity, due to the utmost high current in a short time. Therefore, silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of carbon nanotube with the diameter around 100nm. The conductivity increased sharply from 84s/cm to1756s/cm with the mount of 5.9wt% Ag of the modified carbon nanotube paper because the silver nanoparticles deposited on the surface. In addition, the silver modified also can be used as thermal insulation material decreasing the infrared radiation.

  17. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  18. Using Green's Functions to initialize and adjust a global, eddying ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brix, H.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Jahn, O.; Wang, D.; Bowman, K.; Zhang, H.

    2015-11-01

    The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Project aims to attribute changes in the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide to spatially resolved fluxes by utilizing the full suite of NASA data, models, and assimilation capabilities. For the oceanic part of this project, we introduce ECCO2-Darwin, a new ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model based on combining the following pre-existing components: (i) a full-depth, eddying, global-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), (ii) an adjoint-method-based estimate of ocean circulation from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) project, (iii) the MIT ecosystem model "Darwin", and (iv) a marine carbon chemistry model. Air-sea gas exchange coefficients and initial conditions of dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and oxygen are adjusted using a Green's Functions approach in order to optimize modeled air-sea CO2 fluxes. Data constraints include observations of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) for 2009-2010, global air-sea CO2 flux estimates, and the seasonal cycle of the Takahashi et al. (2009) Atlas. The model sensitivity experiments (or Green's Functions) include simulations that start from different initial conditions as well as experiments that perturb air-sea gas exchange parameters and the ratio of particulate inorganic to organic carbon. The Green's Functions approach yields a linear combination of these sensitivity experiments that minimizes model-data differences. The resulting initial conditions and gas exchange coefficients are then used to integrate the ECCO2-Darwin model forward. Despite the small number (six) of control parameters, the adjusted simulation is significantly closer to the data constraints (37% cost function reduction, i.e., reduction in the model-data difference, relative to the baseline simulation) and to independent observations (e.g., alkalinity). The adjusted air-sea gas

  19. General atomistic approach for modeling metal-semiconductor interfaces using density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stradi, Daniele; Martinez, Umberto; Blom, Anders; Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    Metal-semiconductor contacts are a pillar of modern semiconductor technology. Historically, their microscopic understanding has been hampered by the inability of traditional analytical and numerical methods to fully capture the complex physics governing their operating principles. Here we introduce an atomistic approach based on density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function, which includes all the relevant ingredients required to model realistic metal-semiconductor interfaces and allows for a direct comparison between theory and experiments via I -Vbias curve simulations. We apply this method to characterize an Ag/Si interface relevant for photovoltaic applications and study the rectifying-to-Ohmic transition as a function of the semiconductor doping. We also demonstrate that the standard "activation energy" method for the analysis of I -Vbias data might be inaccurate for nonideal interfaces as it neglects electron tunneling, and that finite-size atomistic models have problems in describing these interfaces in the presence of doping due to a poor representation of space-charge effects. Conversely, the present method deals effectively with both issues, thus representing a valid alternative to conventional procedures for the accurate characterization of metal-semiconductor interfaces.

  20. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  1. Retardation Measurements of Infrared PVA Wave plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Z, H.; W, D.; D, Y.; Z, Z.; S, J.

    The wave plate made of Polyvinyl Alcohol PVA plastic film has several advantages such as its lower cost and insensitivity to temperature and incidence angle so it has been used in the Solar Multi-Channel Telescope SMCT in China But the important parameter retardations of PVA wave plates in the near infrared wavelength have never been provided In this paper a convenient and high precise instrument to get the retardations of discrete wavelengths or a continuous function of wavelength in near infrared is developed In this method the retardations of wave plates have been determined through calculating the maximum and minimum of light intensity The instrument error has been shown Additionally we can get the continuous direction of wavelength retardations in the ultraviolet visible or infrared spectral in another way

  2. Functionalization of sawdust with monosodium glutamate for enhancing its malachite green removal capacity.

    PubMed

    Gong, Renmin; Feng, Min; Zhao, Jiajing; Cai, Wenkai; Liu, Lingling

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, waste sawdust was functionalized by monosodium glutamate for improving its cationic sorption capacity. The functionalized sawdust (FS) and crude sawdust (CS) were compared for their malachite green (MG) sorption behaviors with a batch system. The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g. initial pH, sorbent dose, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature etc.) were investigated and the sorption kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics were understood. The MG removal ratios on FS and on CS increased with increasing initial pH and came up to the maximum value beyond pH 6 for FS and pH 8 for CS, respectively. The ratio of sorbed MG kept above 95% for 250 mg/l of MG solution when 2.0 g/l or more of FS was used. The MG removal percentage decreased more on CS than on FS with increasing initial MG concentration. The isothermal data of MG sorbed on FS and on CS followed the Langmuir model. By functionalizing, the sorption capacity (Q(m)) of sawdust for MG was increased from 85.47 to 196.08 mg/g and the sorption equilibrium time of MG was shortened from 23 to 4.5 h. The MG sorption processes on FS and on CS followed the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. The sorptions of MG on FS and on CS were spontaneous and exothermic processes and lower temperatures were favorable for the sorption processes.

  3. Excitons and Davydov splitting in sexithiophene from first-principles many-body Green's function theory.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xia; Yin, Huabing; Liang, Dongmei; Ma, Yuchen

    2015-09-21

    Organic semiconductors have promising and broad applications in optoelectronics. Understanding their electronic excited states is important to help us control their spectroscopic properties and performance of devices. There have been a large amount of experimental investigations on spectroscopies of organic semiconductors, but theoretical calculation from first principles on this respect is still limited. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) and many-body Green's function theory, which includes the GW method and Bethe-Salpeter equation, to study the electronic excited-state properties and spectroscopies of one prototypical organic semiconductor, sexithiophene. The exciton energies of sexithiophene in both the gas and bulk crystalline phases are very sensitive to the exchange-correlation functionals used in DFT for ground-state structure relaxation. We investigated the influence of dynamical screening in the electron-hole interaction on exciton energies, which is found to be very pronounced for triplet excitons and has to be taken into account in first principles calculations. In the sexithiophene single crystal, the energy of the lowest triplet exciton is close to half the energy of the lowest singlet one. While lower-energy singlet and triplet excitons are intramolecular Frenkel excitons, higher-energy excitons are of intermolecular charge-transfer type. The calculated optical absorption spectra and Davydov splitting are in good agreement with experiments.

  4. Excitons and Davydov splitting in sexithiophene from first-principles many-body Green's function theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Xia; Yin, Huabing; Liang, Dongmei; Ma, Yuchen

    2015-09-01

    Organic semiconductors have promising and broad applications in optoelectronics. Understanding their electronic excited states is important to help us control their spectroscopic properties and performance of devices. There have been a large amount of experimental investigations on spectroscopies of organic semiconductors, but theoretical calculation from first principles on this respect is still limited. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) and many-body Green's function theory, which includes the GW method and Bethe-Salpeter equation, to study the electronic excited-state properties and spectroscopies of one prototypical organic semiconductor, sexithiophene. The exciton energies of sexithiophene in both the gas and bulk crystalline phases are very sensitive to the exchange-correlation functionals used in DFT for ground-state structure relaxation. We investigated the influence of dynamical screening in the electron-hole interaction on exciton energies, which is found to be very pronounced for triplet excitons and has to be taken into account in first principles calculations. In the sexithiophene single crystal, the energy of the lowest triplet exciton is close to half the energy of the lowest singlet one. While lower-energy singlet and triplet excitons are intramolecular Frenkel excitons, higher-energy excitons are of intermolecular charge-transfer type. The calculated optical absorption spectra and Davydov splitting are in good agreement with experiments.

  5. Fractional charge and spin errors in self-consistent Green's function theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jordan J.; Kananenka, Alexei A.; Zgid, Dominika

    2015-05-01

    We examine fractional charge and spin errors in self-consistent Green's function theory within a second-order approximation (GF2). For GF2, it is known that the summation of diagrams resulting from the self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation removes the divergences pathological to second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) theory for strong correlations. In the language often used in density functional theory contexts, this means GF2 has a greatly reduced fractional spin error relative to MP2. The natural question then is what effect, if any, does the Dyson summation have on the fractional charge error in GF2? To this end, we generalize our previous implementation of GF2 to open-shell systems and analyze its fractional spin and charge errors. We find that like MP2, GF2 possesses only a very small fractional charge error, and consequently minimal many electron self-interaction error. This shows that GF2 improves on the critical failings of MP2, but without altering the positive features that make it desirable. Furthermore, we find that GF2 has both less fractional charge and fractional spin errors than typical hybrid density functionals as well as random phase approximation with exchange.

  6. Function and dynamics of aptamers: A case study on the malachite green aptamer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tianjiao

    2008-01-01

    Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acids that can bind to their targets with high specificity and high affinity. To study aptamer function and dynamics, the malachite green aptamer was chosen as a model. Malachite green (MG) bleaching, in which an OH- attacks the central carbon (C1) of MG, was inhibited in the presence of the malachite green aptamer (MGA). The inhibition of MG bleaching by MGA could be reversed by an antisense oligonucleotide (AS) complementary to the MGA binding pocket. Computational cavity analysis of the NMR structure of the MGA-MG complex predicted that the OH- is sterically excluded from the C1 of MG. The prediction was confirmed experimentally using variants of the MGA with changes in the MG binding pocket. This work shows that molecular reactivity can be reversibly regulated by an aptamer-AS pair based on steric hindrance. In addition to demonstrate that aptamers could control molecular reactivity, aptamer dynamics was studied with a strategy combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and experimental verification. MD simulation predicted that the MG binding pocket of the MGA is largely pre-organized and that binding of MG involves reorganization of the pocket and a simultaneous twisting of the MGA terminal stems around the pocket. MD simulation also provided a 3D-structure model of unoccupied MGA that has not yet been obtained by biophysical measurements. These predictions were consistent with biochemical and biophysical measurements of the MGA-MG interaction including RNase I footprinting, melting curves, thermodynamic and kinetic constants measurement. This work shows that MD simulation can be used to extend our understanding of the dynamics of aptamer-target interaction which is not evident from static 3D-structures. To conclude, I have developed a novel concept to control molecular reactivity by an aptamer based on steric protection and a strategy to study the dynamics of aptamer-target interaction by combining MD

  7. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Method Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Results Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Conclusion Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity

  8. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Demuzere, M; Orru, K; Heidrich, O; Olazabal, E; Geneletti, D; Orru, H; Bhave, A G; Mittal, N; Feliu, E; Faehnle, M

    2014-12-15

    In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas.

  9. Acousto-Optic Beam Sampler, Part 2. Green’s Function Solution to Acousto-Optic Interaction Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This part of the ’ Acousto - Optic Beam Sampler,’ series lays down the formalism behind the Green’s function integral approach to solving the acousto ... optic scattering problem. The advantage of this formulation which is applicable to gases is shown through developing the solution to the scattering

  10. Green function of the double-fractional Fokker-Planck equation: path integral and stochastic differential equations.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, H; Zatloukal, V

    2013-11-01

    The statistics of rare events, the so-called black-swan events, is governed by non-Gaussian distributions with heavy power-like tails. We calculate the Green functions of the associated Fokker-Planck equations and solve the related stochastic differential equations. We also discuss the subject in the framework of path integration.

  11. Asymptotic structure of the three-body Coulomb Green's function for the case of two charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, S. B.; Yakovlev, S. L.; Elander, N.

    2001-12-01

    The three-body Coulomb Green's function asymptotic structure is studied by the stationary phase method for the convolution integral for the case of two charged particles. The stationary phase points are roots of the third degree polinomial with the coefficients depending on the position in configuration space.

  12. Diffusion in an expanding medium: Fokker-Planck equation, Green's function, and first-passage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuste, S. B.; Abad, E.; Escudero, C.

    2016-09-01

    We present a classical, mesoscopic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation for diffusion in an expanding medium. To this end, we take a conveniently generalized Chapman-Kolmogorov equation as the starting point. We obtain an analytical expression for the Green's function (propagator) and investigate both analytically and numerically how this function and the associated moments behave. We also study first-passage properties in expanding hyperspherical geometries. We show that in all cases the behavior is determined to a great extent by the so-called Brownian conformal time τ (t ) , which we define via the relation τ ˙=1 /a2 , where a (t ) is the expansion scale factor. If the medium expansion is driven by a power law [a (t ) ∝tγ with γ >0 ] , then we find interesting crossover effects in the mixing effectiveness of the diffusion process when the characteristic exponent γ is varied. Crossover effects are also found at the level of the survival probability and of the moments of the first passage-time distribution with two different regimes separated by the critical value γ =1 /2 . The case of an exponential scale factor is analyzed separately both for expanding and contracting media. In the latter situation, a stationary probability distribution arises in the long-time limit.

  13. Gross-Pitaevskii Approximation for the Bose-Einstein Condensation: Green Function Formalism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trallero-Giner, Carlos; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos; Birman, Joseph L.

    2003-03-01

    Using the Green function method we solved the time-independent, T=O K, one-dimension, Gross-Pitaevskii equation (G-PE) for the Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic alkali gases. We are able to formally obtain an analytical solution for the order parameter Ψ (x) and for the chemical potential μ as a function of the trapping frequency ω and the effective interaction constant \\overlineΛ . A Bonn-Neuman iterative procedure is implemented for solving the non-linear system of equations obtained from the G-PE equations into the formalism. Also, we compare the G.f. formalism and two other method of solution: variational (soliton solution) and perturbation theory for the universal parameter, \\overlineΛ /(lhbar ω ) (l is the magnetic length), which characterize the atomic gas condensation. Generalization of the above mentioned methods for two order parameter Ψ _i(x); i=1,2 (i.e. two species of alkali atoms) is also presented.

  14. Improvements on non-equilibrium and transport Green function techniques: The next-generation TRANSIESTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papior, Nick; Lorente, Nicolás; Frederiksen, Thomas; García, Alberto; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-03-01

    We present novel methods implemented within the non-equilibrium Green function code (NEGF) TRANSIESTA based on density functional theory (DFT). Our flexible, next-generation DFT-NEGF code handles devices with one or multiple electrodes (Ne ≥ 1) with individual chemical potentials and electronic temperatures. We describe its novel methods for electrostatic gating, contour optimizations, and assertion of charge conservation, as well as the newly implemented algorithms for optimized and scalable matrix inversion, performance-critical pivoting, and hybrid parallelization. Additionally, a generic NEGF ;post-processing; code (TBTRANS/PHTRANS) for electron and phonon transport is presented with several novelties such as Hamiltonian interpolations, Ne ≥ 1 electrode capability, bond-currents, generalized interface for user-defined tight-binding transport, transmission projection using eigenstates of a projected Hamiltonian, and fast inversion algorithms for large-scale simulations easily exceeding 106 atoms on workstation computers. The new features of both codes are demonstrated and bench-marked for relevant test systems.

  15. Resistance of Ag-silicene-Ag junctions: A combined nonequilibrium Green's function and Boltzmann transport study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Fry, J. N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2013-09-01

    For several years the electronic structure properties of the two-dimensional system silicene have been studied extensively. Electron transport across metal-silicene junctions, however, remains relatively unexplored. To address this issue, we developed and implemented a theoretical framework that utilizes the tight-binding Fisher-Lee relation to span nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) techniques, the scattering method, and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Within this hybrid quantum-classical, two-scale framework, we calculated transmission and reflection coefficients of monolayer and bilayer Ag-silicene-Ag junctions using the NEGF method in conjunction with density functional theory; derived and calculated the group velocities; and computed resistance using the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. We found that resistances of these junctions are ˜0.08fΩm2 for monolayer silicene junctions and ˜0.3fΩm2 for bilayer ones; factors of ˜8 and ˜2, respectively, smaller than Sharvin resistances estimated via the Landauer formalism.

  16. Diffusion in an expanding medium: Fokker-Planck equation, Green's function, and first-passage properties.

    PubMed

    Yuste, S B; Abad, E; Escudero, C

    2016-09-01

    We present a classical, mesoscopic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation for diffusion in an expanding medium. To this end, we take a conveniently generalized Chapman-Kolmogorov equation as the starting point. We obtain an analytical expression for the Green's function (propagator) and investigate both analytically and numerically how this function and the associated moments behave. We also study first-passage properties in expanding hyperspherical geometries. We show that in all cases the behavior is determined to a great extent by the so-called Brownian conformal time τ(t), which we define via the relation τ[over ̇]=1/a^{2}, where a(t) is the expansion scale factor. If the medium expansion is driven by a power law [a(t)∝t^{γ} with γ>0], then we find interesting crossover effects in the mixing effectiveness of the diffusion process when the characteristic exponent γ is varied. Crossover effects are also found at the level of the survival probability and of the moments of the first passage-time distribution with two different regimes separated by the critical value γ=1/2. The case of an exponential scale factor is analyzed separately both for expanding and contracting media. In the latter situation, a stationary probability distribution arises in the long-time limit.

  17. Source parameters of intermediate-depth Vrancea (Romania) earthquakes from empirical Green's functions modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oth, Adrien; Wenzel, Friedemann; Radulian, Mircea

    2007-06-01

    Several source parameters (source dimensions, slip, particle velocity, static and dynamic stress drop) are determined for the moderate-size October 27th, 2004 ( MW = 5.8), and the large August 30th, 1986 ( MW = 7.1) and March 4th, 1977 ( MW = 7.4) Vrancea (Romania) intermediate-depth earthquakes. For this purpose, the empirical Green's functions method of Irikura [e.g. Irikura, K. (1983). Semi-Empirical Estimation of Strong Ground Motions during Large Earthquakes. Bull. Dis. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., 33, Part 2, No. 298, 63-104., Irikura, K. (1986). Prediction of strong acceleration motions using empirical Green's function, in Proceedings of the 7th Japan earthquake engineering symposium, 151-156., Irikura, K. (1999). Techniques for the simulation of strong ground motion and deterministic seismic hazard analysis, in Proceedings of the advanced study course seismotectonic and microzonation techniques in earthquake engineering: integrated training in earthquake risk reduction practices, Kefallinia, 453-554.] is used to generate synthetic time series from recordings of smaller events (with 4 ≤ MW ≤ 5) in order to estimate several parameters characterizing the so-called strong motion generation area, which is defined as an extended area with homogeneous slip and rise time and, for crustal earthquakes, corresponds to an asperity of about 100 bar stress release [Miyake, H., T. Iwata and K. Irikura (2003). Source characterization for broadband ground-motion simulation: Kinematic heterogeneous source model and strong motion generation area. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 93, 2531-2545.] The parameters are obtained by acceleration envelope and displacement waveform inversion for the 2004 and 1986 events and MSK intensity pattern inversion for the 1977 event using a genetic algorithm. The strong motion recordings of the analyzed Vrancea earthquakes as well as the MSK intensity pattern of the 1977 earthquake can be well reproduced using relatively small strong motion

  18. Proceedings of the Regional Institute on the Blind Child Who Functions on a Retarded Level (Villa Capri Motor Hotel, Austin, Texas, May 8-10, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Papers on visually handicapped and mentally retarded children presented are the following: the challenge of the problem; programming; developmental learning; psychotherapeutic learning; operant conditioning; design of institutional facilities; care and management in institutional settings, schools, and state homes; and definitions of medical terms…

  19. Perceptions of a Person with Mental Retardation as a Function of Participation in Integrated versus Segregated Recreation/Sport Activities: An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellow, J. Thomas; Frey, Georgia C.; Sandt, Dawn Rosser

    2007-01-01

    This study is a conceptual replication of previous work by Storey, Stern, & Parker (1990) that examined the influence of participation in integrated vs. segregated recreation/sports activities on evaluations of a person with mental retardation by persons without a disability. The Storey et al., (1990) study observed that people with mental…

  20. From Green to Blue: Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the Green Fluorescent Protein to Teach Protein Structure-Function Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giron, Maria D.; Salto, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Structure-function relationship studies in proteins are essential in modern Cell Biology. Laboratory exercises that allow students to familiarize themselves with basic mutagenesis techniques are essential in all Genetic Engineering courses to teach the relevance of protein structure. We have implemented a laboratory course based on the…

  1. Dose-dependent functionality and toxicity of green tea polyphenols in experimental rodents.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akira

    2014-09-01

    A large number of physiologically functional foods are comprised of plant polyphenols. Their antioxidative activities have been intensively studied for a long period and proposed to be one of the major mechanisms of action accounting for their health promotional and disease preventive effects. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) are considered to possess marked anti-oxidative properties and versatile beneficial functions, including anti-inflammation and cancer prevention. On the other hand, some investigators, including us, have uncovered their toxicity at high doses presumably due to pro-oxidative properties. For instance, both experimental animal studies and epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that GTPs may cause hepatotoxicity. We also recently showed that diets containing high doses (0.5-1%) of a GTP deteriorated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In addition, colitis mode mice fed a 1% GTP exhibited symptoms of nephrotoxicity, as indicated by marked elevation of serum creatinine level. This diet also increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, a reliable marker of oxidative damage, in both kidneys and livers even in normal mice, while the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs) were diminished in colitis and normal mice. Intriguingly, GTPs at 0.01% and 0.1% showed hepato-protective activities, i.e., they significantly suppressed DSS-increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. Moreover, those diets remarkably restored DSS-down-regulated expressions of heme oxygenase-1 and HSP70 in livers and kidneys. Taken together, while low and medium doses of GTPs are beneficial in colitis model mice, unwanted side-effects occasionally emerge with high doses. This dose-dependent functionality and toxicity of GTPs are in accordance with the concept of hormesis, in which mild, but not severe, stress activates defense systems for adaptation and survival.

