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Sample records for reticulocyte count

  1. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - reticulocyte ... A higher than normal reticulocytes count may indicate: Anemia due to red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn ( ...

  2. Manual and automated reticulocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Simionatto, Mackelly; de Paula, Josiane Padilha; Chaves, Michele Ana Flores; Bortoloso, Márcia; Cicchetti, Domenic; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José

    2010-12-01

    Manual reticulocyte counts were examined under light microscopy, using the property whereby supravital stain precipitates residual ribosomal RNA versus the automated flow methods, with the suggestion that in the latter there is greater precision and an ability to determine both mature and immature reticulocyte fractions. Three hundred and forty-one venous blood samples of patients were analyzed of whom 224 newborn and the rest adults; 51 males and 66 females, with ages between 0 and 89 years, as part of the laboratory routine for hematological examinations at the Clinical Laboratory of the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná. This work aimed to compare manual and automated methodologies for reticulocyte countings and evaluate random and systematic errors. The results obtained showed that the difference between the two methods was very small, with an estimated 0·4% systematic error and 3·9% random error. Thus, it has been confirmed that both methods, when well conducted, can reflect precisely the reticulocyte counts for adequate clinical use.

  3. Reticulocyte quantification by flow cytometry, image analysis, and manual counting.

    PubMed

    Schimenti, K J; Lacerna, K; Wamble, A; Maston, L; Iaffaldano, C; Straight, M; Rabinovitch, A; Lazarus, H M; Jacobberger, J W

    1992-01-01

    Reticulocyte counting by flow cytometry with thiazole orange was compared to manual or automated counting of new methylene blue stained blood smears. Forty-nine samples were compared for manual counting from randomly chosen clinical samples. Two hundred and eighty-nine samples from bone marrow transplant patients were compared during the period before and through chemo-irradiation and engraftment. The slopes of correlation plots were less than 1 when flow cytometric data were the dependent variable, suggesting that thiazole orange is less sensitive than new methylene blue. In a third study, 407 samples from bone marrow transplant patients were compared after increasing the thiazole orange concentration. The reticulocyte fluorescence distribution was divided into four groups of the brightest (youngest) 40, 60, 80, and 100% of reticulocytes. The slopes from regression analysis were 0.25, 0.49, 0.78, and 1.14, respectively. This demonstrates that thiazole orange is more sensitive than new methylene blue because the window of analysis includes an increased fraction of mature reticulocytes. In addition, the precision of each assay as measured. The rank order of precision from high to low was flow cytometry > image analysis > manual counting.

  4. Influence of in vitro hemolysis on nucleated red blood cells and reticulocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Lippi, G; Pavesi, F; Cattabiani, C; Avanzini, P; Pipitone, S

    2013-04-01

    Nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) and reticulocytes are early and important measures of red blood cells' (RBCs) turnover, but little is known on how spurious hemolysis may affect the reliability of these parameters. Ten EDTA-anticoagulated samples were divided into three aliquots. The first was immediately tested, where-as the others (defined A and B) were mechanically hemolyzed by aspiration 5 and 10 times through a small-gauge needle. RBC, NRBC, and reticulocyte counts were performed on Sysmex XE-2100. An increasing amount of hemolysis was produced in hemolyzed aliquots A and B. The RBC and reticulocyte counts progressively decreased from the nonhemolyzed sample to hemolyzed aliquots 'A' and 'B'. The NRBC count increased in 3 of the 10 samples and decreased in the remaining seven. Hemolysis of venous blood samples may seriously jeopardize NRBC and reticulocyte counts. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. [Automated measurement of reticulocyte count by flow cytometry. II: Analysis of the blood containing abnormal erythrocytes or giant platelets].

    PubMed

    Oyamatsu, T; Shimizu, N; Takeuchi, K; Yamamoto, M; Kawai, Y; Watanabe, K; Iri, H

    1989-07-01

    We have examined the influence of erythrocytes containing inclusion bodies, nucleated red cells or giant platelets on the measurement of reticulocyte count by automated machine, R-1000. Correlation of the reticulocyte count between automated and conventional method was extremely good in the blood containing red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling . However, correlation was poor when the sample contained the nucleated red cells. Reticulocyte count was decreased in the blood with significant amounts of nucleated red cells. Since nucleated red cells themselves are not counted as reticulocytes in the machine, this was considered to be due to increased young reticulocytes which frequently appeared with nucleated red cells. Both cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets apparently influenced the reticulocyte count by the R-1000. These results suggest that red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling do not influence the automatic counting of reticulocytes. Although nucleated red cells, cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets affected the reticulocyte count, the machine shows abnormal flags in most of above cases (except highly agglutinated red cells), so that one can recount reticulocytes by conventional method. We conclude the machine can safely count the reticulocytes even in the blood containing abnormal red cells or platelets.

  6. Accuracy of the CellaVision DM96 platform for reticulocyte counting

    PubMed Central

    Mahe, Etienne R.; Higa, Diane; Naugler, Christopher; Mansoor, Adnan; Shabani-Rad, Meer-Taher

    2014-01-01

    Context: Many hematology laboratories have adopted semi-automated digital platforms for routine use and the evidence supporting their use is increasing. Aims: The CellaVision platforms are among the most thoroughly studied digital hematology platforms; we wished to determine the accuracy of CellaVision for reticulocyte counting. Design, Materials and Methods: We compared reticulocyte counts performed manually, using the Beckman Coulter LH750 automated analyzer and with the CellaVision DM96 platform. We analyzed the results for pair-wise correlation and bias, and precision. Statistical Analyses Used: Analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS), including Spearman's rho correlation coefficient, Friedman's two-way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) for comparison of distributions; bias was compared by way of mean and standard deviation. Results: The CellaVision reticulocyte counts correlated most strongly with those of the analyzer (often considered the benchmark test); the reticulocyte count distributions were noted not to be significantly different from each other across all three methods. The mean and standard deviation of bias were lowest in the comparison of CellaVision and LH750 counts. Conclusions: Our data provide additional support for the accuracy of digital hematology applications using the CellaVision DM96 platform. PMID:25057431

  7. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-10-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices.

  8. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices. PMID:27818730

  9. Erroneously elevated immature reticulocyte counts in leukemic patients determined using a Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jungwon; Moon, Heewon; Chung, Whasoon

    2007-10-01

    The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) in peripheral blood, as determined by automated reticulocyte analysis, is calculated using the sum of medium and highly fluorescent reticulocyte numbers and provides information about erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. The purpose of this study was to investigate erroneously elevated IRF in leukemic patients, as determined using a Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). Normal reticulocyte scattergram patterns show regions corresponding to reticulocytes located between matured RBCs and an upper particle (UPP) region, which show a continuum of non-separated fraction. The UPP represents erythroblasts and some immature reticulocytes. As a control group, peripheral blood was taken from patients with benign hematologic diseases, and their reticulocyte scattergrams all showed a normal pattern; UPP values were all less than 100. However, the reticulocyte scattergrams of 5 of 11 leukemia patients showed abnormal patterns and displayed a gap between RBC and reticulocyte regions. Three patients showed a flag with a message such as "RET Abn Scattergram". IRF results were elevated in these five patients, and their UPP values were above 100. For the remaining six leukemia patients with a normal reticulocyte scattergram pattern, immature reticulocytes were not markedly increased, and UPP values were less than 100. The findings of the present study demonstrate that IRF results may be erroneously elevated in leukemia patients and indicate that hematologists should examine reticulocyte scattergrams and UPP values carefully.

  10. [Automated hematology analysers and spurious counts Part 3. Haemoglobin, red blood cells, cell count and indices, reticulocytes].

    PubMed

    Godon, Alban; Genevieve, Franck; Marteau-Tessier, Anne; Zandecki, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Several situations lead to abnormal haemoglobin measurement or to abnormal red blood cells (RBC) counts, including hyperlipemias, agglutinins and cryoglobulins, haemolysis, or elevated white blood cells (WBC) counts. Mean (red) cell volume may be also subject to spurious determination, because of agglutinins (mainly cold), high blood glucose level, natremia, anticoagulants in excess and at times technological considerations. Abnormality related to one measured parameter eventually leads to abnormal calculated RBC indices: mean cell haemoglobin content is certainly the most important RBC parameter to consider, maybe as important as flags generated by the haematology analysers (HA) themselves. In many circumstances, several of the measured parameters from cell blood counts (CBC) may be altered, and the discovery of a spurious change on one parameter frequently means that the validity of other parameters should be considered. Sensitive flags allow now the identification of several spurious counts, but only the most sophisticated HA have optimal flagging, and simpler ones, especially those without any WBC differential scattergram, do not share the same capacity to detect abnormal results. Reticulocytes are integrated into the CBC in many HA, and several situations may lead to abnormal counts, including abnormal gating, interference with intraerythrocytic particles, erythroblastosis or high WBC counts.

  11. Effects of artemisinins on reticulocyte count and relationship to possible embryotoxicity in confirmed and unconfirmed malarial patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L

    2012-02-01

    Rat studies suggest that artemisinin-induced decreases in reticulocyte count are a marker for embryotoxicity (in one study, r = 0.82; p < 0.05). In clinical studies, therapeutic doses of artemisinins induced decreases in reticulocyte count that were larger in five of six groups of healthy volunteers (mean decreases of 47-75%) than in 12 groups of patients with malaria (mean decreases of 0-34% and incidences of low reticulocyte count of 0.6-18%). Malaria causes hypoferremia and drug concentrates in infected red cells so, among the explanations for the lesser decreases in patients, is that malaria protects against artemisinin-induced decreases in reticulocyte count by reducing the target tissue levels of active drug and/or ferrous iron which activates the drug to toxic free radicals. The disease could also protect against embryotoxicity in which case pregnant women without malaria would be at greater risk of artemisinin-induced embryotoxicity. Malaria protection against artesunate toxicity has been observed in rats. No artemisinin-induced embryotoxicity has been identified in limited numbers of women with confirmed malaria in the first trimester. However, in large parts of tropical Africa, malaria treatment is based on fever rather than confirmation of parasitemia and many pregnant women without malaria are exposed to antimalarials. No clinical studies have been conducted on uninfected women for whom pregnancy was identified and then an artemisinin was administered subsequently. Testing in rats and/or humans is needed to determine if malaria protects against reticulocytopenia and embryotoxicity and whether the parasite is a more or less sensitive target than the embryo and reticulocyte.

  12. Reticulocytes in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Reticulocytes are the transitional cells from erythroblasts to mature erythrocytes. Reticulocytes are present in blood for a period of 1-4 days and can be recognized by staining with supravital dyes, such as new methylene blue, or fluorescent markers, which couple residual nucleic acid molecules, a hallmark of the immature forms of erythrocytes. Although reticulocytes could be counted through a microscope (there is a standard of International Committee for Standardisation in Haematology for manual counting), this method is reported to be time consuming, inaccurate and imprecise. The integration of the reticulocyte count in automated haematology systems allowed the widespread use of these parameters, although the lack of calibration material and different markers, technologies and software used in automated systems could engender discrepancies among data obtained from different analytical systems.The importance of reticulocytes in sports medicine derives from their sensitivity, the highest among haematology parameters, in identifying the bone marrow stimulation, especially when recombinant human erythropoietin is fraudulently used. Automated systems are also able to supply information on volume, density and the haemoglobin content of reticulocytes. Some of the related parameters are also used in algorithms for identifying abnormal stimulation of bone marrow as reticulocytes haematocrit. The pre-analytical variability of reticulocytes (transportation, storage, biological variability) should be taken into account in sports medicine also. Reticulocytes remain stable for almost 24 hours at 4 degrees C from blood drawing, they are affected by transportation, and biological variability is not high in general. It could be remarked, however, that the intra-individual variability is high when compared with other haematological parameters such as haemoglobin and haematocrit. The intervals of data reported in athletes are very similar to reference intervals characterizing the

  13. Development and evaluation of a novel in-clinic automated hematology analyzer, ProCyte Dx, for canine erythrocyte indices, leukogram, platelet counts and reticulocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakamura, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2013-11-01

    A novel hematology analyzer for small animal medicine, ProCyte Dx, was developed from combination of the fluorescence laser flow cytometry and laminar flow impedance technologies, and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing with the conventional impedance-based hematology analyzer, pocH-100iV Diff, or microscopic manual cell counting methods with staining blood smears in the canine blood. Blood samples of 59 dogs were hematologically analyzed and compared by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Analyses between the two analyzers showed excellent correlation in RBC (r=0.998), HGB (r=0.999), HCT (r=0.998), MCV (r=0.994), MCH (r=0.974), MCHC (r=0.906), WBC (r=0.998) and PLT (r=0.993). Analyses between ProCyte Dx and microscopic manual counting results showed excellent correlation in neutrophils (r=0.920), lymphocytes (r=0.913) and reticulocyte percentages (r=0.924), good correlation in eosinophils (r=0.815) and reticulocyte numbers (r=0.850) and fair correlation in monocytes (r=0.770). The present study indicates that ProCyte Dx is acceptably accurate and can be a powerful tool for canine clinical medicine.

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Novel In-Clinic Automated Hematology Analyzer, ProCyte Dx, for Canine Erythrocyte Indices, Leukogram, Platelet Counts and Reticulocyte Counts

    PubMed Central

    FUJINO, Yasuhito; NAKAMURA, Yoichi; MATSUMOTO, Hideaki; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; OHNO, Koichi; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel hematology analyzer for small animal medicine, ProCyte Dx, was developed from combination of the fluorescence laser flow cytometry and laminar flow impedance technologies, and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing with the conventional impedance-based hematology analyzer, pocH-100iV Diff, or microscopic manual cell counting methods with staining blood smears in the canine blood. Blood samples of 59 dogs were hematologically analyzed and compared by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Analyses between the two analyzers showed excellent correlation in RBC (r=0.998), HGB (r=0.999), HCT (r=0.998), MCV (r=0.994), MCH (r=0.974), MCHC (r=0.906), WBC (r=0.998) and PLT (r=0.993). Analyses between ProCyte Dx and microscopic manual counting results showed excellent correlation in neutrophils (r=0.920), lymphocytes (r=0.913) and reticulocyte percentages (r=0.924), good correlation in eosinophils (r=0.815) and reticulocyte numbers (r=0.850) and fair correlation in monocytes (r=0.770). The present study indicates that ProCyte Dx is acceptably accurate and can be a powerful tool for canine clinical medicine. PMID:23811854

  15. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  16. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... monitor response to treatment, such as that for iron-deficiency anemia To monitor bone marrow function following treatments ... condition known to affect RBC production, such as iron deficiency anemia , vitamin B12 or folate deficiency , or kidney ...

  17. [Reticulocytes in the diagnosis of anaemia].

    PubMed

    Heiligers-Duckers, Connie; Werner, Philo T; van Drunen, Marlea E P

    2013-01-01

    Reticulocytes are immature erythrocytes; the number of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood reflects erythropoietic activity. Two cases are described to illustrate the use of the reticulocyte count in the diagnostic workup of anaemia. The first patient was a 62-year-old woman presenting with fatigue. Laboratory evaluation showed severe macrocytic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and the presence of schistocytes. A low reticulocyte count suggested decreased erythropoiesis underlying the anaemia; this led to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. The second patient, a 52-year-old woman, also presented with fatigue and macrocytic anaemia. A high reticulocyte count indicated increased erythrocyte degradation, and the patient was eventually diagnosed with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. The role of reticulocytes in the differential diagnostic workup of anaemia was explored on the basis of these case descriptions. The test methodology, analytical performance, reference values and pitfalls were discussed, as well as the reticulocyte indices and their use in monitoring therapy.

  18. Reticulocyte count is the most important predictor of acute cerebral ischemia and high-risk transcranial Doppler in a newborn cohort of 395 children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Belisário, André Rolim; Sales, Rahyssa Rodrigues; Toledo, Nayara Evelin; Muniz, Maristela Braga de Sousa Rodrigues; Velloso-Rodrigues, Cibele; Silva, Célia Maria; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2016-10-01

    Stroke is a severe clinical manifestation of sickle cell anemia (SCA). Despite the prognostic relevance of transcranial Doppler (TCD), more accurate tools to assess stroke risk in children with SCA are required. Here, we describe the effect of clinical, laboratory, and molecular features on the risk of stroke and high-risk TCD in children from the newborn cohort of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Outcomes studied were acute cerebral ischemia and high-risk TCD. Clinical and hematological data were retrieved from children's records. Genetic markers, which were known for their association with stroke risk, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. The cumulative incidence of acute cerebral ischemia by the age of 8 years was 7.4 % and that of high-risk TCD by the age of 11.5 years was 14.2 %. The final multivariate model for acute cerebral ischemia risk included high white blood cell count and reticulocyte count, acute chest syndrome rate, and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) TEK rs489347 and TNF-α rs1800629. The model for high-risk TCD included high reticulocyte count and the SNPs TEK rs489347 and TGFBR3 rs284875. Children with risk factors should be considered for intensive risk monitoring and for intervention therapy.

