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Sample records for retention understanding experiments

  1. Understanding Health Workers’ Job Preferences to Improve Rural Retention in Timor-Leste: Findings from a Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Smitz, Marc-Francois; Witter, Sophie; Lemiere, Christophe; Eozenou, Patrick Hoang-Vu; Lievens, Tomas; Zaman, Rashid U.; Engelhardt, Kay; Hou, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Background Timor-Leste built its health workforce up from extremely low levels after its war of independence, with the assistance of Cuban training, but faces challenges as the first cohorts of doctors will shortly be freed from their contracts with government. Retaining doctors, nurses and midwives in remote areas requires a good understanding of health worker preferences. Methods The article reports on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) carried out amongst 441 health workers, including 173 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives. Qualitative methods were conducted during the design phase. The attributes which emerged were wages, skills upgrading/specialisation, location, working conditions, transportation and housing. Findings One of the main findings of the study is the relative lack of importance of wages for doctors, which could be linked to high intrinsic motivation, perceptions of having an already highly paid job (relative to local conditions), and/or being in a relatively early stage of their career for most respondents. Professional development provides the highest satisfaction with jobs, followed by the working conditions. Doctors with less experience, males and the unmarried are more flexible about location. For nurses and midwives, skill upgrading emerged as the most cost effective method. Conclusions The study is the first of its kind conducted in Timor-Leste. It provides policy-relevant information to balance financial and non-financial incentives for different cadres and profiles of staff. It also augments a thin literature on the preferences of working doctors (as opposed to medical students) in low and middle income countries and provides insights into the ability to instil motivation to work in rural areas, which may be influenced by rural recruitment and Cuban-style training, with its emphasis on community service. PMID:27846242

  2. Understanding Health Workers' Job Preferences to Improve Rural Retention in Timor-Leste: Findings from a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Smitz, Marc-Francois; Witter, Sophie; Lemiere, Christophe; Eozenou, Patrick Hoang-Vu; Lievens, Tomas; Zaman, Rashid U; Engelhardt, Kay; Hou, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Timor-Leste built its health workforce up from extremely low levels after its war of independence, with the assistance of Cuban training, but faces challenges as the first cohorts of doctors will shortly be freed from their contracts with government. Retaining doctors, nurses and midwives in remote areas requires a good understanding of health worker preferences. The article reports on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) carried out amongst 441 health workers, including 173 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives. Qualitative methods were conducted during the design phase. The attributes which emerged were wages, skills upgrading/specialisation, location, working conditions, transportation and housing. One of the main findings of the study is the relative lack of importance of wages for doctors, which could be linked to high intrinsic motivation, perceptions of having an already highly paid job (relative to local conditions), and/or being in a relatively early stage of their career for most respondents. Professional development provides the highest satisfaction with jobs, followed by the working conditions. Doctors with less experience, males and the unmarried are more flexible about location. For nurses and midwives, skill upgrading emerged as the most cost effective method. The study is the first of its kind conducted in Timor-Leste. It provides policy-relevant information to balance financial and non-financial incentives for different cadres and profiles of staff. It also augments a thin literature on the preferences of working doctors (as opposed to medical students) in low and middle income countries and provides insights into the ability to instil motivation to work in rural areas, which may be influenced by rural recruitment and Cuban-style training, with its emphasis on community service.

  3. Understanding Recruitment and Retention in Neurological Research

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Alyssa; Sherwood, Paula; Hricik, Allison; Bradley, Sarah; Kuo, Jean; Crago, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Given, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in participants and the abrupt and traumatic way in which many neurological conditions present are two examples of the unique challenges in recruiting and retaining subjects with neurological injury for research studies. The purpose of this investigation was to identify obstacles to recruitment and retention in three ongoing research studies. These studies involve persons with neurological disorders across the continuum of care, from those newly diagnosed and with emergent presentation to those with more established, chronic neurological conditions. For the purpose of this analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of the strategies employed to improve participation rates. The first study was an NIH funded project designed to identify biomarkers of vasospasm in persons (N=496) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who presented to the neurovascular intensive care unit (NINR, RO1 NR004339). The purpose of the second study was to examine bio-behavioral interactions in family caregivers (N=59) of persons with a primary malignant brain tumor (PMBT) recruited in the community setting. The third project involved recruiting persons (N=1019) within an outpatient neurosurgical center to participate in a research registry. To determine differential effectiveness of strategies, consent and attrition rates were calculated at serial points over time in three studies and recruitment and retention strategies were compared. Sentinel time points in participants' disease trajectories played a key role in determining whether those who were approached to participate gave consent and were retained, particularly in the studies involving persons with aneurysmal SAH (consent = 85%; retention = 89%) and persons with PMBTs and their caregivers (consent = 68%; retention = 83%). In addition, several specific recruiter and interviewer training techniques were associated with higher recruitment and retention. Targeted strategies to improve participation rates are vital

  4. The Retention of Meaningful Understanding of Meiosis and Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann Liberatore

    This study investigated the retention of meaningful understanding of the biological topics of meiosis, the Punnett square method and the relations between these two topics. This study also explored the predictive influence of students' general tendency to learn meaningfully or by rote (meaningful learning orientation), prior knowledge of meiosis,…

  5. Understanding Retention in US Graduate Programs by Student Nationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences in selected retention constructs by student nationality in US graduate programs. Surveys administered at four universities across the United States during fall 2010 resulted in responses from 685 PhD students from six international regions. Using univariate ANOVA, responses were…

  6. Understanding Retention in US Graduate Programs by Student Nationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences in selected retention constructs by student nationality in US graduate programs. Surveys administered at four universities across the United States during fall 2010 resulted in responses from 685 PhD students from six international regions. Using univariate ANOVA, responses were…

  7. Toward a mechanistic understanding of the effect of biochar addition on soil water retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Chang, N.; Guo, M.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich product produced by thermal degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment, whose application to sediment is said to improve water retention. However, BC produced from different feedstocks and pyrolyzed at different temperatures have distinct properties, which may alter water retention in ways difficult to predict a priori. Our goal is to develop a mechanistic understanding of BC addition on water retention by examining the impact of BC from two feedstocks, poultry litter (PL) and hardwood (HW), on the soil-water retention curves (SWRC) of a uniform sand and a sandy loam (SL). For experiments with sand, BC and sand were sieved to the same particle size (~ 0.547 mm) to minimize effects of BC addition on particle size distribution. Experiments with SL contained the same sieved BC. PL and HW bicohars were added at 2 and 7% (w/w), and water retention was measured from 0 to -4.38 × 106 cm-H2O. Both BCs increased porosities for sand and SL, up to 39 and 13% for sand and SL, respectively, with 7% HW BC addition. The primary cause for these increases was the internal porosity of BC particles. While the matric potential for air-entry was unchanged with BC addition, BC amendment increased water retention for sand and SL in the capillary region (0 to -15,000 cm-H2O) by an average of 26 and 33 % for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but only 7 and 14 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL. The most dramatic influence of BC amendment on water retention occurred in the adsorption region (< -15,000 cm-H2O), where water retention increased by a factor of 11 and 22 for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but by 140 and 190 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL, respectively. The impact of BC on water retention in these sediments is explained primarily by the additional surface area and internal porosity of PL and HW BC particles. van Genuchten (VG) models were fitted to the water retention data. For SL where the impact of BC addition on water retention was

  8. Understanding customer experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  9. A Look into Students' Retention of Acquired Nature of Science Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khishfe, Rola

    2015-01-01

    Having the learning and retention of science content and skills as a goal of scientific literacy, it is significant to study the issue of retention as it relates to teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS). Then, the purpose of this study was to investigate the development of NOS understandings of students, and the retention of these…

  10. A Look into Students' Retention of Acquired Nature of Science Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khishfe, Rola

    2015-01-01

    Having the learning and retention of science content and skills as a goal of scientific literacy, it is significant to study the issue of retention as it relates to teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS). Then, the purpose of this study was to investigate the development of NOS understandings of students, and the retention of these…

  11. Understanding Teacher Attraction and Retention Drivers: Addressing Teacher Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashiedu, Jennifer A.; Scott-Ladd, Brenda D.

    2012-01-01

    The attraction and retention of teachers is a problem faced by schools worldwide and possibly more so in the public sector. One possible solution to this problem is likely to be better targeting of attraction and retention drivers of value to teachers. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study conducted in Australia. The study used…

  12. Job embeddedness factors and retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Halfer, Diana

    2011-10-01

    An aging work force, predictions of job growth in health care, and an eventual economic recovery suggest that the current reprieve from the national nursing shortage is temporary. New graduate nurses are an important part of the work force and are needed to replace nurses who will retire in the next decade. Organizational leaders can address the forecasted work force demand by proactively investing in programs for workplace development and retention. Recent literature reports an increased focus on understanding the work experience and career support needed for new graduate nurses. Several studies report improvements in job satisfaction and retention after implementation of structured mentoring programs for new graduate nurses. However, despite successful transition programs, turnover for these same nurses after 1 to 3 years of organizational tenure remains high. Studying factors that contribute to retention and supporting careers beyond the first year of practice may have a significant effect on improving retention and will contribute new knowledge to the nursing literature. This study, undertaken at a Midwestern pediatric academic medical center, examined job factors and career development support that lead to retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience. Understanding these issues may guide nursing leaders and staff development educators in investing in focused retention and career development plans during an economic recession. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Understanding HBCU Retention and Completion: UNCF-Member Institution Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, D. A. R.

    2014-01-01

    This supplement to our 2012 report (see ED562057) on historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) retention and graduation rates narrows that report's focus to UNCF's member institutions, and shows that these private HBCUs retain and graduate students at rates competitive with other postsecondary institutions. These schools perform…

  14. Recruitment and retention. The Derby Theatre Project experience.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, David

    2003-10-01

    The National Theatre Project was set up in March 2001 by the Modernisation Agency to improve the patient and carer experience, improve employee satisfaction, optimise theatre utilisation and reduce cancelled operations. This is the second article in the series where David Ainsworth, manager of a pilot site project in Derby, describes issues around the Theatre Project. This month the focus is on recruitment, retention and staff morale.

  15. Retention in STEM: Understanding the Effectiveness of Science Posse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsoe, Kimberly

    One of the major areas of debate in higher education is how to best support underrepresented racial minority students in their study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. In 2008, Brandeis University began a new program in conjunction with the Posse Foundation for students interested in studying science at the college-level. The research used a mixed methods design. A detailed quantitative analysis was conducted to understand how being part of Science Posse impacted the probability of doing well in initial science classes, influenced perceptions of the difficulty of studying science, and predicted the probability of majoring in STEM at Brandeis. The qualitative data was drawn from 89 student interviews, including 38 Science Posse Scholars, 24 students from backgrounds similar to the Scholars, and 25 students from well-resourced families. The qualitative analysis demonstrated how students had been exposed to the sciences prior to enrollment, how they navigated the sciences at Brandeis, and how they demonstrated resilience when science becomes challenging. This research study had four key findings. The first was in the quantitative analysis which demonstrated that Science Posse Scholars experience strong feelings of doubt about their academic abilities; based on previous research, this should have resulted in their not declaring majors in STEM disciplines. Instead, Science Posse Scholars were more likely to earn a B+ or above in their entry level science courses and declare a major in a STEM discipline, even when factors such as math and verbal SAT scores were included in the analysis. The second finding was in the qualitative analysis, which demonstrated that the cohort model in which Science Posse Scholars participate was instrumental to their success. The third finding was that students who attended academically less rigorous high schools could succeed in the sciences at a highly selective research institution such as Brandeis without academic remediation

  16. A Look into Students' Retention of Acquired Nature of Science Understandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishfe, Rola

    2015-07-01

    Having the learning and retention of science content and skills as a goal of scientific literacy, it is significant to study the issue of retention as it relates to teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS). Then, the purpose of this study was to investigate the development of NOS understandings of students, and the retention of these understandings four months after being acquired through explicit reflective instruction in relation to two contexts. Participants were 24 tenth-grade students at a private high school in a city in the Middle East. Explicit NOS instruction was addressed within a six-week unit about genetic engineering. Three NOS aspects were integrated and dispersed across the unit. A questionnaire, together with semi-structured interviews, was administered as pre-, post-, and delayed post-test to assess the retention of participants' NOS understandings. The questionnaire had two open-ended scenarios addressing controversial socioscientific issues about genetically modified food and water fluoridation. Results showed that most students improved their naïve understandings of NOS in relation to the two contexts following the six-week unit with the explicit NOS instruction. However, these newly acquired NOS understandings were not retained by all students four months after instruction. Many of the students reverted back to their earlier naïve understandings. Conclusions about the factors facilitating the process of retention as the orientation to meaningful learning and the prolonged exposure to the domain were discussed in relation to practical implications in the classroom.

  17. Knowledge Retention after an Online Tutorial: A Randomized Educational Experiment among Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Harless, Charles E.; Higa, Jerilyn K.; Bjork, Elizabeth L.; Bjork, Robert A.; Bazargan, Mohsen; Mangione, Carol M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The time course of physicians’ knowledge retention after learning activities has not been well characterized. Understanding the time course of retention is critical to optimizing the reinforcement of knowledge. DESIGN Educational follow-up experiment with knowledge retention measured at 1 of 6 randomly assigned time intervals (0–55 days) after an online tutorial covering 2 American Diabetes Association guidelines. PARTICIPANTS Internal and family medicine residents. MEASUREMENTS Multiple-choice knowledge tests, subject characteristics including critical appraisal skills, and learner satisfaction. RESULTS Of 197 residents invited, 91 (46%) completed the tutorial and were randomized; of these, 87 (96%) provided complete follow-up data. Ninety-two percent of the subjects rated the tutorial as “very good” or “excellent.” Mean knowledge scores increased from 50% before the tutorial to 76% among those tested immediately afterward. Score gains were only half as great at 3–8 days and no significant retention was measurable at 55 days. The shape of the retention curve corresponded with a 1/4-power transformation of the delay interval. In multivariate analyses, critical appraisal skills and participant age were associated with greater initial learning, but no participant characteristic significantly modified the rate of decline in retention. CONCLUSIONS Education that appears successful from immediate posttests and learner evaluations can result in knowledge that is mostly lost to recall over the ensuing days and weeks. To achieve longer-term retention, physicians should review or otherwise reinforce new learning after as little as 1 week. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0604-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18446414

  18. Understanding Retention Outcomes: Using Multiple Data Sources To Distinguish between Dropouts, Stopouts, and Transfer-Outs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Discusses empirical problems in confining college student retention studies to stay-versus-go outcomes, reviewing data resources (exit surveys, transcript requests, withdrawn student surveys, state transfer student databases, and the National Student Clearinghouse's Enrollment Search Program), which can enhance understanding of first-year…

  19. Understanding Retention Outcomes: Using Multiple Data Sources To Distinguish between Dropouts, Stopouts, and Transfer-Outs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Discusses empirical problems in confining college student retention studies to stay-versus-go outcomes, reviewing data resources (exit surveys, transcript requests, withdrawn student surveys, state transfer student databases, and the National Student Clearinghouse's Enrollment Search Program), which can enhance understanding of first-year…

  20. Identifiability of diffusion and retention parameters of anionic tracers from the diffusion and retention (DR) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Shuping; Samper, Javier; Naves, Acacia; Soler, Josep M.

    2012-06-01

    SummaryIn situ diffusion experiments in low-permeability rocks are performed to study radionuclide diffusion and sorption and investigate scale effects. They are carried out in a packed-off interval of a borehole having a circulation system in which tracers are injected and allowed to diffuse into the rock. Tracer concentrations are monitored at the tracer interval during the experiment (dilution data) and measured at the end of the experiment in rock cores (overcoring data). The interpretation of in situ diffusion experiments in clay formations is challenging due to the influence of the filter, the gap between the filter and the borehole wall and the borehole disturbed zone (BDZ). The impact of the filter, the gap and the BDZ on the estimates of the accessible porosity and the effective diffusion, De, of the rock in the presence of random noise has been evaluated for the anionic tracers with synthetic experiments having the geometry and parameters of the in situ diffusion and retention (DR) experiment performed on Opalinus clay. The component of De of the clay parallel to the bedding can be estimated properly from dilution data when the standard deviation of the noise of the data is smaller than 0.05, but the component of De normal to the bedding cannot be estimated from dilution data. On the other hand, both components of De can be estimated properly from noisy overcoring data. Although the parameters of the BDZ and the undisturbed clay cannot be estimated simultaneously from noisy dilution data, they can be estimated from noisy overcoring data when the standard deviation of the noise is smaller than 0.05. Parameter estimation errors are large when the assumption about the BDZ is incorrect. The uncertainties in the De of the filter and in the volume of the circulation system have a noticeable impact on the estimates of the diffusion and porosity of the clay derived from dilution data. On the other hand, acceptable parameter estimates are obtained from overcoring

  1. Background or Experience? Using Logistic Regression to Predict College Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synco, Tracee M.

    2012-01-01

    Tinto, Astin and countless others have researched the retention and attrition of students from college for more than thirty years. However, the six year graduation rate for all first-time full-time freshmen for the 2002 cohort was 57%. This study sought to determine the retention variables that predicted continued enrollment of entering freshmen…

  2. Background or Experience? Using Logistic Regression to Predict College Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synco, Tracee M.

    2012-01-01

    Tinto, Astin and countless others have researched the retention and attrition of students from college for more than thirty years. However, the six year graduation rate for all first-time full-time freshmen for the 2002 cohort was 57%. This study sought to determine the retention variables that predicted continued enrollment of entering freshmen…

  3. Experiment poseidon: Elemental iodine retention in water pools

    SciTech Connect

    Guentay, S.

    1990-01-01

    Although gaseous fraction of iodine is expected to be small in quantity compared with its other forms such as CsI, because of its radiological consequence, removal of elemental iodine vapor from the gas bubbles in water pools defines an important boundary condition for the severe-accident scenarios that involve water pools. The Muehleberg nuclear power plant (a boiling water reactor Mark 1 type) in Switzerland has a unique feature, namely, a second suppression pool surrounding the reactor building in addition to the regular pressure suppression pool. For those hypothetical accident scenarios that involve the second pool, scrubbing in the second suppression pool would ultimately determine the magnitude and constitution of the release. An experimental program, pool scrubbing effect on iodine decontamination (POSEIDON), was initiated at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland in 1987 to provide a data base on gaseous iodine scrubbing. Bubbles containing elemental iodine vapor and nitrogen as the carrier gas are generated using certain sized orifices immersed in a water pool. Objectives of the experimental program are defined as (a) to understand the iodine removal phenomena from bubbles and (b) to provide a data base for iodine retention under controlled boundary conditions for the development and verification of the BUSCA-PSI pool scrubbing code.

  4. Retention and Mentorship of Minority Students via Undergraduate Internship Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, P.

    2004-12-01

    The School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology at the University of Hawaii is undertaking an Undergraduate Research Internship project to address the lack of full representation of women and underrepresented minorities in the geosciences. The overarching educational objective is to provide education and career development guidance and opportunities for students from underrepresented minorities. In collaboration with industry partners, we hope to prepare undergraduate students for life and careers in today's complex and dynamic technological world by encouraging them to attain high standards in the geosciences, thereby enabling them to compete successfully for positions in graduate programs. To achieve his goal, the project focuses on the following objectives: (1) Creating a high-quality integrated on-campus teaching and off-campus learning environment, and (2) providing an intensive introduction to geoscience careers through the guidance of experienced faculty and workplace mentors. The program will start small, collaborating with one or two companies over the next two years, offering paid summer internships. Opportunities for students include participation in geoscience-related research, obtaining experience in interpreting observations and providing information to end-users, working to improve technology and field methods, and developing the expertise to maintain, operate and deploy equipment. Program participants are assigned individual projects that relate to their academic majors, their career goals, and the ongoing research missions of our industry partners. In addition to their research activities, participants attend a series of seminars and tours dealing with current topics in geoscience to expose them to the wide variety of scientific and technical activities that occur in the workplace. The expected outcomes of this experience will be scientific growth and career development. Given that a very small percentage of all students go on to graduate

  5. The Mythical Retention Chart and the Corruption of Dale's Cone of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem; Molenda, Michael; Betrus, Anthony K.; Thalheimer, Will

    2014-01-01

    In response to the wide-scale proliferation of "the cone of learning"--a fanciful retention chart confounded with Dale's Cone of Experience--the authors make four major claims debunking this fantasy and provide documentary evidence to support these claims. The first claim is that the data in the mythical retention chart do not make…

  6. Mechanisms of nitrogen retention in forest ecosystems - A field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitousek, P. M.; Matson, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive forest management led to elevated losses of nitrogen from a recently harvested loblolly pine plantation in North Carolina. Measurements of nitrogen-15 retention in the field demonstrated that microbial uptake of nitrogen during the decomposition of residual organic material was the most important process retaining nitrogen. Management practices that remove this material cause increased losses of nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  7. Mechanisms of nitrogen retention in forest ecosystems - A field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitousek, P. M.; Matson, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive forest management led to elevated losses of nitrogen from a recently harvested loblolly pine plantation in North Carolina. Measurements of nitrogen-15 retention in the field demonstrated that microbial uptake of nitrogen during the decomposition of residual organic material was the most important process retaining nitrogen. Management practices that remove this material cause increased losses of nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  8. Retention in HIV care depends on patients' perceptions of the clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Wessinger, Matthew H; Hennink, Monique M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Mangal, Jed P; Gokhale, Runa H; Ruchin, Lauren; Moanna, Abeer; Rimland, David; Farber, Eugene W; Marconi, Vincent C

    2017-10-01

    Institutional barriers in HIV primary care settings can contribute substantially to disparities in retention in HIV treatment and HIV-related outcomes. This qualitative study compared the perceptions of clinic experiences of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in a Veterans Affairs HIV primary care clinic setting who were retained in care with the experiences of those who were not retained in care. Qualitative data from 25 in-depth interviews were analyzed to identify facilitators and barriers to retention in HIV care. Results showed that participants not retained in care experienced barriers to retention involving dissatisfaction with clinic wait times, low confidence in clinicians, and customer service concerns. For participants retained in care, patience with procedural issues, confidence in clinicians, and interpersonal connections were factors that enhanced retention despite the fact that these participants recognized the same barriers as those who were not retained in care. These findings can inform interventions aimed at improving retention in HIV care.

  9. Children's understanding and experience of mixed emotions.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeff T; To, Yen M; Fireman, Gary

    2007-02-01

    Though some models of emotion contend that happiness and sadness are mutually exclusive in experience, recent findings suggest that adults can feel happy and sad at the same time in emotionally complex situations. Other research has shown that children develop a better conceptual understanding of mixed emotions as they grow older, but no research has examined children's actual experience of mixed emotions. To examine developmental differences in the experience of mixed emotions, we showed children ages 5 to 12 scenes from an animated film that culminated with a father and daughter's bittersweet farewell. In subsequent interviews, older children were more likely than younger children to report experiencing mixed emotions. These results suggest that in addition to having a better conceptual understanding of mixed emotions, older children are more likely than younger children to actually experience mixed emotions in emotionally complex situations.

  10. Use It or Lose It: Advances in Our Understanding of Terrestrial Nitrogen Retention and Loss (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, W. L.; Yang, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding of the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle has grown over the last decade to include a variety of pathways that have the potential to either retain N in the ecosystem or result in losses to the atmosphere or groundwater. Early work has described the mechanics of these N transformations, but the relevance of these processes to ecosystem, regional, or global scale N cycling has not been well quantified. In this study, we review advances in our understanding of the terrestrial N cycle, and focus on three pathways with particular relevance to N retention and loss: dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite reduction to ammonium (DNRA), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (annamox), and anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction (Feammox). We discuss the role of these processes in the microbial N economy (sensu Burgin et al. 2011) of the terrestrial N cycle, the environmental and ecological constraints, and relationships with other key biogeochemical cycles. We also discuss recent advances in analytical approaches that have improved our ability to detect these and related N fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Finally, we present a scaling exercise that identifies the potential importance of these pathways for N retention and loss across a range of spatial and temporal scales, and discuss their significance in terms of N limitation to net primary productivity, N leaching to groundwater, and the release of reactive N gases to the atmosphere.

  11. Students' Understanding of Stern Gerlach Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-11-05

    The Stern Gerlach experiment has played a central role in the discovery of spin angular momentum and it has also played a pivotal role in elucidating foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Here, we discuss investigation of students' difficulties related to the Stern Gerlach experiment by giving written tests and interviewing advanced undergraduate and graduate students in quantum mechanics. We also discuss preliminary data that suggest that the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) related to the Stern Gerlach experiment is helpful in improving students' understanding of these concepts.

  12. Addressing Student Success and Retention in STEM Majors Through Strategic Curriculum Pathways and Early Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaspersohn, Robert P.

    In this dissertation we discuss a common first-year STEM curriculum pathway for undergraduate students majoring in science, math, or engineering, and a modification to this curriculum pathway that has been implemented, based on students' needs prior to enrollment. The intent is increasing student retention and success in the university and in STEM. The effects of the modification on student success, progression, retention and persistence are assessed, specifically. Second year retention in the university for the students who went through the modification has increased by 5%. Alternate non-traditional pathways within the first year physics laboratory experience can be introduced to address student needs.

  13. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water

  14. The Irreplaceables: Understanding the Real Retention Crisis in America's Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Andy; Vidyarthi, Elizabeth; Carroll, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    "Irreplaceables" are teachers who are so successful they are nearly impossible to replace, but who too often vanish from schools as the result of neglect and inattention. To identify and better understand the experience of these teachers, the authors started by studying 90,000 teachers across four large, geographically diverse urban school…

  15. Revisited reaction-diffusion model of thermal desorption spectroscopy experiments on hydrogen retention in material

    SciTech Connect

    Guterl, Jerome Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2015-07-28

    Desorption phase of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) experiments performed on tungsten samples exposed to flux of hydrogen isotopes in fusion relevant conditions is analyzed using a reaction-diffusion model describing hydrogen retention in material bulk. Two regimes of hydrogen desorption are identified depending on whether hydrogen trapping rate is faster than hydrogen diffusion rate in material during TDS experiments. In both regimes, a majority of hydrogen released from material defects is immediately outgassed instead of diffusing deeply in material bulk when the evolution of hydrogen concentration in material is quasi-static, which is the case during TDS experiments performed with tungsten samples exposed to flux of hydrogen isotopes in fusion related conditions. In this context, analytical expressions of the hydrogen outgassing flux as a function of the material temperature are obtained with sufficient accuracy to describe main features of thermal desorption spectra (TDSP). These expressions are then used to highlight how characteristic temperatures of TDSP depend on hydrogen retention parameters, such as trap concentration or activation energy of detrapping processes. The use of Arrhenius plots to characterize retention processes is then revisited when hydrogen trapping takes place during TDS experiments. Retention processes are also characterized using the shape of desorption peaks in TDSP, and it is shown that diffusion of hydrogen in material during TDS experiment can induce long desorption tails visible aside desorption peaks at high temperature in TDSP. These desorption tails can be used to estimate activation energy of diffusion of hydrogen in material.

  16. Minority Retention: Innovative Programs - The Broward Community College/Broward Manpower Council Work Experience Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiFede, Pat; Edwards, Larcelous, Jr.

    This report is focused on retention of minority students at Broward Community College. Convinced that identifiable minorities can progress through the college and its programs if they receive appropriate assistance, Broward Community College along with Broward Manpower Council designed a work experience program for full-time students who can work…

  17. Broadening the Learning Community Experience: An Outdoor Orientation Program's Impact on Engagement, Persistence, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Christy David

    2013-01-01

    The Keystone Learning Community was implemented by the Department of Campus Recreation to address retention at the institution. This learning community for incoming freshmen consists of two phases. Phase I is as an outdoor orientation program that includes a three day, two night canoeing and camping experience lead by upperclassmen leaders.…

  18. Experiences That Predict Early Career Teacher Commitment to and Retention in High-Poverty Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipp, Joan L.; Geronime, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Correlation analysis was used to analyze what experiences before and during teacher preparation for 72 graduates of an urban teacher education program were associated with urban commitment, first job location, and retention in urban schools for 3 or more years. Binary logistic regression was then used to analyze whether urban K-12 schooling,…

  19. First Year Experience Seminars: How Contrasting Models Impact the College Transition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Most institutions of higher education utilize First Year Experience (FYE) coursework to facilitate college adjustment and student retention. FYE courses are designed to support the college transition by introducing freshman to campus resources that can help them achieve their educational and career goals; however, there is much variation in…

  20. Broadening the Learning Community Experience: An Outdoor Orientation Program's Impact on Engagement, Persistence, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Christy David

    2013-01-01

    The Keystone Learning Community was implemented by the Department of Campus Recreation to address retention at the institution. This learning community for incoming freshmen consists of two phases. Phase I is as an outdoor orientation program that includes a three day, two night canoeing and camping experience lead by upperclassmen leaders.…

  1. Understanding Work Experiences of People with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Restall, Gayle J; Simms, Alexandria M; Walker, John R; Graff, Lesley A; Sexton, Kathryn A; Rogala, Linda; Miller, Norine; Haviva, Clove; Targownik, Laura E; Bernstein, Charles N

    2016-07-01

    People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for unemployment and work absenteeism over the course of their adult lives. However, little is known about the firsthand experiences of people living with the disease regarding perceived barriers, facilitators, and strategies for navigating work roles. In this qualitative study, participants were purposefully recruited from 2 existing IBD cohort study samples. Recruitment strategies aimed for diversity in age, sex, and disease type, duration, and symptom activity. In-depth interviews sought perspectives of living with IBD. Data were analyzed using inductive qualitative methods. Forty-five people currently or previously in the workforce participated; 51% were female. The mean age was 45.4 years (SD = 16.1; range = 21-73 years). Mean IBD duration was 10.9 years (SD = 6.3). Participants had a broad range of experiences in adapting to work roles. IBD symptoms and treatments interacted with other personal and environmental factors to shape the experiences of work. Experiences were shaped by: (1) personal health and well-being, (2) personal values, beliefs, and knowledge, (3) job characteristics, (4) workplace physical environment, (5) workplace culture, and (6) financial factors. Participants identified personal strategies and environmental supports that assisted them to navigate their work roles. The perspectives of people with IBD provided in-depth understanding of contextual factors that influence work roles. They identified personal strategies to manage health and choices about work, environmental supports that promote timely workplace accommodations, and appropriate social insurance benefits as facilitators of work retention for people with IBD.

  2. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Tall Column Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Powell, Michael R.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Karri, Naveen K.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Tran, Diana N.; Sande, Susan; Heldebrant, David J.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Smet, Dave; Bryan, Wesley E.; Calmus, Ronald B.

    2014-05-16

    Gas generation in Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks can lead to gas accumulation within the layer of settled solids (sludge) at the tank bottom. The gas, which typically has hydrogen as the major component together with other flammable species, is formed principally by radiation-driven chemical reactions. Accumulation of these gases within the sludge in a waste tank is undesirable and limits the amount of tank volume for waste storage. Further, accumulation of large amounts of gas in the sludge may potentially result in an unacceptable release of the accumulated gas if the sludge-layer density is reduced to less than that of the overlying sludge or that of the supernatant liquid. Rapid release of large amounts of flammable gases could endanger personnel and equipment near the tank. For this reason, a thorough understanding of the circumstances that can lead to a potentially problematic gas accumulation in sludge layers is needed. To respond to this need, the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Program (DSGREP) was commissioned to examine gas release behavior in sludges.

  3. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for

  4. Mathematics Teachers' Support and Retention: Using Maslow's Hierarchy to Understand Teachers' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to…

  5. "Making the Difficult Choice": Understanding Georgia's Test-Based Grade Retention Policy in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The author uses Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital, and habitus to analyze how students, parents, teachers, and administrators are responding to Georgia's test-based grade retention policy in reading at one Georgia elementary school. In this multiple case study, the author interviewed, observed, and collected documents regarding ten fifth…

  6. In Their Own Words: Assessment To Understand the Dynamics of College Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Hope; Buckingham, Tom; Cochran, Lynn

    This preliminary study, focusing only on writing analysis, is part of a larger longitudinal study that will be used to develop an effective instrument to predict college retention. The methodology arose from a psychological model created by John Bean (2001) to ascertain "academic fit" in the college setting and a psycholinguistic model developed…

  7. Mathematics Teachers' Support and Retention: Using Maslow's Hierarchy to Understand Teachers' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to…

  8. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability within Sediment Layers Due to Gas Retention: Preliminary Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rassat, Scot D.

    2013-03-21

    In Hanford underground waste storage tanks, a typical waste configuration is settled beds of waste particles beneath liquid layers. The settled beds are typically composed of layers, and these layers can have different physical and chemical properties. One postulated configuration within the settled bed is a less-dense layer beneath a more-dense layer. The different densities can be a result of different gas retention in the layers or different degrees of settling and compaction in the layers. This configuration can experience a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability where the less dense lower layer rises into the upper layer. Previous studies of gas retention and release have not considered potential buoyant motion within a settle bed of solids. The purpose of this report is to provide a review of RT instabilities, discuss predictions of RT behavior for sediment layers, and summarize preliminary experimental observations of RT instabilities in simulant experiments.

  9. Understanding the Experiences of Female Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lorraine; Watson, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of the impact of gender on the doctoral experience. Eight women who had recently completed or who had almost completed a PhD were interviewed about their experiences. Seven studied part time and one full time. It was found that being a mother had profound implications for doctoral-level…

  10. Peeling the onion: understanding others' lived experience.

    PubMed

    Miles, Maureen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Society and some healthcare professionals often marginalise pregnant women who take illicit substances. Midwives who care for these women are often viewed as working on the edge of society. This research aimed to examine the lived experiences of midwives who care for pregnant women who take illicit drugs. A phenomenological study informed by Heidegger, Gadamer and Merleau-Ponty was chosen to frame these lived experiences. Using face-to-face interviews, data were collected from 12 midwives making a difference, establishing partnerships and letting go and refining practice. Lived experiences are unique and can be difficult, intangible and couched in metaphor and difficult to grasp. This paper aims to discuss lived experience and suggests that like an onion, several layers have to be peeled away before meaning can be exposed; each cover reveals another layer beneath that is different from before and different from the next. The study provides exemplars that explain lived experiences.

  11. Understanding personality traits from early life experiences.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Toshinori; Fujihara, Shigeki

    2003-06-01

    The contribution of early experiences towards the onset of personality disorder has often been stressed. However, the contribution to trait personality has received less attention. To examine the impact of early experiences on the development of personality, two subscale scores of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ): neuroticism (N) and extroversion (E), were used to assess a total of 220 residents of a rural city of Japan (aged > or =18 years). After controlling for age and social desirability response bias, the N score of men could be predicted by the experience of relocation; the E score of men by high parental care and low parental overprotection; and the E score of women by the experience of death of a sibling. Personality traits in a non-patient population may be explained by early experiences.

  12. Policy interventions to improve rural retention among neurosurgeons in Iran: A discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Sima; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health workforce shortages in rural and remote areas are a global challenge that almost every health system has to deal with. This study aimed to discover neurosurgeons’ job preferences and propose policy interventions that could possibly increase their retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in November 2014 with a sample of Iranian neurosurgeons selected from five contrary’s provinces representing the geographical diversity. Job attributes included income, dual practice opportunities, workload, proximity to family, clinical infrastructure, housing, educational facilities, and work location. Probit regression model was used to estimate the importance of different job attributes and examine the extent to which neurosurgeons were willing to tradeoff between monetary and nonmonetary attributes. Results: Findings indicated that increased salary, permission to undertake dual practice and access to adequate clinical infrastructure were the most important retention policies. Provision of subsidized housing and educational facilities also increased neurosurgeons’ attraction and retention in rural areas. Conclusion: A range of policy interventions focusing on both monetary and nonmonetary incentives are required to increase neurosurgeons’ retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. PMID:26885340

  13. Policy interventions to improve rural retention among neurosurgeons in Iran: A discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Sima; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-10-07

    Health workforce shortages in rural and remote areas are a global challenge that almost every health system has to deal with. This study aimed to discover neurosurgeons' job preferences and propose policy interventions that could possibly increase their retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in November 2014 with a sample of Iranian neurosurgeons selected from five contrary's provinces representing the geographical diversity. Job attributes included income, dual practice opportunities, workload, proximity to family, clinical infrastructure, housing, educational facilities, and work location. Probit regression model was used to estimate the importance of different job attributes and examine the extent to which neurosurgeons were willing to tradeoff between monetary and nonmonetary attributes. Findings indicated that increased salary, permission to undertake dual practice and access to adequate clinical infrastructure were the most important retention policies. Provision of subsidized housing and educational facilities also increased neurosurgeons' attraction and retention in rural areas. A range of policy interventions focusing on both monetary and nonmonetary incentives are required to increase neurosurgeons' retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas.

  14. The first year experience of occupational therapy students at an Australian regional university: Promoting student retention and developing a regional and remote workforce.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Jackie; Cordier, Reinie; Thomas, Yvonne; Tanner, Bronwyn; Salata, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Student retention at regional universities is important in addressing regional and remote workforce shortages. Students attending regional universities are more likely to work in regional areas. First year experience at university plays a key role in student retention. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the first year experience of occupational therapy students at a regional Australian university. Surveys were administered to 58 second year occupational therapy students in the first week of second year. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics (Pearson χ(2) ; Spearman rho) and summarising descriptive responses. An Australian regional university. Second year undergraduate occupational therapy students. Factors influencing students' decisions to study and continue studying occupational therapy; factors enhancing first year experience of university. Fifty-four students completed the survey (93.1%). A quarter (25.9%) of students considered leaving the course during the first year. The primary influence for continuing was the teaching and learning experience. Most valued supports were orientation week (36.7%) and the first year coordinator (36.7%). The importance of the first year experience in retaining occupational therapy students is highlighted. Engagement with other students and staff and academic support are important factors in facilitating student retention. It is important to understand the unique factors influencing students' decisions, particularly those from regional and remote areas, to enter and continue in tertiary education to assist in implementing supports and strategies to improve student retention. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  15. Strengthening organizational commitment. Understanding the concept as a basis for creating effective workforce retention strategies.

    PubMed

    Manion, Jo

    2004-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges facing any health care leader today is that of building commitment among followers. The last decade, with its tumultuous changes in our organizations, left many employees emotionally detached from their workplace. Mistrust, increasing cynicism, escalating financial pressures, and continuing challenges adversely impact our workforce's organizational commitment. The author explores the concept of commitment, which can serve as a basis for developing practical effective retention strategies.

  16. Understanding the College First-Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Kirk S.

    2005-01-01

    Each fall, thousands of high school graduates launch into the next phase of their academic careers: college. They arrive on campuses across the United States full of hope and optimism, trepidation and anxiety. All intensely feel both the eagerness to excel and the fear of failure. The author shares his experience of dealing with college first-year…

  17. Beyond "Culture Clash" Understandings of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Bic

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the ways in which the experiences of immigrant youth and families in U.S. schools and society have been conceptualized primarily as conflicts between immigrant cultures and dominant U.S. culture. Exemplified by the discourse of culture clash or of immigrants being torn between two worlds, this prevalent understanding…

  18. Understanding the College First-Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Kirk S.

    2005-01-01

    Each fall, thousands of high school graduates launch into the next phase of their academic careers: college. They arrive on campuses across the United States full of hope and optimism, trepidation and anxiety. All intensely feel both the eagerness to excel and the fear of failure. The author shares his experience of dealing with college first-year…

  19. Understanding Credit Risk: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servatka, Maros; Theocharides, George

    2011-01-01

    This classroom experiment introduces students to the notion of credit risk and expected return, by allowing them to trade on comparable corporate bond issues from two types of markets: investment-grade and high-yield markets. Investment-grade issues have a lower probability of default than high-yield issues and thus provide a lower yield.…

  20. Understanding Credit Risk: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servatka, Maros; Theocharides, George

    2011-01-01

    This classroom experiment introduces students to the notion of credit risk and expected return, by allowing them to trade on comparable corporate bond issues from two types of markets: investment-grade and high-yield markets. Investment-grade issues have a lower probability of default than high-yield issues and thus provide a lower yield.…

  1. Designing Learning Experiences for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stripling, Barbara K.; Harada, Violet H.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is the less visible part of the teaching and learning process; however, it serves as the blueprint for student learning. To conceptualize the unit or project as a holistic learning experience, the authors created the C.L.E.A.R. G.O.A.L.S. guidelines that address the major elements of unit planning. An essential step is identifying the…

  2. Designing Learning Experiences for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stripling, Barbara K.; Harada, Violet H.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is the less visible part of the teaching and learning process; however, it serves as the blueprint for student learning. To conceptualize the unit or project as a holistic learning experience, the authors created the C.L.E.A.R. G.O.A.L.S. guidelines that address the major elements of unit planning. An essential step is identifying the…

  3. Effect of Two-Tier Diagnostic Tests on Promoting Learners' Conceptual Understanding of Variables in Conducting Scientific Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Taking a test generally improves the retention of the material tested. This is a phenomenon commonly referred to as testing effect. The present research investigated whether two-tier diagnostic tests promoted student teachers' conceptual understanding of variables in conducting scientific experiments, which is a scientific process skill. In this…

  4. Effect of Two-Tier Diagnostic Tests on Promoting Learners' Conceptual Understanding of Variables in Conducting Scientific Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Taking a test generally improves the retention of the material tested. This is a phenomenon commonly referred to as testing effect. The present research investigated whether two-tier diagnostic tests promoted student teachers' conceptual understanding of variables in conducting scientific experiments, which is a scientific process skill. In this…

  5. The impact of program experiences on the retention of women engineering students in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Maria Del Carmen Garcia

    This qualitative study sought to describe and understand the experiences of female students attending engineering colleges in Mexico and the sources of support and strategies that helped them persist in their programs. The participants were 20 women engineering students enrolled in at least their third year in selected colleges of engineering in Mexico, in both public and private universities, and pursuing a variety of engineering majors. Findings focus on the experiences of female students that helped them stay in their programs. Participants described their experiences in college as very challenging and perceived the environment as hostile and uncertain. In addition, patriarchal Mexican cultural values and stereotypes were identified by students as influencing and helping shape the engineering environment. However, in this context, participants were able to find sources of support and use strategies that helped them remain in their majors, such as a strong desire to succeed, a perceived academic self-ability; and support from their families, peers, institutions, and---most importantly---their professors. Furthermore, the fact that participants were able to persist in their programs gave them a sense of pride and satisfaction that was shared by their families, peers, and faculty. In addition, participants experienced contradictory forces and were constantly negotiating between rejecting traditional gender norms and upholding the norms that are so deeply engrained in Mexican society. Finally, as the students advanced in their programs and became "accepted to the club," they tended to reproduce the male-dominated value system present in engineering colleges accepting their professors' expectations of being "top students," accepting the elitist culture of engineering superiority, and embracing the protection given by their male peers. Retention of Mexican female engineering students is important for all engineering colleges, but cultural factors must be taken into

  6. Reactive transport modeling for Cs retention: from batch to field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pourcq, K.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.; García-Gutiérrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.