  2. General theory for calculating disorder-averaged Green's function correlators within the coherent potential approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenyi; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We report a diagrammatic method to solve the general problem of calculating configurationally averaged Green's function correlators that appear in quantum transport theory for nanostructures containing disorder. The theory treats both equilibrium and nonequilibrium quantum statistics on an equal footing. Since random impurity scattering is a problem that cannot be solved exactly in a perturbative approach, we combine our diagrammatic method with the coherent potential approximation (CPA) so that a reliable closed-form solution can be obtained. Our theory not only ensures the internal consistency of the diagrams derived at different levels of the correlators but also satisfies a set of Ward-like identities that corroborate the conserving consistency of transport calculations within the formalism. The theory is applied to calculate the quantum transport properties such as average ac conductance and transmission moments of a disordered tight-binding model, and results are numerically verified to high precision by comparing to the exact solutions obtained from enumerating all possible disorder configurations. Our formalism can be employed to predict transport properties of a wide variety of physical systems where disorder scattering is important.

  3. Green's functions and first passage time distributions for dynamic instability of microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicout, D. J.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the dynamic instability process describing the self-assembly and/or disassembly of microtubules is a continuous version of a variant of persistent random walks described by the generalized telegrapher's equation. That is to say, a microtubule is likely to undergo stochastic traveling waves in which catastrophe and rescue events cannot propagate faster than v- and v+, respectively. For this stochastic process, analytic expressions for Green's functions of position and velocity of a microtubule and exact solutions for the first passage time distributions of a microtubule to the nucleating site are obtained. It is shown that, in the ω-->∞ limit, where ω-1 is the persistence time, the dynamic instability process can be described by a diffusion process in the presence of a drift term that, in fact, is the steady-state velocity of the microtubule. As a result, the catastrophe time distribution (i.e., the distribution of microtubule lifetimes to the nucleating site) exhibits a power law with an exponential cutoff as F(t\\|x0)~t-3/2e-t/τc, where τc is the time scale at which the drift term and the diffusive term are comparable.

  4. Fully relativistic surface green function and its application to surface spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, E.

    1993-06-30

    A fully relativistic layer-KKR formalism was developed and implemented for calculating the single-particle Green function in atomic layers parallel to crystalline surfaces magnetic and non magnetic materials: The method was applied to the calculation surface spectroscopies, such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED), angle-resolve ultraviolet photo emission spectroscopy (UPS), and photoelectron scattering. Numeric tests were performed for non magnetic actinide surfaces and magnetic Fe surface Theoretical angle-resolved UPS spectra are presented for uranium monolayers on Pt(111) and for f.c.c. u(lll) surfaces. We find that u island formation can take place if a peak in the UPS spectra appears just before the Fermi energy immediately as u is deposited on P and we suggest an experimental procedure for testing this prediction. An intensity map photo excited electrons from the 2p{sub 3/2} core states of Fe(110) surface is also show Sizable magnetic anisotropy is found due to the interference between exchange and spin-orbit interaction, which is suitable for studying a possible surface-induced magnetism actinide adlayers.

  5. A self-force approach to the two-body problem: The Green function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, Marc

    2016-06-01

    The inspiral of a stellar-mass astrophysical object into a massive black hole may be modeled within perturbation theory of General Relativity via the so-called self-force. In this paper, we present a novel method for the calculation of the self-force which is based on the Green function (GF) of the wave equation satisfied by the field created by the smaller object. We review the results in [M. Casals, S. Dolan, A. C. Ottewill and B. Wardell, Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 044022; B. Wardell, C. R. Galley, A. Zenginoğlu, M. Casals, S. R. Dolan and A. C. Ottewill, Phys. Rev. D 89 (2014) 084021] on the GF and the self-force on a scalar charge (as a model for the gravitational case) moving on a Schwarzschild black hole spacetime. This GF method offers an appealing geometrical insight into the origin of the self-force and is a promising candidate for practical self-force calculations.

  6. Analytical solution of advection-diffusion equation in heterogeneous infinite medium using Green's function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanskrityayn, Abhishek; Kumar, Naveen

    2016-12-01

    Some analytical solutions of one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation (ADE) with variable dispersion coefficient and velocity are obtained using Green's function method (GFM). The variability attributes to the heterogeneity of hydro-geological media like river bed or aquifer in more general ways than that in the previous works. Dispersion coefficient is considered temporally dependent, while velocity is considered spatially and temporally dependent. The spatial dependence is considered to be linear and temporal dependence is considered to be of linear, exponential and asymptotic. The spatio-temporal dependence of velocity is considered in three ways. Results of previous works are also derived validating the results of the present work. To use GFM, a moving coordinate transformation is developed through which this ADE is reduced into a form, whose analytical solution is already known. Analytical solutions are obtained for the pollutant's mass dispersion from an instantaneous point source as well as from a continuous point source in a heterogeneous medium. The effect of such dependence on the mass transport is explained through the illustrations of the analytical solutions.

  7. Green Extraction from Pomegranate Marcs for the Production of Functional Foods and Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Boggia, Raffaella; Turrini, Federica; Villa, Carla; Lacapra, Chiara; Zunin, Paola; Parodi, Brunella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of retrieving polyphenolic antioxidants directly from wet pomegranate marcs: the fresh by-products obtained after pomegranate juice processing. These by-products mainly consist of internal membranes (endocarp) and aril residues. Even if they are still edible, they are usually discharged during juice production and, thus, they represent a great challenge in an eco-sustainable industrial context. Green technologies, such as ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE), have been employed to convert these organic residues into recycled products with high added value. UAE and MAE were used both in parallel and in series in order to make a comparison and to ensure exhaustive extractions, respectively. Water, as an environmentally friendly extraction solvent, has been employed. The results were compared with those ones coming from a conventional extraction. The most promising extract, in terms of total polyphenol yield and radical scavenging activity, has been tested both as a potential natural additive and as a functional ingredient after its incorporation in a real food model and in a real cosmetic matrix, respectively. This study represents a proposal to the agro-alimentary sector given the general need of environmental “responsible care”. PMID:27763542

  8. Aerodynamic interference effects on tilting proprotor aircraft. [using the Green function method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soohoo, P.; Morino, L.; Noll, R. B.; Ham, N. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Green's function method was used to study tilting proprotor aircraft aerodynamics with particular application to the problem of the mutual interference of the wing-fuselage-tail-rotor wake configuration. While the formulation is valid for fully unsteady rotor aerodynamics, attention was directed to steady state aerodynamics, which was achieved by replacing the rotor with the actuator disk approximation. The use of an actuator disk analysis introduced a mathematical singularity into the formulation; this problem was studied and resolved. The pressure distribution, lift, and pitching moment were obtained for an XV-15 wing-fuselage-tail rotor configuration at various flight conditions. For the flight configurations explored, the effects of the rotor wake interference on the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft yielded a reduction in the total lift and an increase in the nose-down pitching moment. This method provides an analytical capability that is simple to apply and can be used to investigate fuselage-tail rotor wake interference as well as to explore other rotor design problem areas.

  9. Eigenfunction approach to the Green's function parabolic equation in outdoor sound: A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kenneth E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the physics and mathematics underlying a computational algorithm such as the Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) is both useful and worthwhile. To this end, the present article aims to give a more widely accessible derivation of the GFPE algorithm than was given originally by Gilbert and Di [(1993). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 2343-2352]. The present derivation, which uses mathematics familiar to most engineers and physicists, begins with the separation of variables method, a basic and well-known approach for solving partial differential equations. The method leads naturally to eigenvalue-eigenfunction equations. A step-by-step analysis arrives at relatively simple, analytic expressions for the horizontal and vertical eigenfunctions, which are sinusoids plus a surface wave. The eigenfunctions are superposed in an eigenfunction expansion to yield a one-way propagation solution. The one-way solution is generalized to obtain the GFPE algorithm. In addition, and equally important, the eigenfunctions are used to give concrete meaning to abstract operator solutions for one-way acoustic propagation. By using an eigenfunction expansion of the acoustic field, together with an operator solution, one can obtain the GFPE algorithm very directly and concisely.

  10. Dynamical Green's function and an exact optical potential for electron-molecule scattering including nuclear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Joachim; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    1999-10-01

    We derive a rigorous optical potential for electron-molecule scattering including the effects of nuclear dynamics by extending the common many-body Green's function approach to optical potentials beyond the fixed-nuclei limit for molecular targets. Our formalism treats the projectile electron and the nuclear motion of the target molecule on the same footing whereby the dynamical optical potential rigorously accounts for the complex many-body nature of the scattering target. One central result of the present work is that the common fixed-nuclei optical potential is a valid adiabatic approximation to the dynamical optical potential even when projectile and nuclear motion are (nonadiabatically) coupled as long as the scattering energy is well below the electronic excitation thresholds of the target. For extremely low projectile velocities, however, when the cross sections are most sensitive to the scattering potential, we expect the influences of the nuclear dynamics on the optical potential to become relevant. For these cases, a systematic way to improve the adiabatic approximation to the dynamical optical potential is presented that yields nonlocal operators with respect to the nuclear coordinates.

  11. Green's function for a spherical dielectric discontinuity and its application to simulation.

    PubMed

    Linse, Per; Lue, Leo

    2014-01-28

    We present rapidly convergent expressions for the Green's function of the Poisson equation for spherically symmetric systems where the dielectric constant varies discontinuously in the radial direction. These expressions are used in Monte Carlo simulations of various electrolyte systems, and their efficiency is assessed. With only the leading term of the expansion included, a precision of the polarization energy of 0.01 kJ mol(-1) or better was achieved, which is smaller than the statistical uncertainty of a typical simulation. The inclusion of the dielectric inhomogeneity leads to a 2.5-fold increase of the computational effort, which is modest for this type of model. The simulations are performed on six types of systems having either (i) a uniform surface charge distribution, (ii) a uniform volume charge distribution, or (iii) mobile ions, which were neutralized by mobile counterions. The ion density distributions are investigated for different dielectric conditions. These spatial distributions are discussed in terms of the importance of (i) the direct mean-field Coulomb interaction, (ii) the surface charge polarization at the dielectric discontinuity, and/or (iii) the change in the attractive Coulomb correlations.

  12. Simulation of the radiolysis of water using Green's functions of the diffusion equation.

    PubMed

    Plante, I; Cucinotta, F A

    2015-09-01

    Radiation chemistry is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionising radiation, notably with regard to DNA damage by indirect effect (e.g. damage by ·OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). In the recent years, Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDEs) have been used extensively in biochemistry, notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space. In the present work, an approach based on the GFDE will be used to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionising radiation on DNA. As a starting point, the code RITRACKS (relativistic ion tracks) will be used to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of all radiolytic species formed during irradiation. The chemical reactions between these radiolytic species and with DNA will be done by using an efficient Monte Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state that has been developed recently. These simulations should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage, particularly with regards to the formation of double-strand breaks.

  13. A Radiation Chemistry Code Based on the Green's Function of the Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic radiation track structure codes are of great interest for space radiation studies and hadron therapy in medicine. These codes are used for a many purposes, notably for microdosimetry and DNA damage studies. In the last two decades, they were also used with the Independent Reaction Times (IRT) method in the simulation of chemical reactions, to calculate the yield of various radiolytic species produced during the radiolysis of water and in chemical dosimeters. Recently, we have developed a Green's function based code to simulate reversible chemical reactions with an intermediate state, which yielded results in excellent agreement with those obtained by using the IRT method. This code was also used to simulate and the interaction of particles with membrane receptors. We are in the process of including this program for use with the Monte-Carlo track structure code Relativistic Ion Tracks (RITRACKS). This recent addition should greatly expand the capabilities of RITRACKS, notably to simulate DNA damage by both the direct and indirect effect.

  14. Influence of phonons on solid-state cavity-QED investigated using nonequilibrium Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornecker, Gaston; Auffèves, Alexia; Grange, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The influence of electron-phonon interactions on the dynamics of a quantum dot coupled to a photonic cavity mode is investigated by using a nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Within a polaron frame, the self-consistent-Born approximation is used to treat the phonon-assisted scattering processes between the quantum dot polaron and the cavity. Two-time correlators of the quantum dot-cavity system are calculated by solving the Kadanoff-Baym equations, giving access to photon spectra and photon indistinguishability. The non-Markovian nature of the interaction with the phonon bath is shown to be very accurately described by our method in various regimes of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity-QED). The indistinguishability of the emitted photons emitted at zero temperature are found to be in very good agreement with a previously reported exact diagonalization approach [Phys. Rev. B 87, 081308 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.081308]. Besides, our method enables the calculations of photon indistinguishability at finite temperatures and for strong electron-phonon interactions. More generally, our method opens new avenues in the study of open quantum system dynamics coupled to non-Markovian environments.

  15. A Green's Function Approach to Simulate DNA Damage by the Indirect Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cicinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation. DNA is damaged by the direct effect of radiation (e.g. direct ionization) and by indirect effect (e.g. damage by.OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). Despite years of research, many questions on the DNA damage by ionizing radiation remains. In the recent years, the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE) have been used extensively in biochemistry [1], notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space [2]. In our future work on DNA damage, we wish to use an approach based on the GFDE to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionizing radiation on DNA. To do so, we will use the code RITRACKS [3] developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of radiolytic species after irradiation. We have also recently developed an efficient Monte-Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state [4], which can be modified and adapted to simulate DNA damage by free radicals. To do so, we will use the known reaction rate constants between radicals (OH, eaq, H,...) and the DNA bases, sugars and phosphates and use the sampling algorithms to simulate the diffusion of free radicals and chemical reactions with DNA. These techniques should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage and double-strand breaks.

  16. Nonequilibrium Green's functions theory for the alpha factor of quantum cascade lasers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mauro F.; Winge, David O.; Wacker, Andreas; Jumpertz, Louise; Michel, Florian; Pawlus, Robert; Elsaesser, Wolfgang E.; Schires, Kevin; Carras, Mathieu; Grillot, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The linewidth of a conventional laser is due to fluctuations in the laser field due to spontaneous emission and described by the Schalow-Townes formula. In addition to that, in a semiconductor laser there is a contribution arising from fluctuations in the refractive index induced by carrier density fluctuations. The later are quantitatively described by the linewidth enhancement or alpha factor [C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18 (2), 259 (1982), W. W. Chow, S. W. Koch and M. Sargent III, Semiconductor-Laser Physics, Springer-Verlag (1994), M.F. Pereira Jr et al, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B10, 765 (1993). In this paper we investigate the alpha factor of quantum cascade lasers under actual operating conditions using the Nonequilibrium Greens Functions approach [A. Wacker et a, IEEE Journal of Sel. Top. in Quantum Electron.,19 1200611, (2013), T. Schmielau and M.F. Pereira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 231111, (2009)]. The simulations are compared with recent results obtained with different optical feedback techniques [L. Jumpertz et al, AIP ADVANCES 6, 015212 (2016)].

  17. Fast and cheap approximation of Green function uncertainty for waveform-based earthquake source inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallo, M.; Gallovič, F.

    2016-11-01

    Green functions (GFs) are an essential ingredient in waveform-based earthquake source inversions. Hence, the error due to imprecise knowledge of a crustal velocity model is one of the major sources of uncertainty of the inferred earthquake source parameters. Recent strategies in Bayesian waveform inversions rely on statistical description of the GF uncertainty by means of a Gaussian distribution characterized by a covariance matrix. Here we use Monte-Carlo approach to estimate the GF covariance considering randomly perturbed velocity models. We analyse the dependence of the covariance on various parameters (strength of velocity model perturbations, GF frequency content, source-station distance, etc.). Recognizing that the major source of the GF uncertainty is related to the random time shifts of the signal, we propose a simplified approach to obtain approximate covariances, bypassing the numerically expensive Monte-Carlo simulations. The resulting closed-form formulae for the approximate auto-covariances and cross-covariances between stations and components can be easily implemented in existing inversion techniques. We demonstrate that the approximate covariances exhibit very good agreement with the Monte-Carlo estimates, providing realistic variations of the GF waveforms. Furthermore, we show examples of implementation of the covariance matrix in a Bayesian moment tensor inversion using both synthetic and real data sets. We demonstrate that taking the GF uncertainty into account leads to improved estimates of the moment tensor parameters and their uncertainty.

  18. Design and simulation of double-lightly doped MOSCNT using non-equilibrium Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Narjes; Aziziyan, Mohammad Reza; Fathi, Davood

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new ohmic-structure of ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) in which the source and drain regions are doped stepwise and the device acts as MOSFET like CNTFET (MOSCNT). The number of lightly doped regions and their doping concentrations are optimized to obtain the lowest OFF current. To study the device characteristics, the Poisson-Schrödinger equations are solved self-consistently using the Nonequilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) formalism in the mode space approach. To find the Hamiltonian matrix, the tight-binding approximation with only p z orbital is used. The obtained results show that the stepwise regions lead to barrier widening due to the reduction in potential gradient. Therefore, the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) and the ambipolar behavior of the device decrease due to band engineering. This causes to the superior reduction of OFF current and dissipative power. In addition, the device performance shows lower subthreshold swing (SS), smaller drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), and larger current ratio than that of the previous structures.

  19. Green's function for a spherical dielectric discontinuity and its application to simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linse, Per; Lue, Leo

    2014-01-01

    We present rapidly convergent expressions for the Green's function of the Poisson equation for spherically symmetric systems where the dielectric constant varies discontinuously in the radial direction. These expressions are used in Monte Carlo simulations of various electrolyte systems, and their efficiency is assessed. With only the leading term of the expansion included, a precision of the polarization energy of 0.01 kJ mol-1 or better was achieved, which is smaller than the statistical uncertainty of a typical simulation. The inclusion of the dielectric inhomogeneity leads to a 2.5-fold increase of the computational effort, which is modest for this type of model. The simulations are performed on six types of systems having either (i) a uniform surface charge distribution, (ii) a uniform volume charge distribution, or (iii) mobile ions, which were neutralized by mobile counterions. The ion density distributions are investigated for different dielectric conditions. These spatial distributions are discussed in terms of the importance of (i) the direct mean-field Coulomb interaction, (ii) the surface charge polarization at the dielectric discontinuity, and/or (iii) the change in the attractive Coulomb correlations.