  19. Developmental toxicity of artesunate in the rat: comparison to other artemisinins, comparison of embryotoxicity and kinetics by oral and intravenous routes, and relationship to maternal reticulocyte count.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L; Lerman, Steven A; Cox, Estella M; Gristwood, William E; White, Tacey E K

    2008-08-01

    The antimalarial, artesunate, is teratogenic and embryolethal in rats, with peak sensitivity on Days 10 and 11 postcoitum (pc). We compared the developmental toxicity of structurally related artemisinins, dihdyroartemisinin (DHA), artemether (ARTM), and arteether (ARTE) to that of artesunate after oral administration to rats on Day 10 pc. In separate studies, embryolethality was characterized after single intravenous (IV) administration of artesunate on Day 11 pc, and toxicokinetic parameters following oral and IV administration were compared. Lastly, to determine whether maternal hematologic effects occurred at doses that affect embryonic erythroblasts, artesunate was orally administered on Day 11 pc at a dose that caused 100% embryolethality. All artemisinins caused the same pattern of embryolethality and fetal cardiovascular and skeletal abnormalities as previously shown for artesunate. In the IV study, marked postimplantation loss occurred at 1.5 and 3 mg/kg artesunate, but not at 0.75 mg/kg. Among the toxicokinetic parameters evaluated, only the DHA AUC(0-t) was similar at embryolethal oral and IV doses of artesunate. An embryolethal dose of artesunate caused a 15% decrease in maternal reticulocyte counts and no other hematologic effects. Several structurally related artemisinins cause similar developmental toxicity, suggesting an artemisinin class effect. Equally embryotoxic oral and IV treatments of one artemisinin compound (artesunate) produced similar systemic exposure to the artesunate metabolite, DHA, suggesting that DHA may be the proximate developmental toxicant. Embryolethal doses of artesunate only caused minor changes in maternal reticulocyte counts indicating that adult hematology parameters are not as sensitive as embryonic erythroblasts. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Immature Reticulocyte Fraction and Absolute Neutrophil Count as Predictor of Hemopoietic Recovery in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on Remission Induction Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rauf, Shan E.; Khan, Saleem Ahmed; Ali, Nadir; Afridi, Nabeel Khan; Haroon, Maria; Arslan, Ammara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) encompasses a group of lymphoid neoplasms that are more common in children and arise from B-and T-lineage lymphoid precursor cells. The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), a new routine parameter in hematology analyzers, can give an indication of hemopoietic recovery like absolute neutrophil count (ANC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate IRF in excess of 5% was considered as IRF recovery. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 2.5 to 3 mL of EDTA blood of 45 ALL patients undergoing the remission induction phase of their treatment was sampled and analyzed with a Sysmex XE-5000 on day 1 and every second day thereafter until the day of recovery. ANC of >0.5x109/L on the day corresponding to the first of the three consecutive counts was considered as the day of ANC recovery. IRF recovery was an IRF in excess of 5%. Results: The mean age of the patients was 12.04±5.30 years; 25 patients (55.6%) were male and 20 patients (44.4%) were female. On day 1 of induction remission, the mean IRF value was 9.68±1.41, while the mean ANC value was 0.077±0.061. Mean recovery day for IRF was 11.84±7.44 and mean recovery day for ANC was 17.67±8.77 (two- tailed p-value <0.0001 with 95% confidence interval). By day 28, out of 45 patients 36 (80%) showed ANC recovery, while 41 (91%) showed IRF recovery. The remaining patients who had not shown recovery by day 28 were further followed up and all of them showed recovery of both parameters by day 39. Conclusion: This study concluded that postinduction bone marrow hemopoietic recovery was earlier by IRF than ANC in children with ALL on chemotherapy. PMID:26377739

  1. Reticulocytes in untreated obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Marrone, O; Salvaggio, A; Gioia, M; Bonanno, A; Profita, M; Riccobono, L; Zito, A; Insalaco, G; Bonsignore, M R

    2008-09-01

    The short, repetitive hypoxaemic episodes observed in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) may determine small augmentations in mature red blood cells. It is unknown whether they affect reticulocyte release. This study explored whether the number and degree of maturation of circulating reticulocytes may be altered in OSA, possibly through the effect of erythropoietin. Fifty male adult patients with suspected OSA, normoxic during wakefulness, were studied. After nocturnal polysomnography, a blood sample was withdrawn for blood cells count, erythropoietin, iron and transferrin determination. Reticulocyte concentration and degree of immaturity [high (H), medium (M), or low (L)] were also determined. Immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) was calculated as (M+H) percentage of reticulocytes. A wide range of OSA severity was found [apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI): 44.3 +/- 30.4, range 0.3-105; sleep time spent at oxyhaemoglobin saturation <90%: 18.1 +/- 22.2%, range 0-81%]. Both reticulocyte count and IRF slightly exceeded the normal range. Patients with a reticulocyte concentration > 2% had higher EPO levels (p < 0.05), but not worse nocturnal desaturations, than those with values < 2%. By contrast, subjects with IRF < 15% showed worse desaturations (p < 0.05), but similar EPO concentrations, when compared to subjects whose IRF was < 10%. At univariate analysis, reticulocyte count correlated to erythropoietin, while IRF to transferrin saturation, BMI and OSA severity. At multiple regression, only lowest nocturnal oxygen saturation remained a significant contributor to IRF (r2 0.223, p < 0.05). This data suggests that hypoxaemia due to OSA could influence the release of immature reticulocytes, but this effect is not mediated by erythropoietin.

  2. Reticulocytes in sports medicine: an update.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Lanteri, Patrizia; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Reticulocytes are young red blood cells which develop from erythroblasts and circulate in the bloodstream for about 1-4 days before maturing into erythrocytes. With the introduction of reticulocyte count in equations and statistical models for detecting suspected blood doping, its application to sports medicine has attracted growing interest in reticulocyte behavior during training and competition seasons in athletes and experimental blood doping treatment in healthy volunteers. An update on recent publications is therefore needed to improve the interpretation of reticulocyte analysis and its variability in sportsmen. Reticulocyte count constitutes a robust parameter during the preanalytical phase, but cell stability can be assured only if blood samples are kept at constantly cold temperatures (4 degrees C) and test results will differ depending on the blood analyzer system used. Marked intraindividual variability is the principal finding to be evaluated when exercise-induced changes are observed or illicit procedures suspected. Furthermore, reticulocyte variability is greater than that of other hematological parameters such as hemoglobin or hematocrit. Ideally, any variation should be interpreted against long-term time series for the individual athlete: values obtained from large athlete cohorts ought to be used only for extrapolating outliers that deserve further examination. Reticulocyte distribution in athletes is similar to that found in the general population, and a gender effect in some sports disciplines or selected athlete groups may be seen. Reticulocyte variability is strongly influenced by seasonal factors linked to training and competition schedules and by the type of sports discipline. Published experimental data have confirmed the high sensitivity of reticulocyte analysis in identifying abnormal bone marrow stimulation by either erythropoietin administration or blood withdrawal and reinfusion.

  3. Spurious reticulocyte profiles in dogs with large form babesiosis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Piane, Laetitia; Young, Karen M; Giraud, Lena; Bourges-Abella, Nathalie; Trumel, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Erroneously high reticulocyte counts (pseudoreticulocytosis) have been reported in dogs with leukemia. Pseudoreticulocytosis and an abnormal reticulocyte profile were observed in a dog with large form babesiosis presented at our institution. The aims of this retrospective study were to determine if dogs with babesiosis and other dogs had abnormal reticulocyte profiles, and to correlate these profiles with the primary diagnosis. All canine CBCs obtained with the Sysmex XT-2000iV or Procyte DX were reviewed. Cases of large form babesiosis were identified and their reticulocyte dot plots were analyzed. Dogs with abnormal reticulocyte profiles but without microscopically apparent intraerythrocytic Babesia piroplasms were identified. The reticulocyte profiles and fluorescence ratios of dogs with and without babesiosis were compared. Twenty of 92 dogs with babesiosis had abnormal reticulocyte profiles, including 8 with a separation between the reticulocyte and mature RBC plots or a continuum of reticulocytes from the RBC plot but with a higher density of dots in the middle of the "comet tail" than in the left quarter of the dot plot. Thirteen of 6980 dogs without Babesia on the blood smear had abnormal reticulocyte profiles, including 3 with leukemia. The medium-fluorescence reticulocyte ratios tended to be higher in dogs with babesiosis and abnormal dot plots than in other dogs, whereas the high-fluorescence ratio was higher in one dog with leukemia. Abnormal reticulocyte dot plots and atypical reticulocyte fluorescence ratios may occur in dogs with babesiosis and alert clinical pathologists to consider this diagnosis. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Membrane remodeling during reticulocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Guo, Xinhua; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.

    2010-01-01

    The transition of reticulocytes into erythrocytes is accompanied by extensive changes in the structure and properties of the plasma membrane. These changes include an increase in shear resistance, loss of surface area, and acquisition of a biconcave shape. The processes by which these changes are effected have remained largely undefined. Here we examine how the expression of 30 distinct membrane proteins and their interactions change during murine reticulocyte maturation. We show that tubulin and cytosolic actin are lost, whereas the membrane content of myosin, tropomyosin, intercellular adhesion molecule-4, glucose transporter-4, Na-K-ATPase, sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1, glycophorin A, CD47, Duffy, and Kell is reduced. The degradation of tubulin and actin is, at least in part, through the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. In regard to the protein-protein interactions, the formation of membrane-associated spectrin tetramers from dimers is unperturbed, whereas the interactions responsible for the formation of the membrane-skeletal junctions are weaker in reticulocytes, as is the attachment of transmembrane proteins to these structures. This weakness, in part, results from the elevated phosphorylation of 4.1R in reticulocytes, which leads to a decrease in shear resistance by reducing its interaction with spectrin and actin. These observations begin to unravel the mechanistic basis of crucial changes accompanying reticulocyte maturation. PMID:20038785

  5. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocytes and reticulocytes stained with proflavine.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, H; Tatsumi, N

    1997-12-01

    Proflavine, an acridine analog for industrial use, was used to stain blood cells. A drop of blood treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-2K was mixed with a 0.00001% solution of the dye and observed immediately by fluorescence microscopy with a green filter. Leukocytes, platelets, and reticulocytes were stained but mature red blood cells were not. Chromatin in the nuclei of all leukocytes and nucleoli of lymphocytes and monocytes had greenish-yellow fluorescence, and the kind of cell could be identified by the tone and intensity of this color. Granules in granulocytes were in green. Reticular fine-granular or granulofibrous structures in the reticulocytes were brownish. The proflavine could be used routinely in clinical laboratories because this single stain makes possible simultaneous differentiation of leukocytes and counting of reticulocytes.

  6. Normal and disordered reticulocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Ney, Paul A

    2011-05-01

    Reticulocyte remodeling has emerged as an important model for the understanding of vesicular trafficking and selective autophagy in mammalian cells. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of these processes in reticulocytes and the role of these processes in erythroid development. Enucleation is caused by the coalescence of vesicles at the nuclear-cytoplasmic junction and microfilament contraction. Mitochondrial elimination is achieved through selective autophagy, in which mitochondria are targeted to autophagosomes, and undergo subsequent degradation and exocytosis. The mechanism involves an integral mitochondrial outer membrane protein and general autophagy pathways. Plasma membrane remodeling, and the elimination of certain intracellular organelles occur through the exosomal pathway. Vesicular trafficking and selective autophagy have emerged as central processes in cellular remodeling. In reticulocytes, this includes enucleation and the elimination of all membrane-bound organelles and ribosomes. Ubiquitin-like conjugation pathways, which are required for autophagy in yeast, are not essential for mitochondrial clearance in reticulocytes. Thus, in higher eukaryotes, there appears to be redundancy between these pathways and other processes, such as vesicular nucleation. Future studies will address the relationship between autophagy and vesicular trafficking, and the significance of both for cellular remodeling.

  7. Reticulocyte parameters of delta beta thalassaemia trait, beta thalassaemia trait and iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Rodríguez, Diego; Alonso-Domínguez, Juan-Manuel; González-Fernández, Fernando-Ataúlfo; Villarrubia, Jesús; Sopeña, María; Abalo, Lorena; Ropero, Paloma; Martínez-Nieto, Jorge; de la Fuente Gonzalo, Félix; Cava, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    To analyse the differences in reticulocyte indices between delta beta thalassaemia trait (δβ-TT), beta thalassaemia trait (β-TT) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), and to correlate those differences with the physiopathological features of these three types of microcytoses. We performed a descriptive study of 428 samples (43 δβ-TT, 179 β-TT and 206 IDA) that were run on Advia 2120 analyser (Siemens). The following reticulocyte indices were assessed: absolute reticulocyte count (ARC), percentage of reticulocytes, mean corpuscular volume of reticulocytes (MCVr), haemoglobin content of reticulocytes (CHr), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of reticulocytes, red blood cell distribution width of reticulocytes (RDWr), haemoglobin distribution width of reticulocytes (HDWr) and reticulocyte subpopulations based on their fluorescence according to mRNA (low (L-R), medium (M-R) and high (H-R)), MCV ratio and MCHC ratio. Correlation between fetal haemoglobin (HbF) and RDWr in patients with thalassaemia was evaluated. RDWr was significantly higher in δβ-TT compared with β-TT (15.03% vs 13.82%, p<0.001), and so were HDWr (3.65% vs 3.27%, p<0.001), CHr (23.68 vs 22.66 pg, p<0.001) and MCVr (88.3 vs 85.5 fL, p<0.001). A good correlation was observed between HbF and RDWr (r=0.551, p<0.001). IDA subjects have more immature reticulocytes, but less ARC than β-TT, suggesting a certain degree of inefficient erythropoiesis in IDA in comparison with β-TT. Previously described differences between δβ-TT, β-TT and IDA in the corpuscular indices of mature red blood cell can also be observed in reticulocytes. The degree of anisocytosis in reticulocytes from patients with thalassaemia is correlated with HbF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: a viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Russell, Bruce; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Chu, Cindy; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Renia, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on 'subvital' staining. The specialist 'subvital' stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB) and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa's stain (commonly used microbiology and parasitology) in a 'subvital' manner to provide an accurate method to visualize and count reticulocytes in blood samples from normal and malaria-infected individuals.

  9. Evaluation of the automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV ™ compared to the ADVIA ® 2120 for its use in dogs, cats, and horses. Part II: Accuracy of leukocyte differential and reticulocyte count, impact of anticoagulant and sample aging.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Nakagawa, Julia; Dunker, Cathrin; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The automated laser-based hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV™ provides a 5-part differential count and specific cytograms that are of great interest for large veterinary laboratories. The aim of the study was to validate the Sysmex XT-2000iV compared to the laser-based hematology analyzer ADVIA® 2120 and manual differential in dogs, cats, and horses as well as the impact of anticoagulant (heparin, ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid [EDTA], and citrate) and storage at 22°C and 4°C. Consecutive fresh K(3)-EDTA blood samples from 216 cats, 314 dogs, and 174 horses were included. The impact of anticoagulant and sample storage was assessed in specimens obtained from an additional 9 cats, 10 dogs, and 10 horses. Agreement between both analyzers was excellent to good except for monocytes and canine reticulocytes. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r (s)) between Sysmex XT-2000iV and manual differential were good to fair and ranged from 0.91 (cat lymphocytes) to 0.44 (cat monocytes). Hematocrit value (Hct), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration (MCHC; all: P < 0.001), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV; P < 0.01) were higher in canine citrated blood compared to heparin and EDTA. In cats, lymphocytes and monocytes were lower in heparinized blood compared to EDTA (P < 0.05), whereas in horses no significant effect was seen. Regarding storage time and temperature, white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and MCH were stable. Hct, MCV, and MCHC were influenced by erythrocyte swelling. Differential count remained stable for 24 hr (22°C) and nearly 72 hr (4°C) except for monocytes. The overall performance of the Sysmex XT-2000iV was excellent and compared favorably with that of the ADVIA 2120. A special strength was the excellent detection of feline eosinophils.

  10. DEFECTIVE ERYTHROPOIETIN PRODUCTION AND RETICULOCYTE RESPONSE IN ACUTE PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA-ASSOCIATED ANEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leowattana, Wattana; Krudsood, Srivicha; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Brittenham, Gary; Looareesuwan, Sornchai

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between falciparum malaria-associated anemia and serum erythropoietin (Epo) levels and reticulocyte response during acute malaria infection, 87 adults aged 18-65 years presenting with acute, uncomplicated malaria were examined on enrollment and for 28 days of follow-up. The 87 patients were divided into 2 groups: those with anemia (n = 45) and those without (n = 42). Serum samples were taken on admission (Day 0), then on Days 7, 21, and 28, to measure the reticulocyte count, absolute reticulocyte count, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, and erythropoietin level (Epo). The absolute reticulocyte counts for the anemic patients were significantly higher than for those without anemia on Days 0, 7, 21, and 28. The serum Epo levels for the anemic patients were significantly higher than the non-anemic group only on Day 0 (44.39 ± 4.06 vs 25.91 ± 4.86 mIU/ml, p < 0.001). Inadequate Epo production was found in 31.03% (27/87) of patients on Day 0, 37.93% (33/87) on Day 7, 43.67% (38/87) on Day 21, and 39.08% (34/87) on Day 28. These results indicate defective Epo production and reticulocyte response in adult patients suffering from acute P. falciparum malaria, which differs from pediatric patients. Our findings may provide the basis for further study into the choice of therapeutic strategies to treat acute P. falciparum malaria-associated anemia with recombinant human Epo to correct refractory anemia due to malaria. PMID:19058593

  11. Evaluation of Reticulocyte Parameters in Iron Deficiency, Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Mixed Anemia.