    2012-04-01

    A Permeable Reactive Barrier has been designed to treat 137Cs polluted groundwater. In order to check both reactivity and permeability, laboratory batch and column tests combined with reactive transport modeling have been performed. The trapping mechanism is based on the sorption of cesium mainly on illite-containing clays. Batch experiments were conducted to obtain the partition coefficients (Kd) of different clay samples in solutions with different potassium concentration. A clear correlation of Kd values with potassium content was observed. The results were modeled with a cation-exchange model. The permeability of the reactive material is provided by the dispersion of the clay on a matrix of wooden shavings. Constant head tests allowed obtaining permeability values. Several column experiments with different flow rates were conducted to confirm the 137Cs retention under different conditions. A blind 1D reactive transport model based on the cation-exchange model was able to predict reasonably well the results of column experiments. The reactive transport model, validated with the column experiments, was used to investigate the performance and duration of 1m thick barrier under different scenarios (flow, clay proportion, 137Cs and K concentration). As expected, the sensitivity tests proved that the retention capacity of dissolved 137Cs in groundwater depends linearly on the amount of clay used in the filling material. As well, the operation time increases linearly when decreasing the flow rate. Finally, the concentration of potassium in inflow water has a remarkable and non-linear influence in the retention of 137Cs. Very high concentrations of potassium are the greatest threat and can lead to the unfeasibility of a permeable reactive barrier. Due to the Cs-K competition, the barrier is comparatively more efficient to treat high concentrations of 137Cs. Up to now, preliminary results from a field scale experiment have confirmed the reactivity and permeability

  7. Understanding HIV care delays in the US South and the role of the social-level in HIV care engagement/retention: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a significant geographical shift in the distribution of HIV infection, the US South - comprising 17 states - now has the greatest number of adults and adolescents with HIV (PLHIV) in the nation. More than 60% of PLHIV are not in HIV care in Alabama and Mississippi, contrasted with a national figure of 25%. Poorer HIV outcomes raise concerns about HIV-related inequities for southern PLHIV, which warrant further study. This qualitative study sought to understand experiences of low-income PLHIV on the AIDS Drug Assistance Program in engagement and retention in continuous HIV care in two sites in Alabama. Methods The study was designed using grounded theory. Semi-structured interviews with 25 PLHIV explored experiences with care linkage, reported factors and behaviors affecting engagement/retention in continuous HIV care, including socio-economic factors. To triangulate sources, 25 additional interviews were conducted with health and social service providers from the same clinics and AIDS Service Organizations where clients obtained services. Across the narratives, we used the HIV care continuum to map where care delays and drop out occurred. Using open coding, constant comparison and iterative data collection and analysis, we constructed a conceptual model illustrating how participants described their path to HIV care engagement and retention. Results Most respondents reported delayed HIV care, describing concentric factors: psychological distress, fear, lack of information, substance use, incarceration, lack of food, transport and housing. Stark health system drop out occurred immediately after receipt of HIV test results, with ART initiation generally occurring when individuals became ill. Findings highlight these enablers to care: Alabama's 'social infrastructure'; 'twinning' medical with social services, 'social enablers' who actively link PLHIV to care; and 'enabling spaces' that break down PLHIV isolation, facilitating HIV care linkage/retention

  8. Mesocosm experiments to assess factors affecting phosphorus retention and release in an extended Wisconsin wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Manion, B.J.; Goddard, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus retention by wetland sediments and vegetation was investigated in Jackson Creek wetland, an extension of an existing prairie marsh in southeastern Wisconsin. The extended wetland construction was undertaken in 1992-93 to help reduce the phosphorus loading to a downstream eutrophic lake. Two approaches were used to study potential and actual phosphorus retention in the system. Mesocosm experiments of 20-40 days duration indicated that retention of total and dissolved reactive phosphorus in mesocosm cells containing macrophytes and/or sediments was reduced by factors of 2-20 relative to cells containing only water or a copper algicide to suppress metabolic activity. In contrast to the nutrient trapping function, these results show a potential for net phosphorus release that can be associated with increased biological richness. Measurements of water flow and nutrient loads at the wetland's inflow and outflow points demonstrated 9-39% net uptake of phosphorus on an annual scale but frequent occurrences of net phosphorus release over shorter (one-month) time scales. These episodes of release are most likely during the summer months. Thus, the wetland role in phosphorus cycling is not one of a true source or sink, although the annual budget data alone suggest substantial net retention. Effective management of the wetland for its nutrient trapping potential can be hindered by this oversimplification. The system is instead subject to relatively short-term alternation between net import and export. The periodic phosphorus export, although representing a small fraction of net annual import, could be critical for growth of macrophyte and algal communities downstream.

  9. Mathematics teachers' support and retention: using Maslow's hierarchy to understand teachers' needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-10-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to develop a hierarchy of teachers' needs that resembles Maslow's hierarchy, which can be used to better support teachers in various stages of their careers. The interviews revealed both non content-specific and content-specific needs within the hierarchy. The responses show that teachers found different schools foster different stress levels and that as teachers they used a number of resources for reducing stress. Other mathematics-specific ideas are also discussed such as the amount of content and pedagogy courses required for certification.

  10. Understanding the production and retention of in situ cosmogenic 14C in polar firn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmiel, B.; Petrenko, V. V.; Dyonisius, M.; Smith, A.; Schmitt, J.; Buizert, C.; Place, P., Jr.; Harth, C. M.; Beaudette, R.; Hua, Q.; Yang, B.; Vimont, I.; Kalk, M.; Weiss, R. F.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Brook, E.; White, J. W. C.

    2016-12-01

    Radiocarbon in CO2, CO and CH4 trapped in polar ice is of interest for dating of ice cores, studies of past solar activity and cosmic ray flux, as well as studies of the paleoatmospheric CH4 budget. The major difficulty with interpreting 14C measurements in ice cores stems from the fact that the measured 14C represents a combination of trapped paleoatmospheric 14C and 14C that is produced within the firn and ice lattice by secondary cosmic ray particles. This in situ cosmogenic 14C component in ice is at present poorly understood. Prior ice core 14C studies show conflicting results with regard to the retention of in situ cosmogenic 14C in polar firn and partitioning of this 14C among CO2, CO and CH4. Our study aims to comprehensively characterize the 14C of CO2, CO, and CH4 in both the air and the ice matrix throughout the firn column at Summit, Greenland. We will present preliminary measurements of 14C in Summit firn air and the firn matrix, along with initial interpretations with regard to in situ cosmogenic 14C retention. Preliminary results from firn air indicate a 14CO increase with depth in the lock-in zone resulting from in situ production by muons, as well as a lock-in zone 14CO2 bomb peak originating from nuclear testing in the late 1950s and early 1960s. A decrease in 14CH4 with depth is observed in the lock-in zone that is in agreement with observations of increasing atmospheric 14CH4 over the past several decades. We observe that only a small fraction of in-situ produced 14CO, 14CH4 and 14CO2 is retained in the firn matrix. Additionally, we describe progress in the development of a field-portable sublimation apparatus for extraction of CO2 from firn and ice for 14C measurements.

  11. The effectiveness of using computer simulated experiments on junior high students' understanding of the volume displacement concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Soon; Gennaro, Eugene

    Several researchers have suggested that the computer holds much promise as a tool for science teachers for use in their classrooms (Bork, 1979, Lunetta & Hofstein, 1981). It also has been said that there needs to be more research in determining the effectiveness of computer software (Tinker, 1983).This study compared the effectiveness of microcomputer simulated experiences with that of parallel instruction involving hands-on laboratory experiences for teaching the concept of volume displacement to junior high school students. This study also assessed the differential effect on students' understanding of the volume displacement concept using sex of the students as another independent variable. In addition, it compared the degree of retention, after 45 days, of both treatment groups.It was found that computer simulated experiences were as effective as hands-on laboratory experiences, and that males, having had hands-on laboratory experiences, performed better on the posttest than females having had the hands-on laboratory experiences. There were no significant differences in performance when comparing males with females using the computer simulation in the learning of the displacement concept. This study also showed that there were no significant differences in the retention levels when the retention scores of the computer simulation groups were compared to those that had the hands-on laboratory experiences. However, an ANOVA of the retention test scores revealed that males in both treatment conditions retained knowledge of volume displacement better than females.

  12. Children's Understandings of Rurality: Exploring the Interrelationship between Experience and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Jaleh

    2002-01-01

    Explores children's material and discursive experiences of rurality in New Zealand and how they contribute to children's understandings of rurality. Highlights common constructions of reality based on experiences of agriculture, nature, and recreation, as well as children's understandings of rurality from discourse with peers and adults. (Contains…

  13. Understanding and modeling retention of mammalian cells in fluidized bed centrifuges.

    PubMed

    Kelly, William; Rubin, Jonathan; Scully, Jennifer; Kamaraju, Hari; Wnukowski, Piotr; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2016-11-01

    Within the last decade, fully disposable centrifuge technologies, fluidized-bed centrifuges (FBC), have been introduced to the biologics industry. The FBC has found a niche in cell therapy where it is used to collect, concentrate, and then wash mammalian cell product while continuously discarding centrate. The goal of this research was to determine optimum FBC conditions for recovery of live cells, and to develop a mathematical model that can assist with process scaleup. Cell losses can occur during bed formation via flow channels within the bed. Experimental results with the kSep400 centrifuge indicate that, for a given volume processed: the bed height (a bed compactness indicator) is affected by RPM and flowrate, and dead cells are selectively removed during operation. To explain these results, two modeling approaches were used: (i) equating the centrifugal and inertial forces on the cells (i.e., a force balance model or FBM) and (ii) a two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to predict liquid flow patterns and cell retention in the bowl. Both models predicted bed height vs. time reasonably well, though the CFD model proved more accurate. The flow patterns predicted by CFD indicate a Coriolis-driven flow that enhances uniformity of cells in the bed and may lead to cell losses in the outflow over time. The CFD-predicted loss of viable cells and selective removal of the dead cells generally agreed with experimental trends, but did over-predict dead cell loss by up to 3-fold for some of the conditions. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1520-1530, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Understanding recruitment and retention in the NHS community pharmacy stop smoking service: perceptions of smoking cessation advisers

    PubMed Central

    Sohanpal, Ratna; Rivas, Carol; Steed, Liz; MacNeill, Virginia; Kuan, Valerie; Edwards, Elizabeth; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand views of pharmacy advisers about smoker recruitment and retention in the National Health Service community pharmacy stop smoking programme. Design Thematic framework analysis of semistructured, in-depth interviews applying the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B behaviour change model. We aimed to identify aspects of adviser behaviour that might be modified to increase numbers joining and completing the programme. Participants 25 stop smoking advisers (13 pharmacists and 12 support staff). Setting 29 community pharmacies in 3 inner east London boroughs. Results Advisers had preconceived ideas about smokers likely to join or drop out and made judgements about smokers' readiness to quit. Actively recruiting smokers was accorded low priority due in part to perceived insufficient remuneration to the pharmacy and anticipated challenging interactions with smokers. Suggestions to improve smoker recruitment and retention included developing a more holistic and supportive approach using patient-centred communication. Training counter assistants were seen to be important as was flexibility to extend the programme duration to fit better with smokers’ needs. Conclusions Cessation advisers feel they lack the interpersonal skills necessary to engage well with smokers and help them to quit. Addressing advisers' behaviours about active engagement and follow-up of clients, together with regular skills training including staff not formally trained as cessation advisers, could potentially boost numbers recruited and retained in the stop smoking programme. Adjustments to the pharmacy remuneration structure to incentivise recruitment and to allow personalisation of the programme for individual smokers should also be considered. PMID:27388355

  15. Understanding the student veterans' college experience: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Timothy; Badger, Karen; McCuddy, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Students with active duty military experience are a unique and growing population on college campuses in the United States. This study explores student veterans' perceptions of their transition to and experience in higher education. This mixed methods study used a sample of 10 active military and reserve component student veterans to explore their perceptions of their personal strengths, challenges, factors impacting participation in university resource programs, and suggestions for ideal resources to support their academic success. Content analysis yielded primary themes such as the strength of self-discipline, the challenge of social interactions, and the desire for programs that connect student-veterans and assist with social integration. Implications for education, retention, and transition from active duty are discussed.

  16. Understanding Student Retention in Computer Science Education: The Role of Environment, Gains, Barriers and Usefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakos, Michail N.; Pappas, Ilias O.; Jaccheri, Letizia; Sampson, Demetrios G.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have been working to understand the high dropout rates in computer science (CS) education. Despite the great demand for CS professionals, little is known about what influences individuals to complete their CS studies. We identify gains of studying CS, the (learning) environment, degree's usefulness, and barriers as important predictors…

  17. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods: To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results: Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001) and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58) respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001). On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001), was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the

  18. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-03-01

    Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001) and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58) respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001). On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001), was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the analysis of locally relevant, actionable

  19. Formation and retention of organically bound deuterium in rice in deuterium water release experiment.

    PubMed

    Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Ichimasa, Michiko; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    2002-06-01

    As a substitute of tritium, deuterated water (D2O) vapor release experiments were performed in a greenhouse to estimate the different formation and subsequent retention of organically bound deuterium in rice plants between daytime and nighttime exposure. Potted rice plants were exposed to D2O vapor in the greenhouse for 8 h, under day or night conditions. Deuterium concentrations in free water and organic matter in rice leaves and ears were investigated until harvest time. The formation of organically bound deuterium in the daytime was higher than during the nighttime by the factors of 2.4 for the ear and 2.9 for the leaf. The decrease of the organically bound deuterium concentration in the ear after the nighttime exposure was faster than that after the daytime exposure. Data analysis was carried out using a compartment model in which different generating processes of organic matter were considered. The calculated organically bound deuterium retention in rice agreed with the measured value.

  20. Academic Career Selection and Retention in Radiation Oncology: The Joint Center for Radiation Therapy Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Balboni, Tracy A. . E-mail: tbalboni@partners.org; Chen, M.-H.; Harris, Jay R.; Recht, Abram; Stevenson, Mary Ann; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: The United States healthcare system has witnessed declining reimbursement and increasing documentation requirements for longer than 10 years. These have decreased the time available to academic faculty for teaching and mentorship. The impact of these changes on the career choices of residents is unknown. The purpose of this report was to determine whether changes have occurred during the past decade in the proportion of radiation oncology trainees from a single institution entering and staying in academic medicine. Methods and Materials: We performed a review of the resident employment experience of Harvard Joint Center for Radiation Therapy residents graduating during 13 recent consecutive years (n = 48 residents). The outcomes analyzed were the initial selection of an academic vs. nonacademic career and career changes during the first 3 years after graduation. Results: Of the 48 residents, 65% pursued an academic career immediately after graduation, and 44% remained in academics at the last follow-up, after a median of 6 years. A later graduation year was associated with a decrease in the proportion of graduates immediately entering academic medicine (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.94). However, the retention rate at 3 years of those who did immediately enter academics increased with a later graduation year (p = 0.03). Conclusion: During a period marked by notable changes in the academic healthcare environment, the proportion of graduating Harvard Joint Center for Radiation Therapy residents pursuing academic careers has been declining; however, despite this decline, the retention rates in academia have increased.

  1. The new hire/preceptor experience: cost-benefit analysis of one retention strategy.

    PubMed

    Baggot, Deirdre M; Hensinger, Barbara; Parry, Juanita; Valdes, Michael S; Zaim, Selale

    2005-03-01

    Retention of nurses is central to the strategic planning process of any healthcare organization. The authors discuss a strategy to leverage the relationship between new nurses and their preceptors in an attempt to positively effect nurse retention. The authors present the costs and benefits of this retention strategy.

  2. Understanding physicians' decisions to practice in rural areas as a basis for developing recruitment and retention strategies.

    PubMed

    Scammon, D L; Williams, S D; Li, L B

    1994-01-01

    The shortage of providers in rural areas is threatening the quality and availability of health care in many communities. The causes of the provider shortage are many and varied-from economic to social to personal. Government programs have addressed the issue of provider supply by offering scholarships and loan repayment programs for medical students who then must fulfil service obligations in underserved settings, among which are rural areas. Experience has shown that once providers complete their obligations under these grant programs, retention of providers in rural areas becomes an even more critical issue. Using focus group research, this study explores the practice setting choices of a group of physicians currently practicing in rural areas. The discussion reveals that personal values are one of the primary motivators for choosing to practice in rural settings while lack of availability of career opportunities for spouses and educational opportunities for children are major obstacles. The health care system poses barriers to success for providers in rural settings. The key rewards from rural practice are the ability to become integrated into the local community and the provider/patient relationships that develop in such settings. These findings are used as the basis for proposing recruitment and retention strategies for providers to improve access to medical care by patients in rural areas.

  3. Improving Pharmacy Students' Understanding and Long-term Retention of Acid-Base Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Despite repeated exposure to the principles underlying the behavior of organic acids and bases in aqueous solution, some pharmacy students remain confused about the topic of acid-base chemistry. Since a majority of organic drug molecules have acid-base character, the ability to predict their reactivity and the extent to which they will ionize in a given medium is paramount to students' understanding of essentially all aspects of drug action in vivo and in vitro. This manuscript presents a medicinal chemistry lesson in the fundamentals of acid-base chemistry that many pharmacy students have found enlightening and clarifying PMID:19503706

  4. Improving pharmacy students' understanding and long-term retention of acid-base chemistry.

    PubMed

    Roche, Victoria F

    2007-12-15

    Despite repeated exposure to the principles underlying the behavior of organic acids and bases in aqueous solution, some pharmacy students remain confused about the topic of acid-base chemistry. Since a majority of organic drug molecules have acid-base character, the ability to predict their reactivity and the extent to which they will ionize in a given medium is paramount to students' understanding of essentially all aspects of drug action in vivo and in vitro. This manuscript presents a medicinal chemistry lesson in the fundamentals of acid-base chemistry that many pharmacy students have found enlightening and clarifying.

  5. Military Retention: A Holistic Approach To Understanding Officer Separation In The Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Commander billets with well- rounded EOD officers who have at least eight years of experience in the Navy. One argument that may be presented against this...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. MILITARY...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  6. Understanding the Early Integration Experiences of College Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepler, Dustin K.; Woosley, Sherry A.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to better understand the early integration experiences of college students with disabilities by examining two research questions: (1) How well do the variables in Tinto's (1993) classic model of student attrition predict the early integration experiences of college students with disabilities? and (2) How do students with…

  7. Understanding the Role of Uncertainty in Jealousy Experience and Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Walid A.; Reichert, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Confirms the value of uncertainty for understanding jealousy. Finds that subjects were more likely to experience and less likely to directly express jealousy at high, versus low, levels of relational state uncertainty. Highlights the importance of differentiating jealousy experience from expression, and corroborates recent evidence showing a…

  8. Female peer mentors early in college increase women’s positive academic experiences and retention in engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2017-01-01

    Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women’s experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended. Incoming women engineering students (n = 150) were randomly assigned to female or male peer mentors or no mentors for 1 y. Their experiences were assessed multiple times during the intervention year and 1-y postintervention. Female (but not male) mentors protected women’s belonging in engineering, self-efficacy, motivation, retention in engineering majors, and postcollege engineering aspirations. Counter to common assumptions, better engineering grades were not associated with more retention or career aspirations in engineering in the first year of college. Notably, increased belonging and self-efficacy were significantly associated with more retention and career aspirations. The benefits of peer mentoring endured long after the intervention had ended, inoculating women for the first 2 y of college—the window of greatest attrition from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Thus, same-gender peer mentoring for a short period during developmental transition points promotes women’s success and retention in engineering, yielding dividends over time. PMID:28533360

  9. Visual laser ablation of prostate (VLAP) for patients with retention of urine: personal experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Krishna M.

    1994-05-01

    A total of 21 consecutive patients with retention of urine underwent visual laser ablation of prostate. Twelve of these had spinal anesthesia, eight had local anesthesia and one had general anesthesia. Seventeen had acute retention; 13 from BPH, 1 due to carcinoma of prostate and three were due to Bladder Neck Stenosis (BNS). Four had chronic retention; three due to BPH and one due to BNS. A Nd:YAG/KTP laser was used and the laser was delivered via Angle Delivery Device. All 13 patients in acute retention due to BPH became catheter free after a mean catheter time of 8 days (range 1 - 22 days), the three patients with acute retention due to BNS were catheter free the next day after the laser incision of the BNS and the patient with acute retention from carcinoma of prostate required a TURP after 45 days of initial laser irradiation. Of the four patients with chronic retention, three with BPH required a TURP procedure after waiting over a month. The patient with chronic retention with BNS was catheter free after 7 days of his laser procedure. We conclude that laser prostatectomy using a side firing laser probe is effective in patients with acute retention but did not work well in our hands for chronic retention patients.

  10. Analysis of the parameter identifiability of the in situ diffusion and retention (DR) experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samper, Javier; Yi, Shuping; Naves, Acacia

    In situ diffusion experiments are performed at underground research laboratories to overcome the limitations of laboratory diffusion experiments. The diffusion and retention (DR) experiments are long-term, natural-scale, in situ experiments performed in the anisotropic Opalinus Clay Formation at Mont Terri, Switzerland. Dilution data are monitored at the injection interval and overcoring data will be measured at samples around the injection interval at the end of the experiment during overcoring. Interpretation of DR experiments is complicated by the non-ideal effects caused by the sintered filter, the gap between the filter and the borehole wall and the excavation disturbed zone (EdZ). Their impact on parameter estimates has been evaluated with numerical sensitivity analyses and synthetic experiments having the same geometry and parameters as the real DR experiments. Dimensionless sensitivities of tracer concentrations in the injection interval and along the overcoring profiles have been computed numerically. They have been used to identify the tracer parameters that can be estimated with the least uncertainty from tracer dilution and overcoring data. Sensitivities of tracer dilution data change with time and those of overcoring concentrations along the bedding are different from those along profiles normal to the bedding. Concentrations along overcoring profiles are sensitive to the effective diffusion normal to the bedding. Synthetic experiments generated with prescribed known parameters have been interpreted automatically with INVERSE-CORE 2D and used to evaluate the relevance of non-ideal effects and determine parameter identifiability in the presence of random errors for HTO and 22Na +. Model results show that it is difficult to estimate the parameters of the undisturbed clay when the tracer dilution data contain noise. The convergence of the estimation algorithm improves when the starting values are smaller than the true parameters. Although the parameters

  11. Is personality the missing link in understanding recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners?

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Humphreys, John S; Nicholson, Tahnee

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about the role of personality and related constructs in general practitioners' (GPs) choices of geographic location of medical practice. There is however some theory suggesting a role for personality in career decision making and some limited empirical evidence that this applies in medical career decisions. The aim of this study is to gain insight into whether personality plays a role in GPs' decisions to work in rural areas and the length of time that they intend to remain as a rural practitioner. Samples of rural (n=372) and urban (n=100) GPs from New South Wales (Australia) completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness--Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and Adjective Checklist personality instruments and answered questions about demographics and rural upbringing. Rural GPs scored, on average, more highly than urban GPs with respect to conscientiousness and agreeableness but lower on openness, which can also be taken to mean a more 'down-to-earth' personality. Personality together with age, gender, experience as a GP, time in current location and rural childhood yield an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 in discriminating rural from urban GPs. Among rural GPs openness (P=0.007) was positively correlated with intended longevity as a rural doctor as was nurturing (P=0.06). Personality appears to play some role both in discriminating rural from urban GPs and in how long existing rural GPs intend to remain as rural GPs. Consideration of personality might assist in selection of individuals who will better fit the professional and social environment of rural life. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. Understanding the meaning of medications for patients: The medication experience

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho de Oliveira, Djenane

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand and describe the meaning of medications for patients. Methods: A metasynthesis of three different, yet complementary qualitative research studies, was conducted by two researchers. The first study was a phenomenological study of patients’ medication experiences that used unstructured interviews. The second study was an ethnographic study of pharmaceutical care practice, which included participant observation, in-depth interviews and focus groups with patients of pharmaceutical care. The third was a phenomenological study of the chronic illness experience of medically uninsured individuals in the United States and included an explicit aim to understand the medication experience within that context. The two researchers who conducted these three qualitative studies that examined the medication experience performed the meta-synthesis. The process began with the researchers reviewing the themes of the medication experience for each study. The researchers then aggregated the themes to identify the overlapping and similar themes of the medication experience and which themes are sub-themes within another theme versus a unique theme of the medication experience. The researchers then used the analytic technique, “free imaginative variation” to determine the essential, structural themes of the medication experience. Results: The meaning of medications for patients was captured as four themes of the medication experience: a meaningful encounter; bodily effects; unremitting nature; and exerting control. The medication experience is an individual’s subjective experience of taking a medication in his daily life. It begins as an encounter with a medication. It is an encounter that is given meaning before it occurs. The experience may include positive or negative bodily effects. The unremitting nature of a chronic medication often causes an individual to question the need for the medication. Subsequently, the individual may exert control by altering

  13. Does recruitment lead to retention? Rural Clinical School training experiences and subsequent intern choices.

    PubMed

    Eley, D; Baker, P

    2006-01-01

    The Australian Rural Clinical Schools, established nationally in 2000-2001, have provided an opportunity for medical students to undertake their clinical training across a network of hospitals, general practice surgeries and community medical centres in locations throughout Australia. The Rural Clinical School at the University of Queensland was established in 2002, as the Rural Clinical Division (RCD) of the School of Medicine, which provides a four-year graduate MB BS program. Students may elect to train in their 3rd and/or 4th year in one of three clinical divisions, namely Central, Southern (both based in Brisbane) or Rural which comprises teaching sites in south west Queensland and central Queensland region. Training must be of an equivalent nature throughout these three divisions, because students all sit the same examinations. Rigorous evaluation of the RCD teaching program underpins the goals of continuing improvement of both education and resources, and is also a key component of the reporting mechanisms linked to ongoing Commonwealth funding. Students' perception of their medical education at the RCD is the major focus of such evaluations in order to assist both educational improvement and required student recruitment. With this in mind, a questionnaire, the 'Year 4 Exit Survey' was developed to evaluate medical student perceptions of their 4th year experience at the RCD. Coupled to this was an analysis of internship choices to evaluate the important related issue of medical graduate retention. The increasing popularity of the RCD has prompted further investigation into the intern placement choice by these students. The provision of a positive medical education experience in a Rural Clinical School might be expected to influence this intern choice to favour a rural location. This preliminary report provides the results of the evaluations by one cohort of year 4 students and explores the relationship between rural undergraduate medical training experiences

  14. Taming theory with thought experiments: Understanding and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    I claim that one way thought experiments contribute to scientific progress is by increasing scientific understanding. Understanding does not have a currently accepted characterization in the philosophical literature, but I argue that we already have ways to test for it. For instance, current pedagogical practice often requires that students demonstrate being in either or both of the following two states: 1) Having grasped the meaning of some relevant theory, concept, law or model, 2) Being able to apply that theory, concept, law or model fruitfully to new instances. Three thought experiments are presented which have been important historically in helping us pass these tests, and two others that cause us to fail. Then I use this operationalization of understanding to clarify the relationships between scientific thought experiments, the understanding they produce, and the progress they enable. I conclude that while no specific instance of understanding (thus conceived) is necessary for scientific progress, understanding in general is. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Retention Puzzle Reconsidered: Second Year Student Attitudes and Experiences with Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Michael Edward

    2013-01-01

    College student retention has been described as a puzzle because retention rates have stagnated, and in some cases declined, despite over seventy years of research into the problem. The magnitude of the problem is that 50 percent of college students will leave their institution before obtaining a degree (Braxton, Hirschy, & McClendon, 2011).…

  16. African American Students at Predominantly White Institutions: A Motivational and Self-Systems Approach to Understanding Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Kelly A.; Summers, Jessica J.

    2008-01-01

    Predominantly White institutions have not been as effective as historically Black institutions in retaining and conferring degrees upon African American college students. This review seeks to embed the psychological aspects of the retention process proposed by Bean and Eaton ["A psychological model of college student retention." In J. M. Braxton…

  17. Toward a Greater Understanding of Hispanic Undergraduate Retention at a Private Christian University Using Narrative Inquiry and Autoethnographic Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Student retention is considered a complex human behavior. Adding to the complex nature of student retention is the ever changing landscape of higher education due in large part to the growth of Hispanic undergraduate student enrollment on college campuses. While notable gains have been made increasing the number of Hispanic students graduating…

  18. African American Students at Predominantly White Institutions: A Motivational and Self-Systems Approach to Understanding Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Kelly A.; Summers, Jessica J.

    2008-01-01

    Predominantly White institutions have not been as effective as historically Black institutions in retaining and conferring degrees upon African American college students. This review seeks to embed the psychological aspects of the retention process proposed by Bean and Eaton ["A psychological model of college student retention." In J. M. Braxton…

  19. Developing An Analytic Approach to Understanding the Patient Care Experience

    PubMed Central

    Springman, Mary Kate; Bermeo, Yalissa; Limper, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data available to health-care institutions regarding the patient care experience has grown tremendously. Purposeful approaches to condensing, interpreting, and disseminating these data are becoming necessary to further understand how clinical and operational constructs relate to patient satisfaction with their care, identify areas for improvement, and accurately measure the impact of initiatives designed to improve the patient experience. We set out to develop an analytic reporting tool deeply rooted in the patient voice that would compile patient experience data obtained throughout the medical center. PMID:28725852

  20. The 2009 Kurt Hahn Address: Seeking Deeper Understandings from Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    2010-01-01

    This address used a narrative style to convey several stories drawn from the speaker's life. These stories illustrated various points about the value of experience for expanding learners' deep understandings of the content through the use of know-how knowledge. Know-how knowledge was contrasted with know-that knowledge in order to demonstrate the…

  1. Understandings, Definitions, and Experiences of Clergy in Residential Psychiatric Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneis, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the understandings, definitions, and experiences of forgiveness held by members of the clergy who reported conflict with the religious superiors who mandated their entry into residential psychiatric treatment because of substance abuse/dependence, sexual misconduct, compulsive behavior disorder, or affective disorders. Compares the data…

  2. Prospective TESOL Teachers' Beliefs, Understandings, and Experiences of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallestad, Chizuko Konishi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this present ethnographic case study is to explore the initial and developing beliefs, understandings, and experiences of prospective language teachers as they engage in the process of learning about cooperative learning (CL) and in putting it into practice in a TESOL graduate program in the U.S. Data collection includes multiple…

  3. The 2009 Kurt Hahn Address: Seeking Deeper Understandings from Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    2010-01-01

    This address used a narrative style to convey several stories drawn from the speaker's life. These stories illustrated various points about the value of experience for expanding learners' deep understandings of the content through the use of know-how knowledge. Know-how knowledge was contrasted with know-that knowledge in order to demonstrate the…

  4. Translating Our Current Understanding of Ascites Management into New Therapies for Patients with Cirrhosis and Fluid Retention.

    PubMed

    Pose, Elisa; Cardenas, Andres

    2017-01-01

    practical aspects of the evaluation and treatment of patients with ascites and cirrhosis and also discusses how to translate our current understanding of ascites pathophysiology into new treatment methods for patients with fluid retention. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Retaining customers in a managed care market. Hospitals must understand the connection between patient satisfaction, loyalty, retention, and revenue.

    PubMed

    Gemme, E M

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, health care patients have been treated by health care professionals as people with needs rather than as customers with options. Although managed care has restricted patient choice, choice has not been eliminated. The premise of this article is that patients are primary health care consumers. Adopting such a premise and developing an active customer retention program can help health care organizations change their culture for the better, which may lead to higher customer retention levels and increased revenues. Customer retention programs based on service excellence that empower employees to provide excellent care can eventually lead to a larger market share for health care organizations trying to survive this era of intense competition.

  6. Distributed Revisiting: An Analytic for Retention of Coherent Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svihla, Vanessa; Wester, Michael J.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Designing learning experiences that support the development of coherent understanding of complex scientific phenomena is challenging. We sought to identify analytics that can also guide such designs to support retention of coherent understanding. Based on prior research that distributing study of material over time supports retention, we explored…

  7. User Evaluation of the Effects of a Text Simplification Algorithm Using Term Familiarity on Perception, Understanding, Learning, and Information Retention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , 7 multiple-choice questions without the text for learning, and 2 free recall questions for information retention. Results Ninety-nine participants completed the study. We found strong beneficial effects on both perceived and actual difficulty. After simplification, the text was perceived as simpler (P<.001) with simplified text scoring 2.3 and original text 3.2 on the 5-point Likert scale (score 1: easiest). It also led to better understanding of the text (P<.001) with 11% more correct answers with simplified text (63% correct) compared to the original (52% correct). There was more learning with 18% more correct answers after reading simplified text compared to 9% more correct answers after reading the original text (P=.003). There was no significant effect on free recall. Conclusions Term familiarity is a valuable feature in simplifying text. Although the topic of the text influences the effect size, the results were convincing and consistent. PMID:23903235

  8. Defining retention and attrition in pre-antiretroviral HIV care: proposals based on experience in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Matthew P; Larson, Bruce; Rosen, Sydney

    2013-01-01

    Objective To propose practical, standardized definitions for reporting retention for pre-ART care. Method Definitions footed on three stages: Stage 1, testing HIV-positive to initial ART eligibility assessment; Stage 2, initial assessment to ART eligibility; and Stage 3, ART eligibility to ART initiation. For each stage, negative outcomes include death, loss, or not being retained. Results Stage 1 Retention: proportion of patients who complete initial ART eligibility assessment within 3 months of HIV testing, with reporting of cohort outcomes at 3 and 12 months after HIV testing. Patients who end Stage 1 eligible for ART move directly to Stage 3. Stage 2 Retention: proportion of patients who either: complete all possible ART eligibility re-assessments within 6 months of the site’s standard visit schedule; or had an assessment within 1 year of the time reported to and were not ART eligible at the last assessment. Retention should be reported at 12-month intervals. Stage 3 Retention: initiating ART (i.e. ARVs dispensed) within 3 months of determining ART eligibility, with reporting at 3 months after eligibility and 3 monthly intervals thereafter. Conclusion If pre-ART retention is to improve, consistent terminology is needed for collecting data, measuring and reporting outcomes, and comparing results across programs and countries. The definitions we propose offer a strategy for improving the consistency and comparability of future reports. PMID:22863075

  9. Understanding the Behavioral Determinants of Retention in HIV Care: A Qualitative Evaluation of a Situated Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills Model of Care Initiation and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.; Amico, K. Rivet

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The current study provides a qualitative test of a recently proposed application of an Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior situated to the social-environmental, structural, cognitive-affective, and behavioral demands of retention in HIV care. Mixed-methods qualitative analysis was used to identify the content and context of critical theory-based determinants of retention in HIV care, and to evaluate the relative fit of the model to the qualitative data collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with a sample of inner-city patients accessing traditional and nontraditional HIV care services in the Bronx, NY. The sample reflected a diverse marginalized patient population who commonly experienced comorbid chronic conditions (e.g., psychiatric disorders, substance abuse disorders, diabetes, hepatitis C). Through deductive content coding, situated IMB model-based content was identified in all but 7.1% of statements discussing facilitators or barriers to retention in HIV care. Inductive emergent theme identification yielded a number of important themes influencing retention in HIV care (e.g., acceptance of diagnosis, stigma, HIV cognitive/physical impairments, and global constructs of self-care). Multiple elements of these themes strongly aligned with the model's IMB constructs. The convergence of the results from both sets of analysis demonstrate that participants' experiences map well onto the content and structure of the situated IMB model, providing a systematic classification of important theoretical and contextual determinants of retention in care. Future intervention efforts to enhance retention in HIV care should address these multiple determinants (i.e., information, motivation, behavioral skills) of self-directed retention in HIV care. PMID:22612447

  10. Understanding and retention of trial-related information among participants in a clinical trial after completing the informed consent process.

    PubMed

    Mexas, Fernanda; Efron, Anne; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Cailleaux-Cezar, Michelle; Chaisson, Richard E; Conde, Marcus B

    2014-02-01

    for assessing the level of understanding of trial-related information during the informed consent (IC) process in developing countries are lacking. To assess the understanding and retention of trial-related information presented in the IC process by administering an informed consent assessment instrument (ICAI) to participants in a clinical trial for a new tuberculosis (TB) regimen being conducted in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Methods The format of the ICAI was based on the language and structure of the United States National Cancer Institute's IC comprehension checklist. The ICAI was designed to assess points of the RioMAR study IC process that addressed the principles of research ethics requested by Brazilian Regulatory Authority: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Briefly, (1) Is the respondent participating in a clinical trial? (2) Are two different treatments being evaluated? (3) Is the treatment arm chosen by chance? (4) Is an HIV test required? (5) Are liver function tests required? (6) Can participants leave the study at any time? (7) Are the risks and benefits of taking part in the study clear? (8) May pregnant women participate in the study? (9) Can one of the study drugs reduce the effectiveness of contraceptives? (10) Are patients paid to participate in the study? The ICAI was applied at two time points: immediately after enrollment in the clinical trial and 2 months later. A total of 61 patients who enrolled in the RioMAR study participated in this study. The percentage of correct answers to all questions was 82% at the time of the first ICAI; 31 participants (51%) did not recall that an HIV test was required (question 4) and 43 (70%) did not know that they could leave the study (question 6). Other individual questions were answered correctly by at least 76% of participants. There was no association between incorrect answers and age, gender, monthly family income, neighborhood, or level of education (p > 0.07). When the responses to the

  11. Understanding dignity: experiences of impairment in an exercise facility.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Keith R; Goodwin, Donna L; Leo, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Dignity, as an essential quality of being human, has been overlooked in exercise contexts. The aim of this interpretative phenomenological study was to understand the meaning of dignity and its importance to exercise participation. The experiences of 21 adults (11 women and 10 men) from 19 to 65 yr of age who experience disability, who attended a specialized community exercise facility, were gathered using the methods of focus-group and one-on-one interviews, visual images, and field notes. The thematic analysis revealed 4 themes: the comfort of feeling welcome, perceptions of otherness, negotiating public spaces, and lost autonomy. Dignity was subjectively understood and nurtured through the respect of others. Indignities occurred when enacted social and cultural norms brought dignity to consciousness through humiliation or removal of autonomy. The specialized exercise environment promoted self-worth and positive self-beliefs through shared life experiences and a norm of respect.

  12. The Influence of Principal Gender, Teachers' Years of Experience, and Retention on Teacher Perceptions of Principal Leadership Style, Qualities, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddins, Gregg M.

    2012-01-01

    One main challenge for many school districts in these tough economic times is teacher retention and all the costs associated. This study looks the influence of principal gender, teacher years of experience, and teacher retention based on teachers' perceptions of their principal's leadership style, transformational leadership qualities,…

  13. The Influence of Principal Gender, Teachers' Years of Experience, and Retention on Teacher Perceptions of Principal Leadership Style, Qualities, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddins, Gregg M.

    2012-01-01

    One main challenge for many school districts in these tough economic times is teacher retention and all the costs associated. This study looks the influence of principal gender, teacher years of experience, and teacher retention based on teachers' perceptions of their principal's leadership style, transformational leadership qualities,…

  14. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage) and contingent valuation (third stage). For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents); in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents); and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants). Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions). It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and from public to private

  15. Black Male Retention Initiatives: Exploring Students' Experiences and Program Effectiveness at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Leger, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Recent initiatives in higher education have been designed to increase Black undergraduate male collegiate retention and persistence through graduation for this historically underrepresented population. Although institutional leaders in higher education have focused on creating more inclusive campuses, designing and implementing programs to retain…

  16. Improving recruitment and retention for an online randomized controlled trial: experience from the Youthnet study.

    PubMed

    Bull, S S; Vallejos, D; Levine, D; Ortiz, C

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the study was to present recruitment and retention findings for an Internet based HIV prevention trial evaluated using a randomized controlled design among 15-25-year-olds accessing a website on the Internet. We used a combination of automated electronic and personalized approaches to increase and diversify recruitment, verify participant eligibility and increase retention. We posted 3.5 million banner advertisements, 9354 individuals clicked on the advertisement, 8950 completed an eligibility screener and 3298 a baseline survey; we flagged 675 of these as suspicious and enrolled 2623 individuals. Of these, 2082 (79%) completed a follow-up at one-month and 1398 (53%) completed a two-month follow-up. This retention rate is the highest we have seen for an Internet-based HIV-prevention trial. Our procedures can be replicated in other trials. We stress the importance of using a combination of automated and personalized techniques to increase enrollment, verify eligibility and promote retention.

  17. Psychological Sense of Community and Retention: Rethinking the First-Year Experience of Students in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagley Falls, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    This investigation looks at the relationship between a STEM learning community's co-curricular activities and students' perceived sense of community (SOC) to determine which activities most influence SOC and, in turn, retention. This investigation shows that SOC can be impacted by a multitude of factors found within the college environment. The…

  18. Black Male Retention Initiatives: Exploring Students' Experiences and Program Effectiveness at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Leger, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Recent initiatives in higher education have been designed to increase Black undergraduate male collegiate retention and persistence through graduation for this historically underrepresented population. Although institutional leaders in higher education have focused on creating more inclusive campuses, designing and implementing programs to retain…

  19. The Role of Work Experience and Self-Efficacy in STEM Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joseph A.; Bailey, Margaret B.; Hamann, Jerry; Pendleton, Leslie K.; Reisberg, Rachelle; Whitman, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the results of a three-year longitudinal study of retention among undergraduate engineering students enrolled at four major universities. The study demonstrates that self-efficacy can be a critical factor in student persistence and can be broken down into three components: work, career, and academic self-efficacy. The authors…

  20. The Role of Work Experience and Self-Efficacy in STEM Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joseph A.; Bailey, Margaret B.; Hamann, Jerry; Pendleton, Leslie K.; Reisberg, Rachelle; Whitman, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the results of a three-year longitudinal study of retention among undergraduate engineering students enrolled at four major universities. The study demonstrates that self-efficacy can be a critical factor in student persistence and can be broken down into three components: work, career, and academic self-efficacy. The authors…

  1. The retention characteristics of nonvolatile SNOS memory transistors in a radiation environment: Experiment and model

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, P.J.; Miller, S.L.; Dellin, T.A.; Axness, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data and a model to accurately and quantitatively predict the data are presented for retention of SNOS memory devices over a wide range of dose rates. A wide range of SNOS stack geometries are examined. The model is designed to aid in screening nonvolatile memories for use in a radiation environment.

  2. Using a Complexity-Based Perspective to Better Understand the Relationships among Mentoring, School Conflicts, and Novice Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Sheryn Elaine Spencer

    2011-01-01

    In this study I used complexity-thinking, ecologically-based sustainable capacity-building, narrative methodology, and pragmatism to explore the relationships among mentoring, conflict, and novice retention. In order to explore these relationships, I constructed stories from my interviews with six mentor-novice dyads in a southeastern 9-12 high…

  3. The Use of Grounded Theory to Develop a Framework for Understanding Student Retention in Community College Nursing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priode, Kimberly S.

    2013-01-01

    Gaining admission into pre-licensure nursing programs has proven to be quite difficult for the average college student. Topping the list of crucial priorities for many academic institutions is the retention of these nursing students. Yet, the reality is that many students decide not to complete their course of study for reasons other than academic…

  4. Using a Complexity-Based Perspective to Better Understand the Relationships among Mentoring, School Conflicts, and Novice Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Sheryn Elaine Spencer

    2011-01-01

    In this study I used complexity-thinking, ecologically-based sustainable capacity-building, narrative methodology, and pragmatism to explore the relationships among mentoring, conflict, and novice retention. In order to explore these relationships, I constructed stories from my interviews with six mentor-novice dyads in a southeastern 9-12 high…

  5. Understanding How People with Mental Health Difficulties Experience Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Emma; Smith, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative studies dominate research exploring reasons for substance use and experiences of substance use by people with mental health difficulties. This limits the depth of understanding which can be gained about these experiences. In the present article, we synthesized current qualitative research in this area to provide enhanced theoretical knowledge of these experiences. Following a systematic literature search, we identified 12 studies which explored how people with mental health difficulties experienced using substances, and which met additional inclusion criterion. We used Noblit and Hare's metaethnographic approach to qualitatively synthesize these studies. Synthesis led to the development of two themes; "substance use mediates acceptance and social inclusion" and "substance use provides perceived opportunities for control and power." The findings suggest that in the studies reviewed people's motivation for substance use was embedded in social and psychological contexts. It indicated that substance use could provide perceived benefits such as mediating the impact of mental health stigma, enabling the development of alternative identities, increasing their sense of power and providing opportunities for social inclusion. Mental health and substance use workers should therefore aim to develop alternative opportunities for people with co-occurring disorders to gain such benefits, and seek to challenge mental health stigma.