  20. Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes from Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Blankenship

    2005-08-10

    This project is concerned with the structure and function of the chlorosome antennas found in green photosynthetic bacteria. Chlorosomes are ellipsoidal structures attached to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane. These antenna complexes provide a very large absorption cross section for light capture. Evidence is overwhelming that the chlorosome represents a very different type of antenna from that found in any other photosynthetic system yet studied. It is now clear that chlorosomes do not contain traditional pigment-proteins, in which the pigments bind to specific sites on proteins. Instead, the chlorosome pigments are organized in vivo into pigment oligomers in which direct pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. Our group has used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate this unique system, as well as the complexes that they directly interact with. Our work has included using model systems, numerous types of both steady-state and ultrafast spectroscopy, molecular biology, protein chemistry and X-ray crystallography. Details of our recent results using these approaches are given below and in the references. Numbers cited in the sections refer to DOE-sponsored publications that are listed below. Only publications dated 2001-2004 or later are included in this report. In addition to the primary literature reports, a comprehensive review of this area of research has been written as well as a commentary.

  1. Combined analysis of ferromagnetic materials using the Heisenberg Green functions and Ising EFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moujaes, Elie A.; Khater, A.; Abou Ghantous, M.

    2015-10-01

    Ferromagnetic phase diagrams were, for a long time, unsuccessfully determined theoretically, despite the important Callen's 1963 [21] theoretical model. A great variety of experimental data for the magnetization over the entire range of temperature defining the ordered phase compared well with an empirical formula recently determined by Kuz'min (2005) [22]. Nonetheless, the Ising effective field theory (EFT), which can be of enormous support to both methods, was never given attention. The present work intends to show how the Ising EFT technique, when combined with the Green functions in Callen's work, is able to reconcile theoretical work with experimental data. The ratio kTc / JZS(S + 1) plays an important role in finding values for the exchange parameter J, whose first-principles calculation, often depending on the package used, is not properly done. J can be determined for a variety of ferromagnetic materials represented by general spin systems S with a number of nearest neighbours Z and critical temperature Tc, even for models including a percolative feature, characteristic of diluted interactive systems. We demonstrate that EFT is capable of estimating a value of J, which can substitute the use of more complex theoretical models or the performance of ab initio/DFT calculations.

  2. Elucidating the contact mechanics of aluminum silicon surfaces with Green's function molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campañá, Carlos; Müser, Martin H.; Denniston, Colin; Qi, Yue; Perry, Thomas A.

    2007-12-01

    We study the contact mechanics of a flat, elastic wall pressed against a rigid substrate with Green's function molecular dynamics. The substrate's height profiles are parametrized from atomic force microscope topography measurements of two different aluminum-silicon alloys. In both samples, roughness lives on disparate length scales, i.e., on relatively large scales defined by size and mean separation of load-bearing silicon particles and on much smaller scales associated with the roughness on top of individual particles. The major differences between the two alloys are their silicon content and the typical silicon particle geometry. These differences lead to quite different stress distributions on both mesoscale and microscale in our calculations. A common feature is that the stress distribution decays exponentially for large stresses σ and not like a Gaussian. Persson's contact mechanics theory is generalized to the case where contact can only occur on silicon particles. This generalization predicts relatively accurate microscopic mean square stresses, however, it fails to predict accurate numbers for mean square stresses on the mesoscopic scales. Local overlap models are not accurate either, because they fail to describe the contact morphology.

  3. Fire retardant polyetherimide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Takekoshi, T.; Giannelis, E.P.

    1997-09-01

    Polyetherimide-layered silicates nanocomposites with increased char yield and fire retardancy are described. The use of nanocomposites is a new, environmentally-benign approach to improve fire resistance of polymers. An increase in the aromaticity yields high char residues that normally correlate with higher oxygen index and lower flammability. The often high cost of these materials and the specialized processing techniques required, however, have limited the use of these polymers to certain specialized applications. The effectiveness of fire retardant fillers is also limited since the large amounts required make processing difficult and might inadvertently affect mechanical properties.

  4. [Nosology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González Castañón, Diego; Aznar, Andrea S; Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    The classificatory systems used through history. The analysis of their criteria for categorization allowed the authors to deduce the nosologic considerations and the paradigms underlying the conceptions of mental retardation sustained in each time period, not always from psychiatric origins. The effects of considering mental retardation as a disorder or a disability are discussed together with the correlation with the type of interventions and instituted social practices (related to mental health, social participation, education). The characteristics of the supports' paradigm and its consequences in the classifications and intervention plans are analyzed with more detail.

  5. A new function of green tea: prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Sueoka, N; Suganuma, M; Sueoka, E; Okabe, S; Matsuyama, S; Imai, K; Nakachi, K; Fujiki, H

    2001-04-01

    In the normal human life span, there occur lifestyle-related diseases that may be preventable with nontoxic agents. This paper deals with the preventive activity of green tea in some lifestyle-related diseases. Green tea is one of the most practical cancer preventives, as we have shown in various in vitro and in vivo experiments, along with epidemiological studies. Among various biological effects of green tea, we have focused on its inhibitory effect on TNF-alpha gene expression mediated through inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation. Based on our recent results with TNF-alpha-deficient mice, TNF-alpha is an endogenous tumor promoter. TNF-alpha is also known to be a central mediator in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. We therefore hypothesized that green tea might be a preventive agent for chronic inflammatory diseases. To test this hypothesis, TNF-alpha transgenic mice, which overexpress TNF-alpha only in the lungs, were examined. The TNF-alpha transgenic mouse is an animal model of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis which also frequently develops lung cancer. Expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were inhibited in the lungs of these mice after treatment with green tea in drinking water for 4 months. In addition, judging from the results of a prospective cohort study in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, green tea helps to prevent cardiovascular disease. In this study, a decreased relative risk of death from cardiovascular disease was found for people consuming over 10 cups of green tea a day, and green tea also had life-prolonging effects on cumulative survival. These data suggest that green tea has preventive effects on both chronic inflammatory diseases and lifestyle-related diseases (including cardiovascular disease and cancer), resulting in prolongation of life span.

  6. Effect of green tea powder on thermal, rheological & functional properties of wheat flour and physical, nutraceutical & sensory analysis of cookies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mudasir; Baba, Waqas N; A Wani, Touseef; Gani, Asir; Gani, Adil; Shah, Umar; Wani, S M; Masoodi, F A

    2015-09-01

    Green tea powder (GTP) was incorporated in wheat flour at different levels (1, 2 and 4 %) and its effect on quality parameters of flour and cookies were studied. Thermal analysis showed that addition of GTP did not increase the onset temperature, end temperature and enthalpy of flour significantly. However, the increase in GTP content retarded the retro gradation of the gelatinized wheat flour gel and decreased the water absorption capacity, Oil absorption capacity, water solubility index, Foam capacity and foam stability significantly. The L* and b* values of cookies decreased from 53.63 to 33.23 and 29.02 to 24.39 respectively, while as, a* value showed an increase from 3.61 to 5.23 indirect proportion to quantity added. The addition of GTP to wheat flour increased the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) percent inhibition and reducing power of cookies. Further, it also increases the acceptability for color, aroma and taste; however it loosened its structural integrity and decreased the fracture force.

  7. Representation of a complex Green function on a real basis: Generalization to a three-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tieniu; Piraux, Bernard; Shakeshaft, Robin

    2003-05-01

    We develop further a new method for employing a set of real basis functions to represent the Green function at energies in the continuum, without regard for the asymptotic boundary conditions. The method is based on the analyticity of the Green function with respect to its underlying time scale. The diagonalization of large matrices is unnecessary. Although a large complex symmetric linear system of equations must be solved, this can be done with high stability and efficiency by using a generalization of the Cholesky decomposition of real positive definite symmetric matrices. We present results of test applications to 1S-wave electron scattering from a hydrogen atom and photodetachment of the negative hydrogen ion. The extension from two- to three-body collisions entails the use of projection operators to distinguish different groups of asymptotic channels.

  8. Strong ground motion synthesis for a M=7.2 earthquake in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece using Empirical Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Stavrakakis, G.N.; Ioannidou, E.; Wu, F.T.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.

    1998-01-01

    We synthesize strong ground motion at three sites from a M=7.2 earthquake along the MW-trending Gulf of Cornith seismic zone. We model rupture along an 80 segment of the zone. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital data now routinely available, it becomes possible to use recordings of small earthquakes as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. The synthesized ground motions obtained are source and site specific. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation. The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute accelerations response values.

  9. Intercellular calcium waves in the fire-diffuse-fire framework: Green's function for gap-junctional coupling.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jamie; Timofeeva, Yulia

    2010-11-01

    Calcium is a crucial component in a plethora of cellular processes involved in cell birth, life, and death. Intercellular calcium waves that can spread through multiple cells provide one form of cellular communication mechanism between various parts of cell tissues. Here we introduce a simple, yet biophysically realistic model for the propagation of intercellular calcium waves based on the fire-diffuse-fire type model for calcium dynamics. Calcium release sites are considered to be discretely distributed along individual linear cells that are connected by gap junctions and a solution of this model can be found in terms of the Green's function for this system. We develop the "sum-over-trips" formalism that takes into account the boundary conditions at gap junctions providing a generalization of the original sum-over-trips approach for constructing the response function for branched neural dendrites. We obtain the exact solution of the Green's function in the Laplace (frequency) domain for an infinite array of cells and show that this Green's function can be well approximated by its truncated version. This allows us to obtain an analytical traveling wave solution for an intercellular calcium wave and analyze the speed of solitary wave propagation as a function of physiologically important system parameters. Periodic and irregular traveling waves can be also sustained by the proposed model.

  10. A fast immersed boundary method for external incompressible viscous flows using lattice Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liska, Sebastian; Colonius, Tim

    2017-02-01

    A new parallel, computationally efficient immersed boundary method for solving three-dimensional, viscous, incompressible flows on unbounded domains is presented. Immersed surfaces with prescribed motions are generated using the interpolation and regularization operators obtained from the discrete delta function approach of the original (Peskin's) immersed boundary method. Unlike Peskin's method, boundary forces are regarded as Lagrange multipliers that are used to satisfy the no-slip condition. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized on an unbounded staggered Cartesian grid and are solved in a finite number of operations using lattice Green's function techniques. These techniques are used to automatically enforce the natural free-space boundary conditions and to implement a novel block-wise adaptive grid that significantly reduces the run-time cost of solutions by limiting operations to grid cells in the immediate vicinity and near-wake region of the immersed surface. These techniques also enable the construction of practical discrete viscous integrating factors that are used in combination with specialized half-explicit Runge-Kutta schemes to accurately and efficiently solve the differential algebraic equations describing the discrete momentum equation, incompressibility constraint, and no-slip constraint. Linear systems of equations resulting from the time integration scheme are efficiently solved using an approximation-free nested projection technique. The algebraic properties of the discrete operators are used to reduce projection steps to simple discrete elliptic problems, e.g. discrete Poisson problems, that are compatible with recent parallel fast multipole methods for difference equations. Numerical experiments on low-aspect-ratio flat plates and spheres at Reynolds numbers up to 3700 are used to verify the accuracy and physical fidelity of the formulation.

  11. Effects of the brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) on cell signaling and function of Mytilus hemocytes: involvement of MAP kinases and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura; Lorusso, Lucia Cecilia; Ciacci, Caterina; Betti, Michele; Gallo, Gabriella

    2005-11-10

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large group of compounds added to or applied as a treatment to polymeric materials to prevent fires. Tetrabisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most important individual BFR used in industry. Although TBBPA and its derivatives can be found in environmental samples, data are very limited on the presence of this compound in biota. Research on mammals indicates that TBBPA has low toxicity in vivo; however, in vitro TBBPA can act as a cytotoxicant, neurotoxicant, immunotoxicant, thyroid hormone agonist and has a weak estrogenic activity; in particular, the effects of TBBPA have been recently ascribed to its interactions with cellular signaling pathways, in particular with mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). TBBPA has high acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, such as algae, molluscs, crustaceans and fish; however, little is known on the mechanisms of action of this compound in the cells of aquatic species. In this work, we investigated the possible effects and mechanisms of action of TBBPA on the immune cells, the hemocytes, of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The results demonstrate that TBBPA in the low micromolar range induces hemocyte lysosomal membrane destabilization. The effect was reduced or prevented by hemocyte pre-treatment by specific inhibitors of MAPKs and of protein kinase C (PKC). TBBPA stimulated phosphorylation of MAPK members and PKC, as evaluated by electrophoresis and Western blotting with anti-phospho-antibodies, although to a different extent and with distinct time-courses. A rapid (from 5 min) and transient increase in phosphoryation of the stress-activated JNK MAPKs and of PKC was observed, followed by a later increase (at 30-60 min) in phosphorylation of extracellularly regulated MAPKs (ERK2 MAPK) and of the stress-activated p38 MAPK. TBBPA significantly stimulated the hemocyte microbicidal activity towards E. coli, lysosomal enzyme release, phagocytic activity and extracellular superoxide (O2

  12. Functional renormalization-group approaches, one-particle (irreducible) reducible with respect to local Green's functions, with dynamical mean-field theory as a starting point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanin, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    We consider formulations of the functional renormalization-group (fRG) flow for correlated electronic systems with the dynamical mean-field theory as a starting point. We classify the corresponding renormalization-group schemes into those neglecting one-particle irreducible six-point vertices (with respect to the local Green's functions) and neglecting one-particle reducible six-point vertices. The former class is represented by the recently introduced DMF2RG approach [31], but also by the scale-dependent generalization of the one-particle irreducible representation (with respect to local Green's functions, 1PI-LGF) of the generating functional [20]. The second class is represented by the fRG flow within the dual fermion approach [16, 32]. We compare formulations of the fRG approach in each of these cases and suggest their further application to study 2D systems within the Hubbard model.

  13. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles: biodegradable polymers and enzymes in stabilization and surface functionalization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current breakthroughs in green nanotechnology are capable to transform many of the existing processes and products that enhance environmental quality, reduce pollution, and conserve natural and non-renewable resources. Noteworthy, successful use of metal nanoparticles and 10 nano...

  14. Uniform Asymptotic Expansion for the Helmholtz Green's Function-- Application to Inversion Preprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Virieux, J.; van Vorst, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    obtained by using the new uniform asymptotic expansion ansatz, which supplants the usual homogeneous transfer function employed. Examples will be presented for synthetic data sets, to illustrate the differences between these two transfer functions. References [1] E. Zauderer. 1971, Uniform asymptotic solutions of the reduced wave equation. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Application 30, pp. 157-171. [2] M. J. Yedlin. 1987, Uniform asymptotic solution for the Green’s function for the two-dimensional acoustic equation. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81(2) pp. 238-243. [3] J. Tromp, C. Tape and Q. Liu. 2005, Seismic tomography, adjoint methods, time reversal and banana-doughnut kernels. Geophysical Journal International 160(1), pp. 195-216. [4] I. Iturbe, P. Roux, J. Virieux and B. Nicolas. 2009, Travel-time sensitivity kernels versus diffraction patterns obtained through double beam-forming in shallow water. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126(2), pp. 713-720. [5] J. R. Ernst, A. G. Green, H. Maurer and K. Holliger. 2007, Application of a new 2D time-domain full-waveform inversion scheme to crosshole radar data. Geophysics 72, pp. J53-J64.

  15. Deafness and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Larry G., Ed.

    Nine selected proceedings from a study institute discuss program alternatives for the education of deaf mentally retarded (MR) children along with such related issues as identification, size and scope of the problem, instructional approaches, curricular planning, instructional media, program funding sources, and vocational rehabilitation. The…

  16. Flame retardant polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.; Atlas, S.M.; Pearce, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The flame retardation of polyolefins is the focus of this volume. Methods for reduction of smoke and experimental evaluation of flammability parameters for polymeric materials are discussed. The flammability evaluation methods for textiles and the use of mass spectrometry for analysis of polymers and their degradation products are also presented.

  17. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  18. Polarization characterization of liquid-crystal variable retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Iván.; Bruce, Neil C.; López-Téllez, Juan M.

    2016-08-01

    A comparison between two experimental techniques to characterize retardance as a function of applied voltage of liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVR) is presented. In the first method the variable retarder was rotated between two polarizers with their transmission axes parallel, and the retardance was calculated from the Fourier series coefficients for each applied voltage. The second method involved using two polarizers with their transmission axes perpendicular to each other, the variable retarder was placed between the polarizers with its optical axis at 45° from the horizontal, and a final stage known as "phase unwrapping" is used on experimental data to obtain the voltage-retardance function. With these two experimental methods, the voltage-retardance relationship was obtained. To verify the accuracy of this characterization a second experiment involving the production of specific polarization states was performed as the basis of a Mueller polarimeter. A method based on measuring the optical signal resulting from the application of a predetermined set of fixed values of retardance in each retarder was used. 16 elements of the Mueller matrix of a polarizer with its transmission axis at 0° and 90° were measured, and the results are compared to the expected theoretical values.

  19. Part I. Improved flame retardant textiles. Part II. Novel approach to layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical re...

  20. Part I. improve flame retardant textile. Part II. novel approach layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textile.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical rea...

  1. Modeling Strong Ground Motions of the 2004 Mw 6.3 Les Saintes Earthquake Using Hybrid Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Paredes, J. A.; Bengoubou-Valérius, M.; Bouin, M.; Bernard, P.

    2011-12-01

    A semi-empirical approach is presented to simulate the strong ground motion recordings of the Mw 6.3 Les Saintes earthquake that occurred on November 21th, 2004, near the Guadeloupe Island. This study is based on a kinematic fractal k-2 composite source model where subevents are generated using a fractal distribution of sizes. Assuming a constant rupture velocity, each elementary source is described as a crack-type slip model that starts radiating when the rupture front reaches a nucleation point located inside the crack. Each subevent is set up with a scale-dependent rise-time. In order to better control the rupture directivity effect, a size-dependent nucleation region is defined inside the crack surface in which the nucleation point is randomly located. The synthetics follow a ω2 acceleration spectrum shape. Taking advantage of records available for several small earthquakes, the kinematic rupture model is combined with these recordings, which are used as empirical Green's function (EGF). The procedure consists to model a hybrid Green's function (HGF) combining the synthetic low-frequency and the empirical high-frequency Green's functions with appropriate delay times due to the S-wave travel time propagation. A discrete version of seismic source representation theorem is used, and synthetic seismograms are then computed convolving each slip-velocity function with the corresponding HGF. A new hybrid Green's function computation is proposed to use at each station several EGFs coming from various sources near the assumed fault plane. This allows to better sample the high-frequency content radiated from the fault to the receiver. Synthetic strong ground motions reproduce quite well the observed main shock waveforms.

  2. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  3. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  4. Mental Retardation, Selected Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerenberger, R.C., Ed.

    A compilation of selected papers includes the following: comprehensive diagnostic services; pediatric aspects of diagnosis; psychological evaluation of the severely retarded; use of social competency devices; diagnosis of the adult retarded; programing for the severely retarded; nursery school experiences for the trainable; a practical approach to…

  5. Efficient finite-element, Green's function approach for critical-dimension metrology of three-dimensional gratings on multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yia-Chung; Li, Guangwei; Chu, Hanyou; Opsal, Jon

    2006-03-01

    We present an efficient method for calculating the reflectivity of three-dimensional gratings on multilayer films based on a finite-element, Green's function approach. Our method scales as NlogN, where N is the number of plane waves used in the expansion. Therefore, it is much more efficient than the commonly adopted rigorous-coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), which scales as N3. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method by applying it to a two-dimensional periodic array of contact holes on a multilayer film. We find that our Green's function approach is about one order of magnitude faster than the RCWA approach when applied to typical contact holes considered in industry. For most cases, this method is efficient enough for application as a realtime, critical-dimension metrology tool.

  6. High frequency green function for aerodynamic noise in moving media. I - General theory. II - Noise from a spreading jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown how a high frequency analysis can be made for general problems involving flow-generated noise. In the parallel shear flow problem treated by Balsa (1976) and Goldstein (1982), the equation governing sound propagation in the moving medium could be transformed into a wave equation for a stationary medium with an inhomogeneous index of refraction. It is noted that the procedure of Avila and Keller (1963) was then used to construct a high frequency Green function. This procedure involves matching a solution valid in an inner region around the point source to an outer, ray-acoustics solution. This same procedure is used here to construct the Green function for a source in an arbitrary mean flow. In view of the fact that there is no restriction to parallel flow, the governing equations cannot be transformed into a wave equation; the analysis therefore proceeds from the equations of motion themselves.

