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Sample records for retention understanding experiments

  1. Understanding Retention in US Graduate Programs by Student Nationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences in selected retention constructs by student nationality in US graduate programs. Surveys administered at four universities across the United States during fall 2010 resulted in responses from 685 PhD students from six international regions. Using univariate ANOVA, responses were…

  2. The Retention of Meaningful Understanding of Meiosis and Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann Liberatore

    This study investigated the retention of meaningful understanding of the biological topics of meiosis, the Punnett square method and the relations between these two topics. This study also explored the predictive influence of students' general tendency to learn meaningfully or by rote (meaningful learning orientation), prior knowledge of meiosis,…

  3. Toward a mechanistic understanding of the effect of biochar addition on soil water retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Chang, N.; Guo, M.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich product produced by thermal degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment, whose application to sediment is said to improve water retention. However, BC produced from different feedstocks and pyrolyzed at different temperatures have distinct properties, which may alter water retention in ways difficult to predict a priori. Our goal is to develop a mechanistic understanding of BC addition on water retention by examining the impact of BC from two feedstocks, poultry litter (PL) and hardwood (HW), on the soil-water retention curves (SWRC) of a uniform sand and a sandy loam (SL). For experiments with sand, BC and sand were sieved to the same particle size (~ 0.547 mm) to minimize effects of BC addition on particle size distribution. Experiments with SL contained the same sieved BC. PL and HW bicohars were added at 2 and 7% (w/w), and water retention was measured from 0 to -4.38 × 106 cm-H2O. Both BCs increased porosities for sand and SL, up to 39 and 13% for sand and SL, respectively, with 7% HW BC addition. The primary cause for these increases was the internal porosity of BC particles. While the matric potential for air-entry was unchanged with BC addition, BC amendment increased water retention for sand and SL in the capillary region (0 to -15,000 cm-H2O) by an average of 26 and 33 % for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but only 7 and 14 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL. The most dramatic influence of BC amendment on water retention occurred in the adsorption region (< -15,000 cm-H2O), where water retention increased by a factor of 11 and 22 for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but by 140 and 190 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL, respectively. The impact of BC on water retention in these sediments is explained primarily by the additional surface area and internal porosity of PL and HW BC particles. van Genuchten (VG) models were fitted to the water retention data. For SL where the impact of BC addition on water retention was

  4. Understanding customer experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  5. Understanding customer experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention. PMID:17345685

  6. A Look into Students' Retention of Acquired Nature of Science Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khishfe, Rola

    2015-01-01

    Having the learning and retention of science content and skills as a goal of scientific literacy, it is significant to study the issue of retention as it relates to teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS). Then, the purpose of this study was to investigate the development of NOS understandings of students, and the retention of these…

  7. Understanding and optimizing the floating body retention in FDSOI UTBOX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoulaiche, M.; Simoen, E.; Caillat, C.; Witters, L.; Bourdelle, K. K.; Nguyen, B.-Y.; Martino, J.; Claeys, C.; Fazan, P.; Jurczak, M.

    2016-03-01

    The floating body retention time is investigated on fully depleted SOI devices with UTBOX. The retention is occurring through the junctions and strongly assisted by defects in the junction space charge region during the holding state at a negative gate voltage. For standard devices with a gate overlap, the junction field is high and the dominant mechanism in this case is the generation by band-to-band tunneling. For optimized extensionless devices with lower junction field, the Shockley-Read-Hall generation enhanced by the field and Poole-Frenkel mechanism takes over the band-to-band tunneling. Therefore, reducing the concentration of Si impurities closer to the junctions is the key to approach an ideal retention time only due to band-to-band tunneling with the Si bandgap as the energy barrier for tunneling.

  8. Understanding HBCU Retention and Completion: UNCF-Member Institution Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, D. A. R.

    2014-01-01

    This supplement to our 2012 report (see ED562057) on historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) retention and graduation rates narrows that report's focus to UNCF's member institutions, and shows that these private HBCUs retain and graduate students at rates competitive with other postsecondary institutions. These schools perform…

  9. Job embeddedness factors and retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Halfer, Diana

    2011-10-01

    An aging work force, predictions of job growth in health care, and an eventual economic recovery suggest that the current reprieve from the national nursing shortage is temporary. New graduate nurses are an important part of the work force and are needed to replace nurses who will retire in the next decade. Organizational leaders can address the forecasted work force demand by proactively investing in programs for workplace development and retention. Recent literature reports an increased focus on understanding the work experience and career support needed for new graduate nurses. Several studies report improvements in job satisfaction and retention after implementation of structured mentoring programs for new graduate nurses. However, despite successful transition programs, turnover for these same nurses after 1 to 3 years of organizational tenure remains high. Studying factors that contribute to retention and supporting careers beyond the first year of practice may have a significant effect on improving retention and will contribute new knowledge to the nursing literature. This study, undertaken at a Midwestern pediatric academic medical center, examined job factors and career development support that lead to retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience. Understanding these issues may guide nursing leaders and staff development educators in investing in focused retention and career development plans during an economic recession. PMID:21667873

  10. The Freshman Year Experience: Student Retention and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidle, Meg Wright; McReynolds, Janet

    2009-01-01

    This ex post facto controlled investigation was conducted from 1993 to 1996 at a medium sized, regional, predominantly White, public, four-year university in the Midwest to determine the relationship between participation in the institution's freshman year experience course and student retention and success. Students who participated in the course…

  11. Retention in STEM: Understanding the Effectiveness of Science Posse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsoe, Kimberly

    One of the major areas of debate in higher education is how to best support underrepresented racial minority students in their study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. In 2008, Brandeis University began a new program in conjunction with the Posse Foundation for students interested in studying science at the college-level. The research used a mixed methods design. A detailed quantitative analysis was conducted to understand how being part of Science Posse impacted the probability of doing well in initial science classes, influenced perceptions of the difficulty of studying science, and predicted the probability of majoring in STEM at Brandeis. The qualitative data was drawn from 89 student interviews, including 38 Science Posse Scholars, 24 students from backgrounds similar to the Scholars, and 25 students from well-resourced families. The qualitative analysis demonstrated how students had been exposed to the sciences prior to enrollment, how they navigated the sciences at Brandeis, and how they demonstrated resilience when science becomes challenging. This research study had four key findings. The first was in the quantitative analysis which demonstrated that Science Posse Scholars experience strong feelings of doubt about their academic abilities; based on previous research, this should have resulted in their not declaring majors in STEM disciplines. Instead, Science Posse Scholars were more likely to earn a B+ or above in their entry level science courses and declare a major in a STEM discipline, even when factors such as math and verbal SAT scores were included in the analysis. The second finding was in the qualitative analysis, which demonstrated that the cohort model in which Science Posse Scholars participate was instrumental to their success. The third finding was that students who attended academically less rigorous high schools could succeed in the sciences at a highly selective research institution such as Brandeis without academic remediation

  12. A Look into Students' Retention of Acquired Nature of Science Understandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishfe, Rola

    2015-07-01

    Having the learning and retention of science content and skills as a goal of scientific literacy, it is significant to study the issue of retention as it relates to teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS). Then, the purpose of this study was to investigate the development of NOS understandings of students, and the retention of these understandings four months after being acquired through explicit reflective instruction in relation to two contexts. Participants were 24 tenth-grade students at a private high school in a city in the Middle East. Explicit NOS instruction was addressed within a six-week unit about genetic engineering. Three NOS aspects were integrated and dispersed across the unit. A questionnaire, together with semi-structured interviews, was administered as pre-, post-, and delayed post-test to assess the retention of participants' NOS understandings. The questionnaire had two open-ended scenarios addressing controversial socioscientific issues about genetically modified food and water fluoridation. Results showed that most students improved their naïve understandings of NOS in relation to the two contexts following the six-week unit with the explicit NOS instruction. However, these newly acquired NOS understandings were not retained by all students four months after instruction. Many of the students reverted back to their earlier naïve understandings. Conclusions about the factors facilitating the process of retention as the orientation to meaningful learning and the prolonged exposure to the domain were discussed in relation to practical implications in the classroom.

  13. Enjoyable learning experiences--an aid to retention?

    PubMed

    Leidy, K

    1992-01-01

    Stress is related to job dissatisfaction and is a significant factor in high turnover rates for nursing staff. In the current labor market, all possible aids to retention need to be considered and innovative approaches need to be tried. Perhaps one of the most powerful retention tools, laughter, is being overlooked. Research indicates that laughter and humor have positive effects by reducing stress and enhancing the immune system. Stress within the hospital environment contributes to burnout. Burnout results in absenteeism, decreased productivity, and turnover. Incorporating laughter and humor into educational programs is one strategy to reduce stress and may be an antidote for burnout. A game called "Not So Trivial ... Protective Pursuit" was used with 150 staff on the evening and night shift. The observed effects were very positive. The implications are that nurse educators can make a significant contribution to preventing hospital burnout by making learning experiences enjoyable.

  14. Effects on nurse retention. An experiment with scheduling.

    PubMed

    Choi, T; Jameson, H; Brekke, M L; Podratz, R O; Mundahl, H

    1986-11-01

    Four randomly selected nursing groups were assigned to three experimental groups and one control group to test the relative impact of three experimental nursing schedules, using a before-after design. The three experimental treatments were straight shifts; regular schedule but with unlimited requests for changes; and individual station-designed schedules. Before treatment, score differences between the experimental and control groups were limited to one of 36 highly reliable scales specifically constructed and pretested to gauge effects of scheduling. This single difference was judged not to be significantly related to experimental outcomes. Because of a poor job market situation, retention was not affected significantly by any of the three treatments, but root causes of turnover were. Results of the experiment showed that individual station-designed schedules triggered the most changes that favor retention. In contrast, the other two treatments unexpectedly increased nurses' own sense of marketability and reduced teamwork among nurses. Reasons accounting for the results are discussed in the text.

  15. Retention and application of Skylab experiment experiences to future programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milly, N.; Gillespie, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    Problems encountered on Skylab Experiments are listed in order that these experiences and associated recommendations might help to prevent similar problems on future programs. The criteria for selection of the data to be utilized was to identify the problem areas within the Skylab Program which would be of major significance with respect to future programs. Also, the problem had to be unique in that it would help identify to a designer/manufacturer an unforeseen or unanticipated occurrence which could cause failures, delays, or additional cost. Only those unexpected problems that may occur due to the nature of aerospace experiment environmental and operational requirements are included.

  16. Background or Experience? Using Logistic Regression to Predict College Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synco, Tracee M.

    2012-01-01

    Tinto, Astin and countless others have researched the retention and attrition of students from college for more than thirty years. However, the six year graduation rate for all first-time full-time freshmen for the 2002 cohort was 57%. This study sought to determine the retention variables that predicted continued enrollment of entering freshmen…

  17. Retention and Mentorship of Minority Students via Undergraduate Internship Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, P.

    2004-12-01

    The School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology at the University of Hawaii is undertaking an Undergraduate Research Internship project to address the lack of full representation of women and underrepresented minorities in the geosciences. The overarching educational objective is to provide education and career development guidance and opportunities for students from underrepresented minorities. In collaboration with industry partners, we hope to prepare undergraduate students for life and careers in today's complex and dynamic technological world by encouraging them to attain high standards in the geosciences, thereby enabling them to compete successfully for positions in graduate programs. To achieve his goal, the project focuses on the following objectives: (1) Creating a high-quality integrated on-campus teaching and off-campus learning environment, and (2) providing an intensive introduction to geoscience careers through the guidance of experienced faculty and workplace mentors. The program will start small, collaborating with one or two companies over the next two years, offering paid summer internships. Opportunities for students include participation in geoscience-related research, obtaining experience in interpreting observations and providing information to end-users, working to improve technology and field methods, and developing the expertise to maintain, operate and deploy equipment. Program participants are assigned individual projects that relate to their academic majors, their career goals, and the ongoing research missions of our industry partners. In addition to their research activities, participants attend a series of seminars and tours dealing with current topics in geoscience to expose them to the wide variety of scientific and technical activities that occur in the workplace. The expected outcomes of this experience will be scientific growth and career development. Given that a very small percentage of all students go on to graduate

  18. Experiences of Understanding and Strategic Studying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, Noel

    In an effort to further explore the experience of understanding from the university perspective, this study examined how British students' understanding was refined and committed to memory during preparation for final examinations. After piloting an interviewing procedure, in-depth interviews were conducted with eleven students from psychology…

  19. Reduction of ontogenetic retention decrements in rats by pretraining stressful experiences.

    PubMed

    Haroutunian, V; Riccio, D C

    1979-06-01

    Pretraining stressful experiences, either similar to or qualitatively different from the conditioning unconditioned stimulus, reduced ontogenetic retention decrements without directly influencing response acquisition. Rats that received pretreatment with footshock, hypthermia, or restraint on Days 16, 17, and 18 of age showed substantially improved long-term retention of conditioned fear learned at 20 days of age. It was also found that preshock enhanced retention of both an appetitive approach response and punishment of the approach response. Several experiments involving extinction and undertraining manipulations indicated that the facilitation of retention was not directly attributable to acquisition strength. PMID:479395

  20. Effect of practice distribution and experience on the performance and retention of a discrete sport skill.

    PubMed

    Panchuk, Derek; Spittle, Michael; Johnston, Natillie; Spittle, Sharna

    2013-06-01

    This study examined how practice distribution influenced performance and learning of a discrete sport skill, the Australian Football (AF) handball pass. A secondary aim was to assess whether previous experience playing competitive Australian Football influenced learning. Participants performed the handball 50 times (5 blocks x 10 repetitions) using either a massed (1 sec. between repetitions or distributed (30 sec. between repetitions) practice schedule. Testing consisted of pre-test, acquisition, immediate retention (10 min.), and delayed retention (2 weeks) sessions. Performance accuracy scores improved in the massed practice condition from pre-test to immediate retention and from pre-test to delayed retention. Likewise, performance improved in the distributed practice group from pretest to immediate retention, but scores were not different from pre-test to delayed retention, and decreased from immediate retention to delayed retention. While students with previous AF experience performed better overall, there were no differences between the massed and distributed groups based on experience. Results suggested that, regardless of previous related skill, massed practice of a discrete sport skill may lead to better retention of learning over a two-week period.

  1. The Mythical Retention Chart and the Corruption of Dale's Cone of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem; Molenda, Michael; Betrus, Anthony K.; Thalheimer, Will

    2014-01-01

    In response to the wide-scale proliferation of "the cone of learning"--a fanciful retention chart confounded with Dale's Cone of Experience--the authors make four major claims debunking this fantasy and provide documentary evidence to support these claims. The first claim is that the data in the mythical retention chart do not make…

  2. Mechanisms of nitrogen retention in forest ecosystems - A field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitousek, P. M.; Matson, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive forest management led to elevated losses of nitrogen from a recently harvested loblolly pine plantation in North Carolina. Measurements of nitrogen-15 retention in the field demonstrated that microbial uptake of nitrogen during the decomposition of residual organic material was the most important process retaining nitrogen. Management practices that remove this material cause increased losses of nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  3. Use It or Lose It: Advances in Our Understanding of Terrestrial Nitrogen Retention and Loss (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, W. L.; Yang, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding of the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle has grown over the last decade to include a variety of pathways that have the potential to either retain N in the ecosystem or result in losses to the atmosphere or groundwater. Early work has described the mechanics of these N transformations, but the relevance of these processes to ecosystem, regional, or global scale N cycling has not been well quantified. In this study, we review advances in our understanding of the terrestrial N cycle, and focus on three pathways with particular relevance to N retention and loss: dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite reduction to ammonium (DNRA), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (annamox), and anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction (Feammox). We discuss the role of these processes in the microbial N economy (sensu Burgin et al. 2011) of the terrestrial N cycle, the environmental and ecological constraints, and relationships with other key biogeochemical cycles. We also discuss recent advances in analytical approaches that have improved our ability to detect these and related N fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Finally, we present a scaling exercise that identifies the potential importance of these pathways for N retention and loss across a range of spatial and temporal scales, and discuss their significance in terms of N limitation to net primary productivity, N leaching to groundwater, and the release of reactive N gases to the atmosphere.

  4. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water

  5. The Irreplaceables: Understanding the Real Retention Crisis in America's Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Andy; Vidyarthi, Elizabeth; Carroll, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    "Irreplaceables" are teachers who are so successful they are nearly impossible to replace, but who too often vanish from schools as the result of neglect and inattention. To identify and better understand the experience of these teachers, the authors started by studying 90,000 teachers across four large, geographically diverse urban school…

  6. Understanding Sustained Retention in HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment: a Synthetic Review.

    PubMed

    Roy, Monika; Czaicki, Nancy; Holmes, Charles; Chavan, Saurabh; Tsitsi, Apollo; Odeny, Thomas; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Padian, Nancy; Geng, Elvin

    2016-06-01

    Sustained retention represents an enduring and evolving challenge to HIV treatment programs in Africa. We present a theoretical framework for sustained retention borrowing from ecologic principles of sustainability and dynamic adaptation. We posit that sustained retention from the patient perspective is dependent on three foundational principles: (1) patient activation: the acceptance, prioritization, literacy, and skills to manage a chronic disease condition, (2) social normalization: the engagement of a social network and harnessing social capital to support care and treatment, and (3) livelihood routinization: the integration of care and treatment activities into livelihood priorities that may change over time. Using this framework, we highlight barriers specific to sustained retention and review interventions addressing long-term, sustained retention in HIV care with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27188300

  7. "OnTrack" to University: Understanding Mechanisms of Student Retention in an Australian Pre-University Enabling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisciandro, Joanne G.; Gibbs, Gael

    2016-01-01

    University-based enabling programs have become an important pathway to university for non-traditional students. There is increasing interest in understanding the mechanisms that facilitate retention and success of enabling pathway students, with the aim of developing effective strategies for maximising opportunities for university access and…

  8. The Effectiveness and Retention of Teachers with Prior Career Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Ing, Marsha; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; O'Brien, Rachel; Wyckoff, James

    2011-01-01

    As schools and districts seek to recruit teachers, individuals in non-teaching professions are an appealing possible pool. These potential teachers come with work experience and may have expertise that would serve them well in the classroom. While there has been substantial rhetoric assailing the virtues of teachers with prior professional…

  9. Revisited reaction-diffusion model of thermal desorption spectroscopy experiments on hydrogen retention in material

    SciTech Connect

    Guterl, Jerome Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2015-07-28

    Desorption phase of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) experiments performed on tungsten samples exposed to flux of hydrogen isotopes in fusion relevant conditions is analyzed using a reaction-diffusion model describing hydrogen retention in material bulk. Two regimes of hydrogen desorption are identified depending on whether hydrogen trapping rate is faster than hydrogen diffusion rate in material during TDS experiments. In both regimes, a majority of hydrogen released from material defects is immediately outgassed instead of diffusing deeply in material bulk when the evolution of hydrogen concentration in material is quasi-static, which is the case during TDS experiments performed with tungsten samples exposed to flux of hydrogen isotopes in fusion related conditions. In this context, analytical expressions of the hydrogen outgassing flux as a function of the material temperature are obtained with sufficient accuracy to describe main features of thermal desorption spectra (TDSP). These expressions are then used to highlight how characteristic temperatures of TDSP depend on hydrogen retention parameters, such as trap concentration or activation energy of detrapping processes. The use of Arrhenius plots to characterize retention processes is then revisited when hydrogen trapping takes place during TDS experiments. Retention processes are also characterized using the shape of desorption peaks in TDSP, and it is shown that diffusion of hydrogen in material during TDS experiment can induce long desorption tails visible aside desorption peaks at high temperature in TDSP. These desorption tails can be used to estimate activation energy of diffusion of hydrogen in material.

  10. Broadening the Learning Community Experience: An Outdoor Orientation Program's Impact on Engagement, Persistence, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Christy David

    2013-01-01

    The Keystone Learning Community was implemented by the Department of Campus Recreation to address retention at the institution. This learning community for incoming freshmen consists of two phases. Phase I is as an outdoor orientation program that includes a three day, two night canoeing and camping experience lead by upperclassmen leaders.…

  11. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Tall Column Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Powell, Michael R.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Karri, Naveen K.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Tran, Diana N.; Sande, Susan; Heldebrant, David J.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Smet, Dave; Bryan, Wesley E.; Calmus, Ronald B.

    2014-05-16

    Gas generation in Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks can lead to gas accumulation within the layer of settled solids (sludge) at the tank bottom. The gas, which typically has hydrogen as the major component together with other flammable species, is formed principally by radiation-driven chemical reactions. Accumulation of these gases within the sludge in a waste tank is undesirable and limits the amount of tank volume for waste storage. Further, accumulation of large amounts of gas in the sludge may potentially result in an unacceptable release of the accumulated gas if the sludge-layer density is reduced to less than that of the overlying sludge or that of the supernatant liquid. Rapid release of large amounts of flammable gases could endanger personnel and equipment near the tank. For this reason, a thorough understanding of the circumstances that can lead to a potentially problematic gas accumulation in sludge layers is needed. To respond to this need, the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Program (DSGREP) was commissioned to examine gas release behavior in sludges.

  12. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for

  13. "Making the Difficult Choice": Understanding Georgia's Test-Based Grade Retention Policy in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The author uses Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital, and habitus to analyze how students, parents, teachers, and administrators are responding to Georgia's test-based grade retention policy in reading at one Georgia elementary school. In this multiple case study, the author interviewed, observed, and collected documents regarding ten fifth…

  14. Mathematics Teachers' Support and Retention: Using Maslow's Hierarchy to Understand Teachers' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to…

  15. Understanding the Experiences of Female Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lorraine; Watson, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of the impact of gender on the doctoral experience. Eight women who had recently completed or who had almost completed a PhD were interviewed about their experiences. Seven studied part time and one full time. It was found that being a mother had profound implications for doctoral-level…

  16. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability within Sediment Layers Due to Gas Retention: Preliminary Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rassat, Scot D.

    2013-03-21

    In Hanford underground waste storage tanks, a typical waste configuration is settled beds of waste particles beneath liquid layers. The settled beds are typically composed of layers, and these layers can have different physical and chemical properties. One postulated configuration within the settled bed is a less-dense layer beneath a more-dense layer. The different densities can be a result of different gas retention in the layers or different degrees of settling and compaction in the layers. This configuration can experience a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability where the less dense lower layer rises into the upper layer. Previous studies of gas retention and release have not considered potential buoyant motion within a settle bed of solids. The purpose of this report is to provide a review of RT instabilities, discuss predictions of RT behavior for sediment layers, and summarize preliminary experimental observations of RT instabilities in simulant experiments.

  17. Examination of prior contest experience and the retention of winner and loser effects.

    PubMed

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Elias, Damian O; Sivalinghem, Senthurran; Mason, Andrew C; Andrade, Maydianne C B

    2010-03-01

    In many animal taxa, prior contest experience affects future performance such that winning increases the chances of winning in the future (winner effect) and losing increases the chances of losing in the future (loser effect). It is, however, not clear whether this pattern typically arises from experience effects on actual or perceived fighting ability (or both). In this study, we looked at winner and loser effects in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus. We assigned winning or losing experience to spiders and tested them against opponents of similar fighting ability in subsequent contests at 1-, 2-, 5-, and 24-h intervals. We examined the strength of winner and loser effects, how long effects persist, as well as how experience affected perceived and actual fighting ability. Our results demonstrate that winner and loser effects are of approximately the same magnitude, although loser effects last longer than winner effects. Our results also demonstrate that previous experience alters actual fighting ability because both the assessment and escalation periods were affected by experience. We suggest that the retention time of experience effects depends on expected encounter rates as well as other behavioral and ecological factors. In systems with short breeding seasons and/or rapidly fluctuating populations, context-dependent retention of experience effects may allow males to track their status relative to the fluctuating fighting ability of local competitors without paying the costs necessary to recall or assess individual competitors. PMID:22476369

  18. Examination of prior contest experience and the retention of winner and loser effects

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Damian O.; Sivalinghem, Senthurran; Mason, Andrew C.; Andrade, Maydianne C.B.

    2010-01-01

    In many animal taxa, prior contest experience affects future performance such that winning increases the chances of winning in the future (winner effect) and losing increases the chances of losing in the future (loser effect). It is, however, not clear whether this pattern typically arises from experience effects on actual or perceived fighting ability (or both). In this study, we looked at winner and loser effects in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus. We assigned winning or losing experience to spiders and tested them against opponents of similar fighting ability in subsequent contests at 1-, 2-, 5-, and 24-h intervals. We examined the strength of winner and loser effects, how long effects persist, as well as how experience affected perceived and actual fighting ability. Our results demonstrate that winner and loser effects are of approximately the same magnitude, although loser effects last longer than winner effects. Our results also demonstrate that previous experience alters actual fighting ability because both the assessment and escalation periods were affected by experience. We suggest that the retention time of experience effects depends on expected encounter rates as well as other behavioral and ecological factors. In systems with short breeding seasons and/or rapidly fluctuating populations, context-dependent retention of experience effects may allow males to track their status relative to the fluctuating fighting ability of local competitors without paying the costs necessary to recall or assess individual competitors. PMID:22476369

  19. Policy interventions to improve rural retention among neurosurgeons in Iran: A discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Sima; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health workforce shortages in rural and remote areas are a global challenge that almost every health system has to deal with. This study aimed to discover neurosurgeons’ job preferences and propose policy interventions that could possibly increase their retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in November 2014 with a sample of Iranian neurosurgeons selected from five contrary’s provinces representing the geographical diversity. Job attributes included income, dual practice opportunities, workload, proximity to family, clinical infrastructure, housing, educational facilities, and work location. Probit regression model was used to estimate the importance of different job attributes and examine the extent to which neurosurgeons were willing to tradeoff between monetary and nonmonetary attributes. Results: Findings indicated that increased salary, permission to undertake dual practice and access to adequate clinical infrastructure were the most important retention policies. Provision of subsidized housing and educational facilities also increased neurosurgeons’ attraction and retention in rural areas. Conclusion: A range of policy interventions focusing on both monetary and nonmonetary incentives are required to increase neurosurgeons’ retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. PMID:26885340

  20. Understanding the College First-Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Kirk S.

    2005-01-01

    Each fall, thousands of high school graduates launch into the next phase of their academic careers: college. They arrive on campuses across the United States full of hope and optimism, trepidation and anxiety. All intensely feel both the eagerness to excel and the fear of failure. The author shares his experience of dealing with college first-year…

  1. Beyond "Culture Clash" Understandings of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Bic

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the ways in which the experiences of immigrant youth and families in U.S. schools and society have been conceptualized primarily as conflicts between immigrant cultures and dominant U.S. culture. Exemplified by the discourse of culture clash or of immigrants being torn between two worlds, this prevalent understanding…

  2. Understanding Credit Risk: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servatka, Maros; Theocharides, George

    2011-01-01

    This classroom experiment introduces students to the notion of credit risk and expected return, by allowing them to trade on comparable corporate bond issues from two types of markets: investment-grade and high-yield markets. Investment-grade issues have a lower probability of default than high-yield issues and thus provide a lower yield.…

  3. Effect of Two-Tier Diagnostic Tests on Promoting Learners' Conceptual Understanding of Variables in Conducting Scientific Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Taking a test generally improves the retention of the material tested. This is a phenomenon commonly referred to as testing effect. The present research investigated whether two-tier diagnostic tests promoted student teachers' conceptual understanding of variables in conducting scientific experiments, which is a scientific process skill. In this…

  4. The impact of program experiences on the retention of women engineering students in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Maria Del Carmen Garcia

    This qualitative study sought to describe and understand the experiences of female students attending engineering colleges in Mexico and the sources of support and strategies that helped them persist in their programs. The participants were 20 women engineering students enrolled in at least their third year in selected colleges of engineering in Mexico, in both public and private universities, and pursuing a variety of engineering majors. Findings focus on the experiences of female students that helped them stay in their programs. Participants described their experiences in college as very challenging and perceived the environment as hostile and uncertain. In addition, patriarchal Mexican cultural values and stereotypes were identified by students as influencing and helping shape the engineering environment. However, in this context, participants were able to find sources of support and use strategies that helped them remain in their majors, such as a strong desire to succeed, a perceived academic self-ability; and support from their families, peers, institutions, and---most importantly---their professors. Furthermore, the fact that participants were able to persist in their programs gave them a sense of pride and satisfaction that was shared by their families, peers, and faculty. In addition, participants experienced contradictory forces and were constantly negotiating between rejecting traditional gender norms and upholding the norms that are so deeply engrained in Mexican society. Finally, as the students advanced in their programs and became "accepted to the club," they tended to reproduce the male-dominated value system present in engineering colleges accepting their professors' expectations of being "top students," accepting the elitist culture of engineering superiority, and embracing the protection given by their male peers. Retention of Mexican female engineering students is important for all engineering colleges, but cultural factors must be taken into

  5. Understanding HIV care delays in the US South and the role of the social-level in HIV care engagement/retention: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a significant geographical shift in the distribution of HIV infection, the US South - comprising 17 states - now has the greatest number of adults and adolescents with HIV (PLHIV) in the nation. More than 60% of PLHIV are not in HIV care in Alabama and Mississippi, contrasted with a national figure of 25%. Poorer HIV outcomes raise concerns about HIV-related inequities for southern PLHIV, which warrant further study. This qualitative study sought to understand experiences of low-income PLHIV on the AIDS Drug Assistance Program in engagement and retention in continuous HIV care in two sites in Alabama. Methods The study was designed using grounded theory. Semi-structured interviews with 25 PLHIV explored experiences with care linkage, reported factors and behaviors affecting engagement/retention in continuous HIV care, including socio-economic factors. To triangulate sources, 25 additional interviews were conducted with health and social service providers from the same clinics and AIDS Service Organizations where clients obtained services. Across the narratives, we used the HIV care continuum to map where care delays and drop out occurred. Using open coding, constant comparison and iterative data collection and analysis, we constructed a conceptual model illustrating how participants described their path to HIV care engagement and retention. Results Most respondents reported delayed HIV care, describing concentric factors: psychological distress, fear, lack of information, substance use, incarceration, lack of food, transport and housing. Stark health system drop out occurred immediately after receipt of HIV test results, with ART initiation generally occurring when individuals became ill. Findings highlight these enablers to care: Alabama's 'social infrastructure'; 'twinning' medical with social services, 'social enablers' who actively link PLHIV to care; and 'enabling spaces' that break down PLHIV isolation, facilitating HIV care linkage/retention

  6. Mathematics teachers' support and retention: using Maslow's hierarchy to understand teachers' needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-10-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to develop a hierarchy of teachers' needs that resembles Maslow's hierarchy, which can be used to better support teachers in various stages of their careers. The interviews revealed both non content-specific and content-specific needs within the hierarchy. The responses show that teachers found different schools foster different stress levels and that as teachers they used a number of resources for reducing stress. Other mathematics-specific ideas are also discussed such as the amount of content and pedagogy courses required for certification.

  7. Mesocosm experiments to assess factors affecting phosphorus retention and release in an extended Wisconsin wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Manion, B.J.; Goddard, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus retention by wetland sediments and vegetation was investigated in Jackson Creek wetland, an extension of an existing prairie marsh in southeastern Wisconsin. The extended wetland construction was undertaken in 1992-93 to help reduce the phosphorus loading to a downstream eutrophic lake. Two approaches were used to study potential and actual phosphorus retention in the system. Mesocosm experiments of 20-40 days duration indicated that retention of total and dissolved reactive phosphorus in mesocosm cells containing macrophytes and/or sediments was reduced by factors of 2-20 relative to cells containing only water or a copper algicide to suppress metabolic activity. In contrast to the nutrient trapping function, these results show a potential for net phosphorus release that can be associated with increased biological richness. Measurements of water flow and nutrient loads at the wetland's inflow and outflow points demonstrated 9-39% net uptake of phosphorus on an annual scale but frequent occurrences of net phosphorus release over shorter (one-month) time scales. These episodes of release are most likely during the summer months. Thus, the wetland role in phosphorus cycling is not one of a true source or sink, although the annual budget data alone suggest substantial net retention. Effective management of the wetland for its nutrient trapping potential can be hindered by this oversimplification. The system is instead subject to relatively short-term alternation between net import and export. The periodic phosphorus export, although representing a small fraction of net annual import, could be critical for growth of macrophyte and algal communities downstream.

  8. Taming theory with thought experiments: Understanding and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    I claim that one way thought experiments contribute to scientific progress is by increasing scientific understanding. Understanding does not have a currently accepted characterization in the philosophical literature, but I argue that we already have ways to test for it. For instance, current pedagogical practice often requires that students demonstrate being in either or both of the following two states: 1) Having grasped the meaning of some relevant theory, concept, law or model, 2) Being able to apply that theory, concept, law or model fruitfully to new instances. Three thought experiments are presented which have been important historically in helping us pass these tests, and two others that cause us to fail. Then I use this operationalization of understanding to clarify the relationships between scientific thought experiments, the understanding they produce, and the progress they enable. I conclude that while no specific instance of understanding (thus conceived) is necessary for scientific progress, understanding in general is. PMID:27474183

  9. Understanding recruitment and retention in the NHS community pharmacy stop smoking service: perceptions of smoking cessation advisers

    PubMed Central

    Sohanpal, Ratna; Rivas, Carol; Steed, Liz; MacNeill, Virginia; Kuan, Valerie; Edwards, Elizabeth; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand views of pharmacy advisers about smoker recruitment and retention in the National Health Service community pharmacy stop smoking programme. Design Thematic framework analysis of semistructured, in-depth interviews applying the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B behaviour change model. We aimed to identify aspects of adviser behaviour that might be modified to increase numbers joining and completing the programme. Participants 25 stop smoking advisers (13 pharmacists and 12 support staff). Setting 29 community pharmacies in 3 inner east London boroughs. Results Advisers had preconceived ideas about smokers likely to join or drop out and made judgements about smokers' readiness to quit. Actively recruiting smokers was accorded low priority due in part to perceived insufficient remuneration to the pharmacy and anticipated challenging interactions with smokers. Suggestions to improve smoker recruitment and retention included developing a more holistic and supportive approach using patient-centred communication. Training counter assistants were seen to be important as was flexibility to extend the programme duration to fit better with smokers’ needs. Conclusions Cessation advisers feel they lack the interpersonal skills necessary to engage well with smokers and help them to quit. Addressing advisers' behaviours about active engagement and follow-up of clients, together with regular skills training including staff not formally trained as cessation advisers, could potentially boost numbers recruited and retained in the stop smoking programme. Adjustments to the pharmacy remuneration structure to incentivise recruitment and to allow personalisation of the programme for individual smokers should also be considered. PMID:27388355

  10. Understanding physicians' decisions to practice in rural areas as a basis for developing recruitment and retention strategies.

    PubMed

    Scammon, D L; Williams, S D; Li, L B

    1994-01-01

    The shortage of providers in rural areas is threatening the quality and availability of health care in many communities. The causes of the provider shortage are many and varied-from economic to social to personal. Government programs have addressed the issue of provider supply by offering scholarships and loan repayment programs for medical students who then must fulfil service obligations in underserved settings, among which are rural areas. Experience has shown that once providers complete their obligations under these grant programs, retention of providers in rural areas becomes an even more critical issue. Using focus group research, this study explores the practice setting choices of a group of physicians currently practicing in rural areas. The discussion reveals that personal values are one of the primary motivators for choosing to practice in rural settings while lack of availability of career opportunities for spouses and educational opportunities for children are major obstacles. The health care system poses barriers to success for providers in rural settings. The key rewards from rural practice are the ability to become integrated into the local community and the provider/patient relationships that develop in such settings. These findings are used as the basis for proposing recruitment and retention strategies for providers to improve access to medical care by patients in rural areas. PMID:10165487

  11. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods: To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results: Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001) and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58) respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001). On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001), was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the

  12. Improving pharmacy students' understanding and long-term retention of acid-base chemistry.

    PubMed

    Roche, Victoria F

    2007-12-15

    Despite repeated exposure to the principles underlying the behavior of organic acids and bases in aqueous solution, some pharmacy students remain confused about the topic of acid-base chemistry. Since a majority of organic drug molecules have acid-base character, the ability to predict their reactivity and the extent to which they will ionize in a given medium is paramount to students' understanding of essentially all aspects of drug action in vivo and in vitro. This manuscript presents a medicinal chemistry lesson in the fundamentals of acid-base chemistry that many pharmacy students have found enlightening and clarifying.

  13. Understanding the Role of Uncertainty in Jealousy Experience and Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Walid A.; Reichert, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Confirms the value of uncertainty for understanding jealousy. Finds that subjects were more likely to experience and less likely to directly express jealousy at high, versus low, levels of relational state uncertainty. Highlights the importance of differentiating jealousy experience from expression, and corroborates recent evidence showing a…

  14. Integration of the interaction model of client health behavior and transactional model of stress and coping as a tool for understanding retention in HIV care across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lucy J

    2015-01-01

    Retaining people living with HIV (PLWH) in care over the lifespan is critical to quality and longevity of life. Individual health behavior decisions that affect care retention are complicated and multifactorial. Current health behavior theories are inadequate in isolation to guide retention in care research. Two existing models, Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior, and Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional Model of Stress and Coping have both guided research with PLWH, although not related to retention in care. Integration of these models may more comprehensively inform care retention research and practice across the lifespan as it incorporates not only intra- and inter-personal characteristics and relationships but also the stress and coping experiences inevitable when living with a chronic illness such as HIV.

  15. African American Students at Predominantly White Institutions: A Motivational and Self-Systems Approach to Understanding Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Kelly A.; Summers, Jessica J.

    2008-01-01

    Predominantly White institutions have not been as effective as historically Black institutions in retaining and conferring degrees upon African American college students. This review seeks to embed the psychological aspects of the retention process proposed by Bean and Eaton ["A psychological model of college student retention." In J. M. Braxton…

  16. Understandings, Definitions, and Experiences of Clergy in Residential Psychiatric Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneis, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the understandings, definitions, and experiences of forgiveness held by members of the clergy who reported conflict with the religious superiors who mandated their entry into residential psychiatric treatment because of substance abuse/dependence, sexual misconduct, compulsive behavior disorder, or affective disorders. Compares the data…

  17. Prospective TESOL Teachers' Beliefs, Understandings, and Experiences of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallestad, Chizuko Konishi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this present ethnographic case study is to explore the initial and developing beliefs, understandings, and experiences of prospective language teachers as they engage in the process of learning about cooperative learning (CL) and in putting it into practice in a TESOL graduate program in the U.S. Data collection includes multiple…

  18. The 2009 Kurt Hahn Address: Seeking Deeper Understandings from Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    2010-01-01

    This address used a narrative style to convey several stories drawn from the speaker's life. These stories illustrated various points about the value of experience for expanding learners' deep understandings of the content through the use of know-how knowledge. Know-how knowledge was contrasted with know-that knowledge in order to demonstrate the…

  19. The Retention Puzzle Reconsidered: Second Year Student Attitudes and Experiences with Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Michael Edward

    2013-01-01

    College student retention has been described as a puzzle because retention rates have stagnated, and in some cases declined, despite over seventy years of research into the problem. The magnitude of the problem is that 50 percent of college students will leave their institution before obtaining a degree (Braxton, Hirschy, & McClendon, 2011).…

  20. Understanding the Lived Experience of Five Individuals with Mobility Aids.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Tanja; Petrie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our research is to understand the lived experience of people with mobility aids: How do people use their mobility aids and what is their lived experience with them? What problems do mobility aid users have outside the clinic? Our goal is to further study the needs of mobility aid users, mainly wheelchair, walker and prosthesis users, and furthermore, develop a technology platform and an application that supports more independent life for mobility aid users. In our study we interviewed five individuals about their experiences of using mobility aids. The aim was to recognize the main stages of the lived experience with mobility aids in order to understand how technology could help mobility aid users outside the clinic. The stages found in the lived experience with mobility aids are 1) Expectations 2) Getting the mobility aid 3) Using and living with the aid and 4) Change/Abandonment of the aid. In each of these stages we found important issues concerning the lived experience with mobility aids such as the importance of training to use mobility aids, the meaning of peer support, finding information online, what makes a mobility aid good, what kind of issues other people's perceptions may cause and how the built environment poses challenges for people with mobility aids. PMID:27534353

  1. User Evaluation of the Effects of a Text Simplification Algorithm Using Term Familiarity on Perception, Understanding, Learning, and Information Retention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , 7 multiple-choice questions without the text for learning, and 2 free recall questions for information retention. Results Ninety-nine participants completed the study. We found strong beneficial effects on both perceived and actual difficulty. After simplification, the text was perceived as simpler (P<.001) with simplified text scoring 2.3 and original text 3.2 on the 5-point Likert scale (score 1: easiest). It also led to better understanding of the text (P<.001) with 11% more correct answers with simplified text (63% correct) compared to the original (52% correct). There was more learning with 18% more correct answers after reading simplified text compared to 9% more correct answers after reading the original text (P=.003). There was no significant effect on free recall. Conclusions Term familiarity is a valuable feature in simplifying text. Although the topic of the text influences the effect size, the results were convincing and consistent. PMID:23903235

  2. Understanding the behavioral determinants of retention in HIV care: a qualitative evaluation of a situated information, motivation, behavioral skills model of care initiation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laramie R; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Amico, K Rivet

    2012-06-01

    The current study provides a qualitative test of a recently proposed application of an Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior situated to the social-environmental, structural, cognitive-affective, and behavioral demands of retention in HIV care. Mixed-methods qualitative analysis was used to identify the content and context of critical theory-based determinants of retention in HIV care, and to evaluate the relative fit of the model to the qualitative data collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with a sample of inner-city patients accessing traditional and nontraditional HIV care services in the Bronx, NY. The sample reflected a diverse marginalized patient population who commonly experienced comorbid chronic conditions (e.g., psychiatric disorders, substance abuse disorders, diabetes, hepatitis C). Through deductive content coding, situated IMB model-based content was identified in all but 7.1% of statements discussing facilitators or barriers to retention in HIV care. Inductive emergent theme identification yielded a number of important themes influencing retention in HIV care (e.g., acceptance of diagnosis, stigma, HIV cognitive/physical impairments, and global constructs of self-care). Multiple elements of these themes strongly aligned with the model's IMB constructs. The convergence of the results from both sets of analysis demonstrate that participants' experiences map well onto the content and structure of the situated IMB model, providing a systematic classification of important theoretical and contextual determinants of retention in care. Future intervention efforts to enhance retention in HIV care should address these multiple determinants (i.e., information, motivation, behavioral skills) of self-directed retention in HIV care. PMID:22612447

  3. Defining retention and attrition in pre-antiretroviral HIV care: proposals based on experience in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Matthew P; Larson, Bruce; Rosen, Sydney

    2013-01-01

    Objective To propose practical, standardized definitions for reporting retention for pre-ART care. Method Definitions footed on three stages: Stage 1, testing HIV-positive to initial ART eligibility assessment; Stage 2, initial assessment to ART eligibility; and Stage 3, ART eligibility to ART initiation. For each stage, negative outcomes include death, loss, or not being retained. Results Stage 1 Retention: proportion of patients who complete initial ART eligibility assessment within 3 months of HIV testing, with reporting of cohort outcomes at 3 and 12 months after HIV testing. Patients who end Stage 1 eligible for ART move directly to Stage 3. Stage 2 Retention: proportion of patients who either: complete all possible ART eligibility re-assessments within 6 months of the site’s standard visit schedule; or had an assessment within 1 year of the time reported to and were not ART eligible at the last assessment. Retention should be reported at 12-month intervals. Stage 3 Retention: initiating ART (i.e. ARVs dispensed) within 3 months of determining ART eligibility, with reporting at 3 months after eligibility and 3 monthly intervals thereafter. Conclusion If pre-ART retention is to improve, consistent terminology is needed for collecting data, measuring and reporting outcomes, and comparing results across programs and countries. The definitions we propose offer a strategy for improving the consistency and comparability of future reports. PMID:22863075

  4. The role of experiments in understanding fishery-induced evolution

    PubMed Central

    Conover, David O; Baumann, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    Evidence of fishery-induced evolution has been accumulating rapidly from various avenues of investigation. Here we review the knowledge gained from experimental approaches. The strength of experiments is in their ability to disentangle genetic from environmental differences. Common garden experiments have provided direct evidence of adaptive divergence in the wild and therefore the evolvability of various traits that influence production in numerous species. Most of these cases involve countergradient variation in physiological, life history, and behavioral traits. Selection experiments have provided examples of rapid life history evolution and, more importantly, that fishery-induced selection pressures cause simultaneous divergence of not one but a cluster of genetically and phenotypically correlated traits that include physiology, behavior, reproduction, and other life history characters. The drawbacks of experiments are uncertainties in the scale-up from small, simple environments to larger and more complex systems; the concern that taxons with short life cycles used for experimental research are atypical of those of harvested species; and the difficulty of adequately simulating selection due to fishing. Despite these limitations, experiments have contributed greatly to our understanding of fishery-induced evolution on both empirical and theoretical levels. Future advances will depend on integrating knowledge from experiments with those from modeling, field studies, and molecular genetic approaches. PMID:25567880

  5. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage) and contingent valuation (third stage). For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents); in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents); and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants). Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions). It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and from public to private

  6. Grief--peer dynamics: understanding experiences with pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thannhauser, Jennifer E

    2009-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive, and often debilitating disease of the central nervous system, for which there is no cure. This article provides insight into the experiences of adolescents with MS and the role of their peer relationships. Through the use of grounded theory, a preliminary theoretical model was developed for understanding the psychosocial experiences of these adolescents. Central to this framework is the interplay between the adolescents' grief and their peer relationships. Social, emotional, and cognitive manifestations of grief were expressed in response to the loss of health. Cyclical movements through grief and acceptance were demonstrated as the adolescents experienced a variety of secondary losses. Dynamic peer relationships either facilitated or impeded this process. Insight can be garnered from this study for further research and the development of multidisciplinary resources for this unique group of adolescents. PMID:19357388

  7. Understanding the Role of Identity and the Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leon, Juan, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic narrative inquiry explored the role of identity and the retention of Mexican American students in higher education. Leadership identity, a dimension of identity, was explored using narratives provided by 13 Mexican American students, attending a university in the northwest United States. Interview data was compiled,…

  8. Using a Complexity-Based Perspective to Better Understand the Relationships among Mentoring, School Conflicts, and Novice Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Sheryn Elaine Spencer

    2011-01-01

    In this study I used complexity-thinking, ecologically-based sustainable capacity-building, narrative methodology, and pragmatism to explore the relationships among mentoring, conflict, and novice retention. In order to explore these relationships, I constructed stories from my interviews with six mentor-novice dyads in a southeastern 9-12 high…

  9. The Use of Grounded Theory to Develop a Framework for Understanding Student Retention in Community College Nursing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priode, Kimberly S.