  6. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  7. Creating meaningful learning experiences: Understanding students' perspectives of engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleong, Richard James Chung Mun

    , relevance, and transfer. With this framework of student learning, engineering educators can enhance learning experiences by engaging all three levels of students' understanding. The curriculum studies orientation applied the three holistic elements of curriculum---subject matter, society, and the individual---to conceptualize design considerations for engineering curriculum and teaching practice. This research supports the characterization of students' learning experiences to help educators and students optimize their teaching and learning of design education.

  8. Critical contribution of nonlinear chromatography to the understanding of retention mechanism in reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-11-01

    The retention of most compounds in RPLC proceeds through a combination of several independent mechanisms. We review a series of recent studies made on the behavior of several commercial C{sub 18}-bonded stationary phases and of the complex, mixed retention mechanisms that were observed in RPLC. These studies are essentially based on the acquisition of adsorption isotherm data, on the modeling, and on the interpretation of these data. Because linear chromatography deals only with the initial slope of the global, overall, or apparent isotherm, it is unable fully to describe the complete adsorption mechanism. It cannot even afford clues as to the existence of several overlaid retention mechanisms. More specifically, it cannot account for the consequences of the surface heterogeneity of the packing material. The acquisition of equilibrium data in a wide concentration range is required for this purpose. Frontal analysis (FA) of selected probes gives data that can be modeled into equilibrium isotherms of these probes and that can also be used to calculate their adsorption or affinity energy distribution (AED). The combination of these data, the detailed study of the best constants of the isotherm model, the determination of the influence of experimental parameters (e.g., buffer pH and pI, temperature) on the isotherm constants provide important clues regarding the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface and the main properties of the adsorption mechanisms. The comparison of similar data obtained for the adsorption of neutral and ionizable compounds, treated with the same approach, and the investigation of the influence on the thermodynamics of phase equilibrium of the experimental conditions (temperature, average pressure, mobile phase composition, nature of the organic modifier, and, for ionizable compounds, of the ionic strength, the nature, the concentration of the buffer, and its pH) brings further information. This review provides original conclusions regarding

  9. Recruitment and Retention of Diverse Populations in Antiretroviral Clinical Trials: Practical Applications from the Gender, Race And Clinical Experience Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Dawn Averitt; Currier, Judith; Squires, Kathleen; Hagins, Debbie; Schaible, Deborah; Ryan, Robert; Mrus, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Women, particularly women of color, remain underrepresented in antiretroviral (ARV) clinical trials. To evaluate sex-based differences in darunavir/ritonavir-based therapy, the Gender, Race And Clinical Experience (GRACE) study was designed to enroll and retain a high proportion of women representative of the racial/ethnic demographics of women with HIV/AIDS in the United States. The recruitment and retention strategies used in GRACE are described in this article. Methods Recruitment and retention strategies targeting women included selecting study sites that focused on women, involving community consultants, site-specific enrollment plans, access to other ARV drugs, study branding, site and patient toolkits, targeted public relations, site grants for patient support, and subsidized child care and transportation. Results The recruitment strategies were successful; 287 (67%) women were enrolled, primarily women of color (black, n=191 [67%], Hispanic, n=60 [21%]). Despite the focus on retention, a greater proportion of women (32.8%) discontinued compared with men (23.2%). Conclusions The successes of GRACE in enrolling a representative population of women were rooted in pretrial preparation, engagement of community advisors, enrollment quotas, choice of study sites and site support. Lessons learned from GRACE may be applied to future study design. Further focus on factors that influence discontinuation is warranted. PMID:21663416

  10. Understanding the learning assistant experience with physics identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Eleanor W.; Close, Hunter G.; Donnelly, David

    2013-01-01

    Learning Assistants (LAs) have been shown to have better conceptual understanding and more favorable beliefs about science than non-LAs, and are more likely to choose a career in K-12 science teaching [1]. We propose that connections between elements of identity, persistence, and participation in an LA program can be explained using the concept of the community of practice and its intimate relationship to identity [2]. In separate work, Hazari et al. found that physics identity was highly correlated to expressed career plans in physics [3]. We hypothesize that a thriving LA program has many features of a well-functioning community of practice and contributes to all four elements of physics identity: personal interest, student performance, competence, and recognition by others. We explore how this analysis of the LA experience might shape decisions and influence outcomes of adoption and adaptations of the LA model.

  11. Using a Field Experience to Build Understanding of Planetary Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higbie, M.; Treiman, A.; Kiefer, W.; Shipp, S.

    2004-12-01

    In the summer of 2004, the Lunar and Planetary Institute hosted 25 middle- and high-school teachers on a week-long field experience in Idaho and Montana. This workshop mixed field work with classroom experiences and provided educators and scientists the opportunity to interact. The educators investigated deposits associated with Glacial Lake Missoula floods and lava flows in the Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. The participants applied what they learned about Earth-based processes to develop understanding of processes operating on Mars and the most recent results from NASA's missions to Mars. This was the most recent of five field-based experiences that used Earth-planet comparisons as a basis for experiential learning. These field experiences all are designed to strengthen content knowledge of geologic processes and planetary sciences. Learning geology through fieldwork enables participants to take ownership of the content through real-life experience; in essence, the teacher becomes the student. Establishing deeper knowledge of the content increases their confidence in facilitating inquiry-based science in their own classrooms. In addition to content, the educators are immersed in the process of science. Participants make observations, compile notes and illustrations, debate interpretations, draw conclusions, and communicate findings. Care was taken to separate observations and interpretations to help build an understanding of scientific reasoning. Discussions often involved questions without solutions, or with multiple solutions. While some participants expressed discomfort with these aspects of the nature of science, most were more comfortable with open-ended, inquiry based exploration by the close of the workshop. The field work is coupled with discussion and activities in the classroom. Participants reflected on the field sites and placed them in the context of the geologic history of the region. Observations and interpretations at

  12. Understanding of the life experience of homeless women.

    PubMed

    Biscotto, Priscilla Ribeiro; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Silva, Marcelo Henrique da; Oliveira, Deíse Moura de; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    To understand the life experience of homeless women. A social phenomenological study was conducted with 10 women assisted by a shelter. The analysis of the interviews was based on the theoretical framework of social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz and thematic literature. The participants face adversities in the street context, with emphasis on the risk of physical and sexual abuse, and seek shelters as a possibility for minimizing difficulties experienced. They hope to leave the streets; however, they see themselves trapped in this social reality, due to the addiction to alcohol and other drugs. The understanding of the life experience of homeless women shows daily confrontations and reveals the conflict between the desire for leaving and remaining on the streets, given the complexity of the reality that keeps them in this condition. Compreender a vivência de mulheres em situação de rua. Pesquisa fenomenológica social realizada com 10 mulheres assistidas por um albergue. A análise das entrevistas ancorou-se no referencial teórico da fenomenologia social de Alfred Schütz e literatura temática. As participantes enfrentam adversidades no contexto da rua, com destaque para o risco de violência física e sexual, e buscam o albergue como possibilidade de minimizar as dificuldades vivenciadas. Elas têm como expectativa sair da rua, porém se veem presas a esta realidade social em virtude do vício em álcool e outras drogas. A compreensão da vivência de mulheres em situação de rua aponta enfrentamentos cotidianos e revela o conflito entre o desejo de sair e permanecer na rua, dada a complexidade da realidade que as mantém nesta condição.

  13. Cootie Genetics: Simulating Mendel's Experiments to Understand the Laws of Inheritance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Katelyn; Anderson, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    "Cootie Genetics" is a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that enables students to learn the Mendelian laws of inheritance and gain an understanding of genetics principles and terminology. The activity begins with two true-breeding Cooties of the same species that exhibit five observable trait differences. Students observe the retention or…

  14. Cootie Genetics: Simulating Mendel's Experiments to Understand the Laws of Inheritance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Katelyn; Anderson, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    "Cootie Genetics" is a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that enables students to learn the Mendelian laws of inheritance and gain an understanding of genetics principles and terminology. The activity begins with two true-breeding Cooties of the same species that exhibit five observable trait differences. Students observe the retention or…

  15. Understanding significant others' experience of aphasia and rehabilitation following stroke.

    PubMed

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown how rehabilitation services contribute to significant others' adjustment to stroke with aphasia since their experience of rehabilitation has not been studied before. The purpose of this study was thus to understand significant others' experience of aphasia rehabilitation within the context of post-stroke rehabilitation. Individual interviews were carried out with 12 significant others of persons who became aphasic as a result of a stroke and were discharged from rehabilitation in the past 3 months. Data were analyzed with a grounded theory approach. "Being centered on the aphasic person" was the core category triggered by the significant other's perception of the stroke survivor's vulnerability and his/her feelings of attachment towards that person. Through their interactions with professionals, significant others assumed that rehabilitation was also centered on the aphasic person; a perspective that was reinforced. Consequently, significant others participated in rehabilitation as caregivers and expected rehabilitation to meet their caregiver needs but not other personal and relational needs. Their appraisal of rehabilitation was thus related to the satisfaction or not of caregiver needs. With a greater sensitivity to significant others who focus on the stroke survivor and disregard their own needs, rehabilitation professionals and especially speech-language therapists, can assist families in reestablishing communication and satisfying relationships which are affected because of aphasia. This qualitative study shows that significant others of aphasic stroke survivors experience rehabilitation as services focused on the person who had the stroke. Significant others' satisfaction with rehabilitation is not related to the fulfillment of their personal (e.g. resuming their activities) and relational needs (e.g. good communication with the person with aphasia). When offering interventions targeting significant others' needs, rehabilitation

  16. Phosphorous retention in a remediated stream - evaluation of a 32P tracer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riml, Joakim; Morén, Ida; Wörman, Anders

    2017-04-01

    The increased attention to surface water quality problems together with the revealed importance of the stream water -hyporheic zone system for solute retention has highlighted the potential for surface water systems to mitigate solute export to downstream recipients. As a consequence, the number of stream restoration projects during the last decades has increased significantly. However, to be able to design remediation measures as well as to assess the effectiveness of implemented measures, quantitative knowledge of the hydrodynamic (substance independent) and the biogeochemical processes (substance dependent) retaining the solute along the transport pathway is needed. In this work, we present the findings from a simultaneous injection of tritiated water (3H20) and phosphate (32PO4-) with the overall aim to evaluate the effectiveness of remediation actions implemented along a 6 km stretch of a small agricultural stream in Sweden. In contrast to many other tracer tests where different types of proxy substances are used, a key advantage of the study is the use of the substance of environmental interest (in this case phosphorous), which enhances the significance of the results. In addition, the unique radioactive signal from the injected tracer allowed us to distinguish the added phosphorous from other diffuse sources of phosphorous from the surrounding landscape. By using a physically based transport model to evaluate the tracer breakthrough curves at a number of subsequent sampling stations, we were able to contrast the response of different stream reaches both with respect to hydrodynamic and biogeochemical retention. In particular, we found a substantial importance of vegetation on the retention of 32P, when comparing established reaches with dense in-stream vegetation with newly implemented reaches where vegetation was completely absent.

  17. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Carla A.; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R.; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a “chilly climate,” devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism – being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting – require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee’s specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1) and perceived information sharing (Study 2) among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia. PMID:27303322

  18. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Carla A; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a "chilly climate," devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism - being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting - require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee's specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1) and perceived information sharing (Study 2) among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia.

  19. Experiment studies of iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid retention in rabbit liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Lin, R; Lin, Y; Wu, R H

    2005-01-01

    To study possibility for iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid retention in rabbit liver. 131I- iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid were injected into liver right lobe through portal vein in 5 rabbits... - calibrate meter showed continuous.. counts in the region injected. Then the relative metabolic parameters were calculated. Left lobe livers, right lobe livers and lungs of the rabbits were examined in pathology, and the right lobe livers were examined by electron microscope. Five rabbits injected purely 131Iiodinated oil were designated as control group. Single metabolic mode was found in the rabbits in nanometer ferrofluid group. The biological half-life of 131I- iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid was not different from control group's slow metabolic portion. But control group's rapid metabolic portion were eliminated in a higher speed, range from 8% to 44%. More damage was found in nanometer ferrofluid group's right lobe livers. 131I- iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid possess the opportunity of local retention in human body and further study is worthwhile.

  20. Understanding Solar Coronal Heating through Atomic and Plasma Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Arthanayaka, Thusitha; Bose, Sayak; Hahn, Michael; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Gekelman, Walter; Vincena, Steve

    2017-08-01

    Recent solar observations suggest that the Sun's corona is heated by Alfven waves that dissipate at unexpectedly low heights in the corona. These observations raise a number of questions. Among them are the problems of accurately quantifying the energy flux of the waves and that of describing the physical mechanism that leads to the wave damping. We are performing laboratory experiments to address both of these issues.The energy flux depends on the electron density, which can be measured spectroscopically. However, spectroscopic density diagnostics have large uncertainties, because they depend sensitively on atomic collisional excitation, de-excitation, and radiative transition rates for multiple atomic levels. Essentially all of these data come from theory and have not been experimentally validated. We are conducting laboratory experiments using the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that will provide accurate empirical calibrations for spectroscopic density diagnostics and which will also help to guide theoretical calculations.The observed rapid wave dissipation is likely due to inhomogeneities in the plasma that drive flows and currents at small length scales where energy can be more efficiently dissipated. This may take place through gradients in the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field, which causes wave reflection and generates turbulence. Alternatively, gradients in the Alfvén speed across the field can lead to dissipation through phase-mixing. Using the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California Los Angeles, we are studying both of these dissipation mechanisms in the laboratory in order to understand their potential roles in coronal heating.

  1. Understanding Solar Coronal Heating through Atomic and Plasma Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Arthanayaka, Thusitha; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Gekelman, Walter; Hahn, Michael; Vincena, Steve

    2017-06-01

    Recent solar observations suggest that the Sun's corona is heated by Alfven waves that dissipate at unexpectedly low heights in the corona. These observations raise a number of questions. Among them are the problems of accurately quantifying the energy flux of the waves and that of describing the physical mechanism that leads to the wave damping. We are performing laboratory experiments to address both of these issues.The energy flux depends on the electron density, which can be measured spectroscopically. However, spectroscopic density diagnostics have large uncertainties, because they depend sensitively on atomic collisional excitation, de-excitation, and radiative transition rates for multiple atomic levels. Essentially all of these data come from theory and have not been experimentally validated. We are conducting laboratory experiments using the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that will provide accurate empirical calibrations for spectroscopic density diagnostics and which will also help to guide theoretical calculations.The observed rapid wave dissipation is likely due to inhomogeneities in the plasma that drive flows and currents at small length scales where energy can be more efficiently dissipated. This may take place through gradients in the Alfven speed along the magnetic field, which causes wave reflection and generates turbulence. Alternatively, gradients in the Alfven speed across the field can lead to dissipation through phase-mixing. Using the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California Los Angeles, we are studying both of these dissipation mechanisms in the laboratory in order to understand their potential roles in coronal heating.

  2. Understanding interference experiments with polarized light through photon trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, A.S. Davidovic, M.; Bozic, M.; Miret-Artes, S.

    2010-04-15

    Bohmian mechanics allows to visualize and understand the quantum-mechanical behavior of massive particles in terms of trajectories. As shown by Bialynicki-Birula, Electromagnetism also admits a hydrodynamical formulation when the existence of a wave function for photons (properly defined) is assumed. This formulation thus provides an alternative interpretation of optical phenomena in terms of photon trajectories, whose flow yields a pictorial view of the evolution of the electromagnetic energy density in configuration space. This trajectory-based theoretical framework is considered here to study and analyze the outcome from Young-type diffraction experiments within the context of the Arago-Fresnel laws. More specifically, photon trajectories in the region behind the two slits are obtained in the case where the slits are illuminated by a polarized monochromatic plane wave. Expressions to determine electromagnetic energy flow lines and photon trajectories within this scenario are provided, as well as a procedure to compute them in the particular case of gratings totally transparent inside the slits and completely absorbing outside them. As is shown, the electromagnetic energy flow lines obtained allow to monitor at each point of space the behavior of the electromagnetic energy flow and, therefore, to evaluate the effects caused on it by the presence (right behind each slit) of polarizers with the same or different polarization axes. This leads to a trajectory-based picture of the Arago-Fresnel laws for the interference of polarized light.

  3. Visualisation of J-type counter-current chromatography: A route to understand hydrodynamic phase distribution and retention

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yue Hugh; van den Heuvel, Remco N.A.M.; Zhuang, Ying-Ping

    2012-01-01

    This paper has addressed decade sought-after questions on phase bilateral distribution and stationary phase retention in any J-type high-speed counter-current chromatographic (CCC) centrifuge. Using a 2-D spiral column operated on such a CCC device and an aqueous two-phase system, this work systematically observed the phase interaction during transitional period and at dynamic equilibration under stroboscopic illumination. The experimental results thus obtained were used to examine the effects of the liquid–solid friction force, tangential centrifugal force, and physical properties of the two-phase system on hydrodynamic phase behaviour. We identified that (a) density difference between lower and upper phases is the critical factor to cause unusual phase bilateral distribution in the 2-D spiral column and (b) interfacial tension (manifested primarily as phase settling time) of any two-phase system is the critical factor in explaining inability to retain stationary phase in 3-D helical column and, for certain flow modes, in the 2-D spiral column. This work thus has extended or modified the well-established rule-of-thumb for operating J-type CCC devices and our conclusions can accommodate virtually all the anomalies concerning both hydrophobic and hydrophilic phase systems. To this end, this work has not only documented valuable experimental evidences for directly observing phase behaviour in a CCC column, but also finally resolved fundamentally vital issues on bilateral phase distribution orientation and stationary phase retention in 2-D spiral and 3-D helical CCC columns. Revised recommendations to end users of this technology could thus be derived out of the essence of the present work presumably following further experimental validation and a consensus in the CCC R&D and manufacturing circle. PMID:22513130

  4. Effective Recruiting and Intrusive Retention Strategies for Diversifying the Geosciences through a Research Experiences for Undergraduate Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Norouzi, H.; Yuen-Lau, L.; Ikramova, M.

    2016-12-01

    Worse than in most Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, underrepresented minority (URM) groups in the geosciences are reported to be farthest beneath the national benchmarks. Even more alarming, the geosciences have the lowest diversity of all the STEM disciplines at all three levels of higher education. In order to increase the number of underrepresented groups in the geosciences, a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program at the New York City College of Technology has implemented effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain diverse student cohorts. Recruitment efforts include: 1) establishing partnership with the local community colleges; 2) forging collaborations with scientists of color; 3) reaching out to the geoscience departments; and 4) forming relationships with STEM organizations. Unlike the other REU programs which primarily provide a summer-only research experience, this REU program engages students in a year-long research experience. Students begin their research in the summer for nine weeks, and they continue their research one day a week in the fall and spring semesters. During the academic year, they present their projects at conferences. They also serve as STEM ambassadors to community and high school outreach events. This one-year triad connection of 1) professional organizations/conferences, 2) continual research experience, and 3) service constituent has resulted in higher retention and graduation rates of URMs in the STEM disciplines. Both formative and summative program assessment have uncovered and shown that strong recruitment efforts accompanied by intrusive retention strategies are essential to: a) sustain and support STEM URMs in developing confidence as scientists; b) create formal and informal STEM communities; and c) provide a clear pathway to advanced degrees and to the geoscience workforce. This project is supported by NSF REU Grant #1560050.

  5. Conceptualizing Openness to Diversity and Challenge: Its Relation to College Experiences, Achievement, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Openness to diversity and challenge (ODC) constitutes an integral outcome of the undergraduate experience. However, ODC may also serve as a form of generalized openness to experience; if so, then it should be positively related to a host of college experiences as well as student success. The study reported here explored this possibility within a…

  6. Two overlooked contributors to abandonment of childhood cancer treatment in Kenya: parents' social network and experiences with hospital retention policies.

    PubMed

    Mostert, S; Njuguna, F; Langat, S C; Slot, A J M; Skiles, J; Sitaresmi, M N; van de Ven, P M; Musimbi, J; Vreeman, R C; Kaspers, G J L

    2014-06-01

    The principal reason for childhood cancer treatment failure in low-income countries is treatment abandonment, the most severe form of nonadherence. Two often neglected factors that may contribute to treatment abandonment are as follows: (a) lack of information and guidance by doctors, along with the negative beliefs of family and friends advising parents, which contributes to misconceptions regarding cancer and its treatment, and (b) a widespread policy in public hospitals by which children are retained after doctor's discharge until medical bills are settled. This study explored parents' experiences with hospital retention policies in a Kenyan academic hospital and the impact of attitudes of family and friends on parents' decisions about continuing cancer treatment for their child. Home visits were conducted to interview parents of childhood cancer patients who had been diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and who had abandoned cancer treatment. Retrospective chart review revealed 98 children diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 whose parents had made the decisions to abandon treatment. During 2011-2012, 53 families (54%) could be reached, and 46 (87%) of these agreed to be interviewed. Parents reported the attitudes of community members (grandparents, relatives, friends, villagers, and church members); 61% believed that the child had been bewitched by some individual, and 74% advised parents to seek alternative treatment or advised them to stop medical treatment (54%). Parents also reported that they were influenced by discussions with other parents who had a child being treated, including that their child's life was in God's hands (87%), the trauma to the child and family of forced hospital stays (84%), the importance of completing treatment (81%), the financial burden of treatment (77%), and the incurability of cancer (74%). These discussions influenced their perceptions of cancer treatment and its usefulness (65%). Thirty-six families (78%) had no health insurance, and

  7. Student and Teacher Experiences of Assessing Different Levels of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Examinations greatly influence course structures and student study strategies. A course for students in the civil and environmental engineering programme at Lulea University of Technology was reconstructed with the aim of increasing levels of understanding. A simple written test was designed to assess low levels of understanding (definitions,…

  8. Student Experience Assessments: Best Practices in Student Satisfaction and Retention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholder, Tara E.; Maguire, Linda Cox

    2009-01-01

    As students are asked to share more of the costs of a post-secondary education, the quality of their overall educational experience and perceived return on investment (ROI) are increasingly important. For prospective students and their parents, what they are told they can expect from the student experience at an institution often makes the most…

  9. Early Workplace Learning Experiences: What Are the Pedagogical Possibilities beyond Retention and Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; McEwen, Celina

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, we explore early placement experiences and their pedagogical potential, including ways of keeping students enrolled and persisting with their studies. Few university courses offer early placements because traditionally placement experiences have a focus on employability and work readiness of graduates, hence occur towards the end…

  10. The Effects of Primary Sources and Field Trip Experience on the Knowledge Retention of Multicultural Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    Although small in scope, this study attempted to analyze the impacts of primary sources and field trip experiences on multicultural education through first-hand narrative interviews, one year after the experience. In particular, it assessed the recollections of students who participated in a one-half-day field trip to George Washington Carver…

  11. Does Access Equal Retention? The Experiences of Long-Term English Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonder, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Through this longitudinal, phenomenological study, I examined the experiences of (H)Mong Long Term English Learners (LTEL) conditionally admitted to Midwest State University through the English for Academic Success Program (EAP). Over the course of six years, I interviewed participants regarding their academic and social experiences during…

  12. Modeling Volatile Species Retention Experiments: Interim Progress Report (M3FT-12LA0202053)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Neil N.

    2012-07-06

    Metal nuclear fuel is a candidate transmutation fuel form for advanced fuel cycles. One constituent of the fuel, americium, has a high vapor pressure, and there is a concern that excessive volatility losses of americium will occur during casting of the metal. A number of experiments have been performed using americium and surrogate metals, including experiments slated for FY12, to address the concern. The present task is to model and numerically simulate these experiments. This report describes a system-level model of the relevant experiments that has been developed together with some results. It also describes some initial 3D, full-physics simulations of portions of the experiments that have been performed.

  13. Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used.

  14. Cyber Workforce Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Retention 25 Congressional Concerns about Cyber Retention 25 Contemporary Civilian Labor Market Study Findings on Retention Best Practices 26...occupational categories in the labor markets in the United States and around the world in the coming years. This demand is increasing based on the rising...professionals collides with a world labor market already experi- encing a dramatic deficit in individuals with these skills. At the same time, the United

  15. Understanding Arts and Humanities Students' Experiences of Assessment and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Joelle; McNab, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how undergraduate students on arts and humanities courses experience assessment and feedback. The research uses a detailed audit, a specially devised questionnaire (the Assessment Experience Questionnaire), and student focus group data, and the article examines results from 19 programmes, comparing those from "arts and…

  16. Research needs for a better understanding of wilderness visitor experiences

    Treesearch

    Stephen F. McCool; Chad P. Dawson

    2012-01-01

    What information is needed to facilitate enhanced management of visitor experiences in wilderness? The final session of the workshop comprised a facilitated process with the 20 participants to identify research and information needs to support wilderness visitor experience management. The Wilderness Act and the previous presentations and discussions not only provided a...

  17. Beyond "Option B+": Understanding Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Adherence, Retention in Care and Engagement in ART Services Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women Initiating Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Myer, Landon; Phillips, Tamsin K

    2017-06-01

    Several studies from sub-Saharan Africa have highlighted significant challenges in providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to pregnant and postpartum women, with specific concerns around maintaining optimal levels of adherence to ART and/or retaining women in long-term services. However, there are few conceptual frameworks to help understand nonadherence and nonretention, as well as the drivers of these, among HIV-infected women, particularly in the postpartum period. This review provides an overview of the key issues involved in thinking about ART adherence, retention in care and engagement in ART services among pregnant and postpartum women. The related behaviors of adherence and retention may be understood as components of effective engagement of patients in ART services, which share the goal of achieving and maintaining suppressed maternal viral load on ART. Under this framework, the existing literature indicates that disengagement from care is widespread among postpartum women, with strikingly similar data emerging from ART services around the globe and indications that similar challenges may be encountered by postpartum care services outside the context of HIV. However, the drivers of disengagement require further research, and evidence-based intervention strategies are limited. The challenges of engaging women in ART services during pregnancy and the postpartum period seem pervasive, although the determinants of these are poorly understood. Looking forward, a host of innovative intervention approaches are needed to help improve women's engagement, and in turn, promote maternal and child health in the context of HIV.

  18. Investigating the Retention and Time-Course of Phonotactic Constraint Learning From Production Experience

    PubMed Central

    Warker, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults can rapidly learn artificial phonotactic constraints such as /f/ only occurs at the beginning of syllables by producing syllables that contain those constraints. This implicit learning is then reflected in their speech errors. However, second-order constraints in which the placement of a phoneme depends on another characteristic of the syllable (e.g., if the vowel is /æ/, /f/ occurs at the beginning of syllables and /s/ occurs at the end of syllables but if the vowel is /I/, the reverse is true) require a longer learning period. Two experiments question the transience of second-order learning and whether consolidation plays a role in learning phonological dependencies. Using speech errors as a measure of learning, Experiment 1 investigated the durability of learning, and Experiment 2 investigated the time-course of learning. Experiment 1 found that learning is still present in speech errors a week later. Experiment 2 looked at whether more time in the form of a consolidation period or more experience in the form of more trials was necessary for learning to be revealed in speech errors. Both consolidation and more trials led to learning; however, consolidation provided a more substantial benefit. PMID:22686839

  19. The Landscape of Vocational Progression in Higher Education: Understanding the Retention and Progression of Vocational Learners through a Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Round, David; Brownless, Chris; Rout, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed to better understand vocational student progression into higher education. Following an initial literature review a large dataset was purchased from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (covering the years 2002/3 to 2006/7 and 2007/8). This allowed for a quantitative analysis to take place which compared and contrasted the…

  20. The Landscape of Vocational Progression in Higher Education: Understanding the Retention and Progression of Vocational Learners through a Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Round, David; Brownless, Chris; Rout, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed to better understand vocational student progression into higher education. Following an initial literature review a large dataset was purchased from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (covering the years 2002/3 to 2006/7 and 2007/8). This allowed for a quantitative analysis to take place which compared and contrasted the…

  1. High-fidelity simulation enhances pediatric residents' retention, knowledge, procedural proficiency, group resuscitation performance, and experience in pediatric resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Mills, David M; Wu, Chang L; Williams, Daniel C; King, Lydia; Dobson, Joseph V

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) pediatric resuscitation training on resident performance and self-reported experience compared with historical controls. In this case-control study, pediatric residents at a tertiary academic children's hospital participated in a 16-hour HFS resuscitation curriculum. Primary outcome measures included cognitive knowledge, procedural proficiency, retention, and self-reported comfort and procedural experience. The intervention group was compared with matched-pair historical controls. Forty-one residents participated in HFS training with 32 matched controls. The HFS group displayed significant initial and overall improvement in knowledge (P < .01), procedural proficiency (P < .05), and group resuscitation performance (P < .01). Significant skill decay occurred in all performance measures (P < .01) with the exception of endotracheal intubation. Compared with controls, the HFS group reported not only greater comfort with most procedures but also performed more than twice the number of successful real-life pediatric intubations (median: 6 vs 3; P = .03). Despite significant skill decay, HFS pediatric resuscitation training improved pediatric resident cognitive knowledge, procedural proficiency, and comfort. Residents who completed the course were not only more proficient than historical controls but also reported increased real-life resuscitation experiences and related procedures.

  2. Phosphorus retention and fractionation in an eutrophic wetland: A one-year mesocosms experiment under fluctuating flooding conditions.

    PubMed

    Tercero, María Del Carmen; Álvarez-Rogel, José; Conesa, Héctor Miguel; Párraga-Aguado, Isabel; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the response of salt marshes to pulses of PO4(3-)-enriched water, with and without the presence of Phragmites australis. A one-year mesocosms experiment was performed in simulated soil profiles (fine-textured surface layers and sandy subsurface layers) from a coastal salt marsh of the Mar Menor lagoon under alternating flooding-drying conditions with eutrophic water, under low (1.95 mg L(-1) P-PO4(3-)) and high (19.5 mg L(-1) P-PO4(3-)) P load, and with the presence/absence of Phragmites. The PO4(3-) concentrations in soil porewater and drainage water were regularly measured, and P accumulated in soils (including a fractionation procedure) and plants (roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves) were analyzed. The experimental mesocosms were highly effective in the removal of P from the eutrophic flooding water (>90% reduction of the P added to the system both in the soil pore water and drainage water), regardless of the nutrient load, the season of the year and the presence/absence of Phragmites. The soil was the main sink of the P added to the system, while Phragmites had a minor role in P removal. The biomass of Phragmites accumulated ∼27% of the P added with the flooding water in the treatment with water of low P load while ∼12% of P in that of high P load; the rhizomes were the organs that contributed the most (∼67-72% of the total P retained by the plants). Ca/Mg compounds were the main contributors to the retention of P in the soil compartment, especially in the fine-textured surface soil layers (∼34-53% of the total P in the soil was present in this fraction). Phragmites favored the retention of P onto metal oxides (∼12% increase of the P retained in the metal oxides fraction in the treatment with water of high P load). Hence, the use of constructed wetlands to ameliorate the negative impacts of P-enriched waters in the Mar Menor lagoon and similar areas is recommended. We propose the incorporation of fine

  3. An Experiment of Student Understanding of Accruals versus Cash Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda-Lopez, Jose Eduardo; Nichols, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of both accrual accounting and cash basis accounting need to be thoroughly understood by accounting graduates as they enter the workplace. In making decisions, both managers and investors often may need to make adjustments from one basis to the other. But do students really understand these concepts? This study uses an experimental…

  4. Understanding Students' Experiences of Professionalism Learning: A "Threshold" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neve, Hilary; Lloyd, Helen; Collett, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism is a core element of curricula in many disciplines but can be difficult to teach and learn. This study used audio-diary methodology to identify professionalism threshold concepts in a small group learning setting in undergraduate medicine and to understand factors that might facilitate students to "get" such concepts.…

  5. Fostering Intercultural Understanding through Secondary School Experiences of Cultural Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Jessica; Paradies, Yin; Priest, Naomi; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with many nations' education policies, national education policies in Australia seek to foster students' intercultural understanding. Due to Australia's location in the Asia-Pacific region, the Australian government has focused on students becoming "Asia literate" to support Australia's economic and cultural engagement with…

  6. Ecology of the Heart: Understanding How People Experience Natural Environments.

    Treesearch

    Herbert W. Schroeder

    1996-01-01

    Ecology is defined as the science that studies relationships between organisms and their environments. There are many different perspectives through which these relationships can be viewed. As a natural science, ecology focuses on understanding the physical, chemical and biological interactions that take place between organisms and environments. When the organisms...

  7. An Experiment of Student Understanding of Accruals versus Cash Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda-Lopez, Jose Eduardo; Nichols, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of both accrual accounting and cash basis accounting need to be thoroughly understood by accounting graduates as they enter the workplace. In making decisions, both managers and investors often may need to make adjustments from one basis to the other. But do students really understand these concepts? This study uses an experimental…

  8. Understanding Students' Experiences of Professionalism Learning: A "Threshold" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neve, Hilary; Lloyd, Helen; Collett, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism is a core element of curricula in many disciplines but can be difficult to teach and learn. This study used audio-diary methodology to identify professionalism threshold concepts in a small group learning setting in undergraduate medicine and to understand factors that might facilitate students to "get" such concepts.…

  9. Fostering Intercultural Understanding through Secondary School Experiences of Cultural Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Jessica; Paradies, Yin; Priest, Naomi; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with many nations' education policies, national education policies in Australia seek to foster students' intercultural understanding. Due to Australia's location in the Asia-Pacific region, the Australian government has focused on students becoming "Asia literate" to support Australia's economic and cultural engagement with…

  10. A Simple Calorimetric Experiment that Highlights Aspects of Global Heat Retention and Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S.

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, general chemistry students measure the heating curves for three different systems: (i) 500 g of room-temperature water heated by a small desk lamp, (ii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture warmed by conduction with room-temperature surroundings, and (iii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture heated by a small desk lamp and by…

  11. A Simple Calorimetric Experiment that Highlights Aspects of Global Heat Retention and Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S.

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, general chemistry students measure the heating curves for three different systems: (i) 500 g of room-temperature water heated by a small desk lamp, (ii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture warmed by conduction with room-temperature surroundings, and (iii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture heated by a small desk lamp and by…

  12. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  13. Higher Education Teachers' Experiences with Learning Analytics in Relation to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Deborah; Huijser, Henk; Heath, David; Lizzio, Alf; Toohey, Danny; Miles, Carol; Searle, Bill; Bronnimann, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of Australian and New Zealand academics (n = 276) that teach tertiary education students. The study aimed to explore participants' early experiences of learning analytics in a higher education milieu in which data analytics is gaining increasing prominence. Broadly speaking participants were asked about:…

  14. Higher Education Teachers' Experiences with Learning Analytics in Relation to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Deborah; Huijser, Henk; Heath, David; Lizzio, Alf; Toohey, Danny; Miles, Carol; Searle, Bill; Bronnimann, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of Australian and New Zealand academics (n = 276) that teach tertiary education students. The study aimed to explore participants' early experiences of learning analytics in a higher education milieu in which data analytics is gaining increasing prominence. Broadly speaking participants were asked about:…

  15. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-04-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, 'potential water retention capacity' (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer's grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  16. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

  17. Nurses' perceptions, understanding and experiences of health promotion.

    PubMed

    Casey, Dympna

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents an account of nurses' perceptions and understanding of health promotion in an acute setting. Health promotion is considered the remit of every nurse. To engage in health-promoting practice, however, nurses need to understand the term 'health promotion' clearly. A single qualitative embedded case study was used. Purposive sampling of eight nurses was employed. Initially, theses nurses were observed in practice and, following this, a semi-structured one-to-one interview was conducted with each observed nurse. Qualitative data analysis guided by work of Miles and Huberman was employed. The data revealed one main theme: health-promoting nursing practice and this consisted of six categories and five subcategories. The findings indicated that nurses struggled to describe their understanding of health promotion, their understanding was limited and the strategies described to conduct health promotion were narrow and focused on the individual. Their perceptions and descriptions of health promotion were more in keeping with the traditional health education approach. Overall health promotion was reported to occur infrequently, being added on if the nurse had time. Factors relating to education, organizational and management issues were identified as key barriers prohibiting health-promoting nursing practice. Nurses must recognize that health promotion is a broad concept that does not exclusively focus on the individual or lifestyle factors. Nurses must be educated to recognize health-promoting opportunities in the acute setting, as well as how to plan for and conduct health promotion so that it becomes integral to practice. A review of the methods of organizing and delivering nursing care is also advocated. Ward managers have an important role in supporting nurses, creating a culture for health promotion and sharing power in decision-making processes, so that nurses feel valued and empowered.

  18. Understanding Marine Biocorrosion: Experiments with Artificial and Natural Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-04

    demonstrate the need to understand their differences. Much of the chapter is focused on MIMC caused by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), the...This is a misleading statement. Sodium chloride salts are not free of organic matter and no NaCl solution will remain free of bacteria for more...became more adhesive. At low-nutrient concentrations, bacteria are associated with surfaces whereas, at high- nutrient concentrations typically

  19. Understanding Students' Experiences of Statistics in a Service Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sue

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we explore issues surrounding university students' experiences of statistics drawing on data related to learning statistics as a compulsory component of psychology. Over 250 students completed a written survey which included questions on their attitudes to learning statistics and their conceptions of statistics. Results indicated…

  20. Understanding Student Attitudes toward Bible Reading: A Philippine Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baring, Rito V.

    2008-01-01

    Reflecting from the Philippine experience, this article explores an emerging picture that characterizes contemporary Bible reading attitudes of college students. Six new attitude factor definitions are developed following the development of the Bible Reading (BR) attitude scale for college students constructed by this author in a separate study.…

  1. Towards an Understanding of Muslim American Adolescent High School Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Derek X.; Khan, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    The researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore the experiences of Muslim American adolescents in high school. Findings indicate that students had to navigate unique challenges because of their religious faith, but those obstacles presented opportunities to confront bias and discrimination. Recommendations for how school counselors…

  2. A Dual-Identity Framework for Understanding Lesbian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerhut, Adam W.; Peplau, Letitia Anne; Ghavami, Negin

    2005-01-01

    The diverse life experiences of contemporary lesbians are shaped by women's differing ties to two social worlds, the majority heterosexual society and the minority subculture of the lesbian or sexual-minority world. This article presents a detailed conceptual analysis of a dual-identity framework that emphasizes lesbians' simultaneous affiliations…

  3. Towards an Understanding of Muslim American Adolescent High School Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Derek X.; Khan, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    The researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore the experiences of Muslim American adolescents in high school. Findings indicate that students had to navigate unique challenges because of their religious faith, but those obstacles presented opportunities to confront bias and discrimination. Recommendations for how school counselors…

  4. Understanding Student Attitudes toward Bible Reading: A Philippine Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baring, Rito V.

    2008-01-01

    Reflecting from the Philippine experience, this article explores an emerging picture that characterizes contemporary Bible reading attitudes of college students. Six new attitude factor definitions are developed following the development of the Bible Reading (BR) attitude scale for college students constructed by this author in a separate study.…

  5. Course Management Systems in Higher Education: Understanding Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Allan; Fox, Robert; Sun, Angie; Deng, Liping

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The course management system (CMS), as an evolving tool and innovation, is increasingly used to promote the quality, efficiency and flexibility of teaching and learning in higher education. This paper aims to examine students' experiences of CMSs across faculties at a comprehensive university in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach:…

  6. Understanding Students' Experiences of Well-Being in Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Alisa; Zandvliet, David; Dhaliwal, Rosie; Black, Tara

    2016-01-01

    With the recent release of a new international charter on health promoting universities and institutions of higher education, universities and colleges are increasingly interested in providing learning experiences that enhance and support student well-being. Despite the recognition of learning environments as a potential setting for creating and…

  7. Headwater thermal response to partial-retention forest harvesting: a process-based paired-catchment experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. D.; Guenther, S. M.; Gomi, T.

    2008-12-01

    Paired-catchment experiments are the most rigorous empirical research design for estimating the effects of land use on aquatic systems. However, they have recently come under increasing criticism, in part because past studies typically treated catchments as black boxes. As a result, investigators could only speculate about the factors responsible for any observed effects, limiting their ability to generalize the experimental results in space and time. This study used a paired-catchment approach to investigate the effects of partial- retention forest harvesting with no riparian buffer on the thermal regime of a headwater stream in coastal British Columbia. In addition to monitoring stream temperature at three locations within the treatment reach, we monitored above-stream microclimate, water surface evaporation, bed temperature profiles, groundwater temperature, and reach-scale surface-subsurface interaction. Daily maximum stream temperatures increased after harvesting by over 5 °C during summer, with little effect in winter. The major driver of post- harvest warming was an increase in solar radiation, which was partially moderated by the increased effects of hyporheic exchange, bed heat conduction and evaporation. Incorporating process-based measurements into paired-catchment experiments not only allows the causes of treatment response to be assessed, but they provide a valuable data set for testing predictive models.

  8. Understanding Classroom Feedback Practices: A Study of New Zealand Student Experiences, Perceptions, and Emotional Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lois R.; Brown, Gavin T.; Harnett, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    While feedback is a key factor for improving student learning, little is known about how students understand and experience feedback within the classroom. This study analysed 193 New Zealand primary and secondary students' survey responses alongside drawings of their understandings and experiences of feedback to examine how they experience,…

  9. Retention and application of Skylab experiences to future programs. [a postflight review of technical programs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, V. G.; Kelly, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    The problems encountered and special techniques and procedures developed on the Skylab program are described along with the experiences and practical benefits obtained for dissemination and use on future programs. Three major topics are discussed: electrical problems, mechanical problems, and special techniques. Special techniques and procedures are identified that were either developed or refined during the Skylab program. These techniques and procedures came from all manufacturing and test phases of the Skylab program and include both flight and GSE items from component level to sophisticated spaceflight systems.

  10. Alternative-Specific and Case-Specific Factors Involved in the Decisions of Islamic School Teachers Affecting Teacher Retention: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Hafez, Alaa Karem

    2015-01-01

    Teacher retention is a concern in all educational sectors in America. It is of special importance to Islamic schools, which tend to lack the resources necessary in recruiting and training new teachers. This dissertation addressed this problem in full-time Islamic schools in New York State by conducting a discrete choice experiment, which reflects…

  11. Examining the Academic Performance and Retention of First-Year Students in Living-Learning Communities and First-Year Experience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional data were used to examine the grades and retention of first-year students in 2 types of living learning communities--Academic Theme Floors (ATFs) and Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs)--and a First-Year Experience (FYE) course. Multiple regression revealed students in FIGs earned nominally higher GPAs (standardized [beta] = 0.02, p less…

  12. Alternative-Specific and Case-Specific Factors Involved in the Decisions of Islamic School Teachers Affecting Teacher Retention: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Hafez, Alaa Karem

    2015-01-01

    Teacher retention is a concern in all educational sectors in America. It is of special importance to Islamic schools, which tend to lack the resources necessary in recruiting and training new teachers. This dissertation addressed this problem in full-time Islamic schools in New York State by conducting a discrete choice experiment, which reflects…

  13. Examining the Academic Performance and Retention of First-Year Students in Living-Learning Communities and First-Year Experience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional data were used to examine the grades and retention of first-year students in 2 types of living learning communities--Academic Theme Floors (ATFs) and Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs)--and a First-Year Experience (FYE) course. Multiple regression revealed students in FIGs earned nominally higher GPAs (standardized [beta] = 0.02, p less…

  14. Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) - Understanding Sampling Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, W. A.; Banta, R. M.; Hardesty, M.; Pichugina, Y.; Senff, Christoph; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Carroll, B.; Delgado, R.; Muschinski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Coherent Doppler LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has been widely used to provide measurements of several boundary layer parameters such as profiles of wind speed, wind direction, vertical velocity statistics, mixing layer heights and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). An important aspect of providing this wide range of meteorological data is to properly characterize the uncertainty associated with these measurements. With the above intent in mind, the Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) was conducted at Erie, Colorado during the period June 23rd to July 13th, 2014. The major goals of this experiment were the following: Characterize sampling error for vertical velocity statistics Analyze sensitivities of different Doppler lidar systems Compare various single and dual Doppler retrieval techniques Characterize error of spatial representativeness for separation distances up to 3 km Validate turbulence analysis techniques and retrievals from Doppler lidars This experiment brought together 5 Doppler lidars, both commercial and research grade, for a period of three weeks for a comprehensive intercomparison study. The Doppler lidars were deployed at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) site in Erie, site of a 300 m meteorological tower. This tower was instrumented with six sonic anemometers at levels from 50 m to 300 m with 50 m vertical spacing. A brief overview of the experiment outline and deployment will be presented. Results from the sampling error analysis and its implications on scanning strategy will be discussed.