  7. Photoacoustic tomography based on the Green's function retrieval with ultrasound interferometry for sample partially behind an acoustically scattering layer

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jie; Tao, Chao Cai, Peng; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-06-08

    Acoustically inhomogeneous mediums with multiple scattering are often the nightmare of photoacoustic tomography. In order to break this limitation, a photoacoustic tomography scheme combining ultrasound interferometry and time reversal is proposed to achieve images in acoustically scattering medium. An ultrasound interferometry is developed to determine the unknown Green's function of strong scattering tissue. Using the determined Greens' function, a time-reversal process is carried out to restore images behind an acoustically inhomogeneous layer from the scattering photoacoustic signals. This method effectively decreases the false contrast, noise, and position deviation of images induced by the multiple scattering. Phantom experiment is carried out to validate the method. Therefore, the proposed method could have potential value in extending the biomedical applications of photoacoustic tomography in acoustically inhomogeneous tissue.

  8. Photoacoustic tomography based on the Green's function retrieval with ultrasound interferometry for sample partially behind an acoustically scattering layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jie; Tao, Chao; Cai, Peng; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-06-01

    Acoustically inhomogeneous mediums with multiple scattering are often the nightmare of photoacoustic tomography. In order to break this limitation, a photoacoustic tomography scheme combining ultrasound interferometry and time reversal is proposed to achieve images in acoustically scattering medium. An ultrasound interferometry is developed to determine the unknown Green's function of strong scattering tissue. Using the determined Greens' function, a time-reversal process is carried out to restore images behind an acoustically inhomogeneous layer from the scattering photoacoustic signals. This method effectively decreases the false contrast, noise, and position deviation of images induced by the multiple scattering. Phantom experiment is carried out to validate the method. Therefore, the proposed method could have potential value in extending the biomedical applications of photoacoustic tomography in acoustically inhomogeneous tissue.

  9. Time-dependent resonant tunneling transport: Keldysh and Kadanoff-Baym nonequilibrium Green's functions in an analytically soluble problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odashima, Mariana M.; Lewenkopf, Caio H.

    2017-03-01

    Here we address two nonequilibrium Green's-function approaches for a resonant tunneling structure under a sudden switch of a bias. Our aim is to stress that the time-dependent Keldysh formulation of Jauho, Wingreen, and Meir and the partition-free scheme of Stefanucci and Almbladh are formally equivalent in the ubiquitous case of wide-band limit and noninteracting electrons, if leads and dot are in equilibrium before the time-dependent perturbation. We develop explicit closed formulas of the lesser Green's function and time-dependent current, reminding that the different integration limits preclude a face-to-face comparison of two approaches. This study sheds light on both practices, which are of great interest to the mesoscopic transport community.

  10. Defining Mental Retardation: A Matter of Life or Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William; Simon, Elliot W.

    2007-01-01

    Because persons with mental retardation cannot be executed for murder, the diagnosis becomes a life and death matter. The American Association on Mental Retardation (now the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) and other associations agree that IQ alone is an insufficient criterion and adaptive functioning also…

  11. Revised Interseismic Coupling Models for the North Island, New Zealand, Using FEM-Derived Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. A.; Wallace, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin adjacent to the North Island, New Zealand, displays a variation in interseismic coupling behavior along strike, with shallow coupling in the north and deeper coupling in the south (Wallace et al., 2012). With new information such as an improved interface geometry, a New Zealand-wide seismic velocity model and an increased density and duration of geodetic networks, it is now possible to provide a much more detailed picture of interseismic coupling at the Hikurangi margin than in previous studies. In previous work (Williams and Wallace, 2015), we examined the effects of material property variations on slip estimates for slow slip events (SSEs) along the Hikurangi margin, and found that in cases where the slip is deep or there is good geodetic coverage above the slipping region, heterogeneous models generally predict about 20% less slip than elastic half-space models. Based on those results, we anticipate that interseismic coupling models that account for elastic heterogeneity will also predict similarly lower slip deficit rates in such regions. To explore these ideas, we are developing a new interseismic coupling model for the North Island. We use a New Zealand-wide seismic velocity model (Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2010) to provide elastic properties and an improved Hikurangi interface geometry (Williams et al., 2013) as the basis for our subduction geometry. In addition to the Hikurangi subduction interface, we generate finite element meshes for 20 additional faults that compose the North Island portion of the elastic block model of Wallace et al. (2012). We generate Green's functions for all faults using the PyLith finite element code (Aagaard et al., 2013), and then use the Defnode geodetic inversion code (McCaffrey, 1995; 2002) to invert for block rotation poles and interseismic coupling. Our revised coupling model should provide better constraints on interseismic coupling in the North Island, and should thus provide a better

  12. Diffusive Particle Acceleration in Shocked, Viscous Accretion Disks: Green's Function Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter A.; Das, Santabrata; Le, Truong

    2011-12-01

    The acceleration of relativistic particles in a viscous accretion disk containing a standing shock is investigated as a possible explanation for the energetic outflows observed around radio-loud black holes. The energy/space distribution of the accelerated particles is computed by solving a transport equation that includes the effects of first-order Fermi acceleration, bulk advection, spatial diffusion, and particle escape. The velocity profile of the accreting gas is described using a model for shocked viscous disks recently developed by the authors, and the corresponding Green's function distribution for the accelerated particles in the disk and the outflow is obtained using a classical method based on eigenfunction analysis. The accretion-driven, diffusive shock acceleration scenario explored here is conceptually similar to the standard model for the acceleration of cosmic rays at supernova-driven shocks. However, in the disk application, the distribution of the accelerated particles is much harder than would be expected for a plane-parallel shock with the same compression ratio. Hence the disk environment plays a key role in enhancing the efficiency of the shock acceleration process. The presence of the shock helps to stabilize the disk by reducing the Bernoulli parameter, while channeling the excess binding energy into the escaping relativistic particles. In applications to M87 and Sgr A*, we find that the kinetic power in the jet is {\\sim}0.01\\,\\dot{M} c^2, and the outflowing relativistic particles have a mean energy ~300 times larger than that of the thermal gas in the disk at the shock radius. Our results suggest that a standing shock may be an essential ingredient in accretion onto underfed black holes, helping to resolve the long-standing problem of the stability of advection-dominated accretion disks.

  13. Phragmoplast of the green alga Spirogyra is functionally distinct from the higher plant phragmoplast

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cytokinesis in the green alga Spirogyra (Zygnemataceae) is characterized by centripetal growth of a septum, which impinges on a persistent, centrifugally expanding telophase spindle, leading to a phragmoplast-like structure of potential phylogenetic significance (Fowke, L. C., and J. D. Pickett-Heaps. 1969. J. Phycol. 5:273-281). Combining fluorescent tagging of the cytoskeleton in situ and video- enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy of live cells, the process of cytokinesis was investigated with emphasis on cytoskeletal reorganization and concomitant redistribution of organelles. Based on a sequence of cytoskeletal arrangements and the effects of cytoskeletal inhibitors thereon, cytokinetic progression could be divided into three functional stages with respect to the contribution of microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs): (1) Initiation: in early prophase, a cross wall initial was formed independently of MFs and MTs at the presumptive site of wall growth. (2) Septum ingrowth: numerous organelles accumulated at the cross wall initial concomitant with reorganization of the extensive peripheral interphase MF array into a distinct circumferential MF array. This array guided the ingrowing septum until it contacted the expanding interzonal MT array. (3) Cross wall closure: MFs at the growing edge of the septum coaligned with and extended along the interzonal MTs toward the daughter nuclei. Thus, actin-based transportation of small organelles during this third stage occurred, in part, along a scaffold previously deployed in space by MTs. Displacement of the nuclei- associated interzonal MT array by centrifugation and depolymerization of the phragmoplast-like structure showed that the success of cytokinesis at the third stage depends on the interaction of both MF and MT cytoskeletons. Important features of the phragmoplast-like structure in Spirogyra were different from the higher plant phragmoplast: in particular, MFs were responsible for the

  14. 2-D Modeling of Nanoscale MOSFETs: Non-Equilibrium Green's Function Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. Electron-electron interaction is treated within Hartree approximation by solving NEGF and Poisson equations self-consistently. For the calculations presented here, parallelization is performed by distributing the solution of NEGF equations to various processors, energy wise. We present simulation of the "benchmark" MIT 25nm and 90nm MOSFETs and compare our results to those from the drift-diffusion simulator and the quantum-corrected results available. In the 25nm MOSFET, the channel length is less than ten times the electron wavelength, and the electron scattering time is comparable to its transit time. Our main results are: (1) Simulated drain subthreshold current characteristics are shown, where the potential profiles are calculated self-consistently by the corresponding simulation methods. The current predicted by our quantum simulation has smaller subthreshold slope of the Vg dependence which results in higher threshold voltage. (2) When gate oxide thickness is less than 2 nm, gate oxide leakage is a primary factor which determines off-current of a MOSFET (3) Using our 2-D NEGF simulator, we found several ways to drastically decrease oxide leakage current without compromising drive current. (4) Quantum mechanically calculated electron density is much smaller than the background doping density in the poly silicon gate region near oxide interface. This creates an additional effective gate voltage. Different ways to. include this effect approximately will be discussed.

  15. Simulating and analyzing engineering parameters of Kyushu Earthquake, Japan, 1997, by empirical Green function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zongchao; Chen, Xueliang; Gao, Mengtan; Jiang, Han; Li, Tiefei

    2016-09-01

    Earthquake engineering parameters are very important in the engineering field, especially engineering anti-seismic design and earthquake disaster prevention. In this study, we focus on simulating earthquake engineering parameters by the empirical Green's function method. The simulated earthquake (MJMA6.5) occurred in Kyushu, Japan, 1997. Horizontal ground motion is separated as fault parallel and fault normal, in order to assess characteristics of two new direction components. Broadband frequency range of ground motion simulation is from 0.1 to 20 Hz. Through comparing observed parameters and synthetic parameters, we analyzed distribution characteristics of earthquake engineering parameters. From the comparison, the simulated waveform has high similarity with the observed waveform. We found the following. (1) Near-field PGA attenuates radically all around with strip radiation patterns in fault parallel while radiation patterns of fault normal is circular; PGV has a good similarity between observed record and synthetic record, but has different distribution characteristic in different components. (2) Rupture direction and terrain have a large influence on 90 % significant duration. (3) Arias Intensity is attenuating with increasing epicenter distance. Observed values have a high similarity with synthetic values. (4) Predominant period is very different in the part of Kyushu in fault normal. It is affected greatly by site conditions. (5) Most parameters have good reference values where the hypo-central is less than 35 km. (6) The GOF values of all these parameters are generally higher than 45 which means a good result according to Olsen's classification criterion. Not all parameters can fit well. Given these synthetic ground motion parameters, seismic hazard analysis can be performed and earthquake disaster analysis can be conducted in future urban planning.

  16. First-principles transport calculation method based on real-space finite-difference nonequilibrium Green's function scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomoya; Egami, Yoshiyuki; Hirose, Kikuji

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate an efficient nonequilibrium Green's function transport calculation procedure based on the real-space finite-difference method. The direct inversion of matrices for obtaining the self-energy terms of electrodes is computationally demanding in the real-space method because the matrix dimension corresponds to the number of grid points in the unit cell of electrodes, which is much larger than that of sites in the tight-binding approach. The procedure using the ratio matrices of the overbridging boundary-matching technique [Y. Fujimoto and K. Hirose, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.67.195315 67, 195315 (2003)], which is related to the wave functions of a couple of grid planes in the matching regions, greatly reduces the computational effort to calculate self-energy terms without losing mathematical strictness. In addition, the present procedure saves computational time to obtain the Green's function of the semi-infinite system required in the Landauer-Büttiker formula. Moreover, the compact expression to relate Green's functions and scattering wave functions, which provide a real-space picture of the scattering process, is introduced. An example of the calculated results is given for the transport property of the BN ring connected to (9,0) carbon nanotubes. The wave-function matching at the interface reveals that the rotational symmetry of wave functions with respect to the tube axis plays an important role in electron transport. Since the states coming from and going to electrodes show threefold rotational symmetry, the states in the vicinity of the Fermi level, the wave function of which exhibits fivefold symmetry, do not contribute to the electron transport through the BN ring.

  17. Benchmarking the performance of density functional theory based Green's function formalism utilizing different self-energy models in calculating electronic transmission through molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Prociuk, Alexander; Van Kuiken, Ben; Dunietz, Barry D

    2006-11-28

    Electronic transmission through a metal-molecule-metal system is calculated by employing a Green's function formalism in the scattering based scheme. Self-energy models representing the bulk and the potential bias are used to describe electron transport through the molecular system. Different self-energies can be defined by varying the partition between device and bulk regions of the metal-molecule-metal model system. In addition, the self-energies are calculated with different representations of the bulk through its Green's function. In this work, the dependence of the calculated transmission on varying the self-energy subspaces is benchmarked. The calculated transmission is monitored with respect to the different choices defining the self-energy model. In this report, we focus on one-dimensional model systems with electronic structures calculated at the density functional level of theory.

  18. Multiband retardation control using multi-twist retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornburg, Kathryn J.; Komanduri, Ravi K.; Escuti, Michael J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce and demonstrate an approach to create highly chromatic retardation spectra across various wave­ lengths. The design approach is based on Multi-Twist Retarder (MTR) principle where multiple liquid crystal polymer layers are coated on top of each other on a single substrate. Previous MTRs have been applied to develop broadband achromatic retarders, but here we show that MTRs are quite flexible, and their retardation spectrum can be tuned to create arbitrary profiles. As a representative example, we show this tailorability by creating a retarder which produces approximately zero retardation in visible (500-900 nm) and half-wave retardation in near- infrared (1-2.7 μm) wavelength region. This would provide enhancement in remote sensing, telecom, and spectroscopy systems where it is advantageous to have an optical element which affects only one band, but is largely transparent otherwise.

  19. Uniformly Asymptotic Frequency Domain Green's Functions for the Acoustic Equation - Theory and Applications in Two and Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, Matthew; Virieux, Jean

    2010-05-01

    As data collection in both seismic data acquisition and radar continues to improve, more emphasis is being placed on data pre-processing and inversion, in particular frequency domain waveform inversion in seismology [1], and, for example, time-domain waveform inversion in crosshole radar measurements [2]. Complementary to these methods are the sensitivity kernel techniques established initially in seismology [3, 4]. However, these methods have also been employed in crosshole radar tomography [5]. The sensitivity kernel technique has most recently been applied to the analysis of diffraction of waves in shallow water [6]. Central to the sensitivity kernel techniques is the use of an appropriate Green's function in either two or three dimensions and a background model is assumed for the calculation of the Green's function. In some situations, the constant velocity Green's function is used [5] but in other situations a smooth background model is used in a ray-type approximation. In the case of the smooth background model, computation of a ray-tracing type Green's function is problematic since at the source point the rays convergence, creating a singularity in the computation of the Jacobian used in the amplitude calculation. In fact the source is an axial caustic in two dimensions and a point caustic in three dimensions [7]. To obviate this problem, we will create a uniform asymptotic ansatz [8], explaining in detail how it is obtained in two dimensions. We will then show how to extend the results to three dimensions. In both cases, the Green's function will be obtained in the frequency domain for the acoustic equation with smoothly varying density and bulk modulus. The application of the new Green's function technique will provide more flexibility in the computation of sensitivities, both in seismological and radar applications. References [1] R. G. Pratt. 1999, Seismic waveform inversion in the frequency domain, part 1: Theory and verification in a physical scale

  20. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract on morphological and functional changes in adult male gonads of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy; De, Neela; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2011-09-01

    Green tea, prepared from the steamed and dried leaves of the shrub Camellia sinensis, is known for its antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, its effects on male gonadal functions have not been explored adequately and the present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of green tea extract on gonads of adult male albino rats. Results of in vivo studies showed that green tea extract (GTE) at mild (1.25 g%, identical to 5 cups of tea/day), moderate (2.5 g%, identical to 10 cups of tea/day) and high (5.0 g%, identical to 20 cups of tea/day) doses, for a period of 26 days, altered morphology and histology of testis and accessory sex organs. A significant dose-dependent decrease in the sperm counts, inhibited activities of testicular delta(5)3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta5-3beta3-HSD and 17beta3-HSD respectively) and decreased serum testosterone level were noticed. Significant increase in serum LH level was observed after moderate and high doses; serum FSH level also increased but not significantly. Histopathological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis evidenced by preferential loss of matured and elongated spermatids. Results of this study showed that GTE at relatively high dose may cause impairment of both the morphological and normal functional status of testis in rodents and thus its consumption at relatively high doses raises concern on male reproductive function in spite of its other beneficial effects.

  1. Near fault broadband ground motion simulation with empirical Green's functions: the Upper Rhine Graben case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, Sergio; Hok, Sébastian; Causse, Mathieu; Festa, Gaetano; Lancieri, Maria

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental stage in seismic hazard assessment is the prediction of realistic ground motion for potential future earthquakes. To do so, one of the steps is to make an estimation of the expected ground motion level and this is commonly done by the use of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Nevertheless GMPEs do not represent the whole variety of source processes and this can lead to incorrect estimates for some specific case studies, such as in the near-fault range because of the lack of records of large earthquakes at short distances. In such cases, ground motion simulations can be a valid tool to complement prediction equations for scenario studies, provided that both source and propagation are accurately described and uncertainties properly addressed. Such simulations, usually referred to as "blind", require the generation of a population of ground motion records that represent the natural variability of the source process for the target earthquake scenario. In this study we performed simulations using the empirical Green's function technique, which consists in using records of small earthquakes as the medium transfer function provided the availability of small earthquakes located close to the target fault and recorded at the target site. The main advantage of this technique is that it does not require a detailed knowledge of the propagation medium, which is not always possible, but requires availability of high quality records of small earthquakes in the target area. We couple this empirical approach with a k-2 kinematic source model, which naturally let us to introduce high frequency in the source description. Here we present an application of our technique to the Upper Rhine Graben. This is an active seismic region with a moderate rate of seismicity and for which it is interesting to provide ground motion estimation in the vicinity of the faults to be compared with estimations traditionally provided by GMPEs in a seismic hazard evaluation study. We

  2. Empirical Green's function waveform inversion method applied to the Parkfield SAFOD repeating earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A.; Dreger, D. S.; Taira, T.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we developed a finite-source inversion method using the waveforms of small earthquakes as empirical Green's functions (eGf) to study the rupture process of micro-earthquakes on the San Andreas fault. This method is different from the ordinarily eGf deconvolution method which deconvolves the seismogram of the smaller simpler-source event from the seismogram of the larger event recovering the moment rate function of the larger more complex-source event. In the eGf deconvolution method commonly spectral domain deconvolution is used where the small earthquake spectrum is divided from the larger target event spectrum, and low spectral values are replaced by a water-level value to damp the effect of division by small numbers (e.g. Clayton and Wiggins, 1976). The water-level is chosen by trial and error. Such a rough regularization of the spectral ratio can result in the solution having unrealistic negative values and short-period oscillations. Also the amplitude and duration of the moment rate functions can be influenced by the adopted water-level value. In this study we propose to use the eGf waveform directly in the inversion, rather than the moment rate function obtained from spectral division. In this approach the eGf is treated as the Green’s function from each subfault, and contrary to the deconvolution approach can make use multiple eGfs distributed over the fault plane. The method can therefore be applied to short source-receiver distance situations since the variation in radiation pattern due to source-receiver geometry is better accounted for. Numerical tests of the waveform eGf inversion method indicate that in the case where the large slip asperity is not located at the hypocenter, the eGf located near the asperity recovers the prescribed model better than that using an eGf co-located with the main shock hypocenter. Synthetic analyses also show that using multiple eGfs can better constrain the slip model than using only one eGf in the

  3. Epilepsy and Mental Retardation: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensive management of epilepsy in people with mental retardation requires consideration of four aspects of care: diagnosis and classification, anticonvulsant drug treatment, safety and protection from injury, and psychosocial functioning. This paper outlines what is known and unknown in these four areas and introduces articles in this…

  4. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  5. Fire and smoke retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  6. Fire-retardant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  7. A formulation and numerical approach to molecular systems by the Green function method without the Born-Oppenheimer approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeta, Yasuteru; Nagao, Hidemi; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    1999-10-01

    We have proposed a new numerical scheme for the non-Born-Oppenheimer density functional calculation based upon the Green function techniques within the GW approximation for evaluating molecular properties in the full quantum mechanical treatment. We numerically calculate the physical properties of the individual motion in a hydrogen molecule and a muon molecule by means of this method and discuss the isotope effect on the properties in relation to correlation effects. It is concluded that the GW approximation is work well not only for calculation of the electronic state but also for that of nuclear state.