    2013-01-01

    Gaining admission into pre-licensure nursing programs has proven to be quite difficult for the average college student. Topping the list of crucial priorities for many academic institutions is the retention of these nursing students. Yet, the reality is that many students decide not to complete their course of study for reasons other than academic…

  10. The Influence of Principal Gender, Teachers' Years of Experience, and Retention on Teacher Perceptions of Principal Leadership Style, Qualities, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddins, Gregg M.

    2012-01-01

    One main challenge for many school districts in these tough economic times is teacher retention and all the costs associated. This study looks the influence of principal gender, teacher years of experience, and teacher retention based on teachers' perceptions of their principal's leadership style, transformational leadership qualities,…

  11. The Role of Work Experience and Self-Efficacy in STEM Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joseph A.; Bailey, Margaret B.; Hamann, Jerry; Pendleton, Leslie K.; Reisberg, Rachelle; Whitman, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the results of a three-year longitudinal study of retention among undergraduate engineering students enrolled at four major universities. The study demonstrates that self-efficacy can be a critical factor in student persistence and can be broken down into three components: work, career, and academic self-efficacy. The authors…

  12. Psychological Sense of Community and Retention: Rethinking the First-Year Experience of Students in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagley Falls, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    This investigation looks at the relationship between a STEM learning community's co-curricular activities and students' perceived sense of community (SOC) to determine which activities most influence SOC and, in turn, retention. This investigation shows that SOC can be impacted by a multitude of factors found within the college environment. The…

  13. Creating meaningful learning experiences: Understanding students' perspectives of engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleong, Richard James Chung Mun

    , relevance, and transfer. With this framework of student learning, engineering educators can enhance learning experiences by engaging all three levels of students' understanding. The curriculum studies orientation applied the three holistic elements of curriculum---subject matter, society, and the individual---to conceptualize design considerations for engineering curriculum and teaching practice. This research supports the characterization of students' learning experiences to help educators and students optimize their teaching and learning of design education.

  14. Critical contribution of nonlinear chromatography to the understanding of retention mechanism in reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-11-01

    The retention of most compounds in RPLC proceeds through a combination of several independent mechanisms. We review a series of recent studies made on the behavior of several commercial C{sub 18}-bonded stationary phases and of the complex, mixed retention mechanisms that were observed in RPLC. These studies are essentially based on the acquisition of adsorption isotherm data, on the modeling, and on the interpretation of these data. Because linear chromatography deals only with the initial slope of the global, overall, or apparent isotherm, it is unable fully to describe the complete adsorption mechanism. It cannot even afford clues as to the existence of several overlaid retention mechanisms. More specifically, it cannot account for the consequences of the surface heterogeneity of the packing material. The acquisition of equilibrium data in a wide concentration range is required for this purpose. Frontal analysis (FA) of selected probes gives data that can be modeled into equilibrium isotherms of these probes and that can also be used to calculate their adsorption or affinity energy distribution (AED). The combination of these data, the detailed study of the best constants of the isotherm model, the determination of the influence of experimental parameters (e.g., buffer pH and pI, temperature) on the isotherm constants provide important clues regarding the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface and the main properties of the adsorption mechanisms. The comparison of similar data obtained for the adsorption of neutral and ionizable compounds, treated with the same approach, and the investigation of the influence on the thermodynamics of phase equilibrium of the experimental conditions (temperature, average pressure, mobile phase composition, nature of the organic modifier, and, for ionizable compounds, of the ionic strength, the nature, the concentration of the buffer, and its pH) brings further information. This review provides original conclusions regarding

  15. Using a Field Experience to Build Understanding of Planetary Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higbie, M.; Treiman, A.; Kiefer, W.; Shipp, S.

    2004-12-01

    In the summer of 2004, the Lunar and Planetary Institute hosted 25 middle- and high-school teachers on a week-long field experience in Idaho and Montana. This workshop mixed field work with classroom experiences and provided educators and scientists the opportunity to interact. The educators investigated deposits associated with Glacial Lake Missoula floods and lava flows in the Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. The participants applied what they learned about Earth-based processes to develop understanding of processes operating on Mars and the most recent results from NASA's missions to Mars. This was the most recent of five field-based experiences that used Earth-planet comparisons as a basis for experiential learning. These field experiences all are designed to strengthen content knowledge of geologic processes and planetary sciences. Learning geology through fieldwork enables participants to take ownership of the content through real-life experience; in essence, the teacher becomes the student. Establishing deeper knowledge of the content increases their confidence in facilitating inquiry-based science in their own classrooms. In addition to content, the educators are immersed in the process of science. Participants make observations, compile notes and illustrations, debate interpretations, draw conclusions, and communicate findings. Care was taken to separate observations and interpretations to help build an understanding of scientific reasoning. Discussions often involved questions without solutions, or with multiple solutions. While some participants expressed discomfort with these aspects of the nature of science, most were more comfortable with open-ended, inquiry based exploration by the close of the workshop. The field work is coupled with discussion and activities in the classroom. Participants reflected on the field sites and placed them in the context of the geologic history of the region. Observations and interpretations at

  16. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  17. Retention of neophobic predator recognition in juvenile convict cichlids: effects of background risk and recent experience.

    PubMed

    Brown, Grant E; Demers, Ebony E; Joyce, Brendan J; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to conditions of elevated predation risk, even for relatively short periods, has been shown to induce neophobic responses to novel predators. Such phenotypically plastic responses should allow prey to exhibit costly anti-predator behaviour to novel cues only in situations where the risk of predation is high. While there is evidence that the level of background risk shapes the strength of induced neophobia, we know little about how long neophobic responses are retained. Here we exposed juvenile convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) to three background levels of short-term background risk and then tested their responses to novel predator odours. Cichlids exposed to low risk did not show neophobic responses, while those exposed to intermediate and high risk did. Using extinction trials, we demonstrate that the retention of neophobic responses is greater among cichlids exposed to high versus intermediate predation risk conditions. Moreover, we found much longer retention of the neophobic responses when cichlids were tested a single time compared to when they were tested repeatedly in the extinction trials. This work supports the prediction that neophobic responses to specific odours are relatively long lasting but can quickly wane if the cues are experienced repeatedly without them being associated with risk. It is clear that background level of risk and the frequency of exposure to novel cues are crucial factors in determining the retention of risk-related information among prey.

  18. Understanding the dynamics of volcanic jet through laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigala, Valeria; Kueppers, Ulrich; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions pose great hazards in both the near- and far-field. Understanding the factors controlling the dynamics of pyroclast ejection is essential for better assessment of related hazards. The dynamics of volcanic explosions, which can be observed and characterized in the field only in a very incomplete manner due to their inaccessibility and hazards, can be simulated in the laboratory where experiments can be performed in their immediate proximity under controlled conditions. Using a shock-tube we ejected loose particles while controlling parameters such as temperature, applied overpressure, starting grain size distribution, conduit length and exit vent geometry. We recorded each explosion with a high-speed camera and collected the sample after deposition, thereby quantifying the velocity of individual particles, the jet spreading angle and the production of fines. The experiments were performed at 500°C and 15MPa using materials of two different densities ("Schaumlava" and "Laacher See Bims") and three grain size ranges (1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 0.125-0.250 mm). Additionally, we varied the setup to allow for different sample-to-gas ratios and varying fragmentation depth at start of each experiment. We also deployed four different exit vents: a cylindrical continuation of the shock-tube, a funnel with a flaring of 30°, a funnel with a flaring of 15° and a nozzle. All vents are characterized by the same height and bottom diameter. The results of the current investigation together with comparison with other experimental campaigns showed particle velocities ranging from 130 to 290 m/s, gas spreading angles varying from 14 to 37° and particles spreading angles from 12° to 2°. Moreover we observed dynamically evolving ejection characteristics (speed and spreading angle) and strong variations in the production of fines (up to a factor of 2) during the course of individual experiments. We further qualitatively present the impact of experimental

  19. Recruitment and Retention of Diverse Populations in Antiretroviral Clinical Trials: Practical Applications from the Gender, Race And Clinical Experience Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Dawn Averitt; Currier, Judith; Squires, Kathleen; Hagins, Debbie; Schaible, Deborah; Ryan, Robert; Mrus, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Women, particularly women of color, remain underrepresented in antiretroviral (ARV) clinical trials. To evaluate sex-based differences in darunavir/ritonavir-based therapy, the Gender, Race And Clinical Experience (GRACE) study was designed to enroll and retain a high proportion of women representative of the racial/ethnic demographics of women with HIV/AIDS in the United States. The recruitment and retention strategies used in GRACE are described in this article. Methods Recruitment and retention strategies targeting women included selecting study sites that focused on women, involving community consultants, site-specific enrollment plans, access to other ARV drugs, study branding, site and patient toolkits, targeted public relations, site grants for patient support, and subsidized child care and transportation. Results The recruitment strategies were successful; 287 (67%) women were enrolled, primarily women of color (black, n=191 [67%], Hispanic, n=60 [21%]). Despite the focus on retention, a greater proportion of women (32.8%) discontinued compared with men (23.2%). Conclusions The successes of GRACE in enrolling a representative population of women were rooted in pretrial preparation, engagement of community advisors, enrollment quotas, choice of study sites and site support. Lessons learned from GRACE may be applied to future study design. Further focus on factors that influence discontinuation is warranted. PMID:21663416

  20. Cootie Genetics: Simulating Mendel's Experiments to Understand the Laws of Inheritance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Katelyn; Anderson, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    "Cootie Genetics" is a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that enables students to learn the Mendelian laws of inheritance and gain an understanding of genetics principles and terminology. The activity begins with two true-breeding Cooties of the same species that exhibit five observable trait differences. Students observe the retention or…

  1. Temperature effects on the retention of n-alkanes and arenes in helium-squalane gas-liquid chromatography. Experiment and molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Wick, Collin D; Siepman, J Ilja; Klotz, Wendy L; Schure, Mark R

    2002-04-19

    Experiments and molecular simulations were carried out to study temperature effects (in the range of 323 to 383 K) on the absolute and relative retention of n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, benzene, toluene and the three xylene isomers in gas-liquid chromatography. Helium and squalane were used as the carrier gas and retentive phase, respectively. Both the experiments and the simulations show a markedly different temperature dependence of the retention for the n-alkanes compared to the arenes. For example, over the 60 K temperature range studied, the Kovats retention index of benzene is found to increase by about 16 or 18+/-10 retention index units determined from the experiments or simulations, respectively. For toluene and the xylenes, the experimentally measured increases are similar in magnitude and range from 14 to 17 retention index units for m-xylene to o-xylene. The molecular simulation data provide an independent method of obtaining the transfer enthalpies and entropies. The change in retention indices is shown to be the result of the larger entropic penalty and the larger heat capacity for the transfer of the alkane molecules.

  2. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Carla A; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a "chilly climate," devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism - being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting - require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee's specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1) and perceived information sharing (Study 2) among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia.

  3. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Carla A; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a "chilly climate," devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism - being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting - require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee's specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1) and perceived information sharing (Study 2) among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia. PMID:27303322

  4. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Carla A.; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R.; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a “chilly climate,” devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism – being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting – require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee’s specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1) and perceived information sharing (Study 2) among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia. PMID:27303322

  5. Understanding the recruitment and retention of overseas nurses: realist case study research in National Health Service Hospitals in the UK.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Terri; Ackroyd, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    This paper illustrates one of the possible applications of critical realist ideas to the analysis of health services, in the use of comparative case study research design, to elucidate the causal social processes underlying events. In the research reported here, a comparative research design was used as a basis for improving our understanding of the processes involved in the assimilation of overseas nurses (OSN) into the salient long-term workforce of the National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in the UK. The work brought to light the salient experiences of overseas nurses during their initial work in the NHS hospitals, and these were used as a basis for developing an account of the general mechanisms typically underlying the recruitment and assimilation at work. The authors conclude that successful assimilation is often hindered by the presence of occupational closure mechanisms, by which home nurses effectively excluded recruits from participation and promotion; these mechanisms, which articulate with everyday racism, threaten successful assimilation for obvious reasons. If the treatment recruits receive does not lead to withdrawal, it is because they typically have very strong economic motives to continue despite unfavourable and sometimes inhumane treatment. Thus, the research offered substantial reasons why recruitment policies should be reviewed by policy-makers.

  6. Understanding interference experiments with polarized light through photon trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, A.S. Davidovic, M.; Bozic, M.; Miret-Artes, S.

    2010-04-15

    Bohmian mechanics allows to visualize and understand the quantum-mechanical behavior of massive particles in terms of trajectories. As shown by Bialynicki-Birula, Electromagnetism also admits a hydrodynamical formulation when the existence of a wave function for photons (properly defined) is assumed. This formulation thus provides an alternative interpretation of optical phenomena in terms of photon trajectories, whose flow yields a pictorial view of the evolution of the electromagnetic energy density in configuration space. This trajectory-based theoretical framework is considered here to study and analyze the outcome from Young-type diffraction experiments within the context of the Arago-Fresnel laws. More specifically, photon trajectories in the region behind the two slits are obtained in the case where the slits are illuminated by a polarized monochromatic plane wave. Expressions to determine electromagnetic energy flow lines and photon trajectories within this scenario are provided, as well as a procedure to compute them in the particular case of gratings totally transparent inside the slits and completely absorbing outside them. As is shown, the electromagnetic energy flow lines obtained allow to monitor at each point of space the behavior of the electromagnetic energy flow and, therefore, to evaluate the effects caused on it by the presence (right behind each slit) of polarizers with the same or different polarization axes. This leads to a trajectory-based picture of the Arago-Fresnel laws for the interference of polarized light.

  7. Experiment studies of iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid retention in rabbit liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Lin, R; Lin, Y; Wu, R H

    2005-01-01

    To study possibility for iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid retention in rabbit liver. 131I- iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid were injected into liver right lobe through portal vein in 5 rabbits... - calibrate meter showed continuous.. counts in the region injected. Then the relative metabolic parameters were calculated. Left lobe livers, right lobe livers and lungs of the rabbits were examined in pathology, and the right lobe livers were examined by electron microscope. Five rabbits injected purely 131Iiodinated oil were designated as control group. Single metabolic mode was found in the rabbits in nanometer ferrofluid group. The biological half-life of 131I- iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid was not different from control group's slow metabolic portion. But control group's rapid metabolic portion were eliminated in a higher speed, range from 8% to 44%. More damage was found in nanometer ferrofluid group's right lobe livers. 131I- iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid possess the opportunity of local retention in human body and further study is worthwhile. PMID:17282574

  8. Visualisation of J-type counter-current chromatography: A route to understand hydrodynamic phase distribution and retention

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yue Hugh; van den Heuvel, Remco N.A.M.; Zhuang, Ying-Ping

    2012-01-01

    This paper has addressed decade sought-after questions on phase bilateral distribution and stationary phase retention in any J-type high-speed counter-current chromatographic (CCC) centrifuge. Using a 2-D spiral column operated on such a CCC device and an aqueous two-phase system, this work systematically observed the phase interaction during transitional period and at dynamic equilibration under stroboscopic illumination. The experimental results thus obtained were used to examine the effects of the liquid–solid friction force, tangential centrifugal force, and physical properties of the two-phase system on hydrodynamic phase behaviour. We identified that (a) density difference between lower and upper phases is the critical factor to cause unusual phase bilateral distribution in the 2-D spiral column and (b) interfacial tension (manifested primarily as phase settling time) of any two-phase system is the critical factor in explaining inability to retain stationary phase in 3-D helical column and, for certain flow modes, in the 2-D spiral column. This work thus has extended or modified the well-established rule-of-thumb for operating J-type CCC devices and our conclusions can accommodate virtually all the anomalies concerning both hydrophobic and hydrophilic phase systems. To this end, this work has not only documented valuable experimental evidences for directly observing phase behaviour in a CCC column, but also finally resolved fundamentally vital issues on bilateral phase distribution orientation and stationary phase retention in 2-D spiral and 3-D helical CCC columns. Revised recommendations to end users of this technology could thus be derived out of the essence of the present work presumably following further experimental validation and a consensus in the CCC R&D and manufacturing circle. PMID:22513130

  9. Improving Retention of Very Old Participants in Longitudinal Research: Experiences from the Newcastle 85+ Study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Karen; Kingston, Andrew; Robinson, Louise; Hughes, Joan; Hunt, Judith M.; Barker, Sally A. H.; Edwards, June; Collerton, Joanna; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background People aged 85 and over are often excluded from research on the grounds of being difficult to recruit and problematic to retain. The Newcastle 85+ study successfully recruited a cohort of 854 85-year-olds to detailed health assessment at baseline and followed them up over 3 phases spanning 5 years. This paper describes the effectiveness of its retention strategies. Methods Primary retention strategies involved meticulous management of contact information and active maintenance of contact with participants between research visits and between phases of the study. For statistical analysis, data on post-inclusion attrition over the 3 follow-up phases was separated into ‘death’ and ‘withdrawal’ categories, with sub-categories ‘health’ and ‘non-health’ reasons created for ‘withdrawal’. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine if particular socio-demographic and health characteristics were associated with post-inclusion attrition due to withdrawal at each of the 3 phase-to-phase transition points. Results For both sexes, at successive follow-up phases there was a decrease in attrition due to withdrawal and an increase due to death. Withdrawal was most prevalent between baseline and phase 2. Across the 5 years of the study total post-inclusion (post-baseline) attrition due to death accounted for a 40% (344/854) loss to cohort and total post-inclusion attrition due to withdraw a 19% (166/854) loss to cohort, with health reasons for withdrawal becoming more dominant over time. Adjusting for sex, parsimonious modelling showed only occupational class (National Statistics Socio-economic Classification) to be associated with withdrawal and only between baseline and phase 2 (routine/manual compared to managerial (OR 3.41; 95% CI [1.23 to 9.44]). Conclusion Following successful recruitment, we retained a high proportion of participants from a very old age group over 5 years of longitudinal research. No strong predictors of post

  10. Conceptualizing Openness to Diversity and Challenge: Its Relation to College Experiences, Achievement, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Openness to diversity and challenge (ODC) constitutes an integral outcome of the undergraduate experience. However, ODC may also serve as a form of generalized openness to experience; if so, then it should be positively related to a host of college experiences as well as student success. The study reported here explored this possibility within a…

  11. Student and Teacher Experiences of Assessing Different Levels of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Examinations greatly influence course structures and student study strategies. A course for students in the civil and environmental engineering programme at Lulea University of Technology was reconstructed with the aim of increasing levels of understanding. A simple written test was designed to assess low levels of understanding (definitions,…

  12. Understanding Arts and Humanities Students' Experiences of Assessment and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Joelle; McNab, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how undergraduate students on arts and humanities courses experience assessment and feedback. The research uses a detailed audit, a specially devised questionnaire (the Assessment Experience Questionnaire), and student focus group data, and the article examines results from 19 programmes, comparing those from "arts and…

  13. Investigating High School Students' Science Experiences and Mechanics Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Katherine A.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2006-01-01

    This research study was designed to provide an introductory examination of how high school students' out-of-school science experiences, particularly those relevant to the physical sciences, relate to their learning of Newtonian mechanics. A factor analysis of the modified Science Experiences Survey (SES, Mason & Kahle, 1988) was performed, leading…

  14. Early Workplace Learning Experiences: What Are the Pedagogical Possibilities beyond Retention and Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; McEwen, Celina

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, we explore early placement experiences and their pedagogical potential, including ways of keeping students enrolled and persisting with their studies. Few university courses offer early placements because traditionally placement experiences have a focus on employability and work readiness of graduates, hence occur towards the end…

  15. Student Experience Assessments: Best Practices in Student Satisfaction and Retention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholder, Tara E.; Maguire, Linda Cox

    2009-01-01

    As students are asked to share more of the costs of a post-secondary education, the quality of their overall educational experience and perceived return on investment (ROI) are increasingly important. For prospective students and their parents, what they are told they can expect from the student experience at an institution often makes the most…

  16. The Effects of Primary Sources and Field Trip Experience on the Knowledge Retention of Multicultural Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    Although small in scope, this study attempted to analyze the impacts of primary sources and field trip experiences on multicultural education through first-hand narrative interviews, one year after the experience. In particular, it assessed the recollections of students who participated in a one-half-day field trip to George Washington Carver…

  17. Modeling Volatile Species Retention Experiments: Interim Progress Report (M3FT-12LA0202053)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Neil N.

    2012-07-06

    Metal nuclear fuel is a candidate transmutation fuel form for advanced fuel cycles. One constituent of the fuel, americium, has a high vapor pressure, and there is a concern that excessive volatility losses of americium will occur during casting of the metal. A number of experiments have been performed using americium and surrogate metals, including experiments slated for FY12, to address the concern. The present task is to model and numerically simulate these experiments. This report describes a system-level model of the relevant experiments that has been developed together with some results. It also describes some initial 3D, full-physics simulations of portions of the experiments that have been performed.

  18. Visualization of micro-scale phase displacement processes in retention and outflow experiments: Non-uniqueness of unsaturated flow properties

    SciTech Connect

    MORTENSEN,ANNETTE P.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; HOLLENBECK,KARL; JENSEN,KARSTEN H.

    2000-03-09

    Methods to determine unsaturated hydraulic properties can exhibit random and non-unique behavior. The authors assess the causes for these behaviors by visualizing micro-scale phase displacement processes during equilibrium retention and transient outflow experiments. They observe that the drainage process is composed of a fast fingering followed by a slower backfilling. The influence of each these processes is controlled by the size and the speed of the applied boundary step, the initial saturation and its structure and by small-scale heterogeneities. Because the mixture of these micro-scale processes yields macro-scale effective behavior, measured unsaturated flow properties are also a function of these controls. These results suggest limitations on the current definitions and uniqueness of unsaturated hydraulic properties.

  19. Aging effect on Zn retention on a calcareous soil: column experiments and synchrotron X-ray micro-spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Sayen, Stéphanie; Guillon, Emmanuel

    2014-07-15

    In this study, a combination of column experiments and micro-analytical techniques exploiting synchrotron generated X-rays was used to assess the effect of aging time on Zn retention and mobility in the specific case of calcareous soils (high pH value, ≈ 8). The samples were subjected to aging for 2, 6, 17, and 63 days. Freshly added Zn mainly existed as an exchangeable form, and this metal fraction decreased over time due to Zn redistribution to stronger binding sites. Thus, after aging for 63 days, 45% of Zn is remobilized from exchangeable sites to stronger binding sites. μ-XRF maps were used to find correlations among elements in the sample, and μ-XANES spectra were recorded to precise Zn speciation. These analyses evidenced an increasing partitioning of Zn from organic matter to iron oxy(hydr)oxides over time. The occurrence of hydrozincite is evidenced in all samples.

  20. Fostering Intercultural Understanding through Secondary School Experiences of Cultural Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Jessica; Paradies, Yin; Priest, Naomi; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with many nations' education policies, national education policies in Australia seek to foster students' intercultural understanding. Due to Australia's location in the Asia-Pacific region, the Australian government has focused on students becoming "Asia literate" to support Australia's economic and…

  1. An Experiment of Student Understanding of Accruals versus Cash Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda-Lopez, Jose Eduardo; Nichols, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of both accrual accounting and cash basis accounting need to be thoroughly understood by accounting graduates as they enter the workplace. In making decisions, both managers and investors often may need to make adjustments from one basis to the other. But do students really understand these concepts? This study uses an experimental…

  2. Investigating the Retention and Time-Course of Phonotactic Constraint Learning From Production Experience

    PubMed Central

    Warker, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults can rapidly learn artificial phonotactic constraints such as /f/ only occurs at the beginning of syllables by producing syllables that contain those constraints. This implicit learning is then reflected in their speech errors. However, second-order constraints in which the placement of a phoneme depends on another characteristic of the syllable (e.g., if the vowel is /æ/, /f/ occurs at the beginning of syllables and /s/ occurs at the end of syllables but if the vowel is /I/, the reverse is true) require a longer learning period. Two experiments question the transience of second-order learning and whether consolidation plays a role in learning phonological dependencies. Using speech errors as a measure of learning, Experiment 1 investigated the durability of learning, and Experiment 2 investigated the time-course of learning. Experiment 1 found that learning is still present in speech errors a week later. Experiment 2 looked at whether more time in the form of a consolidation period or more experience in the form of more trials was necessary for learning to be revealed in speech errors. Both consolidation and more trials led to learning; however, consolidation provided a more substantial benefit. PMID:22686839

  3. Shared understandings: structuring the writing experience through dialogue.

    PubMed

    Englert, C S; Mariage, T V

    1991-01-01

    When teachers view writing as a social process in which authors write for real audiences and authentic purposes, they change their instruction accordingly to meet the needs of writers with learning disabilities. As more experienced members of a larger community of writers, teachers play a primary role in apprenticing students into the inherently social functions of writing. Through teacher-student dialogues about the complexities of the writing process, students gradually develop and control their own writing "voice" as they use and transform the shared understandings of the group process. Text structure, writing strategies, and metacognitive knowledge of the writing process provide opportunities for teachers and students with learning disabilities to interact and create shared understandings about the composition process. This article reviews some recent attempts to use text structures and the writing process as frameworks to guide the composition dialogue.

  4. Understanding Students' Experiences of Statistics in a Service Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sue

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we explore issues surrounding university students' experiences of statistics drawing on data related to learning statistics as a compulsory component of psychology. Over 250 students completed a written survey which included questions on their attitudes to learning statistics and their conceptions of statistics. Results indicated…

  5. Towards an Understanding of Muslim American Adolescent High School Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Derek X.; Khan, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    The researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore the experiences of Muslim American adolescents in high school. Findings indicate that students had to navigate unique challenges because of their religious faith, but those obstacles presented opportunities to confront bias and discrimination. Recommendations for how school counselors…

  6. Understanding Student Attitudes toward Bible Reading: A Philippine Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baring, Rito V.

    2008-01-01

    Reflecting from the Philippine experience, this article explores an emerging picture that characterizes contemporary Bible reading attitudes of college students. Six new attitude factor definitions are developed following the development of the Bible Reading (BR) attitude scale for college students constructed by this author in a separate study.…

  7. Course Management Systems in Higher Education: Understanding Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Allan; Fox, Robert; Sun, Angie; Deng, Liping

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The course management system (CMS), as an evolving tool and innovation, is increasingly used to promote the quality, efficiency and flexibility of teaching and learning in higher education. This paper aims to examine students' experiences of CMSs across faculties at a comprehensive university in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach:…

  8. Complementary experiments to understand rapid flow in periglacial slope deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Angermann, Lisa; Allroggen, Niklas

    2015-04-01

    In structured soils we face limits of the porous-media assumptions for our measurements. Not only spatial heterogeneity and structures but also the large spread of process velocity impose considerable ambiguity to point observations and singular experiments. We present insights from complementary sprinkler experiments at the plot and hillslope scale on highly structured young soils on periglacial slope deposits. On the plot scale of 1 m2 we combined different tracers (Brilliant Blue and Bromide) with soil moisture monitoring and 3D time-lapse GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) with an sprinkling intensity of 50 mm for 1 h. At the hillslope scale we combined a soil moisture monitoring network (TDR boreholes) with four 2D time-lapse GPR profiles (GPR inferred trenches) for an irrigation of some 120m2 with about 100mm for 4.5 h. At both scales rapid flow in structures dominates in vertical as well as lateral direction with high spatial variability. The combination of methods chosen for the experiments turned out to be very useful to complement the respective assumptions and limitations of each single technique. As such we will present the main findings from the experiments and highlight the possibilities arising from GPR applications and how the observation of the same process with different techniques can be used to limit uncertainty and ambiguity.

  9. Authentic Research Immersion Experiences: the Key to Enduring Understandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Do authentic research experiences have a role in today's classrooms? Where do they fit into the constrained curriculum units and high-stakes testing regimen that define a teacher's world? It is possible, even in today's somewhat narrow teaching environment, to integrate authentic research into the classroom and evolve away from the worksheets and lessons that simply "teach to the test"? Authentic research immersion experiences must be carefully packaged the for classroom use with clear alignment to standards and a learning curve that is not too daunting. By helping teachers to see the value in replacing curricular units with authentic research experiences and designing the research program to fit within a teacher's needs, the rate of successful adoption of the research program becomes much higher. As a result, not only do their students reap the educational rewards of becoming active research participants in the process of science and learn it from the inside out, but the opportunity for the teachers to grow professionally in content and science process knowledge is also an additional benefit. NASA has had and continues to have a significant role in providing these data and mission- related immersion experiences for elementary classrooms through graduate school students.

  10. A Simple Calorimetric Experiment that Highlights Aspects of Global Heat Retention and Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S.

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, general chemistry students measure the heating curves for three different systems: (i) 500 g of room-temperature water heated by a small desk lamp, (ii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture warmed by conduction with room-temperature surroundings, and (iii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture heated by a small desk lamp and by…

  11. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  12. Teacher Retention: A Phenomenological Investigation into the Lived Experiences of Three Elementary Teacher Stayers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Corey R.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher stayers have remained within a profession experiencing an average annual turnover rate of 14% (Liu, 2007) and its lowest levels of job satisfaction in 20 years (MetLife Survey of the American Teacher, 2011). Exploring the lived experiences of teacher stayers might hold significant potential in decreasing the turnover rate given they have…

  13. Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) - Understanding Sampling Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, W. A.; Banta, R. M.; Hardesty, M.; Pichugina, Y.; Senff, Christoph; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Carroll, B.; Delgado, R.; Muschinski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Coherent Doppler LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has been widely used to provide measurements of several boundary layer parameters such as profiles of wind speed, wind direction, vertical velocity statistics, mixing layer heights and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). An important aspect of providing this wide range of meteorological data is to properly characterize the uncertainty associated with these measurements. With the above intent in mind, the Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) was conducted at Erie, Colorado during the period June 23rd to July 13th, 2014. The major goals of this experiment were the following: Characterize sampling error for vertical velocity statistics Analyze sensitivities of different Doppler lidar systems Compare various single and dual Doppler retrieval techniques Characterize error of spatial representativeness for separation distances up to 3 km Validate turbulence analysis techniques and retrievals from Doppler lidars This experiment brought together 5 Doppler lidars, both commercial and research grade, for a period of three weeks for a comprehensive intercomparison study. The Doppler lidars were deployed at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) site in Erie, site of a 300 m meteorological tower. This tower was instrumented with six sonic anemometers at levels from 50 m to 300 m with 50 m vertical spacing. A brief overview of the experiment outline and deployment will be presented. Results from the sampling error analysis and its implications on scanning strategy will be discussed.

  14. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

  15. Large-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Slezak, S.E.; Bentz, J.H.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents results of ex-vessel boiling experiments performed in the CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility. CYBL is a reactor-scale facility for confirmatory research of the flooded cavity concept for accident management. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner tank simulates the reactor vessel and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. Experiments with uniform and edge-peaked heat flux distributions up to 20 W/cm{sup 2} across the vessel bottom were performed. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling is mainly due to the gravity head which results from flooding the sides of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid/solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion (ejection). The results suggest that under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity in a passive pressurized water reactor like the AP-600 should be capable of cooling the reactor pressure vessel in the central region of the lower head that is addressed by these tests.

  16. Understanding Alginate Gel Development for Bioclogging and Biogeophysical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdel Aal, G. Z.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sarkisova, S.; Patrauchan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation strategies to mitigate the transport of heavy metals and radionuclides in subsurface sediments have largely targeted to increase the mobility and/or solubility of these compounds by the stimulation of biogeochemical activity of the metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter secrete and/or release out diverse biochemical molecule including, first of all, organic acids and biopolymers such as alginic acid, proteins and DNA. Alginate gel is one of the major components determining the structure of biofilm which causes clogging in porous media. Biopolymers composing biofilm having, at least, two main functions: to be a scaffold for a microbial biofilm, and to regulate the exchange of metabolites and ions between an environment and bacterial cells. Additionally, the accumulation of biopolymers and a matured biofilm within porous media was shown to contribute to a detectable biogeophysical signal, spectral induced polarization (SIP), in particular. Our objective is to understand the role of different biofilm components on the SIP response as the latter has been proposed as a non-invasive tool to monitor biofilm development and rate of clogging in the subsurface. Understanding the process of alginate gel development may aid in the understanding of the fate and transport of mineralized heavy metals and radionuclides in contaminated soils. Here we describe the reciprocal relationship between environmental chemistry and alginate gel development. Commercial (Sigma) alginic acid (AA) was used as a substratum for the preparation of a model gel. AA was solubilized by adjusting solutions with pH up to 4 with 0.1 NaOH. Both Ca(OH)2 or CaCl2 were used to initiate the gelation of alginate. pH, fluid conductivity, soluble Ca2+ concentration, and a yield of gelated alginate were monitored in both liquid and porous media after the interaction of calcium compounds with alginate. This study confirms the critical role of Ca2+ for alginate gelation, biofilm development

  17. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  18. Alternative-Specific and Case-Specific Factors Involved in the Decisions of Islamic School Teachers Affecting Teacher Retention: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Hafez, Alaa Karem

    2015-01-01

    Teacher retention is a concern in all educational sectors in America. It is of special importance to Islamic schools, which tend to lack the resources necessary in recruiting and training new teachers. This dissertation addressed this problem in full-time Islamic schools in New York State by conducting a discrete choice experiment, which reflects…

  19. Examining the Academic Performance and Retention of First-Year Students in Living-Learning Communities and First-Year Experience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional data were used to examine the grades and retention of first-year students in 2 types of living learning communities--Academic Theme Floors (ATFs) and Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs)--and a First-Year Experience (FYE) course. Multiple regression revealed students in FIGs earned nominally higher GPAs (standardized [beta] = 0.02, p less…

  20. Considerations for the Use of the Observation Experience to Aid in Early Socialization and Retention of Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Context: Retention of quality students in athletic training programs (ATPs) is important. Many factors contribute to retention of students, including their motivation level, peer support, positive interactions with instructors, clinical integration, and mentorship. Objective: Highlight the use of the observation period for preparatory athletic…

  1. An Ecological Understanding of Caregiver Experiences in Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Devyani; Corbin, J Hope; Shillam, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Palliative care is specialized health care to improve quality of life for patients with serious illness and their families through prevention and relief of suffering. A Palliative Care Institute was held in western Washington to capture community voices about diverse needs, strengths, and opportunities for improvement of palliative care. Researchers employed qualitative methods to obtain thematic data, provide real-time analysis, and engage in a multivoting technique to reflect stakeholder interest in individual themes and prioritize larger group interests. Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems framework was used to explore caregiver experiences. Within the microsystem, caregivers reported difficulties in interactions with medical providers as a key challenge. Within the mesosysytem, interactions between patients and medical providers and the impact on caregivers were explored. Within the exosystem, caregivers reported lack of control over the schedules of personal care staff. Macrosystem influences included impact of local culture on the development of palliative care services. Chronosystem influences include de-medicalization of childbirth and its impact on perceptions of palliative care. Implications include the need for social workers to be proactive in fostering trust and effective communication between care providers and caregivers, and the demand for health care provider training in communication with patients and families. PMID:27143579

  2. Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxkemper, Andra C.; Hartfiel, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    There is no common agreement on the meaning of the word "understand". However, there is agreement on what students should be able to do with material they understand. Bloom et al. discuss kinds of tasks a student should be able to do, provided that the student understands. In a similar way, Biggs and Collis provide a taxonomy intended to evaluate…

  3. Impact of Experiments on 13-Year-Old Pupils' Understanding of Selected Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Matej; Glazar, Sasa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish what impact experimental work has on the understanding of scientific concepts, what pupils remember about the experiments they carried out and how they are able to formulate and understand the experiment plan. A sample of 386 pupils aged 13+ participated in the research, of which 162 in the experimental…

  4. Cultural Immersion Experience: Promoting an Understanding of Mexican American Nutrition and Food Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilboy, Mary Beth; Bill, Debra E.

    2011-01-01

    A week long immersion experience in Guanajuato, Mexico provided an opportunity for public health and nutrition students to improve their understanding of Mexican culture, nutrition, and food traditions. The experience positively impacted the students' understanding of the importance of cultural sensitivity in working with the local Mexican…

  5. Children's Understanding of Ambiguous Figures: Which Cognitive Developments Are Necessary to Experience Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, M.J.; Wimmer, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    In two experiments involving one hundred and thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-olds we examined the claim that a complex understanding of ambiguity is required to experience reversal of ambiguous stimuli [Gopnik, A., & Rosati, A. (2001). Duck or rabbit? Reversing ambiguous figures and understanding ambiguous representations. Developmental Science, 4,…

  6. The Role of Experience and Discourse in Children's Developing Understanding of Pretend Play Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael; Striano, Tricia

    2006-01-01

    The present work investigated the development of an explicit understanding of pretend play actions. Study 1 revealed a long decalage between earlier implicit understanding of pretence as an intentional activity and a later more explicit understanding. Study 2 was a training study. It tested for two factors--systematic pretence experience and…

  7. Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, Jamie L.

    The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

  8. The understanding and experience of mixed emotions in 3-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Glass, Daniel J; Fireman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The term mixed emotions refers to the presence of two opposite-valence emotions toward a single target. Identifying when children begin to report experiencing and understanding mixed emotions is critical in identifying how skills such as adaptive functioning, coping strategies, environmental understanding, and socioemotional competence emerge. Prior research has shown that children as young as 5 years old can understand and experience mixed emotion, but perhaps appropriately sensitive methodologies can reveal these abilities in younger children. The present study evaluated 57 children between 3 and 5 years old for mixed emotion experience and understanding using an animated video clip in which a character experiences a mixed emotional episode. Ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the relation of gender, attention, and understanding of content to experience and understanding of mixed emotion. While only 12% of children reported experiencing mixed emotion while watching the clip, 49% of children-some as young as 3 years old-were able to recognize the mixed emotional experience of the character. Thus, mixed emotion understanding emerges earlier than previously identified and the expression of understanding may develop independently of the ability to report mixed emotion experience. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental considerations.