    PubMed

    Balci, Yasemin Isik; Akpinar, Funda Ozgurler; Polat, Aziz; Uzun, Utku; Ergin, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Reticulocytes are the youngest erythrocytes released from the bone marrow into the blood and they circulate for 1-2 days before becoming mature erythrocytes. In literature, there were studies about reticulocyte parameters that could help in differentiation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) from vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. However, in those studies there were no data about differentiation of mixed anemia (vitamin B12 deficiency and IDA). The purpose of this study is to explore a response to 'could reticulocyte parameters help in differential diagnosis of mixed anemia?' in 6-12 years old children. The study enrolled 26 patients with IDA, 22 patients with mixed anemia, 32 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, and 32 age and gender matched healthy controls. Blood for hematological parameters such as complete blood count, reticulocyte count, CHr, MCVr, CHCMr were collected into standard tubes containing EDTA. There is a statistically significant difference of both MCV (mean corpuscular volume)/MCVr (Reticulocyte mean corpuscular volume) ratio and MCVr between IDA and controls; in controls and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia; in controls and mixed anemia; in IDA and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia; in IDA and mixed anemia. Also in terms of both CHr and CHCMr (Corpuscular mean hemoglobin concentration of reticulocyte), there is a statistically significant difference between controls and IDA; controls and mixed anemia; IDA and mixed anemia; IDA and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. In mixed anemia, MCV could be normal or decreased, and in peripheral blood smear erythrocytes cells could be morphologically normal. For this reason diagnosis of mixed anemia is not easy and needs additional laboratory investigations. Our results suggest that in a differential diagnosis of mixed anemia from vitamin B12 deficiency, IDA, and healthy controls, CHr, CHCMr, and MCVr (together with MCV and individually) could be useful. So, with a simple and cheap laboratory parameter, differentiation of

  12. Automated reticulocyte parameters for hereditary spherocytosis screening.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Elena; Pradier, Olivier; Cotton, Frédéric; Gulbis, Béatrice

    2014-11-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is based on several screening and confirmatory tests; our algorithm includes clinical features, red blood cell morphology analysis and cryohaemolysis test, and, in case of positive screening, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a diagnostic test. Using the UniCel DxH800 (Beckman Coulter) haematology analyser, we investigated automated reticulocyte parameters as HS screening tool, i.e. mean reticulocyte volume (MRV), immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) and mean sphered cell volume (MSCV). A total of 410 samples were screened. Gel electrophoresis was applied to 159 samples that were positive for the screening tests. A total of 48 patients were diagnosed as HS, and seven were diagnosed as acquired autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA). Some other 31 anaemic conditions were also studied. From the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, both delta (mean cell volume (MCV)-MSCV) and MRV presented an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. At the diagnostic cut-off of 100 % sensitivity, MRV showed the best specificity of 88 % and a positive likelihood ratio of 8.7. The parameters IRF, MRV and MSCV discriminated HS not only from controls and other tested pathologies but also from AIHA contrary to the cryohaemolysis test. In conclusion, automated reticulocyte parameters might be helpful for haemolytic anaemia diagnostic orientation even for general laboratories. In combination with cryohaemolysis, they ensure an effective and time-saving screening for HS for more specialised laboratories.

  13. Pig Reticulocytes. III. Glucose permeability in naturally occurring reticulocytes and red cells from newborn piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, HD; Luthra, MG

    1977-01-01

    The loss of facilitated glucose transport of red cells occurring in the newborn pig was monitored in 11 density-separated cells from birth to a 4 wk of age. At birth there was a threefold increase in glucose permeability from the lightest cells to the most dense, suggesting that cells having progressively less glucose permeability are released into the circulation as gestation proceeds. Because of extraordinary stimulation of erythropoietic activity, the uppermost top fraction constituting 2-3 percent of the total cells is composed purely of reticulocytes in the growing animal. The glucose permeability of these reticulocytes which at birth has a slow but significant rate of 3.7 μmol/ml cell x min at 25 degrees C is rapidly decreased within 3-4 days to the level of reticulocytes produced in the adult in response to phenylhydrazine assault. Moreover, reticulocytes themselves discard their membrane permeability to glucose in the course of maturation to red cells. Thus, even though reticulocytes at birth are permeable to glucose, they will become red cells practically impervious to glucose within a few days. These findings suggest that the transition from a glucose- permeable fetal state to a glucose-impermeable postnatal state is brought about by two mechanisms: (a) dilution of fetal cells by glucose-impervious cells produced coincidentally with or shortly after birth; and (b) elimination of fetal cells, which have a shorter half-life, from the circulation. PMID:894256

  14. Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Using Reticulocyte Indices in Dogs Enrolled in a Blood Donor Program.

    PubMed

    Foy, D S; Friedrichs, K R; Bach, J F

    2015-01-01

    People donating blood more than twice annually are at risk of developing iron deficiency. Little is known about the iron status of dogs enrolled in blood donor programs. Dogs donating blood ≥6 times annually will show evidence of iron deficiency based on their reticulocyte indices. Thirteen dogs enrolled in a blood donor program donating ≥6 times over the preceding 12 months and 20 healthy nondonor control dogs. Prospective observational study. Mature red blood cell (RBC) indices, reticulocyte indices, serum iron, serum ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were compared between groups. Packed cell volume (median 47%, range 40-52%, P < .01), hematocrit (median 46.4%, range 40.3-52.5%, P < .01), and reticulocyte count (median 16,000/μL, range 9,000-38,000/μL, P < .01) were significantly lower in the blood donor dogs. No statistically significant differences were noted in the mature RBC indices between groups. Both reticulocyte mean corpuscular volume (median 88.8 fL, range 83.4-95.5 fL, P = .03) and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (median 24.6 pg, range 23.1-26.6 pg, P < .01) were significantly lower in the blood donor group. Serum iron and ferritin were similar between groups; however, TIBC was significantly higher in the control group (median 403 μg/dL, range 225-493 μg/dL, P = .02). The findings in dogs donating ≥6 times annually suggest the presence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis in this population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Additional erythrocytic and reticulocytic parameters helpful for diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis: results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Mullier, François; Lainey, Elodie; Fenneteau, Odile; Da Costa, Lydie; Schillinger, Françoise; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Christian; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is characterised by weakened vertical linkages between the membrane skeleton and the red blood cell's lipid bilayer, leading to the release of microparticles. All the reference tests suffer from specific limitations. The aim of this study was to develop easy to use diagnostic tool for screening of hereditary spherocytosis based on routinely acquired haematological parameters like percentage of microcytes, percentage of hypochromic cells, reticulocyte counts, and percentage of immature reticulocytes. The levels of haemoglobin, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes (Ret), immature reticulocytes fraction (IRF), hypochromic erythrocytes (Hypo-He) and microcytic erythrocytes (MicroR) were determined on EDTA samples on Sysmex instruments from a cohort of 45 confirmed SH. The HS group was then compared with haemolytical disorders, microcytic anaemia, healthy individuals and routine samples (n = 1,488). HS is characterised by a high Ret count without an equally elevated IRF. All 45 HS have Ret >80,000/μl and Ret(10(9)/L)/IRF (%) greater than 7.7 (rule 1). Trait and mild HS had a Ret/IRF ratio greater than 19. Moderate and severe HS had increased MicroR and MicroR/Hypo-He (rule 2). Combination of both rules gave predictive positive value and negative predictive value of respectively 75% and 100% (n=1,488), which is much greater than single parameters or existing rules. This simple and fast diagnostic method could be used as an excellent screening tool for HS. It is also valid for mild HS, neonates and ABO incompatibilities and overcomes the lack of sensitivity of electrophoresis in ankyrin deficiencies.

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of manual and automated measurements of reticulocyte parameters for classification of anemia in dogs: 174 cases (1993-2013).

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Saverio; Rossi, Gabriele; Manca, Michela; Scarpa, Paola; Vitiello, Tiziana; Giordano, Alessia

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess sensitivity and specificity of manual and automated measurements of reticulocyte percentage, number, and production index for classification of anemia in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case series SAMPLE 174 blood smears from client-owned dogs with anemia collected between 1993 and 2013 for which reticulocyte parameters were determined manually (nonregenerative anemia, 22; preregenerative anemia, 23; regenerative anemia, 28) or with an automated laser-based counter (nonregenerative anemia, 66; preregenerative anemia, 17; regenerative anemia, 18). PROCEDURES Diagnostic performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by considering preregenerative anemia as nonregenerative or regenerative. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio were calculated by use of cutoffs determined from ROC curves or published reference limits. RESULTS Considering preregenerative anemia as non regenerative, areas under the curve (AUCs) for reticulocyte percentage, number, and production index were 97%, 93%, and 91% for manual counting and 93%, 90%, and 93% for automated counting. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio were 82% to 86%, 82% to 87%, and 4.6 to 6.4, respectively. Considering preregenerative anemia as regenerative, AUCs were 77%, 82%, and 80% for manual counting and 81%, 82%, and 92% for automated counting. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio were 72% to 74%, 76 to 87%, and 2.7 to 6.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Whereas all reticulocyte parameters identified regeneration in anemic dogs, the performance of specific parameters was dependent on the method used. Findings suggested that lower cutoffs than published reference limits are preferred for reticulocyte number and production index and higher cutoffs are preferred for reticulocyte percentage. Reticulocyte production index may be useful when the pretest probability of regeneration is moderate.

  17. Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent to detect thalassemia and thalassemic hemoglobin variants.

    PubMed

    Sudmann, Å A; Piehler, A; Urdal, P

    2012-12-01

    Thalassemia and iron deficiency may both result in hypochromic microcytic anemia. Hematological algorithms that differentiate the two are mainly established in adult selected diagnostic groups. We aimed at creating an algorithm applicable in the presence of children, hemoglobin variants, and iron deficiency. Our study material constituted blood samples referred during 1 year for routine diagnostics of hemoglobinopathy. We included 443 samples, of which 37% were from children 3 months or older. We found β-thalassemia trait (n = 100), α-thalassemia (n = 75), combined α-/β-thalassemia (n = 14), hemoglobin variants (n = 42), and no-hemoglobinopathy (n = 207), of whom 107 had a ferritin at or below 20 μg/L. We included reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent, ferritin, and erythrocyte count in our algorithm. Our algorithm differentiated β-thalassemia trait from no-hemoglobinopathy with a sensitivity of 99% at 83% specificity. It performed better than other published algorithms when applied to all patient samples, while equally or moderately better in the 63% adult samples. Our algorithm also detected the clinically significant α-thalassemias, and most of the combined α-/β-thalassemias and thalassemic hemoglobin variants. Our algorithm efficiently differentiated thalassemia and thalassemic hemoglobin variants from iron deficiency in children and adults. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jie; Wu, Meng; Ren, Jie; Du, Yali; Long, Zhangbiao; Li, Guoxun; Han, Bing; Yang, Lichen

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia) group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia) group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group (n = 56) had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.05) compared with the NIDA group (n = 38) and control group (n = 46). Hematocrit, serum ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for diagnosing

  19. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Wu, Meng; Ren, Jie; Du, Yali; Long, Zhangbiao; Li, Guoxun; Han, Bing; Yang, Lichen

    2017-05-02

    Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia) group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia) group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group (n = 56) had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.05) compared with the NIDA group (n = 38) and control group (n = 46). Hematocrit, serum ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for diagnosing

  20. Development of a technique for quantification of reticulocytes and assessment of erythrocyte regenerative capacity in birds.

    PubMed

    Johns, Jennifer L; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Christopher, Mary M

    2008-08-01

    To develop a reticulocyte classification scheme, optimize an avian reticulocyte staining protocol, and compare the percentages of reticulocyte types with polychromatophil percentage in blood samples from birds. Blood samples from a red-tailed hawk and 31 ill birds. A single blood sample obtained from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was used to optimize the staining protocol. For optimization of the staining protocol, 4 dilutions of whole blood with new methylene blue stain and 4 incubation times were evaluated. From samples submitted for avian CBCs, EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood samples from 31 ill birds were randomly selected and examined to compare polychromatophil and reticulocyte percentages. Reticulocyte staining was performed in all samples by use of a 1:3 (whole blood to new methylene blue) dilution with incubation for 10 minutes at room temperature (approx 22 degrees C); reticulocytes were assessed as a percentage of 1,000 RBCs by 2 independent observers. In Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears, a polychromatophil percentage was similarly determined. 4 avian reticulocyte types were defined: ring-form reticulocytes, aggregate reticulocytes, and 2 subcategories of punctate reticulocytes. A reticulocyte-staining protocol was optimized. Interobserver and intraobserver variations in assessment of reticulocyte and polychromatophil percentages were not significant. A strong positive correlation (Spearman coefficient of rank correlation [rho] = 0.978) was identified between the percentage of polychromatophils and the percentage of ring-form reticulocytes. Results indicated that quantification of ring-form reticulocytes provides an accurate assessment of erythrocyte regenerative capacity in birds.

  1. Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and immature reticulocytes evaluations in mobilization process: new parameters measured by conventional blood cell counter.

    PubMed

    Noronha, J F A; Lorand-Metze, I G H; Grotto, H Z W

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring the timing of leukapheresis in peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) mobilization is an important clinical decision that requires an accurate analytical tool. The present study assessed hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) counts provided by a routine automated blood counter as potential parameters for predicting the appropriate time for harvesting. The HPC and IRF values were compared with white blood cell (WBC) and CD34+ cell counts obtained by flow cytometry in 30 adult patients with hematological malignancies undergoing PBSC mobilization. It was observed that there was a significant correlation between HPC counts and CD34(+) cells in peripheral blood counts (r=0.61, P=0.0003) and between the number of HPC and CD34+cells collected by leukapheresis (r=0.5733, P=0.0009). Comparing HPC, IRF, WBC, and CD34+ cells parameters as a sign of hematological recovery showed that the raise in immature reticulocytes counts preceded the increase of WBC (P=0.0002), HPC (P=0.0001), and CD34(+) (P=0.0001) cells in peripheral blood counts. According to our results, HPC and IRF parameters may be integrated into clinical protocols to evaluate the timing of leukapheresis. IRF, as previously demonstrated in bone marrow transplantation, is the earliest sign of hematopoietic recovery in mobilization process.

  2. Proteolipidic Composition of Exosomes Changes during Reticulocyte Maturation*

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Kévin; Chaoui, Karima; Ronzier, Elsa; Lazar, Ikrame; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Balor, Stéphanie; Terce, François; Lopez, André; Salomé, Laurence; Joly, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    During the orchestrated process leading to mature erythrocytes, reticulocytes must synthesize large amounts of hemoglobin, while eliminating numerous cellular components. Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that play an important role in this process of specific elimination. To understand the mechanisms of proteolipidic sorting leading to their biogenesis, we have explored changes in the composition of exosomes released by reticulocytes during their differentiation, in parallel to their physical properties. By combining proteomic and lipidomic approaches, we found dramatic alterations in the composition of the exosomes retrieved over the course of a 7-day in vitro differentiation protocol. Our data support a previously proposed model, whereby in reticulocytes the biogenesis of exosomes involves several distinct mechanisms for the preferential recruitment of particular proteins and lipids and suggest that the respective prominence of those pathways changes over the course of the differentiation process. PMID:21828046

  3. Proteolipidic composition of exosomes changes during reticulocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Kévin; Chaoui, Karima; Ronzier, Elsa; Lazar, Ikrame; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Balor, Stéphanie; Terce, François; Lopez, André; Salomé, Laurence; Joly, Etienne

    2011-09-30

    During the orchestrated process leading to mature erythrocytes, reticulocytes must synthesize large amounts of hemoglobin, while eliminating numerous cellular components. Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that play an important role in this process of specific elimination. To understand the mechanisms of proteolipidic sorting leading to their biogenesis, we have explored changes in the composition of exosomes released by reticulocytes during their differentiation, in parallel to their physical properties. By combining proteomic and lipidomic approaches, we found dramatic alterations in the composition of the exosomes retrieved over the course of a 7-day in vitro differentiation protocol. Our data support a previously proposed model, whereby in reticulocytes the biogenesis of exosomes involves several distinct mechanisms for the preferential recruitment of particular proteins and lipids and suggest that the respective prominence of those pathways changes over the course of the differentiation process.

  4. Novel hematological parameters for the evaluation of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: the immature platelet and reticulocyte fractions.

    PubMed

    Strati, Paolo; Bose, Prithviraj; Lyle, Lindsey; Gaw, Katie; Zhou, Lingsha; Pierce, Sherry A; Huynh-Lu, Julie; Hirsch-Ginsberg, Cheryl F; Bueso-Mendoza, Daniel E; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2017-02-28

    New automated hematology analyzers have led to the availability of novel hematological parameters, including the immature platelet fraction (IPF) and the immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), both of potential interest in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We performed a prospective analysis of 217 patients with MPN, including 32 (15%) with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 43 (20%) with polycythemia vera (PV), and 142 (65%) with myelofibrosis (MF); the IPF and IRF were measured by the Sysmex XN analyzer. As compared to patients with ET, both a higher IPF and IRF were observed among patients with PV and MF. Factors associated with high IPF among patients with PV/ET were male sex, thrombocytopenia, and diagnosis of PV; among patients with MF, they were elevated peripheral blasts, low platelet count, JAK2 V617F mutation, and previous therapy. Factors associated with high IRF among patients with PV/ET were low hemoglobin, high reticulocyte count, and PV diagnosis; among patients with MF, they were peripheral blasts and elevated reticulocytes. The IPF and IRF represent novel parameters in patients with MPN with potential relevant clinical implications. Comparison with healthy subjects and those with secondary polycythemia is needed to confirm our preliminary findings.