  15. Affect and understanding during everyday cross-race experiences.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Robyn K; Akimoto, Sharon; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2016-04-01

    The present research uses an event sampling method to test whether, compared to same-race interactions, everyday cross-race contact is better characterized by the presence of negative affect or the absence of positive affect. Everyday intergroup interactions have some positive and negative aspects, so the present research independently assesses positive affect and negative affect along with felt understanding and misunderstanding. Across 3 studies (Study 1, n = 107; Study 2, n = 112; Study 3, n = 146), we find that European, Asian, and African Americans report that everyday cross-race interactions generate less positive affect and felt understanding than same-race interactions. Yet cross-race interactions entail no more negative affect than same-race interactions. This supports the idea that positive emotions are mostly reserved for and experienced with the ingroup, rather than the idea that people feel animosity toward the outgroup. Given that nearly half of racial-minority group member's everyday interactions are cross-race, their daily encounters are typically less positive than those of racial-majority group members. Feeling less well understood as a result of cross-race contact may increase the likelihood that racial-minority group members question whether they belong on a college campus. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Considerations for the Use of the Observation Experience to Aid in Early Socialization and Retention of Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Context: Retention of quality students in athletic training programs (ATPs) is important. Many factors contribute to retention of students, including their motivation level, peer support, positive interactions with instructors, clinical integration, and mentorship. Objective: Highlight the use of the observation period for preparatory athletic…

  17. Considerations for the Use of the Observation Experience to Aid in Early Socialization and Retention of Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Context: Retention of quality students in athletic training programs (ATPs) is important. Many factors contribute to retention of students, including their motivation level, peer support, positive interactions with instructors, clinical integration, and mentorship. Objective: Highlight the use of the observation period for preparatory athletic…

  18. Improving Chinese primary care providers' recruitment and retention: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Song, Kuimeng; Scott, Anthony; Sivey, Peter; Meng, Qingyue

    2015-02-01

    Local primary care facilities in China struggle to recruit and retain doctors and nurses. Implementing policies to address this issue requires detailed knowledge of the preferences of primary care workers. The aim of this study is to find out which job attributes affect Chinese primary care providers' choice of job and whether there are any differences in these job preferences between doctors and nurses. A discrete choice experiment was used to analyse the job preferences of 517 primary care providers, including 282 doctors and 235 nurses. Chinese primary care providers in Community Health Organizations (CHOs) considered monetary factors and non-monetary factors when choosing a job. Doctors' and nurses' preferences over job attributes were similar. Though income was important, Chinese primary care providers had strongest preferences for sufficient welfare benefits, sufficient essential equipment and respect from the community. Younger primary care providers were more likely to value training and career development opportunities. In order to retain skilled primary care providers to work in CHOs, policymakers in China need to improve primary care providers' income, benefits and working conditions to fulfil their basic needs. Policymakers also need to invest in CHOs' infrastructure and strengthen training programmes for primary care providers in order to raise the community's confidence in the services provided by CHOs. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  19. Understanding Alginate Gel Development for Bioclogging and Biogeophysical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdel Aal, G. Z.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sarkisova, S.; Patrauchan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation strategies to mitigate the transport of heavy metals and radionuclides in subsurface sediments have largely targeted to increase the mobility and/or solubility of these compounds by the stimulation of biogeochemical activity of the metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter secrete and/or release out diverse biochemical molecule including, first of all, organic acids and biopolymers such as alginic acid, proteins and DNA. Alginate gel is one of the major components determining the structure of biofilm which causes clogging in porous media. Biopolymers composing biofilm having, at least, two main functions: to be a scaffold for a microbial biofilm, and to regulate the exchange of metabolites and ions between an environment and bacterial cells. Additionally, the accumulation of biopolymers and a matured biofilm within porous media was shown to contribute to a detectable biogeophysical signal, spectral induced polarization (SIP), in particular. Our objective is to understand the role of different biofilm components on the SIP response as the latter has been proposed as a non-invasive tool to monitor biofilm development and rate of clogging in the subsurface. Understanding the process of alginate gel development may aid in the understanding of the fate and transport of mineralized heavy metals and radionuclides in contaminated soils. Here we describe the reciprocal relationship between environmental chemistry and alginate gel development. Commercial (Sigma) alginic acid (AA) was used as a substratum for the preparation of a model gel. AA was solubilized by adjusting solutions with pH up to 4 with 0.1 NaOH. Both Ca(OH)2 or CaCl2 were used to initiate the gelation of alginate. pH, fluid conductivity, soluble Ca2+ concentration, and a yield of gelated alginate were monitored in both liquid and porous media after the interaction of calcium compounds with alginate. This study confirms the critical role of Ca2+ for alginate gelation, biofilm development

  20. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  1. Epidural analgesia during labour - maternal understanding and experience - informed consent.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, K; Chin, D; Drew, A

    2015-01-01

    Women obtain information on epidural analgesia from various sources. For epidural for pain relief in labour this is provided by the anaesthetist as part of the consenting process. There is much discussion about the inadequacy of this consenting process; we report on women's knowledge, experience and recall of this process at a regional hospital with a 24-h epidural service. Fifty-four women were interviewed within 72 h of a vaginal birth. 91% of the women had acquired information from friends, relatives and antenatal classes. Lack of recall of benefits of epidural analgesia accounted for 26 (38%) and 25 (26%) of the responses, respectively. Similarly in terms of amount of pain relief they could expect, 13 (21%) could not remember and 13 (21%) thought that it may not work. We suggest use of varying methods of disseminating information and wider utilisation of anaesthetists in the antenatal educational programmes.

  2. Using discrete choice experiments to understand preferences in health care.

    PubMed

    Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Whenever processes are reconfigured or new products are designed the needs and preferences of patients and consumers have to be considered. Although at times neglected, this becomes more and more relevant in health care settings: Which modes of health care delivery will be accepted? What are the patients' priorities and what is the willingness to pay? To which degree are patients mobile and for which kind of services are they willing to travel? Preferences, however, are difficult to measure, as they are latent constructs. This becomes even more difficult, when no past choices can be analyzed either as the service or the product is yet to be developed or as in the past there has not been free choice for patients. In such cases, preferences cannot be surveyed directly. Asking individuals openly for their attitudes towards certain services and products, the results are likely biased as individuals are not confronted with budget constraints and trade-offs. For this reason, discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are frequently used to elicit patient preferences. This approach confronts patients with hypothetical scenarios of which only one can be chosen. Over the past few years, this tool to reveal patients' preferences for health care has become very popular in health economics. This contribution aims at introducing the principles of DCEs, highlighting the underlying theory and giving practical guidance for conducting a discrete choice experiment in health economics. Thereby we focus on three major fields of patient demand: designing health insurance, assessing patient utility of new pharmaceuticals and analyzing provider choice. By having a closer look at selected international studies, we discuss the application of this technique for the analysis of the supply and the demand of health care as well as the implications for assessing patient mobility across different health care systems.

  3. Assessment of selected bioretention blends for nutrient retention using mesocosm experiments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Sample, David J; Owen, James S; Li, Jinling; Evanylo, Gregory

    2014-09-01

    This study compares the performance of three bioretention media blends for N and P removal from simulated urban runoff in experimental mesocosms. TerraSolve, Biofilter, and "VT Mix" (Virginia Tech) were compared with and without vegetation at varying hydraulic residence times (HRTs). Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted. TerraSolve and VT Mix included water treatment residuals (WTRs), Biofilter and VT Mix included yard-waste compost (YWC), and TerraSolve included a mix of coir and peat. TerraSolve removed the highest amount of total P (>95%), which is attributed to the high quantity of WTRs. Results were similar for VT Mix, likely due to WTR content. Adsorption isotherms indicate a substantial difference due to this factor. Vegetative mesocosms were found to be less effective at P removal at an HRT of 6 to 12 h but not at an HRT of 24 h. VT Mix had the highest removal of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), significantly different than the other blends. Interactive effects with vegetation were observed, generally improving TKN removal at all HRTs, with the highest at 24 h. Substantial export of nutrients when using compost was not observed. The addition of YWC appeared to increase N removal, possibly by denitrification. It is recommended that bioretention media contain <10% fines, a source of amorphous Al for P adsorption, at least 3 to 5% total organic C in the form of a low P, relatively stable compost, and a minimum concentration of plant-available nutrients for establishment of vegetation. For systems that use HRT, optimum residence time is influenced by media composition.

  4. Wireless Participant Incentives Using Reloadable Bank Cards to Increase Clinical Trial Retention With Abused Women Drinkers: A Natural Experiment.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Melissa; Meisel, Zachary; Wiebe, Douglas; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Rhodes, Karin V

    2016-08-07

    Retaining participants in longitudinal studies is a unique methodological challenge in many areas of investigation, and specifically for researchers aiming to identify effective interventions for women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Individuals in abusive relationships are often transient and have logistical, confidentiality, and safety concerns that limit future contact. A natural experiment occurred during a large randomized clinical trial enrolling women in abusive relationships who were also heavy drinkers, which allowed for the comparison of two incentive methods to promote longitudinal retention: cash payment versus reloadable wireless bank cards. In all, 600 patients were enrolled in the overall trial, which aimed to incentivize participants using a reloadable bank card system to promote the completion of 11 weekly interactive voice response system (IVRS) phone surveys and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up phone or in person interviews. The first 145 participants were paid with cash as a result of logistical delays in setting up the bank card system. At 12 weeks, participants receiving the bank card incentive completed significantly more IVRS phone surveys, odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.01, 1.69]. There were no significant differences between the two groups related to satisfaction or safety and/or privacy. The bank card system delivered lower administrative burden for tracking payments for study staff. Based on these and other results, our large medical research university is implementing reloadable bank card as the preferred method of participant incentive payments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Influence of mass resolution on species matching in accurate mass and retention time (AMT) tag proteomics experiments.

    PubMed

    Masselon, Christophe D; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Brugière, Sabine; Dupierris, Véronique; Garin, Jérôme

    2008-04-01

    Diverse mass spectrometric instruments have been used to provide data for accurate mass and retention time (AMT) tag proteomics analyses, including ion trap, quadrupole time-of-flight, and Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS). An important attribute of these instruments, beside mass accuracy, is their spectral resolution. In fact, the ability to separate peaks with close m/z values is likely to play a major role in enabling species identification and matching in analyses of very complex proteomics samples. In FTMS, resolution is directly proportional to the detection period and can therefore be easily tuned. We took advantage of this feature to investigate the effect of resolution on species identification and matching in an AMT tag experiment. Using an Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast protein extract as prototypical 'real-life' sample, we have compared the number of detected features, the optimal mass tolerance for species matching, the number of matched species and the false discovery rate obtained at various resolution settings. It appears that while the total number of matches is not significantly affected by a reduction of resolution in the range investigated, the confidence level of identifications significantly drops as evidenced by the estimated false discovery rate.

  6. Understanding controlled drug release from mesoporous silicates: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Ukmar, T; Maver, U; Planinšek, O; Kaučič, V; Gaberšček, M; Godec, A

    2011-11-07

    Based on the results of carefully designed experiments upgraded with appropriate theoretical modeling, we present clear evidence that the release curves from mesoporous materials are significantly affected by drug-matrix interactions. In experimental curves, these interactions are manifested as a non-convergence at long times and an inverse dependence of release kinetics on pore size. Neither of these phenomena is expected in non-interacting systems. Although both phenomena have, rather sporadically, been observed in previous research, they have not been explained in terms of a general and consistent theoretical model. The concept is demonstrated on a model drug indomethacin embedded into SBA-15 and MCM-41 porous silicates. The experimental release curves agree exceptionally well with theoretical predictions in the case of significant drug-wall attractions. The latter are described using a 2D Fokker-Planck equation. One could say that the interactions affect the relative cross-section of pores where the local flux has a non-vanishing axial component and in turn control the effective transfer of drug into bulk solution. Finally, we identify the critical parameters determining the pore size dependence of release kinetics and construct a dynamic phase diagram of the various resulting transport regimes.

  7. Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxkemper, Andra C.; Hartfiel, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    There is no common agreement on the meaning of the word "understand". However, there is agreement on what students should be able to do with material they understand. Bloom et al. discuss kinds of tasks a student should be able to do, provided that the student understands. In a similar way, Biggs and Collis provide a taxonomy intended to evaluate…

  8. Children's Understanding of Ambiguous Figures: Which Cognitive Developments Are Necessary to Experience Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, M.J.; Wimmer, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    In two experiments involving one hundred and thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-olds we examined the claim that a complex understanding of ambiguity is required to experience reversal of ambiguous stimuli [Gopnik, A., & Rosati, A. (2001). Duck or rabbit? Reversing ambiguous figures and understanding ambiguous representations. Developmental Science, 4,…

  9. Cultural Immersion Experience: Promoting an Understanding of Mexican American Nutrition and Food Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilboy, Mary Beth; Bill, Debra E.

    2011-01-01

    A week long immersion experience in Guanajuato, Mexico provided an opportunity for public health and nutrition students to improve their understanding of Mexican culture, nutrition, and food traditions. The experience positively impacted the students' understanding of the importance of cultural sensitivity in working with the local Mexican…

  10. Cultural Immersion Experience: Promoting an Understanding of Mexican American Nutrition and Food Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilboy, Mary Beth; Bill, Debra E.

    2011-01-01

    A week long immersion experience in Guanajuato, Mexico provided an opportunity for public health and nutrition students to improve their understanding of Mexican culture, nutrition, and food traditions. The experience positively impacted the students' understanding of the importance of cultural sensitivity in working with the local Mexican…

  11. Children's Understanding of Ambiguous Figures: Which Cognitive Developments Are Necessary to Experience Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, M.J.; Wimmer, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    In two experiments involving one hundred and thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-olds we examined the claim that a complex understanding of ambiguity is required to experience reversal of ambiguous stimuli [Gopnik, A., & Rosati, A. (2001). Duck or rabbit? Reversing ambiguous figures and understanding ambiguous representations. Developmental Science, 4,…

  12. Impact of Experiments on 13-Year-Old Pupils' Understanding of Selected Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Matej; Glazar, Sasa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish what impact experimental work has on the understanding of scientific concepts, what pupils remember about the experiments they carried out and how they are able to formulate and understand the experiment plan. A sample of 386 pupils aged 13+ participated in the research, of which 162 in the experimental…

  13. If We Admit Them, Will They Stay?: Understanding the Role of Social Connectedness in the Retention of African American Students in a Recreation and Leisure Studies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Steven N.; Costen, Wanda M.; Wozencroft, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    The retention of racial minority students lies at the core of diversity efforts instituted by colleges and universities across the nation. Withstanding the changing racial demographics of the U.S. and the need to have qualified racial minority professionals serving diverse communities retention and matriculation heighten in importance. With the…

  14. Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, Jamie L.

    The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

  15. Understanding HBCU Retention and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, David A. R.; Awokoya, Janet T.

    2012-01-01

    An appendix provides regression analyses.As the cost of higher education continues to climb, colleges and universities are finding themselves under increased pressure to demonstrate their value by enrolling, graduating and launching graduates into careers with the skills needed to compete as part of the American workforce. Few institutions are…

  16. Engaging older adults in high impact volunteering that enhances health: recruitment and retention in The Experience Corps Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Iveris L; Frick, Kevin; Glass, Thomas A; Carlson, Michelle; Tanner, Elizabeth; Ricks, Michelle; Fried, Linda P

    2006-09-01

    Engagement in social and generative activities has benefits for the well-being of older adults; hence, methods for broadly engaging them in such activities are desired. Experience Corps Baltimore, a social model for health promotion for older adult volunteers in public schools, offers insight to such successful recruitment and retention. We report on data over a 4-year period in Baltimore City, Maryland, and describe a five-stage screening process implemented to recruit a diverse group of senior volunteers who would remain in the program for at least 1 year. The sample consisted of 443 older adults expressing an interest in and screened for volunteering. Comparisons were made with Chi-square and Fisher's t-test between those who entered the program and those who did not and those who were retained in the program. Gender, race, age group, and prior volunteering were significant in ultimate volunteer service in the schools. Overall, 38% of 443 persons recruited entered the schools; 94% of participants were over 60 years (p = 0.05) with a mean age of 69 years; 90% were women (p = 0.03), and 93% African-American (p = 0.005); 57% had not volunteered in the past year (p = 0.004). Ninety-two percent were retained in the first year; 80% returned a second year. Among the latter, 83% had <12 years of education (p = 0.001). Participants remained in the program for a second year of volunteering regardless of baseline MMSE score, self-reported health, and motivation for volunteering. In conclusion, it is possible to recruit and retain a diverse pool of older adults to participate in a high-intensity volunteer program, including non-traditional volunteers. Of special note is the success in recruiting African-American women and those with lower education, who may particularly benefit from health promotion.

  17. Retention of habitat complexity minimizes disassembly of reef fish communities following disturbance: a large-scale natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Emslie, Michael J; Cheal, Alistair J; Johns, Kerryn A

    2014-01-01

    High biodiversity ecosystems are commonly associated with complex habitats. Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, but are under increasing pressure from numerous stressors, many of which reduce live coral cover and habitat complexity with concomitant effects on other organisms such as reef fishes. While previous studies have highlighted the importance of habitat complexity in structuring reef fish communities, they employed gradient or meta-analyses which lacked a controlled experimental design over broad spatial scales to explicitly separate the influence of live coral cover from overall habitat complexity. Here a natural experiment using a long term (20 year), spatially extensive (∼ 115,000 kms(2)) dataset from the Great Barrier Reef revealed the fundamental importance of overall habitat complexity for reef fishes. Reductions of both live coral cover and habitat complexity had substantial impacts on fish communities compared to relatively minor impacts after major reductions in coral cover but not habitat complexity. Where habitat complexity was substantially reduced, species abundances broadly declined and a far greater number of fish species were locally extirpated, including economically important fishes. This resulted in decreased species richness and a loss of diversity within functional groups. Our results suggest that the retention of habitat complexity following disturbances can ameliorate the impacts of coral declines on reef fishes, so preserving their capacity to perform important functional roles essential to reef resilience. These results add to a growing body of evidence about the importance of habitat complexity for reef fishes, and represent the first large-scale examination of this question on the Great Barrier Reef.

  18. Retention of Habitat Complexity Minimizes Disassembly of Reef Fish Communities following Disturbance: A Large-Scale Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Michael J.; Cheal, Alistair J.; Johns, Kerryn A.

    2014-01-01

    High biodiversity ecosystems are commonly associated with complex habitats. Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, but are under increasing pressure from numerous stressors, many of which reduce live coral cover and habitat complexity with concomitant effects on other organisms such as reef fishes. While previous studies have highlighted the importance of habitat complexity in structuring reef fish communities, they employed gradient or meta-analyses which lacked a controlled experimental design over broad spatial scales to explicitly separate the influence of live coral cover from overall habitat complexity. Here a natural experiment using a long term (20 year), spatially extensive (∼115,000 kms2) dataset from the Great Barrier Reef revealed the fundamental importance of overall habitat complexity for reef fishes. Reductions of both live coral cover and habitat complexity had substantial impacts on fish communities compared to relatively minor impacts after major reductions in coral cover but not habitat complexity. Where habitat complexity was substantially reduced, species abundances broadly declined and a far greater number of fish species were locally extirpated, including economically important fishes. This resulted in decreased species richness and a loss of diversity within functional groups. Our results suggest that the retention of habitat complexity following disturbances can ameliorate the impacts of coral declines on reef fishes, so preserving their capacity to perform important functional roles essential to reef resilience. These results add to a growing body of evidence about the importance of habitat complexity for reef fishes, and represent the first large-scale examination of this question on the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:25140801

  19. Engaging Older Adults in High Impact Volunteering that Enhances Health: Recruitment and Retention in the Experience Corps® Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin; Glass, Thomas A.; Carlson, Michelle; Tanner, Elizabeth; Ricks, Michelle; Fried, Linda P.

    2006-01-01

    Engagement in social and generative activities has benefits for the well-being of older adults; hence, methods for broadly engaging them in such activities are desired. Experience Corps Baltimore, a social model for health promotion for older adult volunteers in public schools, offers insight to such successful recruitment and retention. We report on data over a 4-year period in Baltimore City, Maryland, and describe a five-stage screening process implemented to recruit a diverse group of senior volunteers who would remain in the program for at least 1 year. The sample consisted of 443 older adults expressing an interest in and screened for volunteering. Comparisons were made with Chi-square and Fisher’s t-test between those who entered the program and those who did not and those who were retained in the program. Gender, race, age group, and prior volunteering were significant in ultimate volunteer service in the schools. Overall, 38% of 443 persons recruited entered the schools; 94% of participants were over 60 years (p = 0.05) with a mean age of 69 years; 90% were women (p = 0.03), and 93% African-American (p = 0.005); 57% had not volunteered in the past year (p = 0.004). Ninety-two percent were retained in the first year; 80% returned a second year. Among the latter, 83% had <12 years of education (p = 0.001). Participants remained in the program for a second year of volunteering regardless of baseline MMSE score, self-reported health, and motivation for volunteering. In conclusion, it is possible to recruit and retain a diverse pool of older adults to participate in a high-intensity volunteer program, including non-traditional volunteers. Of special note is the success in recruiting African-American women and those with lower education, who may particularly benefit from health promotion. PMID:16758336

  20. Causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were designed to better understand the causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis with transients in solution ionic strength (IS). Saturated packed column experiments were conducted using two sizes of carboxyl modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.1 and 1.1...

  1. The understanding and experience of mixed emotions in 3-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Glass, Daniel J; Fireman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The term mixed emotions refers to the presence of two opposite-valence emotions toward a single target. Identifying when children begin to report experiencing and understanding mixed emotions is critical in identifying how skills such as adaptive functioning, coping strategies, environmental understanding, and socioemotional competence emerge. Prior research has shown that children as young as 5 years old can understand and experience mixed emotion, but perhaps appropriately sensitive methodologies can reveal these abilities in younger children. The present study evaluated 57 children between 3 and 5 years old for mixed emotion experience and understanding using an animated video clip in which a character experiences a mixed emotional episode. Ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the relation of gender, attention, and understanding of content to experience and understanding of mixed emotion. While only 12% of children reported experiencing mixed emotion while watching the clip, 49% of children-some as young as 3 years old-were able to recognize the mixed emotional experience of the character. Thus, mixed emotion understanding emerges earlier than previously identified and the expression of understanding may develop independently of the ability to report mixed emotion experience. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental considerations.

  2. Mentorship: increasing retention probabilities.

    PubMed

    Leners, Debra Woodard; Wilson, Vicki W; Connor, Peggy; Fenton, Joanne

    2006-11-01

    Retaining nurses is a significant workforce issue. Experienced nurses in particular are getting harder to retain within hospitals and the discipline at large. One solution to boost retention is to give serious attention to professional socialization activities through contemporary nurse mentorship experiences. The authors contend that contemporary mentoring programmes, targeting developmental quality of life issues of the expert nurse, would appreciably benefit retention programmes within the hospital environment.

  3. Correlation between active-learning coursework and student retention of core content during advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Kristy H; Testman, Julie A; Hoyland, Marcella N; Kimble, Angel M; Euler, Mary L

    2013-10-14

    To implement an active-learning approach in a pharmacotherapy course sequence in the second year (P2) and third (P3) year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program and determine whether the pedagogical changes correlated with retention of core content in the fourth year (P4). Class sessions were transitioned from slides-based lectures to discussion-based active-learning pedagogy. A comprehensive examination was created and administered to assess student retention of therapeutic topics taught. Students demonstrated significantly improved overall scores on questions derived from the active-learning pedagogy used in Pharmacotherapy II and III compared to those derived from Pharmacotherapy I in which content was delivered by lecture. The use of active-learning strategies over lecture-based methods in pharmacotherapy courses resulted in higher retention of core content. Students' performance in areas taught using the discussion-based methodology was superior to that which was taught using lecture-based slide presentations.

  4. Understanding the Complexity of Porous Graphitic Carbon (PGC) Chromatography: Modulation of Mobile-Stationary Phase Interactions Overcomes Loss of Retention and Reduces Variability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) is an important tool in a chromatographer’s armory that retains polar compounds with mass spectrometry (MS)-compatible solvents. However, its applicability is severely limited by an unpredictable loss of retention, which can be attributed to contamination. The solutions offered fail to restore the original retention and our observations of retention time shifts of gemcitabine/metabolites on PGC are not consistent with contamination. The mobile phase affects the ionization state of analytes and the polarizable PGC surface that influences the strength of dispersive forces governing retention on the stationary phase. We hypothesized that failure to maintain the same PGC surface before and after running a gradient is a cause of the observed retention loss/variability on PGC. Herein, we optimize the choice of mobile phase solvent in a gradient program with three parts: a preparatory phase, which allows binding of analytes to column; an elution phase, which gives the required separation/peak shape; and a maintenance phase, to preserve the required retention capacity. Via liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of gemcitabine and its metabolites extracted from tumor tissue, we demonstrate reproducible chromatography on three PGC columns of different ages. This approach simplifies use of the PGC to the same level as that of a C-18 column, removes the need for column regeneration, and minimizes run times, thus allowing PGC columns to be used to their full potential. PMID:27228284

  5. What are you doing? How active and observational experience shape infants' action understanding.

    PubMed

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-01-01

    From early in life, infants watch other people's actions. How do young infants come to make sense of actions they observe? Here, we review empirical findings on the development of action understanding in infancy. Based on this review, we argue that active action experience is crucial for infants' developing action understanding. When infants execute actions, they form associations between motor acts and the sensory consequences of these acts. When infants subsequently observe these actions in others, they can use their motor system to predict the outcome of the ongoing actions. Also, infants come to an understanding of others' actions through the repeated observation of actions and the effects associated with them. In their daily lives, infants have plenty of opportunities to form associations between observed events and learn about statistical regularities of others' behaviours. We argue that based on these two forms of experience-active action experience and observational experience-infants gradually develop more complex action understanding capabilities.

  6. Student Ratings of Stressful Experiences at Home and School: Loss of a Parent and Grade Retention as Superlative Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gabrielle E.; Jimerson, Shane R.; Whipple, Angela D.

    2005-01-01

    Prior research examining children's ratings of stressful life events indicated that, by the time children are in sixth grade, they fear only going blind and losing a parent more than academic retention. The current study provides a contemporary analysis of elementary grade students' perceptions of stressful life events at home and school. First-,…

  7. Particulate organic matter quality influences nitrate retention and denitrification in stream sediments: evidence from a carbon burial experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stelzer, Robert S.; Scott, J. Thad; Bartsch, Lynn; Parr, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Organic carbon supply is linked to nitrogen transformation in ecosystems. However, the role of organic carbon quality in nitrogen processing is not as well understood. We determined how the quality of particulate organic carbon (POC) influenced nitrogen transformation in stream sediments by burying identical quantities of varying quality POC (northern red oak (Quercus rubra) leaves, red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves, red maple wood) in stream mesocosms and measuring the effects on nitrogen retention and denitrification compared to a control of combusted sand. We also determined how POC quality affected the quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen concentration in groundwater. Nitrate and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) retention were assessed by comparing solute concentrations and fluxes along groundwater flow paths in the mesocosms. Denitrification was measured by in situ changes in N2 concentrations (using MIMS) and by acetylene block incubations. POC quality was measured by C:N and lignin:N ratios and DOC quality was assessed by fluorescence excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. POC quality had strong effects on nitrogen processing. Leaf treatments had much higher nitrate retention, TDN retention and denitrification rates than the wood and control treatments and red maple leaf burial resulted in higher nitrate and TDN retention rates than burial of red oak leaves. Leaf, but not wood, burial drove pore water to severe hypoxia and leaf treatments had higher DOC production and different DOC chemical composition than the wood and control treatments. We think that POC quality affected nitrogen processing in the sediments by influencing the quantity and quality of DOC and redox conditions. Our results suggest that the type of organic carbon inputs can affect the rates of nitrogen transformation in stream ecosystems.

  8. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  9. Understanding the African-American Student Experience in Higher Education through a Relational Dialectics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Jake; Lowery-Hart, Russell; Wahl, Shawn T.; McBride, M. Chad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we sought to understand African-American students' higher-education experiences in predominantly White universities. We utilized Baxter's relational dialectics theory to study components of focus-group discussions in order to understand the discourse and meaning-making process of participants. Our findings provide insight into the…

  10. Teacher's Understanding, Perceptions, and Experiences of Students in Foster Care: A Forgotten Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Davis, Darneika

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine elementary teacher's understanding, perceptions, and experiences of working with students in foster care. The researcher examined whether teachers are informed about students in foster care, determined teacher's understanding of the foster care system, and how their students are affected. The results…

  11. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  12. Understanding the African-American Student Experience in Higher Education through a Relational Dialectics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Jake; Lowery-Hart, Russell; Wahl, Shawn T.; McBride, M. Chad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we sought to understand African-American students' higher-education experiences in predominantly White universities. We utilized Baxter's relational dialectics theory to study components of focus-group discussions in order to understand the discourse and meaning-making process of participants. Our findings provide insight into the…

  13. Students' Experiences and Perceptions of In-Depth Approaches in Teaching and Understanding Subject Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    Students' experiences and perceptions of good teaching and understanding in literature and physics during one school year were investigated through in-depth interviews with students in eight Greek high school classes in the first, second and third grade. The pedagogical quality of in-depth teaching and understanding of subject matter, as described…

  14. Teacher's Understanding, Perceptions, and Experiences of Students in Foster Care: A Forgotten Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Davis, Darneika

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine elementary teacher's understanding, perceptions, and experiences of working with students in foster care. The researcher examined whether teachers are informed about students in foster care, determined teacher's understanding of the foster care system, and how their students are affected. The results…

  15. Introductory Psychology: How Student Experiences Relate to Their Understanding of Psychological Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Thomas; Richardson, Deborah; Hammock, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Many students who declare a psychology major are unaware that they are studying a scientific discipline, precipitating a need for exercises and experiences that help students understand the scientific nature of the discipline. The present study explores aspects of an introductory psychology class that may contribute to students' understanding of…

  16. Job Satisfaction of New Teachers in Malaysia: Understanding Challenges and Experiences of Leaving the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jusoh, Ruzina binti

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on new teachers' job satisfaction and their challenges and experiences during their probationary period. This research concentrated on how their challenges and experiences affected their choice to leave the profession. Basic Interpretive Qualitative method was utilized to explore and understand new teachers' challenges and…

  17. Understanding the Experience of College Graduates during Their First Year of Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polach, Janet L.

    2004-01-01

    A company's college recruitment practices, as well as its socialization processes for graduates once they have joined the organization, can be improved when there is understanding of college graduates' experience during the first year of employment. This study recorded the experiences of eight college graduates who were employed by a medical…

  18. A Phenomenological Study into How Students Experience and Understand the University Presidency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuemann, Kahler B.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how college students experience and understand the university presidency. Students are important consumers of the academic experience and by affiliation are constituents of organizational leadership. The social distance between students and university presidents continues to narrow. To address the void in scholarly…

  19. Education as Service: The Understanding of University Experience through the Service Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Irene C. L.; Forbes, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    With the marketization of UK higher education, this paper develops a framework from services marketing that can assist universities in understanding what market orientation means and how students would value their offerings. Our study shows that the core service in a university experience is a learning experience that is cocreated and that the…

  20. Job Satisfaction of New Teachers in Malaysia: Understanding Challenges and Experiences of Leaving the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jusoh, Ruzina binti

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on new teachers' job satisfaction and their challenges and experiences during their probationary period. This research concentrated on how their challenges and experiences affected their choice to leave the profession. Basic Interpretive Qualitative method was utilized to explore and understand new teachers' challenges and…

  1. Effects of Experimenting with Physical and Virtual Manipulatives on Students' Conceptual Understanding in Heat and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios; Papaevripidou, Marios

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the comparative value of experimenting with physical manipulatives (PM) in a sequential combination with virtual manipulatives (VM), with the use of PM preceding the use of VM, and of experimenting with PM alone, with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding in the domain of heat and temperature. A…

  2. Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Narrative Inquiry into Understanding Immigrant Students' Educational Experience in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillion, JoAnn

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of narrative inquiry to contribute to an understanding of immigrant students' educational experience. Research on immigrant students' education is reviewed and the need for detailed examination of these students' experiences in schools, such as is done in a narrative inquiry, is demonstrated.…

  3. Using Concrete & Representational Experiences to Understand the Structure of DNA: A Four-Step Instructional Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Richards, Debbie; Collins, James; Taylor, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    A description of learning experience that uses a four-step instrumentational framework involving concrete and representational experiences to promote conceptual understanding of abstract biological concepts by a series of closely-related activities is presented. The students are introduced to the structure and implications of DNA using four…

  4. Understanding Special Olympics Experiences from the Athlete Perspectives Using Photo-Elicitation: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Burnham Riosa, Priscilla; Robinson, Suzanne; Ryan, Stephanie; Tint, Ami; Viecili, Michelle; MacMullin, Jennifer A.; Shine, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities experience challenges to participating in organized sport, despite its known benefits. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of participating in sport (Special Olympics) from the perspectives of athletes with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Five…

  5. Education as Service: The Understanding of University Experience through the Service Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Irene C. L.; Forbes, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    With the marketization of UK higher education, this paper develops a framework from services marketing that can assist universities in understanding what market orientation means and how students would value their offerings. Our study shows that the core service in a university experience is a learning experience that is cocreated and that the…

  6. Understanding the Experience of Being Taught by Peers: The Value of Social and Cognitive Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockspeiser, Tai M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Teherani, Arianne; Muller, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Background: Medical schools use supplemental peer-teaching programs even though there is little research on students' actual experiences with this form of instruction. Purpose: To understand the student experience of being taught by peers instead of by faculty. Methods: We conducted focus groups with first- and second-year medical students…

  7. Real Experiments versus Phet Simulations for Better High-School Students' Understanding of Electrostatic Charging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajredini, Fadil; Izairi, Neset; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence of computer simulations (virtual experiments) on one hand and real experiments on the other hand on the conceptual understanding of electrical charging. The investigated sample consists of students in the second year (10th grade) of three gymnasiums in Macedonia. There were two experimental groups and one…

  8. RN as gatekeeper: Student understanding of the RN buddy role in clinical practice experience.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Jillian D

    2006-12-01

    Students may be informally buddied with registered nurses (RNs), during their clinical experience. This paper describes one component of a larger phenomenographic study that explored the qualitatively different ways students understand the RN buddy role during clinical experience and the implications of this understanding for student learning. The perception of the RN as gatekeeper was an unexpected finding and is the focus of this report. Phenomenography is a field of descriptive research concerned with the variation in ways people experience and understand similar phenomena. This approach was used to identify the variation in experience and understanding of students with buddy RNs. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 24 students from one university in Queensland, Australia. The two variations in understanding of the role discussed in this paper are: understanding as an expectation, and RN as gatekeeper: gatekeeping as access. The research highlights that the various ways RNs promote or block access for students influence the quality of the learning experience. Formal recognition of the complexity of the RN role is essential to ensure RNs have adequate preparation for their role with students.

  9. RN as gatekeeper: student understanding of the RN buddy role in clinical practice experience.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Jillian D

    2006-12-01

    Students may be informally buddied with registered nurses (RNs), during their clinical experience. This paper describes one component of a larger phenomenographic study that explored the qualitatively different ways students understand the RN buddy role during clinical experience and the implications of this understanding for student learning. The perception of the RN as gatekeeper was an unexpected finding and is the focus of this report. Phenomenography is a field of descriptive research concerned with the variation in ways people experience and understand similar phenomena. This approach was used to identify the variation in experience and understanding of students with buddy RNs. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 24 students from one university in Queensland, Australia. The two variations in understanding of the role discussed in this paper are: understanding as an expectation, and RN as gatekeeper: gatekeeping as access. The research highlights that the various ways RNs promote or block access for students influence the quality of the learning experience. Formal recognition of the complexity of the RN role is essential to ensure RNs have adequate preparation for their role with students.

  10. Ten experiments that would make a difference in understanding immune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Melvin

    2012-02-01

    Jacques Monod used to say, "Never trust an experiment that is not supported by a good theory." Theory or conceptualization permits us to put order or structure into a vast amount of data in a way that increases understanding. Validly competing theories are most useful when they make testably disprovable predictions. Illustrating the theory-experiment interaction is the goal of this exercise. Stated bleakly, the answers derived from the theory-based experiments described here would impact dramatically on how we understand immune behavior.

  11. Interest of a chemometric approach in understanding the retention behaviour of three columns in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography: application to the separation of glycerol carbonate, glycerol and urea.

    PubMed

    Fourdinier, Marion; Bostyn, Stéphane; Delépée, Raphaël; Fauduet, Henri

    2010-06-15

    A chemometric approach was used to study the retention behaviour of glycerol, urea and glycerol carbonate in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). First, a simplex method was developed to optimize the sensitivity of an evaporative light scattering detector. A mixture design was then applied to model retention factors as a function of the mobile phase content in acetonitrile, water and methanol on three columns: Atlantis HILIC Silica, ZIC-HILIC and Monochrom diol. Atlantis HILIC Silica exhibits predominantly hydrophobic interactions, while retention on the other two columns is mainly ruled by hydrophilic interactions. Finally, a desirability function is applied on the resolution factors. The use of this function enables the compositions of eluent phases to be determined in order to achieve separation between the three chemicals. Monochrom diol proved to be the most efficient column.

  12. Rapid Method Development in Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography for Pharmaceutical Analysis Using a Combination of Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships and Design of Experiments.

    PubMed

    Taraji, Maryam; Haddad, Paul R; Amos, Ruth I J; Talebi, Mohammad; Szucs, Roman; Dolan, John W; Pohl, Chris A

    2017-02-07

    A design-of-experiment (DoE) model was developed, able to describe the retention times of a mixture of pharmaceutical compounds in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) under all possible combinations of acetonitrile content, salt concentration, and mobile-phase pH with R(2) > 0.95. Further, a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) model was developed to predict retention times for new analytes, based only on their chemical structures, with a root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) as low as 0.81%. A compound classification based on the concept of similarity was applied prior to QSRR modeling. Finally, we utilized a combined QSRR-DoE approach to propose an optimal design space in a quality-by-design (QbD) workflow to facilitate the HILIC method development. The mathematical QSRR-DoE model was shown to be highly predictive when applied to an independent test set of unseen compounds in unseen conditions with a RMSEP value of 5.83%. The QSRR-DoE computed retention time of pharmaceutical test analytes and subsequently calculated separation selectivity was used to optimize the chromatographic conditions for efficient separation of targets. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the risk of uncertainty in the model's prediction, and to define the design space where the desired quality criterion was met. Experimental realization of peak selectivity between targets under the selected optimal working conditions confirmed the theoretical predictions. These results demonstrate how discovery of optimal conditions for the separation of new analytes can be accelerated by the use of appropriate theoretical tools.

  13. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Tonisha B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly…

  14. Understanding Retention and College Student Bodies: Differences between Drop-Outs, Stop-Outs, Opt-Outs, and Transfer-Outs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Jeff E.; Winn, Bradley A.

    2004-01-01

    Nonreturning students are comprised of several student subpopulations including drop-outs, stop-outs, opt-outs, and transfer-outs. All too often these student groups are not differentiated in retention studies. The current study profiles these student subpopulations, each with varied reasons for discontinuing their studies, and examines the…

  15. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Tonisha B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly…

  16. Financial Literacy and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ruth L.

    2006-01-01

    Higher education administrators know it is more cost-effective to keep students than to recruit them. Understanding financial literacy--and how it impacts student retention and persistence on the campuses--is an important concept for administrators to comprehend. Most students are not financially literate when they enter the world of higher…

  17. Financial Literacy and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ruth L.

    2006-01-01

    Higher education administrators know it is more cost-effective to keep students than to recruit them. Understanding financial literacy--and how it impacts student retention and persistence on the campuses--is an important concept for administrators to comprehend. Most students are not financially literate when they enter the world of higher…

  18. Parent and Provider Experience and Shared Understanding After a Family-Centered Nighttime Communication Intervention.

    PubMed

    Khan, Alisa; Baird, Jennifer; Rogers, Jayne E; Furtak, Stephannie L; Williams, Kathryn A; Allair, Brenda; Litterer, Katherine P; Sharma, Meesha; Smith, Alla; Schuster, Mark A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    To assess parent and provider experience and shared understanding after a family-centered, multidisciplinary nighttime communication intervention (nurse-physician brief, family huddle, family update sheet). We performed a prospective intervention study at a children's hospital from May 2013 to October 2013 (preintervention period) and May 2014 to October 2014 (postintervention period). Participants included 464 parents, 176 nurses, and 52 resident physicians of 582 hospitalized 0- to 17-year-old patients. Pre- versus postintervention, we compared parent/provider top-box scores (eg, "excellent") for experience with communication across several domains; and level of agreement (shared understanding) between parent, nurse, and resident reports of patients' reason for admission, overnight medical plan, and overall medical plan, as rated independently by blinded clinician reviewers (agreement = 74.7%, kappa = .60). Top-box parent experience improved for 1 of 4 domains: Experience and Communication With Nighttime Doctors (23.6% to 31.5%). Top-box provider experience improved for all 3 domains, including Communication and Shared Understanding With Families (resident rated, 16.5% to 35.1%; nurse rated, 32.2% to 37.9%) and Experience, Communication, and Shared Understanding With Other Providers (resident rated, 20.3% to 35.0%; nurse rated, 14.7% to 21.5%). Independently rated shared understanding remained unchanged for most domains but improved for parent-nurse composite shared understanding (summed agreement for reason for admission, overall plan, and overnight plan; 36.2% to 48.2%) and nurse-resident shared understanding regarding reason for admission (67.1% to 71.2%) and regarding overall medical plan (45.0% to 58.6%). All P <.05. A family-centered, multidisciplinary nighttime communication intervention was associated with improvements in some, but not all, domains of parent/provider experience and shared understanding, particularly provider experience and nurse

  19. Promoting Retention

    PubMed Central

    Hall, LaToya N.; Ficker, Lisa J.; Chadiha, Letha A.; Green, Carmen R.; Jackson, James S.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capability of a research volunteer registry to retain community-dwelling African American older adults, and to explore demographic and health factors associated with retention. Method: A logistic regression model was used to determine the influence of demographics, health factors, and registry logic model activities on retention in a sample of 1,730 older African American adults. Results: Almost 80% of participants active in the volunteer research registry between January 2012 and June 2015 were retained. Employment, being referred to research studies, a higher number of medical conditions, and more follow-up contacts were associated with an increased likelihood of retention. Older age, more months in the registry, and more mobility problems decreased the likelihood of retention. Discussion: These results suggest the Michigan Center for Urban African American Aging Research logic model promotes retention through involving older African American adults in research through study referrals and intensive follow-up. The loss of participants due to age- and mobility-related issues indicate the registry may be losing its most vulnerable participants. PMID:28138501

  20. Understanding experience through Gadamerian hermeneutics: an interview with Brian Phillips. Interview by Pamela Wood & Lynne Giddings.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brian

    2005-07-01

    Hermeneutic approaches to research focus on understanding and interpretation of experience but differ in process and emphasis. Gadamerian hermeneutics concentrates on expanding horizons of understanding through dialogue, between people or between a researcher and texts, in which taken-for-granted assumptions are examined and opinions willingly put at risk. This article is the fourteenth in a series of articles based on interviews with nursing and midwifery researchers, designed to offer the beginning researcher a first-hand account of the experience of using particular methodologies. It considers a Gadamerian hermeneutic research approach as interpreted by Brian Phillips (RN, PhD) in interview. Brian is Research Fellow in the Graduate School of Nursing and Midwifery at Victoria University of Wellington. For his PhD research Brian used Gadamerian hermeneutics to interpret four men's experiences of suicidality and the ideas of masculinity that might have shaped their understandings.