  9. Retention of Habitat Complexity Minimizes Disassembly of Reef Fish Communities following Disturbance: A Large-Scale Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Michael J.; Cheal, Alistair J.; Johns, Kerryn A.

    2014-01-01

    High biodiversity ecosystems are commonly associated with complex habitats. Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, but are under increasing pressure from numerous stressors, many of which reduce live coral cover and habitat complexity with concomitant effects on other organisms such as reef fishes. While previous studies have highlighted the importance of habitat complexity in structuring reef fish communities, they employed gradient or meta-analyses which lacked a controlled experimental design over broad spatial scales to explicitly separate the influence of live coral cover from overall habitat complexity. Here a natural experiment using a long term (20 year), spatially extensive (∼115,000 kms2) dataset from the Great Barrier Reef revealed the fundamental importance of overall habitat complexity for reef fishes. Reductions of both live coral cover and habitat complexity had substantial impacts on fish communities compared to relatively minor impacts after major reductions in coral cover but not habitat complexity. Where habitat complexity was substantially reduced, species abundances broadly declined and a far greater number of fish species were locally extirpated, including economically important fishes. This resulted in decreased species richness and a loss of diversity within functional groups. Our results suggest that the retention of habitat complexity following disturbances can ameliorate the impacts of coral declines on reef fishes, so preserving their capacity to perform important functional roles essential to reef resilience. These results add to a growing body of evidence about the importance of habitat complexity for reef fishes, and represent the first large-scale examination of this question on the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:25140801

  10. Causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were designed to better understand the causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis with transients in solution ionic strength (IS). Saturated packed column experiments were conducted using two sizes of carboxyl modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.1 and 1.1...

  11. Active experience shapes 10-month-old infants’ understanding of collaborative goals

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Annette M. E.; Wang, Ying; Matz, Lauren Eisenband; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative activities in which individuals coordinate their actions to attain a common goal play a fundamental role in our everyday lives. Evidence suggests that infants engage in collaborative activities before their first birthday, however little is known about infants’ understanding of collaborative action. Using a visual habituation paradigm, this research consists of two experiments designed to investigate whether 10-month-olds understand that the actions of collaborative partners are critical to the attainment of a common goal. The results of Experiment 1 suggest that 10-month-olds represent the actions of collaborating partners in terms of a common collaborative goal only after receiving active experience with a collaborative activity. Experiment 2 demonstrated that infants who received active experience with a collaborative activity viewed active engagement in a collaboration as being critical for an individual's actions to be interpreted as being directed towards a collaborative goal. Together, these findings demonstrate that 10-month-olds exhibit an understanding of the shared nature of collaborative goals after a highly salient experience with the activity. Identifying the effects of experience on infants’ understanding of collaborative goals in a laboratory context provides insights into the role that experiences in their everyday lives might play in their understanding of collaboration. PMID:23304074

  12. Students' Experiences and Perceptions of In-Depth Approaches in Teaching and Understanding Subject Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    Students' experiences and perceptions of good teaching and understanding in literature and physics during one school year were investigated through in-depth interviews with students in eight Greek high school classes in the first, second and third grade. The pedagogical quality of in-depth teaching and understanding of subject matter, as described…

  13. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of…

  14. Teacher's Understanding, Perceptions, and Experiences of Students in Foster Care: A Forgotten Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Davis, Darneika

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine elementary teacher's understanding, perceptions, and experiences of working with students in foster care. The researcher examined whether teachers are informed about students in foster care, determined teacher's understanding of the foster care system, and how their students are affected. The results…

  15. Particulate organic matter quality influences nitrate retention and denitrification in stream sediments: evidence from a carbon burial experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stelzer, Robert S.; Scott, J. Thad; Bartsch, Lynn; Parr, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Organic carbon supply is linked to nitrogen transformation in ecosystems. However, the role of organic carbon quality in nitrogen processing is not as well understood. We determined how the quality of particulate organic carbon (POC) influenced nitrogen transformation in stream sediments by burying identical quantities of varying quality POC (northern red oak (Quercus rubra) leaves, red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves, red maple wood) in stream mesocosms and measuring the effects on nitrogen retention and denitrification compared to a control of combusted sand. We also determined how POC quality affected the quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen concentration in groundwater. Nitrate and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) retention were assessed by comparing solute concentrations and fluxes along groundwater flow paths in the mesocosms. Denitrification was measured by in situ changes in N2 concentrations (using MIMS) and by acetylene block incubations. POC quality was measured by C:N and lignin:N ratios and DOC quality was assessed by fluorescence excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. POC quality had strong effects on nitrogen processing. Leaf treatments had much higher nitrate retention, TDN retention and denitrification rates than the wood and control treatments and red maple leaf burial resulted in higher nitrate and TDN retention rates than burial of red oak leaves. Leaf, but not wood, burial drove pore water to severe hypoxia and leaf treatments had higher DOC production and different DOC chemical composition than the wood and control treatments. We think that POC quality affected nitrogen processing in the sediments by influencing the quantity and quality of DOC and redox conditions. Our results suggest that the type of organic carbon inputs can affect the rates of nitrogen transformation in stream ecosystems.

  16. Education as Service: The Understanding of University Experience through the Service Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Irene C. L.; Forbes, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    With the marketization of UK higher education, this paper develops a framework from services marketing that can assist universities in understanding what market orientation means and how students would value their offerings. Our study shows that the core service in a university experience is a learning experience that is cocreated and that the…

  17. Understanding the Experience of College Graduates during Their First Year of Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polach, Janet L.

    2004-01-01

    A company's college recruitment practices, as well as its socialization processes for graduates once they have joined the organization, can be improved when there is understanding of college graduates' experience during the first year of employment. This study recorded the experiences of eight college graduates who were employed by a medical…

  18. Using Concrete & Representational Experiences to Understand the Structure of DNA: A Four-Step Instructional Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Richards, Debbie; Collins, James; Taylor, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    A description of learning experience that uses a four-step instrumentational framework involving concrete and representational experiences to promote conceptual understanding of abstract biological concepts by a series of closely-related activities is presented. The students are introduced to the structure and implications of DNA using four…

  19. Effects of Experimenting with Physical and Virtual Manipulatives on Students' Conceptual Understanding in Heat and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios; Papaevripidou, Marios

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the comparative value of experimenting with physical manipulatives (PM) in a sequential combination with virtual manipulatives (VM), with the use of PM preceding the use of VM, and of experimenting with PM alone, with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding in the domain of heat and temperature. A…

  20. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Tonisha B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly…

  1. Children's understanding and experience of mixed emotions: the roles of age, gender, and empathy.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Ruth T; Bloom, Jill Myerow; Fireman, Gary; Larsen, Jeff T

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the development of children's ability report understanding and experiencing allocentric mixed emotions, and explored the relation of gender and empathic ability to these skills. Participants (128 elementary school-aged children [63 boys, 65 girls]) were shown a movie clip with bittersweet themes to elicit mixed emotions. Findings from this study are consistent with prior research (Larsen, To, & Fireman, 2007), supporting a developmental progression in children's ability to both understand and report experiencing mixed emotions, with the two as distinct skills and children reporting understanding earlier than experiencing of emotions. Consistent with previous research, girls performed significantly better on the emotion experience task. Finally, results provided evidence that empathy partially mediates the relationship between age and reports of mixed emotion experience, but no evidence that empathy plays a role in mixed emotional understanding.

  2. What are you doing? How active and observational experience shape infants' action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-01-01

    From early in life, infants watch other people's actions. How do young infants come to make sense of actions they observe? Here, we review empirical findings on the development of action understanding in infancy. Based on this review, we argue that active action experience is crucial for infants' developing action understanding. When infants execute actions, they form associations between motor acts and the sensory consequences of these acts. When infants subsequently observe these actions in others, they can use their motor system to predict the outcome of the ongoing actions. Also, infants come to an understanding of others’ actions through the repeated observation of actions and the effects associated with them. In their daily lives, infants have plenty of opportunities to form associations between observed events and learn about statistical regularities of others’ behaviours. We argue that based on these two forms of experience—active action experience and observational experience—infants gradually develop more complex action understanding capabilities. PMID:24778386

  3. Understanding experience through Gadamerian hermeneutics: an interview with Brian Phillips. Interview by Pamela Wood & Lynne Giddings.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brian

    2005-07-01

    Hermeneutic approaches to research focus on understanding and interpretation of experience but differ in process and emphasis. Gadamerian hermeneutics concentrates on expanding horizons of understanding through dialogue, between people or between a researcher and texts, in which taken-for-granted assumptions are examined and opinions willingly put at risk. This article is the fourteenth in a series of articles based on interviews with nursing and midwifery researchers, designed to offer the beginning researcher a first-hand account of the experience of using particular methodologies. It considers a Gadamerian hermeneutic research approach as interpreted by Brian Phillips (RN, PhD) in interview. Brian is Research Fellow in the Graduate School of Nursing and Midwifery at Victoria University of Wellington. For his PhD research Brian used Gadamerian hermeneutics to interpret four men's experiences of suicidality and the ideas of masculinity that might have shaped their understandings.

  4. Fuel retention in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loarer, T.

    2009-06-01

    Tritium retention constitutes an outstanding problem for ITER operation and future fusion reactors, particularly for the choice of the first wall materials. In present day tokamaks, fuel retention is evaluated by two complementary methods. The in situ gas balance allows evaluation of how much fuel is retained during a discharge and, typically, up to one day of experiments. Post-mortem analysis is used to determine where the fuel is retained, integrated over an experimental campaign. In all the carbon clad devices, using the two methods, the retention is demonstrated to be very closely related to the carbon net erosion. This results from plasma-wall interaction with ion and charge-exchange fluxes, ELMs and is proportional to the pulse duration. The fuel retention by implantation saturates at high wall temperatures and limits the D/C ratio in the deposited layers but, as far as a carbon source exists, the dominant retention process remains the co-deposition of carbon with deuterium. In full metallic device, in the absence of wall conditioning with boron, co-deposition is strongly reduced and fuel retention below 1% can be achieved. Extrapolation to ITER shows that removing the carbon from the plasma-facing components would increase the number of discharges to 2500 before reaching the maximum tritium limit of 700 g.

  5. Social simulation theory: a framework to explain nurses' understanding of patients' experiences of ill-health.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental aim in caring practice is to understand patients' experiences of ill-health. These experiences have a qualitative content and cannot, unlike thoughts and beliefs with conceptual content, directly be expressed in words. Nurses therefore face a variety of interpretive challenges when they aim to understand patients' subjective perspectives on disease and illness. The article argues that theories on social simulation can shed light on how nurses manage to meet these challenges. The core assumption of social simulationism is that we do not understand other people by forming mental representations of how they think, but by putting ourselves in their situation in a more imaginative way. According to simulationism, any attempt to understand a patient's behavior is made on the basis of simulating what it is like to be that patient in the given context. The article argues that this approach to social interpretation can clarify how nurses manage to achieve aims of patient understanding, even when they have limited time to communicate and incomplete knowledge of patients' perspectives. Furthermore, simulation theory provides a normative framework for interpretation, in the sense that its theoretical assumptions constitute ideals for how nurses should seek to understand patients' experiences of illness.

  6. Postdischarge suicide: A psychodynamic understanding of subjective experience and its importance in suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Schechter, Mark; Goldblatt, Mark J; Ronningstam, Elsa; Herbstman, Benjamin; Maltsberger, John T

    2016-01-01

    Recent discharge from a psychiatric inpatient facility is associated with a high risk of suicide. There are multiple factors that may contribute to this increase in risk. Psychodynamic considerations about the patient's subjective experience of suicidality, hospitalization, and discharge are often overlooked but are critical to understanding this phenomenon. Qualitative research has begun to provide empirical support for the importance of the psychological aspects of discharge, and the heightened state of vulnerability that patients experience during this time. Review of the literature and careful consideration of clinical experience is helpful in elucidating this experience in a way that can inform effective treatment. This article integrates a psychodynamic understanding of suicidality in the postdischarge period with a review of empirical research and formulates clinical recommendations for suicide prevention.

  7. Using artwork to understand the experience of mental illness: Mainstream artists and Outsider artists

    PubMed Central

    Rustin, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Artwork and psychiatric disorders are often linked. Accomplished artists with psychiatric disorders express themselves and their emotional distress through their works, and art therapists use the visual arts to help clients understand their problems and cope with them. There have been a number of psychiatric patients with no previous art training who produced artwork that many consider museum-worthy (Art Brut, or Outsider Art.) For the past two years, I have used artwork in another way: to better understand my clients and their psychiatric disorders. Methods: Presented here are paintings I have made about the mental illness experience of some of my clients, all well known to me through their therapy. It is a form of visual psychodrama, in which I reverse roles with the client through the paintings. My goal has been to experience the stresses felt by my clients so that I can understand them better. Results: The paintings have served as a point of embarkation for therapy sessions, as a means of clarifying a client’s experience, and as a way to show clients that their therapist is attending to what they say. Countertransference undoubtedly plays a role in my choice of clients and their portrayals, but the intent is to help me better understand the clients’ experiences. Included here are images of some of these paintings with a short psychiatric history of the client about whom they were made. Accompanying each one are responses from the clients upon viewing “their” paintings, and a discussion of the client’s psychiatric disorder. Conclusions: Making these paintings has helped me understand better the feelings of isolation, rejection, loss, and alienation that many of my clients experience every day. In turn, they tell me that viewing the paintings is an intense experience for them as well. As an outsider artist, I must leave it to the viewer to determine whether or not these paintings qualify as “art.” PMID:19742284

  8. The Cavendish Experiment as a Tool for Historical Understanding of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducheyne, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Following an ever growing literature which takes serious the relevance of case-studies in the history of science for science education and understanding of science, I provide a detailed historical reconstruction of the Cavendish Experiment, which remains as close as possible to the original. In this paper, I call attention to three educational…

  9. Understanding the Online Doctoral Learning Experience: Factors That Contribute to Students' Sense of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Jeremy Carl

    2016-01-01

    As the number of students taking online courses continues to grow steadily, it is becoming increasingly important to inquire about the experiences of these students in order to understand the factors that contribute to their success. It is imperative that the social needs of students be understood, as interaction is an important aspect of the…

  10. Using Critical Experiences to Build Understanding of Science Teacher Educators' Pedagogical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the reported research was to build understanding of science teacher educators' (STEs') development of pedagogical knowledge (PK) using critical experiences (CEs). It further investigated the role of CEs in developing PK for STEs, the ways that STEs' notions of PK develop and change over their careers, and the…

  11. A Practical Example Aiding Understanding Momentum in 1D: The Water Gun Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Katarin

    2007-01-01

    The law of conservation of momentum is one that students often have difficulties understanding. This experiment allows students to use childhood toys to examine and calculate the muzzle velocity of their favourite water gun by using an air track, a spark timer or data logger and the law of conservation of momentum in a one-dimensional case, a…

  12. The Effect of Previous Software Development Experience on Understanding the Object-Oriented Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffyth, Jacqui; Sharp, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the results of a survey to gain insight into the relationship between the acquisition of Object Technology (OT) concepts and previous software development experience. Indicates that the fundamental concepts of OT and the management of OT projects are not difficult to understand while analysis and design topics are harder. (Contains 18…

  13. Voices of Experience: Understanding and Enhancing Successful Conflict Management by Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanjani, Mellissia M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to enhance understanding of successful conflict management by community college Presidents through highlighting and describing conflict experiences with the faculty union or the board of trustees in a community college context. The following questions guided the research: (a) How do community college…

  14. Students' Understanding of Analogy after a Core (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) Learning Cycle, General Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avargil, Shirly; Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Amar, Franc¸ois G.; Bruce, Alice E.

    2015-01-01

    Students' understanding about analogy was investigated after a CORE learning cycle general chemistry experiment. CORE (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) is a new three-phase learning cycle that involves (phase 1) guiding students through chemical observations while they consider a series of open-ended questions, (phase 2)…

  15. Understanding the Experiences of Adult Learners: Content Analysis of Focus Group Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharakis, Jeff; Steichen, Marie; Diaz de Sabates, Gabriela; Glass, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    In this qualitative research study, we sought to better understand the experiences of adult learners in adult education centers. We conducted eight focus groups with 104 adult education students from 25 adult learning centers. Five groups were made up of English-speaking ABE students; learners in the three ESL groups spoke Spanish. We used an…

  16. Children's Use of Prior Knowledge and Experience in Understanding Informational Text on Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Nathalie; And Others

    A study examined how students use their prior knowledge and experience to help them understand a text, and how that influences what they recall from the text. Subjects, 46 sixth graders from 3 elementary schools in Nashville, Tennessee, were tape recorded as they thought aloud while reading either a passage on "sugar" or a passage on "fat."…

  17. Using Online Tools for Communication and Collaboration: Understanding Educators' Experiences in an Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Erica C.; Holan, Erica; Horbatt, Brent; Hough, Mary; Jean-Louis, Jennifer; Khurana, Chesta; Krinsky, Hindi; Spiezio, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This designed-based research study explored educators' experiences in an online course to better understand how course design and pedagogical delivery can best support student learning. Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (Collins et al., 1987) as a theoretical lens, researchers investigated the following: 1) What methods of instruction, as…

  18. Understanding Teacher's Experiences in Co-Taught Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Darrell S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers understand their experiences in co-taught classrooms as they work to meet the needs of all students. This included examining their perspectives about the co-teaching model and the relationships that are formed between co-teachers. The study was a descriptive study that used qualitative research…

  19. Children's experiences of food insecurity can assist in understanding its effect on their well-being

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of the experience of food insecurity by children is essential for better measurement and assessment of its effect on children's nutritional, physical, and mental health. Our qualitative study explored children's perceptions of household food insecurity to identify these perceptions ...

  20. How Students "Stay the Course": Retention Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurantowicz, Ewa; Nizinska, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    The article is based on the results of research carried out under the RANLHE project in several Polish academic institutions. Applying the biographical research approach, the project aimed to explore and understand the access and retention-related experiences of non-traditional students. In a study of non-traditional students, three distinct…

  1. Areas Recruited during Action Understanding Are Not Modulated by Auditory or Sign Language Experience.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    The observation of other people's actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people's actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions. PMID:27014025

  2. A Conceptual Model to Promote the Retention of Women with Physical Disabilities in Research.

    PubMed

    Mood, Laura; Hassouneh, Dena; McNeff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate participant recruitment and retention practices can affect sample representativeness and thus the generalizability of research findings. Retention of research participants has been examined within the literature to some extent; however, there is no consensus on best practice in achieving acceptable results. Furthermore, there is a gap in understanding how to engage and retain women with physical disabilities (WPDs) in research. To address these oversights, we review (1) the significance of retention as a methodological concern, (2) factors that influence the involvement and retention of participants in research, including individual, population, and health-illness considerations, and (3) particular circumstances impacting the inclusion and retention of WPDs in research. On the basis of a review of the literature and our experience with the Healing Pathways randomized controlled trial (RCT), we present a conceptual model to guide culturally sensitive health research implementation with WPDs, and promote the engagement and retention of this group in RCTs and other forms of interventional health research.

  3. A Conceptual Model to Promote the Retention of Women With Physical Disabilities in Research

    PubMed Central

    Mood, Laura; Hassouneh, Dena; McNeff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate participant recruitment and retention practices can affect sample representativeness and thus the generalizability of research findings. Retention of research participants has been examined within the literature to some extent; however, there is no consensus on best practice in achieving acceptable results. Furthermore, there is a gap in understanding how to engage and retain women with physical disabilities (WPDs) in research. To address these oversights, we review (1) the significance of retention as a methodologic concern, (2) factors that influence the involvement and retention of participants in research, including individual, population, and health-illness considerations, and (3) particular circumstances impacting the inclusion and retention of WPDs in research. Based on a review of the literature and our experience with the Healing Pathways randomized-controlled trial (RCT), we present a conceptual model to guide culturally-sensitive health research implementation with WPDs, and promote the engagement and retention of this group in RCTs and other forms of interventional health research. PMID:25801324

  4. The Role of Motor Experience in Understanding Action Function: The Case of the Precision Grasp

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adults and infants selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object. The current research investigated whether this bias stems from infants’ processing of the functional consequences of grasps: understanding that different grasps afford different future actions. A habituation paradigm assessed 10-month-old infants’ (N = 62) understanding of the functional consequences of precision and whole-hand grasps in others’ actions, and infants’ own precision grasping abilities were also assessed. The results indicate infants understood the functional consequences of another’s grasp only if they could perform precision grasps themselves. These results highlight a previously unknown aspect of early action understanding, and deepen our understanding of the relation between motor experience and cognition. PMID:22364274

  5. The role of motor experience in understanding action function: the case of the precision grasp.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adults and infants selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object. The current research investigated whether this bias stems from infants' processing of the functional consequences of grasps: understanding that different grasps afford different future actions. A habituation paradigm assessed 10-month-old infants' (N = 62) understanding of the functional consequences of precision and whole-hand grasps in others' actions, and infants' own precision grasping abilities were also assessed. The results indicate infants understood the functional consequences of another's grasp only if they could perform precision grasps themselves. These results highlight a previously unknown aspect of early action understanding, and deepen our understanding of the relation between motor experience and cognition.

  6. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students.

    PubMed

    Lane, Tonisha B

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly white institution. From this study, a model emerged that encompassed four components: proactive care, holistic support, community building, and catalysts for STEM identity development. These components encompassed a number of strategies and practices that were instrumental in the outcomes of program participants. This paper concludes with implications for practice, such as using models to inform program planning, assessment, and evaluation. PMID:27543638

  7. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Tonisha B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly white institution. From this study, a model emerged that encompassed four components: proactive care, holistic support, community building, and catalysts for STEM identity development. These components encompassed a number of strategies and practices that were instrumental in the outcomes of program participants. This paper concludes with implications for practice, such as using models to inform program planning, assessment, and evaluation. PMID:27543638

  8. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students.

    PubMed

    Lane, Tonisha B

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly white institution. From this study, a model emerged that encompassed four components: proactive care, holistic support, community building, and catalysts for STEM identity development. These components encompassed a number of strategies and practices that were instrumental in the outcomes of program participants. This paper concludes with implications for practice, such as using models to inform program planning, assessment, and evaluation.

  9. Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

  10. Involvement in Campus Activities and the Retention of First-Year College Students. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skipper, Tracy L., Ed.; Argo, Roxanne, Ed.

    The chapters of this monograph offer insights into educationally purposeful out-of-class activities and the impact they have on the student experience. It also provides future directions for the campus activities field and identifies ways to improve the educational experience of first-year students to enhance their scholarly experience and to…

  11. Curriculum development through understanding the student nurse experience of suicide intervention education--A phenomenographic study.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Inga; Webster, Brian J; Tee, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Suicide remains a global public health issue and a major governmental concern. The World Health Organisation argues for continued investment in education for front-line professionals, with a particular focus on nurses, to address the rising suicide levels. Considering this rate, it could be argued that suicide has impacted on the lives of many, including the student nurse population. Understanding the psychological impact, and influence on learning, whilst developing suicide intervention knowledge is crucial. However, little is known of the student experience in this complex and challenging area of skills development. This phenomenographic study examines the experiences of second year Bachelor of Nursing (mental health) students who participated in the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST). Experiences were illuminated through two focus groups, Experiences were distilled and categorised through hierarchically relationships to construct a group experiential field to illustrate understandings of the impact this approach has on learning Students found ASIST to be emotionally challenging yet an extremely positive experience through bonding, peer learning, and class cohesion. The supportive workshop facilitation was essential allowing for full immersion into role simulation thus developing student confidence. Appropriate pedagogy and student support must be considered whilst developing suicide intervention in the pre-registration curricula.

  12. Understanding the Experiences of Youth Living with Sickle Cell Disease: A Photovoice Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Jessica M.; Vaughn, Lisa M.; Crosby, Lori E.; Strong, Heather; Kissling, Alexandra; Mitchell, Monica J.

    2014-01-01

    A Photovoice pilot was conducted with a sample of youth living with sickle cell disease (SCD), in order to further understand their lived experience and examine the acceptability, feasibility, and utility of this method for use in this population. SCD is an inherited genetic condition whose primary symptom is severe pain. Youth were able to reflect on their experiences with SCD using Photovoice and the adapted SHOWeD method. Parents and youth found Photovoice to be valuable for children and adolescents with SCD. Emerging themes included the impact of SCD, coping with the disease, and the importance of family and support. PMID:23455680

  13. Observing women caregivers' everyday experiences: new ways of understanding and intervening.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the practice implications of videographic research examining the everyday lived experiences of 5 women family caregivers of older adults with chronic illness. The women's nonverbal expressions and gestures revealed how caregiving is accomplished and lived on a daily basis, in particular through emotion and body management, abnegation, and performance. The findings from this microethnographic study suggest that observing women caregivers' everyday experiences can open new avenues for holistic intervention with this population. Observing nonverbal cues can offer a way for practitioners to better understand women caregivers' realities, to question their practice, and to adapt their interventions accordingly. PMID:24999610

  14. Observing women caregivers' everyday experiences: new ways of understanding and intervening.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the practice implications of videographic research examining the everyday lived experiences of 5 women family caregivers of older adults with chronic illness. The women's nonverbal expressions and gestures revealed how caregiving is accomplished and lived on a daily basis, in particular through emotion and body management, abnegation, and performance. The findings from this microethnographic study suggest that observing women caregivers' everyday experiences can open new avenues for holistic intervention with this population. Observing nonverbal cues can offer a way for practitioners to better understand women caregivers' realities, to question their practice, and to adapt their interventions accordingly.

  15. Understanding Creep Mechanisms in Graphite with Experiments, Multiscale Simulations, and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eapen, Jacob; Murty, Korukonda; Burchell, Timothy

    2014-06-02

    Disordering mechanisms in graphite have a long history with conflicting viewpoints. Using Raman and x-ray photon spectroscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction experiments and atomistic modeling and simulations, the current project has developed a fundamental understanding of early-to-late state radiation damage mechanisms in nuclear reactor grade graphite (NBG-18 and PCEA). We show that the topological defects in graphite play an important role under neutron and ion irradiation.

  16. The solar activity measurements experiments (SAMEX) for improved scientific understanding of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Activity Measurements Experiments (SAMEX) mission is described. It is designed to provide a look at the interactions of magnetic fields and plasmas that create flares and other explosive events on the sun in an effort to understand solar activity and the nature of the solar magnetic field. The need for this mission, the instruments to be used, and the expected benefits of SAMEX are discussed.

  17. The Experience of Addiction as Told by the Addicted: Incorporating Biological Understandings into Self-Story

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Ostergren, Jenny E; Nowakowski, Katherine E; Koenig, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    How do the addicted view addiction against the framework of formal theories that attempt to explain the condition? In this empirical paper, we report on the lived experience of addiction based on 63 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with individuals in treatment for alcohol and nicotine abuse at five sites in Minnesota. Using qualitative analysis, we identified four themes that provide insights into understanding how people who are addicted view their addiction, with particular emphasis on the biological model. More than half of our sample articulated a biological understanding of addiction as a disease. Themes did not cluster by addictive substance used; however, biological understandings of addiction did cluster by treatment center. Biological understandings have the potential to become dominant narratives of addiction in the current era. Though the desire for a “unified theory” of addiction seems curiously seductive to scholars, it lacks utility. Conceptual “disarray” may actually reflect a more accurate representation of the illness as told by those who live with it. For practitioners in the field of addiction, we suggest the practice of narrative medicine with its ethic of negative capability as a useful approach for interpreting and relating to diverse experiences of disease and illness. PMID:23081782

  18. Understanding Mental Health Service User Experiences of Restraint Through Debriefing: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Sara; Cleverley, Kristin; Perivolaris, Athina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine debriefing data to understand experiences before, during, and after a restraint (seclusion, chemical, and physical) event from the perspective of inpatients at a large urban mental health and addiction hospital. Method: Audits were conducted on a purposeful sample of inpatient charts containing post-restraint event inpatient debrief forms (n = 55). Qualitative data from the forms were analyzed thematically. Results: Loss of autonomy and related anger, conflict with staff and other inpatients, and unmet needs were the most common factors precipitating restraint events. Inpatients often reported that increased communication with staff could have prevented restraint. Inpatients described having had various negative emotional states and responses during restraint events, including fear and rejection. Post-restraint, inpatients often desired to leave the unit for fresh air or to engage in leisure activities. Conclusions: To our knowledge, our study is the first to use debriefing form data to explore mental health inpatients’ experiences of restraint. Inpatients view restraint negatively and do not experience it as a therapeutic intervention. Debriefing, guided by a form, is useful for understanding the inpatient’s experience of restraint, and should be used to re-establish the therapeutic relationship and to inform plans of care. In addition, individual and collective inpatient perspectives should inform alternatives to restraint. PMID:26454726

  19. The role of appraisals and emotions in understanding experiences of workplace incivility.

    PubMed

    Bunk, Jennifer A; Magley, Vicki J

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically grounded in both the cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions and affect events theory, the present research used multiple analytic techniques and positioned appraisals and emotions as key variables in understanding the experience of incivility at work. Data consisted of survey responses from a stratified random sample of 522 U.S. working adults. K-means cluster analyses revealed interindividual differences in cognitive/emotional responding to workplace incivility experiences. In addition, multiple mediation analyses revealed that optimism and emotionality may play important roles in showing why the experience of incivility is related to job-related outcomes. The results help to advance workplace mistreatment research and suggest possible strategies for organizations to maintain civil working environments.

  20. The significance of fertilisation experiments for understanding the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the forest carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencuccini, M.; Rivas, A.; Perks, M.; Levy, P. E.; Sheppard, L. J.

    2009-04-01

    The current discussion on the role of nitrogen deposition on the forest carbon cycle is focussed on determining the likely system response (in terms of added or reduced C sequestration) to a unit addition of nitrogen, i.e., dC/dN (kg C/kg N). A potential source of valuable information is given by existing fertilisation experiments, which we will review in this presentation. The literature on fertilisation consists of the order of 300 separate experiments worldwide, of which about 60 to 70 have been conducted in forests. However, for a number of reasons, only a few experiments have been conducted in such a manner that they can provide useful information to understand the impacts of N deposition. Here we highlight two main issues. The first one relates to the high and infrequent doses typically applied during fertilisation studies, which differ from the low and chronic doses prevailing under ambient deposition. A small subset of the existing studies can be used to enable the extrapolation of the results from high but infrequent doses to low but chronic additions. The second issue is that only a handful of the existing experiments have been carried out by spraying a nitrogen solution over canopies. Our knowledge principally relies on the results obtained via traditional ground fertilisation experiments. This presents a potential problem because atmospheric deposition filters through the canopies whereas ground applications exclude direct canopy N processing. Overall, we find that: a) the dose applied has a crucial effect in determining the response, in such a way that with high doses the values of dC/dN are lower (or even change sign). Therefore, current estimates of the impacts of N deposition based on fertilisation studies alone are generally too low, because this non-linear effect was not taken into account. Here, we provide a method by which a correction factor can be derived for experiments conducted at unrealistically high doses. b) There is a large variability

  1. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  2. Geomorphological experiments for understanding cross-scale complexity of earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The shape of the earth's surface is the result of a complex interaction of different processes at different spatial and temporal scales. The challenging problem is, that process observation is rarely possible due to this different scales. In addition, the resulting landform often does not match the scale of process observation. But it is indispensable for the development of concepts of formation of landforms to identify and understand the involved processes and their interaction. To develop models it is even necessary to quantify them and their relevant parameters. Experiments are able to bridge the constraints of process observation mentioned above: it is possible to observe and quantify individual processes as well as complex process combinations up to the development of geomorphological units. The contribution aims at showing, based on soil erosion research, the possibilities of experimental methods for contributing to th understanding of geomorphological processes. A special emphasis is put on the linkage of conceptual understanding of processes, their measurement and the following development of models. The development of experiments to quantify relevant parameters will be shown, as well as the steps undertaken to bring them into the field taking into account the resulting increase of uncertainty in system parameters and results. It will be shown that experiments are even so able to produce precise measurements on individual processes as well as of complex combinations of parameters and processes and to identify their influence on the overall geomorphological dynamics. Experiments are therefore a methodological package able to check complex soil erosion processes at different levels of conceptualization and to generate data for their quantification. And thus, also a methodological concept to take more into account and to further develop in geomorphological science.

  3. An appetitive experience after fear memory destabilization attenuates fear retention: involvement GluN2B-NMDA receptors in the Basolateral Amygdala Complex.

    PubMed

    Ferrer Monti, Roque I; Giachero, Marcelo; Alfei, Joaquín M; Bueno, Adrián M; Cuadra, Gabriel; Molina, Victor A

    2016-09-01

    It is known that a consolidated memory can return to a labile state and become transiently malleable following reactivation. This instability is followed by a restabilization phase termed reconsolidation. In this work, we explored whether an unrelated appetitive experience (voluntary consumption of diluted sucrose) can affect a contextual fear memory in rats during the reactivation-induced destabilization phase. Our findings show that exposure to an appetitive experience following reactivation can diminish fear retention. This effect persisted after 1 wk. Importantly, it was achieved only under conditions that induced fear memory destabilization. This result could not be explained as a potentiated extinction, because sucrose was unable to promote extinction. Since GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) have been implicated in triggering fear memory destabilization, we decided to block pharmacologically these receptors to explore the neurobiological bases of the observed effect. Intra-BLA infusion with ifenprodil, a GluN2B-NMDA antagonist, prevented the fear reduction caused by the appetitive experience. In sum, these results suggest that the expression of a fear memory can be dampened by an unrelated appetitive experience, as long as memory destabilization is achieved during reactivation. Possible mechanisms behind this effect and its clinical implications are discussed.

  4. An appetitive experience after fear memory destabilization attenuates fear retention: involvement GluN2B-NMDA receptors in the Basolateral Amygdala Complex.

    PubMed

    Ferrer Monti, Roque I; Giachero, Marcelo; Alfei, Joaquín M; Bueno, Adrián M; Cuadra, Gabriel; Molina, Victor A

    2016-09-01

    It is known that a consolidated memory can return to a labile state and become transiently malleable following reactivation. This instability is followed by a restabilization phase termed reconsolidation. In this work, we explored whether an unrelated appetitive experience (voluntary consumption of diluted sucrose) can affect a contextual fear memory in rats during the reactivation-induced destabilization phase. Our findings show that exposure to an appetitive experience following reactivation can diminish fear retention. This effect persisted after 1 wk. Importantly, it was achieved only under conditions that induced fear memory destabilization. This result could not be explained as a potentiated extinction, because sucrose was unable to promote extinction. Since GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) have been implicated in triggering fear memory destabilization, we decided to block pharmacologically these receptors to explore the neurobiological bases of the observed effect. Intra-BLA infusion with ifenprodil, a GluN2B-NMDA antagonist, prevented the fear reduction caused by the appetitive experience. In sum, these results suggest that the expression of a fear memory can be dampened by an unrelated appetitive experience, as long as memory destabilization is achieved during reactivation. Possible mechanisms behind this effect and its clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27531837

  5. Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment: a small-scale experiment to improve understanding of the risks of solar geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Dykema, John A; Keith, David W; Anderson, James G; Weisenstein, Debra

    2014-12-28

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) through stratospheric aerosol methods has the potential to mitigate impacts of climate change, our current knowledge of stratospheric processes suggests that these methods may entail significant risks. In addition to the risks associated with current knowledge, the possibility of 'unknown unknowns' exists that could significantly alter the risk assessment relative to our current understanding. While laboratory experimentation can improve the current state of knowledge and atmospheric models can assess large-scale climate response, they cannot capture possible unknown chemistry or represent the full range of interactive atmospheric chemical physics. Small-scale, in situ experimentation under well-regulated circumstances can begin to remove some of these uncertainties. This experiment-provisionally titled the stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment-is under development and will only proceed with transparent and predominantly governmental funding and independent risk assessment. We describe the scientific and technical foundation for performing, under external oversight, small-scale experiments to quantify the risks posed by SRM to activation of halogen species and subsequent erosion of stratospheric ozone. The paper's scope includes selection of the measurement platform, relevant aspects of stratospheric meteorology, operational considerations and instrument design and engineering.

  6. Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment: a small-scale experiment to improve understanding of the risks of solar geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Dykema, John A; Keith, David W; Anderson, James G; Weisenstein, Debra

    2014-12-28

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) through stratospheric aerosol methods has the potential to mitigate impacts of climate change, our current knowledge of stratospheric processes suggests that these methods may entail significant risks. In addition to the risks associated with current knowledge, the possibility of 'unknown unknowns' exists that could significantly alter the risk assessment relative to our current understanding. While laboratory experimentation can improve the current state of knowledge and atmospheric models can assess large-scale climate response, they cannot capture possible unknown chemistry or represent the full range of interactive atmospheric chemical physics. Small-scale, in situ experimentation under well-regulated circumstances can begin to remove some of these uncertainties. This experiment-provisionally titled the stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment-is under development and will only proceed with transparent and predominantly governmental funding and independent risk assessment. We describe the scientific and technical foundation for performing, under external oversight, small-scale experiments to quantify the risks posed by SRM to activation of halogen species and subsequent erosion of stratospheric ozone. The paper's scope includes selection of the measurement platform, relevant aspects of stratospheric meteorology, operational considerations and instrument design and engineering. PMID:25404681

  7. Infants' social and motor experience and the emerging understanding of intentional actions.

    PubMed

    Brandone, Amanda C

    2015-04-01

    During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social-cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to shed light on the developmental mechanisms underlying changes in infants' understanding of intentional actions by documenting relations between infants' intention understanding and other emerging social (joint attention) and motor (means-end and self-locomotion) abilities. Using eye tracking, 8- to 11-month-olds infants' (N = 80) ability to visually predict the goal of an ongoing successful or failed intentional action was examined in relation to their developing means-end, self-locomotion, and joint attention abilities. Results confirmed previous findings showing improvements in infants' ability to interpret and make predictions about others' failed intentional actions. Importantly, results also indicated that parent-report measures of infants' initiating-joint-attention and self-locomotion abilities were associated with the ability to visually predict the outcome of a failed reaching action. These data support the view that infants' social and motor experiences may contribute to changes in their social-cognitive abilities. In particular, joint-attentive social interactions that occur with increasing frequency as infants learn to crawl and walk may shape infants' understanding of others as intentional agents. PMID:25689000

  8. Anguish, Yearning, and Identity: Toward a Better Understanding of the Pregnant Hispanic Woman's Prenatal Care Experience.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Moran; Cronin, Sherill Nones; Boccella, Sarah Hess

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to seek a better understanding of needs and access issues among pregnant, low-income Hispanic women. Hispanic women who attended a community prenatal education program participated in follow-up focus groups to explore their experiences regarding prenatal education, pregnancy resources, access to, and satisfaction with, the care available to them. Focus groups were facilitated by a leader, bilingual in English and Spanish, with knowledge of the Hispanic culture. Sessions were audiotaped, then translated into English for transcription. Data were analyzed according to guidelines by Colaizzi and three themes emerged: pregnant Hispanic women experienced a sense of anguish (la angustia) from questions and unknowns rampant during pregnancy, leading to a yearning (el anhelo) to learn and understand more, but with a desire to do so without sacrificing native identity (la identidad). Implications of these themes for improving prenatal care for this population are explored.

  9. Anguish, Yearning, and Identity: Toward a Better Understanding of the Pregnant Hispanic Woman's Prenatal Care Experience.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Moran; Cronin, Sherill Nones; Boccella, Sarah Hess

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to seek a better understanding of needs and access issues among pregnant, low-income Hispanic women. Hispanic women who attended a community prenatal education program participated in follow-up focus groups to explore their experiences regarding prenatal education, pregnancy resources, access to, and satisfaction with, the care available to them. Focus groups were facilitated by a leader, bilingual in English and Spanish, with knowledge of the Hispanic culture. Sessions were audiotaped, then translated into English for transcription. Data were analyzed according to guidelines by Colaizzi and three themes emerged: pregnant Hispanic women experienced a sense of anguish (la angustia) from questions and unknowns rampant during pregnancy, leading to a yearning (el anhelo) to learn and understand more, but with a desire to do so without sacrificing native identity (la identidad). Implications of these themes for improving prenatal care for this population are explored. PMID:25838327

  10. Demonstrating Understanding, a Whole Body Experience? Can Year One Children Show Their Science Understanding through the Use of Gestures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This research project uses the methods of Crowder and Callinan and Sharp to assess year one children's (age 5-6) personal understanding of scientific concepts. This research project uses video recording as a primary resource of data collection within a case study approach using a participant observer method. Analysis supports the work of Crowder…

  11. Using LGI experiments to achieve better understanding of pedestal-edge coupling in NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui

    2015-02-23

    PowerPoint presentation. Latest advances in granule or dust injection technologies, fast and high-resolution imaging, together with micro-/nano-structured material fabrication, provide new opportunities to examine plasma-material interaction (PMI) in magnetic fusion environment. Some of our previous work in these areas is summarized. The upcoming LGI experiments in NSTX-U will shed new light on granular matter transport in the pedestal-edge region. In addition to particle control, these results can also be used for code validation and achieving better understanding of pedestal-edge coupling in fusion plasmas in both NSTX-U and others.

  12. "Live It to Understand It": The Experiences of Mothers of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, David B; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Ing, Stanley; MacCulloch, Radha; Roberts, Wendy; McKeever, Patricia; McMorris, Carly A

    2016-06-01

    Mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) variably experience challenges in their caregiving role. This ethnographic study examined the caregiving experiences of mothers of a young person with ASD (aged ≤25 years). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 85 mothers across three Canadian regions. A follow-up subsample of 10 mothers took part in participant observation sessions in the home and/or other environments within the community. Analysis yielded themes that depicted the following: redefining child and family aspirations, forging a shifted identity, and the need to "live it" to understand mothering a young person with ASD. Supports and services were perceived to be required but often insufficient to meet the needs. Findings identify a range of challenges, lessons learned, and a reconfigured sense of mothering. An emerging model of mothering a child with ASD is presented. Implications for practice, policy, and research are offered.

  13. Retention of Nickel in Soils: Sorption-Desorption and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Experiments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption and desorption of heavy metals in soils are primary factors that influence their bioavailability and mobility in the soil profile. To examine the characteristics of nickel (Ni) adsorption-desorption in soils, kinetic batch experiments were carried out followed by Ni re...