  5. Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent as a potential marker for diagnosis of iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Toki, Yasumichi; Ikuta, Katsuya; Kawahara, Yoshie; Niizeki, Noriyasu; Kon, Masayuki; Enomoto, Motoki; Tada, Yuko; Hatayama, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Masayo; Ito, Satoshi; Shindo, Motohiro; Kikuchi, Yoko; Inoue, Mitsutaka; Sato, Kazuya; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2017-07-01

    Evaluation of parameters relating to serum ferritin and iron is critically important in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). The recent development of automated systems for hematology analysis has made it possible to measure reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (RET-He), which is thought to reflect iron content in reticulocytes, in the same sample used for complete blood count tests. If RET-He is, indeed, capable of evaluating iron deficiency (ID), it would be useful for immediate diagnosis of IDA. In the present study, we examined the usefulness of RET-He for diagnosis of ID. Blood samples were obtained from 211 patients. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin (Hb) level of <12 g/dL. Iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin level of <12 ng/mL. Patients were classified into four groups: IDA, ID, control, and non-ID with anemia. Patients in the IDA group had significantly lower RET-He levels than those in the control group. RET-He correlated with serum ferritin in the IDA and ID groups. The area under the curve for RET-He was 0.902, indicating that RET-He facilitates the diagnosis of ID with high accuracy. RET-He changed in parallel with changes in Hb during iron administration for 21 IDA patients. Our results indicate that RET-He may be a clinically useful marker for determining ID in the general population.

  6. Reticulocyte profile in top-level alpine skiers during four consecutive competitive seasons.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Tavana, Rodolfo; Freschi, Marco; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-06-01

    The role of reticulocytes (Ret) in sports medicine became clear when the count of immature erythrocytes was introduced in protocols used for anti-doping purposes. Because specific research regarding seasonal variations in Ret is lacking, we assessed Ret (and [Hb]) in top-level male and female skiers during four consecutive competitive seasons. A difference (P < 0.05) between males and females was found for [Hb] and Ret values: [Hb] was lower and Ret was higher in females. The difference was maintained across all four competitive seasons. Marked within-subject differences in [Hb], Ret and immature reticulocyte fraction values were noted; the within-subject variability was greater than the between-subject variability in both genders. For instance, a difference for Ret was consistently shown between first and second blood drawings, i.e. between basal value, before the start of training and competition, and the value at middle of season, when training workload was at highest level. Unlike Ret%, the analysis of variance showed significant changes in [Hb] values across competitive seasons for both genders. Comparison between consecutive seasons (e.g., 2005-2006 vs. 2006-2007) showed significant differences for both parameters. The behaviour of [Hb] and Ret during the various seasons was parallel in females, whereas a discrepancy existed in males. In general, inter-individual variability is quite high, thus, Ret and [Hb] modifications should be referred only to the single athlete. We confirm the validity of the use of Ret counts for anti-doping purposes.

  7. Quantitation of CD55 and CD59 expression on reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, aplastic anemia, and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeongsic; Lim, Jihyang; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Lee, Jong-Wook; Han, Kyungja

    2010-01-01

    Since PNH occasionally results in bone marrow failure, it is difficult to differentiate PNH from AA with small numbers of CD(55) (-)CD(59) (-) erythrocytes. We quantified CD55 and CD59 molecules expressed on normal reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), aplastic anemia (AA), and normal individuals in order to determine their usefulness for differentiation between PNH and AA. A total of 56 patients (AA 39 patients, PNH 17 patients) and 10 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Two-color flow cytometric analyses were conducted using thiazole orange, anti-CD55 and CD59 monoclonal antibodies to identify CD(55) (-)CD(59) (-) reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes. Mean fluorescence level of CD(55) (+) mature erythrocytes was lowest in the PNH patients (13.2 x 10(3) MESF), and was significantly lower than in normal controls (16.7 x 10(3) MESF, p <0.05), and highest in the AA subjects (22.8 x 10(3) MESF). Mean fluorescence level of CD(59) (+) mature erythrocytes was lowest in the PNH subjects (24.5 x 10(3) MESF), significantly less than in normal controls (39.0 x 10(3) MESF, p <0.05), and highest in the AA subjects (49.2 x 10(3) MESF). Total reticulocyte counts correlated strongly with the CD(55) (-)CD(59) (-) reticulocytes. Comparative quantitative analysis of CD55 and CD59 molecules expressed on normal erythrocytes may be useful in differentiating PNH from AA patients with small numbers of PNH-phenotype erythrocytes, and the total reticulocyte count may prove useful as a marker for PNH clone size.

  8. Acquisition of iron from transferrin regulates reticulocyte heme synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ponka, P.; Schulman, H.M.

    1985-11-25

    Fe-salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (SIH), which can donate iron to reticulocytes without transferrin as a mediator, has been utilized to test the hypothesis that the rate of iron uptake from transferrin limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. Reticulocytes take up VZFe from (VZFe)SIH and incorporate it into heme to a much greater extent than from saturating concentrations of (VZFe)transferrin. Also, Fe-SIH stimulates (2- UC)glycine into heme when compared to the incorporation observed with saturating levels of Fe-transferrin. In addition, delta-aminolevulinic acid does not stimulate VZFe incorporation into heme from either (VZFe)transferrin or (VZFe)SIH but does reverse the inhibition of VZFe incorporation into heme caused by isoniazid, an inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. Taken together, these results suggest the hypothesis that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular transferrin to intracellular protoporphyrin limits the overall rate of heme synthesis in reticulocytes.

  9. Evaluation of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters as indicative of iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Torino, Ana Beatriz Barbosa; Gilberti, Maria de Fátima Pererira; da Costa, Edvilson; de Lima, Gisélia Aparecida Freire; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mature red cell and reticulocyte parameters to identify three conditions: iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency. Methods Peripheral blood cells from 117 adult patients with anemia were classified according to iron status, inflammation, and hemoglobinopathies as: iron deficiency anemia (n = 42), anemia of chronic disease (n = 28), anemia of chronic disease associated with iron deficiency anemia (n = 22), and heterozygous β-thalassemia (n = 25). The percentage of microcytic erythrocytes, hypochromic erythrocytes, and the levels of hemoglobin in both reticulocytes and mature red cells were determined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in differentiating anemia. Results There was no difference between the groups of iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency for any of the parameters. The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes was the best parameter to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease (area under curve = 0.785; 95% confidence interval: 0.661–0.909 with sensitivity of 72.7%, and specificity of 70.4%; cut-off value 1.8%). The formula microcytic erythrocyte count minus hypochromic erythrocyte count was very accurate to differentiate iron deficiency anemia from heterozygous β-thalassemia (area under curve = 0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.950–1.005 with a sensitivity of 96.2%, and specificity of 92.7%; cut-off value 13.8). Conclusion The erythrocyte and reticulocyte indices are moderately good to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease. PMID:25818816

  10. Plasmodium vivax: restricted tropism and rapid remodeling of CD71-positive reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Malleret, Benoit; Li, Ang; Zhang, Rou; Tan, Kevin S W; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Claser, Carla; Cho, Jee Sun; Koh, Esther Geok Liang; Chu, Cindy S; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ng, Mah Lee; Ginhoux, Florent; Ng, Lai Guan; Lim, Chwee Teck; Nosten, François; Snounou, Georges; Rénia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce

    2015-02-19

    Plasmodium vivax merozoites only invade reticulocytes, a minor though heterogeneous population of red blood cell precursors that can be graded by levels of transferrin receptor (CD71) expression. The development of a protocol that allows sorting reticulocytes into defined developmental stages and a robust ex vivo P vivax invasion assay has made it possible for the first time to investigate the fine-scale invasion preference of P vivax merozoites. Surprisingly, it was the immature reticulocytes (CD71(+)) that are generally restricted to the bone marrow that were preferentially invaded, whereas older reticulocytes (CD71(-)), principally found in the peripheral blood, were rarely invaded. Invasion assays based on the CD71(+) reticulocyte fraction revealed substantial postinvasion modification. Thus, 3 to 6 hours after invasion, the initially biomechanically rigid CD71(+) reticulocytes convert into a highly deformable CD71(-) infected red blood cell devoid of host reticular matter, a process that normally spans 24 hours for uninfected reticulocytes. Concurrent with these changes, clathrin pits disappear by 3 hours postinvasion, replaced by distinctive caveolae nanostructures. These 2 hitherto unsuspected features of P vivax invasion, a narrow preference for immature reticulocytes and a rapid remodeling of the host cell, provide important insights pertinent to the pathobiology of the P vivax infection. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Sensitivity of reticulocyte indices to iron therapy in an intensely training athlete.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, M J; Dobson, G P; Hahn, A G

    1998-09-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia, and its debilitating effect on performance, is an area of concern for many female athletes. Automated technologies that analyse individual reticulocytes may provide a sensitive measure of bone marrow response to iron supplementation. The reticulocyte characteristics of a female volleyball player with frank iron deficiency anaemia, and her subsequent response to oral iron therapy, are reported.

  12. Enrichment of reticulocytes from whole blood using aqueous multiphase systems of polymers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok A; Lim, Caeul; Moreno, Yovany; Mace, Charles R; Syed, Abeer; Van Tyne, Daria; Wirth, Dyann F; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Whitesides, George M

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the enrichment of reticulocytes by centrifuging whole blood through aqueous multiphase systems (AMPSs)-immiscible phases of solutions of polymers that form step-gradients in density. The interfaces of an AMPS concentrate cells; this concentration facilitates the extraction of blood enriched for reticulocytes. AMPS enrich reticulocytes from blood from both healthy and hemochromatosis donors. Varying the osmolality and density of the phases of AMPS provides different levels of enrichment and yield of reticulocytes. A maximum enrichment of reticulocytemia of 64 ± 3% was obtained from donors with hemochromatosis. When used on peripheral blood from normal donors, AMPS can provide a higher yield of enriched reticulocytes and a higher proportion of reticulocytes expressing CD71 than differential centrifugation followed by centrifugation over Percoll. Blood enriched for reticulocytes by AMPS could be useful for research on malaria. Several species of malaria parasites show a preference to invade young erythrocytes and reticulocytes; this preference complicates in vitro cultivation of these species in human blood. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria parasites invade normal human blood enriched for reticulocytes by AMPSs at a rate 2.2 times greater (P < 0.01) than they invade unenriched blood. Parasite invasion in normal blood enriched by AMPS was 1.8 times greater (P < 0.05) than in blood enriched to a similar reticulocytemia by differential centrifugation followed by centrifugation over Percoll. The enrichment of reticulocytes that are invaded by malaria parasites demonstrates that AMPSs can provide a label-free method to enrich cells for biological research.

  13. Discrimination of various thalassemia syndromes and iron deficiency and utilization of reticulocyte measurements in monitoring response to iron therapy.

    PubMed

    Winichagoon, Pranee; Kumbunlue, Rawiprapa; Sirankapracha, Pornpan; Boonmongkol, Piathip; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2015-04-01

    Decreased hemoglobinization of red cells resulting in hypochromia and microcytosis are the main features of thalassemia syndromes, and also of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). A simple and reliable method is required to distinguish the two conditions in the routine laboratories. In this study we analyzed the red cell and reticulocyte parameters from 414 samples of various types of thalassemias and IDA and discovered a variety of discriminating criteria including a discrimination index (DI) which should be useful for differential diagnosis. Slightly decreased MCV and CH are suggestive of α-thalassemia 2, Hb CS, and Hb E heterozygotes whereas the increased Rbc counts are obvious in α-thalassemia 1 and β-thalassemia. In Hb E, the number of microcytic red cells was greater than the number of hypochromic red cells resulting in an increased M/H ratio. Hb H diseases are characterized by a higher number of hypochromic red cells and decreased CHCM, while broadening of hemoglobin concentration histogram results in increased HDW in β-thalassemia diseases. Iron deficiency anemia results in hypochromic-microcytic red cells and increased RDW. The number of reticulocyte with %High Retic and CHr value were increased in the first month of iron supplementation indicating the response to iron therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical utility of Beckman-Coulter Gen's reticulocyte analysis in the study of anemia of chronic disease (ACD).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana; Ortega, Carlos; Santos, Luís; Teixeira, Alexandre; Dinis, Maria Joáo; Vasconcelos, Iponina; Lacerda, Jorge; Fonseca, Elisa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the reticulocyte parameters (classical and research parameters) acquired by the Beckman Coulter GEN'S blood counter (GEN'S; Brea, CA, USA) to establish the "reticulocyte profile" characteristics of patients with anemia of chronic disease (ACD). The reticulocyte parameters and profile provided by the GEN'S were studied in 38 anemic patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for the ACD, and the results were compared with those of 38 healthy controls in a multivariate statistical analysis using the Student t-test and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis.Statistically significant (P <.05) differences between the 2 population groups were observed in several of the reticulocyte parameters provided by the GEN'S: mean volume of the reticulocyte population (MRV) (high), percentage of high light scatter reticulocytes HLR% (high), mean volume of the whole sphered red cell and reticulocyte population (MSCV) (high) MCV-MSCV (low) with the highest diagnostic value, as measured by the area under the ROC curve (>0.9), for the IRF (high) and the reticulocyte population data: mean channel scatter retics (high) and the mean channel conductivity retics (high). This study establishes the reticulocyte parameters and reticulocyte profile as provided by the GEN'S and characteristic of patients with ACD as compared with normal subjects. This should provide the basis for further studies comparing the reticulocyte profile of patients with ACD with those found in other types of anemia.

  15. The RNA in reticulocytes is not just debris: it is necessary for the final stages of erythrocyte formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, EunMi; Choi, Hye Sook; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hoh, Jeong Kyu; Cho, Youl-Hee; Baek, Eun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Reticulocytes contain both RNA and micro-organelles and represent the last stage of erythropoiesis before full maturation to red blood cells (RBCs). Even though there is continuing synthesis of hemoglobin and membrane-bound proteins in reticulocytes, the small amount of RNA that they contain has been regarded as non-functional residual material. Here we show that this residual RNA is both functional and essential for further reticulocyte maturation. Reticulocytes from which the remnant RNA had been removed by exposure to RNase did not survive or mature into RBCs in either humans or mice. Conversely, reticulocytes treated with an RNase Inhibitor were able to form normal biconcave cells. Similarly, poor survival was also seen in reticulocytes in which protein synthesis had been blocked. To identify the signaling pathways involved we isolated RNAs in reticulocytes versus those present in fully matured erythroblasts cultured from hematopoietic stem cells. RNAs found in erythroblasts were related to exocytosis, metabolism, and signal transduction all of which are critical for maturation through reticulocyte and into a fully mature, biconcave erythrocyte. Our results suggest that the mRNA in reticulocytes has to be translated into novel proteins that act to preserve mitochondria and maintain cell membrane integrity as reticulocytes mature. These results enhance our understanding of the final stage of erythropoiesis and may clarify why in vitro-generated reticulocytes for transfusion purposes survive poorly.

  16. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content predicts functional iron deficiency in hemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO.

    PubMed

    Mittman, N; Sreedhara, R; Mushnick, R; Chattopadhyay, J; Zelmanovic, D; Vaseghi, M; Avram, M M

    1997-12-01

    Early detection of iron sufficiency at the level of the erythropoietic cell is necessary to optimize management of uremic anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). "Absolute" and "functional" iron deficiency are the most important factors causing resistance to administered rHuEPO. Transferrin saturation and serum ferritin measurements have been noted to be insensitive and inaccurate measures to detect functional iron deficiency. Recently, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) has been shown to be a sensitive and specific indicator of functional iron deficiency in nondialysis patients treated with rHuEPO. The purpose of this study is to compare CHr with currently used indices of iron sufficiency in rHuEPO-treated hemodialysis (HD) patients. In study 1, 364 stable HD patients were studied at two outpatient dialysis centers. CHr was normally distributed, with a mean value of 28.3 pg, and was consistent over two consecutive monthly samples in each center. CHr was weakly but consistently correlated with transferrin saturation and serum ferritin. CHr and reticulocyte number were inversely correlated with red blood cell (RBC) number, suggesting that the erythropoietic stimulus of routinely administered rHuEPO may have resulted in functional iron deficiency. Month-to-month changes in CHr correlated weakly with changes in serum iron and percent transferrin saturation, but not at all with changes in serum ferritin. When we analyzed those patients with baseline CHr less than 26 pg, a level strongly suggestive of functional iron deficiency, these correlations strengthened, and in addition, month-to-month changes in CHr correlated strongly and directly with concomitant changes in RBC count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, suggesting that rising CHr was indicative of an erythropoietic response. In study 2, 79 patients received a single-dose infusion of 500 mg iron dextran. After intravenous iron, CHr rose within 48 hours, peaked at 96 hours, and then fell toward

  17. Sensitivity of reticulocyte indices to iron therapy in an intensely training athlete

    PubMed Central

    Ashenden, M. J.; Dobson, G. P.; Hahn, A. G.

    1998-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia, and its debilitating effect on performance, is an area of concern for many female athletes. Automated technologies that analyse individual reticulocytes may provide a sensitive measure of bone marrow response to iron supplementation. The reticulocyte characteristics of a female volleyball player with frank iron deficiency anaemia, and her subsequent response to oral iron therapy, are reported. 