  8. Synthesis and structural dependence of the functional properties of new green fluorescent poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabchev, Ivo; Mokreva, Pavlina; Gancheva, Valeria; Terlemezyan, Levon

    2013-04-01

    Two new green fluorescence poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers from second generation, comprising eight 1,8-naphthalimide signaling units in their periphery have been synthesized and investigated. Тheir photophysical characteristics have been determined in organic solvents of different polarity. Particular attention has been paid to the spectral characteristics of the solid dendrimer films. The photostability of the dendrimers has also been studied.

  9. Functional expression of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Reiländer, H; Haase, W; Maul, G

    1996-02-06

    A DNA fragment encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was isolated via PCR from a jellyfish Aequorea victoria cDNA, cloned and sequenced. Subsequently, a recombinant baculovirus bearing the coding region of the GFP under the transcriptional control of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) polyhedrin gene promoter was constructed and isolated. High-level expression of GFP could be easily monitored in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells after infection with recombinant baculovirus, due to the intrinsic fluorescence (lambda(max) = 508 nm) of the recombinant protein after excitation with blue light (lambda(max) = 400 nm). The functional recombinant GFP displayed an apparent molecular mass of approximately 43 kDa and the fluorescence emission spectrum of the recombinant protein was virtually identical to that of the native green fluorescent protein.

  10. Computation of crystal Green's functions in the complex-energy plane with the use of the analytical tetrahedron method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambin, Ph.; Vigneron, J. P.

    1984-03-01

    The analytical tetrahedron method (ATM) for evaluating perfect-crystal Green's functions is reviewed. It is shown that the ATM allows for computing matrix elements of the resolvent operator in the entire complex-energy plane. These elements are written as a scalar product involving weighting functions of the complex energy, which are computed on a mesh of k--> points in the Brillouin zone. When the usual approximations are made within each tetrahedron, namely linear interpolations for the dispersion relations as well as for the numerator matrix elements, the weighting functions only depend on the perfect-crystal dispersion relations. In addition, the analytical expression obtained for a tetrahedral contribution to the weighting functions is simpler than what is usually expected. Analytical properties of our expressions are discussed and all the limiting forms are worked out. Special attention is paid to the numerical stability of the algorithm producing the Green's-function imaginary part on the real energy axis. Expressions which have been published earlier are subject to computational problems, which are solved in the new formulas reported here.

  11. Green function for a charged spin-½ particle with anomalous magnetic moment in a plane-wave external electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan Vaidya, Arvind; Barbosa da Silva Filho, Pedro

    1999-09-01

    The Green function for a charged spin- 1/2 particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the presence of a plane-wave external electromagnetic field is calculated and shown to be simply related to the free-particle one.

  12. Experimental Study of the Convergence of Two-Point Cross-Correlation Toward the Green's Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouedard, P.; Roux, P.; Campillo, M.; Verdel, A.; Campman, X.

    2007-12-01

    It has been shown theoretically by several authors that cross-correlation of the seismic motion recorded at two points could yield the Green's Function (GF) between these points. Convergence of cross-correlations toward the GF depends on sources positions and/or the nature of the wavefield. Direct waves from an even distribution of sources can be used to retrieve the GF. On the other hand, in an inhomogeneous medium, recording the diffuse field (coda) is theoretically sufficient to retrieve the GF whatever the sources distribution is. Since none of these two conditions (even distribution of sources or a perfectly diffuse field) is satisfied in practice, the question of convergence toward the GF has to be investigated with real data. A 3D exploration survey with sources and receivers on a dense grid offers such an opportunity. We used a high- resolution survey recorded by Petroleum Development Oman in North Oman. The data have been obtained in a 1x1~km area covered with 1600 geophones located on a 25x25~m-cell grid. Records are 4-seconds long. A unique feature of this survey is that vibrators (working in the [8-120~Hz] frequency band), were located on a similar grid shifted with respect to the receiver grid by half a cell (12.5~m) in both directions. This allows us to compare estimated GF's with measured direct waves (GF's) between the geophones. The shallow subsurface is highly heterogeneous and records include seismic coda. From this dataset, we selected two receiver locations (Ra and Rb) distant from d=158~m. We used both different sets of source locations and time windows to compute the cross-correlation between these two receivers. Then we compared the derivatives of correlation functions with the actual GF measured in Rb (resp.~Ra) for a source close to Ra (resp.~Rb). By doing so, we show the actual influence of source locations and scattering (governed by the records' selected time window) on the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed GF. When using

  13. Green tea polyphenols stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and improve renal function after chronic cyclosporin a treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Hasibur; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Haque, Khujista; Thurman, Ronald G; Lemasters, John J; Schnellmann, Rick G; Zhong, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that an extract from Camellia sinenesis (green tea), which contains several polyphenols, attenuates nephrotoxicity caused by cyclosporine A (CsA). Since polyphenols are stimulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), this study investigated whether stimulation of MB plays a role in green tea polyphenol protection against CsA renal toxicity. Rats were fed a powdered diet containing green tea polyphenolic extract (0.1%) starting 3 days prior to CsA treatment (25 mg/kg, i.g. daily for 3 weeks). CsA alone decreased renal nuclear DNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein ATP synthase-β (AS-β) by 42%, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded OXPHOS protein NADH dehydrogenase-3 (ND3) by 87% and their associated mRNAs. Mitochondrial DNA copy number was also decreased by 78% by CsA. Immunohistochemical analysis showed decreased cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV), an OXPHOS protein, in tubular cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, the master regulator of MB, and mitochondrial transcription factor-A (Tfam), the transcription factor that regulates mtDNA replication and transcription, were 42% and 90% lower, respectively, in the kidneys of CsA-treated than in untreated rats. These results indicate suppression of MB by chronic CsA treatment. Green tea polyphenols alone and following CsA increased AS-β, ND3, COX-IV, mtDNA copy number, PGC-1α mRNA and protein, decreased acetylated PGC-1α, and increased Tfam mRNA and protein. In association with suppressed MB, CsA increased serum creatinine, caused loss of brush border and dilatation of proximal tubules, tubular atrophy, vacuolization, apoptosis, calcification, and increased neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression, leukocyte infiltration, and renal fibrosis. Green tea polyphenols markedly attenuated CsA-induced renal injury and improved renal function. Together, these results demonstrate that green tea polyphenols attenuate Cs

  14. Re-connecting Urban Ecohydrology to Improve Ecosystem Functioning: The Role of Local-scale Green Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2010-12-01

    As rates of urbanization continue to rise and a greater proportion of the population lives in urban and suburban areas, the provision of ecological services and functions become increasingly important to sustain human and environmental health in urban ecosystems. Soils play a primary role in the healthy functioning of ecosystems that provide supporting, provisioning, regulating, preserving, and cultural ecosystem services, yet developing our understanding of how urban soils function to provide these services within an ecological context is just getting underway. Soils in urban ecosytems are highly heterogeneous, and are affected by both direct and indirect influences and local modifications which alter their functioning relative to non-urbanized local soils. Here I discuss the functioning of rain gardens in and around Tucson, AZ, that have been installed in the urban landscape with the purpose of providing various ecosystem services to local residents and the greater urban ecosystem. This reconnection of ecohydrologic flows in the city has the potential to alter the structure and function of urban ecosystems in positive (through the increase in water availability) and negative (through the import of pollutants to soils) ways. This study compares soil properties, microbial function, and ecosystem functions within the urban ecosystem to determine how urbanization alters soils in semi-arid environments, and to determine if green urban modifications in desert cities can improve soils and ecosystem services. Soils in rain gardens have nearly twice the organic matter contents of native and urban soils, and correspondingly, greater microbial function (as indicated through respiration potential), higher abundance (through substrate induced respiration), and community complexity (indicated by a 3x increase in metabolic diversity) in these green design modifications. Net N-mineralization rates are almost 1.5 times faster in the rain garden basins than urban soils in general

  15. Free radicals generated during oxidation of green tea polyphenols: electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Severino, Joyce Ferreira; Goodman, Bernard A; Kay, Christopher W M; Stolze, Klaus; Tunega, Daniel; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Pirker, Katharina F

    2009-04-15

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the redox properties of the green tea polyphenols (GTPs) (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG). Aqueous extracts of green tea and these individual phenols were autoxidized at alkaline pH and oxidized by superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) radicals in dimethyl sulfoxide. Several new aspects of the free radical chemistry of GTPs were revealed. EGCG can be oxidized on both the B and the D ring. The B ring was the main oxidation site during autoxidation, but the D ring was the preferred site for O(2)(-) oxidation. Oxidation of the D ring was followed by structural degradation, leading to generation of a radical identical to that of oxidized gallic acid. Alkaline autoxidation of green tea extracts produced four radicals that were related to products of the oxidation of EGCG, EGC, ECG, and gallic acid, whereas the spectra from O(2)(-) oxidation could be explained solely by radicals generated from EGCG. Assignments of hyperfine coupling constants were made by DFT calculations, allowing the identities of the radicals observed to be confirmed.

  16. Green Phosphorescence and Electroluminescence of Sulfur Pentafluoride-Functionalized Cationic Iridium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Shavaleev, Nail M; Xie, Guohua; Varghese, Shinto; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Momblona, Cristina; Ortí, Enrique; Bolink, Henk J; Samuel, Ifor D W; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2015-06-15

    We report on four cationic iridium(III) complexes [Ir(C^N)2(dtBubpy)](PF6) that have sulfur pentafluoride-modified 1-phenylpyrazole and 2-phenylpyridine cyclometalating (C^N) ligands (dtBubpy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl). Three of the complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. In cyclic voltammetry, the complexes undergo reversible oxidation of iridium(III) and irreversible reduction of the SF5 group. They emit bright green phosphorescence in acetonitrile solution and in thin films at room temperature, with emission maxima in the range of 482-519 nm and photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 79%. The electron-withdrawing sulfur pentafluoride group on the cyclometalating ligands increases the oxidation potential and the redox gap and blue-shifts the phosphorescence of the iridium complexes more so than the commonly employed fluoro and trifluoromethyl groups. The irreversible reduction of the SF5 group may be a problem in organic electronics; for example, the complexes do not exhibit electroluminescence in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs). Nevertheless, the complexes exhibit green to yellow-green electroluminescence in doped multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with emission maxima ranging from 501 nm to 520 nm and with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 1.7% in solution-processed devices.

  17. [Considerations of psychopathology in mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Masi, G

    1994-06-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded subjects: one third to two thirds of mentally retarded subjects exhibit psychiatric disorders, a proportion which is much higher than that found in subjects with normal intelligence. The issue is to clarify the nature of the relationship between cognitive and psychiatric disorders (generally analyzed in a dichotomous approach). A way to analyze the phenomenon is to consider a psychopathological approach, which can define the underlying mechanisms responsible for this incidence. The aim of this paper is to analyze the explicatory value of deficient cognitive development, as the main factor determining a specific personality organization. Direct and indirect effects of cognitive impairment on the development of personality disorders are described: the first, in terms of how cognitive deficit (i.e. severity, homogeneity in several cognitive domains, pattern of development) disorganizes personality; the second, in terms of impact that cognitive deficit could have on the child's relationship with the external world, especially with the mother. In order to illustrate these viewpoint, the paper discusses the role of cognitive functions in the development of personality. Specifically, the way the normal child processes his perceptual and motor experiences is analyzed, that is pursuit of new causal links in his knowledge seeking activity of mastering the world. The child's primitive relationship with the world is then aimed at learning, exploring and searching for new causal links. In the light of these considerations, what the child with Mental Retardation experiences is discussed. A series of psychopathological mechanisms in Mental Retardation are postulated. The organization of the Mentally Retarded child's internal world is described, as reflected in Rorschach protocols, which outline a chaotic and primitive internal world, but with a specificity of its own. Finally, the paper discusses the

  18. Paramagnetic susceptibility and correlation functions of a d-dimensional classical Heisenberg ferromagnet via the two-time Green function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, L. S.; Cavallo, A.; Cesare, L. De; Esposito, U.; Naddeo, A.

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper we investigate the paramagnetic susceptibility and the short-range order correlation functions of a d-dimensional classical isotropic ferromagnetic Heisenberg model with short-range exchange interactions by employing the two-time Green function method in classical statistical mechanics. Here we use Tyablikov-Callen-like decouplings for higher order Green functions and a formula for magnetization recently obtained by extension of the well known Callen method developed many years ago for the quantum isotropic Heisenberg model. Although our analysis is true for any temperature and dimensionality, we focus on one-, and some two- and three-dimensional lattices of experimental interest and derive asymptotic expressions for susceptibility and correlation functions within the paramagnetic phase close to the phase boundary and in the high-temperature regime. Besides, we present a Fourier series expansion method for deriving the high-temperature behaviors of the correlation functions. Our predictions, as obtained from a genuine classical many-body framework, may constitute a good reference point for the quantum counterparts emerging in the classical limit at the same level of approximation. Of course, although the classical spin models have unrealistic properties at sufficiently low temperatures, our classical analysis provides, in a relatively simple way as compared to a quantum treatment, an experimentally interesting scenario at finite temperature and dimensionalities d ≥ 1.

  19. The relationship between noise correlation and the Green's function in the presence of degeneracy and the absence of equipartition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, V.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent derivations have shown that when noise in a physical system has its energy equipartitioned into the modes of the system, there is a convenient relationship between the cross correlation of time-series recorded at two points and the Green's function of the system. Here, we show that even when energy is not fully equipartitioned and modes are allowed to be degenerate, a similar (though less general) property holds for equations with wave equation structure. This property can be used to understand why certain seismic noise correlation measurements are successful despite known degeneracy and lack of equipartition on the Earth. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.

  20. Green polymer chemistry VIII: synthesis of halo-ester-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)s via enzymatic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Castano, Marcela; Seo, Kwang Su; Kim, Eun Hye; Becker, Matthew L; Puskas, Judit E

    2013-09-01

    Halo-ester-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) are successfully prepared by the transesterification of alkyl halo-esters with PEGs using Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a biocatalyst under the solventless conditions. Transesterifications of chlorine, bromine, and iodine esters with tetraethylene glycol monobenzyl ether (BzTEG) are quantitative in less than 2.5 h. The transesterification of halo-esters with PEGs are complete in 4 h. (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy with MALDI-ToF and ESI mass spectrometry confirm the structure and purity of the products. This method provides a convenient and "green" process to effectively produce halo-ester PEGs.

  1. Non-equilibrium Green's function calculation for GaN-based terahertz-quantum cascade laser structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, H.; Kubis, T.; Hosako, I.; Hirakawa, K.

    2012-04-01

    We theoretically investigated GaN-based resonant phonon terahertz-quantum cascade laser (QCL) structures for possible high-temperature operation by using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It was found that the GaN-based THz-QCL structures do not necessarily have a gain sufficient for lasing, even though the thermal backfilling and the thermally activated phonon scattering are effectively suppressed. The main reason for this is the broadening of the subband levels caused by a very strong interaction between electrons and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in GaN.

  2. β-cyclodextrin functionalized on glass micro-particles: A green catalyst for selective oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M. Nazir; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T.; Larsen, Kim L.

    2016-12-01

    Oxidation of toluene is considered an important process which often requires high temperatures and specific conditions along with heavy-metals based catalysts. In this study, we have developed a green catalyst by functionalizing beta-cyclodextrin onto glass micro-particle surfaces. All surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and applied to catalyze the selective oxidation of toluene into benzaldehyde (82% yield) at room temperature. The catalyst was stable and could be used repeatedly for several cycles without losing efficiency.

  3. Step-by-Step Simulation of Radiation of Radiation Chemistry Using Green Functions for Diffusion-Influenced Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The irradiation of biological systems leads to the formation of radiolytic species such as H(raised dot), (raised dot)OH, H2, H2O2, e(sup -)(sub aq), etc.[1]. These species react with neighboring molecules, which result in damage in biological molecules such as DNA. Radiation chemistry is there for every important to understand the radiobiological consequences of radiation[2]. In this work, we discuss an approach based on the exact Green Functions for diffusion-influenced reactions which may be used to simulate radiation chemistry and eventually extended to study more complex systems, including DNA.

  4. Convective Fins Problem with Variable Thermal Conductivity: An Approach Based on Embedding Green's Functions into Fixed Point Iterative Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafri, H. Q.; Khuri, S. A.; Sayfy, Ali

    2016-12-01

    This article introduces a new numerical approach to solve the equation that models a rectangular purely convecting fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity. The algorithm embeds an integral operator, defined in terms of Green's function, into Krasnoselskii-Mann's fixed point iteration scheme. The validity of the method is demonstrated by a number of examples that consist of a range of values of the parameters that appear in the model. In addition, the evaluation of the fin efficiency is presented. The residual error computations show that the current method provides highly accurate approximations.

  5. Green's function approach to the dynamics-controlled truncation formalism: Derivation of the χ(3) equations of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, N. H.; Binder, R.

    2000-03-01

    The dynamics-controlled truncation (DCT) formalism is a successful microscopic approach that describes coherent correlations in optically excited semiconductors. For practical reasons (including numerical evaluations), its application is limited to lowest-order nonlinearities, such as the χ(3) regime. Therefore, it is not convenient to use this formalism to examine the role played by incoherent many-body effects, such as carrier-carrier scattering and screening. Traditionally, the most powerful approach to study incoherent effects and correlations in highly excited semiconductors is that of nonequilibrium Green's functions (NGF). A combination of the insights and technical advantages provided by the two (NGF and DCT) approaches will lead to a comprehensive microscopic theory for nonlinear optical phenomena in semiconductors. In this paper, we take a first step in this direction by presenting detailed one-to-one relations between the two formalisms within the χ(3) approximation. Starting from the standard perturbation theory of nonequilibrium Green's functions, we derive the essential minimal order factorization theorems, to arbitrary order, of DCT and the equations of motions for the interband polarization and the ``biexcitonic'' correlation function. This lays the foundation for future diagrammatic high-intensity generalizations of the DCT formalism.

  6. Mental Retardation Is Dead: Long Live Mental Retardation!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, David

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. The history of the term "mental retardation" is reviewed and it is argued that any new term will take on similar risks. The need to involve self-advocates in any terminology change is stressed. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

  7. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  8. Generalized unparticles, zeros of the Green function, and momentum space topology of the lattice model with overlap fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    The definition of topological invariants N˜4, N˜5 suggested in M. A. Zubkov and G. E. Volovik, Nucl. Phys.NUPBBO0550-3213 B860, 295 (2012)10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2012.03.002 is extended to the case when there are zeros and poles of the Green function in momentum space. It is shown how to extend the index theorem suggested by Zubkov and Volovik to this case. The nonanalytical exceptional points of the Green function appear in the intermediate vacuum, which exists at the transition line between the massive vacua with different values of topological invariants. Their number is related to the jump ΔN˜4 across the transition. The given construction is illustrated by momentum space topology of the lattice model with overlap fermions. The fermion excitations that appear in the vicinities of the given points cannot be considered as usual fermion particles. We, therefore, feel it is appropriate to call them generalized unparticles. This notion is, in the general case, different from the Georgi’s unparticle. However, in the case of lattice overlap fermions, the propagator of such excitations is indeed that of the fermionic unparticle suggested in M. Luo and G. Zhu, Phys. Lett. B 659, 341 (2008)PYLBAJ0370-269310.1016/j.physletb.2007.10.058.