  1. Understanding the experiences of hearing voices and sounds others do not hear.

    PubMed

    Kalhovde, Anne Martha; Elstad, Ingunn; Talseth, Anne-Grethe

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we aim to contribute to the understanding of how people with mental illness experience hearing voices and sounds that others do not hear in daily life. We conducted in-depth interviews with 14 people and analyzed the interviews using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The themes we arrived at included the following: hearing someone else or myself, am I losing my mind?, and daily life recurrently dominated by opposing voices. Our overall understanding of how the voices and sounds were experienced in daily life was that the intentions of others resounded intrusively in the participants and disrupted their lives. The tones and contents of these perplexing perceptions echoed and amplified past, present, and future experiences and concerns. The results elucidate the value that exploring and attempting to understand people's daily life experiences of hearing voices and sounds might have for the voice hearer, his or her family, and health care providers.

  2. What are you doing? How active and observational experience shape infants' action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-01-01

    From early in life, infants watch other people's actions. How do young infants come to make sense of actions they observe? Here, we review empirical findings on the development of action understanding in infancy. Based on this review, we argue that active action experience is crucial for infants' developing action understanding. When infants execute actions, they form associations between motor acts and the sensory consequences of these acts. When infants subsequently observe these actions in others, they can use their motor system to predict the outcome of the ongoing actions. Also, infants come to an understanding of others’ actions through the repeated observation of actions and the effects associated with them. In their daily lives, infants have plenty of opportunities to form associations between observed events and learn about statistical regularities of others’ behaviours. We argue that based on these two forms of experience—active action experience and observational experience—infants gradually develop more complex action understanding capabilities. PMID:24778386

  3. How Students "Stay the Course": Retention Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurantowicz, Ewa; Nizinska, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    The article is based on the results of research carried out under the RANLHE project in several Polish academic institutions. Applying the biographical research approach, the project aimed to explore and understand the access and retention-related experiences of non-traditional students. In a study of non-traditional students, three distinct…

  4. How Students "Stay the Course": Retention Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurantowicz, Ewa; Nizinska, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    The article is based on the results of research carried out under the RANLHE project in several Polish academic institutions. Applying the biographical research approach, the project aimed to explore and understand the access and retention-related experiences of non-traditional students. In a study of non-traditional students, three distinct…

  5. Liminality as a framework for understanding the experience of cancer survivorship: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Blows, Emma; Bird, Lydia; Seymour, Jane; Cox, Karen

    2012-10-01

    To report a narrative review of literature that drew on the concept of liminality as a framework for understanding the cancer experience. In doing so, we explored the utility of liminality for guiding research on experiences of cancer survivorship. The 'rites of passage' model uses the concept of liminality to explore transition. Taking cancer survivorship as a process, liminality may facilitate our understanding of this phenomenon. Searches of Medline, PsycInfo, British Nursing Index, Cinahl, ASSIA, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and British Library databases were conducted, covering 1985-2011. Search terms were cancer and liminal* or rite* of passage. A narrative review, using a textual narrative approach, was undertaken to provide a comprehensive overview of the topic. Studies were arranged into groups according to the stage of the cancer trajectory on which they focused. Findings from each study were presented to highlight facets of the liminal experience at each stage. Ten studies were included for review. Liminality depicts the ambiguity and uncertainty often experienced by people affected by cancer. Although liminality appears useful for understanding experiences of cancer risk, diagnosis, treatment and the period following active treatment, little research has explored the concept with respect to long-term survivorship. Gaps in current evidence highlight the need for additional research to ascertain the utility of liminality for understanding experiences of long-term survivorship. Research exploring the personal and social implications of living a liminal life, at all stages of the cancer trajectory, is also warranted. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Understanding Medical Students' Experience with Stress and Its Related Constructs: A Focus Group Study from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana

    2017-04-18

    In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.

  7. A Conceptual Model to Promote the Retention of Women With Physical Disabilities in Research

    PubMed Central

    Mood, Laura; Hassouneh, Dena; McNeff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate participant recruitment and retention practices can affect sample representativeness and thus the generalizability of research findings. Retention of research participants has been examined within the literature to some extent; however, there is no consensus on best practice in achieving acceptable results. Furthermore, there is a gap in understanding how to engage and retain women with physical disabilities (WPDs) in research. To address these oversights, we review (1) the significance of retention as a methodologic concern, (2) factors that influence the involvement and retention of participants in research, including individual, population, and health-illness considerations, and (3) particular circumstances impacting the inclusion and retention of WPDs in research. Based on a review of the literature and our experience with the Healing Pathways randomized-controlled trial (RCT), we present a conceptual model to guide culturally-sensitive health research implementation with WPDs, and promote the engagement and retention of this group in RCTs and other forms of interventional health research. PMID:25801324

  8. Using artwork to understand the experience of mental illness: Mainstream artists and Outsider artists

    PubMed Central

    Rustin, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Artwork and psychiatric disorders are often linked. Accomplished artists with psychiatric disorders express themselves and their emotional distress through their works, and art therapists use the visual arts to help clients understand their problems and cope with them. There have been a number of psychiatric patients with no previous art training who produced artwork that many consider museum-worthy (Art Brut, or Outsider Art.) For the past two years, I have used artwork in another way: to better understand my clients and their psychiatric disorders. Methods: Presented here are paintings I have made about the mental illness experience of some of my clients, all well known to me through their therapy. It is a form of visual psychodrama, in which I reverse roles with the client through the paintings. My goal has been to experience the stresses felt by my clients so that I can understand them better. Results: The paintings have served as a point of embarkation for therapy sessions, as a means of clarifying a client’s experience, and as a way to show clients that their therapist is attending to what they say. Countertransference undoubtedly plays a role in my choice of clients and their portrayals, but the intent is to help me better understand the clients’ experiences. Included here are images of some of these paintings with a short psychiatric history of the client about whom they were made. Accompanying each one are responses from the clients upon viewing “their” paintings, and a discussion of the client’s psychiatric disorder. Conclusions: Making these paintings has helped me understand better the feelings of isolation, rejection, loss, and alienation that many of my clients experience every day. In turn, they tell me that viewing the paintings is an intense experience for them as well. As an outsider artist, I must leave it to the viewer to determine whether or not these paintings qualify as “art.” PMID:19742284

  9. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... indicates the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... more urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  10. Retention Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    Designed to improve student retention at Bronx Community College (BCC), this workbook is comprised of sets checklists for use by students in evaluating their progress toward a number of academic, personal, and work-related goals. The workbook is divided into five sections, each containing a set of goals and associated checklists. Part I deals with…

  11. Understanding Patient Experience Using Internet-based Email Surveys: A Feasibility Study at Mount Sinai Hospital.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Matthew; Lau, Davina; Jivraj, Tanaz; Principi, Tania; Dietrich, Sandra; Bell, Chaim M

    2015-01-01

    Email is becoming a widely accepted communication tool in healthcare settings. This study sought to test the feasibility of Internet-based email surveys of patient experience in the ambulatory setting. We conducted a study of email Internet-based surveys sent to patients in selected ambulatory clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Our findings suggest that email links to Internet surveys are a feasible, timely and efficient method to solicit patient feedback about their experience. Further research is required to optimally leverage Internet-based email surveys as a tool to better understand the patient experience.

  12. An Inside View: The Utility of Quantitative Observation in Understanding College Educational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Corbin M.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes quantitative observation as a method for understanding college educational experiences. Quantitative observation has been used widely in several fields and in K-12 education, but has had limited application to research in higher education and student affairs to date. The article describes the central tenets of quantitative…

  13. Using Online Tools for Communication and Collaboration: Understanding Educators' Experiences in an Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Erica C.; Holan, Erica; Horbatt, Brent; Hough, Mary; Jean-Louis, Jennifer; Khurana, Chesta; Krinsky, Hindi; Spiezio, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This designed-based research study explored educators' experiences in an online course to better understand how course design and pedagogical delivery can best support student learning. Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (Collins et al., 1987) as a theoretical lens, researchers investigated the following: 1) What methods of instruction, as…

  14. Navigating the Transition to Community College: Understanding the Perceptions and Strategies Related to Latina Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Vogt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The transition of Latina community college students warrants further interest from the research community and this study aims to fill a gap in the research by examining the transition experiences from the voices of Latina community college students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand Latina community college students'…

  15. Digital Journeys: A Perspective on Understanding the Digital Experiences of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shanton; Gomes, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The authors in this conceptual paper draw on the literature on information seeking behavior, social media use, and international student experiences to propose Digital Journeys as a framework which helps us understand the online behavior of international students. Here we theorize that the Digital Journey is the transition that individuals make…

  16. A Practical Example Aiding Understanding Momentum in 1D: The Water Gun Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Katarin

    2007-01-01

    The law of conservation of momentum is one that students often have difficulties understanding. This experiment allows students to use childhood toys to examine and calculate the muzzle velocity of their favourite water gun by using an air track, a spark timer or data logger and the law of conservation of momentum in a one-dimensional case, a…

  17. A Practical Example Aiding Understanding Momentum in 1D: The Water Gun Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Katarin

    2007-01-01

    The law of conservation of momentum is one that students often have difficulties understanding. This experiment allows students to use childhood toys to examine and calculate the muzzle velocity of their favourite water gun by using an air track, a spark timer or data logger and the law of conservation of momentum in a one-dimensional case, a…

  18. Board Games Play Matters: A Rethinking on Children's Aesthetic Experience and Interpersonal Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mei-Ju

    2017-01-01

    There has been a growing awareness of the contribution of play to the young children's learning and development. This study aims to investigate the implement of board games play on children's aesthetic experience and interpersonal understanding in Montessori and Constructivist classrooms. With the underlying framework follows a developmentally…

  19. The Puerto Rican Prison Experience: A Multicultural Understanding of Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…

  20. Understanding Teacher's Experiences in Co-Taught Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Darrell S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers understand their experiences in co-taught classrooms as they work to meet the needs of all students. This included examining their perspectives about the co-teaching model and the relationships that are formed between co-teachers. The study was a descriptive study that used qualitative research…

  1. Understanding the Role of Openness to Experience in Study Abroad Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daniela; Katz-Buonincontro, Jennifer; Livert, David

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on a study of 59 undergraduate students who completed a survey assessing aspects of openness to experience, race and cultural understanding, and critical thinking before and after they studied abroad for 3 months. Results showed an increase in students' knowledge of and ability to comprehend new cultures,…

  2. Students' Understanding of Analogy after a Core (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) Learning Cycle, General Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avargil, Shirly; Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Amar, Franc¸ois G.; Bruce, Alice E.

    2015-01-01

    Students' understanding about analogy was investigated after a CORE learning cycle general chemistry experiment. CORE (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) is a new three-phase learning cycle that involves (phase 1) guiding students through chemical observations while they consider a series of open-ended questions, (phase 2)…

  3. The Cavendish Experiment as a Tool for Historical Understanding of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducheyne, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Following an ever growing literature which takes serious the relevance of case-studies in the history of science for science education and understanding of science, I provide a detailed historical reconstruction of the Cavendish Experiment, which remains as close as possible to the original. In this paper, I call attention to three educational…

  4. Understanding Teacher's Experiences in Co-Taught Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Darrell S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers understand their experiences in co-taught classrooms as they work to meet the needs of all students. This included examining their perspectives about the co-teaching model and the relationships that are formed between co-teachers. The study was a descriptive study that used qualitative research…

  5. Using Critical Experiences to Build Understanding of Science Teacher Educators' Pedagogical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the reported research was to build understanding of science teacher educators' (STEs') development of pedagogical knowledge (PK) using critical experiences (CEs). It further investigated the role of CEs in developing PK for STEs, the ways that STEs' notions of PK develop and change over their careers, and the dispositions necessary…

  6. Students' Understanding of Analogy after a Core (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) Learning Cycle, General Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avargil, Shirly; Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Amar, Franc¸ois G.; Bruce, Alice E.

    2015-01-01

    Students' understanding about analogy was investigated after a CORE learning cycle general chemistry experiment. CORE (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) is a new three-phase learning cycle that involves (phase 1) guiding students through chemical observations while they consider a series of open-ended questions, (phase 2)…

  7. Voices of Experience: Understanding and Enhancing Successful Conflict Management by Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanjani, Mellissia M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to enhance understanding of successful conflict management by community college Presidents through highlighting and describing conflict experiences with the faculty union or the board of trustees in a community college context. The following questions guided the research: (a) How do community college…

  8. Understanding the Experience of CACREP On-Site Visiting Review Team Chairpersons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the experience of CACREP on-site review team members provides insight into the phenomenon of four counselor educators who have each served as a CACREP on-site visiting review team chairperson a minimum of three times. In total, the participants had been within the counselor education field for approximately 95 years and active within…

  9. Children's experiences of food insecurity can assist in understanding its effect on their well-being

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An understanding of the experience of food insecurity by children is essential for better measurement and assessment of its effect on children's nutritional, physical, and mental health. Our qualitative study explored children's perceptions of household food insecurity to identify these perceptions ...

  10. The Cavendish Experiment as a Tool for Historical Understanding of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducheyne, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Following an ever growing literature which takes serious the relevance of case-studies in the history of science for science education and understanding of science, I provide a detailed historical reconstruction of the Cavendish Experiment, which remains as close as possible to the original. In this paper, I call attention to three educational…

  11. Navigating the Transition to Community College: Understanding the Perceptions and Strategies Related to Latina Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Vogt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The transition of Latina community college students warrants further interest from the research community and this study aims to fill a gap in the research by examining the transition experiences from the voices of Latina community college students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand Latina community college students'…

  12. Understanding the Online Doctoral Learning Experience: Factors That Contribute to Students' Sense of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Jeremy Carl

    2016-01-01

    As the number of students taking online courses continues to grow steadily, it is becoming increasingly important to inquire about the experiences of these students in order to understand the factors that contribute to their success. It is imperative that the social needs of students be understood, as interaction is an important aspect of the…

  13. Areas Recruited during Action Understanding Are Not Modulated by Auditory or Sign Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    The observation of other people’s actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people’s actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions. PMID:27014025

  14. Areas Recruited during Action Understanding Are Not Modulated by Auditory or Sign Language Experience.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    The observation of other people's actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people's actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions.

  15. Comment on: Ten experiments that would make a difference in understanding immune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Colin C

    2012-02-01

    Melvin Cohn provides a list of experiments to test predictions of his associative antigen recognition (AAR) and Tritope models in relation to standard models of immunity. The manuscript highlights important questions and some decisive experiments testing the competing models. A central aspect of good science is the ability to pinpoint the important questions, something Cohn has, and continues here, to do with great clarity. The problems posed are presented succinctly, although knowledge of Cohn's previous theoretical contributions are needed in some areas to fully understand the path he is taking here. The importance of theory, as championed by Cohn, is a message that needs repeating, as it seems increasingly that immunologists favor description over theory. I briefly comment on each of Cohn's ten experiments and then discuss in detail a critical experiment that is missing from his list-an experiment testing the timing of antigen encounter in ontogeny as a central principle of the self non-self discrimination.

  16. Attrition and retention in upper limb prosthetics research: experience of the VA home study of the DEKA arm.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Klinger, Shana

    2017-11-01

    (1) Describe study attrition; (2) identify reasons for attrition, and (3) discuss implications for prosthetic prescription and design of future device studies. Design and methodological procedures used: Completion phase (during in-laboratory training, after training, or home use) was identified for 42 participants. Qualitative data were analyzed to identify attrition reasons. Reasons were classified as related to the DEKA arm, or not. Study attrition was 57%, with 43% completing the full study. Attrition during the in-laboratory portion was 21%. Reasons for attrition were related to the DEKA arm entirely or in-part for 42%, 25%, respectively. Most common reasons were scheduling/personal (54%); device weight (29%); and dissatisfaction with device (25%). About 21% withdrew because of concerns about compliance with study protocol. This study had a high attrition rate with evidence of selective attrition due to device characteristics. Strategies to minimize attrition and the importance of tracking reasons for withdrawal are discussed. Given that retention could be an indicator of willingness to adopt the DEKA arm, findings suggest that it would be prudent to provide patients with the opportunity to train with the DEKA arm before a decision is made regarding the appropriateness of the device for the patient. Implications for Rehabilitation This study of a new upper limb prosthesis, the DEKA arm, had a 57% attrition rate with evidence of selective attrition due to characteristics of the DEKA arm. Findings point to the need for strategies to minimize attrition in future studies. Findings also illustrate the importance of tracking reasons for subject withdrawal in longitudinal prosthesis device studies. Because participant retention in longitudinal device studies may be an indicator of future willingness to adopt a device, our findings suggest that it would be prudent to provide patients with the opportunity to train with the DEKA arm before a final decision is made

  17. Understanding the experiences and emotional needs of unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents in the UK.

    PubMed

    Groark, Claire; Sclare, Irene; Raval, Hitesh

    2011-07-01

    For adolescents who flee to the UK seeking asylum, the experience of leaving their home country puts them at risk of developing mental health problems. Although there is a research base exploring the mental health of asylum-seeking children and adolescents who arrive with their families, there is in contrast very little focusing on the mental health needs of children and adolescents who arrive in the UK alone. There has been ongoing debate about whether current theoretical models for understanding reactions to trauma and loss are helpful in supporting unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and adolescents with complex psychological and social issues as a result of fleeing their home countries. This article draws on young people's own understanding of their experiences of seeking asylum in the UK using a qualitative semi-structured interview. It attempts to develop a more contextually relevant understanding of their emotional reactions to adversity and to consider the sorts of support required. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to provide an in-depth understanding of six young asylum seekers' experiences, exploring themes of loss, negotiating a new life, psychological distress and the process of adjustment. Psychological interventions and future service provision for this group are discussed.

  18. Involvement in Campus Activities and the Retention of First-Year College Students. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skipper, Tracy L., Ed.; Argo, Roxanne, Ed.

    The chapters of this monograph offer insights into educationally purposeful out-of-class activities and the impact they have on the student experience. It also provides future directions for the campus activities field and identifies ways to improve the educational experience of first-year students to enhance their scholarly experience and to…

  19. Involvement in Campus Activities and the Retention of First-Year College Students. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skipper, Tracy L., Ed.; Argo, Roxanne, Ed.

    The chapters of this monograph offer insights into educationally purposeful out-of-class activities and the impact they have on the student experience. It also provides future directions for the campus activities field and identifies ways to improve the educational experience of first-year students to enhance their scholarly experience and to…

  20. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Tonisha B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly white institution. From this study, a model emerged that encompassed four components: proactive care, holistic support, community building, and catalysts for STEM identity development. These components encompassed a number of strategies and practices that were instrumental in the outcomes of program participants. This paper concludes with implications for practice, such as using models to inform program planning, assessment, and evaluation. PMID:27543638

  1. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students.

    PubMed

    Lane, Tonisha B

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly white institution. From this study, a model emerged that encompassed four components: proactive care, holistic support, community building, and catalysts for STEM identity development. These components encompassed a number of strategies and practices that were instrumental in the outcomes of program participants. This paper concludes with implications for practice, such as using models to inform program planning, assessment, and evaluation.

  2. Tablets in trauma: using mobile computing platforms to improve patient understanding and experience.

    PubMed

    Furness, Nicholas D; Bradford, Oliver J; Paterson, Maurice P

    2013-03-01

    Tablets are becoming commonplace in the health care setting. Patients often request to view their radiographs after sustaining trauma. This can be challenging, especially if patients are immobile. The authors performed a prospective, questionnaire-based study to assess inpatient desire to view radiographs on tablets and whether viewing images affected patient-rated outcomes of understanding and satisfaction. Enabling trauma patients to view their images on a tablet is a worthwhile practice because it improves patient involvement in decision making, satisfaction, perceived understanding, and overall experience.

  3. Are Generation Y Nurses Satisfied on the Job? Understanding Their Lived Experiences.

    PubMed

    Anselmo-Witzel, Sonia; Orshan, Susan A; Heitner, Keri L; Bachand, Jeanie

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of job satisfaction among Generation Y nurses in the workplace. Job satisfaction in nursing is at an all-time low. With an increasing shortage of nurses, there is a need for more awareness and understanding of job satisfaction and intent to stay among Generation Y nurses who are the future generation of nurses. Descriptive phenomenology-guided, in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted to explore the lived experiences of job satisfaction among 10 Generation Y nurses. Four main themes and 6 subthemes that emerged brought meaning to the nurses' experiences. The 4 main themes were experiences of feeling good, relationships, job strain, and having choices. Findings indicated Generation Y nurses want to fulfill inner feelings of job satisfaction. If these inner feelings are not met, they will seek other opportunities to fulfill job satisfaction.

  4. “Being in a Funk”: Teens’ Efforts to Understand Their Depressive Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Green, Carla A.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is literature about adults’ experiences of depression, little research has focused on teenagers’ experiences. In this article, the authors describe how a sample of adolescents makes sense of depression and responds to a depression diagnosis. Twenty-two adolescents participated in in-depth individual or focus group interviews. Teens discussed their experiences with depression and getting health care for depression, and described a trajectory similar to that found among adults: a slow growth of distress, a time of being in a funk, and a time of consideration of whether they are depressed. Teens who received a diagnosis from a medical provider then sought to make sense of their depression. Teens understood a depression diagnosis as a helpful label, a chronic medical problem, or a significant part of their identity. Understanding the subjective experience of adolescents who are depressed might increase health care providers’ empathy and improve their communication with teens. PMID:15448297

  5. Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

  6. Estimate of the soil water retention curve from the sorptivity and β parameter calculated from an upward infiltration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moret-Fernández, D.; Latorre, B.

    2017-01-01

    The water retention curve (θ(h)), which defines the relationship between the volumetric water content (θ) and the matric potential (h), is of paramount importance to characterize the hydraulic behaviour of soils. Because current methods to estimate θ(h) are, in general, tedious and time consuming, alternative procedures to determine θ(h) are needed. Using an upward infiltration curve, the main objective of this work is to present a method to determine the parameters of the van Genuchten (1980) water retention curve (α and n) from the sorptivity (S) and the β parameter defined in the 1D infiltration equation proposed by Haverkamp et al. (1994). The first specific objective is to present an equation, based on the Haverkamp et al. (1994) analysis, which allows describing an upward infiltration process. Secondary, assuming a known saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, calculated on a finite soil column by the Darcy's law, a numerical procedure to calculate S and β by the inverse analysis of an exfiltration curve is presented. Finally, the α and n values are numerically calculated from Ks, S and β. To accomplish the first specific objective, cumulative upward infiltration curves simulated with HYDRUS-1D for sand, loam, silt and clay soils were compared to those calculated with the proposed equation, after applying the corresponding β and S calculated from the theoretical Ks, α and n. The same curves were used to: (i) study the influence of the exfiltration time on S and β estimations, (ii) evaluate the limits of the inverse analysis, and (iii) validate the feasibility of the method to estimate α and n. Next, the θ(h) parameters estimated with the numerical method on experimental soils were compared to those obtained with pressure cells. The results showed that the upward infiltration curve could be correctly described by the modified Haverkamp et al. (1994) equation. While S was only affected by early-time exfiltration data, the β parameter had a

  7. Curriculum development through understanding the student nurse experience of suicide intervention education--A phenomenographic study.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Inga; Webster, Brian J; Tee, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Suicide remains a global public health issue and a major governmental concern. The World Health Organisation argues for continued investment in education for front-line professionals, with a particular focus on nurses, to address the rising suicide levels. Considering this rate, it could be argued that suicide has impacted on the lives of many, including the student nurse population. Understanding the psychological impact, and influence on learning, whilst developing suicide intervention knowledge is crucial. However, little is known of the student experience in this complex and challenging area of skills development. This phenomenographic study examines the experiences of second year Bachelor of Nursing (mental health) students who participated in the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST). Experiences were illuminated through two focus groups, Experiences were distilled and categorised through hierarchically relationships to construct a group experiential field to illustrate understandings of the impact this approach has on learning Students found ASIST to be emotionally challenging yet an extremely positive experience through bonding, peer learning, and class cohesion. The supportive workshop facilitation was essential allowing for full immersion into role simulation thus developing student confidence. Appropriate pedagogy and student support must be considered whilst developing suicide intervention in the pre-registration curricula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Observing women caregivers' everyday experiences: new ways of understanding and intervening.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the practice implications of videographic research examining the everyday lived experiences of 5 women family caregivers of older adults with chronic illness. The women's nonverbal expressions and gestures revealed how caregiving is accomplished and lived on a daily basis, in particular through emotion and body management, abnegation, and performance. The findings from this microethnographic study suggest that observing women caregivers' everyday experiences can open new avenues for holistic intervention with this population. Observing nonverbal cues can offer a way for practitioners to better understand women caregivers' realities, to question their practice, and to adapt their interventions accordingly.

  9. Understanding the Experiences of Youth Living with Sickle Cell Disease: A Photovoice Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Jessica M.; Vaughn, Lisa M.; Crosby, Lori E.; Strong, Heather; Kissling, Alexandra; Mitchell, Monica J.

    2014-01-01

    A Photovoice pilot was conducted with a sample of youth living with sickle cell disease (SCD), in order to further understand their lived experience and examine the acceptability, feasibility, and utility of this method for use in this population. SCD is an inherited genetic condition whose primary symptom is severe pain. Youth were able to reflect on their experiences with SCD using Photovoice and the adapted SHOWeD method. Parents and youth found Photovoice to be valuable for children and adolescents with SCD. Emerging themes included the impact of SCD, coping with the disease, and the importance of family and support. PMID:23455680

  10. Understanding the Experience of Stroke: A Mixed-Method Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-01-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations. Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research. PMID:19386828

  11. Understanding the experience of stroke: a mixed-method research agenda.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-06-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations. Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research.

  12. Understanding Creep Mechanisms in Graphite with Experiments, Multiscale Simulations, and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eapen, Jacob; Murty, Korukonda; Burchell, Timothy

    2014-06-02

    Disordering mechanisms in graphite have a long history with conflicting viewpoints. Using Raman and x-ray photon spectroscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction experiments and atomistic modeling and simulations, the current project has developed a fundamental understanding of early-to-late state radiation damage mechanisms in nuclear reactor grade graphite (NBG-18 and PCEA). We show that the topological defects in graphite play an important role under neutron and ion irradiation.

  13. Understanding recovery in the context of lived experience of personality disorders: a collaborative, qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Steve; Turner, Kati; Neffgen, Marion

    2015-07-31

    Concepts of recovery increasingly inform the development and delivery of mental health services internationally. In the UK recent policy advocates the application of recovery concepts to the treatment of personality disorders. However diagnosis and understanding of personality disorders remains contested, challenging any assumption that mainstream recovery thinking can be directly translated into personality disorders services. In a qualitative interview-based study understandings of recovery were explored in extended, in-depth interviews with six people purposively sampled from a specialist personality disorders' service in the UK. An interpretive, collaborative approach to research was adopted in which university-, clinical- and service user (consumer) researchers were jointly involved in carrying out interviews and analysing interview data. Findings suggested that recovery cannot be conceptualised separately from an understanding of the lived experience of personality disorders. This experience was characterised by a complexity of ambiguous, interrelating and conflicting feelings, thoughts and actions as individuals tried to cope with tensions between internally and externally experienced worlds. Our analysis was suggestive of a process of recovering or, for some, discovering a sense of self that can safely coexist in both worlds. We conclude that key facilitators of recovery - positive personal relationships and wider social interaction - are also where the core vulnerabilities of individuals with lived experience of personaility disorders can lie. There is a role for personality disorders services in providing a safe space in which to develop positive relationships. Through discursive practice within the research team understandings of recovery were co-produced that responded to the lived experience of personality disorders and were of applied relevance to practitioners.

  14. The solar activity measurements experiments (SAMEX) for improved scientific understanding of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Activity Measurements Experiments (SAMEX) mission is described. It is designed to provide a look at the interactions of magnetic fields and plasmas that create flares and other explosive events on the sun in an effort to understand solar activity and the nature of the solar magnetic field. The need for this mission, the instruments to be used, and the expected benefits of SAMEX are discussed.

  15. The Experience of Addiction as Told by the Addicted: Incorporating Biological Understandings into Self-Story

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Ostergren, Jenny E; Nowakowski, Katherine E; Koenig, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    How do the addicted view addiction against the framework of formal theories that attempt to explain the condition? In this empirical paper, we report on the lived experience of addiction based on 63 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with individuals in treatment for alcohol and nicotine abuse at five sites in Minnesota. Using qualitative analysis, we identified four themes that provide insights into understanding how people who are addicted view their addiction, with particular emphasis on the biological model. More than half of our sample articulated a biological understanding of addiction as a disease. Themes did not cluster by addictive substance used; however, biological understandings of addiction did cluster by treatment center. Biological understandings have the potential to become dominant narratives of addiction in the current era. Though the desire for a “unified theory” of addiction seems curiously seductive to scholars, it lacks utility. Conceptual “disarray” may actually reflect a more accurate representation of the illness as told by those who live with it. For practitioners in the field of addiction, we suggest the practice of narrative medicine with its ethic of negative capability as a useful approach for interpreting and relating to diverse experiences of disease and illness. PMID:23081782

  16. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  17. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  18. An appetitive experience after fear memory destabilization attenuates fear retention: involvement GluN2B-NMDA receptors in the Basolateral Amygdala Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer Monti, Roque I.; Giachero, Marcelo; Alfei, Joaquín M.; Bueno, Adrián M.; Cuadra, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    It is known that a consolidated memory can return to a labile state and become transiently malleable following reactivation. This instability is followed by a restabilization phase termed reconsolidation. In this work, we explored whether an unrelated appetitive experience (voluntary consumption of diluted sucrose) can affect a contextual fear memory in rats during the reactivation-induced destabilization phase. Our findings show that exposure to an appetitive experience following reactivation can diminish fear retention. This effect persisted after 1 wk. Importantly, it was achieved only under conditions that induced fear memory destabilization. This result could not be explained as a potentiated extinction, because sucrose was unable to promote extinction. Since GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) have been implicated in triggering fear memory destabilization, we decided to block pharmacologically these receptors to explore the neurobiological bases of the observed effect. Intra-BLA infusion with ifenprodil, a GluN2B-NMDA antagonist, prevented the fear reduction caused by the appetitive experience. In sum, these results suggest that the expression of a fear memory can be dampened by an unrelated appetitive experience, as long as memory destabilization is achieved during reactivation. Possible mechanisms behind this effect and its clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27531837

  19. An appetitive experience after fear memory destabilization attenuates fear retention: involvement GluN2B-NMDA receptors in the Basolateral Amygdala Complex.

    PubMed

    Ferrer Monti, Roque I; Giachero, Marcelo; Alfei, Joaquín M; Bueno, Adrián M; Cuadra, Gabriel; Molina, Victor A

    2016-09-01

    It is known that a consolidated memory can return to a labile state and become transiently malleable following reactivation. This instability is followed by a restabilization phase termed reconsolidation. In this work, we explored whether an unrelated appetitive experience (voluntary consumption of diluted sucrose) can affect a contextual fear memory in rats during the reactivation-induced destabilization phase. Our findings show that exposure to an appetitive experience following reactivation can diminish fear retention. This effect persisted after 1 wk. Importantly, it was achieved only under conditions that induced fear memory destabilization. This result could not be explained as a potentiated extinction, because sucrose was unable to promote extinction. Since GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) have been implicated in triggering fear memory destabilization, we decided to block pharmacologically these receptors to explore the neurobiological bases of the observed effect. Intra-BLA infusion with ifenprodil, a GluN2B-NMDA antagonist, prevented the fear reduction caused by the appetitive experience. In sum, these results suggest that the expression of a fear memory can be dampened by an unrelated appetitive experience, as long as memory destabilization is achieved during reactivation. Possible mechanisms behind this effect and its clinical implications are discussed.

  20. Understanding Mental Health Service User Experiences of Restraint Through Debriefing: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Sara; Cleverley, Kristin; Perivolaris, Athina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine debriefing data to understand experiences before, during, and after a restraint (seclusion, chemical, and physical) event from the perspective of inpatients at a large urban mental health and addiction hospital. Method: Audits were conducted on a purposeful sample of inpatient charts containing post-restraint event inpatient debrief forms (n = 55). Qualitative data from the forms were analyzed thematically. Results: Loss of autonomy and related anger, conflict with staff and other inpatients, and unmet needs were the most common factors precipitating restraint events. Inpatients often reported that increased communication with staff could have prevented restraint. Inpatients described having had various negative emotional states and responses during restraint events, including fear and rejection. Post-restraint, inpatients often desired to leave the unit for fresh air or to engage in leisure activities. Conclusions: To our knowledge, our study is the first to use debriefing form data to explore mental health inpatients’ experiences of restraint. Inpatients view restraint negatively and do not experience it as a therapeutic intervention. Debriefing, guided by a form, is useful for understanding the inpatient’s experience of restraint, and should be used to re-establish the therapeutic relationship and to inform plans of care. In addition, individual and collective inpatient perspectives should inform alternatives to restraint. PMID:26454726

  1. Understanding Mental Health Service User Experiences of Restraint Through Debriefing: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Sara; Cleverley, Kristin; Perivolaris, Athina

    2015-09-01

    To examine debriefing data to understand experiences before, during, and after a restraint (seclusion, chemical, and physical) event from the perspective of inpatients at a large urban mental health and addiction hospital. Audits were conducted on a purposeful sample of inpatient charts containing post-restraint event inpatient debrief forms (n = 55). Qualitative data from the forms were analyzed thematically. Loss of autonomy and related anger, conflict with staff and other inpatients, and unmet needs were the most common factors precipitating restraint events. Inpatients often reported that increased communication with staff could have prevented restraint. Inpatients described having had various negative emotional states and responses during restraint events, including fear and rejection. Post-restraint, inpatients often desired to leave the unit for fresh air or to engage in leisure activities. To our knowledge, our study is the first to use debriefing form data to explore mental health inpatients' experiences of restraint. Inpatients view restraint negatively and do not experience it as a therapeutic intervention. Debriefing, guided by a form, is useful for understanding the inpatient's experience of restraint, and should be used to re-establish the therapeutic relationship and to inform plans of care. In addition, individual and collective inpatient perspectives should inform alternatives to restraint.

  2. The role of appraisals and emotions in understanding experiences of workplace incivility.

    PubMed

    Bunk, Jennifer A; Magley, Vicki J

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically grounded in both the cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions and affect events theory, the present research used multiple analytic techniques and positioned appraisals and emotions as key variables in understanding the experience of incivility at work. Data consisted of survey responses from a stratified random sample of 522 U.S. working adults. K-means cluster analyses revealed interindividual differences in cognitive/emotional responding to workplace incivility experiences. In addition, multiple mediation analyses revealed that optimism and emotionality may play important roles in showing why the experience of incivility is related to job-related outcomes. The results help to advance workplace mistreatment research and suggest possible strategies for organizations to maintain civil working environments.

  3. People, liminal spaces and experience: understanding recontextualisation of knowledge for newly qualified nurses.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen Therese; Magnusson, Carin; Horton, Khim; Evans, Karen; Ball, Elaine; Curtis, Kathy; Johnson, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about how newly qualified nurses delegate to health care assistants when delivering bedside care. To explore newly qualified nurses' experiences of delegating to, and supervising, health care assistants. Ethnographic case studies. In-patient wards in three English National Health Service (NHS) acute hospitals. 33 newly qualified nurses were observed, 10 health care assistants and 12 ward managers. Participant observation and in-depth interviews. We suggest that newly qualified nurses learn to delegate to, and supervise, health care assistants through re-working (`recontextualising') knowledge; and that this process occurs within a transitional (`liminal') space. Conceptualising learning in this way allows an understanding of the shift from student to newly qualified nurse and the associated interaction of people, space and experience. Using ethnographic case studies allows the experiences of those undergoing these transitions to be vocalised by the key people involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dementia spousal caregivers and past transgressions: Measuring and understanding forgiveness experiences.

    PubMed

    DeCaporale-Ryan, Lauren N; Steffen, Ann M; Marwit, Samuel J; Meuser, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    The transition from "wife" to "caregiver" for a cognitively impaired husband can be an overwhelming experience. Communication patterns change and small conflicts can grow, at times bringing angry feelings and new burdens. Engagement with forgiveness processes may benefit wives by lowering resentment over past tensions, restoring trust, and enhancing the overall caregiving experience. This study examined the utility of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI) within a sample of caregiving wives. Our intent was to better understand this population's experience with forgiveness when other contextual factors were likely to influence this process. Forgiveness scores on the EFI were positively related to the cognitive status of the care recipient, a particularly important finding for clinical intervention, and inversely related to marital distress and state anxiety.

  5. Rural posting experience, requests for transfer, and perspectives about critical factors for staff retention among primary health care workers in urban Kano, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lawan, U M; Amole, G T; Khayi, J H

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate skilled manpower at rural posts is a serious impediment toward equitable and universal access to healthcare in Nigeria. To examine the experiences of primary health care (PHC) workers on rural assignments, requests for transfer, and perspectives about critical factors for retention of healthcare workers at rural posts. Using descriptive cross-sectional design, 262 PHC workers in Kano were studied. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires and analyzed on Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22. Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to test for significant association between categorical variables. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. The mean age of the workers was 36.0 ± 9 years. Majority were females (55.4%) and married (64.2%) with mean working experience of 13.0 ± 8.0 years. Only 29 (11.2%) had rural posting experience. Mean duration of posting was 4.0 ± 2.0 years; 19 (65.5%) sought re-deployment for lack of social amenities and good schools for children 19 (100.0%) and poor work environment 17 (89.5%). Common positive rural experiences mentioned were less work pressure 26 (89.7%), cordial relationship with colleagues and community members 24 (82.8%), and willingness of the community to partake in health activities 24 (82.8%). Common negative experiences reported include lack of social amenities 27 (93.1), lack of equipment and supplies in facilities 26 (89.7%), and stagnation 22 (75.9%). The workers' perspectives about critical factors for retention at rural posts include good facility infrastructure and functional equipment 240 (92.3%), good housing 237 (91.2%), potable water and electricity supply 238 (91.5%), good schools for staff's children 38 (91.5%), and good access of road to town 239 (91.9%). While steering gear at upgrading basic infrastructures in rural areas, government should in the interim, ensure attractive working and living conditions at rural posts.

  6. Retention and release of hydrogen isotopes in tungsten plasma-facing components: the role of grain boundaries and the native oxide layer from a joint experiment-simulation integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodille, E. A.; Ghiorghiu, F.; Addab, Y.; Založnik, A.; Minissale, M.; Piazza, Z.; Martin, C.; Angot, T.; Gallais, L.; Barthe, M.-F.; Becquart, C. S.; Markelj, S.; Mougenot, J.; Grisolia, C.; Bisson, R.

    2017-07-01

    Fusion fuel retention (trapping) and release (desorption) from plasma-facing components are critical issues for ITER and for any future industrial demonstration reactors such as DEMO. Therefore, understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the retention of hydrogen isotopes in first wall and divertor materials is necessary. We developed an approach that couples dedicated experimental studies with modelling at all relevant scales, from microscopic elementary steps to macroscopic observables, in order to build a reliable and predictive fusion reactor wall model. This integrated approach is applied to the ITER divertor material (tungsten), and advances in the development of the wall model are presented. An experimental dataset, including focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, isothermal desorption, temperature programmed desorption, nuclear reaction analysis and Auger electron spectroscopy, is exploited to initialize a macroscopic rate equation wall model. This model includes all elementary steps of modelled experiments: implantation of fusion fuel, fuel diffusion in the bulk or towards the surface, fuel trapping on defects and release of trapped fuel during a thermal excursion of materials. We were able to show that a single-trap-type single-detrapping-energy model is not able to reproduce an extended parameter space study of a polycrystalline sample exhibiting a single desorption peak. It is therefore justified to use density functional theory to guide the initialization of a more complex model. This new model still contains a single type of trap, but includes the density functional theory findings that the detrapping energy varies as a function of the number of hydrogen isotopes bound to the trap. A better agreement of the model with experimental results is obtained when grain boundary defects are included, as is consistent with the polycrystalline nature of the studied sample. Refinement of this grain boundary model is discussed as well as the inclusion

  7. Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment: a small-scale experiment to improve understanding of the risks of solar geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Dykema, John A; Keith, David W; Anderson, James G; Weisenstein, Debra

    2014-12-28

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) through stratospheric aerosol methods has the potential to mitigate impacts of climate change, our current knowledge of stratospheric processes suggests that these methods may entail significant risks. In addition to the risks associated with current knowledge, the possibility of 'unknown unknowns' exists that could significantly alter the risk assessment relative to our current understanding. While laboratory experimentation can improve the current state of knowledge and atmospheric models can assess large-scale climate response, they cannot capture possible unknown chemistry or represent the full range of interactive atmospheric chemical physics. Small-scale, in situ experimentation under well-regulated circumstances can begin to remove some of these uncertainties. This experiment-provisionally titled the stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment-is under development and will only proceed with transparent and predominantly governmental funding and independent risk assessment. We describe the scientific and technical foundation for performing, under external oversight, small-scale experiments to quantify the risks posed by SRM to activation of halogen species and subsequent erosion of stratospheric ozone. The paper's scope includes selection of the measurement platform, relevant aspects of stratospheric meteorology, operational considerations and instrument design and engineering.

  8. `I'd rather go and know': women's understanding and experience of DEXA scanning for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jane C.; Hassell, Andrew B.; Hay, Elaine M.; Thomas, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Objective  To explore women's knowledge and understanding of osteoporosis and of dual energy x‐ray absorptiometer (DEXA) scans; the factors influencing their decision to have a scan and their experience of undergoing a DEXA scan. Design  In‐depth interviews (using a topic guide) were carried out with 12 women [before a DEXA scan and after they had discussed the results with their general practitioner (GP)] and with three women who chose not to have a scan. Setting  Stoke‐on‐Trent, Staffordshire, UK. Participants  Women who responded to a primary‐care based questionnaire were purposively selected for interview. Results  The women interviewed had varied levels of understanding of osteoporosis. For the majority of participants the scan was an overwhelmingly positive experience, despite some women's negative expectations. Findings are also explored in terms of the influences on women's decision‐making about whether to have a scan and the concept of `knowing' one's risk status. Conclusions  The main implication for primary care is how to improve women's understanding of osteoporosis and DEXA scans in order to promote the strategy of scanning high‐risk women. PMID:12031052

  9. Infants' social and motor experience and the emerging understanding of intentional actions.

    PubMed

    Brandone, Amanda C

    2015-04-01

    During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social-cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to shed light on the developmental mechanisms underlying changes in infants' understanding of intentional actions by documenting relations between infants' intention understanding and other emerging social (joint attention) and motor (means-end and self-locomotion) abilities. Using eye tracking, 8- to 11-month-olds infants' (N = 80) ability to visually predict the goal of an ongoing successful or failed intentional action was examined in relation to their developing means-end, self-locomotion, and joint attention abilities. Results confirmed previous findings showing improvements in infants' ability to interpret and make predictions about others' failed intentional actions. Importantly, results also indicated that parent-report measures of infants' initiating-joint-attention and self-locomotion abilities were associated with the ability to visually predict the outcome of a failed reaching action. These data support the view that infants' social and motor experiences may contribute to changes in their social-cognitive abilities. In particular, joint-attentive social interactions that occur with increasing frequency as infants learn to crawl and walk may shape infants' understanding of others as intentional agents.