 PMID:9773180

  18. Absolute Reticulocyte Count and Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content as Predictors of Early Response to Exclusive Oral Iron in Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Emilia; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Ricceri, Fulvio; Aurucci, Maria Luigia; Mazzone, Raffaela; Ramenghi, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    We report data regarding kinetic of response to oral iron in 34 iron deficiency anemia children. Twenty-four/34 patients (70.5%) reached reference value of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration for age and sex at day + 30 from the beginning of treatment (complete early responders (CERs)), and 4/34 (12%) reached an Hb concentration at least 50% higher than the original (partial early responders (PERs)). CHr at T1 (within 7 days from the beginning of treatment) was significantly different in the different groups (22.95 in CERs versus 18.41 in other patients; p = 0.001; 22.42 in early responders versus 18.07 in NERs; p = 0.001). Relative increase of CHr from T0 to T1 resulted significantly higher in CERs than in other patients (0.21 versus 0.11, p = 0.042) and in early responders than in NERs (0.22 versus 0.004, p = 0.006). Multivariate logistic models revealed a higher probability of being a complete early responder due to relative increase of ARC from T0 to T1 [OR (95% CI) = 44.95 (1.54–1311.98)] and to CHr at T1 [OR (95% CI) =3.18 (1.24–8.17)]. Our preliminary data confirm CHr as early and accurate predictor of hematological response to oral iron. PMID:27092272

  19. VLA-4 blockade by natalizumab inhibits sickle reticulocyte and leucocyte adhesion during simulated blood flow.

    PubMed

    White, Jennell; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Gupta, Dipti; Lancelot, Moira; Moore, Nancy; Sarnaik, Sharada; Hobbs, William E; Light, David R; Hines, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4, α4β1-integrin, ITGA4) orchestrates cell-cell and cell-endothelium adhesion. Given the proposed role of VLA-4 in sickle cell disease (SCD) pathophysiology, we evaluated the ability of the VLA-4 blocking antibody natalizumab to inhibit SCD blood cell adhesion. Natalizumab recognized surface VLA-4 on leucocytes and reticulocytes in whole blood from SCD subjects. SCD reticulocytes were positive for VLA-4, while VLA-4 staining of non-SCD reticulocytes was undetectable. Titrations with natalizumab revealed the presence of saturable levels of VLA-4 on both SCD reticulocytes and leucocytes similar to healthy subject leucocytes. Under physiological flow conditions, the adhesion of SCD whole blood cells and isolated SCD leucocytes to immobilized vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was blocked by natalizumab in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated with cell surface receptor binding. Natalizumab also inhibited >50% of whole blood cell binding to TNF-α activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers under physiological flow at clinically relevant concentrations (10 to 100 μg/ml). This indicates that VLA-4 is the dominant receptor that drives SCD reticulocyte and mononuclear cell adhesion to VCAM-1 and that the VLA-4 adhesion to VCAM-1 is a significant contributor to SCD blood cell adhesion to endothelium. Thus, VLA-4 blockade may be beneficial in sickle cell disease.

  20. Reticulocyte and erythrocyte hypochromia markers in detection of iron deficiency in adolescent female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Orysiak, J; Szczepańska, B; Turowski, D; Burkhard-Jagodzińska, K; Gajewski, J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of new haematology parameters related to reticulocytes and mature red blood cells to differentiate pre latent and latent iron deficiency. The study included 219 female athletes (aged 15-20 years) representing volleyball, handball, cycling, canoeing, cross-country skiing, swimming and judo. To assess iron status the concentration of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were determined in serum. In addition to blood morphology, the mean cellular haemoglobin content in erythrocytes (CH) and reticulocytes (CHr), mean cellular haemoglobin concentration in reticulocytes (CHCMr), the percentage of erythrocytes (HYPOm) and reticulocytes (HYPOr) with decreased cellular haemoglobin concentration, the percentage of erythrocytes (LowCHm) and reticulocytes (LowCHr) with decreased cellular haemoglobin content, and percentage of erythrocytes with decreased volume (MICROm) were determined. Subjects with ferritin <30 ng/ml were classified as having stage I (pre-latent) iron deficiency (ID). The second stage (latent ID) was diagnosed when low ferritin was accompanied by elevated sTfR and/or elevated TIBC values. The frequency of ID (without anaemia symptoms) was high, amounting to 60% (stage I in 45%, stage II in 15% of subjects). In subjects with stage I ID significant changes in haematological variables concerned mainly reticulocytes: CHCMr (p<.001), CHr (p<.05), LowCHr (p<.05), HYPOr (p<.001) in comparison to normal iron stores. In athletes with latent ID, there were also significant changes (p<.001) in many indices of mature red blood cells, i.e. haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), CH, %LowCHm, as well as %MICROm (p<.01) in relation to the group without iron deficiency. The main finding of this study was that the diminished or exhausted iron stores had already caused changes in

  1. Hexokinase microheterogeneity in rabbit red blood cells and its behaviour during reticulocytes maturation.

    PubMed

    Stocchi, V; Magnani, M; Piccoli, G; Fornaini, G

    1988-02-01

    Hexokinase in rabbit reticulocytes is present in two molecular forms (hexokinase Ia and Ib) separable by ion-exchange chromatography on DE-52 columns. By the use of ion-exchange HPLC we have been able to show that the isozymic form we previously called hexokinase Ia can be resolved into two peaks of activity one of which is (Ia) soluble, the other (Ia*) particulate. Hexokinase Ia* can be solubilized by detergents like saponine and Triton X-100 and disappears during 'in vivo' reticulocytes maturation. This new hexokinase microheterogeneity is not caused by different oxidized forms of the enzyme nor influenced by the presence of proteolytic inhibitors during lysate preparation.

  2. Erythrocyte antigen and reticulocyte engraftment after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, I; Ozer, Y; Yüksel, M K; Arat, M; Arslan, O

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to study the usefulness of erythrocyte antigen (EA) measurement to study engraftment after allogeneic HSCT. In all, 31 consecutive patients receiving HLA-identical bone marrow (BM) (n=13) or peripheral blood stem cells (n=18) were investigated. Apart from the ABO group, 15 EAs representing six minor blood groups were followed by the simple tube agglutination technique. A total of 20 (64.5%) patients received ABO-identical, eight (25.8%) received ABO minor and three (9.7%) received ABO major mismatched grafts. In all, 29 patients were followed for a median of 12 (6-16) months; 65% of the patients expressed donor type EA 1 month and almost all did so 6 months after transplant. Reticulocyte engraftment was significantly shorter than EA engraftment (median 18 vs 35 days) (P=0.001). Patients who received PB stem cells showed significantly faster EA and reticulocyte engraftment than patients who received BM stem cells (P=0.038 and 0.025). ABO compatibility did not have an impact on reticulocyte and EA engraftment (P=0.4 and 0.55). The earliest donor type EA detected was from the Rh and Kidd system. These data suggest that EA and reticulocyte assays are useful in monitoring engraftment.

  3. WBC count

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... blood is 4,500 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL) or 4.5 to 11. ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal ...

  4. Evaluation of reticulocyte haemoglobin content as marker of iron deficiency and predictor of response to intravenous iron in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Ihm, C H; Kim, H J

    2008-02-01

    Because serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS) have a limitation in estimating iron status in haemodialysis patients, the reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr) has been proposed as a new tool. We investigate the accuracy of CHr in comparison with conventional tests and the relationship between changes in CHr and haemoglobin levels after therapy. We selected 140 haemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO and intravenous iron supplementation and measured their complete blood count, CHr and iron parameters. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin <100 microg/l and/or a TS <20%. Hb, CHr, ferritin and TS levels were determined 1 month after therapy. Fifty-three patients were iron deficient. CHr were distributed with 33.7 +/- 1.4 pg in the iron sufficient group and with 29.9 +/- 1.9 pg in the iron deficient group (P = 0.001). The cutoff value of CHr for detecting iron deficiency was <32.4 pg. In iron deficient patients, a significant correlation was found between CHr and TS. The change in CHr after therapy was significantly larger in iron-deficient patients, and a lower baseline CHr is associated with a greater haemoglobin change. CHr is useful in screening iron status in dialysis patients, and a CHr cut-off value of 32 pg is appropriate for the assessment of iron deficiency. Moreover, CHr may serve as a predictor of the response to anaemia treatment.

  5. Reticulocyte haemoglobin content vs. soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index in iron deficiency anaemia accompanied with inflammation.

    PubMed

    Marković, M; Majkić-Singh, N; Ignjatović, S; Singh, S

    2007-10-01

    Ferritin concentration, as a parameter of iron status that is commonly used in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), often has limited values if the iron deficiency is accompanied by inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the value of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr) and soluble transferrin receptor-ferritin index (sTfR/F) in the diagnosis of IDA and differential diagnosis of IDA and anaemia of chronic disease. The study included 66 nonanaemic individuals as controls, 86 patients with IDA divided into noninflammatory and inflammatory subgroups, and 32 patients with anaemia of chronic disease. Blood count, iron, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, ferritin, C-reactive protein, sTfR and CHr were determined. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed very high discriminating power for CHr, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR/F in the diagnosis of IDA. In patients with anaemia of chronic disease these parameters showed no significant difference from the control. CHr and sTfR enabled recognition of iron deficiency and were not affected by acute phase reaction. They are sensitive markers of body iron status with additional value to conventional tests for the detection of iron deficiency.

  6. Age, beta thalassaemia trait, and iron-deficient anaemia significantly affect reticulocyte indices in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Chouliaras, Giorgos L; Stamoulakatou, Alexandra; Tsiftis, George; Perissaki, Georgia; Premetis, Evangelos; Lycopoulou, Lilia

    2010-09-01

    Reticulocyte indices are easy to obtain, low cost parameters and have gained interest in the field of diagnosing anaemias of childhood. We assessed distribution, age and gender variation, relation to indices of iron metabolism and diagnostic performance of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr), percentage of microcytic reticulocytes (micro_r), percentage of hypochromic reticulocytes (hypo_r), and percentage of reticulocytes with low CHr (low_CHr) in 386 pre-school children classified in four groups: healthy, iron deficiency (ID), iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), and beta-thalassaemia carriers (beta-thal). Age had a positive effect in CHr (Spearman's rho = 0.21) and a negative effect in hypo_r (Spearman's rho = -0.2) in healthy children. CHr and low_CHr were related to ferritin in the IDA group (Spearman's rho 0.55 and -0.53, respectively). In the beta-thal group, HbA(2) is strongly related to all reticulocyte indices. micro_r and CHr performed best in discriminating between IDA and beta-thal heterozygosity (ROC analysis, area under the curve (AUC): 0.76 and 0.74, respectively). CHr achieved the best AUC (0.58) in identifying ID among children without anaemia. Age, IDA and beta-thal significantly affect reticulocyte indices. CHr and micro_r may have a role as screening tools in discriminating between IDA and beta-thal heterozygosity.

  7. ATP-dependent degradation of /sup 125/I-bovine serum albumin by rabbit reticulocytes does not need repression of an endogenous inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Saus, J.; Timoneda, J.

    1987-01-01

    The ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of /sup 125/I-bovine serum albumin in rabbit reticulocytes has been investigated. Using various reticulocyte fractions (reticulocyte protease, inhibitor-free protease, ubiquitin and inhibitor) in the presence or absence of ATP, we found that the repression of an endogenous inhibitor, as suggested by others for alpha-casein proteolysis, is unlikely for bovine serum albumin. Therefore, differences exist in the ATP-dependent proteolytic pathway of rabbit reticulocytes depending on the substrate. Fractionation of the reticulocyte ATP-dependent proteolytic system revealed at least two proteolytic and two inhibitory fractions involved in the proteolysis of bovine serum albumin.

  8. Automated analysis of mature red blood cells and reticulocytes in SS and SC disease.

    PubMed

    Maier-Redelsperger, Micheline; Flahault, Antoine; Neonato, Maria Grazia; Girot, Robert; Labie, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic expression of sickle cell disease (SCD) is highly variable. We investigated red blood cells (RBCs) and reticulocytes using a laser light scattering method (ADVIA120, Bayer Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY) in a series of patients with either sickle cell anemia (SS) or compound SC heterozygosity (SC), both groups with or without alpha thalassemia. Results were compared with those of a series of patients without hematological disease. Known data were consistently confirmed, namely heterogeneity in cell volume and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, as well as the premature exit of "stress" reticulocytes from the bone marrow, mostly in SS patients. Specific changes were observed during maturation, including decreases in macrocytic and hypodense cells. Simultaneous viewing of the indices of the different RBC populations provided information on erythropoietic maturation by a rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective method.

  9. [Analysis of reticulocytes: manual microscopy, flow analyzers or image analyzers? (analytical review)].

    PubMed

    Piatnitskiĭ, A M; Medovyĭ, V S; Parpara, A A

    2007-10-01

    Three procedures for determining the quantity and composition of reticulocytes (visual analysis during manual microscopy; flow cytometry, semi-automatic analysis using a computerized microscopy unit) are compared. The errors characteristics for each procedure and the reasons why manual analysis still remains most used are discussed. The paper points out that it is impossible to draw a conclusion on the accuracy of the procedures, by using the values of the correlation coefficient. Evidence is provided for the thesis that the statistical accuracy may be achieved only when the image analyzer of a computerized microscopy unit is employed, therefore this procedure is recommended for use as a reference one. The characteristics of a procedure for analyzing reticulocytes by means of a MEKOS-Ts2 computerized microscopy unit are presented.

  10. Clinical utility of the reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the diagnosis of iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mast, Alan E; Blinder, Morey A; Lu, Qing; Flax, Sherri; Dietzen, Dennis J

    2002-02-15

    Determination of the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) provides an early measure of functional iron deficiency because reticulocytes are the earliest erythrocytes released into blood and circulate for only 1 to 2 days. The CHr in 78 patients undergoing bone marrow examination was measured to assess its clinical utility for the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Twenty-eight patients were iron deficient, based on the lack of stainable iron in the aspirate. The diagnostic power of CHr is limited in patients with high mean cellular volume (MCV) or red cell disorders such as thalassemia. However, when patients with MCV more than 100 fL are excluded, receiver operator curve analysis of CHr, ferritin, transferrin saturation, and MCV demonstrates that CHr has the highest overall sensitivity and specificity of these peripheral blood tests for predicting the absence of bone marrow iron stores.

  11. Autophagic vesicles on mature human reticulocytes explain phosphatidylserine-positive red cells in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Mankelow, Tosti J; Griffiths, Rebecca E; Trompeter, Sara; Flatt, Joanna F; Cogan, Nicola M; Massey, Edwin J; Anstee, David J

    2015-10-08

    During maturation to an erythrocyte, a reticulocyte must eliminate any residual organelles and reduce its surface area and volume. Here we show this involves a novel process whereby large, intact, inside-out phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed autophagic vesicles are extruded. Cell surface PS is a well-characterized apoptotic signal initiating phagocytosis. In peripheral blood from patients after splenectomy or in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the number of circulating red cells exposing PS on their surface is elevated. We show that in these patients PS is present on the cell surface of red cells in large (∼1.4 µm) discrete areas corresponding to autophagic vesicles. The autophagic vesicles found on reticulocytes are identical to those observed on red cells from splenectomized individuals and patients with SCD. Our data suggest the increased thrombotic risk associated with splenectomy, and patients with hemoglobinopathies is a possible consequence of increased levels of circulating mature reticulocytes expressing inside-out PS-exposed autophagic vesicles because of asplenia. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the evaluation of iron status of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, S; Galgano, C; Langley, R C; Canfield, W; Maesaka, J K

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of iron status for hemodialysis patients has been hindered by the inaccuracy of commonly used diagnostic tests. A novel assay, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr), has recently been found to sensitively detect functional iron deficiency among nonuremic patients treated with recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CHr for the assessment of iron status in hemodialysis patients. One hundred sixty-four stable hemodialysis patients had a mean CHr of 27.5 +/- 2.8 pg with a normal distribution of values. The mean CH (mature red cell hemoglobin content) was 26.4 +/- 2.4 pg. There was a close correlation between CHr and CH (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001). A significant subgroup of patients (12.2%) had CHr values < CH. These patients had recent increases in rHuEPO dose, and a lower mean transferrin saturation and hematocrit, suggesting the recent onset of functional iron deficiency due to the increase in rHuEPO dose. In the second phase of the study, 32 patients were randomly selected to receive treatment with a single dose infusion of 1,000 mg of intravenous iron dextran (IVFe). Patients were classified as iron deficient (N = 7) if they responded with a significant reticulocytosis (sustained 1 basis point increase in corrected reticulocyte index within 2 weeks). All other patients were classified as iron replete (N = 25). A CHr < 26 pg at baseline predicted iron deficiency with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 80%. The serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and percentage of hypochromic red blood cells all were less accurate. The time to correction of iron deficiency at the level of the reticulocyte was found to be within 48 hours as measured by correction of the mean CHr to > 26 pg, and by the shift of the vast majority of the reticulocyte population to CHr > 26 pg within this time span. We conclude that CHr < 26 pg is an accurate measure of iron status in hemodialysis patients, that a CHr value < CH indicates the

  13. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  14. Gamma Radiation Induces Micronucleated Reticulocytes in 3-D Bone Marrow Bioreactors in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongliang; Dertinger, Stephen D.; Hyrien, Ollivier; David Wu, J. H.; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2009-01-01

    Radiation injury to the bone marrow is potentially lethal due to the potent DNA-damaging effects on cells of the hematopoietic system, including bone marrow stem cell, progenitor, and the precursor cell populations. Investigation of radiation genotoxic effects on bone marrow progenitor/precursor cells has been challenged by the lack of optimal in vitro surrogate organ culture systems, and the overall difficulty to sustain lineage-specific proliferation and differentiation of hematopoiesis in vitro. We report the investigation of radiation genotoxic effects in bone marrow cultures of C57Bl/6 mice established in 3-D bioreactors, which sustain long-term bone marrow cultures. For these studies, genotoxicity is measured by the induction of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET). The kinetics and dose-response relationship of MN-RET induction in response to gamma-radiation of bioreactor-maintained bone marrow cultures are presented. Our data showed that 3-D long-term bone marrow cultures had sustained erythropoiesis capable of generating reticulocytes up to 8 weeks. The peak time-interval of viable cell output and percentage of reticulocytes increased steadily and reached the initial peak between the 14th to 21st days after inoculations. This was followed by a rebound or staying relatively constant until week 8. The percentage of MN-RET reached the maximum between 24 and 32 hours post 1 Gy gamma-ray. There was a near linear MN-RET induction by gamma radiation from 0 Gy to 1.0 Gy, followed by an attenuated increase to 1.5 – 2.0 Gy. The MN-RET response showed a downtrend beyond 2 Gy. Our data suggest that bone marrow culture in the 3-D bioreactor may be a useful organ culture system for the investigation of radiation genotoxic effect in vitro. PMID:19786117

  15. Gamma-radiation induces micronucleated reticulocytes in 3D bone marrow bioreactors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongliang; Dertinger, Stephen D; Hyrien, Ollivier; Wu, J H David; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2009-01-01

    Radiation injury to the bone marrow is potentially lethal due to the potent DNA-damaging effects on cells of the hematopoietic system, including bone marrow stem cell, progenitor, and the precursor cell populations. Investigation of radiation genotoxic effects on bone marrow progenitor/precursor cells has been challenged by the lack of optimal in vitro surrogate organ culture systems, and the overall difficulty to sustain lineage-specific proliferation and differentiation of hematopoiesis in vitro. We report the investigation of radiation genotoxic effects in bone marrow cultures of C57Bl/6 mice established in 3D bioreactors, which sustain long-term bone marrow cultures. For these studies, genotoxicity is measured by the induction of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs). The kinetics and dose-response relationship of MN-RET induction in response to gamma-radiation of bioreactor-maintained bone marrow cultures are presented. Our data showed that 3D long-term bone marrow cultures had sustained erythropoiesis capable of generating reticulocytes up to 8 weeks. The peak time-interval of viable cell output and percentage of reticulocytes increased steadily and reached the initial peak between the 14th and 21st days after inoculations. This was followed by a rebound or staying relatively constant until week 8. The percentage of MN-RET reached the maximum between 24 h and 32 h post 1 Gy gamma-ray. There was a near linear MN-RET induction by gamma-radiation from 0 Gy to 1.0 Gy, followed by an attenuated increase to 1.5-2.0 Gy. The MN-RET response showed a downtrend beyond 2 Gy. Our data suggest that bone marrow culture in the 3D bioreactor may be a useful organ culture system for the investigation of radiation genotoxic effect in vitro.