  9. Two-Flux and Green's Function Method for Transient Radiative Transfer in a Semi-Transparent Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Robert

    1995-01-01

    A method using a Green's function is developed for computing transient temperatures in a semitransparent layer by using the two-flux method coupled with the transient energy equation. Each boundary of the layer is exposed to a hot or cold radiative environment, and is heated or cooled by convection. The layer refractive index is larger than one, and the effect of internal reflections is included with the boundaries assumed diffuse. The analysis accounts for internal emission, absorption, heat conduction, and isotropic scattering. Spectrally dependent radiative properties are included, and transient results are given to illustrate two-band spectral behavior with optically thin and thick bands. Transient results using the present Green's function method are verified for a gray layer by comparison with a finite difference solution of the exact radiative transfer equations; excellent agreement is obtained. The present method requires only moderate computing times and incorporates isotropic scattering without additional complexity. Typical temperature distributions are given to illustrate application of the method by examining the effect of strong radiative heating on one side of a layer with convective cooling on the other side, and the interaction of strong convective heating with radiative cooling from the layer interior.

  10. A first-order Green's function approach to supersonic oscillatory flow: A mixed analytic and numeric treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, M. I.; Sipcic, S.; Tseng, K.

    1985-01-01

    A frequency domain Green's Function Method for unsteady supersonic potential flow around complex aircraft configurations is presented. The focus is on the supersonic range wherein the linear potential flow assumption is valid. In this range the effects of the nonlinear terms in the unsteady supersonic compressible velocity potential equation are negligible and therefore these terms will be omitted. The Green's function method is employed in order to convert the potential flow differential equation into an integral one. This integral equation is then discretized, through standard finite element technique, to yield a linear algebraic system of equations relating the unknown potential to its prescribed co-normalwash (boundary condition) on the surface of the aircraft. The arbitrary complex aircraft configuration (e.g., finite-thickness wing, wing-body-tail) is discretized into hyperboloidal (twisted quadrilateral) panels. The potential and co-normalwash are assumed to vary linearly within each panel. The long range goal is to develop a comprehensive theory for unsteady supersonic potential aerodynamic which is capable of yielding accurate results even in the low supersonic (i.e., high transonic) range.

  11. High-resolution Adjoint Tomography of the Eastern Venezuelan Crust using Empirical Green's Function Waveforms from Ambient Noise Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present a high-resolution 3D crustal model of Eastern Venezuela from a full waveform inversion adjoint tomography technique, based on the spectral-element method. Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) of Rayleigh waves from ambient noise interferometry serve as the observed waveforms. Rayleigh wave signals in the period range of 10 - 50 s were extracted by cross-correlations of 48 stations from both Venezuelan national seismic network and the BOLIVAR project array. The synthetic Green's functions (SGFs) are calculated with an initial regional 3D shear wave model determined from ballistic Rayleigh wave tomography from earthquake records with periods longer than 20 s. The frequency-dependent traveltime time misfits between the SGFs and EGFs are minimized iteratively using adjoint tomography = to refine 3D crustal structure [Chen et al. 2014]. The final 3D model shows lateral shear wave velocity variations that are well correlated with the geological terranes within the continental interior. In particular, the final model reveals low velocities distributed along the axis of the Espino Graben, indicating that the graben has a substantially different crustal structure than the rest of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. We also observe high shear velocities in the lower crust beneath some of the subterranes of the Proterozoic-Archean Guayana Shield.

  12. Fire-Retardant Epoxy Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing epoxy is fire-retardant and translucent. Intended as adhesive for laminated plastic sheets, new material bonds well to titanium dioxide-filled plastic film, which ordinarily shows little surface interaction with adhesives. Fire retardancy has been demonstrated, and smoke density is low enough to avoid smoke obscuration.

  13. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.

  14. Playtherapy with the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broekgaarden, R.; And Others

    The use of play therapy with mentally retarded children and adults is examined. The lack of research on the topic is noted, and information on psychoanalytically oriented play therapy approaches are reviewed. Application of play therapy to mentally retarded clients is explored in terms of two questions: (1) at what level do mentally retarded…

  15. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  16. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  17. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  18. Educable Mentally Retarded; Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie A; Willemin, Helen

    An introduction of the curriculum guide for educable retarded children with mental ages from 5.0 to 6.6 discusses the philosophy of educating the retarded, goals, the educable program, the readiness program, use of the guide, and a suggested daily schedule. Suggested units treat the following: citizenship and patriotism, family and school,…

  19. Schizophrenia in the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…

  20. Associations of Cognitive Function Scores with Carbon Dioxide, Ventilation, and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office Environments

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph G.; MacNaughton, Piers; Satish, Usha; Santanam, Suresh; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The indoor built environment plays a critical role in our overall well-being because of both the amount of time we spend indoors (~90%) and the ability of buildings to positively or negatively influence our health. The advent of sustainable design or green building strategies reinvigorated questions regarding the specific factors in buildings that lead to optimized conditions for health and productivity. Objective: We simulated indoor environmental quality (IEQ) conditions in “Green” and “Conventional” buildings and evaluated the impacts on an objective measure of human performance: higher-order cognitive function. Methods: Twenty-four participants spent 6 full work days (0900–1700 hours) in an environmentally controlled office space, blinded to test conditions. On different days, they were exposed to IEQ conditions representative of Conventional [high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)] and Green (low concentrations of VOCs) office buildings in the United States. Additional conditions simulated a Green building with a high outdoor air ventilation rate (labeled Green+) and artificially elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels independent of ventilation. Results: On average, cognitive scores were 61% higher on the Green building day and 101% higher on the two Green+ building days than on the Conventional building day (p < 0.0001). VOCs and CO2 were independently associated with cognitive scores. Conclusions: Cognitive function scores were significantly better under Green+ building conditions than in the Conventional building conditions for all nine functional domains. These findings have wide-ranging implications because this study was designed to reflect conditions that are commonly encountered every day in many indoor environments. Citation: Allen JG, MacNaughton P, Satish U, Santanam S, Vallarino J, Spengler JD. 2016. Associations of cognitive function scores with carbon dioxide, ventilation, and volatile organic compound

  1. Thermal transport across metal silicide-silicon interfaces: First-principles calculations and Green's function transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadasivam, Sridhar; Ye, Ning; Feser, Joseph P.; Charles, James; Miao, Kai; Kubis, Tillmann; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2017-02-01

    Heat transfer across metal-semiconductor interfaces involves multiple fundamental transport mechanisms such as elastic and inelastic phonon scattering, and electron-phonon coupling within the metal and across the interface. The relative contributions of these different transport mechanisms to the interface conductance remains unclear in the current literature. In this work, we use a combination of first-principles calculations under the density functional theory framework and heat transport simulations using the atomistic Green's function (AGF) method to quantitatively predict the contribution of the different scattering mechanisms to the thermal interface conductance of epitaxial CoSi2-Si interfaces. An important development in the present work is the direct computation of interfacial bonding from density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) and hence the avoidance of commonly used "mixing rules" to obtain the cross-interface force constants from bulk material force constants. Another important algorithmic development is the integration of the recursive Green's function (RGF) method with Büttiker probe scattering that enables computationally efficient simulations of inelastic phonon scattering and its contribution to the thermal interface conductance. First-principles calculations of electron-phonon coupling reveal that cross-interface energy transfer between metal electrons and atomic vibrations in the semiconductor is mediated by delocalized acoustic phonon modes that extend on both sides of the interface, and phonon modes that are localized inside the semiconductor region of the interface exhibit negligible coupling with electrons in the metal. We also provide a direct comparison between simulation predictions and experimental measurements of thermal interface conductance of epitaxial CoSi2-Si interfaces using the time-domain thermoreflectance technique. Importantly, the experimental results, performed across a wide temperature range, only agree well with

  2. Functional group dependent dielectric properties of sulfated hydrocolloids extracted from green macroalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Hiraoka, Masanori; Hadano, Shingo; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Mitani, Tomohiko

    2014-07-17

    Dielectric properties of aqueous solutions of sulfated hydrocolloids (ulvan and rhamnan sulfate) extracted from green macroalgal biomass were studied in a frequency range of 100 MHz-10 GHz. Counterion exchange of native hydrocolloids (mixture of Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) to H(+)-form showed significant increase in loss factor due to ionic conduction. On the other hand, desulfations decreased their loss factors. The results suggested that ionic conduction of H(+) has significant contribution to loss factors. Additionally, H(+)-form hydrocolloids showed significant improvement in hydration, which might also affect the dielectric property of the solution by reducing the amount of free water. The viscosity, however, did not show apparent relevance with the dielectric property.

  3. A Computer Program for the Computation of Running Gear Temperatures Using Green's Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshigoe, S.; Murdock, J. W.; Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    A new technique has been developed to study two dimensional heat transfer problems in gears. This technique consists of transforming the heat equation into a line integral equation with the use of Green's theorem. The equation is then expressed in terms of eigenfunctions that satisfy the Helmholtz equation, and their corresponding eigenvalues for an arbitrarily shaped region of interest. The eigenfunction are obtalned by solving an intergral equation. Once the eigenfunctions are found, the temperature is expanded in terms of the eigenfunctions with unknown time dependent coefficients that can be solved by using Runge Kutta methods. The time integration is extremely efficient. Therefore, any changes in the time dependent coefficients or source terms in the boundary conditions do not impose a great computational burden on the user. The method is demonstrated by applying it to a sample gear tooth. Temperature histories at representative surface locatons are given.

  4. When can Empirical Green Functions be computed from Noise Cross-Correlations? Hints from different Geographical and Tectonic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Silveira, Graça; Custódio, Susana; Domingues, Ana; Dias, Nuno; Fonseca, João F. B.; Matias, Luís; Krueger, Frank; Carrilho, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Noise cross-correlations are now widely used to extract Green functions between station pairs. But, do all the cross-correlations routinely computed produce successful Green Functions? What is the relationship between noise recorded in a couple of stations and the cross-correlation between them? During the last decade, we have been involved in the deployment of several temporary dense broadband (BB) networks within the scope of both national projects and international collaborations. From 2000 to 2002, a pool of 8 BB stations continuously operated in the Azores in the scope of the Memorandum of Understanding COSEA (COordinated Seismic Experiment in the Azores). Thanks to the Project WILAS (West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure, PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008) we temporarily increased the number of BB deployed in mainland Portugal to more than 50 (permanent + temporary) during the period 2010 - 2012. In 2011/12 a temporary pool of 12 seismometers continuously recorded BB data in the Madeira archipelago, as part of the DOCTAR (Deep Ocean Test Array Experiment) project. Project CV-PLUME (Investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume, PTDC/CTE-GIN/64330/2006) covered the archipelago of Cape Verde, North Atlantic, with 40 temporary BB stations in 2007/08. Project MOZART (Mozambique African Rift Tomography, PTDC/CTE-GIX/103249/2008), covered Mozambique, East Africa, with 30 temporary BB stations in the period 2011 - 2013. These networks, located in very distinct geographical and tectonic environments, offer an interesting opportunity to study seasonal and spatial variations of noise sources and their impact on Empirical Green functions computed from noise cross-correlation. Seismic noise recorded at different seismic stations is evaluated by computation of the probability density functions of power spectral density (PSD) of continuous data. To assess seasonal variations of ambient noise sources in frequency content, time-series of

  5. Functional incorporation of green fluorescent protein into hepatitis B virus envelope particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Carsten; Thome, Nicole; Kluck, Christoph J.; Prange, Reinhild . E-mail: prange@mail.uni-mainz.de

    2004-12-05

    The envelope of hepatitis B virus (HBV), containing the L, M, and S proteins, is essential for virus entry and maturation. For direct visualization of HBV, we determined whether envelope assembly could accommodate the green fluorescent protein (GFP). While the C-terminal addition of GFP to S trans-dominant negatively inhibited empty envelope particle secretion, the N-terminal GFP fusion to S (GFP.S) was co-integrated into the envelope, giving rise to fluorescent particles. Microscopy and topogenesis analyses demonstrated that the proper intracellular distribution and folding of GFP.S, required for particle export were rescued by interprotein interactions with wild-type S. Thereby, a dual location of GFP, inside and outside the envelope, was observed. GFP.S was also efficiently packaged into the viral envelope, and these GFP-tagged virions retained the capacity for attachment to HBV receptor-positive cells in vitro. Together, GFP-tagged virions should be suitable to monitor HBV uptake and egress in live hepatocytes.

  6. Speculations on a possible essential function of the gelatinous sheath of blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Lange, W

    1976-08-01

    Voluminous and often fluffy sheaths surrounding blue-green algal cells are observed (a) in productive natural waters, (b) in bacteria-containing laboratory cultures growing in inorganic nutrient media with added bacteria-assimilable organic matter, and (c) in axenic cultures in the same inorganic media even without added organic matter. The sheaths of bacteria-associated species in inorganic media without added organic matter are, by comparison, thin, and growth is meager. Repeated observations show that voluminous sheaths and vigorous growth of algal species are associated. It is suggested that formation and retention of a voluminous shealth provide a microenvironment around the algal cell where essential nutrients, present at only submarginal levels in the surrounding water, are concentrated and become readily available to the cell. The increase in nutrient concentration above a critical level, in turn, leads to vigorous algal growth. The voluminous sheath produced by the alga is not attacked by alga-associated bacteria when other assimilable organic matter is available; but in the absence of a more suitalble food, the bacteria feed on the less desirable gelatinous sheath, markedly reducing its thickness and causing meager algal growth.

  7. Structural properties and digestion of green banana flour as a functional ingredient in pasta.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zeqi; Stanley, Roger; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2016-02-01

    Gluten free pasta was made from raw banana flour in combination with vegetable gums and protein for comparison to pasta similarly made from wheat flour. After cooking, it was found that the banana flour pasta was less susceptible to alpha-amylase digestion compared to conventional wheat flour pasta. Release of glucose by alpha-amylase digestion followed first order kinetics with an initial rapid rate of digestion and a subsequent second slower phase. The structure of green banana pasta starch at the inner and outer pasta surfaces was observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the viscosities of the flour mixtures were measured by a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The digestibility of banana flour pasta was found to be related, not only to the properties of the starch granules, but also to the protein network of the surrounding food matrix. The effects of gums and proteins on pasta formation and digestibility are discussed in the context of its potential use as a gluten free lower glycaemic alternative to conventional wheat based pastas.

  8. An efficient nonequilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory approach for calculating electron transport properties of molecular devices with quasi-one-dimensional electrodes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zekan; Li, Rui; Hou, Shimin; Xue, Zengquan; Sanvito, Stefano

    2007-11-21

    An efficient self-consistent approach combining the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism with density functional theory is developed to calculate electron transport properties of molecular devices with quasi-one-dimensional (1D) electrodes. Two problems associated with the low dimensionality of the 1D electrodes, i.e., the nonequilibrium state and the uncertain boundary conditions for the electrostatic potential, are circumvented by introducing the reflectionless boundary conditions at the electrode-contact interfaces and the zero electric field boundary conditions at the electrode-molecule interfaces. Three prototypical systems, respectively, an ideal ballistic conductor, a high resistance tunnel junction, and a molecular device, are investigated to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of our approach.

  9. Spin-dependent ballistic electron transport through Fe/MgO/Fe from ab-initio Green function embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortmann, Daniel; Blugel, Stefan; Ishida, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    An investigation of the Fe/MgO/Fe junction as a model system for tunnel-magneto-resistance (TMR) devices will be presented. We focus on the role of the electronic and geometric interface structure on the spin-dependent conductance by taking the interlayer relaxation at the Fe/MgO interface and the effect of a formation of interface FeO into account. We apply a recently developed efficient method for calculating the conductance of ballistic electrons through an interface from first-principles using the embedding approach of Inglesfield. In our method the Landauer-Büttiker formula for ballistic transport is expressed in terms of quantities that are available in the embedded Green-function calculations. The embedding approach is implemented within the full-potential linearized augmented plane method as realized in the FLEUR code.

  10. Recent Progress in the Development of a Multi-Layer Green's Function Code for Ion Beam Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, John; Walker, Steven A.; Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    2008-01-01

    To meet the challenge of future deep space programs, an accurate and efficient engineering code for analyzing the shielding requirements against high-energy galactic heavy radiation is needed. To address this need, a new Green's function code capable of simulating high charge and energy ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is currently under development. The computational model consists of combinations of physical perturbation expansions based on the scales of atomic interaction, multiple scattering, and nuclear reactive processes with use of the Neumann-asymptotic expansions with non-perturbative corrections. The code contains energy loss due to straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and downshifts. Previous reports show that the new code accurately models the transport of ion beams through a single slab of material. Current research efforts are focused on enabling the code to handle multiple layers of material and the present paper reports on progress made towards that end.

  11. Source parameters for small events associated with the 1986 North Palm Springs, California, earthquake determined using empirical Green functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mori, J.; Frankel, A.

    1990-01-01

    Using small events as empirical Green functions, source parameters were estimated for 25 ML 3.4 to 4.4 events associated with the 1986 North Palm Springs earthquake. The static stress drops ranged from 3 to 80 bars, for moments of 0.7 to 11 ?? 1021 dyne-cm. There was a spatial pattern to the stress drops of the aftershocks which showed increasing values along the fault plane toward the northwest compared to relatively low values near the hypocenter of the mainshock. The highest values were outside the main area of slip, and are believed to reflect a loaded area of the fault that still has an higher level of stress which was not released during the main shock. -from Authors

  12. Transition metal-catalyzed efficient and green transformations of P(O)-H compounds to functional organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Zhou, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Chang-Qiu; Yin, Shuang-Feng; Han, Li-Biao

    2013-05-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are of high importance in organic synthesis, catalysis, biochemistry, pharmaceuticals, and material science. In this mini review, we summarize our recent studies on transition metal-catalyzed green and atom efficient transformations of P(O)-H bonds to various versatile organophosphorus compounds, including the highly regio- and stereoselective P(O)-H additions to carbon-carbon unsaturated compounds, asymmetric hydrophosphorylation reactions, and dehydrogenative coupling reactions of P(O)-H compounds with carbon-H and heteroatom-H compounds. These new reactions provide efficient, general and practical ways for the preparation of a variety of well-defined functional organophosphorus compounds. Mechanistic aspects related to the catalytic processes are also discussed.

  13. Indocyanine green kinetics to assess liver function: Ready for a clinical dynamic assessment in major liver surgery?

    PubMed Central

    De Gasperi, Andrea; Mazza, Ernestina; Prosperi, Manlio

    2016-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) kinetics (PDR/R15) used to quantitatively assess hepatic function in the perioperative period of major resective surgery and liver transplantation have been the object of an extensive, updated and critical review. New, non invasive bedside monitors (pulse dye densitometry technology) make this opportunity widely available in clinical practice. After having reviewed basic concepts of hepatic clearance, we analysed the most common indications ICG kinetic parameters have nowadays in clinical practice, focusing in particular on the diagnostic and prognostic role of PDR and R15 in the perioperative period of major liver surgery and liver transplantation. As recently pointed out, even if of extreme interest, ICG clearance parameters have still some limitations, to be considered when using these tests. PMID:26981173

  14. Spontaneous emission and level shifts in absorbing disordered dielectrics and dense atomic gases: A Green's-function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Michael

    1999-09-01

    Spontaneous emission and Lamb shift of atoms in absorbing dielectrics and dense atomic gases are discussed using a microscopic Green's-function approach. Uncorrelated and random atomic positions are assumed, and the associated unphysical interactions between different atoms at the same location are eliminated (local field correction). For the case of an atom in a purely dispersive medium, the spontaneous-emission rate is altered by the well-known Lorentz local-field factor. When the mean distance between atoms becomes less than the resonance wavelength, results different from previously suggested expressions are found. In particular, it is shown that nearest-neighbor interactions become important. The results suggest that, for large densities, absorbing disordered dielectrics cannot accurately be described by a macroscopic approach that neglects correlations between atomic positions.