  10. Clinical training in the rural setting: using photovoice to understand student experiences.

    PubMed

    Mader, Emily M; Roseamelia, Carrie A; Lewis, Sarah L; Arthur, Melissa E; Reed, Eric; Germain, Lauren J

    2016-01-01

    research methodology allowed for a deeper understanding of the aspects of the rural training experience that resonated most among students in real time, using visual representations of students' lived experiences as defined by the students.

  11. A Comparison of the First-Year Experience Programming to Enhance the Retention of Future Allied Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Tina Forsythe

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods case study examined the effectiveness of a new first-year experience (FYE) curriculum for selected Choose Ohio First Scholars in the College of Allied Health Sciences (CAHS) and compared it with the effectiveness of the traditional FYE curriculum in CAHS. The quantitative phase of the study involved the collection and analysis…

  12. Retention of Nickel in Soils: Sorption-Desorption and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Experiments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption and desorption of heavy metals in soils are primary factors that influence their bioavailability and mobility in the soil profile. To examine the characteristics of nickel (Ni) adsorption-desorption in soils, kinetic batch experiments were carried out followed by Ni re...

  13. Retention of Nickel in Soils: Sorption-Desorption and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Experiments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption and desorption of heavy metals in soils are primary factors that influence their bioavailability and mobility in the soil profile. To examine the characteristics of nickel (Ni) adsorption-desorption in soils, kinetic batch experiments were carried out followed by Ni re...

  14. Revealing moments: formulating understandings of adverse experiences in a health appraisal interview.

    PubMed

    Beach, W A; Dixson, C N

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of a health appraisal interview reveals how an interviewer employs formulations to organize talk about a patient's medical history. When selected reportings by patient are paraphrased, a three-part formulations cycle is initiated: (1) interviewer's formulated understandings, (2) patient's confirmation, and (3) topic shift by interviewer. The reenactment of this interactional pattern promotes increasing attention to patient's adverse experiences as "root problems" underlying adult health status (e.g. molestation, obesity, depression). Creating an environment for patient's emergent disclosures is facilitated by displaying non-judgmental sensitivity to patient's stated concerns, soliciting alignment to particular reconstructions and avoidance of moving the interview forward prematurely and to issues not grounded in patient's illness circumstances. The identification and utilization of communication techniques for attending to patient's bio-psycho-social history is critical for refining understandings of empathic interviewing, enhancing diagnosis and treatment (e.g. referrals), decreasing patients' utilization of health care systems, and ultimately reducing costs for quality medical care.

  15. Anguish, Yearning, and Identity: Toward a Better Understanding of the Pregnant Hispanic Woman's Prenatal Care Experience.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Moran; Cronin, Sherill Nones; Boccella, Sarah Hess

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to seek a better understanding of needs and access issues among pregnant, low-income Hispanic women. Hispanic women who attended a community prenatal education program participated in follow-up focus groups to explore their experiences regarding prenatal education, pregnancy resources, access to, and satisfaction with, the care available to them. Focus groups were facilitated by a leader, bilingual in English and Spanish, with knowledge of the Hispanic culture. Sessions were audiotaped, then translated into English for transcription. Data were analyzed according to guidelines by Colaizzi and three themes emerged: pregnant Hispanic women experienced a sense of anguish (la angustia) from questions and unknowns rampant during pregnancy, leading to a yearning (el anhelo) to learn and understand more, but with a desire to do so without sacrificing native identity (la identidad). Implications of these themes for improving prenatal care for this population are explored. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells: understanding linker molecules through theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Margraf, Johannes T; Ruland, Andrés; Sgobba, Vito; Guldi, Dirk M; Clark, Timothy

    2013-02-19

    We have investigated the role of linker molecules in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using density-functional theory (DFT) and experiments. Linkers not only govern the number of attached QDs but also influence charge separation, recombination, and transport. Understanding their behavior is therefore not straightforward. DFT calculations show that mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and cysteine (Cys) exhibit characteristic binding configurations on TiO(2) surfaces. This information is used to optimize the cell assembly process, yielding Cys-based cells that significantly outperform MPA cells, and reach power conversion efficiencies (PCE) as high as 2.7% under AM 1.5 illumination. Importantly, the structural information from theory also helps understand the cause for this improved performance.

  17. Sympathy, empathy, and compassion: A grounded theory study of palliative care patients’ understandings, experiences, and preferences

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; Beamer, Kate; Hack, Thomas F; McClement, Susan; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Chochinov, Harvey M; Hagen, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Compassion is considered an essential element in quality patient care. One of the conceptual challenges in healthcare literature is that compassion is often confused with sympathy and empathy. Studies comparing and contrasting patients’ perspectives of sympathy, empathy, and compassion are largely absent. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate advanced cancer patients’ understandings, experiences, and preferences of “sympathy,” “empathy,” and “compassion” in order to develop conceptual clarity for future research and to inform clinical practice. Design: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and then independently analyzed by the research team using the three stages and principles of Straussian grounded theory. Setting/participants: Data were collected from 53 advanced cancer inpatients in a large urban hospital. Results: Constructs of sympathy, empathy, and compassion contain distinct themes and sub-themes. Sympathy was described as an unwanted, pity-based response to a distressing situation, characterized by a lack of understanding and self-preservation of the observer. Empathy was experienced as an affective response that acknowledges and attempts to understand individual’s suffering through emotional resonance. Compassion enhanced the key facets of empathy while adding distinct features of being motivated by love, the altruistic role of the responder, action, and small, supererogatory acts of kindness. Patients reported that unlike sympathy, empathy and compassion were beneficial, with compassion being the most preferred and impactful. Conclusion: Although sympathy, empathy, and compassion are used interchangeably and frequently conflated in healthcare literature, patients distinguish and experience them uniquely. Understanding patients’ perspectives is important and can guide practice, policy reform, and future research. PMID:27535319

  18. You Only Get One Chance to Make a First Impression: A Quantitative Analysis of Division Officer Fleet Experiences on Surface Warfare Officer Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Mitchel et al. use the term “ job embeddedness ” to refer to the tendency of work-life effects to influence the retention decision. For example, an...regards to one of the most significant variables in the retention decision: job satisfaction. Many factors influence the construct that is job ...chapters. The present review will discuss the “basics” of retention modeling and will then proceed to analyze relevant job satisfaction and human

  19. Using LGI experiments to achieve better understanding of pedestal-edge coupling in NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui

    2015-02-23

    PowerPoint presentation. Latest advances in granule or dust injection technologies, fast and high-resolution imaging, together with micro-/nano-structured material fabrication, provide new opportunities to examine plasma-material interaction (PMI) in magnetic fusion environment. Some of our previous work in these areas is summarized. The upcoming LGI experiments in NSTX-U will shed new light on granular matter transport in the pedestal-edge region. In addition to particle control, these results can also be used for code validation and achieving better understanding of pedestal-edge coupling in fusion plasmas in both NSTX-U and others.

  20. Understanding the Effects of Collisional Evolution and Spacecraft Impact Experiments on Comets and Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S.M.; Jensen, E.A.; Fane, M.; Smith, D.C.; Holmes, J.; Keller, L.P.; Lindsay, S.S.; Wooden, D.H.; Whizin, A.; Cintala, M.J.; Zolensky, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Comets and asteroids have endured impacts from other solar system bodies that result in outcomes ranging from catastrophic collisions to regolith evolution due to micrometeorid bombardment of the surface ices and refactory components. Experiments designed to better understand these relics of solar system formation have been conducted on Earth in a laboratory setting, as well as in space through, e.g., the Deep Impact Mission to Comet Tempel 1. Deep Impact fired a high-speed impactor into the roughly 6 km nucleus of the comet. The ejecta plume generated by the impact was studied by both spacecraft instrumentation and groundbased telescopes.

  1. Demonstrating Understanding, a Whole Body Experience? Can Year One Children Show Their Science Understanding through the Use of Gestures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This research project uses the methods of Crowder and Callinan and Sharp to assess year one children's (age 5-6) personal understanding of scientific concepts. This research project uses video recording as a primary resource of data collection within a case study approach using a participant observer method. Analysis supports the work of Crowder…

  2. The Struggle to Understand: Exploring Medical Students' Experiences of Learning and Understanding during a Basic Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weurlander, Maria; Scheja, Max; Hult, Håkan; Wernerson, Annika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research reported in this paper was to explore students' "journey" towards conceptual understanding during an undergraduate course. The task that medical students face--to learn a substantial quantity of detailed knowledge and integrate into a coherent whole in a limited time frame--is demanding. Seven students were…

  3. Demonstrating Understanding, a Whole Body Experience? Can Year One Children Show Their Science Understanding through the Use of Gestures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This research project uses the methods of Crowder and Callinan and Sharp to assess year one children's (age 5-6) personal understanding of scientific concepts. This research project uses video recording as a primary resource of data collection within a case study approach using a participant observer method. Analysis supports the work of Crowder…

  4. The Struggle to Understand: Exploring Medical Students' Experiences of Learning and Understanding during a Basic Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weurlander, Maria; Scheja, Max; Hult, Håkan; Wernerson, Annika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research reported in this paper was to explore students' "journey" towards conceptual understanding during an undergraduate course. The task that medical students face--to learn a substantial quantity of detailed knowledge and integrate into a coherent whole in a limited time frame--is demanding. Seven students were…

  5. Nursing Students' Experiences of Health Care in Swaziland: Transformational Processes in Developing Cultural Understanding.

    PubMed

    Murray, Bethany A

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the experiences of nursing students following a service-learning placement in Swaziland. Students worked in a hospital and implemented community health clinics. Six students were interviewed 1 month after their return from the overseas study experience. A thematic analysis was performed. Four themes emerged. The first theme was transitions-students experienced personal hardships, emotional reactions, and language difficulties that created discomfort. The second theme was perceptions-cultural dissonance was encountered between the health care and nursing cultures of Swaziland and the United States. The third theme was internalization-discomfort and cultural dissonance activated coping mechanisms within students that generated a process of change in attitudes and beliefs. The fourth theme was incorporation-personal and professional growth were demonstrated with greater awareness, compassion, resourcefulness, and comfort with diversity. The stress and cultural dissonance experienced by students led to an increase in cultural understanding and awareness. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. A threat to the understanding of oneself: intensive care patients' experiences of dependency.

    PubMed

    Lykkegaard, Kristina; Delmar, Charlotte

    2013-06-28

    This study examines the meaning of dependency on care as experienced by intensive care patients. Literature on the subject is sparse, but research from nonintensive settings shows that dependency is often experienced negatively. The study is based on in-depth qualitative semistructured interviews with three former patients characterized as narratives. The analysis is inspired by a phenomenological hermeneutical method. The study has found that dependency is experienced as difficult and that the experience seems to be attached to the relationship to oneself. Patients feel powerless and experience shame, their understanding of self is threatened, and they fight for independence in the course after intensive care. The findings might be influenced by the study being conducted in a Western country setting, where independence is valued. They can be used as means of reflection on nursing practice and matters such as communication and patient participation.

  7. A Monte Carlo Simulation for Understanding Energy Measurements of Beta Particles Detected by the UCNb Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chi; UCNb Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    It is theorized that contributions to the Fierz interference term from scalar interaction beyond the Standard Model could be detectable in the spectrum of neutron beta-decay. The UCNb experiment run at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center aims to accurately measure the neutron beta-decay energy spectrum to detect a nonzero interference term. The instrument consists of a cubic ``integrating sphere'' calorimeter attached with up to 4 photomultiplier tubes. The inside of the calorimeter is coated with white paint and a thin UV scintillating layer made of deuterated polystyrene to contain the ultracold neutrons. A Monte Carlo simulation using the Geant4 toolkit is developed in order to provide an accurate method of energy reconstruction. Offline calibration with the Kellogg Radiation Laboratory 140 keV electron gun and conversion electron sources will be used to validate the Monte Carlo simulation to give confidence in the energy reconstruction methods and to better understand systematics in the experiment data.

  8. Understanding (Galactic) Foreground Emission: A Road To Success For The LOFAR-EoR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelic, Vibor; Lofar Eor Team

    2014-04-01

    The LOFAR-EoR experiment will use the innovative technology and capabilities of the radio telescope LOFAR to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). However, feeble cosmological radiation is swamped by the prominent foreground emission of our Galaxy and other extragalactic radio sources. This emission is two to three orders of magnitude stronger than the EoR signal. Without understanding and removing the foreground emission from the data, we will not be able to detect the cosmological radiation and probe the EoR. During my talk I will give an overview of the LOFAR-EoR experiment, its challenges, and present the most recent observational results in particular detection of peculiar structures in poalrization.

  9. A threat to the understanding of oneself: Intensive care patients' experiences of dependency

    PubMed Central

    Lykkegaard, Kristina; Delmar, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the meaning of dependency on care as experienced by intensive care patients. Literature on the subject is sparse, but research from nonintensive settings shows that dependency is often experienced negatively. The study is based on in-depth qualitative semistructured interviews with three former patients characterized as narratives. The analysis is inspired by a phenomenological hermeneutical method. The study has found that dependency is experienced as difficult and that the experience seems to be attached to the relationship to oneself. Patients feel powerless and experience shame, their understanding of self is threatened, and they fight for independence in the course after intensive care. The findings might be influenced by the study being conducted in a Western country setting, where independence is valued. They can be used as means of reflection on nursing practice and matters such as communication and patient participation. PMID:23809023

  10. "Live It to Understand It": The Experiences of Mothers of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, David B; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Ing, Stanley; MacCulloch, Radha; Roberts, Wendy; McKeever, Patricia; McMorris, Carly A

    2016-06-01

    Mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) variably experience challenges in their caregiving role. This ethnographic study examined the caregiving experiences of mothers of a young person with ASD (aged ≤25 years). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 85 mothers across three Canadian regions. A follow-up subsample of 10 mothers took part in participant observation sessions in the home and/or other environments within the community. Analysis yielded themes that depicted the following: redefining child and family aspirations, forging a shifted identity, and the need to "live it" to understand mothering a young person with ASD. Supports and services were perceived to be required but often insufficient to meet the needs. Findings identify a range of challenges, lessons learned, and a reconfigured sense of mothering. An emerging model of mothering a child with ASD is presented. Implications for practice, policy, and research are offered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Primary healthcare NZ nurses' experiences of advance directives: understanding their potential role.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Raewyn; Banister, Elizabeth; de Vries, Kay

    2013-07-01

    Advance directives are one aspect of advance care planning designed to improve end of life care. The New Zealand Nurses Organisation released their first mission statement in 2010 concerning advance directives suggesting an increase in the use of these. A burgeoning older population, expected to rise over the next few years, places the primary healthcare nurse in a pivotal role to address the challenges in constructing advance directives. While literature supports the role for primary healthcare nurses in promoting advance directives, no research was found on this role in the New Zealand context. This paper presents results of a qualitative study conducted in New Zealand with 13 senior primary healthcare nurses with respect to their knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of advance directives. Results of the analysis revealed a dynamic process involving participants coming to understand their potential role in this area. This process included reflection on personal experience with advance directives; values and ethics related to end of life issues; and professional actions.

  12. A Case Study of Understanding the Influence of Cultural Patterns on International Students' Perception and Experience with Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paralejas, Cynthia G.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to understand the influence of cultural patterns on international students' perception and experience with online learning. This case study utilized Hofstede's cultural dimension model as an interpretative framework to understand what are the international students' perceptions and experiences with online courses. Two…

  13. Understanding the Relationship Between Exergame Play Experiences, Enjoyment, and Intentions for Continued Play.

    PubMed

    Limperos, Anthony M; Schmierbach, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally understood that exergames can be beneficial, more research is needed to understand how in-game experiences influence enjoyment and the likelihood for continued use of these types of games. Therefore, the objective of this research is to understand how player performance in an exergame affects psychological responses (autonomy, competence, and presence), enjoyment of the experience, and likelihood for future play. Sixty-two college students (mean age, 20.32 years) participated in an experiment where they played a challenge event on the "Biggest Loser" exergame for the Nintendo (Kyoto, Japan) Wii™ console. Participants were given up to two chances to see if they could "win" the challenge event. A lab assistant recorded player performance for each session in minutes and seconds (range, 30 seconds-10 minutes). The attempt in which the participant achieved the greatest amount of time playing was used as a measure of player performance. After playing, subjects filled out a questionnaire with items pertaining to enjoyment, competence, autonomy, presence, and future intentions for continued use of the exergame. The results suggest that player achievement (longer time spent playing) directly and indirectly predicts feelings of autonomy, competence, presence, enjoyment, and future intentions to play. Individuals who performed better felt more autonomous and experienced greater presence, leading to greater enjoyment. Enjoyment and presence were found to mediate the relationship between player performance and future intentions to play an exergame. This study suggests that performance in exergames is related to psychological experiences that fuel enjoyment and the likelihood for future exergame use. The theoretical and practical significances of these findings are discussed, as well as future research involving exergames.

  14. Young children's experiences of living with a parent with bipolar disorder: Understanding the child's perspective.

    PubMed

    Backer, Clare; Murphy, Rebecca; Fox, John R E; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    To explore the experiences of young children of living with a parent with bipolar disorder (BD) and how this impacts on their emotional well-being. Qualitative study using a computer-assisted semi-structured interview, 'In My Shoes' (IMS). Ten children aged between 4 and 10 years with a parent with BD identified via self-help groups were interviewed about their experience of family life. Thematic analysis was used following transcription. Four main themes emerging from thematic analysis were as follows: perception of parents; knowledge and awareness of BD; managing family life with a 'bipolar' parent; and living in a family with BD. Four-year-old children could participate in the IMS interviews and discuss their parent's mood, behaviour, and mental health. Children had candid and insightful discussions about their parent's BD including symptoms and parenting, and could reflect on how having a parent with BD affected them emotionally and practically. Older children were better able to articulate their parent's illness and its impact. This exploratory study represents an important step in examining directly experiences of young children whose parents have BD. Using IMS, it was possible to gather insightful information from children to generate hypotheses and influence service development. Children of all ages had some knowledge and understanding of their parent's illness, describing both positive and negative experiences in the family. Further research to build understanding of children's perspectives and the support they feel they and their family would benefit from would enhance the development of appropriate services and interventions. Using age-appropriate tools, it is possible to elicit the views of young children about their parent's mental health and parenting. Young children have insight into the impact of bipolar disorder in the family on themselves and family members. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Understanding the impact of electric vehicle driving experience on range anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Nadine; Franke, Thomas; Krems, Josef F

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to increase understanding of the phenomenon of range anxiety and to determine the degree to which practical experience with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) reduces different levels of range anxiety. Limited range is a challenge for BEV users. A frequently discussed phenomenon in this context is range anxiety. There is some evidence suggesting that range anxiety might be a problem only for inexperienced BEV drivers and, therefore, might decrease with practical experience. We compared 12 motorists with high BEV driving experience (M = 60,500 km) with 12 motorists who had never driven a BEV before. The test drive was designed to lead to a critical range situation (remaining range < trip length). We examined range appraisal and range stress (i.e., range anxiety) on different levels (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral). Experienced BEV drivers exhibited less negative range appraisal and range anxiety than inexperienced BEV drivers, revealing significant, strong effects for all but one variable. Hence, BEV driving experience (defined as absolute kilometers driven with a BEV) seems to be one important variable that predicts less range anxiety. In order to reduce range anxiety in BEV drivers even when there is a critical range situation, it is important to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the learning process.

  16. Retention and Dropout in Beginning College Language Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger, Jr., Ed.; Vasselus, Kathryn S., Ed.

    Four aspects of the problem of retention of students in foreign language programs are discussed. (1) "Retention and Dropout: The National Situation," by K. E. Muller, describes a survey of retention rates in a sample of colleges and universities; (2) "Retention and Dropout: Some Remarks on One Department's Experience," by F. Valette, reflects on…

  17. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... The knowledge gained from these studies is advancing scientific understanding of why urinary tract disorders develop, leading to improved methods of diagnosing, treating, and preventing them. Clinical trials ...

  18. Understanding the Experience of Group Singing for Couples Where One Partner Has a Diagnosis of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Unadkat, Shreena; Camic, Paul M; Vella-Burrows, Trish

    2017-06-01

    There is a continuing interest around the use of group singing in dementia care. Although studies generally indicate positive outcomes, limited research has been carried out from a relational perspective, which places the couple relationship in a central position. This study aimed to better understand how group singing benefits people with dementia and their partners. Interview data from 17 couples (N = 34) with one member having dementia, who participated in a range of different types of singing groups, were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Five key areas were identified, resulting in the development of the group singing model in dementia for couple dyads. Group singing was experienced as being both joyful and accessible. The accessibility of singing, combined with effective facilitation, created an environment for active participation and enjoyment. The group effect mediated further benefits for the person with dementia and for the caregiver which, when combined, increased benefits for the couple through participation in new experiences. An opportunity for couples to share in-the-moment creative expression and the positive affect of artistic creation circumventing cognitive impairment is likely to contribute positively to the experience of the relationship. A more refined understanding of shared creative processes in relationship-centered models of care could inform dementia support services. Future research would benefit from longitudinally exploring the links between creativity in couples and relationship resilience.

  19. Understanding the life experiences of Brazilian women after bariatric surgery: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Ronis; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    The increase in bariatric surgeries has called into question the aspects that contribute to or impair the results. Psychosocial factors directly influence the results of the surgery, but a lot of controversy exists in relation to the degree of influence of these factors. We propose a qualitative investigation to understand the significance of the surgery for women and how these factors influence the outcomes. This study is a clinical-qualitative method, through the semi-directed interview with open-ended questions in an intentional sample, closed by saturation, with seven women operated in a period of 1.5-3 years, following the definition of emergent categories and qualitative content analysis. The experience of acceptance and social reinsertion is a motivating factor to keep up the challenge of weight loss; social discrimination is a risk factor leading to losing the stimulus to continue the process; the recuperation of self-esteem and personal identity is a factor that improves the quality of life and psychopathological symptoms; disillusionment is an important risk factor, linked principally to the experiences of failure. We observe the necessity of qualitative studies that serve the health team in the handling of these patients, aiming for a greater understanding of their psychological dynamics and of the meanings that weight loss has for them.

  20. The Voluntariat: A Frieirean framework to understand the nature of undergraduate international (medical) experiences

    PubMed Central

    Qaiser, Seemi; Dimaras, Helen; Hamel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite literature documenting limited and asymmetrical benefits along with ethical issues, short-term international volunteering is increasingly popular among North American university students as a perceived advantage when applying to professional healthcare schools or the job market. Academic institutions are also encouraging students to pursue international experiences in order to cultivate values as global citizens. These experiences are most typically limited to economically privileged students. Furthermore, international activities in developing countries often lack a pedagogy of social justice and may confirm a simplistic understanding of development. Brazilian educator Paulo Freire’s “liberation pedagogy” provides a framework for understanding the limitations of international volunteering, whereby the presence of privileged volunteers implementing Western models of development may hinder aspects of local movements. Regardless, university students face intense competition in accessing opportunities, such as medical school, and pay large sums to participate in volunteering to strengthen their academic credentials. We propose that these students form “the voluntariat.” They simultaneously play two roles by, first, contributing to the conditions that oppress the very communities in which they volunteer and, second, by playing a role as objects of oppression by the liberal institutions of learning and employment to which they are attempting to gain access. PMID:28344706

  1. New Teacher Retention in a Suburban School District: A Study of New Teachers' Perceptions of Their First-Year Experiences and Their Reasons for Remaining with the School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillip, Monique W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to determine if there was a significant discrimination between New Teachers' perceptions of yearlong experiences and their reasons for remaining. This study relied on secondary data from one mid-Atlantic school system that has enjoyed higher teacher retention rates than the national average. In this…

  2. Understanding symptom experiences of muscle tightness from patients' and clinicians' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bhimani, Rozina H; Gaugler, Joseph E; Skay, Carol

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how patients' symptom experiences of muscle tightness correlate with examiner assessments. To address this question, we (1) obtained the vocabularies used by patients and examiners to describe muscle tightness, (2) correlated patient- reported Visual Analog Scale ratings for locations of muscle tightness on a body diagram and (3) explored the similarities and differences between patient and examiner evaluation of muscle tightness analytically and graphically. Symptoms of muscle tightness are common complaints that occur due to musculoskeletal and neuromusculoskeletal injuries. Terms such as muscle tightness are often intermingled with other conditions including muscle tension, muscle spasticity and muscle rigidity. Discrepancies between patients and clinicians understanding of similar symptoms have been reported in the literature. A concurrent exploratory mixed methods design was used. Fifty-seven participants (six physical therapists, 51 patients) participated. Participants provided semi-structured interviews, ratings through Visual Analog Scale and concurrently provided the words used to describe muscle tightness. Patients also provided the location of muscle tightness on a body diagram. Content analysis and hierarchical linear modelling were used for data analysis. The patients' vocabularies contained more sensory and pain experiences when compared to the clinicians' vocabularies. Examiners and patients ratings were variable (standard deviation >20) and contained discrepancies. Stress played a role in the symptom experience of muscle tightness. Examiners tended to focus on patients' chief complaints, while patients reported their symptoms from a whole-body perspective. Symptom experiences of muscle tightness can occur with or without pain. Use of complementary therapy and development of an objective tool that accounts for patients' sensory experiences is warranted. Findings from this study indicate that in addition to

  3. Classroom virtual lab experiments as teaching tools for explaining how we understand planetary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. N.; Schools, H.; Research Team Members

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will report on a classroom pilot study in which we teamed with school teachers in four middle school classes to develop and deploy course modules that connect the real-world to virtual forms of laboratory experiments.The broad goal is to help students realize that seemingly complex Earth system processes can be connected to basic properties of the planet and that this can be illustrated through idealized experiment. Specifically the presentation will describe virtual modules based on on-demand cloud computing technologies that allow students to test the notion that pole equator gradients in radiative forcing together with rotation can explain characteristic patterns of flow in the atmosphere. The module developed aligns with new Massachusetts science standard requirements regarding understanding of weather and climate processes. These new standards emphasize an appreciation of differential solar heating and a qualitative understanding of the significance of rotation. In our preliminary classroom pilot studies we employed pre and post evaluation tests to establish that the modules had increased student knowledge of phenomenology and terms. We will describe the results of these tests as well as results from anecdotal measures of student response. This pilot study suggests that one way to help make Earth science concepts more tractable to a wider audience is through virtual experiments that distill phenomena down, but still retain enough detail that students can see the connection to the real world. Modern computer technology and developments in research models appear to provide an opportunity for more work in this area. We will describe some follow-up possibilities that we envisage.

  4. Parasite competition hidden by correlated coinfection: using surveys and experiments to understand parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Buller, Ian D

    2011-03-01

    Within most free-living species exists a cryptic community of interacting parasites. By combining multiscale field data with manipulative experiments, we evaluated patterns of parasite coinfection in amphibian hosts and their underlying mechanisms. Surveys of 86 wetlands and 1273 hosts revealed positive correlations between two pathogenic trematodes (Ribeiroia ondatrae and Echinostoma trivolvis) both between wetlands and within individual hosts. In infection and coinfection experiments, Ribeiroia caused greater pathology than Echinostoma, including high host mortality (24%) and severe limb malformations (75%). No interactive effects were noted for host pathology, but both parasites decreased the per capita persistence of one another by 17-36%. Thus, in spite of consistently positive associations from field data, these parasites negatively affected the persistence of one another, likely via cross immunity (apparent competition). These findings underscore the danger of inferring parasite interactions from coinfection patterns and emphasize the potential disconnect between within-host processes (e.g., competition) and between-host processes (e.g., exposure and transmission). Here, correlated coinfections likely resulted from similarities in the parasites' host requirements and heterogeneity in host susceptibility or exposure. Understanding complex interactions among parasites depends critically on the scale under consideration, highlighting the importance of combining coinfection field studies with mechanistic experiments.

  5. Using a complex adaptive system lens to understand family caregiving experiences navigating the stroke rehabilitation system.

    PubMed

    Ghazzawi, Andrea; Kuziemsky, Craig; O'Sullivan, Tracey

    2016-10-01

    Family caregivers provide the stroke survivor with social support and continuity during the transition home from a rehabilitation facility. In this exploratory study we examined family caregivers' perceptions and experiences navigating the stroke rehabilitation system. The theories of continuity of care and complex adaptive systems were integrated to examine the transition from a stroke rehabilitation facility to the patient's home. This study provides an understanding of the interacting complexities at the macro and micro levels. A convenient sample of family caregivers (n = 14) who provide care for a stroke survivor were recruited 4-12 weeks following the patient's discharge from a stroke rehabilitation facility in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were conducted with family caregivers to examine their perceptions and experiences navigating the stroke rehabilitation system. Directed and inductive content analysis and the theory of Complex Adaptive Systems were used to interpret the perceptions of family caregivers. Health system policies and procedures at the macro-level determined the types and timing of information being provided to caregivers, and impacted continuity of care and access to supports and services at the micro-level. Supports and services in the community, such as outpatient physiotherapy services, were limited or did not meet the specific needs of the stroke survivors or family caregivers. Relationships with health providers, informational support, and continuity in case management all influence the family caregiving experience and ultimately the quality of care for the stroke survivor, during the transition home from a rehabilitation facility.

  6. Managing retention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990).

  7. Practical aspects of recruitment and retention in clinical trials of rare genetic diseases: the phenylketonuria (PKU) experience.

    PubMed

    DeWard, Stephanie J; Wilson, Ashley; Bausell, Heather; Volz, Ashley S; Mooney, Kimberly

    2014-02-01

    Bringing treatments for rare genetic diseases to patients requires clinical research. Despite increasing activism from patient support and advocacy groups to increase access to clinical research studies, connecting rare disease patients with the clinical research opportunities that may help them has proven challenging. Chief among these challenges are the low incidence of these diseases resulting in a very small pool of known patients with a particular disease, difficulty of diagnosing rare genetic diseases, logistical issues such as long distances to the nearest treatment center, and substantial disease burden leading to loss of independence. Using clinical studies of phenylketonuria as an example, this paper discusses how, based on the authors' collective experience, partnership among clinicians, patients, study coordinators, genetic counselors, dietitians, industry, patient support groups, and families can help overcome the challenges of recruiting and retaining patients in rare disease clinical trials. We discuss specific methods of collaboration, communication, and education as part of a long-term effort to build a community committed to advancing the medical care of patients with rare genetic diseases. By talking to patients and families regularly about research initiatives and taking steps to make study participation as easy as possible, rare disease clinic staff can help ensure adequate study enrollment and successful study completion.

  8. A mixed-method approach to understanding the experiences of non-deployed military caregivers.

    PubMed

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Chandra, Anita; Burns, Rachel M; Jaycox, Lisa H; Tanielian, Terri; Ruder, Teague; Han, Bing

    2012-02-01

    Given the unprecedented operational tempo of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars and the heavy involvement of the Reserve and National Guard, the stress that military families are exposed to is distinct from stress in earlier conflicts, with little empirical data to inform the impact on non-deployed military caregivers or "home caregivers." The study seeks to examine the experiences of home caregivers during deployments, with a focus on the impact of deployment on the caregiver's well-being. We conducted 50 qualitative interviews and 1,337 survey interviews with home caregivers who experienced at least one deployment. The structured qualitative interview focused on caregiver experiences during deployment. The quantitative data centered on caregiver well-being and household and relationship hassles. The qualitative interview notes were the unit of analysis and traditional methods were used to analyze the data. The quantitative data were analyzed using regression models. The qualitative data revealed key deployment-related household challenges that caregivers experience and the effect of those challenges on caregivers. Multivariate analyses of the quantitative data explored differences in caregivers' emotional well-being, household and relationship hassles. The results showed important component and deployment experience differences. Caregivers affiliated with the National Guard and those with more months of deployment reported significantly poorer emotional well-being, and more household and relationship hassles. Given the important role that maternal well-being has on child and family functioning, it is critical to understand how the stress of deployment is affecting mothers in their daily routines, especially during potentially high stress periods.

  9. Understanding the experience of adult daughters caring for an ageing parent, a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lopez Hartmann, Maja; Anthierens, Sibyl; Van Assche, Elisa; Welvaert, Joanna; Verhoeven, Véronique; Wens, Johan; Remmen, Roy

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to describe how adult daughters experience caring for a frail older parent at home. In the near future the ageing of the population will have a major impact on the demand for formal and informal long-term care. Relatives, especially spouses and adult children are the main providers of informal care. Qualitative research methodology was used to study the experience of adult daughters caring for their frail older parents. A phenomenological research perspective was used to better understand the daily experiences of caring for an ageing parent. Data were collected using open-ended interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were subject to thematic analysis. Eleven women between 40-70 years of age participated in this study. Inductive coding of the interview data led to four main themes: being a caregiver as a natural process in life, the perception and consequences of caregiving activities, sharing care and finding a good balance between caring for an ageing parent and other responsibilities. Caregiving activities could be divided into visible and invisible activities and generated different feelings. The visible activities were more easily shared with other family members and professionals than the invisible ones. The women who struggled the most and tended to have a higher level of burden were those who experienced less support from their family. This study provided more insight into the experiences women have when caring for a parent. Supporting family networks that help in both visible and invisible activities may prevent overburden. Consumer-led care and the active participation of the informal caregiver in the decision-making process for building the care plan need to become more prominent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. As(V)/Cr(VI) retention on un-amended and waste-amended soil samples: competitive experiments.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Pérez, Ivana M; Conde-Cid, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on simultaneous arsenic and chromium pollution, we used batch-type experiments to study As(V)/Cr (VI) competitive sorption on soil samples, pyritic material, mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark and hemp waste, as well as on binary mixtures (50 % mussel shell and 50 % another material-oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste), and on forest and vineyard soil samples and pyritic material amended with 48 t ha(-1) of mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste. Equal As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations (0 to 6 mmol L(-1)) were added to the individual materials, binary mixtures, and 48 t ha(-1) amended materials. The individual forest soil sample, pyritic material, and oak ash showed clearly higher As(V) sorption, whereas Cr(VI) sorption was higher on pine bark. Sorption was up to 50 % higher for As(V) than for Cr(VI) on the forest soil sample, oak ash, and pyritic material, while pine bark sorbed 95 % more Cr(VI). Regarding binary mixtures, the presence of mussel shell increased As(V) sorption on pine bark and Cr(VI) sorption on hemp waste. As regards the amendments, in the case of the forest soil sample, the amendments with oak ash and mussel shell increased As(V) sorption, while pine bark amendment increased Cr(VI) sorption; in the vineyard soil sample, the mussel shell amendment increased As(V) sorption; in the pyritic material, pine bark amendment increased Cr(VI) sorption. These results could be useful to appropriately manage the soils and individual or mixed by-products assayed when As(V) and Cr(VI) pollution occurs.

  11. Effectiveness of a comprehensive integrated module using interactive lectures and workshops in understanding and knowledge retention about infant feeding practice in fifth year medical students: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Sjarif, Damayanti Rusli; Yuliarti, Klara; Wahyuni, Luh Karunia; Wiguna, Tjhin; Prawitasari, Titis; Devaera, Yoga; Triyuniati, Henni Wahyu; Afriansyah, Andika

    2016-08-18

    Sixty percent of the 10.9 million under-5 deaths every year are related to malnutrition. More than two thirds of malnutrition is caused by inappropriate infant feeding practice. Only 35 % of mothers worldwide provide 4 months of exclusive breast-feeding, while complementary feeding is often untimely, nutritionally inadequate, hygienically poor, and improperly delivered. The existing pediatric nutrition module in our institution does not include proper delivery of food that involves oral-motor skills and feeding behavior. To scale up the knowledge and skill of medical students regarding evidence-based infant feeding practice, we designed a new module composed of comprehensive and integrated lectures with additional multidisciplinary lectures on oral-motor skill development and feeding behavior. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the new module compared to the previous module. Fifth year medical students of Universitas Indonesia were divided into intervention and control groups. The control group received lectures and a paper-based workshop. The intervention group received comprehensive and integrated interactive lectures with additional multidisciplinary lectures on oral-motor skill development and behavioral approaches to feeding problems. A hands-on workshop using real cases shown on recorded video and role-play sessions was also presented to the intervention group. A pre-/post-test, 3-month retention test, and Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) were performed to evaluate understanding, knowledge retention, and counseling skills. A linear mixed effect model with a random intercept analysis for pre-test, post-test, and retention test scores showed significant higher result for intervention group compared to control group (p < 0.001). Comprehensive knowledge and counselling skills were better in the intervention group than in the control group as shown by the OSCE score (68.6 vs 59.3, p < 0.001). Our

  12. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  13. Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment: a small-scale experiment to improve understanding of the risks of solar geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Dykema, John A.; Keith, David W.; Anderson, James G.; Weisenstein, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) through stratospheric aerosol methods has the potential to mitigate impacts of climate change, our current knowledge of stratospheric processes suggests that these methods may entail significant risks. In addition to the risks associated with current knowledge, the possibility of ‘unknown unknowns’ exists that could significantly alter the risk assessment relative to our current understanding. While laboratory experimentation can improve the current state of knowledge and atmospheric models can assess large-scale climate response, they cannot capture possible unknown chemistry or represent the full range of interactive atmospheric chemical physics. Small-scale, in situ experimentation under well-regulated circumstances can begin to remove some of these uncertainties. This experiment—provisionally titled the stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment—is under development and will only proceed with transparent and predominantly governmental funding and independent risk assessment. We describe the scientific and technical foundation for performing, under external oversight, small-scale experiments to quantify the risks posed by SRM to activation of halogen species and subsequent erosion of stratospheric ozone. The paper's scope includes selection of the measurement platform, relevant aspects of stratospheric meteorology, operational considerations and instrument design and engineering. PMID:25404681

  14. [Maternal experiences in the reality of having an autistic son: an understanding for nursing].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Claudete Ferreira de Souza; Batista, Diana Oliveira Neves de Melo; Moraes, Edileuza Gonçalves de Carvalho; Magalhães, Tarcyana de Sousa; Nunes, Benevina Maria Vilar Teixeira; Moura, Maria Eliete Batista

    2008-01-01

    This study has as objective to describe the experience of being mother of an autistic child. A qualitative approach was accomplished according to the phenomenological concepts of Martin Heidegger. Fourteen mothers of autistic children had been interviewed, with semi-structured questions, tape-recorded and transcribed integrally. The local of data collection was the AMA-PI with data produced in May, 2006. The analysis revealed that mothers who live the facticity of having an autistic child is permeated by negative feelings, faith and solitudeness. Mothers also leave their daily life to live their children's daily live. When assuming their existential condition - to be -in the world and to be mother of a autistic child, they begin to understand how to be capable to fight for their children's well-being, without complaints, demonstrating self-denial, patience and concern.

  15. Opportunities for understanding of aerosol cloud interactions in the context of Marine Cloud Brightening Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasch, Philip J.; Wood, Robert; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosol impacts on clouds constitute the largest source of uncertainty in radiative forcing of climate, confounding estimates of climate sensitivity to increases in greenhouse gases. Projections of future warming are also thus strongly dependent on estimates of aerosol effects on clouds. I will discuss the opportunities for improving estimates of aerosol effects on clouds from controlled field experiments where aerosol with well understood size, composition, amount, and injection altitude could be introduced to deliberately change cloud properties. This would allow scientific investigation to be performed in a manner much closer to a lab environment, and facilitate the use of models to predict cloud responses ahead of time, testing our understanding of aerosol cloud interactions.

  16. Understanding H isotope adsorption and absorption of Al-alloys using modeling and experiments (LDRD: #165724)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Donald K.; Zhou, Xiaowang; Karnesky, Richard A.; Kolasinski, Robert; Foster, Michael E.; Thurmer, Konrad; Chao, Paul; Epperly, Ethan Nicholas; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan M.; Sills, Ryan B.

    2015-09-01

    Current austenitic stainless steel storage reservoirs for hydrogen isotopes (e.g. deuterium and tritium) have performance and operational life-limiting interactions (e.g. embrittlement) with H-isotopes. Aluminum alloys (e.g.AA2219), alternatively, have very low H-isotope solubilities, suggesting high resistance towards aging vulnerabilities. This report summarizes the work performed during the life of the Lab Directed Research and Development in the Nuclear Weapons investment area (165724), and provides invaluable modeling and experimental insights into the interactions of H isotopes with surfaces and bulk AlCu-alloys. The modeling work establishes and builds a multi-scale framework which includes: a density functional theory informed bond-order potential for classical molecular dynamics (MD), and subsequent use of MD simulations to inform defect level dislocation dynamics models. Furthermore, low energy ion scattering and thermal desorption spectroscopy experiments are performed to validate these models and add greater physical understanding to them.

  17. Consolidation effect of the processing of declarative knowledge during human sleep: evidence from long-term retention of interrelated contents of mental sleep experiences.

    PubMed

    Cipolli, Carlo; Fagioli, Igino; Mazzetti, Michela; Tuozzi, Giovanni

    2005-03-15

    Sleep may partly exert a positive influence on memory through the processing underlying the transformation of items of declarative knowledge into contents of mental sleep experience (MSE). This hypothesis implies that the level of consolidation (and thus, long-term retention) should be enhanced for those items which are repeatedly processed and transformed into identical or very similar (so-called interrelated) contents of distinct MSEs developed over the same night. To test this prediction, we examined accessibility at delayed recall (i.e., the next morning) of the interrelated contents of MSEs reported (immediate recall) by 14 subjects who were awakened during the first four periods of rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep in two experimental nights. Interrelated contents were much more frequent, and at delayed recall much better retained, than other, non-interrelated contents in report pairs of MSEs. Moreover, they were also more frequent and better retained than by-chance similar or identical contents, as estimated in report pairs of MSEs of different subjects. These findings provide partial but coherent evidence in favour of the hypothesis that a generation effect occurs during sleep, with a further consolidation of the input and the output of MSE processing (respectively, the items of declarative knowledge and the contents of MSEs resulting from their elaboration during sleep).

  18. Understanding HIV-positive patients' preferences for healthcare services: a protocol for a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Elaney; Cooper, Vanessa; Miners, Alec; Llewellyn, Carrie; Pollard, Alex; Lagarde, Mylene; Sachikonye, Memory; Sabin, Caroline; Foreman, Claire; Perry, Nicky; Nixon, Eileen; Fisher, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While the care of HIV-positive patients, including the detection and management of comorbidities, has historically been provided in HIV specialist outpatient clinics, recent years have seen a greater involvement of non-HIV specialists and general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study is to determine whether patients would prefer to see their GP or HIV physician given general symptoms, and to understand what aspects of care influence their preferences. Methods/analysis We have developed and piloted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to better understand patients' preferences for care of non-HIV-related acute symptoms. The design of the DCE was informed by our exploratory research, including the findings of a systematic literature review and a qualitative study. Additional questionnaire items have been included to measure demographics, service use and experience of non-HIV illnesses and quality of life (EQ5D). We plan to recruit 1000 patients from 14 HIV clinics across South East England. Data will be analysed using random-effects logistic regression and latent class analysis. ORs and 95% CIs will be used to estimate the relative importance of each of the attribute levels. Latent class analysis will identify whether particular groups of people value the service attribute levels differently. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Newcastle and North Tyneside Research Ethics Committee (reference number 14/NE/1193). The results will be disseminated at national and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. A study report, written in plain English, will be made available to all participants. The Patient Advisory Group will develop a strategy for wider dissemination of the findings to patients and the public. PMID:27431895

  19. Understanding how people who use illicit drugs and alcohol experience relationships with psychiatric inpatient staff.