  16. Canine reticulocyte hemoglobin content (RET-He) in different types of iron-deficient erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jannika; Moritz, Andreas; Grußendorf, Esther; Lechner, Jörg; Neuerer, Felix; Nickel, Rafael; Rieker, Thomas; Schwedes, Claudia; DeNicola, Dennis B; Russell, James; Bauer, Natali

    2017-09-01

    Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (RET-He) is a diagnostic marker for iron deficiency (ID) in people and dogs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical utility of RET-He in the diagnosis of different causes of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). Canine CBCs were separated into 2 groups according to RET-He values, < 20.9 pg or ≥ 20.9 pg. Erythrocyte and reticulocyte variables were compared between dogs with decreased and normal RET-He values. Additional data for a subgroup of dogs were collected, and dogs with low RET-He values were categorized as having ID, inflammatory disorders (INFL), portosystemic shunt (PSS), miscellaneous diseases (MISC), or combinations of these diseases (ID+INFL, ID+PSS). Hematologic variables were compared between dogs of the different disease groups. Overall, 10.3% (1084/10,553) of canine CBCs showed decreased RET-He values. Significant differences between dogs with decreased and normal RET-He values were found for all erythrocyte and reticulocyte variables. The majority (68.9%, 747/1084) of dogs with low RET-He values was anemic; 28.9% (216/747) of those anemic dogs had microcytosis and hypochromasia. In the subgroup of dogs, 8.9% (205/2306) had low RET-He values. According to their diagnosed diseases, anemic dogs (138/205) could be categorized as ID (17/138; 12.3%), INFL (16/138; 11.6%), PSS (30/138; 21.7%), ID+INFL (63/138; 45.7%), ID+PSS (8/138; 5.8%), and MISC (4/138; 2.9%). Distribution in nonanemic dogs (67/205) was similar, except for a lower number of dogs with PSS. Low RET-He values indicate IDE even in dogs with other CBC variables within the RIs. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  17. Mean reticulocyte volume: a specific parameter to screen for hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuchan; Yang, Wang; Liao, Lin; Deng, Zengfu; Qiu, Yuling; Chen, Wenqiang; Lin, Faquan

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the value of mean reticulocyte volume (MRV) for differential diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) so as to develop conventional and new specific screen indexes. Subjects in this study were divided into three groups: 53 cases in HS group, 217 cases in hemolytic anemia control group (109 cases of thalassemia (THAL), 56 cases of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD deficiency anemia, and 52 cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)), and 100 cases in healthy control group. We analyzed erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters including MRV, mean sphered corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and immature reticulocyte fraction. Results demonstrated that MRV was significantly lower in the HS group but significantly higher in the AIHA and G6PD deficiency anemia groups than that in the healthy control group (P = 0.000). MRV was not significantly different between the AIHA and G6PD deficiency anemia groups (P = 0.977) and between the healthy control and THAL groups (P = 0.168). The area under the ROC curve of MRV for diagnosis of HS was 0.942, with a standard error of 0.019, 95% confidence interval of 0.905-0.979, and optimal critical diagnosis point of 95.77 fL. When the MRV was ≤95.77 fL, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of HS were 86.80% and 91.20%, respectively. Therefore, MRV is a general and specific new index for screening HS and important for differential diagnosis of different types of hemolytic anemia.

  18. Selective modulation of membrane sphingomyelin fatty acid turnover by nigericin. A study in the rat reticulocyte.

    PubMed

    Le Petit-Thevenin, J; Nobili, O; Vérine, A; Boyer, J

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of rat reticulocytes to Nigericin produced a selective modulation of fatty acid incorporation into sphingomyelin (SM) of the cell membrane, via changes in SM acylation kinetics. At physiological fatty acid concentration, Nigericin accelerated 8-fold SM acylation by decreasing the apparent K(m) for oleate from 14.7 microM to 2.0 microM. The response was diminished in high K(+)-containing media, suggesting an effect of Nigericin as K+ transporter. This constitutes a novel piece of evidence for the important role of ions in SM metabolism.

  19. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  20. Characterization of Novel Ribosome-Associated Endoribonuclease SLFN14 from Rabbit Reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Pisareva, Vera P; Muslimov, Ilham A; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Pisarev, Andrey V

    2015-06-02

    Turnover of mRNA is a critical step that allows cells to control gene expression. Endoribonucleases, enzymes cleaving RNA molecules internally, are some of the key components of the degradation process. Here we provide a detailed characterization of novel endoribonuclease SLFN14 purified from rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Schlafen genes encode a family of proteins limited to mammals. Their cellular function is unknown or incompletely understood. In reticulocytes, SLFN14 is strongly overexpressed, represented exclusively by the short form, all tethered to ribosomes, and appears to be one of the major ribosome-associated proteins. SLFN14 binds to ribosomes and ribosomal subunits in the low part of the body and cleaves RNA but preferentially rRNA and ribosome-associated mRNA. This results in the degradation of ribosomal subunits. This process is strictly Mg(2+)- and Mn(2+)-dependent, NTP-independent, and sequence nonspecific. However, in other cell types, SLFN14 is a full-length solely nuclear protein, which lacks ribosomal binding and nuclease activities. Mutational analysis revealed the ribosomal binding site and the aspartate essential for the endonucleolytic activity of protein. Only few endoribonucleases participating in ribosome-mediated processes have been characterized to date. Moreover, none of them are shown to be directly associated with the ribosome. Therefore, our findings expand the general knowledge of endoribonucleases involved in mammalian translation control.

  1. Characterization of Novel Ribosome-Associated Endoribonuclease SLFN14 from Rabbit Reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Turnover of mRNA is a critical step that allows cells to control gene expression. Endoribonucleases, enzymes cleaving RNA molecules internally, are some of the key components of the degradation process. Here we provide a detailed characterization of novel endoribonuclease SLFN14 purified from rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Schlafen genes encode a family of proteins limited to mammals. Their cellular function is unknown or incompletely understood. In reticulocytes, SLFN14 is strongly overexpressed, represented exclusively by the short form, all tethered to ribosomes, and appears to be one of the major ribosome-associated proteins. SLFN14 binds to ribosomes and ribosomal subunits in the low part of the body and cleaves RNA but preferentially rRNA and ribosome-associated mRNA. This results in the degradation of ribosomal subunits. This process is strictly Mg2+- and Mn2+-dependent, NTP-independent, and sequence nonspecific. However, in other cell types, SLFN14 is a full-length solely nuclear protein, which lacks ribosomal binding and nuclease activities. Mutational analysis revealed the ribosomal binding site and the aspartate essential for the endonucleolytic activity of protein. Only few endoribonucleases participating in ribosome-mediated processes have been characterized to date. Moreover, none of them are shown to be directly associated with the ribosome. Therefore, our findings expand the general knowledge of endoribonucleases involved in mammalian translation control. PMID:25996083

  2. Discovery of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human Reticulocyte 15- Lipoxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ganesha; Kenyon, Victor; Jadhav, Ajit; Schultz, Lena; Armstrong, Michelle; Jameson, J Brian; Hoobler, Eric; Leister, William; Simeonov, Anton; Holman, Theodore R.; Maloney, David J.

    2010-01-01

    There are a variety of lipoxygenases in the human body (hLO), each having a distinct role in cellular biology. Human reticulocyte 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-hLO-1), which catalyzes the dioxygenation of 1,4-cis,cis-pentadiene-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, is implicated in a number of diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative conditions. Despite the potential therapeutic relevance of this target, few inhibitors have been reported that are both potent and selective. To this end, we have employed a quantitative high-throughput (qHTS) screen against ~74,000 small molecules in search of reticulocyte 15-hLO-1 selective inhibitors. This screen led to the discovery of a novel chemotype for 15-hLO-1 inhibition, which displays nM potency and is >7,500-fold selective against the related isozymes, 5-hLO, platelet 12-hLO, epithelial 15-hLO-2, ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and human cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, kinetic experiments were performed which indicate that this class of inhibitor is tight binding, reversible, and appears not to reduce the active-site ferric ion. PMID:20866075

  3. Electron microscopic evidence for externalization of the transferrin receptor in vesicular form in sheep reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Using ferritin-labeled protein A and colloidal gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG, the fate of the sheep transferrin receptor has been followed microscopically during reticulocyte maturation in vitro. After a few minutes of incubation at 37 degrees C, the receptor is found on the cell surface or in simple vesicles of 100-200 nm, in which the receptor appears to line the limiting membrane of the vesicles. With time (60 min or longer), large multivesicular elements (MVEs) appear whose diameter may reach 1-1.5 micron. Inside these large MVEs are round bodies of approximately 50-nm diam that bear the receptor at their external surfaces. The limiting membrane of the large MVEs is relatively free from receptor. When the large MVEs fuse with the plasma membrane, their contents, the 50-nm bodies, are released into the medium. The 50-nm bodies appear to arise by budding from the limiting membrane of the intracellular vesicles. Removal of surface receptor with pronase does not prevent exocytosis of internalized receptor. It is proposed that the exocytosis of the approximately 50-nm bodies represents the mechanism by which the transferrin receptor is shed during reticulocyte maturation. PMID:2993317

  4. Malnutrition and infection influence the peripheral blood reticulocyte micronuclei frequency in children.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Ríos, Elsa; Ortiz-Muñiz, Rocío; Martínez-Hernández, Ana Lidia; Cabrera-Rojo, Lilián; Graniel-Guerrero, Jaime; Rodríguez-Cruz, Leonor

    2012-03-01

    Malnutrition is a serious public health problem that affects approximately one third of all children. Developing countries have the highest incidence of malnourished children, and approximately 60% of deaths that occur in children under five are directly related to malnutrition and associated diseases. The relationship between malnutrition and genetic damage has been widely studied in humans and animal models. The micronucleus (MN) assay is useful in detecting chromosome damage induced by several factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infection and malnutrition on the frequency of MN in erythrocytes from the peripheral blood of well-nourished, uninfected (WN) and well-nourished, infected (WNI) children, and moderately malnourished (UNM) and severely malnourished (UNS) children, both with infection, using a flow cytometric analysis technique. The percentage of reticulocytes (RETs) was significantly higher (1.5-fold) in WNI children than well-nourished controls. In addition, the UNS group had a 2.2-fold increase in the percentage of RETs compared to the WNI group. The frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) was 2.5 times greater, in WNI group compared to the WN group. These frequencies were significantly higher (1.7- and 2.1-fold) in UNM and UNS, respectively, compared to the WNI group. The results suggest that infection and malnutrition induce DNA damage in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  6. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  7. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  8. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  9. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  10. Hemolysis Is Associated with Low Reticulocyte Production Index and Predicts Blood Transfusion in Severe Malarial Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Rudat, Annika; Kreidenweiss, Andrea; Steur, Claudia; Appelmann, Iris; Ruehe, Bettina; Schröder, Paul; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mordmüller, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background Falciparum Malaria, an infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is among the leading causes of death and morbidity attributable to infectious diseases worldwide. In Gabon, Central Africa, one out of four inpatients have severe malarial anemia (SMA), a life-threatening complication if left untreated. Emerging drug resistant parasites might aggravate the situation. This case control study investigates biomarkers of enhanced hemolysis in hospitalized children with either SMA or mild malaria (MM). Methods and Findings Ninety-one children were included, thereof 39 SMA patients. Strict inclusion criteria were chosen to exclude other causes of anemia. At diagnosis, erythrophagocytosis (a direct marker for extravascular hemolysis, EVH) was enhanced in SMA compared to MM patients (5.0 arbitrary units (AU) (interquartile range (IR): 2.2–9.6) vs. 2.1 AU (IR: 1.3–3.9), p<0.01). Furthermore, indirect markers for EVH, (i.e. serum neopterin levels, spleen size enlargement and monocyte pigment) were significantly increased in SMA patients. Markers for erythrocyte ageing, such as CD35 (complement receptor 1), CD55 (decay acceleration factor) and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin-V-binding) were investigated by flow cytometry. In SMA patients, levels of CD35 and CD55 on the red blood cell surface were decreased and erythrocyte removal markers were increased when compared to MM or reconvalescent patients. Additionally, intravascular hemolysis (IVH) was quantified using several indirect markers (LDH, α-HBDH, haptoglobin and hemopexin), which all showed elevated IVH in SMA. The presence of both IVH and EVH predicted the need for blood transfusion during antimalarial treatment (odds ratio 61.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.9–427). Interestingly, this subpopulation is characterized by a significantly lowered reticulocyte production index (RPI, p<0.05). Conclusions Our results show the multifactorial pathophysiology of SMA

  11. A Novel Erythrocyte Binding Protein of Plasmodium vivax Suggests an Alternate Invasion Pathway into Duffy-Positive Reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson-Luque, Richard; Torres, Letícia de Menezes; Gunalan, Karthigayan; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites is essential for blood-stage development and an important determinant of host range. In Plasmodium vivax, the interaction between the Duffy binding protein (DBP) and its cognate receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), on human erythrocytes is central to blood-stage infection. Contrary to this established pathway of invasion, there is growing evidence of P. vivax infections occurring in Duffy blood group-negative individuals, suggesting that the parasite might have gained an alternative pathway to infect this group of individuals. Supporting this concept, a second distinct erythrocyte binding protein (EBP2), representing a new member of the DBP family, was discovered in P. vivax and may be the ligand in an alternate invasion pathway. Our study characterizes this novel ligand and determines its potential role in reticulocyte invasion by P. vivax merozoites. EBP2 binds preferentially to young (CD71high) Duffy-positive (Fy+) reticulocytes and has minimal binding capacity for Duffy-negative reticulocytes. Importantly, EBP2 is antigenically distinct from DBP and cannot be functionally inhibited by anti-DBP antibodies. Consequently, our results do not support EBP2 as a ligand for invasion of Duffy-negative blood cells, but instead, EBP2 may represent a novel ligand for an alternate invasion pathway of Duffy-positive reticulocytes. PMID:27555313

  12. Anticlastogenic effects of galangin against mitomycin C-induced micronuclei in reticulocytes of mice.

    PubMed

    Heo, M Y; Jae, L H; Jung, S S; Au, W W

    1996-05-17

    We investigated the suppressive effect of galangin on the induction of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs) by mitomycin C (MMC) in mouse peripheral blood. When galangin was given to mice 24 h before the intraperitoneal injection of MMC (1 mg/kg), a more marked decrease in the frequency of MNRETs was observed than in mice with simultaneous and post-treatment of galangin. On the other hand, when galangin was given to mice for 7 consecutive days before MMC injection, galangin showed potent anticlastogenic effects, even at the lowest dose level of 0.1 mg/kg. Results from our in vivo studies indicate that galangin is capable of suppressing the clastogenic activity of the direct acting MMC. Together with our earlier observations, it appears that galangin is capable of protecting cells from the toxic effects of a variety of hazardous chemicals. Therefore, galangin may be an useful chemopreventive compound.