  14. A Comparison of the First-Year Experience Programming to Enhance the Retention of Future Allied Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Tina Forsythe

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods case study examined the effectiveness of a new first-year experience (FYE) curriculum for selected Choose Ohio First Scholars in the College of Allied Health Sciences (CAHS) and compared it with the effectiveness of the traditional FYE curriculum in CAHS. The quantitative phase of the study involved the collection and analysis…

  15. A Case Study of Understanding the Influence of Cultural Patterns on International Students' Perception and Experience with Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paralejas, Cynthia G.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to understand the influence of cultural patterns on international students' perception and experience with online learning. This case study utilized Hofstede's cultural dimension model as an interpretative framework to understand what are the international students' perceptions and experiences with online courses. Two…

  16. Classroom virtual lab experiments as teaching tools for explaining how we understand planetary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. N.; Schools, H.; Research Team Members

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will report on a classroom pilot study in which we teamed with school teachers in four middle school classes to develop and deploy course modules that connect the real-world to virtual forms of laboratory experiments.The broad goal is to help students realize that seemingly complex Earth system processes can be connected to basic properties of the planet and that this can be illustrated through idealized experiment. Specifically the presentation will describe virtual modules based on on-demand cloud computing technologies that allow students to test the notion that pole equator gradients in radiative forcing together with rotation can explain characteristic patterns of flow in the atmosphere. The module developed aligns with new Massachusetts science standard requirements regarding understanding of weather and climate processes. These new standards emphasize an appreciation of differential solar heating and a qualitative understanding of the significance of rotation. In our preliminary classroom pilot studies we employed pre and post evaluation tests to establish that the modules had increased student knowledge of phenomenology and terms. We will describe the results of these tests as well as results from anecdotal measures of student response. This pilot study suggests that one way to help make Earth science concepts more tractable to a wider audience is through virtual experiments that distill phenomena down, but still retain enough detail that students can see the connection to the real world. Modern computer technology and developments in research models appear to provide an opportunity for more work in this area. We will describe some follow-up possibilities that we envisage.

  17. Shifting goals: effects of active and observational experience on infants' understanding of higher order goals.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Mahajan, Neha; Sommerville, Jessica A; Matz, Lauren; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    Action perception links have been argued to support the emergence of action understanding, but their role in infants' perception of distal goals has not been fully investigated. The current experiments address this issue. During the development of means-end actions, infants shift their focus from the means of the action to the distal goal. In Experiment One, we evaluated whether this same shift in attention (from the means to the distal goal) when learning to produce multi-step actions is reflected in infants' perception of others' means-end actions. Eight-months-old infants underwent active training in means-end action production and their subsequent analysis of an observed means-end action was assessed in a visual habituation paradigm. Infants' degree of success in the training paradigm was related to their subsequent interpretation of the observed action as directed at the means versus the distal goal. In Experiment Two, observational and control manipulations provided evidence that these effects depended on the infants' active engagement in the means-end actions. These results suggest that the processes that give rise to means-end structure in infants' motor behavior also support the emergence of means-end structure in their analysis of others' goals.

  18. Shifting goals: effects of active and observational experience on infants’ understanding of higher order goals

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Mahajan, Neha; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Matz, Lauren; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Action perception links have been argued to support the emergence of action understanding, but their role in infants’ perception of distal goals has not been fully investigated. The current experiments address this issue. During the development of means-end actions, infants shift their focus from the means of the action to the distal goal. In Experiment One, we evaluated whether this same shift in attention (from the means to the distal goal) when learning to produce multi-step actions is reflected in infants’ perception of others’ means-end actions. Eight-months-old infants underwent active training in means-end action production and their subsequent analysis of an observed means-end action was assessed in a visual habituation paradigm. Infants’ degree of success in the training paradigm was related to their subsequent interpretation of the observed action as directed at the means versus the distal goal. In Experiment Two, observational and control manipulations provided evidence that these effects depended on the infants’ active engagement in the means-end actions. These results suggest that the processes that give rise to means-end structure in infants’ motor behavior also support the emergence of means-end structure in their analysis of others’ goals. PMID:25852622

  19. Experience-Dependent Brain Development as a Key to Understanding the Language System.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Gert

    2016-04-01

    An influential view of the nature of the language system is that of an evolved biological system in which a set of rules is combined with a lexicon that contains the words of the language together with a representation of their context. Alternative views, usually based on connectionist modeling, attempt to explain the structure of language on the basis of complex associative processes. Here, I put forward a third view that stresses experience-dependent structural development of the brain circuits supporting language as a core principle of the organization of the language system. In this view, embodied in a recent neuroconstructivist neural network of past tense development and processing, initial domain-general predispositions enable the development of functionally specialized brain structures through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and statistical learning in a structured environment. Together, these processes shape a biological adult language system that appears to separate into distinct mechanism for processing rules and exceptions, whereas in reality those subsystems co-develop and interact closely. This view puts experience-dependent brain development in response to a specific language environment at the heart of understanding not only language development but adult language processing as well.

  20. Using choice experiments to understand household tradeoffs regarding pineapple production and environmental management in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Robert B; Kellon, Delanie; Leon, Ramon G; Arvai, Joseph

    2013-09-30

    Choices among environmental management alternatives involve tradeoffs where, for example, the benefits of environmental protection may be offset by economic costs or welfare losses to individual agents. Understanding individual or household-level preferences regarding these tradeoffs is not always straightforward, and it often requires an analysis of choices under alternative scenarios. A household survey was used to gather data for a choice experiment, where respondents were asked to choose among pairs of alternative management scenarios about pineapple production in Costa Rica. The experimental design consisted of six attributes that varied on between two and five attribute levels, and the experiment and accompanying survey were administered orally in Spanish. The results show that respondents are willing to make tradeoffs with respect to the management attributes in order to see an overall improvement in environmental quality. Respondents were willing to accept a moderate level of pesticide application, presumably in exchange for paying a lower cost or seeing a gain in another area, such as monitoring or soil conservation. Buffer zones were significant only in the case of large farms. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to reflect public attitudes, particularly the aspects of pineapple production that matter most to people living near pineapple plantations. The study also highlights the effectiveness of the choice experiment approach in examining household preferences about environmental management in a rural development context.

  1. To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Nigel; Richardson, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Aim  The aim of this study was to explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons. Background  Modern matrons were re-introduced to the National Health Service in 2002, and effective leadership has been identified as being essential for the role to be successful. However, there is minimal evidence of how modern matrons experience effective leadership. Methods  The study used a descriptive generic qualitative methodology; one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine matrons. This was subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results  Three themes were found to influence modern matron's leadership experiences: leadership behaviours, negative influences and leadership investment. They did not follow one leadership style but adapted this to their situation. Various factors appeared to restrict their leadership effectiveness. Conclusions  The findings suggest that exposure to a range of leadership styles should be included in preparation and CPD for the modern matron role and a more consistent job description and job purpose should be developed. Implications for nursing management  Leadership styles such as transformational leadership alone do not meet the complex demands of nursing leaders, and therefore there is a requirement for greater flexibility in leadership development for all health care professionals. PMID:23410106

  2. Using choice experiments to understand household tradeoffs regarding pineapple production and environmental management in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Robert B; Kellon, Delanie; Leon, Ramon G; Arvai, Joseph

    2013-09-30

    Choices among environmental management alternatives involve tradeoffs where, for example, the benefits of environmental protection may be offset by economic costs or welfare losses to individual agents. Understanding individual or household-level preferences regarding these tradeoffs is not always straightforward, and it often requires an analysis of choices under alternative scenarios. A household survey was used to gather data for a choice experiment, where respondents were asked to choose among pairs of alternative management scenarios about pineapple production in Costa Rica. The experimental design consisted of six attributes that varied on between two and five attribute levels, and the experiment and accompanying survey were administered orally in Spanish. The results show that respondents are willing to make tradeoffs with respect to the management attributes in order to see an overall improvement in environmental quality. Respondents were willing to accept a moderate level of pesticide application, presumably in exchange for paying a lower cost or seeing a gain in another area, such as monitoring or soil conservation. Buffer zones were significant only in the case of large farms. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to reflect public attitudes, particularly the aspects of pineapple production that matter most to people living near pineapple plantations. The study also highlights the effectiveness of the choice experiment approach in examining household preferences about environmental management in a rural development context. PMID:23807434

  3. Managing retention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990). PMID:18453139

  4. Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment: a small-scale experiment to improve understanding of the risks of solar geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Dykema, John A.; Keith, David W.; Anderson, James G.; Weisenstein, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) through stratospheric aerosol methods has the potential to mitigate impacts of climate change, our current knowledge of stratospheric processes suggests that these methods may entail significant risks. In addition to the risks associated with current knowledge, the possibility of ‘unknown unknowns’ exists that could significantly alter the risk assessment relative to our current understanding. While laboratory experimentation can improve the current state of knowledge and atmospheric models can assess large-scale climate response, they cannot capture possible unknown chemistry or represent the full range of interactive atmospheric chemical physics. Small-scale, in situ experimentation under well-regulated circumstances can begin to remove some of these uncertainties. This experiment—provisionally titled the stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment—is under development and will only proceed with transparent and predominantly governmental funding and independent risk assessment. We describe the scientific and technical foundation for performing, under external oversight, small-scale experiments to quantify the risks posed by SRM to activation of halogen species and subsequent erosion of stratospheric ozone. The paper's scope includes selection of the measurement platform, relevant aspects of stratospheric meteorology, operational considerations and instrument design and engineering. PMID:25404681

  5. Understanding H isotope adsorption and absorption of Al-alloys using modeling and experiments (LDRD: #165724)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Donald K.; Zhou, Xiaowang; Karnesky, Richard A.; Kolasinski, Robert; Foster, Michael E.; Thurmer, Konrad; Chao, Paul; Epperly, Ethan Nicholas; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan M.; Sills, Ryan B.

    2015-09-01

    Current austenitic stainless steel storage reservoirs for hydrogen isotopes (e.g. deuterium and tritium) have performance and operational life-limiting interactions (e.g. embrittlement) with H-isotopes. Aluminum alloys (e.g.AA2219), alternatively, have very low H-isotope solubilities, suggesting high resistance towards aging vulnerabilities. This report summarizes the work performed during the life of the Lab Directed Research and Development in the Nuclear Weapons investment area (165724), and provides invaluable modeling and experimental insights into the interactions of H isotopes with surfaces and bulk AlCu-alloys. The modeling work establishes and builds a multi-scale framework which includes: a density functional theory informed bond-order potential for classical molecular dynamics (MD), and subsequent use of MD simulations to inform defect level dislocation dynamics models. Furthermore, low energy ion scattering and thermal desorption spectroscopy experiments are performed to validate these models and add greater physical understanding to them.

  6. Practical aspects of recruitment and retention in clinical trials of rare genetic diseases: the phenylketonuria (PKU) experience.

    PubMed

    DeWard, Stephanie J; Wilson, Ashley; Bausell, Heather; Volz, Ashley S; Mooney, Kimberly

    2014-02-01

    Bringing treatments for rare genetic diseases to patients requires clinical research. Despite increasing activism from patient support and advocacy groups to increase access to clinical research studies, connecting rare disease patients with the clinical research opportunities that may help them has proven challenging. Chief among these challenges are the low incidence of these diseases resulting in a very small pool of known patients with a particular disease, difficulty of diagnosing rare genetic diseases, logistical issues such as long distances to the nearest treatment center, and substantial disease burden leading to loss of independence. Using clinical studies of phenylketonuria as an example, this paper discusses how, based on the authors' collective experience, partnership among clinicians, patients, study coordinators, genetic counselors, dietitians, industry, patient support groups, and families can help overcome the challenges of recruiting and retaining patients in rare disease clinical trials. We discuss specific methods of collaboration, communication, and education as part of a long-term effort to build a community committed to advancing the medical care of patients with rare genetic diseases. By talking to patients and families regularly about research initiatives and taking steps to make study participation as easy as possible, rare disease clinic staff can help ensure adequate study enrollment and successful study completion. PMID:24014152

  7. Understanding HIV-positive patients' preferences for healthcare services: a protocol for a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Elaney; Cooper, Vanessa; Miners, Alec; Llewellyn, Carrie; Pollard, Alex; Lagarde, Mylene; Sachikonye, Memory; Sabin, Caroline; Foreman, Claire; Perry, Nicky; Nixon, Eileen; Fisher, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While the care of HIV-positive patients, including the detection and management of comorbidities, has historically been provided in HIV specialist outpatient clinics, recent years have seen a greater involvement of non-HIV specialists and general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study is to determine whether patients would prefer to see their GP or HIV physician given general symptoms, and to understand what aspects of care influence their preferences. Methods/analysis We have developed and piloted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to better understand patients' preferences for care of non-HIV-related acute symptoms. The design of the DCE was informed by our exploratory research, including the findings of a systematic literature review and a qualitative study. Additional questionnaire items have been included to measure demographics, service use and experience of non-HIV illnesses and quality of life (EQ5D). We plan to recruit 1000 patients from 14 HIV clinics across South East England. Data will be analysed using random-effects logistic regression and latent class analysis. ORs and 95% CIs will be used to estimate the relative importance of each of the attribute levels. Latent class analysis will identify whether particular groups of people value the service attribute levels differently. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Newcastle and North Tyneside Research Ethics Committee (reference number 14/NE/1193). The results will be disseminated at national and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. A study report, written in plain English, will be made available to all participants. The Patient Advisory Group will develop a strategy for wider dissemination of the findings to patients and the public. PMID:27431895

  8. USER FRUSTRATION IN HIT INTERFACES: EXPLORING PAST HCI RESEARCH FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICIANS’ EXPERIENCES

    PubMed Central

    Opoku-Boateng, Gloria A.

    2015-01-01

    User frustration research has been one way of looking into clinicians’ experience with health information technology use and interaction. In order to understand how clinician frustration with Health Information Technology (HIT) use occurs, there is the need to explore Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature that addresses both frustration and HIT use. In the past three decades, HCI frustration research has increased and expanded. Researchers have done a lot of work to understand emotions, end-user frustration and affect. This paper uses a historical literature review approach to review the origins of emotion and frustration research and explore the research question; Does HCI research on frustration provide insights on clinicians’ frustration with HIT interfaces? From the literature review HCI research on emotion and frustration provides additional insights that can indeed help explain user frustration in HIT. Different approaches and HCI perspectives also help frame HIT user frustration research as well as inform HIT system design. The paper concludes with a suggested directions on how future design and research may take. PMID:26958238

  9. USER FRUSTRATION IN HIT INTERFACES: EXPLORING PAST HCI RESEARCH FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICIANS' EXPERIENCES.

    PubMed

    Opoku-Boateng, Gloria A

    2015-01-01

    User frustration research has been one way of looking into clinicians' experience with health information technology use and interaction. In order to understand how clinician frustration with Health Information Technology (HIT) use occurs, there is the need to explore Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature that addresses both frustration and HIT use. In the past three decades, HCI frustration research has increased and expanded. Researchers have done a lot of work to understand emotions, end-user frustration and affect. This paper uses a historical literature review approach to review the origins of emotion and frustration research and explore the research question; Does HCI research on frustration provide insights on clinicians' frustration with HIT interfaces? From the literature review HCI research on emotion and frustration provides additional insights that can indeed help explain user frustration in HIT. Different approaches and HCI perspectives also help frame HIT user frustration research as well as inform HIT system design. The paper concludes with a suggested directions on how future design and research may take.

  10. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiment to Derive a Detailed Understanding of Hammerhead Ribozyme Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tai-Sung; Wong, Kin-Yiu; Giambasu, George M.; York, Darrin M.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we summarize our progress toward the understanding of hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) catalysis through a multiscale simulation strategy. Simulation results collectively paint a picture of HHR catalysis: HHR first folds to form an electronegative active site pocket to recruit a threshold occupation of cationic charges, either a Mg2+ ion or multiple monovalent cations. Catalytically active conformations that have good in-line fitness are supported by specific metal ion coordination patterns that involve either a bridging Mg2+ ion or multiple Na+ ions, one of which is also in a bridging coordination pattern. In the case of a single Mg2+ ion bound in the active site, the Mg2+ ion undergoes a migration that is coupled with deprotonation of the nucleophile (C17:O2′). As the reaction proceeds, the Mg2+ ion stabilizes the accumulating charge of the leaving group and significantly increases the general acid ability of G8:O2′. Further computational mutagenesis simulations suggest that the disruptions due to mutations may severely impact HHR catalysis at different stages of the reaction. Catalytic mechanisms supported by the simulation results are consistent with available structural and biochemical experiments, and together they advance our understanding of HHR catalysis. PMID:24156941

  11. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Maslach, Christina; Leiter, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The experience of burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures have been developed, as have various theoretical models, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of this occupationally‐specific dysphoria. The majority of this work has focused on human service occupations, and particularly health care. Research on the burnout experience for psychiatrists mirrors much of the broader literature, in terms of both sources and outcomes of burnout. But it has also identified some of the unique stressors that mental health professionals face when they are dealing with especially difficult or violent clients. Current issues of particular relevance for psychiatry include the links between burnout and mental illness, the attempts to redefine burnout as simply exhaustion, and the relative dearth of evaluative research on potential interventions to treat and/or prevent burnout. Given that the treatment goal for burnout is usually to enable people to return to their job, and to be successful in their work, psychiatry could make an important contribution by identifying the treatment strategies that would be most effective in achieving that goal. PMID:27265691

  12. Primary healthcare NZ nurses' experiences of advance directives: understanding their potential role.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Raewyn; Banister, Elizabeth; de Vries, Kay

    2013-07-01

    Advance directives are one aspect of advance care planning designed to improve end of life care. The New Zealand Nurses Organisation released their first mission statement in 2010 concerning advance directives suggesting an increase in the use of these. A burgeoning older population, expected to rise over the next few years, places the primary healthcare nurse in a pivotal role to address the challenges in constructing advance directives. While literature supports the role for primary healthcare nurses in promoting advance directives, no research was found on this role in the New Zealand context. This paper presents results of a qualitative study conducted in New Zealand with 13 senior primary healthcare nurses with respect to their knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of advance directives. Results of the analysis revealed a dynamic process involving participants coming to understand their potential role in this area. This process included reflection on personal experience with advance directives; values and ethics related to end of life issues; and professional actions. PMID:24187807

  13. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Maslach, Christina; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    The experience of burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures have been developed, as have various theoretical models, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of this occupationally-specific dysphoria. The majority of this work has focused on human service occupations, and particularly health care. Research on the burnout experience for psychiatrists mirrors much of the broader literature, in terms of both sources and outcomes of burnout. But it has also identified some of the unique stressors that mental health professionals face when they are dealing with especially difficult or violent clients. Current issues of particular relevance for psychiatry include the links between burnout and mental illness, the attempts to redefine burnout as simply exhaustion, and the relative dearth of evaluative research on potential interventions to treat and/or prevent burnout. Given that the treatment goal for burnout is usually to enable people to return to their job, and to be successful in their work, psychiatry could make an important contribution by identifying the treatment strategies that would be most effective in achieving that goal.

  14. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Maslach, Christina; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    The experience of burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures have been developed, as have various theoretical models, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of this occupationally-specific dysphoria. The majority of this work has focused on human service occupations, and particularly health care. Research on the burnout experience for psychiatrists mirrors much of the broader literature, in terms of both sources and outcomes of burnout. But it has also identified some of the unique stressors that mental health professionals face when they are dealing with especially difficult or violent clients. Current issues of particular relevance for psychiatry include the links between burnout and mental illness, the attempts to redefine burnout as simply exhaustion, and the relative dearth of evaluative research on potential interventions to treat and/or prevent burnout. Given that the treatment goal for burnout is usually to enable people to return to their job, and to be successful in their work, psychiatry could make an important contribution by identifying the treatment strategies that would be most effective in achieving that goal. PMID:27265691

  15. Physical pendulum experiments to enhance the understanding of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Tim H.; Brittle, Stuart A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments aimed at overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by students learning about the topics of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion, both of which are often perceived to be complex topics amongst students during their first-year university courses. By combining both subjects in a discussion about physical pendula, in which the oscillation time periods for the periodic motion of several objects (a tennis ball, a thin beam, a hoop and a solid disc) are measured and compared, students are able to understand both topics at a higher level and also experience the synergistic effect of combining two or more physics themes in order to accelerate their learning whilst simultaneously raising their motivation. Special attention is given to the ‘ball and stick’ pendulum in which a block of material (treated as a point mass) can be moved along a shaft to create a composite pendulum whose time period exhibits a minimum value at a certain separation between the block and the rotation axis.

  16. Improved Understanding of Carbon Storage Risk Via Controlled-Release Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholzer, J. T.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rutqvist, J.; Zheng, L.; Spycher, N.

    2014-12-01

    Two issues are often recognized as main risk drivers for carbon storage projects. The first is the possibility of pressure-induced slip of pre-existing faults, which can lead to breaching of seals to CO2 storage reservoirs. Although the mechanics of induced seismicity are well known, the characteristics of such slip events are poorly constrained and significant questions remain. The second is the potential impact of leaking CO2 on the quality of shallow potable groundwater. While several studies have been conducted using laboratory tests, natural analogues, and numerical models to evaluate the water quality changes induced by elevated CO2 concentrations, predictive understanding of these coupled processes remains limited in realistic field settings. We discuss in this invited contribution two controlled-release field experiments targeting remaining science gaps associated with induced seismicity and groundwater chemistry. The first experiment is a planned active fault slip experiment conducted in an underground research laboratory (URL) in a hardened shale formation that serves as a caprock analog. The critically stressed fault will be perturbed by the injection of fluid under pressure to simulate the influence of CO2 overpressure. The in situ reactivation experiment will use a novel borehole deformation tool that assesses the magnitude of overpressure required to cause slip, defines the mode of this slip as creeping (aseismic) or rapid (seismic), and measures the evolution of permeability on the fault. The second controlled-release field experiment was conducted in 2011/2012 to simulate the release of CO2 from a geologic storage site and study the transport as well as the chemical mechanisms leading to the CO2-induced mobilization of trace elements in a shallow aquifer. The field test involved a dipole system in which the shallow groundwater was pumped from one well, saturated with CO2 at the pressure corresponding to the hydraulic pressure of the aquifer, and

  17. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  18. Does using active learning in thermodynamics lectures improve students’ conceptual understanding and learning experiences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, H.; Sharma, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Encouraging ‘active learning’ in the large lecture theatre emerges as a credible recommendation for improving university courses, with reports often showing significant improvements in learning outcomes. However, the recommendations are based predominantly on studies undertaken in mechanics. We set out to examine those claims in the thermodynamics module of a large first year physics course with an established technique, called interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs). The study took place at The University of Sydney, where four parallel streams of the thermodynamics module were divided into two streams that experienced the ILDs and two streams that did not. The programme was first implemented in 2011 to gain experience and refine logistical matters and repeated in 2012 with approximately 500 students. A validated survey, the thermal concepts survey, was used as pre-test and post-test to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided insights into what the ‘active learning’ meant from student experiences. We analysed lecture recordings to capture the time devoted to different activities in a lecture, including interactivity. The learning gains were in the ‘high gain’ range for the ILD streams and ‘medium gain’ for the other streams. The analysis of the lecture recordings showed that the ILD streams devoted significantly more time to interactivity while surveys and interviews showed that students in the ILD streams were thinking in deep ways. Our study shows that ILDs can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding as well as their experiences, demonstrating the potential value-add that can be provided by investing in active learning to enhance lectures.

  19. Understanding magnetic remanence acquisition through combined synthetic sediment deposition experiments and numerical simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilardello, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding depositional remanent magnetizations (DRMs) bears implications on interpreting paleomagnetic and paleointensity records extracted from sedimentary rocks. Laboratory deposition experiments have yielded DRMs with shallow remanent inclinations and revealed a field dependence of the magnetization (M), which is orders of magnitude lower than the saturation remanence. To investigate these observations further, experiments involving differently shaped particles were performed. Spherical particles confirmed the field dependence of both the inclination error and M and the fact that the DRM acquired experimentally is lower than saturation. A sediment concentration dependence of the inclination error was observed, indicating a dependance of the inclination error on the sediment load/burial depth or the sedimentation rate. Other outcome was the certainty that spherical particles alone can lead to substantial inclination shallowing. Numerical simulations of settling spherical particles indicated that DRM should be ~10 times lower than the saturation remanence and predicted that rolling of the grains on the sediment surface and particle interactions during settling can produce a substantial shallowing of the inclination and lowering of the remanence, bringing the simulations in close agreement to the experimental results. Experiments involving platy particles, instead allowed interesting comparisons and gave insight into the behavior of differently shaped particles, for instance yielding smaller amounts of shallowing than spheres, in contrast to general belief. Viewing DRM as an anisotropic process allows fitting the experimental results with tensors (kDRM). The ratios of kvertical over khorizontal are in good agreement to the ratios of M obtained in vertical over horizontal experimental fields, which should be equivalent to the widely used inclination shallowing factor f. Experimental results were highly repeatabile, however not always as repeatable for both M and

  20. Understanding and improving lithium ion batteries through mathematical modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Rutooj D.

    -mechanical degradation of electrode materials to understand the capacity fading of the battery with cycling. With the understanding of chemical and mechanical degradation, we develop a simple phenomenological model to predict battery life. On the experimental part we come up with a novel concept of using liquid metal alloy as a self-healing battery electrode. We develop a method to prepare thin film liquid gallium electrode on a conductive substrate. This enabled us to perform a series of electrochemical and characterization experiments which certify that liquid electrode undergo liquid-solid-liquid transition and thus self-heals the cracks formed during de-insertion. Thus the mechanical degradation can be avoided. We also perform ab-initio calculations to understand the equilibrium potential of various lithium-gallium phases. KEYWORDS: Lithium ion batteries, diffusion induced stresses, self-healing electrode, coupled chemical and mechanical degradation, life-prediction model.

  1. Long-term experiments to better understand soil-human interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, B. T.; Homann, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between soils and people may be transforming global conditions, but the interactions are poorly understood. Changes in soils have proven difficult to quantify, especially in complex ecosystems manifesting large spatiotemporal variability. Long-term ecosystem experiments that evaluate soil change and demonstrate alternative choices are important to understanding changes, discovering new controls and drivers, and influencing decisions. Inspired by agriculture studies, like Rothamsted, the US Forest Service established in 1990 a network of operational-scale experiments across the Pacific Northwest to evaluate long-term effects of different forest management and disturbance regimes. With a strong experimental design, these experiments are now helping to better understand the long-term effects of managing tree harvesting (clearcutting and thinning), woody debris, and tree and understory species composition, and-serendipitously-the effects of fire. Initial results from the Southern Oregon experimental site indicate surprisingly rapid soil changes in some regimes but not others. We've also learned that rapid change presents challenges to repeat sampling. We present our sample-archive and comparable-layer approaches that seek to accommodate changes in surface elevation, aggregation and disaggregation, and mineral-soil exports. Thinning mature forest stands (80-100 yrs old) did not significantly change soil C in 11-yrs. A small upper-layer C increase was observed after thinning, but it was similar to the control. Significant increases in upper-layer soil N were observed with most treatments, but all increases were similar to the control. Leaving woody debris had little effect. The most remarkable change occurred when mature stands were clearcut and Douglas-firs were planted and tended. Associated with rapid growth of Douglas-fir, an average of 8 Mg C ha-1 was lost from weathered soil 4-18 cm deep. This contrasts with clearcuts where early-seral hardwoods and

  2. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  3. The social life of health records: understanding families' experiences of autism.

    PubMed

    Angell, Amber M; Solomon, Olga

    2014-09-01

    Outside of the epidemiological surveillance studies of autism prevalence, health records of children diagnosed with autism have not been sufficiently examined, yet they provide an important lens for showing how autism diagnosis, services and interventions are negotiated, coordinated and choreographed by families and practitioners across multiple settings. This article provides a multifaceted understanding of these processes from an ethnographic and discourse analytic perspective that reveals structural and interactional phenomena contributing to disparities in autism diagnosis and services. We consider health records as dualistic, material-discursive artifacts that are socio-interactionally co-constructed and variably interpreted, contested and utilized across home, school and clinic contexts. We chronicle several families' experiences of their children's autism diagnoses and interventions and describe ways in which health records are socially constructed, curated and placed in the middle of clinical encounters. We show how the parents in our study draw upon health records' material-discursive properties to display epistemic authority, expertise and knowledge in interactions with healthcare and school professionals involved in authorizing and planning their children's care. We describe how the parents experience the health records' clinical portrayals of their children and themselves, and how the parents' portrayals of their children are tacitly ratified or negated in the health records. The data include health record reviews, narrative interviews with parents and practitioners, and clinical observations. These data were collected between October 2009 and August 2012 as part of a larger study on disparities in autism diagnosis, interventions and services experienced by African American children with autism and their families living in Los Angeles County, California. Our analysis reveals the central role of health records in maintaining continuity of an autism

  4. The Lusi seismic experiment: An initial study to understand the effect of seismic activity to Lusi

    SciTech Connect

    Karyono; Mazzini, Adriano; Sugiharto, Anton; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Masturyono,; Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu; Muzli,; Widodo, Handi Sulistyo; Sudrajat, Ajat

    2015-04-24

    The spectacular Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi) eruption started in northeast Java on the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island [1,2]. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system [3] and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. The Lusi seismic experiment is a project aims to begin a detailed study of seismicity around the Lusi area. In this initial phase we deploy 30 seismometers strategically distributed in the area around Lusi and along the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. The purpose of the initial monitoring is to conduct a preliminary seismic campaign aiming to identify the occurrence and the location of local seismic events in east Java particularly beneath Lusi.This network will locate small event that may not be captured by the existing BMKG network. It will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-AW region and spatial and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. The goal of this study is to understand how the seismicity occurring along the Sunda subduction zone affects to the behavior of the Lusi eruption. Our study will also provide a large dataset for a qualitative analysis of earthquake triggering studies, earthquake-volcano and earthquake-earthquake interactions. In this study, we will extract Green’s functions from ambient seismic noise data in order to image the shallow subsurface structure beneath LUSI area. The waveform cross-correlation technique will be apply to all of recordings of ambient seismic noise at 30 seismographic stations around the LUSI area. We use the dispersive behaviour of the retrieved Rayleigh waves to infer velocity structures in the shallow subsurface.

  5. The Lusi seismic experiment: An initial study to understand the effect of seismic activity to Lusi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyono, Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Masturyono, Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu; Muzli, Widodo, Handi Sulistyo; Sudrajat, Ajat; Sugiharto, Anton

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi) eruption started in northeast Java on the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island [1,2]. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system [3] and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. The Lusi seismic experiment is a project aims to begin a detailed study of seismicity around the Lusi area. In this initial phase we deploy 30 seismometers strategically distributed in the area around Lusi and along the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. The purpose of the initial monitoring is to conduct a preliminary seismic campaign aiming to identify the occurrence and the location of local seismic events in east Java particularly beneath Lusi.This network will locate small event that may not be captured by the existing BMKG network. It will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-AW region and spatial and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. The goal of this study is to understand how the seismicity occurring along the Sunda subduction zone affects to the behavior of the Lusi eruption. Our study will also provide a large dataset for a qualitative analysis of earthquake triggering studies, earthquake-volcano and earthquake-earthquake interactions. In this study, we will extract Green's functions from ambient seismic noise data in order to image the shallow subsurface structure beneath LUSI area. The waveform cross-correlation technique will be apply to all of recordings of ambient seismic noise at 30 seismographic stations around the LUSI area. We use the dispersive behaviour of the retrieved Rayleigh waves to infer velocity structures in the shallow subsurface.

  6. Converging on a richer understanding of human behavior and experience through a blending of cognitive and clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly

    2006-03-01

    McClelland, Kemps, and Tiggemann's (this issue) use of experimental methods typically used in cognitive psychology to reduce the intensity of food cravings formed the basis for maintaining that an understanding of human experiences and behaviors requires a blending of cognitive and clinical psychological approaches. Clinical psychology can adapt cognitive models of information processing to understand the mechanisms underlying clinical phenomena and to create and evaluate effective interventions. Cognitive psychology should broaden its scope to include information relevant to clinical phenomena, such as desire, attitudes, self-regulation, and temperament. Only through a blending of these two fields will we converge on a richer understanding of human behavior and experience.

  7. Understanding Leadership Experiences: The Need for Story Sharing and Feminist Literature as a Survival Manual for Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Linley Anne; Preston, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an auto-ethnographic storytelling approach to connect an individual's experience in leadership with the literature on women in leadership as a way of further exposing and understanding gendered organisational practices. Whilst the paper details only one women's experience it was through the connection to the literature that most…

  8. Understanding the Complexity of the Lived Experiences of Foundation Degree Sport Lecturers within the Context of Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an ethnographic account of the lived experiences of Further Education (FE) lecturers (N = 4) who are engaged in the transmission of pedagogic knowledge within a Foundation Degree. To further understand the experiences of the lecturers the paper draws upon Stones' quadripartite cycle of structuration. This conceptual and…

  9. Real Experiments versus Phet Simulations for Better High-School Students' Understanding of Electrostatic Charging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajredini, Fadil; Izairi, Neset; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence of computer simulations (virtual experiments) on one hand and real experiments on the other hand on the conceptual understanding of electrical charging. The investigated sample consists of students in the second year (10th grade) of three gymnasiums in Macedonia. There were two experimental groups and one…

  10. Petmanship: Understanding Elderly Filipinos' Self-Perceived Health and Self-Esteem Captured from Their Lived Experiences with Pet Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Cucueco, Denise S.; Cuenco, Ian Benedict V.; Cunanan, Nigel Gerome C.; Dabandan, Robel T.; Dacanay, Edgar Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the lived experiences of geriatric clients with pets, particularly in the Western cultures, has been the subject of many studies. However, little is known about how Asian cultures, particularly the Filipino elderly, view their experiences with their pets in regard to their self-esteem and self-perceived health. This…

  11. Understanding the potency of stressful early life experiences on brain and body function.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2008-10-01

    Early life experiences have powerful effects on the brain and body lasting throughout the entire life span and influencing brain function, behavior, and the risk for a number of systemic and mental disorders. Animal models of early life adversity are providing mechanistic insights, including glimpses into the fascinating world that is now called "epigenetics" as well as the role of naturally occurring alleles of a number of genes. These studies also provide insights into the adaptive value as well as the negative consequences, of early life stress, exposure to novelty, and poor-quality vs good-quality maternal care. Animal models begin to provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how brain development and physiological functioning is affected in children exposed to early life abuse and neglect, where there is a burgeoning literature on the consequences for physical health and emotional and cognitive development. An important goal is to identify interventions that are likely to be most effective in early life and some guidelines are provided. PMID:18803958

  12. Understanding how men experience, express and cope with mental distress: where next?

    PubMed

    Ridge, Damien; Emslie, Carol; White, Alan

    2011-01-01

    In line with the shift towards prioritising lay accounts and narratives of chronic illness in sociology, there is an emerging literature on men, their subjectivities and experiences of mental distress. We argue in this paper that subjectivities and distress among men are an important area for critical sociological research. Very little is known about men's subjectivities or the meanings they give to - and how they cope with or seek help for - distress. At the same time, current theories of gender relations, performativity and wellbeing as they pertain to men are likely to shed further light on subjectivity and distress. However, current theories (and qualitative research involving men and women) are pointing to considerable complexity. In this paper, we outline what is known about distress and men, and consider the utility of gender relations, performativity, subjectivities and wellbeing for a better understanding of distress. We also ask: What other factors influence distress, and how should these be considered in relation to men and masculinities? What are the implications for research and policy? PMID:21039617

  13. A model experiment to understand the oral phase of swallowing of Newtonian liquids.

    PubMed

    Hayoun, P; Engmann, J; Mowlavi, S; Le Reverend, B; Burbidge, A; Ramaioli, M

    2015-11-01

    A model experiment to understand the oral phase of swallowing is presented and used to explain some of the mechanisms controlling the swallowing of Newtonian liquids. The extent to which the flow is slowed down by increasing the viscosity of the liquid or the volume is quantitatively studied. The effect of the force used to swallow and of the gap between the palate and the roller used to represent the contracted tongue are also quantified. The residual mass of liquid left after the model swallow rises strongly when increasing the gap and is independent of bolus volume and applied force. An excessively high viscosity results in higher residues, besides succeeding in slowing down the bolus flow. A realistic theory is developed and used to interpret the experimental observations, highlighting the existence of an initial transient regime, at constant acceleration, that can be followed by a steady viscous regime, at constant velocity. The effect of the liquid viscosity on the total oral transit time is lower when the constant acceleration regime dominates bolus flow. Our theory suggests also that tongue inertia is the cause of the higher pressure observed at the back of the tongue in previous studies. The approach presented in this study paves the way toward a mechanical model of human swallowing that would facilitate the design of novel, physically sound, dysphagia treatments and their preliminary screening before in vivo evaluations and clinical trials.

  14. A model experiment to understand the oral phase of swallowing of Newtonian liquids.

    PubMed

    Hayoun, P; Engmann, J; Mowlavi, S; Le Reverend, B; Burbidge, A; Ramaioli, M

    2015-11-01

    A model experiment to understand the oral phase of swallowing is presented and used to explain some of the mechanisms controlling the swallowing of Newtonian liquids. The extent to which the flow is slowed down by increasing the viscosity of the liquid or the volume is quantitatively studied. The effect of the force used to swallow and of the gap between the palate and the roller used to represent the contracted tongue are also quantified. The residual mass of liquid left after the model swallow rises strongly when increasing the gap and is independent of bolus volume and applied force. An excessively high viscosity results in higher residues, besides succeeding in slowing down the bolus flow. A realistic theory is developed and used to interpret the experimental observations, highlighting the existence of an initial transient regime, at constant acceleration, that can be followed by a steady viscous regime, at constant velocity. The effect of the liquid viscosity on the total oral transit time is lower when the constant acceleration regime dominates bolus flow. Our theory suggests also that tongue inertia is the cause of the higher pressure observed at the back of the tongue in previous studies. The approach presented in this study paves the way toward a mechanical model of human swallowing that would facilitate the design of novel, physically sound, dysphagia treatments and their preliminary screening before in vivo evaluations and clinical trials. PMID:26602372

  15. Understanding the nucleus of 67P/C-G through laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, Diana; Ba-Nun, Akiva

    2015-04-01

    On August the 6th, 2014 the Rosetta spacecraft arrived at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and on November the 12th, the Philae probe landed, sending the most detailed close-up pictures, with a few meters resolution, of the surface of the comet. We will present an explanation of the observed surface features on the comet nucleus, as derived from our laboratory experimental results, such as craters, boulders, active areas and smooth terrains, due to ice sublimation and evolution of gases from the interior of the nucleus. A large flux of ice grains was observed to emanate from the central part "the neck" of the nucleus. Our experiments demonstrated that a huge flux of ice grains is ejected together with gas jets from the ice. As the comet approaches the Sun, gases emerge from pockets up to the ice surface quiescently and also accumulate in larger cavities which explode to release gas jets together with a huge amount of micron size ice grains, forming craters and smooth surfaces. Also comparing our experimental results on the density, thermal conductivity and mechanical strength with the in situ results of comet 67P C-G, as done with comet Temple 1 in the Deep Impact mission, will be used for better understanding of the internal properties of the nucleus. The experimental results on gas trapping in the ice and its release upon warming up will be presented and compared with Rosetta's findings. Authors acknowledge the funding from the Israeli Ministry of Science, Technology and Space.

  16. Understanding magnetic nanoparticle osteoblast receptor-mediated endocytosis using experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nhiem; Webster, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for controlling drug delivery through an external magnetic force to treat a wide range of diseases, including osteoporosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that in the presence of hydroxyapatite coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, osteoblast (or bone forming cell) proliferation and long-term functions (such as calcium deposition) were significantly enhanced. Hydroxyapatite is the major inorganic component of bone. As a further attempt to understand why, in the current study, the uptake of such nanoparticles into osteoblasts was experimentally investigated and mathematically modeled. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and were coated with hydroxyapatite. A cellular uptake experiment at low temperatures indicated that receptor-mediated endocytosis contributed to the internalization of the magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts. A model was further developed to explain the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts using receptor-mediated endocytosis. This model may explain the internalization of hydroxyapatite into osteoblasts to elevate intracellular calcium levels necessary to promote osteoblast functions to treat a wide range of orthopedic problems, including osteoporosis.

  17. Understanding the potency of stressful early life experiences on brain and body function

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    Early life experiences have powerful effects on the brain and body lasting throughout the entire lifespan and influencing brain function, behavior and the risk for a number of systemic and mental disorders. Animal models of early life adversity are providing mechanistic insights, including glimpses into the fascinating world that is now called “epigenetics” as well as the role of naturally occurring alleles of a number of genes. These studies also provide insights into the adaptive value, as well as the negative consequences, of early life stress, exposure to novelty, and poor vs good quality maternal care. Animal models begin to provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how brain development and physiological functioning is affected in children exposed to early life abuse and neglect, where there is a burgeoning literature on the consequences for physical health and emotional and cognitive development. An important goal is to identify interventions that are likely to be most effective in early life and some guidelines are provided. PMID:18803958

  18. Confounding Impacts of Iron Reduction on Arsenic Retention

    SciTech Connect

    Tufano, K.J.; Fendorf, S.

    2009-05-26

    A transition from oxidizing to reducing conditions has long been implicated to increase aqueous As concentrations, for which reductive dissolution of iron (hydr)oxides is commonly implicated as the primary culprit. Confounding our understanding of processes controlling As retention, however, is that reductive transformation of ferrihydrite has recently been shown to promote As retention rather than release. To resolve the role iron phases have in regulating arsenic concentrations, here we examine As desorption from ferrihydrite-coated sands presorbed with As(lll); experiments were performed at circumneutral pH under Fe-reducing conditions with the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN-32 over extended time periods. We reveal that with the initial phase of iron reduction, ferrihydrite undergoes transformation to secondary phases and increases As(lll) retention (relative to abiotic controls). However, with increased reaction time, cessation of the phase transitions and ensuing reductive dissolution result in prolonged release of As(III) to the aqueous phase. Our results suggest that As(lll) retention during iron reduction is temporally dependent on secondary precipitation of iron phases; during transformation to secondary phases, particularly magnetite, As(lll) retention is enhanced even relative to oxidized systems. However, conditions that retard secondary transformation (more stable iron oxides or limited iron reducing bacterial activity), or prolonged anaerobiosis, will lead to both the dissolution of ferric (hydr)oxides and release of As(lll) to the aqueous phase.