  15. Single charge current in a normal mesoscopic region attached to superconductor leads via a coupled poisson nonequilibrium green function formalism.

    PubMed

    Verrilli, David; Marin, F P; Rangel, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We study the I-V characteristic of mesoscopic systems or quantum dot (QD) attached to a pair of superconducting leads. Interaction effects in the QD are considered through the charging energy of the QD; that is, the treatment of current transport under a voltage bias is performed within a coupled Poisson nonequilibrium Green function (PNEGF) formalism. We derive the expression for the current in full generality but consider only the regime where transport occurs only via a single particle current. We show for this case and for various charging energies values U 0 and associated capacitances of the QD the effect on the I-V characteristic. Also the influence of the coupling constants on the I-V characteristic is investigated. Our approach puts forward a novel interpretation of experiments in the strong Coulomb regime.

  16. Single Charge Current in a Normal Mesoscopic Region Attached to Superconductor Leads via a Coupled Poisson Nonequilibrium Green Function Formalism

    PubMed Central

    Marin, F. P.

    2014-01-01

    We study the I-V characteristic of mesoscopic systems or quantum dot (QD) attached to a pair of superconducting leads. Interaction effects in the QD are considered through the charging energy of the QD; that is, the treatment of current transport under a voltage bias is performed within a coupled Poisson nonequilibrium Green function (PNEGF) formalism. We derive the expression for the current in full generality but consider only the regime where transport occurs only via a single particle current. We show for this case and for various charging energies values U 0 and associated capacitances of the QD the effect on the I-V characteristic. Also the influence of the coupling constants on the I-V characteristic is investigated. Our approach puts forward a novel interpretation of experiments in the strong Coulomb regime. PMID:24977220

  17. Three-dimensional single-sided Marchenko inverse scattering, data-driven focusing, Green's function retrieval, and their mutual relations.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Kees; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2013-02-22

    The one-dimensional Marchenko equation forms the basis for inverse scattering problems in which the scattering object is accessible from one side only. Here we derive a three-dimensional (3D) Marchenko equation which relates the single-sided reflection response of a 3D inhomogeneous medium to a field inside the medium. We show that this equation is solved by a 3D iterative data-driven focusing method, which yields the 3D Green's function with its virtual source inside the medium. The 3D single-sided Marchenko equation and its iterative solution method form the basis for imaging of 3D strongly scattering inhomogeneous media that are accessible from one side only.

  18. Indocyanine green kinetics to assess liver function: Ready for a clinical dynamic assessment in major liver surgery?

    PubMed

    De Gasperi, Andrea; Mazza, Ernestina; Prosperi, Manlio

    2016-03-08

    Indocyanine green (ICG) kinetics (PDR/R15) used to quantitatively assess hepatic function in the perioperative period of major resective surgery and liver transplantation have been the object of an extensive, updated and critical review. New, non invasive bedside monitors (pulse dye densitometry technology) make this opportunity widely available in clinical practice. After having reviewed basic concepts of hepatic clearance, we analysed the most common indications ICG kinetic parameters have nowadays in clinical practice, focusing in particular on the diagnostic and prognostic role of PDR and R15 in the perioperative period of major liver surgery and liver transplantation. As recently pointed out, even if of extreme interest, ICG clearance parameters have still some limitations, to be considered when using these tests.

  19. Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium Green's functions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindskog, M. Wacker, A.; Wolf, J. M.; Liverini, V.; Faist, J.; Trinite, V.; Maisons, G.; Carras, M.; Aidam, R.; Ostendorf, R.

    2014-09-08

    We study the operation of an 8.5 μm quantum cascade laser based on GaInAs/AlInAs lattice matched to InP using three different simulation models based on density matrix (DM) and non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formulations. The latter advanced scheme serves as a validation for the simpler DM schemes and, at the same time, provides additional insight, such as the temperatures of the sub-band carrier distributions. We find that for the particular quantum cascade laser studied here, the behavior is well described by simple quantum mechanical estimates based on Fermi's golden rule. As a consequence, the DM model, which includes second order currents, agrees well with the NEGF results. Both these simulations are in accordance with previously reported data and a second regrown device.

  20. Reduced-Shifted Conjugate-Gradient Method for a Green's Function: Efficient Numerical Approach in a Nano-Structured Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yuki; Shinohara, Yasushi; Futamura, Yasunori; Sakurai, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We propose the reduced-shifted conjugate-gradient (RSCG) method, which is numerically efficient to calculate a matrix element of a Green's function defined as a resolvent of a Hamiltonian operator, by solving linear equations with a desired accuracy. This method does not calculate solution vectors of linear equations but does directly calculate a matrix element of the resolvent. The matrix elements with different frequencies are simultaneously obtained. Thus, it is easy to calculate the exception value expressed as a Matsubara summation of these elements. To illustrate a power of our method, we choose a nano-structured superconducting system with a mean-field Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) approach. This method allows us to treat with the system with the fabrication potential, where one cannot effectively use the kernel-polynomial-based method. We consider the d-wave nano-island superconductor by simultaneously solving the linear equations with a large number (˜50000) of Matsubara frequencies.

  1. Hybrid Hamiltonian and Green's Function Approach for Studying Native Point Defect Levels in Semiconductor Compounds and Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Srini; Van Orden, Derek; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a hybrid method that can be applied to study isolated defects in semiconductor compounds and superlattices. The method is a combination of (1) a long-range tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian, (2) a first-principles Hamiltonian, and (3) a Green's function (GF) formalism. The calculation of the GF requires accurate energy band structure, wave functions, and defect potentials. The TB Hamiltonian with sp 3 orbitals basis ensures accurate band gaps and band masses while providing the functional form for the wave functions. We calculated the band gaps of InAs/GaSb and InAs/InAsSb strained-layer superlattices and found them to agree well with measurements. The change in potentials caused by native point defects (NPDs) was obtained from a first-principles method using Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations with Thousands of Atoms, which also uses sp 3 basis. We describe the method of calculating NPD energy levels in compounds and superlattices, obtain some defect levels in GaAs, InAs, InSb, and GaSb compounds, and provide details of the NPD-level calculations.

  2. The Determination of the Large-Scale Circulation of the Pacific Ocean from Satellite Altimetry using Model Green's Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef; Wunsch, Carl

    1996-01-01

    A Green's function method for obtaining an estimate of the ocean circulation using both a general circulation model and altimetric data is demonstrated. The fundamental assumption is that the model is so accurate that the differences between the observations and the model-estimated fields obey a linear dynamics. In the present case, the calculations are demonstrated for model/data differences occurring on very a large scale, where the linearization hypothesis appears to be a good one. A semi-automatic linearization of the Bryan/Cox general circulation model is effected by calculating the model response to a series of isolated (in both space and time) geostrophically balanced vortices. These resulting impulse responses or 'Green's functions' then provide the kernels for a linear inverse problem. The method is first demonstrated with a set of 'twin experiments' and then with real data spanning the entire model domain and a year of TOPEX/POSEIDON observations. Our present focus is on the estimate of the time-mean and annual cycle of the model. Residuals of the inversion/assimilation are largest in the western tropical Pacific, and are believed to reflect primarily geoid error. Vertical resolution diminishes with depth with 1 year of data. The model mean is modified such that the subtropical gyre is weakened by about 1 cm/s and the center of the gyre shifted southward by about 10 deg. Corrections to the flow field at the annual cycle suggest that the dynamical response is weak except in the tropics, where the estimated seasonal cycle of the low-latitude current system is of the order of 2 cm/s. The underestimation of observed fluctuations can be related to the inversion on the coarse spatial grid, which does not permit full resolution of the tropical physics. The methodology is easily extended to higher resolution, to use of spatially correlated errors, and to other data types.

  3. Epicenter Location of Regional Seismic Events Using Love Wave and Rayleigh Wave Ambient Seismic Noise Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Moschetti, M. P.; Mendoza, C.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    We describe a novel method to locate regional seismic events based on exploiting Empirical Green's Functions (EGF) that are produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long time-series of ambient noise recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh waves on the vertical-vertical cross-correlations and Love waves on the transverse-transverse cross-correlations. Earlier work (Barmin et al., "Epicentral location based on Rayleigh wave empirical Green's functions from ambient seismic noise", Geophys. J. Int., 2011) showed that group time delays observed on Rayleigh wave EGFs can be exploited to locate to within about 1 km moderate sized earthquakes using USArray Transportable Array (TA) stations. The principal advantage of the method is that the ambient noise EGFs are affected by lateral variations in structure similarly to the earthquake signals, so the location is largely unbiased by 3-D structure. However, locations based on Rayleigh waves alone may be biased by more than 1 km if the earthquake depth is unknown but lies between 2 km and 7 km. This presentation is motivated by the fact that group time delays for Love waves are much less affected by earthquake depth than Rayleigh waves; thus exploitation of Love wave EGFs may reduce location bias caused by uncertainty in event depth. The advantage of Love waves to locate seismic events, however, is mitigated by the fact that Love wave EGFs have a smaller SNR than Rayleigh waves. Here, we test the use of Love and Rayleigh wave EGFs between 5- and 15-sec period to locate seismic events based on the USArray TA in the western US. We focus on locating aftershocks of the 2008 M 6.0 Wells earthquake, mining blasts in Wyoming and Montana, and small earthquakes near Norman, OK and Dallas, TX, some of which may be triggered by hydrofracking or injection wells.

  4. A Comprehensive Phylogeny Reveals Functional Conservation of the UV-B Photoreceptor UVR8 from Green Algae to Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María B.; Tossi, Vanesa; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Cassia, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is present in sunlight (280–315 nm) and has diverse effects on living organisms. Low fluence rate of exposure induces a specific photomorphogenic response regulated by the UV-B response locus 8 (UVR8) receptor. UVR8 was first described in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the absence of stimuli it is located in the cytoplasm as a homodimer. However, upon UV-B irradiation, it switches to a monomer and interacts with the ubiquitin ligase E3 COP1 via the UVR8 β-propeller domain and the VP core. This induces the expression of the transcription factor HY5 leading to changes in the expression of genes associated with UV-B acclimation and stress tolerance. UVR8 senses UV-B through tryptophan residues being Trp233 and 285 the most important. Based on the comparison and analysis of UVR8 functionally important motifs, we report a comprehensive phylogeny of UVR8, trying to identify UVR8 homologs and the ancestral organism where this gene could be originated. Results obtained showed that Chlorophytes are the first organisms from the Viridiplantae group where UVR8 appears. UVR8 is present in green algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All the sequences identified contain tryptophans 233 and 285, arginines involved in homodimerization and the VP domain suggesting they are true UVR8 photoreceptors. We also determined that some species from bryophytes and angiosperms contain more than one UVR8 gene copy posing the question if UVR8 could constitute a gene family in these species. In conclusion, we described the functional conservation among UVR8 proteins from green algae to higher plants. PMID:27895654

  5. INTRODUCTION TO BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large and diverse class of major industrial products used to provide fire safety. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Hexabromocylocodecane (HBCD), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are the major commercial compounds. TBBPA is a react...

  6. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  7. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  8. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Sawko, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Fire-retardant paint, when activated by the heat of fire, reacts to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction.

  9. Fertile green: green facilitates creative performance.

    PubMed

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2012-06-01

    The present research sought to extend the nascent literature on color and psychological functioning by examining whether perception of the color green facilitates creativity. In four experiments, we demonstrated that a brief glimpse of green prior to a creativity task enhances creative performance. This green effect was observed using both achromatic (white, gray) and chromatic (red, blue) contrast colors that were carefully matched on nonhue properties, and using both picture-based and word-based assessments of creativity. Participants were not aware of the purpose of the experiment, and null effects were obtained on participants' self-reported mood and positive activation. These findings indicate that green has implications beyond aesthetics and suggest the need for sustained empirical work on the functional meaning of green.

  10. A simple analytical method to obtain achromatic waveplate retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Jose Luis; Lazarova-Lazarova, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    A new linear and analytical method to design achromatic retarders using waveplates is proposed. The root of this procedure is a generalization of the Hariharan method, which supposes a set of waveplates with fast axes aligned. Hence, it imposes a set of contour conditions over the overall retardation with the aim of determining the thicknesses of the waveplates. Our method proposes a polynomial approximation of the birefringences, thus removing the contour condition. Analytic expressions for calculating the thicknesses of the waveplates are then derived, showing a non-explicit dependence on the wavelength. Moreover, the overall retardation obtained by this method is close to the optimal retardation curve achieved by minimizing the merit function of the achromatism degree.

  11. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  12. Art Therapy to Promote Ego Development in Disturbed Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A.

    The paper discusses the six major ego functions, ego disturbances in mentally retarded children, and case examples of the use of art therapy to promote ego development. Identified are the following ego functions: control and regulation of instinctual drives, autonomous functions, reality testing, object relationships, defense, and synthesis. The…

  13. Calculation of the second term of the exact Green's function of the diffusion equation for diffusion-controlled chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Ianik

    2016-01-01

    The exact Green's function of the diffusion equation (GFDE) is often considered to be the gold standard for the simulation of partially diffusion-controlled reactions. As the GFDE with angular dependency is quite complex, the radial GFDE is more often used. Indeed, the exact GFDE is expressed as a Legendre expansion, the coefficients of which are given in terms of an integral comprising Bessel functions. This integral does not seem to have been evaluated analytically in existing literature. While the integral can be evaluated numerically, the Bessel functions make the integral oscillate and convergence is difficult to obtain. Therefore it would be of great interest to evaluate the integral analytically. The first term was evaluated previously, and was found to be equal to the radial GFDE. In this work, the second term of this expansion was evaluated. As this work has shown that the first two terms of the Legendre polynomial expansion can be calculated analytically, it raises the question of the possibility that an analytical solution exists for the other terms.

  14. High Color-Purity Green, Orange, and Red Light-Emitting Didoes Based on Chemically Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Woosung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Taehyung; Do, Sungan; Park, Yoonsang; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Tae-Woo; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Chemically derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to date have showed very broad emission linewidth due to many kinds of chemical bondings with different energy levels, which significantly degrades the color purity and color tunability. Here, we show that use of aniline derivatives to chemically functionalize GQDs generates new extrinsic energy levels that lead to photoluminescence of very narrow linewidths. We use transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopies to study the electronic structures and related electronic transitions of our GQDs, which reveals that their underlying carrier dynamics is strongly related to the chemical properties of aniline derivatives. Using these functionalized GQDs as lumophores, we fabricate light-emitting didoes (LEDs) that exhibit green, orange, and red electroluminescence that has high color purity. The maximum current efficiency of 3.47 cd A‑1 and external quantum efficiency of 1.28% are recorded with our LEDs; these are the highest values ever reported for LEDs based on carbon-nanoparticle phosphors. This functionalization of GQDs with aniline derivatives represents a new method to fabricate LEDs that produce natural color.

  15. High Color-Purity Green, Orange, and Red Light-Emitting Didoes Based on Chemically Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woosung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Taehyung; Do, Sungan; Park, Yoonsang; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Tae-Woo; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Chemically derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to date have showed very broad emission linewidth due to many kinds of chemical bondings with different energy levels, which significantly degrades the color purity and color tunability. Here, we show that use of aniline derivatives to chemically functionalize GQDs generates new extrinsic energy levels that lead to photoluminescence of very narrow linewidths. We use transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopies to study the electronic structures and related electronic transitions of our GQDs, which reveals that their underlying carrier dynamics is strongly related to the chemical properties of aniline derivatives. Using these functionalized GQDs as lumophores, we fabricate light-emitting didoes (LEDs) that exhibit green, orange, and red electroluminescence that has high color purity. The maximum current efficiency of 3.47 cd A−1 and external quantum efficiency of 1.28% are recorded with our LEDs; these are the highest values ever reported for LEDs based on carbon-nanoparticle phosphors. This functionalization of GQDs with aniline derivatives represents a new method to fabricate LEDs that produce natural color. PMID:27048887

  16. Consumption of functional fermented milk containing borage oil, green tea and vitamin E enhances skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Puch, Florence; Samson-Villeger, Sandrine; Guyonnet, Denis; Blachon, Jean-Luc; Rawlings, Anthony Vincent; Lassel, Taous

    2008-08-01

    As emerging studies show that skin functioning can be improved with orally imbibed ingredients, we decided to investigate a mixture of borage oil, catechins, vitamin E and probiotics, all known for their reported effects on epidermal function, in a fermented dairy product, for the first time. Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and catechins bioavailability and their effects on skin functionality have not been previously investigated from a fermented dairy product. Firstly, we assessed the bioavailability of GLA and catechins mixed in a fermented dairy matrix by measuring their levels in chylomicrons and plasma samples respectively. For the GLA contained in the dairy matrix, the area under the curve and time for maximal absorption were significantly different to the same kinetic parameters compared with absorption from the free oil indicating improved oral bioavailability. However, the overall absorption of catechins over the 6-h period was identical for both product forms. These results were sufficiently promising to warrant a 24 week skin nutrition intervention study in female volunteers having dry and sensitive skin. The product improved stratum corneum barrier function compared with a control product as early as 6 weeks after the consumption which continued throughout the rest of the study. The reduction in transepidermal water loss relative to control was maintained throughout the trial despite seasonal changes. Moreover, as a result of the enhanced bioavailability, a much greater effect on skin barrier function occurred than reported previously for the individual ingredients. Nevertheless, body mass index significantly influenced various outcome measurements of this study.

  17. Frequency-Domain Green's Functions for Radar Waves in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green’s functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous media may be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid of two numerical methods. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties may vary in the x and z directions, ...

  18. Broadband strong motion simulation in layered half-space using stochastic Green's function technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisada, Y.

    2008-04-01

    The stochastic Green’s function method, which simulates one component of the far-field S-waves from an extended fault plane at high frequencies (Kamae et al., J Struct Constr Eng Trans AIJ, 430:1 9, 1991), is extended to simulate the three components of the full waveform in layered half-spaces for broadband frequency range. The method firstly computes ground motions from small earthquakes, which correspond to the ruptures of sub-faults on a fault plane of a large earthquake, and secondly constructs the strong motions of the large earthquake by superposing the small ground motions using the empirical Green’s function technique (e.g., Irikura, Proc 7th Japan Earthq Eng Symp, 151 156, 1986). The broadband stochastic omega-square model is proposed as the moment rate functions of the small earthquakes, in which random and zero phases are used at higher and lower frequencies, respectively. The zero phases are introduced to simulate a smooth ramp function of the moment function with the duration of 1/fc s (fc: the corner frequency) and to reproduce coherent strong motions at low frequencies (i.e., the directivity pulse). As for the radiation coefficients, the theoretical values of double couple sources for lower frequencies and the theoretical isotropic values for the P-, SV-, and SH-waves (Onishi and Horike, J Struct Constr Eng Trans AIJ, 586:37 44, 2004) for high frequencies are used. The proposed method uses the theoretical Green’s functions of layered half-spaces instead of the far-field S-waves, which reproduce the complete waves including the direct and reflected P- and S-waves and surface waves at broadband frequencies. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the 1994 Northridge earthquake, and results show excellent agreement with the observation records at broadband frequencies. At the same time, the method still needs improvements especially because it underestimates the high-frequency vertical components in the near fault range. Nonetheless, the method

  19. Dynamic response of silicon nanostructures at finite frequency: An orbital-free density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuming; Wang, Bin; Wei, Yadong; Wang, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) replaces the wavefunction in the kinetic energy by an explicit energy functional and thereby speeds up significantly the calculation of ground state properties of the solid state systems. So far, the application of OFDFT has been centered on closed systems and less attention is paid on the transport properties in open systems. In this paper, we use OFDFT and combine it with non-equilibrium Green's function to simulate equilibrium electronic transport properties in silicon nanostructures from first principles. In particular, we study ac transport properties of a silicon atomic junction consisting of a silicon atomic chain and two monoatomic leads. We have calculated the dynamic conductance of this atomic junction as a function of ac frequency with one to four silicon atoms in the central scattering region. Although the system is transmissive with dc conductance around 4 to 5 e2/h, capacitive-like behavior was found in the finite frequency regime. Our analysis shows that, up to 0.1 THz, this behavior can be characterized by a classic RC circuit consisting of two resistors and a capacitor. One resistor gives rise to dc resistance and the other one accounts for the charge relaxation resistance with magnitude around 0.2 h/e2 when the silicon chain contains two atoms. It was found that the capacitance is around 5 aF for the same system.