  13. Proteomics: a review and an example using the reticulocyte membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Prenni, Jessica E; Avery, Anne C; Olver, Christine S

    2007-03-01

    Proteomics is a rapidly expanding field of scientific study that combines techniques in protein solubilization and separation, mass spectrometry, and genome and protein database searching. The proteome is most commonly defined as the entire complement of proteins expressed in a given cell type or tissue under a given condition. A proteomics experiment may be as simple as identifying a single protein or as complex as identifying thousands of proteins in a cell lysate. In this review, we describe the general principles of proteomics and its analytic methods and present an example of an experiment to characterize the murine reticulocyte membrane proteome. A brief summary of proteomics applications and their clinical potential and relevance to clinical pathology is also presented.

  14. Response kinetics of radiation-induced micronucleated reticulocytes in human bone marrow culture.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongliang; Tsai, Ying; Nowak, Irena; Dertinger, Stephen D; Wu, J H David; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2011-01-10

    The frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) in the bone marrow or peripheral blood is a sensitive indicator of cytogenetic damage. While the kinetics of MN-RET induction in rodent models following irradiation has been investigated and reported, information about MN-RET induction of human bone marrow after radiation exposure is sparse. In this report, we describe a human long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC), established in three-dimensional (3D) bioreactors, which sustains long-term erythropoiesis. Using this system, we measured the kinetics of human bone marrow red blood cell (RBC) and reticulocyte (RET) production, as well as the kinetics of human MN-RET induction following radiation exposure up to 6Gy. Human bone marrow established in the 3D bioreactor demonstrated an average percentage of RBCs among total viable cells peaking at 21% on day 21. The average percentage of RETs among total viable cells reached a maximum of 11% on day 14, and remained above 5% by day 28, suggesting that terminal erythroid differentiation was still active. Time- and dose-dependent induction of MN-RET by gamma radiation was observed in the human 3D LTBMC, with peak values occurring at approximately 3 days following 1Gy irradiation. A trend towards delayed peak to 3-5 days post-radiation was observed with radiation doses ≥2Gy. Our data reveal valuable information on the kinetics of radiation-induced MN-RET of human bone marrow cultured in the 3D bioreactor, a synthetic bioculture system, and suggest that this model may serve as a promising tool for studying MN-RET formation in human bone marrow, thereby providing opportunities to study bone marrow genotoxicity testing, mitigating agent effects, and other conditions that are not ordinarily feasible to experimental manipulation in vivo. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Iron depletion in blood donors - Have extended erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters diagnostic utility?

    PubMed

    Aardal Eriksson, Elisabeth; Mobäck, Caroline; Jakobsson, Sandra; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2015-08-01

    Blood donation is associated with iron depletion, but donor iron status is not usually investigated, as such tests are cumbersome and costly. It would therefore be desirable to have simple, fast and inexpensive tests that give information on a donor's risk of developing iron depletion. In a pilot study we investigated whether novel erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters can serve this goal. In regular blood donors extended red cell parameters were measured using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer and conventional biochemical tests of iron status. Donors were compared with a regionally matched group of non-donating controls. In the controls, the reference ranges of extended RBC parameters were well comparable to published data. Donors had significantly more microcytic RBC than controls (median 0.9 vs 0.6%), lower serum ferritin concentration (median 43 vs 91 mg/L) and higher soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index (median 1.60 vs 1.27). Overall 18-28% of the donors were iron depleted. Moreover, 3.3% of donors had iron-restricted erythropoiesis. Microcytic RBC and reticulocyte mean cell hemoglobin content predicted iron depletion with 70% and 64% sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 78%, respectively. When combined these two parameters increased the sensitivity to 82%. Our results in Swedish blood donors confirm a high prevalence of iron depletion, despite iron supplementation used by about half of the donors. Microcytic RBC and MCHr appeared to be helpful in identifying iron-depleted donors, who might benefit from iron supplementation. We recommend larger prospective investigations in order to confirm and extend the findings of this pilot study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Response Kinetics of Radiation-induced Micronucleated Reticulocytes in Human Bone Marrow Culture

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongliang; Tsai, Ying; Nowak, Irena; Dertinger, Stephen D.; David Wu, J. H.; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) in the bone marrow or peripheral blood is a sensitive indicator of cytogenetic damage. While the kinetics of MN-RET induction in rodent models following irradiation have been investigated and reported, information about MN-RET induction of human bone marrow after radiation exposure is sparse. In this report, we describe a human long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC), established in three-dimensional (3D) bioreactors, which sustains long-term erythropoiesis. Using this system, we measured the kinetics of human bone marrow red blood cell (RBC) and reticulocyte (RET) production, as well as the kinetics of human MN-RET induction following radiation exposure up to 6 Gy. Human bone marrow established in the 3D bioreactor demonstrated an average percentage of RBCs among total viable cells peaking at 21% on day 21. The average percentage of RETs among total viable cells reached a maximum of 11% on day 14, and remained above 5% by day 28, suggesting that terminal erythroid differentiation was still active. Time- and dose-dependent induction of MN-RET by gamma radiation was observed in the human 3D LTBMC, with peak values occurring at approximately 3 days following 1 Gy irradiation. A trend towards delayed peak to 3–5 days post-radiation was observed with radiation doses ≥ 2 Gy. Our data reveal valuable information on the kinetics of radiation-induced MN-RET of human bone marrow cultured in the 3D bioreactor, a synthetic bioculture system, and suggest that this model may serve as a promising tool for studying MN-RET formation in human bone marrow, thereby providing opportunities to study bone marrow genotoxicity testing, mitigating agent effects, and other conditions that are not ordinarily feasible to experimental manipulation in vivo. PMID:21056116

  17. Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (Ret He) and assessment of iron-deficient states

    PubMed Central

    BRUGNARA, C; SCHILLER, B; MORAN, J

    2006-01-01

    Direct measurement of the reticulocyte hemoglobin content provides useful information for the diagnosis and treatment of iron-deficient states. We have examined direct measurements of reticulocyte and red cell hemoglobin content on the Sysmex XE 2100 (Ret He and RBC He respectively) and the Bayer ADVIA 2120 (CHr and CH respectively) analyzers. Good agreement was found between Ret He and CHr (Y = 1.04X − 1.06; r2 = 0.88) and between the RBC He and CH parameters (Y = 0.93X + 1; r2 = 0.84 n = 200) in pediatric patients and in normal adults (Ret He and CHr; Y = 1.06X − 0.43; r2 = 0.83; n = 126; RBC He and CH; Y = 0.94X + 1; r2 = 0.87; n = 126). In 1500 blood samples from patients on chronic dialysis, Ret He was compared with traditional parameters for iron deficiency (serum iron <40 μg/dl, Tsat <20%, ferritin <100 ng/ml, hemoglobin <11 g/dl) for identifying iron-deficient states. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed values of the area under the curve for Ret He of 0.913 (P < 0.0001). With a Ret He cutoff level of 27.2 pg, iron deficiency could be diagnosed with a sensitivity of 93.3%, and a specificity of 83.2%. Ret He is a reliable marker of cellular hemoglobin content and can be used to identify the presence of iron-deficient states. PMID:16999719

  18. Further observations on the polynucleotide-induced stimulation of protein synthesis by cell-free preparations from rabbit reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K. G.; Arnstein, H. R. V.

    1965-01-01

    1. The effect of high-molecular-weight RNA from reticulocyte polyribosomes (messenger RNA) on protein synthesis by subcellular fractions derived from reticulocytes, reported by Arnstein, Cox & Hunt (1964), has now been studied in detail. Optimum response of the cell-free system requires 30–50mm-K+ and approx. 5mm-Mg2+ in the pH range 7·4–7·6. 2. RNA stimulates the incorporation into protein of both free amino acids and of aminoacyl residues from s-RNA. Stimulation by either RNA or polyuridylic acid is dependent on a labile factor or enzyme, which is present in the `pH5 fraction' and may be concerned with the formation of new polysomes. Quantitatively the response of the cell-free system to RNA is similar to that of polyuridylic acid, and there appears to be competition between messenger RNA and polyuridylic acid or polyadenylic acid. PMID:16749170

  19. Diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia in hospital patients: Use of the reticulocyte haemoglobin content to differentiate iron deficiency anaemia from anaemia of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Schapkaitz, Elise; Buldeo, Suvarna; Mahlangu, Johnny Ndoni

    2015-11-20

    The diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia in hospital patients with chronic infections and inflammation presents a challenge. Recently laboratory tests such as the reticulocyte haemoglobin content, which are independent of infection and inflammation, have become available for routine diagnostic use.

  20. Identification of Immunodominant B-cell Epitope Regions of Reticulocyte Binding Proteins in Plasmodium vivax by Protein Microarray Based Immunoscreening.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Hee; Li, Jian; Wang, Bo; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Na, Sunghun; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum can invade all stages of red blood cells, while Plasmodium vivax can invade only reticulocytes. Although many P. vivax proteins have been discovered, their functions are largely unknown. Among them, P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) recognize and bind to reticulocytes. Both proteins possess a C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain, which drives adhesion to reticulocytes. PvRBP1 and PvRBP2 are large (> 326 kDa), which hinders identification of the functional domains. In this study, the complete genome information of the P. vivax RBP family was thoroughly analyzed using a prediction server with bioinformatics data to predict B-cell epitope domains. Eleven pvrbp family genes that included 2 pseudogenes and 9 full or partial length genes were selected and used to express recombinant proteins in a wheat germ cell-free system. The expressed proteins were used to evaluate the humoral immune response with vivax malaria patients and healthy individual serum samples by protein microarray. The recombinant fragments of 9 PvRBP proteins were successfully expressed; the soluble proteins ranged in molecular weight from 16 to 34 kDa. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to each recombinant PvRBP protein indicated a high antigenicity, with 38-88% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Of them, N-terminal parts of PvRBP2c (PVX_090325-1) and PvRBP2 like partial A (PVX_090330-1) elicited high antigenicity. In addition, the PvRBP2-like homologue B (PVX_116930) fragment was newly identified as high antigenicity and may be exploited as a potential antigenic candidate among the PvRBP family. The functional activity of the PvRBP family on merozoite invasion remains unknown.

  1. [Usefulness of reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent for the safety of pre-operative autologous blood donation].

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Masami; Takami, Akiyoshi; Kimura, Mika; Takamichi, Sayuri; Sakai, Yoshio; Wada, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Pre-operative autologous blood donation (PABD) provides safe blood for patients at the expense of the risk of iron deficiency anemia that may compromise the patients. The reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) is an indirect measure of the functional iron available for the erythropoiesis over the previous 2-3 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of RET-He quickly measured by the automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XE-2100 in patients undergoing PABD at our hospital. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that RET-He was reliable in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. Two of 14 patients in the absence of post-PABD iron replacement developed marked anemia with low RET-He levels after PABD, suggesting that this anemia was due to iron deficiency. Of 26 patients receiving post-PABD iron replacement, 8 who had already showed low RET-He levels at PABD developed statistically significant reduction in hemoglobin levels after PABD despite adequate iron replacement, indicating that the 8 patients had iron deficiency prior to PABD. These findings suggest that automated measurement of RET-He may contribute to improve the safety of PABD.

  2. Cl-, Na+, and H+ fluxes during the acidification of rabbit reticulocyte endocytic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaete, V.; Nunez, M.T.; Glass, J. )

    1991-02-01

    The ionic fluxes associated with the ATP-dependent acidification of endocytic vesicles were studied in a preparation isolated from rabbit reticulocytes enriched for transferrin-transferrin receptor complexes. No vesicle acidification was observed in the absence of intra- and extravesicular ions sucrose(in)/sucrose(out), while maximal acidification was observed with NaCl(in)/KCl(out).K+(in) was a poor substitute for Na+(in), and Cl-(out) could be replaced by other anions with the following efficacy of acidification: Cl- greater than Br- greater than I- greater than PO{sub 4}(3-) greater than gluconate greater than SO{sub 4}(2-). Flux studies using {sup 36}Cl- and {sup 22}Na+ showed that the vesicles had a permeability for Cl- and Na+, and that ATP-dependent H+ pumping was accompanied by a net influx of Cl- and a net efflux of Na+ provided that there was a Na+ concentration gradient. After 3 mins, the time necessary to maximal acidification, the electrical charge generated by the entrance of H+ was countered to about 45% by the Cl- influx and to about 42% by the Na+ efflux. These studies demonstrated that both Cl- and Na+ fluxes are necessary for optimal endocytic vesicle acidification.

  3. The site of hydrolysis by rabbit reticulocyte peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase is the 3'-AMP terminus of susceptible tRNA substrates.

    PubMed

    Gross, M; Crow, P; White, J

    1992-01-25

    The preceding paper (Gross, M., Starn, T.K., Rundquist, C., Crow, P., White, J., Olin, A., and Wagner, T. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 2073-2079) reported the purification and partial characterization of rabbit reticulocyte peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase. In this article we demonstrate that, unlike bacterial and yeast peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase which act by deacylation, the reticulocyte enzyme hydrolyzes N-acylaminoacyl-tRNA to N-acylaminoacyl-AMP. Reticulocyte lysate has a separate enzyme, that we have isolated and termed aminoacyl-AMP deacylase, which hydrolyzes N-acylaminoacyl-AMP and aminoacyl-AMP, recycling the amino acid and nucleotide components. The action of this enzyme is relatively specific for the N-acylaminoacyl-AMP generated by peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, since it is much less active with N-acylaminoacyl-adenosine and inactive with N-acylaminoacyl-ACCAC, N-acylaminoacyl-tRNA, or aminoacyl-tRNA. The tRNA product of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase action is tRNA missing only its 3'-AMP terminus (tRNA(c-c)), since reaminoacylation requires tRNA nucleotidyltransferase but not CTP. The 3' exonucleolytic action of reticulocyte peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase is specific to susceptible tRNA substrates, since it does not hydrolyze CACCA, CACCA-N-acylamino acid, polyuridylic acid, or the 3' polyadenylate tail of globin mRNA, and, since its ability to hydrolyze Escherichia coli f[3H]Met-tRNA(fMet) is not reduced by excess 5 S or 28 S ribosomal RNA and is reduced only slightly by excess tRNA(c-c). Reticulocyte peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase also hydrolyzes th 3'-AMP terminus of deacylated tRNA. This property may explain why the 3'-terminal AMP of tRNA undergoes turnover in reticulocytes and reticulocyte lysate, since we find that such turnover in gel-filtered reticulocyte lysate is increased under conditions where aminoacylation is reduced.

  4. The water channel aquaporin-1 partitions into exosomes during reticulocyte maturation: implication for the regulation of cell volume.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Lionel; Liu, Jing; Vidal, Michel; Chasis, Joel Anne; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla

    2009-10-29

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1), the universal water channel, is responsible for rapid response of cell volume to changes in plasma tonicity. In the membrane of the red cell the concentration of the protein is tightly controlled. Here, we show that AQP-1 is partially lost during in vitro maturation of mouse reticulocytes and that it is associated with exosomes, released throughout this process. AQP-1 in young reticulocytes localizes to the plasma membrane and also in endosomal compartments and exosomes, formed both in vitro and in vivo. During maturation a part of the total pool of AQP-1 is differentially sorted and released via the exosomal pathway. A proteasome inhibitor, MG132, suppresses secretion of AQP-1, implying that ubiquitination is a sorting signal for its release. We further show that modulation of medium tonicity in vitro regulates the secretion of AQP-1, thus showing that extracellular osmotic conditions can drive sorting of selected proteins by the exosomal pathway. These results lead us to suggest that AQP-1 sorting into exosomes may be the mechanism by which the reticulocyte adapts to environmental changes during its maturation.

  5. Detection of erythropoietin misuse by the Athlete Biological Passport combined with reticulocyte percentage.

    PubMed

    Bejder, Jacob; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Bonne, Thomas Christian; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2016-10-01

    The sensitivity of the adaptive model of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and reticulocyte percentage (ret%) in detection of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) misuse was evaluated using both a long-term normal dose and a brief high dose treatment regime. Sixteen subjects received either 65 IU rHuEPO × kg(-1) every second day for two weeks (normal-dose), 390 IU rHuEPO × kg(-1) on three consecutive days (high-dose), or frequent placebo treatment for 13 days in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. Blood variables were measured 4, 11, and 25 days following treatment initiation. The ABP based on haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and OFF-hr score ([Hb] - 60 × √ret%) yielded atypical profiles following both normal-dose and high-dose treatment (0 %, 31 %, 13 % vs. 21 %, 33 %, 20 % at days 4, 11, and 25 after normal and high dose, respectively). Including ret% as a stand-alone marker for atypical blood profiles increased (P < 0.05) the sensitivity of the adaptive model at day 11 to 63 % and 67 % for normal-dose and high-dose rHuEPO administration, respectively. In conclusion, ~30 % of subjects injecting a normal-dose rHuEPO for two weeks or a high-dose rHuEPO for three days will present an atypical ABP profile. Including ret% as a stand-alone parameter improves the sensitivity two-fold. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Influence of counting methodology on erythrocyte ratios in the mouse micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    LeBaron, Matthew J; Schisler, Melissa R; Torous, Dorothea K; Dertinger, Stephen D; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

    2013-04-01

    The mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test is widely used to investigate the potential interaction of a test substance with chromosomes or mitotic apparatus of replicating erythroblasts. In addition to the primary endpoint, micronucleated erythrocyte frequency, the proportion of immature erythrocytes is measured to assess the influence of treatment on erythropoiesis. The guideline recommendation for an acceptable limit of the immature erythrocyte fraction of not < 20% of the controls was based on traditional scoring methods that consider RNA content. Flow-based sample analysis (e.g., MicroFlow®) characterizes a subpopulation of RNA-containing reticulocytes (RETs) based on CD71 (transferrin receptor) expression. As CD71+ cells represent a younger cohort of RETs, we hypothesized that this subpopulation may be more responsive than the RNA+ fraction for acute exposures. This study evaluated RET population in the peripheral blood of two strains of mice treated by oral gavage with three clastogens (cyclophosphamide, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and methyl methanesulfonate). Although CD71+ frequencies correlated with RNA-based counts, the relative treatment-related reductions were substantially greater. Accordingly, when using the flow cytometry-based CD71+ values for scoring RETs in an acute treatment design, it is suggested that a target value ≥ 5% CD71+ reticulocytes (i.e., 95% depression in reticulocytes proportion) be considered as acceptable for a valid assay.