  19. Computation and Experiment: A Powerful Combination to Understand and Predict Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Sperger, Theresa; Sanhueza, Italo A; Schoenebeck, Franziska

    2016-06-21

    discussed. Additional combined experimental and computational studies are described for alternative metals, these include the discussion of the factors that control C-H versus C-C activation in the aerobic Cu-catalyzed oxidation of ketones, and ligand and additive effects on the nature and favored oxidation state of the active catalyst in Ni-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolations of aryl chlorides. Examples of successful computational reactivity predictions along with experimental verifications are then presented. This includes the design of a fluorinated ligand [(CF3)2P(CH2)2P(CF3)2] for the challenging reductive elimination of ArCF3 from Pd(II) as well as the guidance of substrate scope (functional group tolerance and suitable leaving group) in the Ni-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of C(sp(2))-O bonds. In summary, this account aims to convey the benefits of integrating computational studies in experimental research to increase understanding of observed phenomena and guide future experiments. PMID:27171796

  20. The Ecology of Field Experience: Toward an Understanding of the Role of Field Experiences in Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    There continues to be a great deal of debate about the role that field experiences play in teacher development and about the relative contribution of various individual and institutional factors to the socialization process. Field experiences in teacher education entail a complex set of interactions among program features, settings, and people…

  1. Understanding the Experience of Age-Related Vestibular Loss in Older Individuals: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Bridges, John F. P.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Background Inner ear balance (or vestibular) function declines with age and is associated with decreased mobility and an increased risk of falls in older individuals. We sought to understand the lived experience of older adults with vestibular loss in order to improve care in this population. Methods Qualitative data were derived from semi-structured interviews of individuals aged 65 years or older presenting to the Balance and Falls Prevention Clinic from February 1, 2014 to March 30, 2015 for evaluation of age-related vestibular loss. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. We created a taxonomy of overarching superordinate themes based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework, and classified key dimensions within each of these themes. Results Sixteen interviews were conducted with individuals (mean age 76.0 years, 75 % female) with age-related vestibular loss. The three superordinate themes and associated key dimensions were (1) body impairment (including depression, fatigue, fear/anxiety, and problems with concentrating and memory); (2) activity limitation and participation restriction (isolation, needing to stop in the middle of activities, reduced participation relative to expectations, reduced ability to drive or travel, and problems with bending/looking up, standing, and walking); and (3) environmental influences (needing help with daily activities). All participants reported difficulty walking. Conclusions Older adults report that vestibular loss impacts their body functioning and restricts their participation in activities. The specific key dimensions uncovered by this qualitative study can be used to evaluate care from the patient's perspective. PMID:26739817

  2. Laboratory Experiments Lead to a New Understanding of Wildland Fire Spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, J. D.; Finney, M.; McAllister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire flame spread results from a sequence of ignitions where adjacent fuel particles heat from radiation and convection leading to their ignition. Surprisingly, after decades of fire behavior research an experimentally based, fundamental understanding of wildland fire spread processes has not been established. Modelers have commonly assumed radiation to be the dominant heating mechanism; that is, radiation heat transfer primarily determines wildland fire spread. We tested this assumption by focusing on how fuel ignition occurs with a renewed emphasis on experimental research. Our experiments show that fuel particle size can non-linearly influence a fuel particle's convective heat transfer. Fine fuels (less than 1 mm) can convectively cool in ambient air such that radiation heating is insufficient for ignition and thus fire spread. Given fire spread with insufficient radiant heating, fuel particle ignition must occur convectively from flame contact. Further experimentation reveals that convective heating and particle ignition occur when buoyancy-induced instabilities and vorticity force flames down and forward to produce intermittent contact with the adjacent fuel bed. Experimental results suggest these intermittent forward flame extensions are buoyancy driven with predictable average frequencies for flame zones ranging from laboratory (10-2 m) to field scales (101m). Measured fuel particle temperatures and boundary conditions during spreading laboratory fires reveal that convection heat transfer from intermittent flame contact is the principal mechanism responsible for heating fine fuel particles to ignition. Our experimental results describe how fine fuel particles convectively heat to ignition from flame contact related to the buoyant dynamics of spreading flame fronts. This research has caused a rethinking of some of the most basic concepts in wildland fuel particle ignition and flame spread.

  3. Shale Deformation Experiments Toward an Understanding of Elastic and Fracture Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanitpanyacharoen, J.; Miyagi, L. M.; Jugle, M.; Wang, Y.; Yu, T.

    2014-12-01

    The significance of shales as unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs has opened new research frontiers in geosciences. Among many of its unique physical properties, elastic anisotropy in shales has long been investigated by both experimental and computational approaches. Shales is highly anisotropic due to texture (crystallographic preferred orientation) of their constituent clay minerals. Moreover, texturing is known to cause fracture anisotropy, which can affect both fracture toughness and fracture orientations in metals, ceramics, and polyphase materials. However, the relationship between texture and fracture anisotropy in shale has not been explored. In this study we use the multi-anvil deformation tool (D-DIA) to deform shales with a range of clay and silt contents to failure while collecting x-ray diffraction and radiography images. Diffraction images are used to extract to texture and lattice strain evolution while radiography are used to measure macrostrain and determine failure. Since clay mineral have shear moduli in the range of 6-17 GPa, our stress resolution is in the range of 30 -100 MPa respectively, within the range of unconfined compressive strengths of shales. Our results show that the orientation of clay minerals become more prominent in all samples upon deforming the sample at 100 MPa. Recovered samples are investigated with SEM to document microstructural changes. A second deformation experiment will be coupled with ultrasonic and acoustic emissions measurements to make direct comparisons of elastic anisotropy and understand the role of fracture on anisotropy. Acoustic emissions allows us to locate damage initiation and determine fracture orientations in-situ. This information will be compared with texture data to determine fracture anisotropy in our samples.

  4. A qualitative study of Iranian nurses' understanding and experiences of professional power

    PubMed Central

    Adib Hagbaghery, Mohsen; Salsali, Mahvash; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2004-01-01

    Background Nurses are expected to empower their clients, but they cannot do so if they themselves feel powerless. They must become empowered before they can empower others. Some researchers have emphasized that understanding the concept of power is an important prerequisite of any empowerment program. While many authors have tried to define the concept of power, there is no comprehensive definition. This paper is an attempt to clarify the concept of power in nursing. It also would present a model describing the factors affecting nurse empowerment. Methods We chose the grounded-theory approach for analysis of the participants' experiences and their viewpoints regarding the concept of professional power in nursing. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation methods were used to gather the data. Forty-four participants were interviewed and 12 sessions of observation were carried out. The constant comparative analysis method was used. Results Six main themes emerged from the data: "Application of knowledge and skills", "Having authority", "Being self-confident", "Unification and solidarity", "Being supported" and "Organizational culture and structure". According to the participants, nurses' power is influenced by these six variables. A theoretical model was designed to represent the interrelationships between these six variables. Conclusions Nurses' power depends on gaining and applying professional knowledge and skills. Delegating authority and enhancing self-confidence of the nurses also help them to apply their knowledge in practice. Unification of the nurses and their mutual support play the key roles in development of their collective power and provide a base for better working conditions, professional independence and self-regulation. PMID:15217516

  5. Oral Assessments: Improving Retention, Grades, and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an innovative approach to teaching Calculus I which was initiated in a two-semester course designed for students at risk of failing Calculus I. The treatment consisted of voluntary oral assessments offered before every written examination. Analyses showed that the treatment students did significantly better than the control…

  6. Seventh Grade Students' Qualitative Understanding of the Concept of Mass Influenced by Real Experiments and Virtual Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamenkovski, Sasha; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research is conducted among 65 seventh graders (12-14 years old) who attend introductory course on physics. Tests and interviews are used to trace the roots of the students' misconceptions about mass. Results from the research reveal serious weaknesses in students' understanding of concept of mass, and its confusion with concepts of…

  7. Towards an Understanding of Flow and Other Positive Experience Phenomena within Outdoor and Adventurous Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boniface, Margaret R.

    2000-01-01

    People involved in adventurous activities frequently experience positive phenomena termed peak experience, peak performance, and "flow." Characteristics of these phenomena are compared, along with factors influencing the ability to experience such peak moments. Csikszentmihalyi's flow models are examined with regard to perceived levels of…

  8. The Understanding of "Concept Study" in Teachers' Professional Learning: A Lived Experience of Complexity Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This paper used narrative to present the author's understanding process of "concept study" in teachers' professional learning. The understanding process was advanced by several questions emerging from the preparation of doing "concept study". Thus, the several questions and their solutions became the threads of the narrative.…

  9. Overcoming Misconceptions via Analogical Reasoning: Factors Influencing Understanding in a Teaching Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David E.; Clement, John

    In most research that investigates factors influencing the success of analogies in instruction, an underlying assumption is that students have little or no knowledge of the target situation. It is interesting to ask what factors influence the success of analogies when students believe they understand the target situation. If this understanding is…

  10. Retention: Articulation and Recruitment of the At-Risk Student. S.E.E. Model Program: "Students with Education and Experience." A Workshop Presented for Skyline College: "Developing Students for the 90's" (San Bruno, California, April 11-12, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin County Community Coll., McKinney, TX.

    Designed for participants at a workshop on at-risk student recruitment and retention, this booklet provides information on SEE (Students with Education and Experience), a cooperative education-based retention program operating in the Collin County Community College District (Texas). After presenting a flow chart of the SEE Model and data on high…

  11. Understanding ag release from triso fuel through surrogate diffusion experiments and fuel analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerczak, Tyler

    Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) nuclear fuel is a novel fuel form for application in reactor concepts aiming to increase the utility of nuclear power. TRISO fuel is a particle fuel comprised of a UO2/UC kernel, surrounded by a carbonaceous buffer layer and subsequent isotropic layers of pyrocarbon, silicon carbide (SiC), and pyrocrabon. The SiC layer is the primary barrier to metallic fission products (FPs) not retained in the kernel. During operation select FPs are released from intact fuel. Release of 110mAg is a concern due to the magnitude of release and subsequent safety, maintenance, and fuel-lifetime limiting concerns. An understanding of the Ag release mechanism is necessary to mitigate release and ensure safe operation. This work focuses on analysis of irradiated/unirradiated TRISO fuel from the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program and surrogate experiments to determine the active Ag transport mechanisms in SiC. Analysis of irradiated particle systems by scanning electron microscopy provides an overview of the FP evolution and interaction with the SiC layer where all variables contributing to FP release are accounted for. Investigation of the SiC layer by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in unirradiated fuel provides a statistical basis to correlate post-irradiation-examination observations to AGR fuel SiC microstructure. Fuel analysis indicates the SiC layer is permeable to FP clusters, but did not confirm it as the dominant release mechanism. EBSD analysis indicated no conclusive correlation between SiC microstructure and Ag release. The surrogate analysis includes evaluation of ion implantation and vapor phase Ag/SiC diffusion systems at temperatures up to 1569°C. The analysis focuses on secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiling and scanning transmission electron microscopy of Ag diffusion phenomena in single crystal and polycrystalline substrates to determine the active diffusion mechanisms. The analysis

  12. Field experiments with painted sediments - a tool for understanding coastal processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Kont, Are; Suursaar, Ülo; Orviku, Kaarel

    2014-05-01

    Surf and the swash zones comprise regions of the coastal zone where waves dissipate or reflect their remaining energy after propagation from the open sea towards the coast. Within this region most of the sediment transport occurs giving rise to the generation of rapid coastal changes. Current understanding of the morphodynamics in this region is limited. Therefore, swash/surf zone hydrodynamics and sediment transport have been active topics of research over the past decades. Several laboratory experiments have been conducted to quantify coastal processes over the past decades. However, few experiments have been carried out in the natural environment. Analysis of painted sediments was carried out for the current study. Sorted particles with the following diameters were used: 1-2.5 cm (yellow), 2.5-5 cm (red) and 5-10 cm (blue). The sediments were painted with non-fluorescent, water and wear resistant colors, stacked in piles and placed at depths of 0.5-10 m at several study sites all along the Estonian coast. The locations were positioned and were photographed. The sediment piles placed in the sea were monitored at least once after an intense storm or once before and after the storm season. Additional tests were carried out on the swash zone, where the sediments were accumulated in a continuous line from -0.5...+1.3 m. Distances from the initial source of the sediments as well as the elevation of the painted sediment particles was calculated and analyzed. Recorded changes were compared with the measured and modeled wave parameters (by using RDCP and simple point model). We may conclude that most storm waves break at depths of 2-4 m. However, this zone might extend seaward during strong storm events and wave braking may occur even at 6 m depth. There is very active sediment transport in this zone and particles with a 1-10 cm diameter are usually transported towards the shore. We were able to record that the painted sediments moved up to 20 meters towards the shore

  13. Grade Retention: What are the Costs and Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Eric R.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2005-01-01

    Grade retention is a common practice used when students fail to meet required benchmarks. Therefore, it is important that we understand the relative benefits and costs associated with students repeating a grade. In this article we analyze the costs and benefits of grade retention. In our examination of retention, we obtain our calculations of the…

  14. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the Science Process Skills Questionnaire (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88. The findings showed that the teachers' conceptual understanding of SPS was much weaker than their practical application of SPS. The teachers' understanding of SPS differed by their teaching qualifications but not so much by their teaching experience. Emphasis needs to be given to both conceptual and operational understanding of SPS during pre-service and in-service teacher education to enable science teachers to use the skills and implement inquiry-based lessons in schools.

  15. The Ecology of Field Experience: Toward an Understanding of the Role of Field Experiences in Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper focuses on conceptual and methodological limitations which have been identified in relation to research on field experiences. A point of view is offered as to how research in this area can begin to provide the kinds of empirical data which will be more useful for policy decisions. (CB)

  16. Being altered by the unexpected: understanding the perioperative patient's experience: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rudolfsson, Gudrun

    2014-08-01

    The present paper focuses on the process of understanding the patient in the context of perioperative caring and reports a story narrated by a perioperative nurse as well as her emerging understanding of the patient prior to surgery at an operating department. This qualitative case study had a dual purpose; firstly, to describe how the perioperative nurse's understanding of the patient emerged and, secondly, to establish how the researcher interpreted the situation. As a perioperative nurse and researcher, the author is both the narrator and interpreter. To date we have rarely discussed the fact that, in a perioperative context, the patient might feel ashamed of his/her body, even before arriving at the operating department. This new understanding emerged from the hermeneutical dialogue in the present study. PMID:24118543

  17. Impact of plant growth and morphology and of sediment concentration on sediment retention efficiency of vegetative filter strips: Flume experiments and VFSMOD modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Thomas; François, Sébastien; Lutts, Stanley; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Bielders, Charles L.

    2014-04-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) implemented downstream to the source of pollution can trap sediments and thus limit sediment export from agricultural fields. However, their retention efficiencies are determined by many factors, among others the type of plant species and its growth stage. The impact of plant growth and morphology, as well as of incoming sediment concentration, on the efficiency of VFS to trap sediments was assessed by means of an experimental flume. Two different plant species were tested, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, after 2 and 4 months of plant growth and for 2 different incoming silty-loam sediment concentrations. Measured retention efficiencies were compared to simulated values using VFSMOD based on goodness-of-fit indicators that take into account uncertainty linked to the measurements. The sediment storage capacity upstream of the VFS was limited in terms of mass, and therefore an increase in sediment concentration led to a decrease in sediment retention efficiency. After 2 months of plant growth, plant morphology affected the VFS potential to trap sediments, as reflected in the higher retention efficiency of T. repens due to its creeping shoot architecture. However, plant growth and development modified the plant morphology and VFS trapping potential. Indeed, L. perenne VFS retention efficiency increased from 35% after 2 months of growth to 50% after 4 months, due to the tillering capacity of grass species. Conversely, the trapping efficiency of T. repens decreased from 49% to 40% after 4 months. This highlights the possible degradation of VFS with time, which in the case of T.repens was due to an increased heterogeneity of plant density within the strips. These modifications of plant characteristics with growth stage, which affected sediment trapping efficiencies, can be effectively integrated into mechanistic models like VFSMOD, mainly through stem spacing and Manning's surface roughness coefficient inputs. Since these parameters

  18. Understanding the Science Experiences of Successful Women of Color: Science Identity as an Analytic Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Johnson, Angela

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we develop a model of science identity to make sense of the science experiences of 15 successful women of color over the course of their undergraduate and graduate studies in science and into science-related careers. In our view, science identity accounts both for how women make meaning of science experiences and how society…

  19. Novel experiments for understanding the shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    DePoorter, G.L.; Abeele, W.V.; Hakonson, T.E.; Burton, B.W.; Perkins, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    Three field experiments that will provide data on water movement in SLB facilities are described. The experiments are designed to measure water movement, to quantify techniques to control water movement and to determine the effects of surface moisture content fluctuations on liquid and vapor movement back to the surface.

  20. Understanding the Experiences of Adult English as a Second Language Instructors: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Marni Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Positioned within the social constructivist view of learning that individuals make meaning from their experiences and through their social actions and interactions, this qualitative study explores the ways in which nine instructors of underprepared adult English as a Second Language students made meaning of their classroom experiences. Through…

  1. Postcards from Heaven and Hell: Understanding the Near-Death Experience through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rominger, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Art making offers the opportunity to reflect upon ineffable experiences, including those surrounding death and dying. This article examines the artwork of two research participants who each reported a near-death experience (NDE). A trans-personal model was used to elicit the narratives and artwork of two individuals: one who experienced a pleasant…

  2. Understanding Field Experiences in Traditional Teacher Preparation Programs in Missouri. REL 2016-145

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of field experiences in traditional teacher preparation programs completed by first-year teachers in Missouri and how experiences vary by teaching certificate type. This descriptive study is based on data from a survey administered in early 2015 to first-year teachers in Missouri public…

  3. Understanding Accounting as a Career: An Immersion Work Experience for Students Making Career Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Dianne; Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a project which is designed to increase the participation of high school students in accounting work experience placements. The focus of the paper is on an Australian-based project which overcomes the identified barriers to offering high school accounting work experience placements with a resultant increase in the number and…

  4. What Do We See?: Extending Understanding of Visual Experience in the Art Therapy Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience and meaning making in art therapy constitute more than looking at the image created. Clients and therapists utilize the environment of therapy in ways that have been hitherto unrecognized. This article presents a key finding from an art-based study of the experience of the art therapy room from the perspectives of client and…

  5. Understanding Students' Precollege Experiences with Racial Diversity: The High School as Microsystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Stephanie H.

    2015-01-01

    Few qualitative studies consider how high school experiences affect readiness for diversity engagement in college. Using data from an ethnographic case study, three central trends (student experiences within homogeneous high schools, racial divisions within diverse high schools, and students who attended diverse high schools but had little…

  6. How Person-Centred Counselling Trainers Understand and Experience Their Role in the Current British Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Liz

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of person-centred training from the viewpoint of the trainer. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was the adopted approach. The researcher conducted a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews with five person-centred trainers with experience across a range of…

  7. Postdoctoral Positions as Preparation for Desired Careers: A Narrative Approach to Understanding Postdoctoral Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shuhua; McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Doing a "postdoc" following a doctorate is becoming more and more common worldwide as the pre-tenure job market continues shrinking in relation to the number of PhD graduates. Yet, behind statistics and descriptions of collective experience, how individuals experience the postdoctoral period is largely unknown, especially how they use…

  8. Understanding the Work-Life Experiences and Goals of Women Middle Managers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankinson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Middle managers in higher education hold diverse titles and perform a variety of roles. Women represent a large portion of this midlevel management, but there is limited research exploring their experiences. As a result, little is known about women middle managers' career trajectories and what effect their experiences have on their future career…

  9. Understanding Students' Experiments--What Kind of Support Do They Need in Inquiry Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Julia Caroline; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry learning is a widely recognized method for fostering inquiry competence in science education. Nevertheless, there is discussion about how to best support students while working on inquiry tasks (in this case: experiments on causal relationships). To identify the kind of support students need in order to design experiments in upper grades,…

  10. Understanding Students' Experiences in Their Own Words: Moving beyond a Basic Analysis of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Arch Chee Keen

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the lived experiences of students as expressed in their reflections on their experiences of learning at Ambrose University in Calgary. It uses quantitative outcomes-related data from the National Survey of Student Engagement and the Theological School Survey of Student Engagement to illuminate qualitative data obtained through…

  11. Toward a Cultural Perspective and Understanding of the Disability and Deaf Experience in Special and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John R.; McIntosh, Angela S.

    2009-01-01

    This position paper provides a rationale for infusing cultural perspectives and understandings of the Disability and Deaf experiences into special and multicultural education teacher preparation programs. Substantial evidence of well-established features of the Disability community and Deaf community that meet definitional criteria for culture as…

  12. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  13. Using Wenger's Social Theory of Learning to Examine University Teachers' Understanding of How Instructional Technology Affects Their Experience in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to take an exploratory look at how university teachers come to understand their experience in educational practice and their professional role as teachers who integrate instructional technology into their coursework using the framework provided by Wenger's Social Theory of Learning. University faculty who teach in a…

  14. Understanding Students' Experience of Transition from Lecture Mode to Case-Based Teaching in a Management School in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Subhadip; Banerjee, Pratyush

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to understand experience of students about transition from lecture mode to case study pedagogy in business management courses. Indian education system is predominantly a follower of the lecture mode of teaching from the grass-root level till graduation. Hence Indian students are relatively less familiar with the case based…

  15. Understanding the experiences of a group of Yemeni students in an ESL science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradi, Gihan

    American classrooms are experiencing an influx of diverse language speaking students while for science educators the study of EBL students' learning in science classrooms is a relatively new field (Lee & Buxton, 2010). At the same time there is a growing emphasis on the importance of science practices (NGSS). This poses significant challenges for science educators who are enacting science curriculum that supports all students' learning. Supporting EBL students' academic achievement is significant because literacy is important for students' access to economic and social benefits that come with science literacy (Atwater, 1996). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-linguistic challenges that a specific group of EBL students (Yemeni) faced and the extent to which such challenges affected their academic performance in science. These challenges are related to linguistic and cultural interactions, which can lead to conflicts between student and school, thereby interfering with the effectiveness of their education. This study also examined these students' and their science teacher's perspectives on strategies that can be used to facilitate their language acquisition during science class and help them become active participants in the school and classroom communities. The study used a qualitative interpretive research methodology and involved four Arab-American EBL students (two males and two females) from Yemen, who had been in the US for different periods of time. The amount of time these students had been in the US was important to examine differences in their acculturation and challenges they faced. Similarly, the use of female and male student participants was important to understand the impact of gender in the lived experiences of these students. The results of the study indicated that all the participants struggled with linguistic, social, and cultural aspects of their life in an American high school. These in turn led to a sense of being different

  16. Influence of student-designed experiments with fast plants on their understanding of plants and of scientific inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akey, Ann Kosek

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation investigates the influence of student designed experiments with Fast Plants in an undergraduate agroecology course on the students' conceptual understanding of plant life cycles and on their procedural understanding of scientific experimentation. It also considers students' perspectives on the value of these experiences. Data sources included semi-structured interviews with students and the instructor, a written task, course evaluations, and observations of class meetings. Students came into the course having strong practical experience with plants from their agricultural backgrounds. Students did not always connect aspects of plant biology that they studied in class, particularly respiration and photosynthesis, to plant growth requirements. The instructor was able to bridge the gap between some practical knowledge and textbook knowledge with experiences other than the Fast Plant project. Most students held an incomplete picture of plant reproduction that was complicated by differences between agricultural and scientific vocabulary. There is need for teaching approaches that help students tie together their knowledge of plants into a cohesive framework. Experiences that help students draw on their background knowledge related to plants, and which give students the opportunity to examine and discuss their ideas, may help students make more meaningful connections. The Fast Plant project, a positive experience for most students, was seen by these undergraduate students as being more helpful in learning about scientific experimentation than about plants. The process of designing and carrying out their own experiments gave students insight into experimentation, provoked their curiosity, and resulted in a sense of ownership and accomplishment.

  17. The role of high pressure experiment and theory in our understanding of gaseous and icy planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    High pressure experiments provide essential data for modeling planetary structure. Shock wave experiments are often especially suitable because they sample the same region of pressure-temperature space that is achieved naturally within the planet during its evolution. A very brief overview of planetary properties is given, followed by a summary of the issues of current interest: the behavior of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich mixtures; C, N, and O at high pressure, and rock-ice mixtures.

  18. Understanding hospital meal experiences by means of participant-driven-photo-elicitation.

    PubMed

    Justesen, Lise; Mikkelsen, Bent E; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2014-04-01

    A patients' hospital meal experiences can be complex and often difficult to capture using traditional methods. This study investigated patients' hospital meal experiences using participant-driven-photo-elicitation (PDPE). PDPE invites respondents to photograph their daily lives and combines this with interviews, which can provide deeper insight into multisensory experiences beyond verbal or written discourse. The sample consisted of eight hospitalised patients. Patients completed a photo-essay of their hospital meal experience during a single day at a Danish hospital and afterwards participated in an open-ended interview. Two inductive analytical approaches were selected to assess the patients' reflections on their hospital meal experiences. First, the interview transcripts were analysed using the Semiotic Analysis approach using qualitative data analysis software NVivo 9. Second, the 91 produced photographs and the participants' engagement with the photographs were analysed by means of a Reflexive Content Analysis. The study found that PDPE is a research method that can be used for expanding the conceptualisation of hospital meal experiences, revealing the significance of the meal context, materiality and memories beyond food per se.

  19. Experiences and Understandings: Student Teachers' Beliefs about Multicultural Practice in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn; Southcott, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In this time of national curriculum re-thinking, tertiary institutions are positioned to create opportunities amongst pre-service teachers for the cultivation of knowledge, skills and understandings concerning cultural diversity in music education. The demographic profile of the State of Victoria is the most culturally diverse in Australia and the…

  20. Learning Informally to Use Teaching Games for Understanding: The Experiences of a Recently Qualified Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of one recently qualified teacher's employment of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model in a UK secondary school. The study sought to examine how the teacher, not formally educated in its use, delivered TGfU and to identify those factors that led to this interpretation of the model. Occupational…

  1. Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences Implementing a Hybrid Curriculum: Sport Education and Teaching Games for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stran, Margaret; Sinelnikov, Oleg; Woodruff, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid Sport Education (SE) and Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) pedagogical model shifts responsibilities to students and enhances game play by focusing on tactical problems. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine pre-service teachers' (PTs) perceptions teaching a SE-TGfU hybrid; and (2) identify facilitators and inhibitors that…

  2. Understanding the Undergraduate Experience of the Baccalaureate Nursing Student with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzubaty, Dolores R.

    2013-01-01

    Disparities exist in healthcare related to language barriers and lack of cultural understanding between caregivers and recipients. Increasing the linguistic and cultural diversity of caregivers may decrease the healthcare disparities observed. The research study described in this manuscript was conducted to explore the undergraduate student…

  3. Do Signers Understand Regional Varieties of a Sign Language? A Lexical Recognition Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose

    2016-01-01

    The degree of mutual intelligibility of British Sign Language (BSL) regional varieties has been a subject of some debate. Recent research in which dyads of signers from contrasting regional backgrounds engaged in a conversational task showed no problems understanding one another. The present study investigated signers' knowledge of different BSL…

  4. Understanding Home, School, and Community Contexts: An Ecological Perspective of the Educational Experiences of Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, James L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social ecological model to increase our understanding of the dynamic interplay between the home and school contexts of Mexican American children and to promote the engagement of their parents and families in the educational process. More specifically, the social ecological model is used to explain processes that occur…

  5. Infants' Social and Motor Experience and the Emerging Understanding of Intentional Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social--cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently…

  6. The Role of Motor Experience in Understanding Action Function: The Case of the Precision Grasp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adults and infants selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object. The current research investigated whether this bias stems from infants' processing of the functional consequences of grasps: understanding that different grasps afford different future actions. A habituation paradigm…

  7. Developing Children's Conceptual Understanding of Area Measurement: A Curriculum and Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Mei E.; Witz, Klaus G.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of three instructional treatments which had different combinations of mathematical elements regarding 2-dimensional (2-D) geometry and area measurement for developing 4th-grade children's understanding of the formulas for area measurement and their ability to solve area measurement problems.…

  8. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  9. Gateways to Understanding: A Model for Exploring and Discerning Meaning from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research methodologies comprise distinct traditions, each of which is based on its own assumptions and discrete methods for collecting, analyzing and reporting data. This paper examines a distinctive approach to qualitative research that was employed in a recent study to open a gateway to understanding the impact of the shootings at…

  10. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment with Undergraduate Student by Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maya, Rippi; Sumarmo, Utari

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach on improving students' mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subjects of study were 56 undergraduate students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course.…

  11. Understanding the Experience of Stroke: A Mixed-Method Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-01-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological…

  12. Reasoning, Not Recipes: Helping Your Students Develop Statistical Understanding and Enjoy the Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Gai

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is often presented to students as a series of algorithms to be learnt by heart and applied at the appropriate time to get "the correct answer". This approach, while it may in fact produce the right answer, has been shown to be minimally effective at helping students understand the underlying statistical concepts. As Holmes noted,…

  13. Understanding Young Women's Sexual Relationship Experiences: The Nature and Role of Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to operationalise the concept of social "vulnerability" and explore its usefulness as a framework for understanding sexual relationships. Data from 30 vulnerable and less vulnerable young women in one UK city were collected through in-depth interviews and focus groups. An analysis of differences and similarities in participants'…

  14. Pre-Service PE Teachers' Occupational Socialization Experiences on Teaching Games for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chung; Cruz, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Background: Teaching Games for Understanding has been promoted as an innovative curriculum model in the past decade in Hong Kong. It focuses on developing pupils' tactical awareness and decision making capability through integrating the cognitive and contextual dimensions of learning in physical education. Aims: This article reports a qualitative…

  15. An Intuitive Graphical Approach to Understanding the Split-Plot Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Timothy J.; Brenneman, William A.; Myers, William R.

    2009-01-01

    While split-plot designs have received considerable attention in the literature over the past decade, there seems to be a general lack of intuitive understanding of the error structure of these designs and the resulting statistical analysis. Typically, students learn the proper error terms for testing factors of a split-plot design via "expected…

  16. Mouse vision as a gateway for understanding how experience shapes neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Nicholas J.; McGee, Aaron W.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic programs controlling ontogeny drive many of the essential connectivity patterns within the brain. Yet it is activity, derived from the experience of interacting with the world, that sculpts the precise circuitry of the central nervous system. Such experience-dependent plasticity has been observed throughout the brain but has been most extensively studied in the neocortex. A prime example of this refinement of neural circuitry is found in primary visual cortex (V1), where functional connectivity changes have been observed both during development and in adulthood. The mouse visual system has become a predominant model for investigating the principles that underlie experience-dependent plasticity, given the general conservation of visual neural circuitry across mammals as well as the powerful tools and techniques recently developed for use in rodent. The genetic tractability of mice has permitted the identification of signaling pathways that translate experience-driven activity patterns into changes in circuitry. Further, the accessibility of visual cortex has allowed neural activity to be manipulated with optogenetics and observed with genetically-encoded calcium sensors. Consequently, mouse visual cortex has become one of the dominant platforms to study experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:25324730

  17. Our first child was incompatible with life: understanding miscarriage as a lived experience.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Mathhew V

    2007-01-01

    Miscarriage as a medical experience is removed several times from the lived experience of a mother, partner and family. Often there is no space to grieve and mourn to facilitate that. In this article it will be shown that the lived experience of a miscarriage challenges the notion of care and loss forever. Ask a woman the memory is always there and very often the pain. It's important to let the wisdom of sadness speak and emotions to flow unhurried. Emotions need to be set free. What is less appreciated is that professional carers often feel at a loss themselves and they too need love and support. Staff and relatives are sometimes in different contexts of awareness and information about diagnosis and all aspects of care often need to be translated The experience of loss is not only related to death but to loss of hope, dreams, function and handing over care to another carer. Dealing with loss is a feature of being human, but dealing with multiple losses is sadly often a part of being a practicing nurse and midwife. It is time to really appreciate what it means to live through a miscarriage. What we need now to do is move beyond a medical experience into creating a space where a woman can feel safe and loved to grieve for all that is lost and all that could have been. PMID:17283956

  18. Is There a Universal Understanding of Vulnerability? Experiences with Russian and Romanian Trainees in Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Loue, Sana; Loff, Bebe

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability of participants in research and the provision of special protections for vulnerable research participants are key concepts in research ethics. Despite international consensus requiring special protections for vulnerable research participants, both the concept of vulnerability and the nature and adequacy of strategies to reduce vulnerability remain vague and, consequently, are subject to varying interpretations. We report on observations of the challenges faced in understanding this key concept by 20 Russian and Romanian trainees participating in a one-year M.A. training program in research ethics from 2000 through 2011. We describe how trainees’ understanding of and appreciation for the need for special protections of vulnerable research participants was nurtured. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384513

  19. A bridge too far: from basic exposure to understanding in artistic experience.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    In the context of a broad welcome to Bullot & Reber's (B&R's) proposals concerning the incorporation of contextual awareness into the study of the psychology of art appreciation, I raise two concerns. First, the proposal makes no allowance for degrees of relevance of contextual awareness to appreciation. Second, the authors assume that "basic exposure" and "artistic understanding" can be maintained as separate phases or modes, but this may be more problematic than anticipated.

  20. Understanding the Motivation of Vietnamese International Students and Their Higher Education Experiences in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randy Scott

    2012-01-01

    This research describes what motivates Vietnamese students to come to the U.S. to study for a degree, what outcomes they expect, and what they experience academically and culturally while studying in the U.S. Currently the surge of international students from Vietnam has reached an all time high of 13,112 students to the U.S. This moves the…

  1. Understanding Hong Kong Chinese Families' Experiences of an Autism/ASD Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Kathleen; Fung, Francis; Hu, Aihua; Sweller, Naomi; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the experience of Chinese parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) living in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Seventy-five parents of children (aged 6 months-18 years) with ASD diagnoses completed the Family Quality of Life Scale. Forty-five parents from the original surveyed cohort, also…

  2. Understanding Transformative Learning Experiences of Peer Leaders in the Mpowerment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Kenneth Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Many HIV prevention professionals have documented only moderate effectiveness of the Mpowerment Project, an HIV behavior intervention prevention program for minorities. Researchers have concluded that program success depends on effectiveness of peer leader management, yet little is known regarding the experiences of those peer leaders.…

  3. Understanding Fluorescence Measurements through a Guided-Inquiry and Discovery Experiment in Advanced Analytical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna; Salin, Eric Dunbar

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on fluorescence spectroscopy suitable for an advanced analytical laboratory is presented. Its conceptual development used a combination of the expository and discovery styles. The "learn-as-you-go" and direct "hands-on" methodology applied ensures an active role for a student in the process of visualization and discovery of concepts.…

  4. Understanding Transfer Students at the University of Delaware: Transition Experiences and Recommendations for Improving Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinci, Carolyn Eaton

    2012-01-01

    Transfer students comprise about ten percent of the student population in the College of Arts and Sciences (CAS) at the University of Delaware. This research presents findings from a mixed methods study investigating the transition experiences of transfer students in the college. Demographic data were gathered on CAS transfer students admitted to…

  5. Understanding the Lived Experiences of Novice Teachers in an Urban Texas School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepisto-Wood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    In an urban Texas Independent School District (TXISD), novice teachers leave the field of education for different careers within the first 3 years of employment at a rate that is nearly twice the Texas average and near the top of the national novice teacher attrition rate range. This study examined the lived experiences of 23 TXISD novice teachers…

  6. Race and Assessment Practice in South Africa: Understanding Black Academic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jawitz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to transform the racialised system of higher education in South Africa inherited from apartheid, there has been little research published that interrogates the relationship between race and the experience of academic staff within the South African higher education environment. Drawing on critical discourse analysis and critical…

  7. School Counsellors' Understanding of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: Experiences and International Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jamie M.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.; Ross, Shana

    2011-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a concern among professionals working with youth. The present study examined school counsellors' experiences, training and school preparedness, perceived knowledge, beliefs, and intervention approaches related to NSSI. Participants were 470 school counsellors (417 female, 53 male) from across North America (156…

  8. Toward an understanding of anticipatory pleasure deficits in schizophrenia: Memory, prospection, and emotion experience.

    PubMed

    Painter, Janelle M; Kring, Ann M

    2016-04-01

    Anticipatory pleasure deficits have been observed in people with schizophrenia. Less is known about the extent to which interrelated processes that comprise anticipatory pleasure, including memory, prospection, and emotion experience are disrupted. We asked people with (n = 32) and without (n = 29) schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder to provide memory and prospection narratives in response to specific cues. Half of the prospections followed a memory task, and half followed a control task. People with schizophrenia generated memories similar in content and experience as controls even as they described them less clearly. However, people with schizophrenia were less likely to explicitly reference the past in their prospections, and their prospections were less detailed and richly experienced than controls, regardless of the task completed before prospection. People with schizophrenia reported similar levels of positive emotion (current and predicted) in positive prospections that followed the memory task, but less positive emotion than controls in positive prospections that followed the control task. Taken together, these results suggest that people with schizophrenia experience difficulties drawing from past experiences and generating detailed prospections. However, asking people with schizophrenia to recall and describe memories prior to prospection may increase the likelihood of drawing from the past in prospections, and may help boost current and predicted pleasure.

  9. "Virtual" Experiment for Understanding the Electrocardiogram and the Mean Electrical Axis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jamie; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a virtual experiment designed to introduce students to the theory and application of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the mean electrical axis (MEA). Students are asked to reduce and analyze data, calculate and plot the MEA, and answer questions in the inquiry-based, experimental activity. (Author/WRM)

  10. Examining Practicing Teachers' Understandings of Mentoring and the Student Teaching Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Laurie N.

    2011-01-01

    The student teaching experience plays a significant role in teacher education programs by providing pre-service teachers with an opportunity to work directly with students in actual school settings. Recent reform movements in teacher education have emphasized mentoring and models of student teacher fieldwork such as partnerships and professional…

  11. Broadening Student Understanding of Wartime Experience through Original Works of Art and Personal Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    Tracy A. Sugarman served in the U.S. Navy as a lieutenant, junior grade, in the European theater during World War II. During his years of service from 1942-45, in addition to writing letters home, he recorded his experiences through original artwork. His sketches and watercolor paintings, completed before, during, and after D-Day, with titles such…

  12. Using Soil Incubation Experiments to Enhance Urban Elementary School Student Understanding of Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittinghill, K. A.; van Vleck, H. E.; Dechaine, J. M.; Faber, N.

    2007-12-01

    Soil incubations provide a simple and low-cost way to introduce inquiry into the elementary school curriculum. As part of the University of Minnesota's NSF-funded GK-12 program, we used a replicated soil experiment to enhance a unit on global warming and carbon cycling for a 4th grade enrichment group at an urban elementary school. After completing several global warming related, inquiry based activities, the students designed an experiment to test their hypothesis that increasing temperature increases soil respiration. Students used soil from the playground placed at different temperatures within the school (computer server room, classroom, and refrigerator) to carry out their experiment. With the help of GK-12 graduate fellows, students used an infrared gas analyzer to quantify the production of carbon dioxide by the soil within mason jars. The students analyzed their data and discussed the relevance of their findings to previous lessons on global climate change. We will discuss the incubation experiment in the context of our collaboration between scientists and elementary school classrooms, inquiry based science education, and our 4th grade unit on global climate change.

  13. Picturing Leisure: Using Photovoice to Understand the Experience of Leisure and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genoe, M. Rebecca; Dupuis, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Interviews and participant observation are commonly used to explore the experience of dementia, yet may not adequately capture perspectives of persons with dementia as communication changes. We used photovoice (i.e., using cameras in qualitative research) along with interviews and participant observation to explore meanings of leisure for persons…

  14. Towards Understanding the Two Way Interaction Effects of Extraversion and Openness to Experience on Career Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Ridhi; Rangnekar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined potential two-way interaction effects of the Big Five personality traits extraversion and openness to experience on career commitment measured in terms of three components of career identity, career resilience, and career planning. Participants included 450 managers from public and private sector organizations in North…

  15. The Voices behind the Numbers: Understanding the Experiences of Homeless Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Erica; Shields, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    In a given year, approximately 1.6 million children in the United States experience homelessness, and research shows that their living conditions generally place these children at risk for educational underperformance and failure at school (Hall, 2007; Love, 2009). Although lack of education or low levels of education on the part of a head of…

  16. The Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Framework for Understanding Parental Experiences with Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Sharon A.; Knoll, Monja A.