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Emma; Smith, Ian; Jones, Sarah Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatient services are often required to provide care for people with mental health difficulties who use illicit drugs or alcohol (people with coexisting difficulties). In other settings, relationships between service users and staff can be important in alleviating distress and improving outcomes. This study explored how people with coexisting difficulties experienced relationships with staff in psychiatric inpatient services to increase understanding of these relationships. Ten adult service users (5 male, 5 female) from eight inpatient wards participated in semi-structured interviews. All participants had mental health diagnoses, and self-reported use of illicit drugs and/or heavy alcohol consumption. Data was analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Analysis yielded three consistent themes: 'weighing up the risk of relationships', 'relationships intertwined with power and control' and 'seeking compassionate care'. These themes highlighted the negative impact that service users' anticipation of rejection could have upon their willingness to develop relationships with staff, and the conflict which could occur due to their perceived difference to staff. Findings also highlighted that consistent, compassionate care by staff could minimise group differences and alleviate rejection fears. Previous experiences of rejection and power structures within psychiatric inpatient services can influence the abilities of people with coexisting difficulties to develop relationships with staff. It is, therefore, important for staff and services to demonstrate consistent care, where staff are sympathetic and show a desire to alleviate suffering and to encourage clinical approaches which foster equality and mutual understanding between staff and service users.

  20. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiment to Derive a Detailed Understanding of Hammerhead Ribozyme Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tai-Sung; Wong, Kin-Yiu; Giambasu, George M.; York, Darrin M.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we summarize our progress toward the understanding of hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) catalysis through a multiscale simulation strategy. Simulation results collectively paint a picture of HHR catalysis: HHR first folds to form an electronegative active site pocket to recruit a threshold occupation of cationic charges, either a Mg2+ ion or multiple monovalent cations. Catalytically active conformations that have good in-line fitness are supported by specific metal ion coordination patterns that involve either a bridging Mg2+ ion or multiple Na+ ions, one of which is also in a bridging coordination pattern. In the case of a single Mg2+ ion bound in the active site, the Mg2+ ion undergoes a migration that is coupled with deprotonation of the nucleophile (C17:O2′). As the reaction proceeds, the Mg2+ ion stabilizes the accumulating charge of the leaving group and significantly increases the general acid ability of G8:O2′. Further computational mutagenesis simulations suggest that the disruptions due to mutations may severely impact HHR catalysis at different stages of the reaction. Catalytic mechanisms supported by the simulation results are consistent with available structural and biochemical experiments, and together they advance our understanding of HHR catalysis. PMID:24156941

  1. USER FRUSTRATION IN HIT INTERFACES: EXPLORING PAST HCI RESEARCH FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICIANS' EXPERIENCES.

    PubMed

    Opoku-Boateng, Gloria A

    2015-01-01

    User frustration research has been one way of looking into clinicians' experience with health information technology use and interaction. In order to understand how clinician frustration with Health Information Technology (HIT) use occurs, there is the need to explore Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature that addresses both frustration and HIT use. In the past three decades, HCI frustration research has increased and expanded. Researchers have done a lot of work to understand emotions, end-user frustration and affect. This paper uses a historical literature review approach to review the origins of emotion and frustration research and explore the research question; Does HCI research on frustration provide insights on clinicians' frustration with HIT interfaces? From the literature review HCI research on emotion and frustration provides additional insights that can indeed help explain user frustration in HIT. Different approaches and HCI perspectives also help frame HIT user frustration research as well as inform HIT system design. The paper concludes with a suggested directions on how future design and research may take.

  2. Self-tracking for Mental Wellness: Understanding Expert Perspectives and Student Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christina; Lee, Bongshin; Wilcox, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests an important role for self-tracking in promoting mental wellness. Recent studies with college student populations have examined the feasibility of collecting everyday mood, activity, and social data. However, these studies do not account for students’ experiences and challenges adopting self-tracking technologies to support mental wellness goals. We present two studies conducted to better understand self-tracking for stress management and mental wellness in student populations. First, focus groups and card sorting activities with 14 student health professionals reveal expert perspectives on the usefulness of tracking for three scenarios. Second, an online survey of 297 students examines personal experiences with self-tracking and attitudes toward sharing self-tracked data with others. We draw on findings from these studies to characterize students’ motivations, challenges, and preferences in collecting and viewing self-tracked data related to mental wellness, and we compare findings between students with diagnosed mental illnesses and those without. We conclude with a discussion of challenges and opportunities in leveraging self-tracking for mental wellness, highlighting several design considerations.

  3. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Maslach, Christina; Leiter, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The experience of burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures have been developed, as have various theoretical models, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of this occupationally‐specific dysphoria. The majority of this work has focused on human service occupations, and particularly health care. Research on the burnout experience for psychiatrists mirrors much of the broader literature, in terms of both sources and outcomes of burnout. But it has also identified some of the unique stressors that mental health professionals face when they are dealing with especially difficult or violent clients. Current issues of particular relevance for psychiatry include the links between burnout and mental illness, the attempts to redefine burnout as simply exhaustion, and the relative dearth of evaluative research on potential interventions to treat and/or prevent burnout. Given that the treatment goal for burnout is usually to enable people to return to their job, and to be successful in their work, psychiatry could make an important contribution by identifying the treatment strategies that would be most effective in achieving that goal. PMID:27265691

  4. Understanding cultural competence in a multicultural nursing workforce: registered nurses' experience in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Adel F; McCarthy, Alexandra; Gardner, Glenn E

    2015-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the health system is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Given the potential risks this situation poses for patient care, it is important to understand how cultural diversity can be effectively managed in this multicultural environment. The purpose of this study was to explore notions of cultural competence with non-Saudi Arabian nurses working in a major hospital in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face, audio-recorded, semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 non-Saudi Arabian nurses. Deductive data collection and analysis were undertaken drawing on Campinha-Bacote's cultural competence model. The data that could not be explained by this model were coded and analyzed inductively. Nurses within this culturally diverse environment struggled with the notion of cultural competence in terms of each other's cultural expectations and those of the dominant Saudi culture. The study also addressed the limitations of Campinha-Bacote's model, which did not account for all of the nurses' experiences. Subsequent inductive analysis yielded important themes that more fully explained the nurses' experiences in this environment. The findings can inform policy, professional education, and practice in the multicultural Saudi setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Combining stochastic models with experiments to understand the dynamics of monarch butterfly colonization.

    PubMed

    Drury, Kevin L S; Dwyer, Greg

    2005-12-01

    Stochastic models are of increasing importance in ecology but are usually only applied to observational data. Here we use a stochastic population model to combine experimental and observational data to understand the colonization of old fields by monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus. We experimentally tested for density dependence in oviposition rates when predators were excluded, and we measured predation rates under natural conditions. Significance tests on the resulting data showed that both oviposition and predation were density dependent but could not show how oviposition and mortality combine to determine egg densities in nature. We therefore used our data to calculate the Akaike Information Criterion to choose between a nested suite of stochastic models that differed in their oviposition and mortality terms. When we simply fit the models to the observational data, the best model assumed density independence in both oviposition and predation. When we instead first estimated the oviposition rate at low density from experimental data, however, the best model included density dependence in oviposition, and a model that included density dependence in both oviposition and predation performed nearly as well. This result is consistent with our experiments and suggests that experiments can enhance the usefulness of stochastic models in ecology.

  6. Physical pendulum experiments to enhance the understanding of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Tim H.; Brittle, Stuart A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments aimed at overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by students learning about the topics of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion, both of which are often perceived to be complex topics amongst students during their first-year university courses. By combining both subjects in a discussion about physical pendula, in which the oscillation time periods for the periodic motion of several objects (a tennis ball, a thin beam, a hoop and a solid disc) are measured and compared, students are able to understand both topics at a higher level and also experience the synergistic effect of combining two or more physics themes in order to accelerate their learning whilst simultaneously raising their motivation. Special attention is given to the ‘ball and stick’ pendulum in which a block of material (treated as a point mass) can be moved along a shaft to create a composite pendulum whose time period exhibits a minimum value at a certain separation between the block and the rotation axis.

  7. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Maslach, Christina; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    The experience of burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures have been developed, as have various theoretical models, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of this occupationally-specific dysphoria. The majority of this work has focused on human service occupations, and particularly health care. Research on the burnout experience for psychiatrists mirrors much of the broader literature, in terms of both sources and outcomes of burnout. But it has also identified some of the unique stressors that mental health professionals face when they are dealing with especially difficult or violent clients. Current issues of particular relevance for psychiatry include the links between burnout and mental illness, the attempts to redefine burnout as simply exhaustion, and the relative dearth of evaluative research on potential interventions to treat and/or prevent burnout. Given that the treatment goal for burnout is usually to enable people to return to their job, and to be successful in their work, psychiatry could make an important contribution by identifying the treatment strategies that would be most effective in achieving that goal.

  8. Advanced MRI techniques to improve our understanding of experience-induced neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Christine Lucas; Gauthier, Claudine Joëlle; Steele, Christopher John; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Schäfer, Andreas; Schaefer, Alexander; Turner, Robert; Villringer, Arno

    2016-05-01

    Over the last two decades, numerous human MRI studies of neuroplasticity have shown compelling evidence for extensive and rapid experience-induced brain plasticity in vivo. To date, most of these studies have consisted of simply detecting a difference in structural or functional images with little concern for their lack of biological specificity. Recent reviews and public debates have stressed the need for advanced imaging techniques to gain a better understanding of the nature of these differences - characterizing their extent in time and space, their underlying biological and network dynamics. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of advanced imaging techniques for an audience of cognitive neuroscientists that can assist them in the design and interpretation of future MRI studies of neuroplasticity. The review encompasses MRI methods that probe the morphology, microstructure, function, and connectivity of the brain with improved specificity. We underline the possible physiological underpinnings of these techniques and their recent applications within the framework of learning- and experience-induced plasticity in healthy adults. Finally, we discuss the advantages of a multi-modal approach to gain a more nuanced and comprehensive description of the process of learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved Understanding of Carbon Storage Risk Via Controlled-Release Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholzer, J. T.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rutqvist, J.; Zheng, L.; Spycher, N.

    2014-12-01

    Two issues are often recognized as main risk drivers for carbon storage projects. The first is the possibility of pressure-induced slip of pre-existing faults, which can lead to breaching of seals to CO2 storage reservoirs. Although the mechanics of induced seismicity are well known, the characteristics of such slip events are poorly constrained and significant questions remain. The second is the potential impact of leaking CO2 on the quality of shallow potable groundwater. While several studies have been conducted using laboratory tests, natural analogues, and numerical models to evaluate the water quality changes induced by elevated CO2 concentrations, predictive understanding of these coupled processes remains limited in realistic field settings. We discuss in this invited contribution two controlled-release field experiments targeting remaining science gaps associated with induced seismicity and groundwater chemistry. The first experiment is a planned active fault slip experiment conducted in an underground research laboratory (URL) in a hardened shale formation that serves as a caprock analog. The critically stressed fault will be perturbed by the injection of fluid under pressure to simulate the influence of CO2 overpressure. The in situ reactivation experiment will use a novel borehole deformation tool that assesses the magnitude of overpressure required to cause slip, defines the mode of this slip as creeping (aseismic) or rapid (seismic), and measures the evolution of permeability on the fault. The second controlled-release field experiment was conducted in 2011/2012 to simulate the release of CO2 from a geologic storage site and study the transport as well as the chemical mechanisms leading to the CO2-induced mobilization of trace elements in a shallow aquifer. The field test involved a dipole system in which the shallow groundwater was pumped from one well, saturated with CO2 at the pressure corresponding to the hydraulic pressure of the aquifer, and

  10. Using Teleducation and Field Experiences to further the Understanding of Coastal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Szuba, T. A.; Shugart, H.

    2007-05-01

    This project is an outreach and education program with a partner in the K-12 schools at Accomack County on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. It endeavors to build a community knowledgeable of the importance the ocean plays daily in our lives, and our own impact on the ocean. It is an program built in stages that: 1) Establish high speed live interactive classes (teleducation) linkages with the Eastern Shore High Schools with earth science teachers enabling them to remotely participate in University of Virginia classes in Oceanography (designed on a faculty development basis or acquire NSTA certification in Earth Science Education, as well as participation by seniors in the Accomack Schools; 2) Establish field experiences for teachers and selected students that involve travel to both the Virginia Coast Reserve Long Term Ecological Research (VCR/LTER) Center, UVA to observe first- hand the science programs at those locations and participate in cutting edge coastal marine research efforts. These experiences improve student understanding of the ocean-atmosphere biogeophysical system and encourage students to explore the sciences as a field of study and possible vocation. Advanced high school students and science teachers from Accomack County Public Schools participated in an experience involving field and laboratory methods employed in a NSF-sponsored study of the coupled natural-human dynamics on the Eastern Shore of Virginia over the past 500 years (NSF-Biocomplexity). Students and teachers worked with researchers of the VCR facility in Oyster, VA, collected sediment cores from Chesapeake Bay tributaries, and traveled to the Organic Geochemistry Laboratory at UVA, in Charlottesville, VA to prepare and analyze samples for isotopic and palynological information. In a first of its kind connectivity, in June/July, 2006, using high speed internet connections, a summer class in Oceanography was live, interactively broadcast (teleducation) from UVA to Arcadia High School on

  11. Understanding and improving lithium ion batteries through mathematical modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Rutooj D.

    -mechanical degradation of electrode materials to understand the capacity fading of the battery with cycling. With the understanding of chemical and mechanical degradation, we develop a simple phenomenological model to predict battery life. On the experimental part we come up with a novel concept of using liquid metal alloy as a self-healing battery electrode. We develop a method to prepare thin film liquid gallium electrode on a conductive substrate. This enabled us to perform a series of electrochemical and characterization experiments which certify that liquid electrode undergo liquid-solid-liquid transition and thus self-heals the cracks formed during de-insertion. Thus the mechanical degradation can be avoided. We also perform ab-initio calculations to understand the equilibrium potential of various lithium-gallium phases. KEYWORDS: Lithium ion batteries, diffusion induced stresses, self-healing electrode, coupled chemical and mechanical degradation, life-prediction model.

  12. Strategies for Teacher Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Strategies for teacher retention are presented, including successful approaches and elements for operating a state system for personnel recruitment and retention in special education. Such initiatives as the Utah Mentor Teacher Academy; the Texas Teacher Recruitment, Retention and Assistance Program; and the Kansas Recruitment/Retention Project…

  13. How sickle cell disease patients experience, understand and explain their pain: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis study.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Beth; Ellis-Caird, Helen; McGowan, John; Benjamin, Maxwell J

    2016-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the UK's most common blood disorder causing sickle shaped red blood cells to block small blood vessels inducing both acute and chronic pain. A crucial factor in determining quality of life for those with SCD is the severity, timing and number of painful sickling episodes. However, little research focuses on the nature of pain and so it is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide an in-depth and meaning led account of the experience of SCD pain. Qualitative research design. Seven face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Participants described experiencing unimaginable, agonising, continuous, inescapable and limitless pain which was almost impossible to describe; participants resorted to using analogy and personification as a way to overcome this difficulty. Participants spoke about a process where, ultimately, they felt obliged to accept their illness as it would never be cured; but were able to appreciate life and recognize positive life lessons as a result of living with SCD. This research indicates that therapeutic work around analogy can help individuals understand and express their pain and that current attempts to measure pain are unhelpful for SCD populations. Further research is needed across a wider SCD population to forward the findings of this qualitative study. What is already known on this subject? Sickle cell disease (SCD) has an impact on all aspects of a person's life (Edwards et al., 2005, International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 171). Strickland , Jackson, Gilead, McGuire, and Quarles (2001, Journal of the National Black Nurses' Association, 12, 36) suggest that one of the crucial factors in determining quality of life for those with SCD is the severity, timing and number of painful sickling episodes. Exacerbations of pain are also cited as explanation for the majority of medical contacts for

  14. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  15. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  16. Long-term experiments to better understand soil-human interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, B. T.; Homann, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between soils and people may be transforming global conditions, but the interactions are poorly understood. Changes in soils have proven difficult to quantify, especially in complex ecosystems manifesting large spatiotemporal variability. Long-term ecosystem experiments that evaluate soil change and demonstrate alternative choices are important to understanding changes, discovering new controls and drivers, and influencing decisions. Inspired by agriculture studies, like Rothamsted, the US Forest Service established in 1990 a network of operational-scale experiments across the Pacific Northwest to evaluate long-term effects of different forest management and disturbance regimes. With a strong experimental design, these experiments are now helping to better understand the long-term effects of managing tree harvesting (clearcutting and thinning), woody debris, and tree and understory species composition, and-serendipitously-the effects of fire. Initial results from the Southern Oregon experimental site indicate surprisingly rapid soil changes in some regimes but not others. We've also learned that rapid change presents challenges to repeat sampling. We present our sample-archive and comparable-layer approaches that seek to accommodate changes in surface elevation, aggregation and disaggregation, and mineral-soil exports. Thinning mature forest stands (80-100 yrs old) did not significantly change soil C in 11-yrs. A small upper-layer C increase was observed after thinning, but it was similar to the control. Significant increases in upper-layer soil N were observed with most treatments, but all increases were similar to the control. Leaving woody debris had little effect. The most remarkable change occurred when mature stands were clearcut and Douglas-firs were planted and tended. Associated with rapid growth of Douglas-fir, an average of 8 Mg C ha-1 was lost from weathered soil 4-18 cm deep. This contrasts with clearcuts where early-seral hardwoods and

  17. Understanding the distinct experience of rural interprofessional collaboration in developing palliative care programs.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, A; Kelley, M L; Williams, A M

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is one component of rural generalist practice that requires interprofessional collaboration (IPC) amongst practitioners. Previous research on developing rural palliative care has created a four-phase capacity development model that included interprofessional rural palliative care teams; however, the details of rural team dynamics had not been previously explored and defined. A growing body of literature has produced models for interprofessional collaborative practice and identified core competencies required by professionals to work within these contexts. An Ontario College of Family Physicians discussion paper identifies seven essential elements for successful IPC: responsibility and accountability, coordination, communication, cooperation, assertiveness, autonomy, and mutual trust and respect. Despite the fact that IPC may be well conceptualized in the literature, evidence to support the transferability of these elements into rural health care practice or rural palliative care practice is lacking. The purpose of this research is to bridge the knowledge gap that exists with respect to rural IPC, particularly in the context of developing rural palliative care. It examines the working operations of these teams and highlights the elements that are important to rural collaborative processes. For the purpose of this qualitative study, naturalistic and ethnographic research strategies were employed to understand the experience of rural IPC in the context of rural palliative care team development. Purposive sampling was used to recruit key informants as participants who were members of rural palliative care teams. The seven elements of interprofessional collaboration, as outline above, provided a preliminary analytic framework to begin exploring the data. Analysis progressed using a process of interpretive description to embrace new ideas and conceptualizations that emerged from the patterns and themes of the rural health providers' narratives. The

  18. Through the eyes of professional developers: Understanding the design of learning experiences for science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Tara Eileen

    Professional development is important for improving teacher practice and student learning, particularly in inquiry-oriented and technology-enhanced science instruction. This study examines professional developers' practices and their impact on teachers' classroom instruction and student achievement. It analyzes professional developers designing and implementing a five-year professional development program designed to support middle school science teachers. The professional developers are four university-based researchers who worked with sixteen science teachers over three years, setting program goals, facilitating workshops, providing in-classroom support for teachers, and continually refining the program. The analysis is guided by the knowledge integration perspective, a sociocognitive framework for understanding how teachers and professional developers integrate their ideas about teaching and learning. The study investigates the professional developers' goals and teachers' interpretations of those goals. It documents how professional developers plan teacher learning experiences and explores the connection between professional development activities and teachers' classroom practice. Results are based on two rounds of interviews with professional developers, audio recordings of professional developers' planning meetings and videotaped professional development activities. Data include classroom observations, teacher interviews, teacher reflections during professional development activities, and results from student assessments. The study shows the benefit of a professional development approach that relies on an integrated cycle of setting goals, understanding teachers' interpretations, and refining implementation. The professional developers based their design on making inquiry and technology accessible, situating professional development in teachers' work, supporting collaboration, and sustaining learning. The findings reflect alignment of the design goals with the

  19. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    PubMed

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P < 0.05). Australian women perceived the meaning of menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  20. The Lusi seismic experiment: An initial study to understand the effect of seismic activity to Lusi

    SciTech Connect

    Karyono; Mazzini, Adriano; Sugiharto, Anton; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Masturyono,; Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu; Muzli,; Widodo, Handi Sulistyo; Sudrajat, Ajat

    2015-04-24

    The spectacular Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi) eruption started in northeast Java on the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island [1,2]. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system [3] and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. The Lusi seismic experiment is a project aims to begin a detailed study of seismicity around the Lusi area. In this initial phase we deploy 30 seismometers strategically distributed in the area around Lusi and along the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. The purpose of the initial monitoring is to conduct a preliminary seismic campaign aiming to identify the occurrence and the location of local seismic events in east Java particularly beneath Lusi.This network will locate small event that may not be captured by the existing BMKG network. It will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-AW region and spatial and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. The goal of this study is to understand how the seismicity occurring along the Sunda subduction zone affects to the behavior of the Lusi eruption. Our study will also provide a large dataset for a qualitative analysis of earthquake triggering studies, earthquake-volcano and earthquake-earthquake interactions. In this study, we will extract Green’s functions from ambient seismic noise data in order to image the shallow subsurface structure beneath LUSI area. The waveform cross-correlation technique will be apply to all of recordings of ambient seismic noise at 30 seismographic stations around the LUSI area. We use the dispersive behaviour of the retrieved Rayleigh waves to infer velocity structures in the shallow subsurface.

  1. The Lusi seismic experiment: An initial study to understand the effect of seismic activity to Lusi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyono, Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Masturyono, Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu; Muzli, Widodo, Handi Sulistyo; Sudrajat, Ajat; Sugiharto, Anton

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi) eruption started in northeast Java on the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island [1,2]. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system [3] and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. The Lusi seismic experiment is a project aims to begin a detailed study of seismicity around the Lusi area. In this initial phase we deploy 30 seismometers strategically distributed in the area around Lusi and along the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. The purpose of the initial monitoring is to conduct a preliminary seismic campaign aiming to identify the occurrence and the location of local seismic events in east Java particularly beneath Lusi.This network will locate small event that may not be captured by the existing BMKG network. It will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-AW region and spatial and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. The goal of this study is to understand how the seismicity occurring along the Sunda subduction zone affects to the behavior of the Lusi eruption. Our study will also provide a large dataset for a qualitative analysis of earthquake triggering studies, earthquake-volcano and earthquake-earthquake interactions. In this study, we will extract Green's functions from ambient seismic noise data in order to image the shallow subsurface structure beneath LUSI area. The waveform cross-correlation technique will be apply to all of recordings of ambient seismic noise at 30 seismographic stations around the LUSI area. We use the dispersive behaviour of the retrieved Rayleigh waves to infer velocity structures in the shallow subsurface.

  2. Retention of hydrogen in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.

    1986-10-01

    The retention of hydrogen in POCO AXF-5Q graphite has been measured at room temperature as a function of fluence and flux for H/sub 2//sup +/ ions at energies from 250 to 500 eV provided by a glow discharge. More than 2 x 10/sup 18/ H/cm/sup 2/ has been retained, and no indication of saturation has been observed to a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 19/ H/cm/sup 2/. In this experiment, retention was found to increase linearly with fluence for constant flux. A flux dependence was observed; that is, the retention rate was observed to decrease monotonically as the flux increased. A change-over experiment, deuterium to hydrogen, was conducted; the results show that significant change-over occurs (i.e., about 30% change-over for a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 17/ D/cm/sup 2/).

  3. Petmanship: Understanding Elderly Filipinos' Self-Perceived Health and Self-Esteem Captured from Their Lived Experiences with Pet Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Cucueco, Denise S.; Cuenco, Ian Benedict V.; Cunanan, Nigel Gerome C.; Dabandan, Robel T.; Dacanay, Edgar Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the lived experiences of geriatric clients with pets, particularly in the Western cultures, has been the subject of many studies. However, little is known about how Asian cultures, particularly the Filipino elderly, view their experiences with their pets in regard to their self-esteem and self-perceived health. This…

  4. Understanding the Complexity of the Lived Experiences of Foundation Degree Sport Lecturers within the Context of Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an ethnographic account of the lived experiences of Further Education (FE) lecturers (N = 4) who are engaged in the transmission of pedagogic knowledge within a Foundation Degree. To further understand the experiences of the lecturers the paper draws upon Stones' quadripartite cycle of structuration. This conceptual and…

  5. Understanding the Complexity of the Lived Experiences of Foundation Degree Sport Lecturers within the Context of Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an ethnographic account of the lived experiences of Further Education (FE) lecturers (N = 4) who are engaged in the transmission of pedagogic knowledge within a Foundation Degree. To further understand the experiences of the lecturers the paper draws upon Stones' quadripartite cycle of structuration. This conceptual and…

  6. Petmanship: Understanding Elderly Filipinos' Self-Perceived Health and Self-Esteem Captured from Their Lived Experiences with Pet Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Cucueco, Denise S.; Cuenco, Ian Benedict V.; Cunanan, Nigel Gerome C.; Dabandan, Robel T.; Dacanay, Edgar Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the lived experiences of geriatric clients with pets, particularly in the Western cultures, has been the subject of many studies. However, little is known about how Asian cultures, particularly the Filipino elderly, view their experiences with their pets in regard to their self-esteem and self-perceived health. This…

  7. Selenide retention by mackinawite.

    PubMed

    Finck, N; Dardenne, K; Bosbach, D; Geckeis, H

    2012-09-18

    The isotope (79)Se may be of great concern with regard to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes in deep geological repositories due to its long half-life and potential mobility in the geosphere. The Se mobility is controlled by the oxidation state: the oxidized species (Se(IV)) and (Se(VI)) are highly mobile, whereas the reduced species (Se(0) and Se(-II)) form low soluble solids. The mobility of this trace pollutant can be greatly reduced by interacting with the various barriers of the repository. Numerous studies report on the oxidized species retention by mineral phases, but only very scarce studies report on the selenide (Se(-II)) retention. In the present study, the selenide retention by coprecipitation with and by adsorption on mackinawite (FeS) was investigated. XRD and SEM analyses of the samples reveal no significant influence of Se on the mackinawite precipitate morphology and structure. Samples from coprecipitation and from adsorption are characterized at the molecular scale by a multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation. In the coprecipitation experiment, all elements (S, Fe, and Se) are in a low ionic oxidation state and the EXAFS data strongly point to selenium located in a mackinawite-like sulfide environment. By contacting selenide ions with FeS in suspension, part of Se is located in an environment similar to that found in the coprecipitation experiment. The explanation is a dynamical dissolution-recrystallization mechanism of the highly reactive mackinawite. This is the first experimental study to report on selenide incorporation in iron monosulfide by a multi-edge XAS approach.

  8. Enhancing the Understanding of Marine Ecosystems through Teleducation and Field Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S.

    2006-12-01

    This project is an outreach and education program with a partner in the K-12 schools at Accomack County on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. It endeavors to build a community more knowledgeable of the importance the ocean plays daily in our lives, and our own impact on the ocean. It is an program built in stages that: 1) Establish high speed teleducation linkages with Eastern Shore of Virginia High Schools, for live interactive, classes (teleducation) for earth science teachers enabling them to remotely participate in University of Virginia classes in Oceanography (designed on a faculty development basis or acquire NSTA certification in Earth Science Education, as well as participation by seniors in the Accomack Schools; 2) Establish field experiences for teachers and selected students that involve travel to both the Virginia Coast Reserve Long Term Ecological Research (VCR/LTER) Center, UVA and the NOAA Beaufort, NC Laboratory to observe first- hand the science programs at those locations and participate in cutting edge coastal marine research efforts. These experiences will not only improve student understanding of the ocean-atmosphere biogeophysical system, but also encourage students to explore the sciences as a field of study and possible vocation. Advanced high school students and science teachers from Accomack County Public Schools participated in an experience involving field and laboratory methods employed in a NSF-sponsored study of the coupled natural-human dynamics on the Eastern Shore of Virginia over the past 500 years (NSF-Biocomplexity). Students and teachers worked with researchers of the VCR facility in Oyster, VA, collected sediment cores from Chesapeake Bay tributaries, and traveled to the Organic Geochemistry Laboratory at UVA, in Charlottesville, VA to prepare and analyze samples for isotopic and palynological information. In a first of its kind connectivity, in June/July, 2006, using high speed internet connections, a summer class in

  9. Understanding the Learning Assistant experience with Physics Identity and Community of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Eleanor; Close, Hunter; Donnelly, David

    2012-10-01

    Learning Assistants (LAs) have been shown to have better conceptual understanding and more favorable beliefs about science than non-LAs, and are more likely to choose a career in K-12 science teaching [1]. We propose that connections between elements of identity, persistence, and participation in an LA program can be explained using the concept of the community of practice and its intimate relationship to identity [2]. In separate work, Hazari et al. found that physics identity was highly correlated to expressed career plans in physics [3]. We hypothesize that a thriving LA program has many features of a well-functioning community of practice and contributes to all four elements of physics identity: personal interest, student performance, competence, and recognition by others. We explore how this analysis of the LA experience might shape decisions and influence outcomes of adoption and adaptations of the LA model.[4pt] [1] Otero, Pollock, & Finkelstein, Am. J. Phys. 78 (11), 1218-1224 (2010).[0pt] [2] Wenger, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998).[0pt] [3] J. Res. Sci. Teach. 47 (8), 978-1003 (2010).

  10. Understanding magnetic nanoparticle osteoblast receptor-mediated endocytosis using experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nhiem; Webster, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for controlling drug delivery through an external magnetic force to treat a wide range of diseases, including osteoporosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that in the presence of hydroxyapatite coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, osteoblast (or bone forming cell) proliferation and long-term functions (such as calcium deposition) were significantly enhanced. Hydroxyapatite is the major inorganic component of bone. As a further attempt to understand why, in the current study, the uptake of such nanoparticles into osteoblasts was experimentally investigated and mathematically modeled. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and were coated with hydroxyapatite. A cellular uptake experiment at low temperatures indicated that receptor-mediated endocytosis contributed to the internalization of the magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts. A model was further developed to explain the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts using receptor-mediated endocytosis. This model may explain the internalization of hydroxyapatite into osteoblasts to elevate intracellular calcium levels necessary to promote osteoblast functions to treat a wide range of orthopedic problems, including osteoporosis.

  11. What Is the Addiction World Like? Understanding the Lived Experience of the Individuals' Illicit Drug Addiction in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Mei-Hui; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Tsai, Chang-Hsiung; Hsu, Yu-Chien; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the participants' lived experience of addiction. The study presents a qualitative method. The use of the fieldwork-based participant observation and in-depth interviews guided the data collection and analysis. Three major themes of addiction emerge from the analysis: incorrigible conduct, inexcusable compromise, and inevitable corruption. This study provides a better understanding of what the world is like for people struggling with addiction and also enhances the healthcare professionals' knowledge of the individual's experience of addiction. This knowledge is essential for clinicians to understand this experience as a framework for planning and implementing appropriate treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    DOEpatents

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2017-02-28

    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  13. Anisotropic diffusion at the field scale in a 4-year multi-tracer diffusion and retention experiment - I: Insights from the experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimmi, Thomas; Leupin, Olivier X.; Eikenberg, Jost; Glaus, Martin A.; Van Loon, Luc R.; Waber, H. Niklaus; Wersin, Paul; Wang, Hao A. O.; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N.; Dewonck, Sarah; Wittebroodt, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Claystones are considered worldwide as barrier materials for nuclear waste repositories. In the Mont Terri underground research laboratory (URL), a nearly 4-year diffusion and retention (DR) experiment has been performed in Opalinus Clay. It aimed at (1) obtaining data at larger space and time scales than in laboratory experiments and (2) under relevant in situ conditions with respect to pore water chemistry and mechanical stress, (3) quantifying the anisotropy of in situ diffusion, and (4) exploring possible effects of a borehole-disturbed zone. The experiment included two tracer injection intervals in a borehole perpendicular to bedding, through which traced artificial pore water (APW) was circulated, and a pressure monitoring interval. The APW was spiked with neutral tracers (HTO, HDO, H2O-18), anions (Br, I, SeO4), and cations (Na-22, Ba-133, Sr-85, Cs-137, Co-60, Eu-152, stable Cs, and stable Eu). Most tracers were added at the beginning, some were added at a later stage. The hydraulic pressure in the injection intervals was adjusted according to the measured value in the pressure monitoring interval to ensure transport by diffusion only. Concentration time-series in the APW within the borehole intervals were obtained, as well as 2D concentration distributions in the rock at the end of the experiment after overcoring and subsampling which resulted in ∼250 samples and ∼1300 analyses. As expected, HTO diffused the furthest into the rock, followed by the anions (Br, I, SeO4) and by the cationic sorbing tracers (Na-22, Ba-133, Cs, Cs-137, Co-60, Eu-152). The diffusion of SeO4 was slower than that of Br or I, approximately proportional to the ratio of their diffusion coefficients in water. Ba-133 diffused only into ∼0.1 m during the ∼4 a. Stable Cs, added at a higher concentration than Cs-137, diffused further into the rock than Cs-137, consistent with a non-linear sorption behavior. The rock properties (e.g., water contents) were rather homogeneous at the

  14. Networks of conscious experience: computational neuroscience in understanding life, death, and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Koch, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate brain locations appearing to correlate with consciousness, but not being directly responsible for it. Technology reveals that brain activity is associated with consciousness but is not equivalent to it. We examine how consciousness occurs at critical levels of complexity. Conventional explanations portray consciousness as an emergent property of classical computer-like activities in the brain's neural networks. Prevailing views in this camp are that patterns of neural network activities correlate with mental states, that synchronous network oscillations in the thalamus and cerebral cortex temporally bind information, and that consciousness emerges as a novel property of computational complexity among neurons. A hard-wired theory is enigmatic for explaining consciousness because the nature of subjective experience, or 'qualia'- 'inner life' - is a "hard problem" to understand; binding spatially distributed brain activity into unitary objects, and a coherent sense of self, or 'oneness' is difficult to explain as is the transition from pre- to conscious states. Consciousness is non-computable and involves factors that are neither random nor algorithmic - consciousness cannot be simulated; explanations are also needed for free will and for subjective time flow. Convention argues that neurons and their chemical synapses are the fundamental units of information in the brain, and that conscious experience emerges when a critical level of complexity is reached in the brain's neural networks. The basic idea is that the mind is a computer functioning in the brain. In fitting the brain to a computational view, such explanations omit incompatible neurophysiological details, including widespread apparent randomness at all levels of neural processes (is it really noise, or underlying levels of complexity?); glial cells (which account for some 80% of the brain); dendritic-dendritic processing; electrotonic gap junctions; cytoplasmic/cytoskeletal activities; living

  15. Understanding the Experience of Age-Related Vestibular Loss in Older Individuals: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Bridges, John F. P.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Background Inner ear balance (or vestibular) function declines with age and is associated with decreased mobility and an increased risk of falls in older individuals. We sought to understand the lived experience of older adults with vestibular loss in order to improve care in this population. Methods Qualitative data were derived from semi-structured interviews of individuals aged 65 years or older presenting to the Balance and Falls Prevention Clinic from February 1, 2014 to March 30, 2015 for evaluation of age-related vestibular loss. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. We created a taxonomy of overarching superordinate themes based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework, and classified key dimensions within each of these themes. Results Sixteen interviews were conducted with individuals (mean age 76.0 years, 75 % female) with age-related vestibular loss. The three superordinate themes and associated key dimensions were (1) body impairment (including depression, fatigue, fear/anxiety, and problems with concentrating and memory); (2) activity limitation and participation restriction (isolation, needing to stop in the middle of activities, reduced participation relative to expectations, reduced ability to drive or travel, and problems with bending/looking up, standing, and walking); and (3) environmental influences (needing help with daily activities). All participants reported difficulty walking. Conclusions Older adults report that vestibular loss impacts their body functioning and restricts their participation in activities. The specific key dimensions uncovered by this qualitative study can be used to evaluate care from the patient's perspective. PMID:26739817

  16. Passive Seismic Experiment to understand the basement and crustal structure, Northern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinadinovski, Cvetan; Aldamegh, Khalid; Ball, Philip; Janoubi, Emad; Afifi, AbdulKader; Ion, Dumitru; Nayak, Goutam; Borsato, Ron

    2017-04-01

    In 2011, air gun seismic surveys were performed in the Red Sea in conjunction with an offshore survey where portable seismic stations were deployed onshore up to 250 km inland from the shoreline. In total, 30 temporary broadband stations were deployed in the northern Red Sea. The recorded shot data were analyzed in conjunction with earthquake records that occurred during the three-month deployment period. The receiver function data were modeled using an advanced 3D modeling software. Gravity data were modeled as well on five regional profiles to provide additional constraints for the depth-to-basement and depth-to-Moho discontinuity. The passive (earthquakes) and active (air gun) data for both areas were modeled separately and then in a joint scheme. This experiment was unique, where no previous deployment at this scale had been attempted before in Saudi Arabia. The tomography results provide for the first time a detailed insight of the deeper crustal structure in the Red Sea margin. The results reveal a complex geology with a heterogeneous crust and upper mantle. The crustal-mantle discontinuity was picked assuming a Vp velocity of around 8.0 km/s. The Moho discontinuity offshore appears to vary in depth from 17 km to 27 km, increasing to 22 km to 35 km onshore. The average crustal thickness inland is 28 km, whereas the average thickness offshore is 22 km. These 3D images of the Moho show that thinning of the crust was not just coast-parallel as proposed from previous 2D or 1D studies. Such findings can help in better understanding of the rift related processes in the Red Sea

  17. Shale Deformation Experiments Toward an Understanding of Elastic and Fracture Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanitpanyacharoen, J.; Miyagi, L. M.; Jugle, M.; Wang, Y.; Yu, T.

    2014-12-01

    The significance of shales as unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs has opened new research frontiers in geosciences. Among many of its unique physical properties, elastic anisotropy in shales has long been investigated by both experimental and computational approaches. Shales is highly anisotropic due to texture (crystallographic preferred orientation) of their constituent clay minerals. Moreover, texturing is known to cause fracture anisotropy, which can affect both fracture toughness and fracture orientations in metals, ceramics, and polyphase materials. However, the relationship between texture and fracture anisotropy in shale has not been explored. In this study we use the multi-anvil deformation tool (D-DIA) to deform shales with a range of clay and silt contents to failure while collecting x-ray diffraction and radiography images. Diffraction images are used to extract to texture and lattice strain evolution while radiography are used to measure macrostrain and determine failure. Since clay mineral have shear moduli in the range of 6-17 GPa, our stress resolution is in the range of 30 -100 MPa respectively, within the range of unconfined compressive strengths of shales. Our results show that the orientation of clay minerals become more prominent in all samples upon deforming the sample at 100 MPa. Recovered samples are investigated with SEM to document microstructural changes. A second deformation experiment will be coupled with ultrasonic and acoustic emissions measurements to make direct comparisons of elastic anisotropy and understand the role of fracture on anisotropy. Acoustic emissions allows us to locate damage initiation and determine fracture orientations in-situ. This information will be compared with texture data to determine fracture anisotropy in our samples.

  18. A qualitative study of Iranian nurses' understanding and experiences of professional power

    PubMed Central

    Adib Hagbaghery, Mohsen; Salsali, Mahvash; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2004-01-01

    Background Nurses are expected to empower their clients, but they cannot do so if they themselves feel powerless. They must become empowered before they can empower others. Some researchers have emphasized that understanding the concept of power is an important prerequisite of any empowerment program. While many authors have tried to define the concept of power, there is no comprehensive definition. This paper is an attempt to clarify the concept of power in nursing. It also would present a model describing the factors affecting nurse empowerment. Methods We chose the grounded-theory approach for analysis of the participants' experiences and their viewpoints regarding the concept of professional power in nursing. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation methods were used to gather the data. Forty-four participants were interviewed and 12 sessions of observation were carried out. The constant comparative analysis method was used. Results Six main themes emerged from the data: "Application of knowledge and skills", "Having authority", "Being self-confident", "Unification and solidarity", "Being supported" and "Organizational culture and structure". According to the participants, nurses' power is influenced by these six variables. A theoretical model was designed to represent the interrelationships between these six variables. Conclusions Nurses' power depends on gaining and applying professional knowledge and skills. Delegating authority and enhancing self-confidence of the nurses also help them to apply their knowledge in practice. Unification of the nurses and their mutual support play the key roles in development of their collective power and provide a base for better working conditions, professional independence and self-regulation. PMID:15217516

  19. Understanding U.S. Healthcare Providers’ Practices and Experiences with Molluscum Contagiosum

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Christine M.; Damon, Inger K.; Reynolds, Mary G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Molluscum contagiosum is a common superficial skin infection caused by the poxvirus, Molluscum Contagiosum virus. The study objective is to obtain a better understanding of physician practices and experiences with molluscum contagiosum in order to focus informational and guidance material. Methods A cross-sectional survey to assess medical practitioners’ knowledge and practices with molluscum contagiosum was conducted using the 2009 DocStyles survey. Questions regarding category and number of molluscum contagiosum patients seen, treatments used and advice given to patients were included in the survey. Results Dermatologists saw the most cases, with the majority seeing 51–100 molluscum contagiosum cases/year. The most common cases seen were children with multiple lesions and adults with genital lesions. Respondents were most likely to recommend treatment to immunocompromised individuals, HIV patients, adults with genital lesions and children with multiple lesions. Cryotherapy was the top choice for all specialties with the exception of OB/GYNs, whose top choice was curettage. “Avoid intimate contact until lesions resolve”, “Avoid touching lesions to reduce further spread”, and “Don’t be concerned, this will go away” were the top advice choices. Discussion Most survey respondents have dealt with molluscum contagiosum in their practice during the previous year. Overall, respondents picked appropriate choices for treatment and advice given; however some ineffective or unnecessary treatments were chosen and recommendations to prevent spread were chosen infrequently. Knowledge gaps for appropriate transmission precaution advice might cause unnecessary spread or autoinoculation. This survey has demonstrated that molluscum contagiosum is a common infection seen by many types of practitioners and therefore guidance on treatment considerations and infection control is valuable. PMID:24155912

  20. The Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Scientific Experiment for Understanding the Earth-Atmosphere Coupled System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Xu, X.; Chen, F.; Guo, X.; Zheng, X.; Liu, L. P.; Hong, Y.; Li, Y.; La, Z.; Peng, H.; Zhong, L. Z.; Ma, Y.; Tang, S. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, H.; Li, Y. H.; Zhang, Q.; Hu, Z.; Sun, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Dong, L.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Y.; Yan, X.; Xiao, A.; Wan, W.; Zhou, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Third Tibetan Plateau atmospheric scientific experiment (TIPEX-III) was initiated jointly by the China Meteorological Administration, the National Natural Scientific Foundation, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This paper presents the background, scientific objectives, and overall experimental design of TIPEX-III. It was designed to conduct an integrated observation of the earth-atmosphere coupled system over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) from land surface, planetary boundary layer (PBL), troposphere, and stratosphere for eight to ten years by coordinating ground- and air-based measurement facilities for understanding spatial heterogeneities of complex land-air interactions, cloud-precipitation physical processes, and interactions between troposphere and stratosphere. TIPEX-III originally began in 2014, and is ongoing. It established multiscale land-surface and PBL observation networks over the TP and a tropospheric meteorological radiosonde network over the western TP, and executed an integrated observation mission for cloud-precipitation physical features using ground-based radar systems and aircraft campaigns and an observation task for atmospheric ozone, aerosol, and water vapor. The archive, management, and share policy of the observation data are also introduced herein. Some TIPEX-III data have been preliminarily applied to analyze the features of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, cloud-precipitation physical processes, and atmospheric water vapor and ozone over the TP, and to improve the local precipitation forecast. Furthermore, TIPEX-III intends to promote greater scientific and technological cooperation with international research communities and broader organizations. Scientists working internationally are invited to participate in the field campaigns and to use the TIPEX-III data for their own research.