  20. Development of novel fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  1. Facile and green synthesis of highly stable L-cysteine functionalized copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan

    2016-11-01

    A simple eco-friendly method for L-cysteine capped copper nanoparticles (CCNPs) synthesis in aqueous solution has been developed. Glucose and L-cysteine were used as reducing agent and capping/functionalizing agent, respectively. Different parameters such as capping agent concentration, pH, reaction temperature, and reducing agent concentration were optimized during the synthesis. The L-cysteine capped copper nanoparticle were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Particle size and zeta potential analyser, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Spherical shaped cysteine functionalized/capped copper nanoparticles with an average size of 40 nm were found to be highly stable at room temperature (RT) for a period of 1 month

  2. Allocation of Attention and Effect of Practice on Persons with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oka, Kohei; Miura, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Persons with mild and moderate mental retardation and CA-matched persons without mental retardation performed a dual-task, "pencil-and-paper task" (Baddeley, Della Sala, Gray, Papagno, & Spinnler (1997). Testing central executive functioning with a pencil-and-paper test. In Rabbit (Ed.), Methodology of Frontal and Executive Function (pp. 61-80).…

  3. Green function method study of the anisotropic ferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ai-Yuan; Chen, Yuan

    2008-06-01

    We study the phase diagram of the anisotropic ferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a square lattice. We use the double-time Green’s function method within the Callen decoupling approximation. The dependence of the Curie temperature Tc on the spin S and on the anisotropy parameter Δ ( Δ=0 and 1 correspond to the isotropic Heisenberg and Ising model, respectively) is obtained explicitly. Our results are in agreement with results obtained from other theoretical approaches.

  4. Green tea inhibited the elimination of nephro-cardiovascular toxins and deteriorated the renal function in rats with renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Sweet, Douglas H.; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are highly protein-bound nephro-cardiovascular toxins, which are not efficiently removed through hemodialysis. The renal excretions of IS and PCS were mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs) such as OAT1 and OAT3. Green tea (GT) is a popular beverage containing plenty of catechins. Previous pharmacokinetic studies of teas have shown that the major molecules present in the bloodstream are the glucuronides/sulfates of tea catechins, which are putative substrates of OATs. Here we demonstrated that GT ingestion significantly elevated the systemic exposures of endogenous IS and PCS in rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). More importantly, GT also significantly increased the levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in CRF rats. Mechanism studies indicated that the serum metabolites of GT (GTM) inhibited the uptake transporting functions of OAT1 and OAT3. In conclusion, GT inhibited the elimination of nephro-cardiovascular toxins such as IS and PCS, and deteriorated the renal function in CRF rats. PMID:26552961

  5. Tunable photonic cavity coupled to a voltage-biased double quantum dot system: Diagrammatic nonequilibrium Green's function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Kulkarni, Manas; Mukamel, Shaul; Segal, Dvira

    2016-07-01

    We investigate gain in microwave photonic cavities coupled to voltage-biased double quantum dot systems with an arbitrarily strong dot-lead coupling and with a Holstein-like light-matter interaction, by employing the diagrammatic Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function approach. We compute out-of-equilibrium properties of the cavity: its transmission, phase response, mean photon number, power spectrum, and spectral function. We show that by the careful engineering of these hybrid light-matter systems, one can achieve a significant amplification of the optical signal with the voltage-biased electronic system serving as a gain medium. We also study the steady-state current across the device, identifying elastic and inelastic tunneling processes which involve the cavity mode. Our results show how recent advances in quantum electronics can be exploited to build hybrid light-matter systems that behave as microwave amplifiers and photon source devices. The diagrammatic Keldysh approach is primarily discussed for a cavity-coupled double quantum dot architecture, but it is generalizable to other hybrid light-matter systems.

  6. Red-green emitting and superparamagnetic nanomarkers containing Fe3O4 functionalized with calixarene and rare earth complexes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Latif U; Brito, Hermi F; Hölsä, Jorma; Pirota, Kleber R; Muraca, Diego; Felinto, Maria C F C; Teotonio, Ercules E S; Malta, Oscar L

    2014-12-15

    The design of bifunctional magnetic luminescent nanomaterials containing Fe3O4 functionalized with rare earth ion complexes of calixarene and β-diketonate ligands is reported. Their preparation is accessible through a facile one-pot method. These novel Fe3O4@calix-Eu(TTA) (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetonate) and Fe3O4@calix-Tb(ACAC) (ACAC = acetylacetonate) magnetic luminescent nanomaterials show interesting superparamagnetic and photonic properties. The magnetic properties (M-H and ZFC/FC measurements) at temperatures of 5 and 300 K were explored to investigate the extent of coating and the crystallinity effect on the saturation magnetization values and blocking temperatures. Even though magnetite is a strong luminescence quencher, the coating of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles with synthetically functionalized rare earth complexes has overcome this difficulty. The intramolecular energy transfer from the T1 excited triplet states of TTA and ACAC ligands to the emitting levels of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) in the nanomaterials and emission efficiencies are presented and discussed, as well as the structural conclusions from the values of the 4f-4f intensity parameters in the case of the Eu(3+) ion. These novel nanomaterials may act as the emitting layer for the red and green light for magnetic light-converting molecular devices (MLCMDs).

  7. A Covariant Generalization of the Real-Time Green's Functions Method in the Theory of Kinetic Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyansky, S. A.; Prozorkevich, A. V.; Maino, G.; Mashnik, S. G.

    1999-11-01

    A generalized quantum relativistic kinetic equation (RKE) of the Kadanoff-Baym type is obtained on the basis of the Heisenberg equations of motion where the time evolution and space translation are separated from each other by means of the covariant method. The same approach is used also for a covariant modification of the real-time Green's functions method based on the Wigner representation. The suggested approach does not contain arbitrariness' elements and uncertainties which often arise from derivation of RKE on the basis of the motion equations of the Kadanoff-Baym type for the correlation functions in the case of systems with inner degrees of freedom. Possibilities of the proposed method are demonstrated by examples of derivation of RKE of the Vlasov type and collision integrals of the Boltzmann- Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) type in the frame of the σω-version of quantum hadrodynamics, for the simplest case of spin saturated nuclear matter without antinuclear component. Here, the quasiparticle approximation in a covariant performance is used. A generalization of the method for the description of strong non-equilibrium states based on the non-equilibrium statistical operator is then proposed as well.

  8. Transport equation approach to calculations of Hadamard Green functions and non-coincident DeWitt coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottewill, Adrian C.; Wardell, Barry

    2011-11-01

    Building on an insight due to Avramidi, we provide a system of transport equations for determining key fundamental bitensors, including derivatives of the world function, σ(x,x'), the square root of the Van Vleck determinant, Δ1/2(x,x'), and the tail term, V(x,x'), appearing in the Hadamard form of the Green function. These bitensors are central to a broad range of problems from radiation reaction to quantum field theory in curved spacetime and quantum gravity. Their transport equations may be used either in a semi-recursive approach to determining their covariant Taylor series expansions, or as the basis of numerical calculations. To illustrate the power of the semi-recursive approach, we present an implementation in Mathematica, which computes very high order covariant series expansions of these objects. Using this code, a moderate laptop can, for example, calculate the coincidence limit [a7(x,x)] and V(x,x') to order (σa)20 in a matter of minutes. Results may be output in either a compact notation or in xTensor form. In a second application of the approach, we present a scheme for numerically integrating the transport equations as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. As an example application of the scheme, we integrate along null geodesics to solve for V(x,x') in Nariai and Schwarzschild spacetimes.

  9. Effect of Additives on Green Sand Molding Properties using Design of Experiments and Taguchi's Quality Loss Function - An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Bhagyashree; Mokashi, Pavani; Anand, R. L.; Burli, S. B.; Khandal, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental study aims to underseek the effect of various additives on the green sand molding properties as a particular combination of additives could yield desired sand properties. The input parameters (factors) selected were water and powder (Fly ash, Coconut shell and Tamarind) in three levels. Experiments were planned using design of experiments (DOE). On the basis of plans, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of sand mould properties such as compression strength, shear strength, permeability number with various additives. From the experimental results it could be concluded that the factors have significant effect on the sand properties as P-value found to be less than 0.05 for all the cases studied. The optimization based on quality loss function was also performed. The study revealed that the quality loss associated with the tamarind powder was lesser compared to other additives selected for the study. The optimization based on quality loss function and the parametric analysis using ANOVA suggested that the tamarind powder of 8 gm per Kg of molding sand and moisture content of 7% yield better properties to obtain sound castings.

  10. Green synthesis of AuNPs for eco-friendly functionalization of cellulosic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Nabil A.; Eid, Basma M.; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S.

    2016-12-01

    In this research work, extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using marine bacterial isolates (Streptomyces sp.) as a reducing/capping/stabilizing bio-agent and chlolauric acid (HAuCl4) as a precursor has been investigated. Surface modification of cotton and viscose knitted fabrics using O2-plasma followed by subsequent treatment with bio-synthesized AuNPs alone and in combination with TiO2NPs or ZnONPs to impart new functional properties namely antibacterial and UV-blocking were studied. The results show that loading of nominated nanomaterials onto the activated fabric samples results in a significant improvement in antibacterial activity against both G+ve (S. aureus) and G-ve (E. coli) along with a remarkable enhancement in the UV-protection functionality of the treated fabrics. The highest antibacterial and anti-UV values were obtained when O2-plasma treated fabrics were loaded with AuNPs/ZnONPs combination, irrespective of the used substrate. The imparted functional properties demonstrated remarkable retention even after 15 washings.

  11. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  12. Immobilization of functional light antenna structures derived from the filamentous green bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Arati; Muthuswamy, Jit; Labelle, Jeffrey T; Pizziconi, Vincent B

    2008-08-05

    The integration of highly efficient, natural photosynthetic light antenna structures into engineered systems while their biophotonic capabilities are maintained has been an elusive goal in the design of biohybrid photonic devices. In this study, we report a novel technique to covalently immobilize nanoscaled bacterial light antenna structures known as chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus on both conductive and nonconductive glass while their energy transducing functionality was maintained. Chlorosomes without their reaction centers (RCs) were covalently immobilized on 3-aminoproyltriethoxysilane (APTES) treated surfaces using a glutaraldehyde linker. AFM techniques verified that the chlorosomes maintained their native ellipsoidal ultrastructure upon immobilization. Results from absorbance and fluorescence spectral analysis (where the Stokes shift to 808/810 nm was observed upon 470 nm blue light excitation) in conjunction with confocal microscopy confirm that the functional integrity of immobilized chlorosomes was also preserved. In addition, experiments with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) suggested that the presence of chlorosomes in the electrical double layer of the electrode enhanced the electron transfer capacity of the electrochemical cell. Further, chronoamperometric studies suggested that the reduced form of the Bchl- c pigments found within the chlorosome modulate the conduction properties of the electrochemical cell, where the oxidized form of Bchl- c pigments impeded any current transduction at a bias of 0.4 V within the electrochemical cell. The results therefore demonstrate that the intact chlorosomes can be successfully immobilized while their biophotonic transduction capabilities are preserved through the immobilization process. These findings indicate that it is feasible to design biophotonic devices incorporating fully functional light antenna structures, which may offer significant performance enhancements to current silicon

  13. A Comprehensive Analysis of RALF Proteins in Green Plants Suggests There Are Two Distinct Functional Groups

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Liam; Turner, Simon R.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid Alkalinization Factors (RALFs) are small, cysteine-rich peptides known to be involved in various aspects of plant development and growth. Although RALF peptides have been identified within many species, a single wide-ranging phylogenetic analysis of the family across the plant kingdom has not yet been undertaken. Here, we identified RALF proteins from 51 plant species that represent a variety of land plant lineages. The inferred evolutionary history of the 795 identified RALFs suggests that the family has diverged into four major clades. We found that much of the variation across the family exists within the mature peptide region, suggesting clade-specific functional diversification. Clades I, II, and III contain the features that have been identified as important for RALF activity, including the RRXL cleavage site and the YISY motif required for receptor binding. In contrast, members of clades IV that represent a third of the total dataset, is highly diverged and lacks these features that are typical of RALFs. Members of clade IV also exhibit distinct expression patterns and physico-chemical properties. These differences suggest a functional divergence of clades and consequently, we propose that the peptides within clade IV are not true RALFs, but are more accurately described as RALF-related peptides. Expansion of this RALF–related clade in the Brassicaceae is responsible for the large number of RALF genes that have been previously described in Arabidopsis thaliana. Future experimental work will help to establish the nature of the relationship between the true RALFs and the RALF-related peptides, and whether they function in a similar manner. PMID:28174582

  14. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    , several brominated benzenes, and a highly chlorinated norbornene compound called Dechlorane Plus. Most recently, we have begun measuring the atmospheric concentrations of several organophosphate esters, which are an increasing part of the flame retardant market. The interesting feature of this story is how one compound or set of compounds has followed another out of and into the marketplace even though none of them have been officially regulated. This replacement of one commercial product by another with similar functions shows that the chemical industry does respond to scientific environmental measurements and to the resulting bad publicity. This is a good thing. The problem is that often the replacement chemicals also become environmentally ubiquitous.

  15. Ambient noise recovery of surface wave Green's functions: Application at Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballmer, S.; Wolfe, C. J.; Okubo, P.; Haney, M. M.; Thurber, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    Hazard assessment of Hawaiian volcanoes critically depends on the understanding of their evolution and dynamics. Previous studies suggest that ambient seismic noise analyses may aid in volcano research and monitoring. Green’s functions derived from ambient noise have been used to perform tomography of the shallow structures (< 5 km depth) at other volcanoes [1, 2]. Moreover, these Green’s functions have been used to monitor very small shallow velocity perturbations prior to eruptions [3]. This promising technique, however, has not yet been applied to any Hawaiian volcano. Here, we examine data from the USGS Hawaii Volcano Observatory short-period seismic network to assess the potential of such ambient noise analyses to constrain spatial velocity heterogeneity and temporal perturbations at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes. We have obtained continuous seismic data from May 2007 through April 2008. This time period includes two important volcanic events. 1) The Father’s Day dike intrusion into Kilauea’s east rift zone that occurred on June 17, 2007. 2) The Kilauea summit eruption of March 19, 2008 and the high summit activity (that includes high tremor levels) that has since followed. The success of any noise study of temporal velocity perturbations will depend critically on whether stable Green’s functions can be recovered. However, for applications at Hawaii it is possible that during some time frames high volcanic tremor levels may distort ambient noise records and hence limit the results. Using the technical approach described in [2], we plan to examine numerous station pairs to determine the times when stable Green’s functions can be extracted from noise (0.1-1 Hz) that is typically made up of Rayleigh waves created by wind-generated ocean waves. As a first step, we investigate the period around the 2007 dike intrusion to evaluate the applicability of noise interferometry to Kilauea volcano. [1] Brenguier, F., N. M. Shapiro, M. Campillo, A. Nercessian

  16. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. Adenine-functionalized Spongy Graphene for Green and High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Dalia M; Ghany, Nabil A Abdel; El Sherbini, E E Foad; Allam, Nageh K

    2017-02-20

    A simple method is demonstrated to prepare spongy adenine-functionalized graphene (SFG) as interconnected, porous 3-dimensional (3D) network crinkly sheets. Such 3D network structure provides better contact at the electrode/electrolyte interface and facilitates the charge transfer kinetics. The fabricated SFG was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized materials have been evaluated as supercapacitor materials in 0.5 M H2SO4 using cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different potential scan rates, and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests at different current densities. The SFG electrodes showed a maximum specific capacitance of 333 F/g at scan rate of 1 mV/s and exhibited excellent cycling retention of 102% after 1000 cycles at 200 mV/s. The energy density was 64.42 Wh/kg with a power density of 599.8 W/kg at 1.0 A/g. Those figures of merit are much higher than those reported for graphene-based materials tested under similar conditions. The observed high performance can be related to the synergistic effects of the spongy structure and the adenine functionalization.

  18. Adenine-functionalized Spongy Graphene for Green and High-Performance Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gendy, Dalia M.; Ghany, Nabil A. Abdel; El Sherbini, E. E. Foad; Allam, Nageh K.

    2017-02-01

    A simple method is demonstrated to prepare spongy adenine-functionalized graphene (SFG) as interconnected, porous 3-dimensional (3D) network crinkly sheets. Such 3D network structure provides better contact at the electrode/electrolyte interface and facilitates the charge transfer kinetics. The fabricated SFG was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV‑vis absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized materials have been evaluated as supercapacitor materials in 0.5 M H2SO4 using cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different potential scan rates, and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests at different current densities. The SFG electrodes showed a maximum specific capacitance of 333 F/g at scan rate of 1 mV/s and exhibited excellent cycling retention of 102% after 1000 cycles at 200 mV/s. The energy density was 64.42 Wh/kg with a power density of 599.8 W/kg at 1.0 A/g. Those figures of merit are much higher than those reported for graphene-based materials tested under similar conditions. The observed high performance can be related to the synergistic effects of the spongy structure and the adenine functionalization.

  19. Adenine-functionalized Spongy Graphene for Green and High-Performance Supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Dalia M.; Ghany, Nabil A. Abdel; El Sherbini, E. E. Foad; Allam, Nageh K.

    2017-01-01

    A simple method is demonstrated to prepare spongy adenine-functionalized graphene (SFG) as interconnected, porous 3-dimensional (3D) network crinkly sheets. Such 3D network structure provides better contact at the electrode/electrolyte interface and facilitates the charge transfer kinetics. The fabricated SFG was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV−vis absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized materials have been evaluated as supercapacitor materials in 0.5 M H2SO4 using cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different potential scan rates, and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests at different current densities. The SFG electrodes showed a maximum specific capacitance of 333 F/g at scan rate of 1 mV/s and exhibited excellent cycling retention of 102% after 1000 cycles at 200 mV/s. The energy density was 64.42 Wh/kg with a power density of 599.8 W/kg at 1.0 A/g. Those figures of merit are much higher than those reported for graphene-based materials tested under similar conditions. The observed high performance can be related to the synergistic effects of the spongy structure and the adenine functionalization. PMID:28216668

  20. Decoherence in Optically Excited Semiconductors: a perspective from non-equilibrium Green functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, Kuljit Singh

    Decoherence is central to our understanding of the transition from the quantum to the classical world. It is also a way of probing the dynamics of interacting many-body systems. Photoexcited semiconductors are such systems in which the transient dynamics can be studied in considerable detail experimentally. Recent advances in spectroscopy of semiconductors provide powerful tools to explore many-body physics in new regimes. An appropriate theoretical framework is necessary to describe new physical effects now accessible for observation. We present a possible approach in this thesis, and discuss results of its application to an experimentally relevant scenario. The major portion of this thesis is devoted to a formalism for the multi-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy of semiconductors. A perturbative treatment of the electromagnetic field is used to derive a closed set of differential equations for the multi-particle correlation functions, which take into account the many-body effects up to third order in the field. A diagrammatic method is developed, in which we retain all features of the double-sided Feynman diagrams for bookkeeping the excitation scenario, and complement them by allowing for the description of interactions. We apply the formalism to study decoherence between the states of optically excited excitons embedded in an electron gas, and compare it with the decoherence between these states and the ground state. We derive a dynamical equation for the two-time correlation functions of excitons, and compare it with the corresponding equation for the interband polarization. It is argued, and verified by numerical calculation, that the decay of Raman coherence depends sensitively on how differently the superimposed exciton states interact with the electron gas, and that it can be much slower than the decay of interband polarization. We also present a new numerical approach based on the length gauge for modeling the time-dependent laser-semiconductor interaction