    2015-01-01

    Research into parental homework-related experiences has predominantly focused on parental attitudes to homework. This research has shown that parental attitudes can affect the formation of attitudes in children and subsequently their academic success. Most research has focused on a secondary school context, but there is still a lack of knowledge…

  17. Understanding the Experiences of Latina/o Students: A Qualitative Study for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos, Alyssa G.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative study with nine Latina/o college students was conducted to determine their experiences with their high school teachers. After careful data analysis, the following themes emerged: (a) some Latina/o students receive high expectations and others receive low expectations, (b) low expectations for non-AP students exist, and (c) some…

  18. Differentiated Associations between Childhood Maltreatment Experiences and Social Understanding: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nikki; Banerjee, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The extreme parenting experiences encountered by children who are physically abused or neglected place them at increased risk for impaired socio-emotional development. There is growing evidence that maltreated children may apprehend interpersonal encounters in different ways from children without such traumatic histories. This systematic review…

  19. Employability and Higher Education: Contextualising Female Students' Workplace Experiences to Enhance Understanding of Employability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Current political and economic discourses position employability as a responsibility of higher education, which deploys mechanisms such as supervised work experience (SWE) to embed employability skills development into the undergraduate curriculum. However, workplaces are socially constructed complex arenas of embodied knowledge that are gendered.…

  20. Commentary: Explicit Attention to Age and Gender Disparities is Key to Understanding Adolescent Experiences and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Ann K.; Bruce, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This special issue addresses an ambitious set of concerns around the experience of adolescents in the majority world: expanded models of development, successful models of intervention, and the impact of globalization. The papers, which vary widely in both substance and methodology, make a substantial contribution to pushing forward the boundaries…

  1. Learning English in the Shadows: Understanding Chinese Learners' Experiences of Private Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yung, Kevin Wai-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Given that private tutoring has received increasing attention in research as a global educational phenomenon with significant implications for educational practices, it has become necessary for TESOL researchers and practitioners to become aware of its impact on language learning and pedagogy. This study investigated the learning experience and…

  2. Understanding Student Experiences: A Case Study in Scientific Visualization and Civics and Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Emily George

    2012-01-01

    This research study provides the finding of a qualitative case study in Technology, Engineering, and Design Education as well as Social Studies Education. The purpose of this study was to describe the role of graphics within a social studies lesson by examining a student's experience when a new lesson is implemented in class. The participants…

  3. Understanding the Experiences of Bilingual, Latino/a Adolescents: "Voices from Gifted and General Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Hughes, Claire; Brice, Alejandro; Ratliff, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Eight gifted and eight general-education students engaged in discussions regarding their observations of, experiences in, and recommendations for education. Six categories emerged through qualitative analysis of their conversations. These categories include: problem solving, task commitment, self-perceptions, education, communication, and…

  4. Physical Pendulum Experiments to Enhance the Understanding of Moments of Inertia and Simple Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Tim H.; Brittle, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments aimed at overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by students learning about the topics of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion, both of which are often perceived to be complex topics amongst students during their first-year university courses. By combining both subjects in a discussion…

  5. Recognising Prior Learning: Understanding the Relations among Experience, Learning and Recognition from a Constructivist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Andreas; Andersson, Per

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between experience and learning in the context of recognition of prior learning (RPL) and from an experiential constructivist perspective. The study is based on a case of in-service training, based on RPL, in the care sector for elderly people. The data consist of interviews with actors in this process, which…

  6. Understanding Men's Prenatal Experience and the Father Involvement Connection: Assessing Baby Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglio, William

    2008-01-01

    Cabrera, Fagan, and Farrie's research provides a useful springboard to encourage scholars to think broadly and productively about theoretical, substantive, methodological, and social intervention issues related to men's prenatal experiences, transitional life course events, and subsequent engagement with their young children. To their credit, the…

  7. Understanding Statin Non-Adherence: Knowing Which Perceptions and Experiences Matter to Different Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Hans; Van Dijk, Liset; Geers, Harm C. J.; Winters, Nina A.; Van Geffen, Erica C. G.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-adherence to statins is substantial and is associated with numerous perceptions and experiences. However, time limits in clinical practice constrain in depth explorations of these perceptions and experiences. Objectives To propose and examine a strategy aimed at an efficient assessment of a wide array of perceptions and experiences regarding the efficacy, side effects, and practical problems of statins. Furthermore, to assess associations between this wide array of experiences and perceptions and non-adherence and to examine whether patients' 'perceived self-efficacy' moderated these associations. Methods Patients were recruited through community pharmacies. A wide array of specific patient perceptions and experiences was efficiently assessed using the electronic Tailored Medicine Inventory that allows people to skip irrelevant questions. Adherence was measured through self-report and pharmacy refill data. Results Of the two-hundred twenty-nine patients who participated (mean age 63.9, standard deviation 10.2), 40%-70% doubted the necessity of or lacked knowledge about the efficacy of statins, 20%-35% of the patients were worried about joint and muscle side effects or had experienced these, and 23% had encountered practical problems regarding information about statins, intake of tablets, the package, or the blister. Experiencing more practical problems was associated with increased unintentional non-adherence (Odds ratio 1.54, 95%CI:1.13–2.10, P < 0.01), whereas worrying about side effects was associated with increased intentional non-adherence (Odds ratio 1.90, 95%CI:1.17–3.08, P < 0.01). Higher 'perceived self-efficacy' did not moderate these associations. Conclusions Insight into patients' specific barriers with regard to appropriate statin use may reveal personal reasons for being non-adherent. The Tailored Medicine Inventory is a promising tool to devise individualized intervention strategies aimed at improving adherence by the clinician

  8. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Mendoza, D.P.; Miller, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns regarding double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing waste slurries. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry that has settled at the bottom of the DST. However, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. In addition, the presence of retained gas bubbles is expected to affect the physical properties of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of these bubbles. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to gas bubble retention and release from sludge such as is in Tank 241-SY-101, understand how the bubbles affect the physical properties of the sludge, develop correlations of these physical properties to include in computer models, and collect experimental data on the physical properties of simulated sludges with bubbles. This report presents a theory and experimental observations of bubble retention in simulated sludge and gives correlations and new data on the effect of gas bubbles on sludge yield strength.

  9. Understanding Coupled Earth-Surface Processes through Experiments and Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Kim, W.

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, both numerical models and experiments have been purposefully designed to ';isolate' singular components or certain processes of a larger mountain to deep-ocean interconnected source-to-sink (S2S) transport system. Controlling factors driven by processes outside of the domain of immediate interest were treated and simplified as input or as boundary conditions. Increasingly, earth surface processes scientists appreciate feedbacks and explore these feedbacks with more dynamically coupled approaches to their experiments and models. Here, we discuss key concepts and recent advances made in coupled modeling and experimental setups. In addition, we emphasize challenges and new frontiers to coupled experiments. Experiments have highlighted the important role of self-organization; river and delta systems do not always need to be forced by external processes to change or develop characteristic morphologies. Similarly modeling f.e. has shown that intricate networks in tidal deltas are stable because of the interplay between river avulsions and the tidal current scouring with both processes being important to develop and maintain the dentritic networks. Both models and experiment have demonstrated that seemingly stable systems can be perturbed slightly and show dramatic responses. Source-to-sink models were developed for both the Fly River System in Papua New Guinea and the Waipaoa River in New Zealand. These models pointed to the importance of upstream-downstream effects and enforced our view of the S2S system as a signal transfer and dampening conveyor belt. Coupled modeling showed that deforestation had extreme effects on sediment fluxes draining from the catchment of the Waipaoa River in New Zealand, and that this increase in sediment production rapidly shifted the locus of offshore deposition. The challenge in designing coupled models and experiments is both technological as well as intellectual. Our community advances to make numerical model coupling more

  10. Hydrogen retention in ion irradiated steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, J.D.; Lewis, M.B.; Lee, E.H.

    1998-11-01

    In the future 1--5 MW Spallation Neutron Source, target radiation damage will be accompanied by high levels of hydrogen and helium transmutation products. The authors have recently carried out investigations using simultaneous Fe/He,H multiple-ion implantations into 316 LN stainless steel between 50 and 350 C to simulate the type of radiation damage expected in spallation neutron sources. Hydrogen and helium were injected at appropriate energy and rate, while displacement damage was introduced by nuclear stopping of 3.5 MeV Fe{sup +}, 1 {micro}m below the surface. Nanoindentation measurements showed a cumulative increase in hardness as a result of hydrogen and helium injection over and above the hardness increase due to the displacement damage alone. TEM investigation indicated the presence of small bubbles of the injected gases in the irradiated area. In the current experiment, the retention of hydrogen in irradiated steel was studied in order to better understand its contribution to the observed hardening. To achieve this, the deuterium isotope ({sup 2}H) was injected in place of natural hydrogen ({sup 1}H) during the implantation. Trapped deuterium was then profiled, at room temperature, using the high cross-section nuclear resonance reaction with {sup 3}He. Results showed a surprisingly high concentration of deuterium to be retained in the irradiated steel at low temperature, especially in the presence of helium. There is indication that hydrogen retention at spallation neutron source relevant target temperatures may reach as high as 10%.

  11. Understanding controls on interfacial wetting at epitaxial graphene: Experiment and Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hua; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Presser, Volker; Wander, Matthew C; Fenter, Paul; Kent, Paul R; Jiang, Deen; Chialvo, Ariel A; Mcdonough, John; Shuford, Kevin L; Gogotsi, Yury G.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of water with graphitic carbon at the atomic scale is studied as a function of the hydrophobicity of epitaxial graphene. High resolution X-ray reflectivity combined with both classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations allows us to understand how the graphene-water interface changes as the hydrophobicity of intrinsic multilayer graphene (contact angle c = 93 ) is reduced by the presence of substrate and surface defect sites, leading to increased hydrophilicity ( c = 73 ) for zero-layer graphene (i.e., the epitaxial buffer layer). The relationship between water depletion and hydrophobicity (i.e., the hydrophobic gap) is also clarified by the current findings.

  12. Experimenting with semantic web services to understand the role of NLP technologies in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, V

    2006-01-01

    NLP technologies can play a significant role in healthcare where a predominant segment of the clinical documentation is in text form. In a graduate course focused on understanding semantic web services at West Virginia University, a class project was designed with the purpose of exploring potential use for NLP-based abstraction of clinical documentation. The role of NLP-technology was simulated using human abstractors and various workflows were investigated using public domain workflow and semantic web service technologies. This poster explores the potential use of NLP and the role of workflow and semantic web technologies in developing healthcare IT environments.

  13. Living through a volcanic eruption: Understanding the experience of survivors as a phenomenological existential phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2016-06-01

    Mount Merapi in Indonesia is the most active volcano in the world with its 4-6-year eruption cycle. The mountain and surrounding areas are populated by hundreds of thousands of people who live near the volcano despite the danger posed to their wellbeing. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of people who survived the most recent eruption of Mount Merapi, which took place in 2010. Investigators conducted interviews with 20 participants to generate textual data that were coded and themed. Three themes linked to the phenomenological existential experience (temporality and relationality) of living through a volcanic eruption emerged from the data. These themes were: connectivity, disconnection and reconnection. Results indicate that the close relationship individuals have with Mount Merapi and others in their neighbourhood outweighs the risk of living in the shadow of an active volcano. This is the first study to analyze the phenomenological existential elements of living through a volcanic eruption. PMID:26892390

  14. Ups and downs of the expatriate experience? Understanding work adjustment trajectories and career outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Wanberg, Connie R; Harrison, David A; Diehn, Erica W

    2016-04-01

    We examine changes in work adjustment among 179 expatriates from 3 multinational organizations from predeparture through the first 9 months of a new international assignment. Our 10-wave results challenge classic U-shaped theories of expatriate adjustment (e.g., Torbiorn, 1982). Consistent with uncertainty reduction theory, our results instead suggest that expatriates typically experience a gradual increase in work adjustment over time. Two resources that expatriates bring to their assignments (previous culture-specific work experience and core self-evaluations) moderate the trajectory of work adjustment. Trajectory of adjustment predicts Month 9 career instrumentality and turnover intention, as well as career advancement (job promotion) 1.5 years further. Implications for theory, as well as for changes in expatriate management practices, are discussed. PMID:26653527

  15. Mapping the urban asthma experience: Using qualitative GIS to understand contextual factors affecting asthma control.

    PubMed

    Keddem, Shimrit; Barg, Frances K; Glanz, Karen; Jackson, Tara; Green, Sarah; George, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Asthma is complex and connected to a number of factors including access to healthcare, crime and violence, and environmental triggers. A mixed method approach was used to examine the experiences of urban people with asthma in controlling their asthma symptoms. The study started with an initial phase of qualitative interviews in West Philadelphia, a primarily poor African American community. Data from qualitative, semi-structured interviews indicated that stress, environmental irritants, and environmental allergens were the most salient triggers of asthma. Based on the interviews, the team identified six neighborhood factors to map including crime, housing vacancy, illegal dumping, tree canopy and parks. These map layers were combined into a final composite map. These combined methodologies contextualized respondents' perceptions in the framework of the actual community and built environment which tells a more complete story about their experience with asthma. PMID:26184704

  16. Microgravity experiment to understand the effect of convection on PVT crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N. B.; Duval, W. M. B.; Thomas, A. S. W.; Glicksman, M. E.; Adam, J. D.; Zhang, H.; Golombeck, J. C.; Watson, C.; Naumman, R.; Nelson, A. E.; Cacioppo, C.; Griffin, J.; Jugrav, M.; Rolin, T.; Seaquist, J.; Daniel, N.

    2003-07-01

    We have carried out very extensive theoretical and experimental studies on the physical vapour transport (PVT) growth of mercurous chloride. A microgravity experiment on the growth of mercurous chloride was designed and performed in the Space Experiment Facility (SEF) transparent furnace that was flown on Spacehab 4 (STS 77). Growth ampoules and cartridges were designed and fabricated to meet the science requirements. Two crystals were grown at the same time in the same furnace in <110> orientation at an speed of 5.5 mm/day and 8 mm/day by physical vapor transport in the microgravity condition to reduce gravity driven convection. The direct observation was made on the interface during the growth of crystals. We observed convex and detached growth for both growth runs.

  17. Mapping the urban asthma experience: Using qualitative GIS to understand contextual factors affecting asthma control.

    PubMed

    Keddem, Shimrit; Barg, Frances K; Glanz, Karen; Jackson, Tara; Green, Sarah; George, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Asthma is complex and connected to a number of factors including access to healthcare, crime and violence, and environmental triggers. A mixed method approach was used to examine the experiences of urban people with asthma in controlling their asthma symptoms. The study started with an initial phase of qualitative interviews in West Philadelphia, a primarily poor African American community. Data from qualitative, semi-structured interviews indicated that stress, environmental irritants, and environmental allergens were the most salient triggers of asthma. Based on the interviews, the team identified six neighborhood factors to map including crime, housing vacancy, illegal dumping, tree canopy and parks. These map layers were combined into a final composite map. These combined methodologies contextualized respondents' perceptions in the framework of the actual community and built environment which tells a more complete story about their experience with asthma.

  18. Living through a volcanic eruption: Understanding the experience of survivors as a phenomenological existential phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2016-06-01

    Mount Merapi in Indonesia is the most active volcano in the world with its 4-6-year eruption cycle. The mountain and surrounding areas are populated by hundreds of thousands of people who live near the volcano despite the danger posed to their wellbeing. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of people who survived the most recent eruption of Mount Merapi, which took place in 2010. Investigators conducted interviews with 20 participants to generate textual data that were coded and themed. Three themes linked to the phenomenological existential experience (temporality and relationality) of living through a volcanic eruption emerged from the data. These themes were: connectivity, disconnection and reconnection. Results indicate that the close relationship individuals have with Mount Merapi and others in their neighbourhood outweighs the risk of living in the shadow of an active volcano. This is the first study to analyze the phenomenological existential elements of living through a volcanic eruption.

  19. Contribution of gallium experiments to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The results of gallium measurements of solar neutrino and measurements with artificial sources of neutrinos are presented. Conclusions are drawn from these results, and the potential of the SAGE experiment for studying transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 0.5 eV{sup 2} and a sensitivity of a few percent to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is examined.

  20. Understanding reliance on automation: effects of error type, error distribution, age and experience

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Julian; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rovira, Ericka

    2015-01-01

    An obstacle detection task supported by “imperfect” automation was used with the goal of understanding the effects of automation error types and age on automation reliance. Sixty younger and sixty older adults interacted with a multi-task simulation of an agricultural vehicle (i.e. a virtual harvesting combine). The simulator included an obstacle detection task and a fully manual tracking task. A micro-level analysis provided insight into the way reliance patterns change over time. The results indicated that there are distinct patterns of reliance that develop as a function of error type. A prevalence of automation false alarms led participants to under-rely on the automation during alarm states while over relying on it during non-alarms states. Conversely, a prevalence of automation misses led participants to over-rely on automated alarms and under-rely on the automation during non-alarm states. Older adults adjusted their behavior according to the characteristics of the automation similarly to younger adults, although it took them longer to do so. The results of this study suggest the relationship between automation reliability and reliance depends on the prevalence of specific errors and on the state of the system. Understanding the effects of automation detection criterion settings on human-automation interaction can help designers of automated systems make predictions about human behavior and system performance as a function of the characteristics of the automation. PMID:25642142

  1. A SUPER!{sub sm} experience. Science understanding promotes environmental responsibility

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, K.

    1994-12-31

    SUPER!{sub sm} presents a model for how industries can share their technical work with their local communities. Designed to teach teachers the science behind environmental issues, SUPER!{sub sm} focuses on how Sandia is working to find innovative solutions to their nation`s environmental problems. SUPER!{sub sm} is a four week summer institute for middle and high school science teachers that examines the science behind the environmental issues. It is held at Sandia National Laboratories/California in Livermore during July. The institute has three goals: increasing scientific knowledge, improving and updating teaching methods, and increasing leadership skills. These goals are met through a combination of presentations by scientists and educators, field trips, and hand-on activities. The majority of hands-on materials used in this institute are from SEPUP (Science Education for Public Understanding Program, previously CEPUP, Chemical Education for Public Understanding Program). The institute is a partnership that brings together the technical resources of Sandia National Laboratories, the educational expertise of Lawrence Hall of Science and the California Department of Education, the leadership expertise of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination Project and the California Science Implementation Network, and the environmental expertise of the California Department of Toxic Substances Control.

  2. Understanding of emotional experience in autism: insights from the personal accounts of high-functioning children with autism.

    PubMed

    Losh, Molly; Capps, Lisa

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the authors investigate emotional understanding in autism through a discourse analytic framework to provide a window into children's strategies for interpreting emotional versus nonemotional encounters and consider the implications for the mechanisms underlying emotional understanding in typical development. Accounts were analyzed for thematic content and discourse structure. Whereas high-functioning children with autism were able to discuss contextually appropriate accounts of simple emotions, their strategies for interpreting all types of emotional (but not nonemotional) experiences differed from those used by typically developing children. High-functioning children with autism were less inclined to organize their emotional accounts in personalized causal-explanatory frameworks and displayed a tendency to describe visually salient elements of experiences seldom observed among comparison children. Findings suggest that children with autism possess less coherent representations of emotional experiences and use alternative strategies for interpreting emotionally evocative encounters. Discussion focuses on the significance of these findings for informing the nature of emotional dysfunction in autism as well as implications for theories of emotional understanding in typical development.

  3. INCREASED UNDERSTANDING OF BEAM LOSSES FROM THE SNS LINAC PROTON EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Shishlo, Andrei P; Plum, Michael A; Lebedev, Valerie; Laface, Emanuele; Galambos, John D

    2013-01-01

    Beam loss is a major concern for high power hadron accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). An unexpected beam loss in the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) was observed during the power ramp up and early operation. Intra-beam-stripping (IBS) loss, in which interactions between H- particles within the accelerated bunch strip the outermost electron, was recently identified as a possible cause of the beam loss. A set of experiments using proton beam acceleration in the SNS linac was conducted, which supports IBS as the primary beam loss mechanism in the SNS SCL.

  4. Understanding the life experience of people on hemodialysis: adherence to treatment and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Guerrerro, Verónica; Plazas, Maria del Pilar Camargo; Cameron, Brenda L; Salas, Anna Valeria Santos; González, Carmen Gloria Cofre

    2014-01-01

    This hermeneutic-phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of patients on hemodialysis in regard to the adherence to treatment and quality of life. Fifteen patients were interviewed, including six women and nine men from three dialysis centers in Chile. Two main themes derived from the analysis: 1) embracing the disease and dialysis, and 2) preventing progression of the disease through treatment management. The findings suggest that patients recognize adherence to treatment and quality of life as conditions that derive from self-care and environmental conditions, which the healthcare provider must constantly assess for care planning to improve the adherence and quality of life in this population.

  5. Interactive tutorial to improve student understanding of single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-03-01

    We have developed and evaluated a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single photons to expose upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses to contemporary quantum optics applications. The QuILT strives to help students develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to physical situations in quantum optics and explore the differences between classical and quantum ideas. The QuILT adapts visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about counter-intuitive quantum optics phenomena with single photons including a quantum eraser setup and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We discuss findings from in-class evaluations.

  6. Progression of ‘OMICS’ methodologies for understanding the pathogenicity of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: the Brazilian experience

    PubMed Central

    Dorella, Fernanda A.; Gala-Garcia, Alfonso; Pinto, Anne C.; Sarrouh, Boutros; Antunes, Camila A.; Ribeiro, Dayana; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Fiaux, Karina K.; Guimarães, Luis C.; Seyffert, Núbia; El-Aouar, Rachid A.; Silva, Renata; Hassan, Syed S.; Castro, Thiago L. P.; Marques, Wanderson S.; Ramos, Rommel; Carneiro, Adriana; de Sá, Pablo; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Since the first successful attempt at sequencing the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis genome, large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data have been generated. C. pseudotuberculosis is an interesting bacterium due to its great zoonotic potential and because it causes considerable economic losses worldwide. Furthermore, different strains of C. pseudotuberculosis are capable of causing various diseases in different hosts. Currently, we seek information about the phylogenetic relationships between different strains of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from different hosts across the world and to employ these data to develop tools to diagnose and eradicate the diseases these strains cause. In this review, we present the latest findings on C. pseudotuberculosis that have been obtained with the most advanced techniques for sequencing and genomic organization. We also discuss the development of in silico tools for processing these data to prompt a better understanding of this pathogen. PMID:24688721

  7. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. PMID:27466440

  8. Understanding women's experiences of developing an eating disorder and recovering: a life-history approach.

    PubMed

    Patching, Joanna; Lawler, Jocalyn

    2009-03-01

    Qualitative inquiry into eating disorders is burgeoning, offering valuable and innovative insights into various aspects of the condition. This study used life-history interviews with 20 women who had recovered from anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or both and who had remained healthy. The interviews focused on the women's narratives and experience rather than a diagnostic therapeutic model. Three themes of control, connectedness and conflict emerged as significant in the development, experience of, and recovery from an eating disorder. The development of the condition was attributed to a lack of control, a sense of non-connectedness to family and peers and extreme conflict with significant others. Recovery occurred when the women re-engaged with life, developed skills necessary for conflict resolution and rediscovered their sense of self. Rather than viewing the development of, and recovery from an eating disorder as separate and discrete events, the data from the life-history interviews suggest they are better viewed as one entity - that is, the journey of an individual attempting to discover and develop their sense of self. This perspective challenges some current constructs of eating disorders; it is not a condition in and of itself but a symptom of deeper issues that if addressed, when the individual is 'ready' to make that choice, will lead to recovery. PMID:19228300

  9. Understanding the Influence of Environment on Adults' Walking Experiences: A Meta-Synthesis Study.

    PubMed

    Dadpour, Sara; Pakzad, Jahanshah; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    The environment has an important impact on physical activity, especially walking. The relationship between the environment and walking is not the same as for other types of physical activity. This study seeks to comprehensively identify the environmental factors influencing walking and to show how those environmental factors impact on walking using the experiences of adults between the ages of 18 and 65. The current study is a meta-synthesis based on a systematic review. Seven databases of related disciplines were searched, including health, transportation, physical activity, architecture, and interdisciplinary databases. In addition to the databases, two journals were searched. Of the 11,777 papers identified, 10 met the eligibility criteria and quality for selection. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis of the results. The four themes identified as influencing walking were "safety and security", "environmental aesthetics", "social relations", and "convenience and efficiency". "Convenience and efficiency" and "environmental aesthetics" could enhance the impact of "social relations" on walking in some aspects. In addition, "environmental aesthetics" and "social relations" could hinder the influence of "convenience and efficiency" on walking in some aspects. Given the results of the study, strategies are proposed to enhance the walking experience. PMID:27447660

  10. Seasonal variation and homes: understanding the social experiences of older adults.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tam E

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research on the importance of seasons in the lives of older adults. Previous research has highlighted seasonal fluctuations in physical functioning--including limb strength, range of motion, and cardiac death--the spread of influenza in seasonal migration patterns. In addition, older adults experience isolation for various reasons, such as decline of physical and cognitive ability, lack of transportation, and lack of opportunities for social interaction. There has been much attention paid to the social isolation of older adults, yet little analysis about how the isolation changes throughout the year. Based on findings from an ethnographic study of older adults (n = 81), their family members (n = 49), and supportive professionals (n = 46) as they embark on relocation from their homes, this study analyzes the processes of moving for older adults. It examines the seasonal fluctuations of social isolation because of the effect of the environment on the social experiences of older adults. Isolation occurs because of the difficulty inclement weather causes on social interactions and mobility. The article concludes with discussion of the ways that research and practice can be designed and implemented to account for seasonal variation.

  11. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and laser tweezers based experiments to understand dentine-bacteria interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Sum Chee; Mohanty, Samarendra; Gupta, P. K.; Kishen, Anil

    2007-02-01

    Failure of endodontic treatment is commonly due to Enterococcal infection. In this study influence of chemical treatments of type-I collagen membrane by chemical agents commonly used in endodontic treatment on Enterococcus faecalis cell adherence was evaluated. In order to determine the change in number of adhering bacteria after chemical treatment, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used. For this, overnight culture of E faecalis in All Culture broth was applied to chemically treated type-I collagen membrane. It was found that Ca(OH) II treated groups had statistically significant (p value=0.05) increase in population of bacteria adherence. The change in adhesion force between bacteria and collagen was determined by using optical tweezers (1064 nm). For this experiment, Type-I collagen membrane was soaked for 5 mins in a media that contained 50% all culture media and 50% saturated Ca(OH) II . The membrane was spread on the coverslip, on which diluted bacterial suspension was added. The force of laser tweezers on the bacteria was estimated at different trap power levels using viscous drag method and trapping stiffness was calculated using Equipartition theorem method. Presence of Ca(OH) II was found to increase the cell-substrate adherence force from 0.38pN to >2.1pN. Together, these experiments show that it was highly probable that the increase in adherence to collagen was due to a stronger adhesion in the presence of Ca (OH) II.

  12. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration.

  13. Understanding the Influence of Environment on Adults’ Walking Experiences: A Meta-Synthesis Study

    PubMed Central

    Dadpour, Sara; Pakzad, Jahanshah; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    The environment has an important impact on physical activity, especially walking. The relationship between the environment and walking is not the same as for other types of physical activity. This study seeks to comprehensively identify the environmental factors influencing walking and to show how those environmental factors impact on walking using the experiences of adults between the ages of 18 and 65. The current study is a meta-synthesis based on a systematic review. Seven databases of related disciplines were searched, including health, transportation, physical activity, architecture, and interdisciplinary databases. In addition to the databases, two journals were searched. Of the 11,777 papers identified, 10 met the eligibility criteria and quality for selection. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis of the results. The four themes identified as influencing walking were “safety and security”, “environmental aesthetics”, “social relations”, and “convenience and efficiency”. “Convenience and efficiency” and “environmental aesthetics” could enhance the impact of “social relations” on walking in some aspects. In addition, “environmental aesthetics” and “social relations” could hinder the influence of “convenience and efficiency” on walking in some aspects. Given the results of the study, strategies are proposed to enhance the walking experience. PMID:27447660

  14. Experiments to Understand and Control Energetic Particle Transport by Alfvén Eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Collins, C.; Pace, D. C.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Holcomb, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    Alfvén eigenmodes (AE) cause appreciable fast-ion transport in both steady-state scenario and in L-mode current ramp plasmas. All fast-ion diagnostics that are sensitive to a populated portion of phase space observe reductions in signal relative to classical predictions in the presence of many, small-amplitude AEs. Theory indicates that the many wave-particle resonances in these plasmas results in stochastic transport and critical gradient behavior. Initial data from a modulation experiment is consistent with the hypothesis that the fast-ion transport becomes ``stiff.'' Another experiment investigates whether AE-induced transport from the core couples with edge losses induced by test-blanket module fields to enhance localized heating. Application of electron cyclotron heating to control the AEs gives mixed results: AEs are sometimes stabilized but the dependence on the fast-ion and q profiles is complex. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under SC-G903402, DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve ‘The Crow and the Pitcher’ task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause–effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended ‘learning–prediction–abstraction’ loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. PMID:27466440

  16. Understanding The Role Played By Medicare's Patient Experience Points System In Hospital Reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Marc N; Beckett, Megan K; Lehrman, William G; Cleary, Paul; Cohea, Christopher W; Giordano, Laura A; Goldstein, Elizabeth H; Damberg, Cheryl L

    2016-09-01

    In 2015 the Medicare Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) program paid hospitals $1.4 billion in performance-based incentives; 30 percent of a hospital's VBP Total Performance Score was based on performance on Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) measures of the patient experience of care. Hospitals receive patient experience points based on three components: achievement, improvement, and consistency. For 2015 we examined how the three components affected reimbursement for 3,152 hospitals, including their impact on low-performing and high-minority hospitals. Achievement accounted for 96 percent of the differences among hospitals in total HCAHPS points. Although achievement had the biggest influence on payments, payments related to improvement and consistency were more beneficial for low-performing hospitals that disproportionately served minority patients. The findings highlight the important inducement that paying for improvement provides to initially low-performing hospitals to improve care and the role this incentive structure plays in minimizing resource redistributions away from hospitals serving minority populations. Additional emphasis on improvement points could benefit hospitals serving disadvantaged patients. PMID:27605650

  17. Colloid retention mechanisms in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S N; Dickson, S E; Qu, J

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of fractured aquifers is commonly limited to the methodologies developed for unconsolidated porous media aquifers, which results in many uncertainties. Recent work indicates that fractured rocks remove more particulates than they are conventionally credited for. This research was designed to quantify the number of Escherichia coli RS2-GFP retained in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures extracted from the natural environment. Conservative solute and E. coli RS2-GFP tracer experiments were used to elucidate the relationships between dominant retention mechanisms, aperture field characteristics, and flow rate. A non-destructive method of determining a surrogate measure of a coefficient of variation (COV(S)) for each fracture was used to better understand the transport behaviour of E. coli RS2-GFP. The results from this research all point to the importance of aperture field characterization in understanding the fate and transport of contaminants in fractured aquifers. The mean aperture was a very important characteristic in determining particulate recovery, so were matrix properties, COV(s), and flow rate. It was also determined that attachment is a much more significant retention mechanism than straining under the conditions employed in this research. Finally, it was demonstrated that the dominant retention mechanism in a fracture varies depending on the specific discharge. An improved understanding of the mechanisms that influence the fate and transport of contaminants through fractures will lead to the development of better tools and methodologies for the characterization of fractured aquifers, as well as the ability to manipulate the relevant mechanisms to increase or decrease retention, depending on the application.

  18. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    processes in the soil have been modelled with simulation model SWAP. The experiment started in 2010 and is ongoing. Data, collected so far show that the plots with controlled drainage (all compared with plots equipped with conventional drainage) conserve more rain water (higher groundwater tables in early spring), lower discharges under average weather conditions and storm events, reduce N-loads and saline seepage to surface waters, enhance denitrification, show a different 'first flush' effect and show similar crop yields. The results of the experiments will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of controlled drainage on complex hydrological en geochemical processes in agricultural clay soils, the interaction between ground- en surface water and its effects on drain water quantity, quality and crop yield.

  19. Understanding the implications of the data from recent high-energy-density Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O A; Hansen, J F; Harding, E C; Drake, R P; Robey, H F; Remington, B A; Kuranz, C C; Grosskopf, M J; Gillespie, R S; Park, H

    2009-10-26

    The first successful high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) shear layer experiments (O.A. Hurricane, et al., Phys. Plasmas, 16, 056305, 2009; E.C. Harding, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 103, 045005, 2009) demonstrated the ability to design and field a target that produces an array of large diagnosable KH vortices in a controlled fashion. Data from these experiments vividly showed the complete evolution of large distinct eddies, from formation to apparent turbulent break-up. Unexpectedly, low-density bubbles/cavities comparable to the vortex size ({approx} 300 - 400 {micro}m) appeared to grow up in the free-stream flow above the unstable material interface. In this paper, the basic principles of the experiment will be discussed, the data reviewed, and the progress on understanding the origin of the above bubble structures through theory and simulation will be reported on.

  20. Understanding the experience of place: Expanding methods to conceptualize and measure community integration of persons with serious mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Wright, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Community integration research explores community contexts and factors that encourage or hinder individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) from actively participating in community life. This research agenda can be advanced by using mixed-methods that better document the relationships between contextual factors and individual experience. Two such methods were applied to a mixed-methods study of 40 adults with SMI living in independent housing in the Southeastern United States. Their contextualized experiences of community integration were measured by applying innovative participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping techniques. Use of these methods in conjunction with one another facilitated the creation of activity spaces, which can measure geographic accessibility and help to represent an individual's experience of place and degree of mobility. The utility of these newly applied methods for better understanding community integration for persons with SMI is explored and implications for using these measures in research and practice are discussed. PMID:19062326

  1. The importance of employee demographic profiles for understanding experiences of work-family interrole conflicts.

    PubMed

    Eagle, B W; Icenogle, M L; Maes, J D; Miles, E W

    1998-12-01

    This article investigated the reported experiences of work-family interrole conflict differences between American men and women. Participants answered questions on several questionnaires and were classified according to marital status, working or non-working spouse or partner, and presence of children. Overall, men reported significantly higher levels of work-to-family and strain-based, family-to-work conflict. Married men with working spouses, with and without children, and married men with children and non-working spouses reported higher levels of time-based and strain-based, family-to-work conflict than women in each corresponding category. The highest time-based, family-to-work conflict was reported by divorced women with children.

  2. Primary preservice teachers' understandings of volume: The impact of course and practicum experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zevenbergen, Robyn

    2005-02-01

    Mathematics teacher education programs are designed with an intention, explicit or implicit, to produce graduates who are competent in both pedagogic knowledge and discipline knowledge. This paper explores students' experiences in coming to learn mathematics and mathematics education. Using an example from a quiz question, supplemented with follow-up interviews with students, the paper raises questions as to the effectiveness of programs that adopt traditional approaches to the teaching of mathematics. It is shown how a functionalist perspective was adopted by many of the preservice teachers, which engendered a reproductive approach to teaching. The data raised concerns about preservice teachers' knowledge of volume, their pedagogic knowledge, and the role of the practicum on their learning.

  3. Feasibility analysis of the value of Q method in the classification and understanding of expert experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-yu; Li, Yong; Lu, Ai-ping; Han, Xue-jie

    2013-11-01

    The Q method, combining qualitative and quantitative methods, refers to the qualitative analysis of Q-sorts based on quantitative techniques. It is used to research individual subjective experience, analyzing consensus and divergence to identify and categorize subjects' viewpoints. The sorting process is completely performed by the subjects, independent of study researchers. The Q method in medical research has been applied in many fields, including nursing care, clinical studies, doctor and patient's perceptions, health evaluation and decision making. The authors used the Q method to research Chinese medicine (CM) group decision making, exploring its practical feasibility in this important field. Four primary domains are addressed: (1) integration of expert opinion; (2) expert classification; (3) ascertaining the entire viewpoint orientation of a certain type of expert; and (4) comparison of expert opinion using an additional perspective. The essence of the Q method caters to the CM thinking model and should be introduced into CM and explored more deeply.

  4. The importance of relationship in understanding the experiences of spouse mental health carers.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Sharon; McMahon, Janne

    2014-02-01

    The burden of caring for family members with mental illness has been researched extensively; however, knowledge of spouse carers' experiences is limited. In this article, we explore this from a carers' perspective, with 28 spouse carers, using qualitative open-ended semistructured interviews and a grounded theory approach informed by the social interactionism tradition to collect and analyze the data. We present six interrelated themes around the central theme of this being "a real and genuine relationship." The findings indicate that caring for a spouse with severe mental illness is a unique role compared with other caring roles. First and foremost, spouse carers strive for the relationship with their partner and accommodate mental illness into their lives to protect the relationship. Because of this, they often lead surreal lives marked by significant emotional pressure and isolation. This has implications for how mental health service providers work with and support spouse carers.

  5. Understanding the experiences and quality of life issues of Bahraini women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jassim, Ghufran A; Whitford, David L

    2014-04-01

    We explored the experiences of Bahraini women who have survived breast cancer and their perception of quality of life after diagnosis. We conducted in depth, semi-structured face-to-face interviews with twelve women diagnosed with breast cancer. A qualitative method using semi-structured interviews on a purposive sample of 12 Bahraini women with breast cancer was conducted. Similarities and differences in women's experience were identified through thematic analysis of interview transcripts using a constant comparative approach. The themes identified were meaning of cancer and quality of life, spirituality and beliefs about causes of breast cancer, coping mechanisms, impact of illness and change in relationships. Quality of life was framed in terms of the ability to perform daily duties with emphasis on the physical component of quality of life. Themes that differed from previous western studies included a heavy emphasis on spiritual practices for comfort; the use of traditional clothing (hijab and abaya) to hide hair and body changes; the important role played by the family and husband in treatment decisions and concerns regarding satisfying the sexual needs of the husband, which were related to a fear of losing the husband to a second wife. Evil eye, stress and God's punishment were believed to be fundamental causes of the disease. The emotional shock of the initial diagnosis, concerns about whether to reveal the diagnosis and a desire to live a normal life were consistent with previous studies. However, cultural and religious issues such as role of the husband and impact of prayers were also important here. These themes are important to healthcare professionals for ensuring an individualized approach to the treatment of women with breast cancer. PMID:24631996

  6. DHOFAR Seismic Experiment: First results to understand the breakup processes in a passive margin context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberi, C.; Leroy, S.; D'Acremont, E.; Pointu, A.; Ebinger, C.; Brisbourne, A.; Denton, P.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Azri, H.; Bin Monshir Bahlaf, S.; Brunet, C.; Famin, V.; Labrousse, L.

    2004-12-01

    The process of strain localisation preceding the onset of seafloor spreading is still poorly understood, though extensively studied. The reason is the differences in lithospheric properties, proximity to hot spot(s) and melt generation and extraction that lead to a variety of structural styles with major differences. The eastern Gulf of Aden represents a natural laboratory to study passive continental margins for many reasons: post-rift sedimentary strata are relatively thin, both onshore and nearshore structures are well-exposed, and conjugate margins can be precisely reconstructed. A first cruise (ENCENS-SHEBA), in 2000, has established the structural and geophysical framework using bathymetric swath mapping and underway geophysics. Later on, the Dhofar seismic experiment consisted in the deployment of a network of 11 broadband seismic stations from March 2003 to March 2004 on the northern margin, in the Dhofar area, southern Oman. This experiment was dedicated to the detailed study of the crust and upper mantle beneath the northern passive margin. CMG40TD 3-components seismometers from SEIS-UK network were used. We have recorded hundreds of teleseismic events with a good azimuthal coverage. Three main studies are then attempted. First, a teleseismic image of the first 200 km depth will be established using the P- and PKP-phases. This will allow a 3D representation of crustal and upper mantle velocity structures. We present here the preliminary results from the study of the traveltime residuals. The image resolution shall be enhanced by combining gravity data. Second, a receiver function analysis will locally determine the depth of the main interfaces (eg, Moho boundary). Finally, events recorded within the 1000-6000 km distance range will improve the regional S-wave velocity structure in this area and will help to locate the main regional wide structures related to this extended area.

  7. Do Signers Understand Regional Varieties of a Sign Language? A Lexical Recognition Experiment.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Rose

    2016-01-01

    The degree of mutual intelligibility of British Sign Language (BSL) regional varieties has been a subject of some debate. Recent research in which dyads of signers from contrasting regional backgrounds engaged in a conversational task showed no problems understanding one another. The present study investigated signers' knowledge of different BSL regional varieties. Twenty-five participants from Belfast, Glasgow, Manchester, and Newcastle took part in a computer-based lexical recognition task in which they had to identify the meaning of 47 color signs from various regions in the United Kingdom. The results indicate that overall signers have a poor knowledge of regional signs for colors when signs are presented in isolation and without mouthing. Furthermore, signers with deaf parents performed better in the recognition task than signers with hearing parents and varieties from London and Birmingham were easiest to recognize. This article discusses how signers cope with regional differences and considers the features that facilitate in the recognition of regional varieties in BSL. PMID:26399952

  8. Developing an in vitro understanding of patient experience with hydrofluoroalkane-metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Doub, William H; Shah, Vibhakar; Limb, Susan; Guo, Changning; Liu, Xiaofei; Ngo, Diem

    2014-11-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, manufacturers of metered dose inhalers began reformulating their products to use hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) as propellants in place of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Although the new products are considered safe and efficacious by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), a large number of complaints have been registered via the FDA's Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS)-more than 7000 as of May 2013. To develop a better understanding of the measurable parameters that may, in part, determine in vitro performance and thus patient compliance, we compared several CFC- and HFA-based products with respect to their aerodynamic performance in response to changes in actuator cleaning interval and interactuation delay interval. Comparison metrics examined in this study were: total drug delivered ex-actuator, fine particle dose (<5 μm), mass median aerodynamic diameter, plume width, plume temperature, plume impaction force, and actuator orifice diameter. Overall, no single metric or test condition distinguishes HFA products from CFC products, but, for individual products tested, there were a combination of metrics that differentiated one from another. PMID:25228114

  9. Developing an in vitro understanding of patient experience with hydrofluoroalkane-metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Doub, William H; Shah, Vibhakar; Limb, Susan; Guo, Changning; Liu, Xiaofei; Ngo, Diem

    2014-11-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, manufacturers of metered dose inhalers began reformulating their products to use hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) as propellants in place of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Although the new products are considered safe and efficacious by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), a large number of complaints have been registered via the FDA's Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS)-more than 7000 as of May 2013. To develop a better understanding of the measurable parameters that may, in part, determine in vitro performance and thus patient compliance, we compared several CFC- and HFA-based products with respect to their aerodynamic performance in response to changes in actuator cleaning interval and interactuation delay interval. Comparison metrics examined in this study were: total drug delivered ex-actuator, fine particle dose (<5 μm), mass median aerodynamic diameter, plume width, plume temperature, plume impaction force, and actuator orifice diameter. Overall, no single metric or test condition distinguishes HFA products from CFC products, but, for individual products tested, there were a combination of metrics that differentiated one from another.

  10. Understanding Crew Decision-Making in the Presence of Complexity: A Flight Simulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Evans, Emory; deHaag, Maarten Uijt; Duan, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Crew decision making and response have long been leading causal and contributing factors associated with aircraft accidents. Further, it is anticipated that future aircraft and operational environments will increase exposure to risks related to these factors if proactive steps are not taken to account for ever-increasing complexity. A flight simulation study was designed to collect data to help in understanding how complexity can, or may, be manifest. More specifically, an experimental apparatus was constructed that allowed for manipulation of information complexity and uncertainty, while also manipulating operational complexity and uncertainty. Through these manipulations, and the aid of experienced airline pilots, several issues have been discovered, related most prominently to the influence of information content, quality, and management. Flight crews were immersed in an environment that included new operational complexities suggested for the future air transportation system as well as new technological complexities (e.g. electronic flight bags, expanded data link services, synthetic and enhanced vision systems, and interval management automation). In addition, a set of off-nominal situations were emulated. These included, for example, adverse weather conditions, traffic deviations, equipment failures, poor data quality, communication errors, and unexpected clearances, or changes to flight plans. Each situation was based on one or more reference events from past accidents or incidents, or on a similar case that had been used in previous developmental tests or studies. Over the course of the study, 10 twopilot airline crews participated, completing over 230 flights. Each flight consisted of an approach beginning at 10,000 ft. Based on the recorded data and pilot and research observations, preliminary results are presented regarding decision-making issues in the presence of the operational and technological complexities encountered during the flights.