  1. Retention: Articulation and Recruitment of the At-Risk Student. S.E.E. Model Program: "Students with Education and Experience." A Workshop Presented for Skyline College: "Developing Students for the 90's" (San Bruno, California, April 11-12, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin County Community Coll., McKinney, TX.

    Designed for participants at a workshop on at-risk student recruitment and retention, this booklet provides information on SEE (Students with Education and Experience), a cooperative education-based retention program operating in the Collin County Community College District (Texas). After presenting a flow chart of the SEE Model and data on high…

  2. A dual-driver model of retention and turnover in the direct care workforce.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Vikas; Rosen, Jules; Leana, Carrie

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors associated with turnover and retention of direct care workers. We hypothesize that a dual-driver model that includes individual factors, on-the-job factors, off-the-job factors, and contextual factors can be used to distinguish between reasons for direct care workforces (DCWs) staying on the job or leaving the job. We conducted 7 focus groups with 47 participants. We identified key themes they used to describe their experiences focusing on differences between stayers (had been in the same job for at least 3 years) and leavers (had changed jobs within the past 3 years). Five major themes associated with turnover were identified as follows: (a) lack of respect, (b) inadequate management, (c) work or family conflicts, (d) difficulty of the work, and (e) job openings. Themes associated with retention were as follows: (a) being "called" to service, (b) patient advocacy, (c) personal relationships with residents, (d) religion or spirituality, (e) haven from home problems, and (f) flexibility. Themes associated with turnover were different from those associated with retention. DCW turnover and retention are complex, multifactorial issues. Efforts to stabilize the DCW must address the issues associated with retention as well as those associated with turnover. Specifically, factors that promote retention may be qualitatively different than those that prevent turnover. Treating retention and turnover as simply the obverse of each other may be misleading in addressing the underlying problem of job stability among DCWs.

  3. Oral Assessments: Improving Retention, Grades, and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an innovative approach to teaching Calculus I which was initiated in a two-semester course designed for students at risk of failing Calculus I. The treatment consisted of voluntary oral assessments offered before every written examination. Analyses showed that the treatment students did significantly better than the control…

  4. Seventh Grade Students' Qualitative Understanding of the Concept of Mass Influenced by Real Experiments and Virtual Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamenkovski, Sasha; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research is conducted among 65 seventh graders (12-14 years old) who attend introductory course on physics. Tests and interviews are used to trace the roots of the students' misconceptions about mass. Results from the research reveal serious weaknesses in students' understanding of concept of mass, and its confusion with concepts of density…

  5. Towards an Understanding of Flow and Other Positive Experience Phenomena within Outdoor and Adventurous Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boniface, Margaret R.

    2000-01-01

    People involved in adventurous activities frequently experience positive phenomena termed peak experience, peak performance, and "flow." Characteristics of these phenomena are compared, along with factors influencing the ability to experience such peak moments. Csikszentmihalyi's flow models are examined with regard to perceived levels…

  6. Grade Retention: An Exploration of the Pedagogical Experiences and Attitudes of Elementary Principals that Influence Decisions to Retain Students in a Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelConte, Jill

    2011-01-01

    For decades there has been an on-going debate regarding whether or not retention is the best strategy to use for students who are not meeting academic success--whether determined by a test, grades, or standards. Much of the research has indicated that little is gained academically over time by retaining students, but even more significant are the…

  7. Tritium retention in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Mueller, D.; Walters, R. T.; TFTR Team; Causey, R.; Luckhardt, S.; Hirooka, J.

    1996-11-01

    The large tritium inventories projected for ITER pose an important constraint in the design of plasma facing components and the selection of first wall materials. Three years of deuterium-tritium operation in TFTR has provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium retention in a tokamak environment. More than 18 kCi of tritium has been injected into the torus via neutral beam injection and gas puffs and approximately half of this amount was retained in the vacuum vessel.(C.H. Skinner et al.), PPPL 3172 (Jan 1995). Tritium has been successfully removed by glow discharges, exposure to room air and other techniques and it is not a constraint on continued operations. A vacuum opening is scheduled for September 1996 and we plan to extract samples of tritiated carbon dust and flakes from the limiter and vacuum vessel for elemental and chemical analysis. We will present the TFTR experience in tritium recycling, retention and removal and its implications for ITER.

  8. The Understanding of "Concept Study" in Teachers' Professional Learning: A Lived Experience of Complexity Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This paper used narrative to present the author's understanding process of "concept study" in teachers' professional learning. The understanding process was advanced by several questions emerging from the preparation of doing "concept study". Thus, the several questions and their solutions became the threads of the narrative.…

  9. Fall 1984 Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    A study was conducted of the retention patterns of students enrolled in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) in fall 1984 using college reports on withdrawals and grade distributions. The study focused on successful retention (i.e., all students who received a passing grade) and on total retention (i.e., all students who received any…

  10. Impact of plant growth and morphology and of sediment concentration on sediment retention efficiency of vegetative filter strips: Flume experiments and VFSMOD modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Thomas; François, Sébastien; Lutts, Stanley; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Bielders, Charles L.

    2014-04-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) implemented downstream to the source of pollution can trap sediments and thus limit sediment export from agricultural fields. However, their retention efficiencies are determined by many factors, among others the type of plant species and its growth stage. The impact of plant growth and morphology, as well as of incoming sediment concentration, on the efficiency of VFS to trap sediments was assessed by means of an experimental flume. Two different plant species were tested, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, after 2 and 4 months of plant growth and for 2 different incoming silty-loam sediment concentrations. Measured retention efficiencies were compared to simulated values using VFSMOD based on goodness-of-fit indicators that take into account uncertainty linked to the measurements. The sediment storage capacity upstream of the VFS was limited in terms of mass, and therefore an increase in sediment concentration led to a decrease in sediment retention efficiency. After 2 months of plant growth, plant morphology affected the VFS potential to trap sediments, as reflected in the higher retention efficiency of T. repens due to its creeping shoot architecture. However, plant growth and development modified the plant morphology and VFS trapping potential. Indeed, L. perenne VFS retention efficiency increased from 35% after 2 months of growth to 50% after 4 months, due to the tillering capacity of grass species. Conversely, the trapping efficiency of T. repens decreased from 49% to 40% after 4 months. This highlights the possible degradation of VFS with time, which in the case of T.repens was due to an increased heterogeneity of plant density within the strips. These modifications of plant characteristics with growth stage, which affected sediment trapping efficiencies, can be effectively integrated into mechanistic models like VFSMOD, mainly through stem spacing and Manning's surface roughness coefficient inputs. Since these parameters

  11. Understanding the Seed-Mediated Growth of Gold Nanorods through a Fractional Factorial Design of Experiments.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Nathan D; Harvey, Samantha; Idesis, Fred A; Murphy, Catherine J

    2017-02-28

    Since the development of simple, aqueous protocols for the synthesis of anisotropic metal nanoparticles, research into many promising, valuable applications of gold nanorods has grown considerably, but a number of challenges remain, including gold-particle yield, robustness to minor impurities, and precise control of gold nanorod surface chemistry. Herein we present the results of a composite fractional factorial series of experiments designed to screen seven additional potential avenues of control and to understand the seed-mediated silver-assisted synthesis of gold nanorods. These synthesis variables are the amount of sodium borohydride used and the rate of stirring when producing seed nanoparticles, the age of and the amount of seeds added, the reaction temperature, the amounts of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid added, and the age of the reduced growth solution before seed nanoparticles are added to initiate rod formation. This statistical experimental design and analysis method, besides determining which experimental variables are important and which are not when synthesizing gold nanorods (and quantifying their effects), gives further insight into the mechanism of growth by measuring the degree to which variables interact with each other by mapping out their mechanistic connections. This work demonstrates that when forming gold nanorods by the reduction of auric ions by ascorbic acid onto seed nanoparticles, ascorbic acid determines how much gold is reduced, and the amount of seeds determine how it is divided, yet both influence the intrinsic growth rates, in both width and length, of the forming nanorods. Furthermore, this work shows that the reduction of gold proceeds via direct reduction on the surface of seeds and not through a disproportionation reaction. Further control over the length of gold nanorods can be achieved by tuning the amount of silver nitrate or the reaction temperature. This work shows that silver does not directly influence rod length or

  12. Field experiments with painted sediments - a tool for understanding coastal processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Kont, Are; Suursaar, Ülo; Orviku, Kaarel

    2014-05-01

    Surf and the swash zones comprise regions of the coastal zone where waves dissipate or reflect their remaining energy after propagation from the open sea towards the coast. Within this region most of the sediment transport occurs giving rise to the generation of rapid coastal changes. Current understanding of the morphodynamics in this region is limited. Therefore, swash/surf zone hydrodynamics and sediment transport have been active topics of research over the past decades. Several laboratory experiments have been conducted to quantify coastal processes over the past decades. However, few experiments have been carried out in the natural environment. Analysis of painted sediments was carried out for the current study. Sorted particles with the following diameters were used: 1-2.5 cm (yellow), 2.5-5 cm (red) and 5-10 cm (blue). The sediments were painted with non-fluorescent, water and wear resistant colors, stacked in piles and placed at depths of 0.5-10 m at several study sites all along the Estonian coast. The locations were positioned and were photographed. The sediment piles placed in the sea were monitored at least once after an intense storm or once before and after the storm season. Additional tests were carried out on the swash zone, where the sediments were accumulated in a continuous line from -0.5...+1.3 m. Distances from the initial source of the sediments as well as the elevation of the painted sediment particles was calculated and analyzed. Recorded changes were compared with the measured and modeled wave parameters (by using RDCP and simple point model). We may conclude that most storm waves break at depths of 2-4 m. However, this zone might extend seaward during strong storm events and wave braking may occur even at 6 m depth. There is very active sediment transport in this zone and particles with a 1-10 cm diameter are usually transported towards the shore. We were able to record that the painted sediments moved up to 20 meters towards the shore

  13. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the Science Process Skills Questionnaire (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88. The findings showed that the teachers' conceptual understanding of SPS was much weaker than their practical application of SPS. The teachers' understanding of SPS differed by their teaching qualifications but not so much by their teaching experience. Emphasis needs to be given to both conceptual and operational understanding of SPS during pre-service and in-service teacher education to enable science teachers to use the skills and implement inquiry-based lessons in schools.

  14. Understanding Accounting as a Career: An Immersion Work Experience for Students Making Career Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Dianne; Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a project which is designed to increase the participation of high school students in accounting work experience placements. The focus of the paper is on an Australian-based project which overcomes the identified barriers to offering high school accounting work experience placements with a resultant increase in the number and…

  15. Understanding Students' Experiences in Their Own Words: Moving beyond a Basic Analysis of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Arch Chee Keen

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the lived experiences of students as expressed in their reflections on their experiences of learning at Ambrose University in Calgary. It uses quantitative outcomes-related data from the National Survey of Student Engagement and the Theological School Survey of Student Engagement to illuminate qualitative data obtained through…

  16. What Do We See?: Extending Understanding of Visual Experience in the Art Therapy Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience and meaning making in art therapy constitute more than looking at the image created. Clients and therapists utilize the environment of therapy in ways that have been hitherto unrecognized. This article presents a key finding from an art-based study of the experience of the art therapy room from the perspectives of client and…

  17. Understanding Students' Precollege Experiences with Racial Diversity: The High School as Microsystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Stephanie H.

    2015-01-01

    Few qualitative studies consider how high school experiences affect readiness for diversity engagement in college. Using data from an ethnographic case study, three central trends (student experiences within homogeneous high schools, racial divisions within diverse high schools, and students who attended diverse high schools but had little…

  18. Postcards from Heaven and Hell: Understanding the Near-Death Experience through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rominger, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Art making offers the opportunity to reflect upon ineffable experiences, including those surrounding death and dying. This article examines the artwork of two research participants who each reported a near-death experience (NDE). A trans-personal model was used to elicit the narratives and artwork of two individuals: one who experienced a pleasant…

  19. Understanding Students' Precollege Experiences with Racial Diversity: The High School as Microsystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Stephanie H.

    2015-01-01

    Few qualitative studies consider how high school experiences affect readiness for diversity engagement in college. Using data from an ethnographic case study, three central trends (student experiences within homogeneous high schools, racial divisions within diverse high schools, and students who attended diverse high schools but had little…

  20. Understanding Field Experiences in Traditional Teacher Preparation Programs in Missouri. REL 2016-145

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of field experiences in traditional teacher preparation programs completed by first-year teachers in Missouri and how experiences vary by teaching certificate type. This descriptive study is based on data from a survey administered in early 2015 to first-year teachers in Missouri public…

  1. Understanding the Experiences of Adult English as a Second Language Instructors: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Marni Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Positioned within the social constructivist view of learning that individuals make meaning from their experiences and through their social actions and interactions, this qualitative study explores the ways in which nine instructors of underprepared adult English as a Second Language students made meaning of their classroom experiences. Through…

  2. Understanding the Work-Life Experiences and Goals of Women Middle Managers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankinson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Middle managers in higher education hold diverse titles and perform a variety of roles. Women represent a large portion of this midlevel management, but there is limited research exploring their experiences. As a result, little is known about women middle managers' career trajectories and what effect their experiences have on their future career…

  3. What Do We See?: Extending Understanding of Visual Experience in the Art Therapy Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience and meaning making in art therapy constitute more than looking at the image created. Clients and therapists utilize the environment of therapy in ways that have been hitherto unrecognized. This article presents a key finding from an art-based study of the experience of the art therapy room from the perspectives of client and…

  4. Understanding Accounting as a Career: An Immersion Work Experience for Students Making Career Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Dianne; Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a project which is designed to increase the participation of high school students in accounting work experience placements. The focus of the paper is on an Australian-based project which overcomes the identified barriers to offering high school accounting work experience placements with a resultant increase in the number and…

  5. Understanding the Science Experiences of Successful Women of Color: Science Identity as an Analytic Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Johnson, Angela

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we develop a model of science identity to make sense of the science experiences of 15 successful women of color over the course of their undergraduate and graduate studies in science and into science-related careers. In our view, science identity accounts both for how women make meaning of science experiences and how society…

  6. Understanding Students' Experiments--What Kind of Support Do They Need in Inquiry Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Julia Caroline; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry learning is a widely recognized method for fostering inquiry competence in science education. Nevertheless, there is discussion about how to best support students while working on inquiry tasks (in this case: experiments on causal relationships). To identify the kind of support students need in order to design experiments in upper grades,…

  7. Novel experiments for understanding the shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    DePoorter, G.L.; Abeele, W.V.; Hakonson, T.E.; Burton, B.W.; Perkins, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    Three field experiments that will provide data on water movement in SLB facilities are described. The experiments are designed to measure water movement, to quantify techniques to control water movement and to determine the effects of surface moisture content fluctuations on liquid and vapor movement back to the surface.

  8. Shared Communities and Shared Understandings: The Experiences of Asian Women in a British University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2008-01-01

    This article examines Asian women's experiences of belonging to communities of practice within higher education in Britain. The research explores the ways in which women engage in friendship and support networks, how they negotiate their identities and their experiences of being marginalised and "different". The research argues that…

  9. Postdoctoral Positions as Preparation for Desired Careers: A Narrative Approach to Understanding Postdoctoral Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shuhua; McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Doing a "postdoc" following a doctorate is becoming more and more common worldwide as the pre-tenure job market continues shrinking in relation to the number of PhD graduates. Yet, behind statistics and descriptions of collective experience, how individuals experience the postdoctoral period is largely unknown, especially how they use…

  10. Postdoctoral Positions as Preparation for Desired Careers: A Narrative Approach to Understanding Postdoctoral Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shuhua; McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Doing a "postdoc" following a doctorate is becoming more and more common worldwide as the pre-tenure job market continues shrinking in relation to the number of PhD graduates. Yet, behind statistics and descriptions of collective experience, how individuals experience the postdoctoral period is largely unknown, especially how they use…

  11. Using Wenger's Social Theory of Learning to Examine University Teachers' Understanding of How Instructional Technology Affects Their Experience in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to take an exploratory look at how university teachers come to understand their experience in educational practice and their professional role as teachers who integrate instructional technology into their coursework using the framework provided by Wenger's Social Theory of Learning. University faculty who teach in a…

  12. Using Wenger's Social Theory of Learning to Examine University Teachers' Understanding of How Instructional Technology Affects Their Experience in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to take an exploratory look at how university teachers come to understand their experience in educational practice and their professional role as teachers who integrate instructional technology into their coursework using the framework provided by Wenger's Social Theory of Learning. University faculty who teach in a…

  13. Understanding Students' Experience of Transition from Lecture Mode to Case-Based Teaching in a Management School in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Subhadip; Banerjee, Pratyush

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to understand experience of students about transition from lecture mode to case study pedagogy in business management courses. Indian education system is predominantly a follower of the lecture mode of teaching from the grass-root level till graduation. Hence Indian students are relatively less familiar with the case based…

  14. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  15. Understanding Students' Experience of Transition from Lecture Mode to Case-Based Teaching in a Management School in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Subhadip; Banerjee, Pratyush

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to understand experience of students about transition from lecture mode to case study pedagogy in business management courses. Indian education system is predominantly a follower of the lecture mode of teaching from the grass-root level till graduation. Hence Indian students are relatively less familiar with the case based…

  16. Toward a Cultural Perspective and Understanding of the Disability and Deaf Experience in Special and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John R.; McIntosh, Angela S.

    2009-01-01

    This position paper provides a rationale for infusing cultural perspectives and understandings of the Disability and Deaf experiences into special and multicultural education teacher preparation programs. Substantial evidence of well-established features of the Disability community and Deaf community that meet definitional criteria for culture as…

  17. A Typology for Understanding the Career and Technical Education Credit-Taking Experience of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliaga, Oscar A.; Kotamraju, Pradeep; Stone, James R., III

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a typology that allows us to explore and analyze the career and technical education (CTE) credit-taking experience of all high school students, not just those traditionally considered CTE (or vocational) students. We argue that this new typology provides a better framework for understanding CTE than the more traditional…

  18. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  19. Toward a Cultural Perspective and Understanding of the Disability and Deaf Experience in Special and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John R.; McIntosh, Angela S.

    2009-01-01

    This position paper provides a rationale for infusing cultural perspectives and understandings of the Disability and Deaf experiences into special and multicultural education teacher preparation programs. Substantial evidence of well-established features of the Disability community and Deaf community that meet definitional criteria for culture as…

  20. Converging on a richer understanding of human behavior and experience through a blending of cognitive and clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly

    2006-03-01

    McClelland, Kemps, and Tiggemann's (this issue) use of experimental methods typically used in cognitive psychology to reduce the intensity of food cravings formed the basis for maintaining that an understanding of human experiences and behaviors requires a blending of cognitive and clinical psychological approaches. Clinical psychology can adapt cognitive models of information processing to understand the mechanisms underlying clinical phenomena and to create and evaluate effective interventions. Cognitive psychology should broaden its scope to include information relevant to clinical phenomena, such as desire, attitudes, self-regulation, and temperament. Only through a blending of these two fields will we converge on a richer understanding of human behavior and experience. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Influence of student-designed experiments with fast plants on their understanding of plants and of scientific inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akey, Ann Kosek

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation investigates the influence of student designed experiments with Fast Plants in an undergraduate agroecology course on the students' conceptual understanding of plant life cycles and on their procedural understanding of scientific experimentation. It also considers students' perspectives on the value of these experiences. Data sources included semi-structured interviews with students and the instructor, a written task, course evaluations, and observations of class meetings. Students came into the course having strong practical experience with plants from their agricultural backgrounds. Students did not always connect aspects of plant biology that they studied in class, particularly respiration and photosynthesis, to plant growth requirements. The instructor was able to bridge the gap between some practical knowledge and textbook knowledge with experiences other than the Fast Plant project. Most students held an incomplete picture of plant reproduction that was complicated by differences between agricultural and scientific vocabulary. There is need for teaching approaches that help students tie together their knowledge of plants into a cohesive framework. Experiences that help students draw on their background knowledge related to plants, and which give students the opportunity to examine and discuss their ideas, may help students make more meaningful connections. The Fast Plant project, a positive experience for most students, was seen by these undergraduate students as being more helpful in learning about scientific experimentation than about plants. The process of designing and carrying out their own experiments gave students insight into experimentation, provoked their curiosity, and resulted in a sense of ownership and accomplishment.

  2. Understanding Tuberculosis: Perspectives and Experiences of the People of Sabah, East Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is a country with the intermediate burden of tuberculosis (TB). TB is still a public-health problem in Sabah, one of the two states in East Malaysia. In 2007, the state of Sabah contributed slightly more than 3,000 of 16,129 new and relapse cases reported in the country. It has a notification rate of two and a half times that of the country's. Very few studies on TB have been conducted in Sabah, and there is little documentation on the perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB on the people of Sabah. A qualitative study was conducted in 2006 in seven districts in Sabah to assess the knowledge and perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, also to know the experiences of healthcare services, and to examine the impact of TB on patients and families. Purposive sampling identified 27 TB patients and 20 relatives and community members who were interviewed using a set of questions on knowledge, perceptions about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB. A further 11 health staff attended informal discussions and feedback sessions. Most interviews were taped and later translated. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Ninety-six percent of the respondents did not know the cause of TB. Some thought that TB occurred due to a ‘tear’ in the body or due to hard work or inflammation while others thought that it occurred due to eating contaminated food or due to sharing utensils or breathing space with TB patients. Although the germ theory was not well-known, 98% of the respondents believed that TB was infectious. Some patients did not perceive the symptoms they had as those of TB. The prevailing practice among the respondents was to seek modern medicine for cure. Other forms of treatment, such as traditional medicine, were sought if modern medicine failed to cure the disease. TB was still a stigmatizing disease, and the expression of this was in both perceived and enacted

  3. Understanding tuberculosis: perspectives and experiences of the people of Sabah, East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rundi, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Malaysia is a country with the intermediate burden of tuberculosis (TB). TB is still a public-health problem in Sabah, one of the two states in East Malaysia. In 2007, the state of Sabah contributed slightly more than 3,000 of 16,129 new and relapse cases reported in the country. It has a notification rate of two and a half times that of the country's. Very few studies on TB have been conducted in Sabah, and there is little documentation on the perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB on the people of Sabah. A qualitative study was conducted in 2006 in seven districts in Sabah to assess the knowledge and perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, also to know the experiences of healthcare services, and to examine the impact of TB on patients and families. Purposive sampling identified 27 TB patients and 20 relatives and community members who were interviewed using a set of questions on knowledge, perceptions about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB. A further 11 health staff attended informal discussions and feedback sessions. Most interviews were taped and later translated. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Ninety-six percent of the respondents did not know the cause of TB. Some thought that TB occurred due to a 'tear' in the body or due to hard work or inflammation while others thought that it occurred due to eating contaminated food or due to sharing utensils or breathing space with TB patients. Although the germ theory was not well-known, 98% of the respondents believed that TB was infectious. Some patients did not perceive the symptoms they had as those of TB. The prevailing practice among the respondents was to seek modem medicine for cure. Other forms of treatment, such as traditional medicine, were sought if modem medicine failed to cure the disease. TB was still a stigmatizing disease, and the expression of this was in both perceived and enacted ways

  4. Understanding the experiences of a group of Yemeni students in an ESL science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradi, Gihan

    American classrooms are experiencing an influx of diverse language speaking students while for science educators the study of EBL students' learning in science classrooms is a relatively new field (Lee & Buxton, 2010). At the same time there is a growing emphasis on the importance of science practices (NGSS). This poses significant challenges for science educators who are enacting science curriculum that supports all students' learning. Supporting EBL students' academic achievement is significant because literacy is important for students' access to economic and social benefits that come with science literacy (Atwater, 1996). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-linguistic challenges that a specific group of EBL students (Yemeni) faced and the extent to which such challenges affected their academic performance in science. These challenges are related to linguistic and cultural interactions, which can lead to conflicts between student and school, thereby interfering with the effectiveness of their education. This study also examined these students' and their science teacher's perspectives on strategies that can be used to facilitate their language acquisition during science class and help them become active participants in the school and classroom communities. The study used a qualitative interpretive research methodology and involved four Arab-American EBL students (two males and two females) from Yemen, who had been in the US for different periods of time. The amount of time these students had been in the US was important to examine differences in their acculturation and challenges they faced. Similarly, the use of female and male student participants was important to understand the impact of gender in the lived experiences of these students. The results of the study indicated that all the participants struggled with linguistic, social, and cultural aspects of their life in an American high school. These in turn led to a sense of being different

  5. Understanding the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans Australians living with dementia, and their partners.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Catherine; Crameri, Pauline; Lambourne, Sally; Latham, J R; Whyte, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    To outline the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) Australians living with dementia - and their partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with LGBT people, their partners and service providers. LGBT people living with dementia experience unique challenges including the failure of some families of origin and service providers to understand and value their sexual orientation or gender identity. The fear of discrimination by service providers results in greater reliance on intimate partners for care and compounds social isolation. The unique experiences of LGBT people with dementia are not well understood. There is a need to recognise historical experiences, including familial relationships, and provide advocacy to ensure sexual and gender rights are not violated. There is also a need to ensure that the experiences and perspectives of LGBT people living with dementia inform the development of services. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  6. Understanding the breast cancer experience: a qualitative study of Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Azlina; Ab Hadi, Imi Sairi; Mahamood, Zainal; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Keng, Soon Lean

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common and leading cause of cancer mortality among Malaysian women. Despite good survival rates, the diagnosis of cancer still invokes the feeling of stress, fear and uncertainty. Because very little is known about the experiences of Malaysian women with breast cancer, a qualitative study using semi- structured interviews to explore the lived experience of newly diagnosed breast cancer. Using a purposive sampling method, 20 Malaysian women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, including Malays (n=10) and Chinese (n=10) were recruited in two main public hospitals in Kelantan. Similarities and divergence in women's experience were identified through thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Three themes emerged from the data: uncertainty experience of the illness, transition process and fatalistic view of breast cancer. In many ways, these findings were parallel with previous studies, suggesting that the experience of breast cancer is to a certain extent similar among women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. This study adds to the sparse literature concerning the experience of illness following breast cancer diagnosis among the Malays and Chinese. More importantly, this study addressed areas that were previously lacking, specifically in depth information on breast cancer experience from a developing country with a multi-ethnic population. The results of this investigation provide preliminary information to healthcare professionals on the impact of illness and cultural influence on survivorship to plan for appropriate education and supportive programme in order to meet the needs of breast cancer women more effectively.

  7. What Factors Determine the Retention Behavior of Engineered Nanomaterials in Saturated Porous Media?

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Eli; McNew, Coy; Scheringer, Martin; Bucheli, Thomas D; Nelson, Peter; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-03-07

    A fundamental problem associated with the vertical transport of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in saturated porous media is the occurrence of nonexponential, for example, nonmonotonic or linearly increasing, retention profiles. To investigate this problem, we compiled an extensive database of ENMs transport experiments in saturated porous media. Using this database we trained a decision tree that shows the order of importance, and range of influence, of the physicochemical factors that control the retention profile shape. Our results help identify domains where current particle-transport models can be used, but also highlight, for the first time, large domains where nonexponential retention profiles dominate and new approaches are needed to understand ENM transport. Importantly, highly advective flow and high ENM influent mass can mask the influence of other physicochemical factors on the retention profile shape; notably, this occurs in 50% of the experiments investigated. Where the relationship between physicochemical factors and retention profile shape can be investigated in detail, our results agree with, and provide validation for, the current understanding of how these factors influence ENM transport.

  8. Understanding of the late Michelson's experiments that confirmed the aether existence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rek, Radosław

    2016-06-01

    This paper contains a brief discussion of results of two experiments made by Albert Michelson in the years of 1923-1925. According to the paper written by the Nobel Prize winner the aether dragging should exist.

  9. Toward a more complete understanding of the link between multicultural experience and creativity.

    PubMed

    Maddux, William W; Leung, Angela Ka-Yee; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Galinsky, Adam D

    2009-01-01

    Responds to G. J. Rich's comments on the current author's original article which presented evidence supporting the idea that multicultural experience can facilitate creativity. Rich has argued that our review, although timely and important, was somewhat limited in scope, focusing mostly on smaller forms of creativity ("little c": e.g., paper-and-pencil measures of creativity) as well as on larger forms of multicultural experience ("Big M": e.g., living in a foreign country). We agree with many aspects of Rich's assessment. The issue of whether different forms of multicultural experience can affect Big C creativity is of interest to both scholars and laypeople because creative breakthroughs can literally alter the course of human progress. The response to our article, including Rich's reply, supports our view that the interest in multicultural experience and creativity is far from exhausted; future research will certainly uncover important new insights.

  10. Using the Five Senses of Success framework to understand the experiences of midwifery students enroled in an undergraduate degree program.

    PubMed

    Sidebotham, M; Fenwick, J; Carter, A; Gamble, J

    2015-01-01

    developing a student's sense of capability, purpose, resourcefulness, identity and connectedness (five-senses of success) are key factors that may be important in predicting student satisfaction and progression within their university program. the study aimed to examine the expectations and experiences of second and third year midwifery students enroled in a Bachelor of Midwifery program and identify barriers and enablers to success. a descriptive exploratory qualitative design was used. Fifty-six students enroled in either year 2 or 3 of the Bachelor of Midwifery program in SE Queensland participated in an anonymous survey using open-ended questions. In addition, 16 students participated in two year-level focus groups. Template analysis, using the Five Senses Framework, was used to analyse the data set. early exposure to 'hands on' clinical midwifery practice as well as continuity of care experiences provided students with an opportunity to link theory to practice and increased their perception of capability as they transitioned through the program. Students' sense of identity, purpose, resourcefulness, and capability was strongly influenced by the programs embedded meta-values, including a 'woman centred' approach. In addition, a student's ability to form strong positive relationships with women, peers, lecturers and supportive clinicians was central to developing connections and ultimately a sense of success. A sense of connection not only fostered an ongoing belief that challenges could be overcome but that students themselves could initiate or influence change. the five senses framework provided a useful lens through which to analyse the student experience. Key factors to student satisfaction and retention within a Bachelor of Midwifery program include: a clearly articulated midwifery philosophy, strategies to promote student connectedness including the use of social media, and further development of clinicians' skills in preceptorship, clinical teaching and

  11. Understanding the subjective experiences and needs of patients as they approach death.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Penny

    When patients are approaching the end of life their spiritual as well as physical needs should be considered. This article considers how nurses can best support patients who are dying and work to ensure they experience a peaceful transition to death. Attending to their spiritual needs is shown to be of utmost importance; the near death and end of life experiences that some patients may have are also taken into consideration.

  12. Understanding Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments Reveals Signatures of Translation Dynamics in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hussmann, Jeffrey A.; Patchett, Stephanie; Johnson, Arlen; Sawyer, Sara; Press, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome profiling produces snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes on messenger RNAs. These snapshots can be used to make inferences about translation dynamics. Recent ribosome profiling studies in yeast, however, have reached contradictory conclusions regarding the average translation rate of each codon. Some experiments have used cycloheximide (CHX) to stabilize ribosomes before measuring their positions, and these studies all counterintuitively report a weak negative correlation between the translation rate of a codon and the abundance of its cognate tRNA. In contrast, some experiments performed without CHX report strong positive correlations. To explain this contradiction, we identify unexpected patterns in ribosome density downstream of each type of codon in experiments that use CHX. These patterns are evidence that elongation continues to occur in the presence of CHX but with dramatically altered codon-specific elongation rates. The measured positions of ribosomes in these experiments therefore do not reflect the amounts of time ribosomes spend at each position in vivo. These results suggest that conclusions from experiments in yeast using CHX may need reexamination. In particular, we show that in all such experiments, codons decoded by less abundant tRNAs were in fact being translated more slowly before the addition of CHX disrupted these dynamics. PMID:26656907

  13. Understanding Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments Reveals Signatures of Translation Dynamics in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Hussmann, Jeffrey A; Patchett, Stephanie; Johnson, Arlen; Sawyer, Sara; Press, William H

    2015-12-01

    Ribosome profiling produces snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes on messenger RNAs. These snapshots can be used to make inferences about translation dynamics. Recent ribosome profiling studies in yeast, however, have reached contradictory conclusions regarding the average translation rate of each codon. Some experiments have used cycloheximide (CHX) to stabilize ribosomes before measuring their positions, and these studies all counterintuitively report a weak negative correlation between the translation rate of a codon and the abundance of its cognate tRNA. In contrast, some experiments performed without CHX report strong positive correlations. To explain this contradiction, we identify unexpected patterns in ribosome density downstream of each type of codon in experiments that use CHX. These patterns are evidence that elongation continues to occur in the presence of CHX but with dramatically altered codon-specific elongation rates. The measured positions of ribosomes in these experiments therefore do not reflect the amounts of time ribosomes spend at each position in vivo. These results suggest that conclusions from experiments in yeast using CHX may need reexamination. In particular, we show that in all such experiments, codons decoded by less abundant tRNAs were in fact being translated more slowly before the addition of CHX disrupted these dynamics.

  14. Understanding the Undergraduate Experience of the Baccalaureate Nursing Student with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzubaty, Dolores R.

    2013-01-01

    Disparities exist in healthcare related to language barriers and lack of cultural understanding between caregivers and recipients. Increasing the linguistic and cultural diversity of caregivers may decrease the healthcare disparities observed. The research study described in this manuscript was conducted to explore the undergraduate student…

  15. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment with Undergraduate Student by Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maya, Rippi; Sumarmo, Utari

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach on improving students' mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subjects of study were 56 undergraduate students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course.…

  16. The Role of Motor Experience in Understanding Action Function: The Case of the Precision Grasp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adults and infants selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object. The current research investigated whether this bias stems from infants' processing of the functional consequences of grasps: understanding that different grasps afford different future actions. A habituation paradigm…

  17. Infants' Social and Motor Experience and the Emerging Understanding of Intentional Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social--cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently…

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences Implementing a Hybrid Curriculum: Sport Education and Teaching Games for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stran, Margaret; Sinelnikov, Oleg; Woodruff, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid Sport Education (SE) and Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) pedagogical model shifts responsibilities to students and enhances game play by focusing on tactical problems. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine pre-service teachers' (PTs) perceptions teaching a SE-TGfU hybrid; and (2) identify facilitators and inhibitors that…

  19. Coming to Understand Diversity and Education: Life Experiences and Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coming to understand how cultural differences influence interactions between educators and students and their parents is a complex and perhaps life-long discovery. Culture helps to define groups' belief systems and expectations for appropriate behavior, often at a hidden level. Pre-service teachers need multiple opportunities to interact with…

  20. Understanding Teachers' Experience of Teaching American History: A Study of TAH Grant Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ables, Connie J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to follow six middle and high school TAH teachers and study their understanding and manifestations of the aims of the grant. Currently, there are few dissertations about the TAH program and none that address it as a qualitative study. This study focused on the ways that teachers experienced the grant including four…

  1. Reasoning, Not Recipes: Helping Your Students Develop Statistical Understanding and Enjoy the Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Gai

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is often presented to students as a series of algorithms to be learnt by heart and applied at the appropriate time to get "the correct answer". This approach, while it may in fact produce the right answer, has been shown to be minimally effective at helping students understand the underlying statistical concepts. As Holmes noted,…

  2. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  3. Coming to Understand Diversity and Education: Life Experiences and Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coming to understand how cultural differences influence interactions between educators and students and their parents is a complex and perhaps life-long discovery. Culture helps to define groups' belief systems and expectations for appropriate behavior, often at a hidden level. Pre-service teachers need multiple opportunities to interact with…

  4. Developing Children's Conceptual Understanding of Area Measurement: A Curriculum and Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Mei E.; Witz, Klaus G.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of three instructional treatments which had different combinations of mathematical elements regarding 2-dimensional (2-D) geometry and area measurement for developing 4th-grade children's understanding of the formulas for area measurement and their ability to solve area measurement problems.…

  5. Understanding Difference through Dialogue: A First-Year Experience for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakral, Charu; Vasquez, Philip L.; Bottoms, Bette L.; Matthews, Alicia K.; Hudson, Kimberly M.; Whitley, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    Research (Gurin, Nagda, & Zúñiga, 2009) on intergroup dialogue (IGD) has primarily focused on student outcomes in traditional semester-long, 3-credit courses, documenting the positive impact IGD has on college students' (a) intergroup understanding, (b) intergroup relationships, (c) intergroup collaboration and action, and (d) perceived…

  6. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  7. Experience, Recursive Awareness and Understanding in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights of Parents and Teachers in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Yoon-Suk; Klieve, Helen; Kearney, Patrick; Saggers, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Provision of an individually responsive education requires a comprehensive understanding of the inner worlds of learners, such as their feelings and thoughts. However, this is difficult to achieve when learners, such as those with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and cognitive difficulties, have problems with communication. To address this issue,…

  8. Do Signers Understand Regional Varieties of a Sign Language? A Lexical Recognition Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose

    2016-01-01

    The degree of mutual intelligibility of British Sign Language (BSL) regional varieties has been a subject of some debate. Recent research in which dyads of signers from contrasting regional backgrounds engaged in a conversational task showed no problems understanding one another. The present study investigated signers' knowledge of different BSL…

  9. Developing Children's Conceptual Understanding of Area Measurement: A Curriculum and Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Mei E.; Witz, Klaus G.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of three instructional treatments which had different combinations of mathematical elements regarding 2-dimensional (2-D) geometry and area measurement for developing 4th-grade children's understanding of the formulas for area measurement and their ability to solve area measurement problems.…

  10. Do Signers Understand Regional Varieties of a Sign Language? A Lexical Recognition Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose

    2016-01-01

    The degree of mutual intelligibility of British Sign Language (BSL) regional varieties has been a subject of some debate. Recent research in which dyads of signers from contrasting regional backgrounds engaged in a conversational task showed no problems understanding one another. The present study investigated signers' knowledge of different BSL…

  11. An Intuitive Graphical Approach to Understanding the Split-Plot Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Timothy J.; Brenneman, William A.; Myers, William R.

    2009-01-01

    While split-plot designs have received considerable attention in the literature over the past decade, there seems to be a general lack of intuitive understanding of the error structure of these designs and the resulting statistical analysis. Typically, students learn the proper error terms for testing factors of a split-plot design via "expected…

  12. Infants' Social and Motor Experience and the Emerging Understanding of Intentional Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social--cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently…

  13. The Impact of Field Experience on Preservice Teachers' Understandings of Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Lisa S.; Lake, Vickie E.

    2003-01-01

    The literature indicates that caring is beneficial to children both academically and socially. As teacher educators, then, one of their goals should be to create curricula and preparation programs that engender in preservice teachers an understanding of the pedagogical power of caring and a commitment to implementing care-centered teaching…

  14. Pre-Service PE Teachers' Occupational Socialization Experiences on Teaching Games for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chung; Cruz, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Background: Teaching Games for Understanding has been promoted as an innovative curriculum model in the past decade in Hong Kong. It focuses on developing pupils' tactical awareness and decision making capability through integrating the cognitive and contextual dimensions of learning in physical education. Aims: This article reports a qualitative…

  15. Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences Implementing a Hybrid Curriculum: Sport Education and Teaching Games for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stran, Margaret; Sinelnikov, Oleg; Woodruff, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid Sport Education (SE) and Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) pedagogical model shifts responsibilities to students and enhances game play by focusing on tactical problems. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine pre-service teachers' (PTs) perceptions teaching a SE-TGfU hybrid; and (2) identify facilitators and inhibitors that…

  16. Learning Informally to Use Teaching Games for Understanding: The Experiences of a Recently Qualified Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of one recently qualified teacher's employment of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model in a UK secondary school. The study sought to examine how the teacher, not formally educated in its use, delivered TGfU and to identify those factors that led to this interpretation of the model. Occupational…

  17. An Intuitive Graphical Approach to Understanding the Split-Plot Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Timothy J.; Brenneman, William A.; Myers, William R.

    2009-01-01

    While split-plot designs have received considerable attention in the literature over the past decade, there seems to be a general lack of intuitive understanding of the error structure of these designs and the resulting statistical analysis. Typically, students learn the proper error terms for testing factors of a split-plot design via "expected…

  18. Learning Informally to Use Teaching Games for Understanding: The Experiences of a Recently Qualified Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of one recently qualified teacher's employment of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model in a UK secondary school. The study sought to examine how the teacher, not formally educated in its use, delivered TGfU and to identify those factors that led to this interpretation of the model. Occupational…

  19. Hydrogen retention in ion irradiated steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, J.D.; Lewis, M.B.; Lee, E.H.

    1998-11-01

    In the future 1--5 MW Spallation Neutron Source, target radiation damage will be accompanied by high levels of hydrogen and helium transmutation products. The authors have recently carried out investigations using simultaneous Fe/He,H multiple-ion implantations into 316 LN stainless steel between 50 and 350 C to simulate the type of radiation damage expected in spallation neutron sources. Hydrogen and helium were injected at appropriate energy and rate, while displacement damage was introduced by nuclear stopping of 3.5 MeV Fe{sup +}, 1 {micro}m below the surface. Nanoindentation measurements showed a cumulative increase in hardness as a result of hydrogen and helium injection over and above the hardness increase due to the displacement damage alone. TEM investigation indicated the presence of small bubbles of the injected gases in the irradiated area. In the current experiment, the retention of hydrogen in irradiated steel was studied in order to better understand its contribution to the observed hardening. To achieve this, the deuterium isotope ({sup 2}H) was injected in place of natural hydrogen ({sup 1}H) during the implantation. Trapped deuterium was then profiled, at room temperature, using the high cross-section nuclear resonance reaction with {sup 3}He. Results showed a surprisingly high concentration of deuterium to be retained in the irradiated steel at low temperature, especially in the presence of helium. There is indication that hydrogen retention at spallation neutron source relevant target temperatures may reach as high as 10%.

  20. Mouse vision as a gateway for understanding how experience shapes neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Nicholas J.; McGee, Aaron W.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic programs controlling ontogeny drive many of the essential connectivity patterns within the brain. Yet it is activity, derived from the experience of interacting with the world, that sculpts the precise circuitry of the central nervous system. Such experience-dependent plasticity has been observed throughout the brain but has been most extensively studied in the neocortex. A prime example of this refinement of neural circuitry is found in primary visual cortex (V1), where functional connectivity changes have been observed both during development and in adulthood. The mouse visual system has become a predominant model for investigating the principles that underlie experience-dependent plasticity, given the general conservation of visual neural circuitry across mammals as well as the powerful tools and techniques recently developed for use in rodent. The genetic tractability of mice has permitted the identification of signaling pathways that translate experience-driven activity patterns into changes in circuitry. Further, the accessibility of visual cortex has allowed neural activity to be manipulated with optogenetics and observed with genetically-encoded calcium sensors. Consequently, mouse visual cortex has become one of the dominant platforms to study experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:25324730