  11. Improved understanding of bimolecular reactions in deceptively simple homogeneous media: From laboratory experiments to Lagrangian quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Qian, Jiazhong; Papelis, Charalambos; Sun, Pengtao; Yu, Zhongbo

    2014-02-01

    Medium heterogeneity affects reaction kinetics by controlling the mixing of reactant particles, but the linkage between medium properties and reaction kinetics is difficult to build, even for simple, relatively homogeneous media. This study aims to explore the dynamics of bimolecular reactions, aniline + 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid → 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-aminobenzene, in relatively homogeneous flow cells. Laboratory experiments were conducted to monitor the transport of both conservative and reactive tracers through columns packed with silica sand of specific diameters. The measured tracer breakthrough curves exhibit subdiffusive behavior with a late-time tail becoming more pronounced with decreasing sand size, probably due to the segregated flow regions formed more easily in columns packed with smaller size sand. Numerical analysis using a novel Lagrangian model shows that subdiffusion has a twofold effect on bimolecular reactions. While subdiffusion enhances the power-law growth rate of product mass by prolonging the exposure of reactant particles in the depletion zone, the global reaction rate is constrained because subdiffusion constrains the mobility of reactant particles. Reactive kinetics in deceptively simple homogeneous media is therefore controlled by subdiffusion, which is sensitive to the dimensions of packed sand.

  12. Use of rehabilitation experiments to understand the recovery dynamics of acid-stressed fish populations.

    PubMed

    Snucins, Ed; Gunn, John M

    2003-04-01

    We used rehabilitation experiments involving the stocking of 2 native sportfish, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), in combination with recent fish community surveys, to study the recovery dynamics of fish populations in acid-stressed lakes near Sudbury and Killarney, Ontario, Canada. Population recovery rates differed between the 2 species. Introduced lake trout did poorly in species-rich lakes and exhibited slower growth, lower survival and delayed recruitment. Smallmouth bass, in contrast, readily colonized species-rich lakes. The biomass of natural smallmouth bass recruits increased to reference lake levels within 5 years following water quality recovery and spawning by stocked fish, whereas the biomass of natural lake trout recruits remained well below reference levels 5-15 years after water quality recovery and spawning by adults occurred. We document introductions by anglers of smallmouth bass into acid-damaged lake trout lakes, including some lakes that did not contain bass prior to acidification. This range expansion of a warm-water species (bass) that can alter food-web structure and reduce the growth of a cold-water species (trout), illustrates the potential for the combination of climate warming and species introductions to greatly alter the biological recovery endpoints in acid-stressed lakes.

  13. Integrating Single-Molecule Experiments and Discrete Stochastic Models to Understand Heterogeneous Gene Transcription Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Munsky, Brian; Fox, Zachary; Neuert, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The production and degradation of RNA transcripts is inherently subject to biological noise that arises from small gene copy numbers in individual cells. As a result, cellular RNA levels can exhibit large fluctuations over time and from one cell to the next. This article presents a range of precise single-molecule experimental techniques, based upon RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, which can be used to measure the fluctuations of RNA at the single-cell level. A class of models for gene activation and deactivation is postulated in order to capture complex stochastic effects of chromatin modifications or transcription factor interactions. A computational tool, known the Finite State Projection approach, is introduced to accurately and efficiently analyze these models in order to predict how probability distributions of RNA change over time in response to changing environmental conditions. These single-molecule experiments, discrete stochastic models, and computational analyses are systematically integrated to identify models of gene regulation dynamics. To illustrate the power and generality of our integrated experimental and computational approach, we explore cases that include different models for three different RNA types (sRNA, mRNA and nascent RNA), three different experimental techniques and three different biological species (bacteria, yeast and human cells). PMID:26079925

  14. Measuring Graduate Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual and technical problems that need to be considered when studying graduate student retention and degree progress are examined, and practical suggestions for the institutional researcher are offered. Terms are defined, retention measures are explained, and different types of analysis are outlined. Ideas are given for database…

  15. Is experience on a farm an effective approach to understanding animal products and the management of dairy farming?

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Osada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takako; Momota, Yutaka; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Kamiya, Shinji; Yoshimura, Itaru

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of animal products and dairy farming is important for the promotion of dairy farming. Thus, to examine the effects of farm experience on the understanding of animal products and the management of dairy farming, the interaction between students and dairy cows was investigated in groups of first-year veterinary nursing students in 2011 and 2012 (n = 201). These students included 181 women and 20 men. Nine items about dairy cows were presented in a questionnaire. The survey was performed before and after praxis on the educational farm attached to the authors' university. After praxis on the farm, increases occurred in the number of positive responses to the items involving the price of milk, dairy farming and the taste of milk. For these items, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was found between the scores obtained before and after training. The results of the study suggested that farm experience is useful for improving the understanding of animal products and dairy farming.

  16. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misiūnė, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global

  17. Using Space Weather Forecast Tools for Understanding Planetary Magnetospheres: MESSENGER Experience Applied to MAVEN Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.; Dewey, R. M.; Brain, D. A.; Jakosky, Bruce; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, Jack; Odstrcil, Dusan; Mays, M. Leila; Luhmann, Janet

    2015-04-01

    The Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)-ENLIL solar wind modeling tool has been used to calculate the values of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength (B), solar wind speed (V), density (n), ram pressure (~nV2), cross-magnetosphere electric field (VxB), Alfvén Mach number (MA), and other derived quantities of relevance for space weather purposes at Earth. Such parameters as solar wind dynamic pressure can be key for estimating the magnetopause standoff distance, as just one example. The interplanetary electric field drives many magnetospheric dynamical processes and can be compared with general magnetic activity indices and with the occurrence of energetic particle bursts within the Earth’s magnetosphere. Such parameters also serve as input to the global magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic magnetosphere models that are used to forecast magnetospheric and ionospheric processes. Such modeling done for Earth space weather forecasting has helped assess near-real-time magnetospheric behavior for MESSENGER at Mercury (as well as other mission analysis and Mercury ground-based observational campaigns). This solar-wind forcing knowledge has provided a crucial continuing step toward bringing heliospheric science expertise to bear on solar-planetary interaction studies. The experience gained from MESSENGER at Mercury is now being applied to the new observations from the MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution) mission at Mars. We compare the continuous WSA-ENLIL results derived from modeling to the MAVEN SWIA and MAG data from mid-December 2014 to the present time. This provides a broader contextual view of solar wind forcing at Mars and also allows a broader validation of the ENLIL model results throughout the inner heliosphere.

  18. Iranian senior nursing managers’ experiences and understanding of social capital in the nursing profession

    PubMed Central

    Manoochehri, Houman; Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Hassani, Parkhideh; Arbon, Paul; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the role of social capital within the context of the nursing profession in Iran, based on the experience and perspectives of senior nursing managers. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using the Graneheim and Lundman content analysis method. Using purposive sampling, 26 senior nursing managers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, the College of Nursing and Midwifery, the Iranian Nursing Organization, nursing associations and hospitals were selected, who participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Results: Content analysis revealed three main themes (social capital deficit, applying multiple strategies, and cultivating social capital) as well as eight categories which included professional remoteness, deficiency in professional potency, deficiency in professional exchanges, accumulation of personal social capital, accumulation of professional social capital, socio-political strategies, psychological–cognitive strategies, and ethical/spiritual strategies. The results show the perceived level of social capital in nursing in Iran, the application of some key strategies, and the principal rewards accrued from active participation in improving the social capital in nursing environment and profession. Conclusions: Efforts should be made to strengthen the social capital and apply key strategies with the aim of achieving personal and professional benefits for nurses, their patients, and co-workers, and for the delivery of healthcare in general. In this respect, the role of senior managers is vital in stimulating collective action within the profession, planning for the development of a culture of participation in healthcare services, helping to develop all fields of the profession, and developing and strengthening intra- and inter-professional exchanges and networking. PMID:25400673

  19. Understanding Pulsed Plasma Jets with Advanced Simulations, Ground and Space Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos

    2004-11-01

    Pulsed plasma jets are found in diverse areas, such as thruster plume/spacecraft interactions, artificial release experiments, space plasma physics, and plasma materials processing. We review recent experimental and computational work and elucidate on physical characteristics and processes relevant to electric propulsion plumes. We present first results of experimental investigations of pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) plumes that led to the development of a new method of operation for triple and quadruple Langmuir probes. This novel current-mode method involves biasing all probe electrodes and requires the measurement of probe currents providing the electron temperature, the electron density and the ratio of ion speed to most probable thermal speed. We review the current-mode probe theory for a single species, two-temperature, collisionless plasma along with formal sensitivity analysis of the new diagnostic. The NASA Glenn Research Center laboratory Teflon® PPT used in the experiments was operating at discharge energies of 5, 20 and 40 Joules, with a pulse duration of 10-15 microseconds, ablating 20-50 micrograms/pulse. We present current-mode triple and quadruple probe measurements obtained at various locations in the plume of the plasma source. Extensive comparisons between double probe and current-mode probe measurements validate the new method. We present next computational modeling of plumes from a NASA Glenn Research Center laboratory micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster. The axisymmetric, hybrid (fluid/particle) methodology that introduced several new modeling and algorithmic approaches. Neutrals are modeled with the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and ions with a Hybrid-Particle-in-Cell (hybrid-PIC) collisional method. Electrons are modeled as a massless fluid with a momentum equation. The Non-Time-Counter methodology is used for neutral-neutral, elastic ion-neutral, and charge exchange collisions. Ion-electron collisions are modeled with the use of a

  20. Artificial size frequency distribution indices in laboratory experiments: Implications for understanding the evolution of Itokawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noviello, Jessica; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Daly, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Asteroid 25143 Itokawa is a near-Earth irregular asteroid 535 by 294 by 209 meters in size [1]. The surface topography can be divided into the smooth lowlands and the rocky highlands. The origins of these regions could be due to the surface flow of fines from high to low points of gravitational potential [2]. Previous block studies conducted by Michikami et al. [3] and Mazrouei et al. [4] reported average size frequency distribution (SFD) indices on blocks larger than 6 m in diameter to be -3.1 ± 0.1 and -3.5 ± 0.1, respectively. Noviello et al. [5] reported preliminary results showing that blocks from 0.1 to 6 m in diameter had significantly lower SFD indices. They also reported that SFDs created from lowland image analyses consistently yield indices of around -2.71 ± 0.01, while the SFDs from highland images yield indices of roughly -2.00 ± 0.01 at the same scale. There are a number of geologic processes that could be responsible for the observed differences in SFD indices between different topographical regions. To quantify the effects of seismic shaking on SFD indices, we conducted simple laboratory experiments. Blocks were placed in a bin and slowly covered with sand and gravel, and then subjected to periods of moderate shaking in 10-second increments. The same methods used in the observational study were then applied to the experimental blocks to quantify the change in SFD index as the blocks were first covered and subsequently revealed. The initial results are: 1) As blocks are covered, in general the indices decrease; 2) Seismic shaking restores the indices; and 3) Larger blocks reappear faster than smaller rocks after shaking. This has implications for interpreting results of block count studies (the brazil nut effect [6]) and sample return missions, while also providing details about the physical expression of certain geologic processes on small bodies. [1] Fujiwara, A. et al., (2006) Science, 312, 1330-1334. [2] Miyamoto, H. et al., (2007) Science

  1. Waste Heat Approximation for Understanding Dynamic Compression in Nature and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, R.

    2015-12-01

    Energy dissipated during dynamic compression quantifies the residual heat left in a planet due to impact and accretion, as well as the deviation of a loading path from an ideal isentrope. Waste heat ignores the difference between the pressure-volume isentrope and Hugoniot in approximating the dissipated energy as the area between the Rayleigh line and Hugoniot (assumed given by a linear dependence of shock velocity on particle velocity). Strength and phase transformations are ignored: justifiably, when considering sufficiently high dynamic pressures and reversible transformations. Waste heat mis-estimates the dissipated energy by less than 10-20 percent for volume compressions under 30-60 percent. Specific waste heat (energy per mass) reaches 0.2-0.3 c02 at impact velocities 2-4 times the zero-pressure bulk sound velocity (c0), its maximum possible value being 0.5 c02. As larger impact velocities are implied for typical orbital velocities of Earth-like planets, and c02 ≈ 2-30 MJ/kg for rock, the specific waste heat due to accretion corresponds to temperature rises of about 3-15 x 103 K for rock: melting accompanies accretion even with only 20-30 percent waste heat retained. Impact sterilization is similarly quantified in terms of waste heat relative to the energy required to vaporize H2O (impact velocity of 7-8 km/s, or 4.5-5 c0, is sufficient). Waste heat also clarifies the relationship between shock, multi-shock and ramp loading experiments, as well as the effect of (static) pre-compression. Breaking a shock into 2 steps significantly reduces the dissipated energy, with minimum waste heat achieved for two equal volume compressions in succession. Breaking a shock into as few as 4 steps reduces the waste heat to within a few percent of zero, documenting how multi-shock loading approaches an isentrope. Pre-compression, being less dissipative than an initial shock to the same strain, further reduces waste heat. Multi-shock (i.e., high strain-rate) loading of pre

  2. Challenges in understanding, modelling, and mitigating Lake Outburst Flood Hazard: experiences from Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, Martin; Schneider, Demian; Andres, Norina; Worni, Raphael; Gruber, Fabian; Schneider, Jean F.

    2010-05-01

    the outburst of landslide-dammed lakes) remains a challenge: • The knowledge about the onset of the process is often limited (bathymetry of the lakes, subsurface water, properties of dam (content of ice), type of dam breach, understanding of process chains and interactions). • The size of glacial lakes may change rapidly but continuously, and many lakes break out within a short time after their development. Continuous monitoring is therefore required to keep updated on the existing hazards. • Also the outburst of small glacial lakes may lead to significant debris floods or even debris flows if there is plenty of erodible material available. • The available modeling software packages are of limited suitability for lake outburst floods: e.g. software developed by the hydrological community is specialized to simulate (debris) floods with input hydrographs on moderately steep flow channels and with lower sediment loads. In contrast to this, programs for rapid mass movements are better suited on steeper slopes and sudden onset of the movement. The typical characteristics of GLOFs are in between and vary for different channel sections. In summary, the major bottlenecks remain in deriving realistic or worst case scenarios and predicting their magnitude and area of impact. This mainly concerns uncertainties in the dam break process, involved volumes, erosion rates, changing rheologies, and the limited capabilities of available software packages to simulate process interactions and transformations such as the development of a hyperconcentrated flow into a debris flow. In addition, many areas prone to lake outburst floods are located in developing countries with a limited scope of the threatened population for decision-making and limited resources for mitigation.

  3. Deriving NMR surface relaxivities, pore size distributions and water retention curves by NMR relaxation experiments on partially de-saturated rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohnke, O.; Nordlund, C. L.; Klitzsch, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a method used over a wide field of geophysical applications to non-destructively determine transport and storage properties of rocks and soils. In NMR relaxometry signal amplitudes correspond directly to the rock's fluid (water, oil) content. On the other hand the NMR relaxation behavior, i.e. the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) NMR relaxation times, can be used to derive pore sizes and permeability as it is linearly linked to the pore's surface-to-volume-ratio and physiochemical properties of the rock-fluid interface by the surface relaxivity ρ_s This parameter, however, is dependent on the type and mineral constituents of the investigated rock sample and thus has to be determined and calibrated prior to estimating pore sizes from NMR relaxometry measurements. Frequently used methods to derive surface relaxivity to calibrate NMR pore sizes comprise mercury injection, pulsed field gradients (PFG-NMR) or grain size analysis. This study introduces an alternative approach to jointly estimate NMR surface relaxivity and pore radii distributions using NMR relaxation data obtained from partially de-saturated rocks. In this, inverse modeling is carried on a linked Young Laplace equation for capillary bundles and the Brownstein and Tarr equations. Subsequently, this approach is used to predict water retention curves of the investigated rocks. The method was tested and validated on simulated and laboratory transverse NMR data. Calculated inverse models are generally in a good agreement with results obtained from mercury injection and drainage measurements. Left: Measured and predicted water retention (pF) curves. Center: NMR relaxometry data, fit and error. Right: Mercury injection data (HgPor, dashed line) and jointly derived pore radii distributions and surface relaxivity by joint inverse modelling

  4. E. coli RS2GFP Retention Mechanisms in Laboratory-Scale Fractured Rocks: A Statistical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S. N.; Qu, J.; Dickson, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    With billions of gallons of groundwater being withdrawn every day in the US and Canada, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms which jeopardize this resource and the health of those who rely on it. Porous media aquifers have typically been considered to provide significant filtration of particulate matter (e.g. microorganisms), while the fractures in fractured rock aquifers and aquitards are considered to act as contaminant highways allowing a large fraction of pathogens to travel deep into an aquifer relatively quickly. Recent research results indicate that fractured rocks filter out more particulates than typically believed. The goal of the research presented here is to quantify the number of E. coli RS2GFP retained in a single, saturated, laboratory-scale fracture, and to relate the retention of E. coli RS2GFP to the aperture field characteristics and groundwater flow rate. To achieve this goal, physical experiments were conducted at the laboratory-scale to quantify the retention of E. coli RS2GFP through several single, saturated, dolomitic limestone fractures under a range of flow rates. These fractures were also cast with a transparent epoxy in order to visualize the transport mechanisms in the various different aperture fields. The E. coli RS2GFP is tagged with a green-fluorescent protein (GFP) that is used to obtain visualization data when excited by ultraviolet light. A series of experiments was conducted, each of which involved the release of a known number of E. coli RS2GFP at the upstream end of the fracture and measuring the effluent concentration profile. These experiments were conducted using both the natural rock and transparent cast of several different aperture fields, under a range of flow rates. The effects of different aperture field characteristics and flow rates on the retention of E. coli RS2GFP will be determined by conducting a statistical analysis of the retention data under different experimental conditions. The images captured

  5. Understanding women's experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict: the case of Syria.

    PubMed

    Alsaba, Khuloud; Kapilashrami, Anuj

    2016-05-01

    Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women's experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors' experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women's experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women's response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery. PMID:27578334

  6. Great apes' (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) understanding of tool functional properties after limited experience.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Esther; Wobber, Victoria; Call, Josep

    2008-05-01

    Primates' understanding of tool functionality has been investigated extensively using a paradigm in which subjects are presented with a tool that they must use to obtain an out-of-reach reward. After being given experience on an initial problem, monkeys can transfer their skill to tools of different shapes while ignoring irrelevant tool changes (e.g., color). In contrast, monkeys without initial training perform poorly on the same tasks. Compared to most monkeys, great apes show a clear propensity for tool using and may not require as much experience to succeed on tool functionality tasks. We investigated this question by presenting 171 apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus) with several tool-use problems without giving them initial training or familiarizing them with the test materials. Apes succeeded without experience, but only on problems based on basic properties such as the reward being supported by an object. However, only minimal experience was sufficient to allow them to quickly improve their performance on more complex problems in which the reward was not in contact with the tool.

  7. Shadowing the wandering mind: how understanding the mind-wandering state can inform our appreciation of conscious experience.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Mahiko; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The mind-wandering state illustrates two fundamental aspects of consciousness: its generative nature, which is reflected by the stimulus-independent content of thought that occurs when our minds wander; and metacognition, the unique capacity of the mind to reflect and understand itself. Self-generated thought, which allows us to consider people and events that are not present in the immediate environment, and metacognition, allowing us to introspect and report our inner experiences, are both essential to the scientific study of mind-wandering. Nevertheless, they also inevitably lead to specific issues that mirror more general problems in the field of consciousness research. The generative nature of consciousness makes it difficult to have direct control on the phenomenon, and the act of introspecting on inner experience has the potential to influence the state itself. We illustrate how the field of mind-wandering research can overcome these problems. Its generative nature can be understood by triangulating the objective measures (such as neural function) with subjective measures of experience and it can be manipulated indirectly by varying the demands of the external environment. Furthermore, we describe candidate covert markers for the mind-wandering state, which allow the phenomenon to be observed without direct interference, minimizing the concern that instructions to introspect necessarily change conscious experience. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:233-246. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1392 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  8. Understanding women's experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict: the case of Syria.

    PubMed

    Alsaba, Khuloud; Kapilashrami, Anuj

    2016-05-01

    Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women's experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors' experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women's experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women's response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery.

  9. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  10. Understanding Success of Historically Underrepresented Students at California State University, Monterey Bay through a Look at Their Institutional Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Mary; Chukwuemeka, Veronica; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Unlike many universities, the historically under-represented (URM) students at California State University, Monterey Bay, typically graduate at a higher rate than non-URM students. Intense efforts have been made by staff and faculty to increase retention and graduation rates of all students. This paper examines the graduation rates in the context…

  11. Causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Scott A; Kim, Hyunjung

    2012-09-01

    Experiments were designed to better understand the causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis with transients in solution ionic strength (IS). Saturated packed column experiments were conducted using two sizes of carboxyl modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.1 and 1.1 μm) and microorganisms (coliphage φX174 and E. coli D21g) under various transient solution chemistry conditions, and 360 μm Ottawa sand that was subject to different levels of cleaning, namely, a salt cleaning procedure that removed clay particles, and a salt+acid cleaning procedure that removed clay and reduced microscopic heterogeneities due to metal oxides and surface roughness. Comparison of results from the salt and salt+acid treated sand indicated that microscopic heterogeneity was a major contributor to colloid retention hysteresis. The influence of this heterogeneity increased with IS and decreasing colloid/microbe size on salt treated sand. These trends were not consistent with calculated mean interaction energies (the secondary minima), but could be explained by the size of the electrostatic zone of influence (ZOI) near microscopic heterogeneities. In particular, the depth of local minima in the interaction energy has been predicted to increase with a decrease in the ZOI when the colloid size and/or the Debye length decreased (IS increased). The adhesive interaction was therefore largely irreversible for smaller sized 0.1 μm CML colloids, whereas it was reversible for larger 1.1 μm CML colloids. Similarly, the larger E. coli D21g exhibited greater reversibility in retention than φX174. However, direct comparison of CML colloids and microbes was not possible due to differences in size, shape, and surface properties. Retention and release behavior of CML colloids on salt+acid treated sand was much more consistent with mean interaction energies due to reduction in microscopic heterogeneities.

  12. Anaerobic treatment of a medium strength industrial wastewater at low-temperature and short hydraulic retention time: a pilot-scale experience.

    PubMed

    Esparza Soto, M; Solís Morelos, C; Hernández Torres, J J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of cereal-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (17 degrees C) for more than 300 days. The applied organic loading rate (OLR(appl)) was gradually increased from 4 to 6 and 8 kg COD(sol)/m3d by increasing the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD(sol)), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (5.2 h). The removal efficiency was high (82 to 92%) and slightly decreased after increasing the influent COD(sol) and the OLR(appl). The highest removed organic loading rate (OLR(rem)) was reached when the UASB reactor was operated at 8 kg COD(sol)/m3d and it was two times higher than that obtained for an OLR(appl) of 4 kg COD(sol)/m3d. Some disturbances were observed during the experimentation. The formation of biogas pockets in the sludge bed significantly complicated the biogas production quantification, but did not affect the reactor performance. The volatile fatty acids in the effluent were low, but increased as the OLR(appl) increased, which caused an increment of the effluent COD(sol). Anaerobic treatment at low temperature was a good option for the biological pre-treatment of cereal processing industry wastewater.

  13. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  14. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  15. Retention in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Jordan-Evans, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 25 global talent leaders discuss keeping good people and the challenges and emerging practices for retaining employees. Sidebars discuss retention tips and what keeps people on the job. (JOW)

  16. Understanding how deployment experiences change over time: Comparison of female and male OEF/OIF and Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Fox, Annie B; Walker, Brian E; Smith, Brian N; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A; Vogt, Dawne

    2016-03-01

    Despite increased attention to the evolving nature of war, the unique challenges of contemporary deployment, and women's changing role in warfare, few studies have examined differences in deployment stressors across eras of service or evaluated how gender differences in deployment experiences have changed over time. Using data collected from two national survey studies, we examined war cohort and gender differences in veterans' reports of both mission-related and interpersonal stressors during deployment. Although Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans reported more combat experiences and greater preparedness for deployment compared to Gulf War veterans, Gulf War veterans reported higher levels of other mission-related stressors, including difficult living and working environment, perceived threat, and potential exposure to nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Gender differences also emerged, with men reporting greater exposure to mission-related stressors and women reporting higher levels of interpersonal stressors. However, the size and nature of gender differences did not differ significantly when comparing veterans of the two eras. By understanding how risk factors for PTSD differ based on war era and gender, veterans' experiences can be better contextualized. PMID:25866959

  17. Understanding death with limited experience in life: dying children’s and adolescents’ understanding of their own terminal illness and death

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Alan T.; Kearney, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review An up-to-date summary of the literature on children’s and adolescents’ understanding of their own terminal illness and death. Recent findings Clinicians still find it difficult to speak with pediatric patients about death even though guidelines for facilitating communication on the topic exist. As a result, pediatric patients are less likely to develop a clear understanding of their illness and there is a disconnect between clinicians and parents about prognosis, even when clinicians have concluded there is no longer possibility for cure. Insufficient communication and poor understanding may increase the risk of patients feeling isolated, mistrustful and anxious, and deprive them of a role model who can communicate about painful issues or share difficult feelings. Despite these complexities, young people often show remarkable resiliency in the face of death and want to get the most out of the remaining time they have. Summary In addition to these most recent findings, this review examines the challenges in researching this topic, obstacles to patients receiving information about prognosis, and how physical symptoms affect patients’ ability to develop an understanding. It also reviews sources of insight into pediatric patients’ understanding including the development of concepts of death, fears about their own death, legal interpretations of what patients understand, and how terminally ill young people continue to treasure life. It concludes by addressing ways clinicians can use the knowledge we have to communicate well with dying children and adolescents and their families. PMID:25581454

  18. Strong-Sludge Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms in Clay Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Probert, Samuel G.; Owen, Antionette T.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2012-02-24

    The Hanford Site has 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) and 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. The mission of the Department of Energy's River Protection Project is to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms. A key aspect of the mission is to retrieve and transfer waste from the SSTs, which are at greater risk for leaking, into DSTs for interim storage until the waste is transferred to and treated in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. There is, however, limited space in the existing DSTs to accept waste transfers from the SSTs, and approaches to overcoming the limited DST space will benefit the overall mission. The purpose of this study is to summarize and analyze the key previous experiment that forms the basis for the relaxed controls and to summarize progress and results on new experiments focused on understanding the conditions that result in low gas retention. The previous large-scale test used about 50 m3 of sediment, which would be unwieldy for doing multiple parametric experiments. Accordingly, experiments began with smaller-scale tests to determine whether the desired mechanisms can be studied without the difficulty of conducting very large experiments. The most significant results from the current experiments are that progressively lower gas retention occurs in tests with progressively deeper sediment layers and that the method of gas generation also affects the maximum retention. Based on the results of this study, it is plausible that relatively low gas retention could occur in sufficiently deep tank waste in DSTs. The current studies and previous work, however, have not explored how gas retention and release will behave when two or more layers with different properties are present.

  19. The invisible soldiers: understanding how the life experiences of girl child soldiers impacts upon their health and rehabilitation needs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Amy Jane

    2014-05-01

    There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed.

  20. The invisible soldiers: understanding how the life experiences of girl child soldiers impacts upon their health and rehabilitation needs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Amy Jane

    2014-05-01

    There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed. PMID:24397926

  1. A relational understanding of sibling experiences of children with rare life-limiting conditions: findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Cari; Gibson, Faith; Adams, Sally; Anderson, Gillian; Forbat, Liz

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) and Batten disease are rare life-limiting conditions (LLCs) characterised by progressive and permanent physical and cognitive decline. The impact of such conditions on families, and notably on siblings, has not yet been described or documented. This paper presents data from a UK-wide study that sought to understand the family experience of supporting a child with the rare degenerative LLCs of MPS and Batten disease. The aim of this paper is to report sibling experiences related to these rare degenerative and progressive conditions, in order to inform the future development of supportive interventions. Eight siblings of children with MPS (n = 7) and Batten Disease (n = 1) participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. A card sort technique was utilised to support and engage the children. Siblings are clearly impacted emotionally, pragmatically and relationally by the ill health of another child in the family. The data indicate four key themes which demonstrate impacts on siblings: perceptions of the condition and its symptoms, impact on daily life, emotional consequences and ways of coping. Siblings often had considerable knowledge of the condition and took on important roles in symptom management. However, these experiences were in the context of managing relationships within the family (often protecting parents from an awareness of how much they knew) and relationships at school (including distraction from learning and being bullied by peers). The data highlight how sibling experiences are generated through a combination of negative disability discourses and support through peers and family members. The data indicate how these features shift as a consequence of witnessing the advancement of their brother's or sister's condition and the emotional sequelae of disease progression. Exploration of siblings' experiences of living with such rare progressive and degenerative LLCs suggest the focus of interventions to support this

  2. How children with experiences of intimate partner violence towards the mother understand and relate to their father.

    PubMed

    Staf, Anna Georgsson; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how, in the aftermath of intimate partner violence against the mother, children understand and relate to their father. Face-to-face interviews with four girls and four boys, aged between eight and twelve, were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. All of the children had been exposed to the father's violence towards the mother. Two super ordinate themes were identified in the analysis: the disjunctive image of the father and being entangled in a conflict. The children's understanding of the father and their relationship with him was built on different versions of the father and his actions; those experienced by the child and those recounted to them. The situational context surrounding the described experience pervaded the image of the father. An ambiguity appeared to exist in the sense of different versions of the father and children described different emotions that could both hinder and elicit other feelings connected to the father. Children also conveyed the sense of being trapped or entangled in a conflict where their own needs and desires could be deemed as unsafe to express, and that they felt responsibility for dealing with the father's influence.

  3. What Works in Student Retention? All Survey Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habley, Wesley R.; McClanahan, Randy

    2004-01-01

    This report reflects ACT's commitment to assist colleges and universities to better understand the impact of campus practices on college student retention and degree completion. Survey findings indicate that: (1) Only 51.7% of campuses have identified an individual responsible for coordinating retention strategies; (2) Only 47.2% of campuses have…

  4. Incorporating carbon saturation concepts and nitrogen retention theory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in soil C saturation concepts have increased our understanding of soil C storage and mineralization without explicit links to N retention and saturation theories. Here, we exploit a soil texture gradient to test hypotheses that link C saturation with soil 15N retention and nitrifica...

  5. Perceptions of the Impact of School Administrators on Teacher Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Zsa Zsa L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the behaviors of administrators and their impact on teacher retention. Teachers' perceptions were obtained in order to gain further understanding of the impact that administrators have on teachers' job satisfaction as well as of administrators' motivation to increase teacher retention. According…

  6. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's Study
    Danelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill)

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

  7. Leadership and nurse retention: the pivotal role of nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Mary K; Standing, Theresa S; Glick, JoAnn; Duffy, Martha; Paschall, Fran; Sauer, Mary R; Sweeney, Denise Kosty; Modic, Mary Beth; Dumpe, Michelle L

    2005-03-01

    As the link between executives and bedside nurses, nurse managers assume roles that bridge both organizational and professional goals. Nurse retention is one of the many responsibilities that characterize the nurse manager's work. To better understand the pivotal role of nurse managers, the authors describe the views of 32 nurse managers regarding their roles and the characteristics they need to promote retention.

  8. How do people of South Asian origin understand and experience depression? A protocol for a systematic review of qualitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Roisin; Trivedi, Daksha; Sharma, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals from Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are less likely to receive a diagnosis and to engage with treatment for depression. This review aims to draw on international literature to summarise what is known about how people specifically of South Asian origin, migrants and non-migrants, understand and experience depressive symptoms. The resulting evidence base will further inform practices aimed at encouraging help-seeking behaviour and treatment uptake. Methods and analysis A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic searches will be conducted across 16 databases. Study quality will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Data will be extracted independently by 2 reviewers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required. A comprehensive evidence base of how people from South Asian backgrounds conceptualise and experience depression will better inform the design and delivery of mental health initiatives and advance directions for future research. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and disseminated through existing networks for professionals, researchers, patients and the public. Trial registration number CRD42015026120. PMID:27577586

  9. A qualitative study to explore health professionals' experience of treating gout: understanding perceived barriers to effective gout management.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Chloe; Hulme, Richard; Dalbeth, Nicola; Gow, Peter; Arroll, Bruce; Lindsay, Karen

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The management of gout is challenging and mainly occurs in primary care. This study aims to explore the experience of treating gout among primary care clinicians and understand the perceived barriers to effective therapy. METHODS Fourteen health professionals from primary care practices in South Auckland were recruited. Each participated in a semi-structured interview exploring their experience of treating and managing gout patients were analysed thematically. FINDINGS Participants described the large burden of gout in their communities and the importance of the clinician-patient relationship in gout management. Four themes summarise the perceived barriers to effective urate lowering therapy (ULT); unique gout factors, eg its intermittent nature and potential for stigmatisation; systemic barriers to optimal treatment, or barriers that emerge from working within a certain organisation; uncertainty about ownership, or who should carry responsibility for overcoming barriers to optimal treatment; and cultural barriers to optimal treatment. CONCLUSION Clinicians in primary practice perceive gout management to be mainly acute rather than preventive care. Patients may be stigmatised and management difficult particularly when diet is emphasised over ULT. Practice nurses are a group potentially available and willing to assist in educating patients. These findings may be helpful in planning for and improving healthcare in gout. KEYWORDS Gout; general practice; uric acid; primary health care; allopurinol; primary prevention. PMID:27477557

  10. Dynamic force microscopy simulator (dForce): A tool for planning and understanding tapping and bimodal AFM experiments

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Horacio V; Garcia, Pablo D

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present a simulation environment, dForce, which can be used for a better understanding of dynamic force microscopy experiments. The simulator presents the cantilever–tip dynamics for two dynamic AFM methods, tapping mode AFM and bimodal AFM. It can be applied for a wide variety of experimental situations in air or liquid. The code provides all the variables and parameters relevant in those modes, for example, the instantaneous deflection and tip–surface force, velocity, virial, dissipated energy, sample deformation and peak force as a function of time or distance. The simulator includes a variety of interactions and contact mechanics models to describe AFM experiments including: van der Waals, Hertz, DMT, JKR, bottom effect cone correction, linear viscoelastic forces or the standard linear solid viscoelastic model. We have compared two numerical integration methods to select the one that offers optimal accuracy and speed. The graphical user interface has been designed to facilitate the navigation of non-experts in simulations. Finally, the accuracy of dForce has been tested against numerical simulations performed during the last 18 years. PMID:25821676

  11. Understanding the impact of gendered roles on the experiences of infertility amongst men and women in Punjab

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    women in Punjab, Pakistan. The insight obtained into the range of experiences can potentially contribute to deeper understanding of the social construction of infertility and childlessness in pronatalistic and patriarchal societies as well as the ways in which gender ideologies operationalise to marginalise women. PMID:23317173

  12. Understanding the impact of gendered roles on the experiences of infertility amongst men and women in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Shahid, Umber; Levay, Adrienne

    2013-01-15

    Punjab, Pakistan. The insight obtained into the range of experiences can potentially contribute to deeper understanding of the social construction of infertility and childlessness in pronatalistic and patriarchal societies as well as the ways in which gender ideologies operationalise to marginalise women.

  13. UNDERSTANDING METHANE EMISSIONS SOURCES AND VIABLE MITIGATION MEASURES IN THE NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS: RUSSIAN AND U.S. EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ishkov, A.; Akopova, Gretta; Evans, Meredydd; Yulkin, Grigory; Roshchanka, Volha; Waltzer, Suzie; Romanov, K.; Picard, David; Stepanenko, O.; Neretin, D.

    2011-10-01

    This article will compare the natural gas transmission systems in the U.S. and Russia and review experience with methane mitigation technologies in the two countries. Russia and the United States (U.S.) are the world's largest consumers and producers of natural gas, and consequently, have some of the largest natural gas infrastructure. This paper compares the natural gas transmission systems in Russia and the U.S., their methane emissions and experiences in implementing methane mitigation technologies. Given the scale of the two systems, many international oil and natural gas companies have expressed interest in better understanding the methane emission volumes and trends as well as the methane mitigation options. This paper compares the two transmission systems and documents experiences in Russia and the U.S. in implementing technologies and programs for methane mitigation. The systems are inherently different. For instance, while the U.S. natural gas transmission system is represented by many companies, which operate pipelines with various characteristics, in Russia predominately one company, Gazprom, operates the gas transmission system. However, companies in both countries found that reducing methane emissions can be feasible and profitable. Examples of technologies in use include replacing wet seals with dry seals, implementing Directed Inspection and Maintenance (DI&M) programs, performing pipeline pump-down, applying composite wrap for non-leaking pipeline defects and installing low-bleed pneumatics. The research methodology for this paper involved a review of information on methane emissions trends and mitigation measures, analytical and statistical data collection; accumulation and analysis of operational data on compressor seals and other emission sources; and analysis of technologies used in both countries to mitigate methane emissions in the transmission sector. Operators of natural gas transmission systems have many options to reduce natural gas losses

  14. The Effect of Testing on the Retention of Coherent and Incoherent Text Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jonge, Mario; Tabbers, Huib K.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that testing during learning can enhance the long-term retention of text material. In two experiments, we investigated the testing effect with a fill-in-the-blank test on the retention of text material. In Experiment 1, using a coherent text, we found no retention benefit of testing compared to a restudy (control) condition. In…

  15. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chu-Lin; Perfect, Edmund; Kang, Misun; Voisin, Sophie; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Horita, Juske; Hussey, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  16. Enhancing Vocabulary Retention by Embedding L2 Target Words in L1 Stories: An Experiment with Chinese Adult E-Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Zi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a storytelling approach in Chinese adult e-learners' vocabulary learning. Two classes of 60 students participated in the experiment, with 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. The storytelling approach and the rote memorization approach were employed by the two groups…

  17. An Appetitive Experience after Fear Memory Destabilization Attenuates Fear Retention: Involvement GluN2B-NMDA Receptors in the Basolateral Amygdala Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer Monti, Roque I.; Giachero, Marcelo; Alfei, Joaquín M.; Bueno, Adrián M.; Cuadra, Gabriel; Molina, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that a consolidated memory can return to a labile state and become transiently malleable following reactivation. This instability is followed by a restabilization phase termed reconsolidation. In this work, we explored whether an unrelated appetitive experience (voluntary consumption of diluted sucrose) can affect a contextual fear…

  18. Quinceaneras and Quadratics: Experiences of Latinas in State-Supported Residential Schools of Science and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayman, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand the experiences of Latinas enrolled in residential state schools of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Goals of the study focused on understanding experiences and identifying factors such as decisions to enroll, barriers and supports, and issues contributing to retention. These schools…

  19. The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment: Observing, Understanding, and Predicting Social-Ecological Change in the Far North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kimball, J. S.; Boelman, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the high northern latitudes, climate is warming more rapidly than anywhere else on Earth, transforming vulnerable arctic tundra and boreal forest landscapes. These changes are altering the structure and function of energy, water and carbon cycles, producing significant feedbacks to regional and global climate through changes in energy, water and carbon cycles. These changes are also challenging local and global society. At the local level, communities seek to adapt to new social-ecological regimes. At the global level, changing arctic and boreal systems are increasing becoming the focus of policy discussions at all levels of decision-making. National and international scientific efforts associated with a new NASA field campaign, the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABOVE) will advance our ability to observe, understand and predict the complex, multiscale and non-linear processes that are confronting the natural and social systems in this rapidly changing region. Over the next decade, the newly assembled ABOVE Science Team will pursue this overarching question: "How vulnerable or resilient are ecosystems and society to environmental change in the Arctic and boreal region of western North America?" Through integration of remote sensing and in situ observations with modeling of both ecological and social systems, the ABOVE Science Team will advance an interdisciplinary understanding of the Far North. In this presentation, we will discuss the conceptual basis for the ABOVE Field Campaign, describe Science Team composition and timeline, and update the community on activities. In addition, we will reflect on the visionary role of Dr. Diane Wickland, retired NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program Manager and lead of the Carbon Cycle & Ecosystems Focus Area, in the development and commencement of ABOVE.

  20. Understanding rational non-adherence to medications. A discrete choice experiment in a community sample in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In spite of the potential impact upon population health and expenditure, interventions promoting medication adherence have been found to be of moderate effectiveness and cost effectiveness. Understanding the relative influence of factors affecting patient medication adherence decisions and the characteristics of individuals associated with variation in adherence will lead to a better understanding of how future interventions should be designed and targeted. This study aims to explore medication-taking decisions that may underpin intentional medication non-adherence behaviour amongst a community sample and the relative importance of medication specific factors and patient background characteristics contributing to those decisions. Methods A discrete choice experiment conducted through a web-enabled online survey was used to estimate the relative importance of eight medication factors (immediate and long-term medication harms and benefits, cost, regimen, symptom severity, alcohol restrictions) on the preference to continue taking a medication. To reflect more closely what usually occurs in practice, non-disease specific medication and health terms were used to mimic decisions across multiple medications and conditions.161 general community participants, matching the national Australian census data (age, gender) were recruited through an online panel provider (participation rate: 10%) in 2010. Results Six of the eight factors (i.e. immediate and long-term medication harms and benefits, cost, and regimen) had a significant influence on medication choice. Patient background characteristics did not improve the model. Respondents with private health insurance appeared less sensitive to cost then those without private health insurance. In general, health outcomes, framed as a side-effect, were found to have a greater influence over adherence than outcomes framed as therapeutic benefits. Conclusions Medication-taking decisions are the subject of rational choices

  1. Qualitative research and its methods in epilepsy: Contributing to an understanding of patients' lived experiences of the disease.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Frances; Clement, Clare; Doel, Marcus A; Hutchings, Hayley A

    2015-04-01

    This review paper makes the case for the usefulness of qualitative research methods in the context of epilepsy research. It begins with an assessment of the current state of epilepsy literature and identifies gaps especially in the following: research in 'developing' countries and research around surgery for adults with epilepsy. It makes the case that disclosure of people's behaviors, actions, and reactions in different, often complex health-care situations can indicate how they bring meaning to their disease experiences and support needs. It shows the value of encouraging work that clarifies how patients manage their illness and how they understand changes in their health and well-being over the life course of their illness and how health-care professionals and other stakeholder groups care for those with epilepsy. The paper suggests a range of methods for addressing gaps in the literature and highlights a range of data collection, data analysis, and data interpretation and synthesis techniques that are appropriate in this context. It pays particular attention to the strengths of qualitative applications in mixed-methods research using an example from a recent ulcerative colitis drug trial that indicates how they can be integrated into study findings, add rich description, and enhance study outcomes. Ethnographic methodology is also presented, as a way of offering rare access to the 'lived experience' dimension, before the paper concludes with an assessment of the qualitative criteria of credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability for judging a study's 'trustworthiness'. The criteria evidence not only the trustworthiness of data and findings but also the ways in which a study has approached any challenges inherent in its research design.

  2. Qualitative research and its methods in epilepsy: Contributing to an understanding of patients' lived experiences of the disease.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Frances; Clement, Clare; Doel, Marcus A; Hutchings, Hayley A

    2015-04-01

    This review paper makes the case for the usefulness of qualitative research methods in the context of epilepsy research. It begins with an assessment of the current state of epilepsy literature and identifies gaps especially in the following: research in 'developing' countries and research around surgery for adults with epilepsy. It makes the case that disclosure of people's behaviors, actions, and reactions in different, often complex health-care situations can indicate how they bring meaning to their disease experiences and support needs. It shows the value of encouraging work that clarifies how patients manage their illness and how they understand changes in their health and well-being over the life course of their illness and how health-care professionals and other stakeholder groups care for those with epilepsy. The paper suggests a range of methods for addressing gaps in the literature and highlights a range of data collection, data analysis, and data interpretation and synthesis techniques that are appropriate in this context. It pays particular attention to the strengths of qualitative applications in mixed-methods research using an example from a recent ulcerative colitis drug trial that indicates how they can be integrated into study findings, add rich description, and enhance study outcomes. Ethnographic methodology is also presented, as a way of offering rare access to the 'lived experience' dimension, before the paper concludes with an assessment of the qualitative criteria of credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability for judging a study's 'trustworthiness'. The criteria evidence not only the trustworthiness of data and findings but also the ways in which a study has approached any challenges inherent in its research design. PMID:25847427

  3. Knowledge Retention as a Latent Outcome Measure in Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisher, Robert A.; Curnow, Christina K.; Seidel, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes two experiments that investigated the retention of knowledge as a latent measure of learning outcome in video teletraining courses, one for air traffic controllers and one for military training. Discusses the merits of knowledge retention as a construct for examining initial evidence of learning, especially for training related to the…

  4. Laboratory and Field Investigations of Dynamic Effects in Soil Water Retention Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yung-Chia; Tseng, Yen-Huiang; Ye, Jiun-Yan

    2015-04-01

    The unsaturated soil is a multi-phase system and the embedded physical mechanisms and chemical reactions are very complicated. The characteristics of groundwater flow and mechanisms of mass transport are still ambiguous so far. In order to fully understand the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone, the soil water retention curve plays an important role in description of water flow. However, the measurements and calculations of soil water retention curve are usually obtained under the static condition or steady state (equilibrium), in which the dynamic effects (non-equilibrium) are not considered, and the obtained relationship between capillary pressure and saturation is skeptical. Therefore, the sandbox experiments and field tests will be conducted to discuss the dynamic effects in the soil water retention curve and hysteresis effect in this study. In the laboratory, the relations between capillary pressure, saturation, the rate of change of water content, and dynamic constant are evaluated through different setting of boundary conditions and different sizes of particles. In the field, the tests are conducted to describe the soil water retention curve through the rain simulator and artificial evaporation. Besides, the dynamic dewpoint potentiameter is used to analyze the hysteresis effect of soil samples, and its results are compared with the results obtained from sandbox and field experiments. Finally, through a series of experiments, the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation under the dynamic effects is established, and the associated theories and mechanisms are discussed. The works developed in this study can provide as reference tools for the hydrogeological investigation and contaminated site remediation in the future. Keywords: capillary pressure, saturation, soil water retention curve, hysteresis, sandbox experiment, field test

  5. Effective Retention Strategies for Diverse Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Linda R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses methods to determine why employees leave or stay, based on experiences at Pennsylvania State University libraries. Considers retention tools that work best to retain diverse employees, including mentoring, networking, career and learning opportunities, balance between work and home life, a welcoming climate, and support for research.…

  6. Principals Retention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the…

  7. Improving College Freshman Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Winnie Y.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, access to higher education was greatly improved through public funding. This improvement is not matched by a similar increase in graduation rate. The purpose of this study is to examine what postsecondary institutions can do to improve college freshman retention. The conceptual framework was based on research on college student…

  8. Data Show Retention Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee J.; Robelen, Erik W.; Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    New nationwide data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's civil rights office reveal stark racial and ethnic disparities in student retentions, with black and Hispanic students far more likely than white students to repeat a grade, especially in elementary and middle school. The contrast is especially strong for African-Americans. In the…

  9. Lived Experiences of Racially and Ethnically Underrepresented Minority BSN Students: A Case Study Specifically Exploring Issues Related to Recruitment and Retention.

    PubMed

    Diefenbeck, Cynthia; Michalec, Barret; Alexander, Robbi

    2016-01-01

    The lived experiences of 12 traditionally aged underrepresented minority BSN students in a predominantly white university were explored using a qualitative, semi-structured, e-questionnaire approach. A multistep analysis procedure of the data identified barriers, including negative interactions with and lack of diversity of faculty and peers, deficiency of cultural competency training, lack of academic and financial support, and negative family behaviors. Identified facilitators include a strong desire to be a nurse, family member in the health care profession, and proximity to home. Novel findings include highly polarized responses regarding interactions with faculty and peers and the drive to be a nurse as a unique aspect of general determination.

  10. Lived Experiences of Racially and Ethnically Underrepresented Minority BSN Students: A Case Study Specifically Exploring Issues Related to Recruitment and Retention.

    PubMed

    Diefenbeck, Cynthia; Michalec, Barret; Alexander, Robbi

    2016-01-01

    The lived experiences of 12 traditionally aged underrepresented minority BSN students in a predominantly white university were explored using a qualitative, semi-structured, e-questionnaire approach. A multistep analysis procedure of the data identified barriers, including negative interactions with and lack of diversity of faculty and peers, deficiency of cultural competency training, lack of academic and financial support, and negative family behaviors. Identified facilitators include a strong desire to be a nurse, family member in the health care profession, and proximity to home. Novel findings include highly polarized responses regarding interactions with faculty and peers and the drive to be a nurse as a unique aspect of general determination. PMID:27164777

  11. Grade 12 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Mental Models of Galvanic Cells before and after Learning by Using Small-Scale Experiments in Conjunction with a Model Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supasorn, Saksri

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop the small-scale experiments involving electrochemistry and the galvanic cell model kit featuring the sub-microscopic level. The small-scale experiments in conjunction with the model kit were implemented based on the 5E inquiry learning approach to enhance students' conceptual understanding of electrochemistry. The…

  12. Is It a Different World? Providing a Holistic Understanding of the Experiences and Perceptions of Non-Black Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Andrew T.; Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study contributes an original holistic understanding of the perceptions and experiences of non-Black students (e.g., Asian American, Latino, and White) as they matriculate into historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), persist to graduation, and reflect on their experiences as graduates at HBCUs. Findings from this…

  13. Female Sex Workers, Male Circumcision and HIV: A Qualitative Study of Their Understanding, Experience, and HIV Risk in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Sharon A.; Haberland, Nicole A.; Mulenga, Drosin M.; Hewett, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Several sub-Saharan African countries, including Zambia, have initiated national voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) programs to reduce HIV incidence. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty female sex workers (FSWs) in Lusaka to examine their understanding of MC and experiences with circumcised clients. Knowledge of MC was derived primarily through informal sources, with very few FSWs reporting exposure to MC educational campaigns. MC was not widely believed to be protective against HIV, however it was viewed by some as protective against STIs. Three FSWs reported having sex with recently circumcised clients, and most reported that men often used their MC status to try to convince FSWs to forego condoms. Findings suggest that FSWs, already at high risk for HIV infection, may face additional pressure toward higher risk behavior as a result of MC. As MC services are expanded, programs should support FSWs' efforts to protect themselves by providing information about what MC can - and cannot - offer for HIV/STI infection prevention. PMID:23349745

  14. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors.

  15. Improved understanding of the dynamic response in anisotropic directional composite materials through the combination of experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C.

    2013-06-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in the dynamic response of composite materials; specifically low density epoxy resin binders strengthened with continuous reinforcing fibers. This is in part due to the widespread use of carbon fiber composites in military, commercial, industrial, and aerospace applications. The design community requires better understanding of these materials in order to make full use of their unique properties. Experimental testing has been performed on a unidirectional carbon fiber - epoxy composite, engineered to have high uniformity and low porosity. Planar impact testing was performed at the Shock Thermodynamics Applied Research (STAR) facility at Sandia National Labs resulting in pressures up to 15 GPa in the composite material. Results illustrate the anisotropic nature of the response under shock loading. Along the fiber direction, a two-wave structure similar to typical elastic-plastic response is observed, however, when shocked transverse to the fibers, only a single bulk shock wave is detected. The two-wave structure persists when impact occurs at angles up to 45 degrees off the fiber direction. At higher pressures, the epoxy matrix dissociates resulting in a loss of anisotropy. Details of the experimental configurations and results will be presented and discussed. Greater understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed response has been achieved through the use of numerical modeling of the system at the micromechanical level using the CTH hydrocode. From the simulation results it is evident that the observed two-wave structure in the longitudinal fiber direction is the result of a fast moving elastic precursor wave traveling in the carbon fibers ahead of the bulk response in the epoxy resin. Similarly, in the transverse direction, results show a collapse of the resin component consistent with the experimental observation of a single shock wave traveling at speeds associated with bulk carbon. These results will be

  16. Retention of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and heavy metals from industrial waste water by using the low cost adsorbent pine bark in a batch experiment.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M; Allard, B

    2011-01-01

    Pine bark is a low cost sorbent originating from the forest industry. In recent years, it has been found to show promise as an adsorbent for metals and organic substances in contaminated water, especially landfill leachates and storm water. This study aims to investigate if pine bark can replace commercial adsorbents such as active carbon. An industrial effluent, collected from a treatment plant of a demilitarization factory, was diluted to form concentration ranges of contaminants and shaken with pine bark for 24 hours. Metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Ni) and explosives, e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), were analysed before and after treatment. The aim of the experiment was twofold; firstly, it was to investigate whether metals are efficiently removed in the presence of explosives and secondly, if adsorption of explosive substances to pine bark was possible. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption process where this was possible. It was found that metal uptake was possible in the presence of TNT and other explosive contaminants. The uptake of TNT was satisfactory with up to 80% of the TNT adsorbed by pine bark.

  17. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Kumar, Lalita S.

    2007-01-01

    Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL) is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not…

  18. The Principles of Effective Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent

    An overview is provided of the problem of student attrition and the essential components of effective retention programs. Following introductory arguments that the secret of retention is in the development of communities committed to education rather than retention, the paper discusses several major causes of student attrition, including academic…

  19. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors. PMID:25877467

  20. Early blood plutonium retention in nonhuman primates compared to the NCRP 156 wound biokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Guilmette, Raymond

    2015-03-01

    Data from animal experiments are relied upon for understanding the biokinetics of contaminant retention and excretion where insufficient human data exist. Records involving nonhuman primate experiments performed from 1973 to 1987 were collected and compiled by researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. These records included early blood samples that were taken after soluble plutonium was administered via intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intravenous injection. Samples were collected as early as 5 min post injection with several samples collected during the first few weeks. The NCRP 156 biokinetic model was developed primarily from animal experiments due to insufficient human data not influenced by chelation therapy. This work compared the NCRP 156 biokinetic model default transfer rate constants to the early blood excretion data from nonhuman primate experiments for 238Pu. These results indicated that the blood content of nonhuman primates exhibited "moderate" retention properties for simulated wound conditions. Additionally, there was no evidence of long-term retention of plutonium in the whole blood samples, confirming that plutonium was not incorporated within blood cells. Particle solubility characteristics should be considered for wounds when using the NCRP 156 wound biokinetic model.

  1. Biofilm Roughness Determines Cryptosporidium parvum Retention in Environmental Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, B. R.; Jellison, K. L.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales. PMID:22492449

  2. Biofilm roughness determines Cryptosporidium parvum retention in environmental biofilms.

    PubMed

    DiCesare, E A Wolyniak; Hargreaves, B R; Jellison, K L

    2012-06-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales.

  3. EFFECT OF ANAEROBIOSIS ON FILTER MEDIA POLLUTANT RETENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the results of experiments conducted to determine if four potential filter media (sand, activated carbon, peat moss, and compost) could retain previously-trapped pollutants even under anaerobic conditions. The results indicated that permanent retention of heav...

  4. 21 CFR 58.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... only as long as the quality of the preparation affords evaluation. In no case shall retention be... experience and job descriptions required to be maintained by § 58.29(b) may be retained along with all...

  5. A Cultural Approach to Understanding Professional Experiences of Foreign-Born Faculty in U.S. Educational Leadership Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khrabrova, Iryna; Sanzo, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the professional experiences of foreign-born faculty members serving in U.S. educational leadership preparation programs, utilizing a cultural approach to discern their lived experiences related to professional life. Cultural values were explored as reflected in professional life experiences. The…

  6. Previous Attempts to Debunk the Mythical Retention Chart and Corrupted Dale's Cone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem; Molenda, Michael; Betrus, Anthony K.; Thalheimer, Will

    2014-01-01

    Critics have been attempting to debunk the mythical retention chart at least since 1971. The earliest critics, David Curl and Frank Dwyer, were addressing just the retention data. Beginning around 2002, a new generation of critics has taken on the illegitimate combination of the retention chart and Edgar Dale's Cone of Experience--the corrupted…

  7. GABA[subscript A] Receptors Determine the Temporal Dynamics of Memory Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Gavan P.; Augustyn, Katarzyna A.; Richardson, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments studied the role of GABA[subscript A] receptors in the temporal dynamics of memory retention. Memory for an active avoidance response was a nonmonotonic function of the retention interval. When rats were tested shortly (2 min) or some time (24 h) after training, retention was excellent, but when they were tested at intermediate…

  8. Retention Test and Strategy Analysis of a Nonvisual Seriation Task Performed by First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael J.

    Reported is a test of retention related to a weight, texture, and force experiment performed by a group of 120 first grade students who had been randomly grouped into three treatment strategies. The results of the retention task, accuracy test, an analysis of the strategies used on both posttests and retention tests, and some miscellaneous post…

  9. Understanding the Journey: A Phenomenological Study of College Students' Lived Experiences during the Weight-Loss Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on understanding various aspects of the science of weight loss and weight gain in college students, understanding how the weight-loss process affects college students psychologically and behaviorally may help administrators and student affairs professionals to better work with students on their campuses. The…

  10. Connecting Bourdieu, Winnicott, and Honneth: Understanding the Experiences of Non-Traditional Learners through an Interdisciplinary Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden; Fleming, Ted; Finnegan, Fergal

    2013-01-01

    This paper connects Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, dispositions and capital with a psychosocial analysis of how Winnicott's psychoanalysis and Honneth's recognition theory can be of importance in understanding how and why non-traditional students remain in higher education. Understanding power relations in an interdisciplinary way…

  11. Understanding of Emotional Experience in Autism: Insights from the Personal Accounts of High-Functioning Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Molly; Capps, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate emotional understanding in autism through a discourse analytic framework to provide a window into children's strategies for interpreting emotional versus nonemotional encounters and consider the implications for the mechanisms underlying emotional understanding in typical development. Accounts were analyzed…

  12. The First Steps on the Ladder to College Success: Understanding the Secondary School Level Factors that Determine the College Enrollment and Retention Outcomes of High School Graduates in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Alison Helen

    2011-01-01

    Despite the United States' long-standing public commitment to postsecondary education and the growing importance of college degrees for individual and national prosperity, today many Americans fail to achieve these valuable academic credentials. To be able to tackle this problem policymakers require a comprehensive understanding of college…

  13. Assessment of retention processes for transport in a fractured system at Äspö (Sweden) granitic site: From short-time experiments to long-time predictive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Fourno, André; Mouche, Emmanuel; Delay, Frédérick; Benabderrahmane, Hakim

    We present results obtained within the Task 6 modeling project hosted by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) Task Force on Numerical Modeling of Flow and Solute Transport in fractured granitic rock. Modeling the transport of radionuclides in natural fractured media is done to characterize and assess the performance of a potential deep geologic repository. The Task 6 modeling exercise objective provides a bridge between models based on detailed site investigation data and calibrated against tracer experiments (month scale), and models corresponding to a hypothetical repository postclosure time scale (hundred thousands of years). The latter postclosure models capture the most significant features and processes of radionuclide transport, and allow for a sensitivity analysis of uncertain parameters. Two features from the tracer experiments (TRUE-1 and True Block Scale-TBS) are studied. The first is a 10 m single fracture, the second is a 200 m semisynthetic fractured block. The study focuses on matrix zone heterogeneity, its influence on retention processes, and its level of identification from tracer tests. Results show that tracer tests poorly constrain the systems. In addition, we build a model suited to performance assessment for single fracture geometry and present a smeared-fracture approach to model transfers in a fractured block. The model is calibrated and validated on synthetic test cases and applied to the Task 6 fractured block. Results show that this approach is appropriate for performance-assessment time-scale modeling. Nevertheless, the approach requires further development to be applied to systems incorporating small-scale heterogeneities affecting flow and transport conditions.

  14. Retention in care and medication adherence: current challenges to antiretroviral therapy success.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Carol W; Brady, Kathleen A; Yehia, Baligh R

    2015-04-01

    Health behaviors such as retention in HIV medical care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) pose major challenges to reducing new HIV infections, addressing health disparities, and improving health outcomes. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use provides a conceptual framework for understanding how patient and environmental factors affect health behaviors and outcomes, which can inform the design of intervention strategies. Factors affecting retention and adherence among persons with HIV include patient predisposing factors (e.g., mental illness, substance abuse), patient-enabling factors (e.g., social support, reminder strategies, medication characteristics, transportation, housing, insurance), and healthcare environment factors (e.g., pharmacy services, clinic experiences, provider characteristics). Evidence-based recommendations for improving retention and adherence include (1) systematic monitoring of clinic attendance and ART adherence; (2) use of peer or paraprofessional navigators to re-engage patients in care and help them remain in care; (3) optimization of ART regimens and pharmaceutical supply chain management systems; (4) provision of reminder devices and tools; (5) general education and counseling; (6) engagement of peer, family, and community support groups; (7) case management; and (8) targeting patients with substance abuse and mental illness. Further research is needed on effective monitoring strategies and interventions that focus on improving retention and adherence, with specific attention to the healthcare environment. PMID:25792300

  15. Increased local retention of reef coral larvae as a result of ocean warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Joana; Baird, Andrew H.; Harii, Saki; Connolly, Sean R.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change will alter many aspects of the ecology of organisms, including dispersal patterns and population connectivity. Understanding these changes is essential to predict future species distributions, estimate potential for adaptation, and design effective networks of protected areas. In marine environments, dispersal is often accomplished by larvae. At higher temperatures, larvae develop faster, but suffer higher mortality, making the effect of temperature on dispersal difficult to predict. Here, we experimentally calibrate the effect of temperature on larval survival and settlement in a dynamic model of coral dispersal. Our findings imply that most reefs globally will experience several-fold increases in local retention of larvae due to ocean warming. This increase will be particularly pronounced for reefs with mean water residence times comparable to the time required for species to become competent to settle. Higher local retention rates strengthen the link between abundance and recruitment at the reef scale, suggesting that populations will be more responsive to local conservation actions. Higher rates of local retention and mortality will weaken connectivity between populations, and thus potentially retard recovery following severe disturbances that substantially deplete local populations. Conversely, on isolated reefs that are dependent on replenishment from local broodstock, increases in local retention may hasten recovery.

  16. Retention in Care and Medication Adherence: Current Challenges to Antiretroviral Therapy Success

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Carol W.; Brady, Kathleen A.; Yehia, Baligh R.

    2015-01-01

    Health behaviors, such as retention in HIV medical care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), pose major challenges to reducing new HIV infections, addressing health disparities, and improving health outcomes. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use provides a conceptual framework for understanding how patient and environmental factors affect health behaviors and outcomes, which can inform the design of intervention strategies. Factors affecting retention and adherence among persons with HIV include patient predisposing factors (e.g. mental illness, substance abuse), patient enabling factors (e.g. social support, reminder strategies, medication characteristics, transportation, housing, insurance), and health care environment factors (e.g. pharmacy services, clinic experiences, provider characteristics). Evidence-based recommendations for improving retention and adherence include 1) systematic monitoring of clinic attendance and ART adherence; 2) use of peer or paraprofessional navigators to re-engage patients in care and help them remain in care; 3) optimization of ART regimens and pharmaceutical supply chain management systems 4) provision of reminder devices and tools; 5) general education and counseling; 6) engagement of peer, family, and community support groups; 7) case management; and 8) targeting patients with substance abuse and mental illness. Further research is needed on effective monitoring strategies and interventions that focus on improving retention and adherence, with specific attention to the health care environment. PMID:25792300

  17. Vocation, Friendship and Resilience: A Study Exploring Nursing Student and Staff Views on Retention and Attrition

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Graham R; Health, Val; Proctor-Childs, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There is international concern about retention of student nurses on undergraduate programmes. United Kingdom Higher Education Institutions are monitored on their attrition statistics and can be penalised financially, so they have an incentive to help students remain on their programmes beyond their moral duty to ensure students receive the best possible educational experience. Aims: to understand students’ and staff concerns about programmes and placements as part of developing our retention strategies. Design: This study reports qualitative data on retention and attrition collected as part of an action research study. Setting: One University School of Nursing and Midwifery in the South West of England. Participants: Staff, current third year and ex-student nurses from the adult field. Methods: Data were collected in focus groups, both face-to face and virtual, and individual telephone interviews. These were transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Results: Four themes emerged: Academic support, Placements and mentors, Stresses and the reality of nursing life, and Dreams for a better programme. Conclusions: The themes Academic support, Placements and mentors and Stresses and the reality of nursing life, resonate with international literature. Dreams for a better programme included smaller group learning. Vocation, friendship and resilience seem instrumental in retaining students, and Higher Education Institutions should work to facilitate these. ‘Vocation’ has been overlooked in the retention discussions, and working more actively to foster vocation and belongingness could be important. PMID:24167537

  18. Towards a Molecular Scale Understanding of Surface Chemistry and Photocatalysis on Metal Oxides: Surface Science Experiments and First Principles Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, Ulrike

    2015-01-29

    This project has provided an increased understanding of molecular processes and structure-activity relationships in photocatalytic systems. This could ultimately lead to guidelines on how to make TiO2-based photocatalytic systems more efficient. This directly relates to the Program’s mission to develop a mechanistic understanding of chemical reactions that pertain to environmental remediation and pollution control; energy production (photoelectrochemical and production of hydrogen); and novel materials synthesis.

  19. Nickel migration and retention dynamics in natural soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Edery, Yaniv; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Nickel migration measured in laboratory-scale, natural soil column experiments is shown to display anomalous (non-Fickian) transport, nonequilibrium adsorption and desorption patterns, and precipitation/dissolution. Similar experiments using a conservative tracer also exhibit anomalous behavior. The occurrence of ion exchange of nickel, mainly with calcium (but also with other soil components), is measured in both batch and flow-through column experiments; adsorption and desorption isotherms demonstrate hysteresis. Strong retention of nickel during transport in soil columns leads to delayed initial breakthrough (˜40 pore volumes), slow increase in concentration, and extended concentration tailing at long times. We describe the mechanisms of transport and retention in terms of a continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, and use a particle tracking formulation to simulate nickel migration in the column. This approach allows us to capture the non-Fickian transport and the subtle local effects of adsorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution. Consideration also of preferential pathways accounts for the evolution of the measured breakthrough curve and measured spatial concentration profiles. The model uses non-Fickian transport parameters estimated from the conservative tracer and, as a starting point, adsorption/desorption parameters based on batch experiments and a precipitation parameter based on Ksp values. The batch parameters are found to underestimate the actual amount of adsorption. We suggest that the sorption and precipitation/dissolution dynamics, and resulting breakthrough curves, are influenced strongly by preferential pathways; such pathways significantly alter the availability of sorption sites and ion availability for precipitation. Analysis of these results provides further understanding of the interaction and dynamics among transport, precipitation, and sorption mechanisms in natural soil.

  20. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  1. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    PubMed

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-01

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality. PMID:23565723

  2. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  3. Constructing a Theory of Individual Space: Understanding Transnational Migration through the Experience of Return Chinese Immigrants from Canada in Beijing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yueya

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on life history research, this study critically examines the transnational experiences of return Chinese immigrants from Canada in Beijing. Through the accounts of their experiences, it explores different integration and reintegration strategies, including self-adjustment, lifelong learning and flexible citizenship. A native concept of…

  4. Understanding the Lived Experiences of Novice Out-of-Field Teachers in Relation to School Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Anna; Carroll, Annemaree; Gillies, Robyn M.

    2015-01-01

    The lived experiences of novice teachers in out-of-field positions influence future career decisions and impact on their journey towards being competent and experienced practitioners, conversely their "life-world" is often misunderstood. The purpose of the study reported in this article is to investigate the lived experiences of these…

  5. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan et al., 2014), the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals' fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals' fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals' retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals' retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals' language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words. PMID:25324789

  6. Facilitating Conceptual Understanding of Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient through a Simple Experiment Involving Dissolution of Carbon Dioxide in Water in a Surface Aeration Reactor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utgikar, Vivek P.; MacPherson, David

    2016-01-01

    Students in the undergraduate "transport phenomena" courses typically have a greater difficulty in understanding the theoretical concepts underlying the mass transport phenomena as compared to the concepts of momentum and energy transport. An experiment based on dissolution of carbon dioxide in water was added to the course syllabus to…

  7. "Understanding Difficult Behavior": A Selection of Learning Experiences Designed for Staff in Long Term Facilities. A Training Manual. Geriatric Education and Resource Outreach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigam, Linda; And Others

    This manual, which is intended for use in conducting individualized inservice training sessions for certified nurse aides employed in nursing homes and boarding homes throughout Maine, contains three sections of learning experiences designed to help health care workers better understand and deal with "difficult" behavior on the part of residents…

  8. A Mixed Methods Case Study: Understanding the Experience of Nebraska 4-H Participants Relative to Their Transition and Adaptation to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walahoski, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods case study was designed to assess the preparedness of former Nebraska 4-H participants to successfully transition and adjust to college. The study also sought to understand the way that students' experiences in Nebraska 4-H may have influenced their readiness to transition to college. The initial quantitative stage of this…

  9. A phenomenological model for particle retention in single, saturated fractures.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sandrina; Dickson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Fractured aquifers are some of the most poorly characterized subsurface environments despite posing one of the highest risks to the protection of potable groundwater. This research was designed to improve the understanding of the factors affecting particle transport through fractures by developing a phenomenological model based on laboratory-scale transport data. The model presented in this research employed data from over 70 particle tracer tests conducted in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures that were obtained from the natural environment and fractured in the laboratory or cast from epoxy in the laboratory. The particles employed were Escherichia coli RS2-GFP and microspheres. The tracer experiments were conducted in natural (dolomitic limestone and granite) as well as epoxy replicas of the natural fractures. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the most important factors influencing particle retention in fractures are the ratio of the ionic strength of solution to collector charge, the ratio of particle to collector charge, and the ratio of advective to diffusive forces as described by the Peclet number. The model was able to reasonably (R(2)  = 0.64) predict the fraction of particles retained; however, it is evident that some factors not accounted for in the model also contributed to retention. This research presents a novel approach to understanding particle transport in fractures, and illustrates the relative importance of various factors affecting the transport mechanisms. The utility of this model lies in the increased understanding of particle transport in fractures, which is extremely useful for directing future research. PMID:23647360

  10. A phenomenological model for particle retention in single, saturated fractures.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sandrina; Dickson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Fractured aquifers are some of the most poorly characterized subsurface environments despite posing one of the highest risks to the protection of potable groundwater. This research was designed to improve the understanding of the factors affecting particle transport through fractures by developing a phenomenological model based on laboratory-scale transport data. The model presented in this research employed data from over 70 particle tracer tests conducted in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures that were obtained from the natural environment and fractured in the laboratory or cast from epoxy in the laboratory. The particles employed were Escherichia coli RS2-GFP and microspheres. The tracer experiments were conducted in natural (dolomitic limestone and granite) as well as epoxy replicas of the natural fractures. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the most important factors influencing particle retention in fractures are the ratio of the ionic strength of solution to collector charge, the ratio of particle to collector charge, and the ratio of advective to diffusive forces as described by the Peclet number. The model was able to reasonably (R(2)  = 0.64) predict the fraction of particles retained; however, it is evident that some factors not accounted for in the model also contributed to retention. This research presents a novel approach to understanding particle transport in fractures, and illustrates the relative importance of various factors affecting the transport mechanisms. The utility of this model lies in the increased understanding of particle transport in fractures, which is extremely useful for directing future research.

  11. Student Mental Models of the Greenhouse Effect: Retention Months After Interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. E.; Gold, A. U.

    2013-12-01

    Individual understanding of climate science, and the greenhouse effect in particular, is one factor important for societal decision-making. Ideally, learning opportunities about the greenhouse effect will not only move people toward expert-like ideas but will also have long-lasting effects for those individuals. We assessed university students' mental models of the greenhouse effect before and after specific learning experiences, on a final exam, then again a few months later. Our aim was to measure retention after students had not necessarily been thinking about, nor studying, the greenhouse effect recently. How sticky were the ideas learned? 164 students in an introductory science course participated in a sequence of two learning activities and assessments regarding the greenhouse effect. The first lesson involved the full class, then, for the second lesson, half the students completed a simulation-based activity and the other half completed a data-driven activity. We assessed student thinking through concept sketches, multiple choice and short answer questions. All students generated concept sketches four times, and completed a set of multiple choice (MCQs) and short answer questions twice. Later, 3-4 months after the course ended, 27 students ('retention students') completed an additional concept sketch and answered the questions again, as a retention assessment. These 27 students were nearly evenly split between the two contrasting second lessons in the sequence and included both high and low-achieving students. We then compared student sketches and scores to 'expert' answers. The general pattern over time showed a significant increase in student scores from before the lesson sequence to after, both on concept sketches and MCQs, then an additional increase in concept sketch score on the final exam (MCQs were not asked on the final exam). The scores for the retention students were not significantly different from the full class. Within the retention group

  12. Repeated Retention Testing Effects Do Not Generalize to a Contextual Interference Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Shea, John B.; Marzilli, T. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments examined repeated retention testing effects in a contextual interference (CI) protocol. Retention was assessed at 10 min and 24 hr following acquisition or at just 24-hr for the one-test conditions. Experiments 1 and 2 used speeded-response key-pressing tasks. Dependent measures were total time and errors. Experiment 3 used…

  13. The Effects of a Single Reminder Trial on Retention of a Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Shea, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of a single reminder trial on immediate and delayed retention. Experiment 1 determined if beneficial effects of a reminder mat were a function of task order. Immediate retention performance benefited only when the reminder trial was practiced in the first block of trials. Experiment 2 added a 24-hr delayed…

  14. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Whitehead, Taylor; Irwin, George M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  15. Park Visitors' Understandings, Values and Beliefs Related to Their Experience at Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael; Tomkiewicz, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the development of park visitors' knowledge, values, and beliefs during their visit to the Midway Geyser Basin. Draws on prior work in the areas of museum and informal education, and public understanding of science and cognitive psychology. Interprets the results in terms of park visitors' knowledge systems, how the experience…

  16. Understanding Stigma from a Sociocultural Context: Mothers' Experience of Stigma Directed towards Children with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uba, Chijioke Dike; Nwoga, Kechinyerem Amaka

    2016-01-01

    Although the need for a better understanding and deconstruction of the barriers that underpin and impede the realisation of inclusive education in many developing countries is acknowledged, few studies focus specifically on exploring how stigma affects the choices that parents in developing countries make on behalf of their children. This paper…

  17. Engineers and Their Role in Public Policy: An Active Learning Experience for Enhancing the Understanding of the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Jorge; Barros, Ricardo; Ramirez, Catalina; Realpe, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    To achieve effective intervention of engineers in the public sector, engineers should develop skills to comprehend their ethical and professional responsibility, and they should gain the necessary education to understand the possible impact of engineering solutions in a global and social context. An active learning process has been conceived,…

  18. Analysis of the Educational Potential of a Science Museum Learning Environment: Visitors' Experience with and Understanding of an Immersion Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    2011-01-01

    Research pertaining to science museum exhibit design tends to be articulated at a level of generality that makes it difficult to apply in practice. To address this issue, the present study used a design-based research approach to understand the educational potential of a biology exhibit. The exhibit was considered an educational environment which…

  19. Making the Familiar Strange and Making the Strange Familiar: Understanding Korean Children's Experiences of Living with an Autistic Sibling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Se Kwang; Charnley, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Based on the findings of a small-scale study using visual ethnographic techniques with nine South Korean children, this article explores the role of culture in understanding autism. While autism is embedded within the "strange" and "unfamiliar", linked to exclusion and discrimination in Korean society, the children focussed on reframing their…

  20. Remembering Childhood: Do Our Memories and Experiences Influence Our Understanding of Early Childhood and Our Practice with Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from…

  1. Pre-Service Teachers' Growth in Understandings of Best Practice Literacy Instruction through Paired Course and Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipp, Jamie; Helfrich, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Illiteracy is on the rise in the United States, and the potential negative impact on today's struggling reader is devastating. Now more than ever, preparing pre-service teachers to be effective teachers of literacy is crucial. This study examined the growth in understandings of best practice literacy of eleven pre-service teachers through paired…

  2. Boulder Valley Kindergarten Study: Retention Practices and Retention Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie A.; Smith, Mary Lee

    Having implemented a policy that allowed schools to retain children in kindergarten an extra year, the Boulder Valley Public School District in Colorado conducted a study to determine the cognitive and emotional benefits of retention in kindergarten and the characteristics that led to decisions about retention. The study involved a research review…

  3. Mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice at short retention intervals.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A; DeLosh, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    The testing effect refers to the retention benefit conferred by prior retrieval of information from memory. Although the testing effect is a robust phenomenon, a common assumption is that reliable memory benefits only emerge after long retention intervals of days or weeks. The present study focused on potential test-induced retention benefits for brief retention intervals on the order of minutes and tens of seconds. Participants in four experiments studied lists of words. Some of the items were subjected to an initial cued recall test, and others were re-presented for additional study. Free recall tests were administered in each experiment following retention intervals ranging from 30 s to 8 min. When initial retrieval practice was successful (Experiments 1 through 3), or feedback compensated for unsuccessful retrieval (Experiment 4), significant testing effects emerged at all retention intervals. Results are discussed in the context of a bifurcated item-distribution model and highlight the importance of initial test performance and the type of analysis employed when examining testing effect data. PMID:24579674

  4. Understanding the Educational Experiences of Science Teachers in a Five-Year Teacher Education Program: A Phenomenological Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Nitin

    This qualitative study provides an overview of educational experiences of six in-service and three pre-service secondary science teachers in the Benedum Collaborative Five-Year Teacher Education Program at a land-grant university. The researcher interviewed secondary science teachers on the experiences they found meaningful in various program components that influenced their teacher identity, beliefs about science pedagogy, and their sense of preparedness for teaching. Document analysis of teachers' journals and lesson plans supplemented the qualitative data in addition to the researcher's role and knowledge as an outsider (non-Benedum graduate) and insider (facilitator and instructor in the technology integration based classes for one year) of the Benedum Collaborative Five-Year Teacher Education Program. Findings also supported the Holmes (1986) and Goodlad (1990) views for extended field experiences and "collaborative culture" in teacher education for well-prepared teachers.

  5. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  6. Medicalization and women's knowledge: the construction of understandings of infant feeding experiences in post-WW II New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, K M; Grace, V M

    2001-01-01

    For most of the twentieth century infant feeding knowledge has been constructed by medical scientists and health professionals. However, for a short time around the 1970s, New Zealand women (re)claimed the power to author their own knowledge based upon experience. This coincided with a dramatic return to breastfeeding on a national scale. Using New Zealand women's narratives of their infant feeding experiences over the past 50 years, this article brings to the foreground the importance of women's subjective construction of knowledge, their positioning within it, and the suppression of rudimentary discourses when that power is removed or relinquished in the process of remedicalization.

  7. Improving student retention in computer engineering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierozinski, Russell Ivan

    The purpose of this research project was to improve student retention in the Computer Engineering Technology program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology by reducing the number of dropouts and increasing the graduation rate. This action research project utilized a mixed methods approach of a survey and face-to-face interviews. The participants were male and female, with a large majority ranging from 18 to 21 years of age. The research found that participants recognized their skills and capability, but their capacity to remain in the program was dependent on understanding and meeting the demanding pace and rigour of the program. The participants recognized that curriculum delivery along with instructor-student interaction had an impact on student retention. To be successful in the program, students required support in four domains: academic, learning management, career, and social.

  8. Effects of Conceptual Change Texts and Laboratory Experiments on Fourth Grade Students' Understanding of Matter and Change Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durmus, Jale; Bayraktar, Sule

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether conceptual change texts and laboratory experiments are effective in overcoming misconceptions and whether the concepts were acquired permanently when these methods were utilized. In this study, we addressed some topics from the "Matter and Change" unit in science and technology class of…

  9. Gudaga Goes to School Study: Methods Used in Understanding School Transitions and Early Education Experiences of an Urban Aboriginal Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplun, Cathy; Knight, Jennifer; Grace, Rebekah; Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob; Comino, Elizabeth; Jackson-Pulver, Lisa; Kemp, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The Gudaga Goes to School Study described the transition to school and early education experiences of 117 urban Aboriginal children and their families. This paper outlines the methods and design of the study. A life course approach, employing multidimensional and multi-theoretical frameworks was used to capture the complexity of issues surrounding…

  10. Understanding the Complexity of Becoming a Teacher Educator: Experience, Belonging, and Practice within a Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Judy; Ritter, Jason; Bullock, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a literature review of self-studies by beginning teacher educators examining their experiences of the transition from classroom teaching to teacher educator. The authors conclude that becoming a teacher educator involves several complex and challenging tasks: examining beliefs and values grounded in personal biography,…

  11. Regiospecific Epoxidation of Carvone: A Discovery-Oriented Experiment for Understanding the Selectivity and Mechanism of Epoxidation Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Lai, Y. M.; Siu, Yuk-Hong

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a discovery-oriented experiment for demonstrating the selectivity of two epoxidation reactions. Peroxy acids and alkaline H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] are two commonly used reagents for alkene epoxidation. The former react preferentially with electron-rich alkenes while the latter works better with alpha,beta-unsaturated…

  12. "A Girl Never Finishes Her Journey": Mixing Methods to Understand Female Experiences of Education in Contemporary Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Much research has suggested that focusing on the determinants of female enrolment and dropout tells us little about girls' experiences of schooling in developing countries and cannot explain variation in their educational trajectories. This paper draws on quantitative (n = 1177) and qualitative data (n = 15) collected by "Young Lives" in Ethiopia…

  13. For Worse, for Poorer and in Ill Health: How Women Experience, Understand and Respond to a Partner's Gambling Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patford, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Gambling is now big business in Australia and public expenditure on gambling is high. Some individuals gamble to excess with adverse consequences for themselves and their partner. The present study targeted women who had concerns about a current or previous partner's gambling and employed a qualitative methodology to explore their experiences,…

  14. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  15. Teacher Support in Computer-Supported Lab Work: Bridging the Gap between Lab Experiments and Students' Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furberg, Anniken

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of teacher support in a setting where students engaged with computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) in science. The empirical basis is an intervention study where secondary school students and their teacher performed a lab experiment in genetics supported by a digital learning environment. The analytical…

  16. Understanding Latino Students' Schooling Experiences: The Relevance of Skin Color among Mexican and Puerto Rican High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: For the last 40 years, researchers have posited competing theories regarding the relative influence of social class background and racial-group membership on the school experiences, academic performance, behavior, and motivation of ethnic minority students. The general purpose of these competing theories has been to explain why…

  17. Moving from Ethical Awareness to Deeper Understanding and Practice: Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Developing Caring Dispositions in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research is to seek information from the Cleveland (Ohio) and Buffalo (New York) area kindergarten teachers about their experience in development of caring dispositions in children. Two hundred questionnaires were sent, one hundred to each city. There was a low response rate of less than 10% from both cities. A qualitative method…

  18. Degrees of Change: Understanding Academics Experiences with a Shift to Flexible Technology- Enhanced Learning in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehrwald, Benjamin A.; McCallum, Faye

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of technology enhanced learning in higher education is often associated with changes to academic work. This article reports on a study of staff experiences with curriculum development and teaching in multiple modes of blended and online learning in a Bachelor of Education degree. The findings indicate that the changes…

  19. Noncovalent Derivatization: A Laboratory Experiment for Understanding the Principles of Molecular Recognition and Self-Assembly through Phase Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Amy S.; Warner, John C.; Koraym, Smaa A.; Marteel-Parrish, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment focusing on the creation of phase diagrams involving nonconvalent derivatives of hydroquinone and bis[N,N-diethyl]terephthalamide (HQ-DETPA) is presented. A phase diagram was assembled by taking samples of different compositions (i.e., 40% hydroquinone and 60% bis[N,N-diethyl]terephthalamide, 70%/30%, etc.) and determining the…

  20. Understanding the Lived Experience of a Sioux Indian Male Adolescent: Toward the Pedagogy of Hermeneutical Phenomenology in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a resurgence of interests in phenomenology in education. This article sheds light on the importance of hermeneutical phenomenology in teaching and learning based on the lived experience of a Sioux Indian adolescent boy, elicited from an ethnographic case study conducted at an alternative high school in the US. Employing…