  7. Evaluation of red cell and reticulocyte parameters as indicative of iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Torino, Ana Beatriz Barbosa; Gilberti, Maria de Fátima Pererira; da Costa, Edvilson; de Lima, Gisélia Aparecida Freire; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mature red cell and reticulocyte parameters under three conditions: iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency. Methods Peripheral blood cells from 117 adult patients with anemia were classified according to iron status, and inflammatory activity, and the results of a hemoglobinopathy investigation as: iron deficiency anemia (n = 42), anemia of chronic disease (n = 28), anemia of chronic disease associated with iron deficiency anemia (n = 22), and heterozygous β thalassemia (n = 25). The percentage of microcytic red cells, hypochromic red cells, and levels of hemoglobin content in both reticulocytes and mature red cells were determined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in differentiating between the different types of anemia. Results There was no significant difference between the iron deficient group and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency in respect to any parameter. The percentage of hypochromic red cells was the best parameter to discriminate anemia of chronic disease with and without absolute iron deficiency (area under curve = 0.785; 95% confidence interval: 0.661–0.909, with sensitivity of 72.7%, and specificity of 70.4%; cut-off value 1.8%). The formula microcytic red cells minus hypochromic red cells was very accurate in differentiating iron deficiency anemia and heterozygous β thalassemia (area under curve = 0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.950–1.005; with sensitivity of 96.2%, and specificity of 92.7%; cut-off value 13.8). Conclusion The indices related to red cells and reticulocytes have a moderate performance in identifying absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease. PMID:25453653

  8. Measurement of reticulocyte and red blood cell indices in the evaluation of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Oustamanolakis, Pantelis; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Kefalogiannis, Georgios; Niniraki, Maria; Kouroumalis, Elias A

    2011-08-01

    The commonest types of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are iron deficiency (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease. The differentiation between these two conditions is important for the management of the patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of reticulocyte and red blood cell indices in the evaluation of anemia in IBD. One hundred IBD patients [49 ulcerative colitis (UC), 51 Crohn's disease (CD)] and 102 healthy controls were enrolled. Measurement of reticulocyte and red blood cell indices was performed using the Coulter LH780 Hematology Analyzer (Beckman Coulter). Additionally, serum levels of ferritin, transferrin saturation (Tsat) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were analyzed in all patients and controls. The prevalence of anemia was 41.2% for UC and 42.9% for CD, whereas 30 IBD patients (30%) had IDA. Red cell Distribution Width (RDW), Red blood cell Size Factor (RSF), and Reticulocyte Distribution Width-Coefficient of Variation (RDWR-CV) were found significantly correlated with both Tsat and sTfR but not with ferritin levels. Patients with IDA had significantly higher RDW and RDWR-CV and significantly lower RSF levels compared with those without IDA. High values of RDW (sensitivity 93%, specificity 81%) and low values of RSF (sensitivity 83%, specificity 82%) were the best markers for the diagnosis of IDA. Both RDWR-CV and RDWR-SD were significantly correlated with disease activity and CRP levels. RDW, RSF and RDWR, could be useful markers for the evaluation of anemia and disease activity in IBD. Copyright © 2011 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spleen-Dependent Immune Protection Elicited by CpG Adjuvanted Reticulocyte-Derived Exosomes from Malaria Infection Is Associated with Changes in T cell Subsets' Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Jaular, Lorena; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Monguió-Tortajada, Marta; Elizalde-Torrent, Aleix; Díaz-Varela, Míriam; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Borras, Francesc E.; Montoya, Maria; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2016-01-01

    Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex) are 30–100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy), had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG. Notably, rexPy immunization of mice induced changes in PD1− memory T cells with effector phenotype. Proteomics analysis of rexPy confirmed their reticulocyte origin and demonstrated the presence of parasite antigens. Our studies thus prove, for what we believe is the first time, that rex from reticulocyte-prone malarial infections are associated with splenic long-lasting memory responses. To try extrapolating these data to human infections, in vitro experiments with spleen cells of human transplantation donors were performed. Plasma-derived exosomes from vivax malaria patients (exPv) were actively uptaken by human splenocytes and stimulated spleen cells leading to changes in T cell subsets. PMID:27900319

  10. Spleen-Dependent Immune Protection Elicited by CpG Adjuvanted Reticulocyte-Derived Exosomes from Malaria Infection Is Associated with Changes in T cell Subsets' Distribution.

    PubMed

    Martín-Jaular, Lorena; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Monguió-Tortajada, Marta; Elizalde-Torrent, Aleix; Díaz-Varela, Míriam; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Borras, Francesc E; Montoya, Maria; Del Portillo, Hernando A

    2016-01-01

    Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex) are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy), had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG. Notably, rexPy immunization of mice induced changes in PD1(-) memory T cells with effector phenotype. Proteomics analysis of rexPy confirmed their reticulocyte origin and demonstrated the presence of parasite antigens. Our studies thus prove, for what we believe is the first time, that rex from reticulocyte-prone malarial infections are associated with splenic long-lasting memory responses. To try extrapolating these data to human infections, in vitro experiments with spleen cells of human transplantation donors were performed. Plasma-derived exosomes from vivax malaria patients (exPv) were actively uptaken by human splenocytes and stimulated spleen cells leading to changes in T cell subsets.

  11. Analysis of reticulocyte parameters on the Sysmex XE 5000 and LH 750 analyzers in the diagnosis of inefficient erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Urrechaga, E; Borque, L; Escanero, J F

    2011-02-01

    The reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (Ret He) represents an indirect measure of the functional iron available for erythropoiesis over the previous 2-3 days. Only the analyzers of a single manufacturer, Sysmex (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan), include Ret He. Red blood cell size factor (RSf) is a new parameter provided by Beckman Coulter, which joins together the volume of the erythrocytes and the volume of reticulocytes. The aims of the study were to investigate the clinical usefulness of RSf in the study of erythropoiesis status and to assess its concordance with Ret He values. Samples from 417 patients were run on both LH 780 (Beckman Coulter) and Sysmex XE 5000 analyzers. Independent samples t-test, Pearson correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and inter-rater reliability (κ index) were applied. Good correlation between RSf and Ret He was observed, r = 0.8184. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were detected when groups with inefficient erythropoiesis were compared with patients undergoing therapy and healthy subjects. ROC analysis for RSf in the diagnosis of inefficient erythropoiesis, cutoff 91.1 fl, area under curve 0.963, sensitivity 91.7%, specificity 88.5%. Concordance between RSf and Ret He κ = 0.68. RSf and Ret He are suitable parameters for the assessment of erythropoiesis status.

  12. Inhibition of reticulocyte lysate protein synthesis by heavy metal ions involves eIF-2. cap alpha. phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Matts, R.; Hurst, R.; Schatz, J.

    1987-05-01

    Heavy metal ions inhibit protein synthesis and disaggregate polyribosomes in several tissues and cell types. They have initiated studies to determine the mechanism by which this inhibition occurs utilizing the hemin-supplemented rabbit reticulocyte lysate as a model system. The inhibition of protein synthesis observed in the presence of heavy metal ions occurs with biphasic kinetics in a concentration dependent manner, which correlates with the biological toxicity of the ion. Highly toxic ions (AsO/sub 2//sup -/, Cd/sup + +/, Hg/sup + +/, Pb/sup + +/) inhibit protein synthesis by 50% at concentrations of 5-10 ..mu..M. In comparison, Cu/sup + +/, Fe/sup + +/, Zn/sup + +/ and GSSG inhibited protein synthesis by 50% at concentrations of 60, 250, 300 and 350 ..mu..M, respectively. The inhibition of protein synthesis was accompanied by the phosphorylation of eIF-2..cap alpha.., and was reversed or prevented by the addition of 1 mM DTT, 10 mM cAMP, 2 mM MgGTP, eIF-2 or the reversing factor (RF). Glucose-6-phosphate was found to have no effect. The data indicate that the inhibition of protein synthesis observed with the addition of heavy metal ions to reticulocyte lysates is due to the phosphorylation of eIF-2..cap alpha...

  13. Mechanism of activation of the heme-stabilized translational inhibitor of reticulocyte lysates by calcium ions and phospholipid.

    PubMed Central

    de Herreros, A G; de Haro, C; Ochoa, S

    1985-01-01

    We have reported previously that calcium ions and phospholipid activate the heme-stabilized proinhibitor form (pro-HCI) of the heme-controlled translational inhibitor (HCI) in reticulocyte lysates and promote the first step of the reaction pro-HCI in equilibrium reversible HCI----irreversible HCI. This suggested the possible involvement of a Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) in the activation. However, further investigation revealed, among other things, that polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., arachidonic acid) were as effective as Ca2+/phospholipid in promoting translational inhibition and phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the chain-initiation factor eIF-2 and, moreover, HCI activation could be prevented or reversed in either case by NADPH-generating systems or by dithiols. Our results suggest that pro-HCI is activated by lipoperoxides produced in reticulocyte lysates from either phospholipid or polyunsaturated fatty acids; the presence of Ca2+ is required in the former but not in the latter case. The reversible activation of HCI by Ca2+ and phospholipid might suggest a possible modulatory role of Ca2+ in translational control. Images PMID:3159012

  14. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  15. Plasmodium vivax ligand-receptor interaction: PvAMA-1 domain I contains the minimal regions for specific interaction with CD71+ reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Pinzón, Gabriela; Bermúdez, Maritza; Hernández, Diana; Curtidor, Hernando; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2017-08-30

    The malarial parasite's invasion is complex, active and coordinated, involving many low and high affinity interactions with receptors on target cell membrane. Proteomics analysis has described around 40 proteins in P. vivax which could be involved in reticulocyte invasion; few have been studied with the aim of elucidating how many of them establish specific interactions with their respective host cells. Given the importance of knowing which of the parasite's protein regions are functionally important for invasion, minimum regions mediating specific interaction between Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (PvAMA-1) and its host cell were here elucidated. The region covering PvAMA-1 domains I and II (PvAMA-DI-II) specifically bound to the CD71(+) red blood cell subpopulation. A 20 residue-long region ((81)EVENAKYRIPAGRCPVFGKG(100)) located in domain I was capable of inhibiting PvAMA-DI-II recombinant protein binding to young reticulocytes (CD71(+)CD45(-)) and rosette formation. This conserved peptide specifically interacted with high affinity with reticulocytes (CD71(+)) through a neuraminidase- and chymotrypsin-treatment sensitive receptor. Such results showed that, despite AMA-1 having universal functions during late Plasmodium invasion stages, PvAMA-1 had reticulocyte-preferring binding regions, suggesting that P. vivax target cell selection is not just restricted to initial interactions but maintained throughout the erythrocyte invasion cycle, having important implications for designing a specific anti-P. vivax vaccine.

  16. From Rabbit Reticulocytes to Clam Oocytes: In Search of the System That Targets Mitotic Cyclins for Degradation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    By the late 1980s, the basic biochemistry of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation had already been elucidated by studies that used reticulocyte lysates. However, the scope and biological functions of this system remained largely obscure. Therefore, I became interested at that time in the mechanisms by which mitotic cyclins are degraded in exit from mitosis. Using a cell-free system from clam oocytes that faithfully reproduced cell cycle stage–specific degradation of cyclins, we identified in 1995 a large ubiquitin ligase complex that targets mitotic cyclins for degradation. Subsequent studies in many laboratories showed that this ubiquitin ligase, now called the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, has centrally important roles in many aspects of cell cycle control. PMID:20335505

  17. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  18. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  19. [Induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow reticulocytes of male mice after subchronic exposure to x-rays and bisphenol A].

    PubMed

    Radzikowska, Joanna; Gajowik, Aneta; Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and xenoestrogens are widely present in the human environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics, epoxy and polyester resins. BPA is present in a great variety of products including: baby bottles, compact disks, thermal paper, safety helmets, bullet resistant laminate, plastic windows, car parts, adhesives, protective coatings, powder paints, polycarbonate bottles and containers, the sheathing of electrical and electronic parts, dental fillings. Food and beverage cans are protected from rusting and corrosion by the application of epoxy resins as inner coatings. Human activities involving the use of radiation and radioactive materials in industry, agriculture and research cause radiation exposure in addition to natural exposure coming from cosmic rays and naturally occurring radioactive substances. The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of bisphenol A, X-rays and combined exposure to X-rays and bisphenol A on the induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and in bone marrow reticulocytes of laboratory mice. Pzh-Sfis male mice were exposed for 8 weeks. Animals were treated with bisphenol A diluted in drinking water (5 mg/kg bw, 10 mg/kg bw, 20 mg/kg bw), irradiated 0.05 Gy of X-rays or exposed to a combination of both (0.05 Gy + 5 mg/kg bw BPA). The samples of peripheral blood were taken at 1, 4 and 8 week following the start of exposure, whereas the bone marrow after the end of experiment, only. The induction of micronuclei in reticulocytes were evaluated by using fluorescence microscope. Bisphenol A as well as ionizing radiation stimulated induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow reticulocytes. After the irradiation the level of micronuclei increased, whereas after exposure to BPA decreased related to time expired from beginning of experiment. Combined exposure of ionizing radiation and bisphenol A induced significantly higher frequency of micronuclei compared to the effect

  20. Biologic dosimetry of bone marrow: induction of micronuclei in reticulocytes after exposure to 32P and 90Y.

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, M; Goddu, S M; Rao, D V; Howell, R W

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow is the dose-limiting organ in targeted radionuclide therapy. Hence, determination of the absorbed dose to bone marrow from incorporated radionuclides is a critical element in treatment planning. This study investigated the potential of the micronucleus assay in peripheral blood reticulocytes (MnRETs) as an in vivo biologic dosimeter for bone marrow. After intravenous administration of 32P-orthophosphate or 90Y-citrate in Swiss Webster mice, DNA damage induced in bone marrow erythroblastoid cells was measured by subsequent scoring of MnRETs in peripheral blood. The response to exponentially decreasing dose rates was calibrated by irradiating animals with external 137Cs-gamma-rays. The gamma-ray dose rate was decreased exponentially, with the dose-rate decrease half-time corresponding to the effective clearance half-time (Te) of the radioactivity from the femoral bone (Te = 64 h for 90Y-citrate and Te = 255 h for 32P-orthophosphate). The maximum MnRETs frequency occurred on the second and third day after injection of 90Y-citrate and 32P-orthophosphate, respectively. The same pattern was observed for exponentially decreasing dose rates of 137Cs-gamma-rays. For each type of exposure, the maximum MnRETs frequency increased in a dose-dependent manner. Using the calibrated dosimeter, the initial dose rates to the marrow per unit of injected activity were 0.0020 cGy/h/kBq and 0.0026 cGy/h/kBq for 32P-orthophosphate and 90Y-citrate, respectively. Micronuclei in peripheral blood reticulocytes can be used as a noninvasive biologic dosimeter for measuring absorbed dose rate and absorbed dose to bone marrow from incorporated radionuclides.

  1. Use of Nramp2-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells and reticulocytes from mk/mk mice to study iron transport mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, An-Sheng; Canonne-Hergaux, Francois; Gruenheid, Samantha; Gros, Philippe; Ponka, Prem

    2009-01-01

    Objective We investigated mechanisms involved in iron (Fe) transport by DMT1 (endosomal Fe(II) exporter, encoded by the Nramp2 gene) using wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Nramp2-transfected CHO cells, as well as reticulocytes from normal and mk/mk mice that have a defect in DMT1. Materials and Methods CHO cells and reticulocytes were incubated with 59Fe bound to various ligands. The radioiron was present in its Fe(II) or Fe(III) forms or bound to transferrin (Tf), and the internalized 59Fe measured under varying experimental conditions. Additionally, 125I-Tf interaction with reticulocytes was investigated and 59Fe incorporation into their heme was determined. Results Hyperexpression of DMT1 in CHO cells greatly increases their capacity to acquire ferrous iron. Although CHO-Nramp2 cells showed an increase in Fe(III) uptake as compared to CHO cells, they transported Fe(III) with much lower efficacy than Fe(II). In addition to their defect in Fe uptake, mk/mk reticulocytes also showed a decrease in Tf receptor levels. Conclusions Given that CHO cells acquire iron from Fe(II)-ascorbate with much higher rates than from Fe(III)-Tf, Tf-receptor levels represent the rate-limiting step in their iron uptake. As Fe(III) transport by CHO-Nramp2 cells can be inhibited by the impermeable oxidant K3Fe(CN)6, a membrane ferric reductase is probably needed for reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which is then transported by DMT1. DMT1 is not a limiting factor in Fe acquisition by normal reticulocytes and their heme synthesis. PMID:18722041

  2. Determinants of platelet count in pediatric patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease: Role of immature platelet fraction.

    PubMed

    Matter, Randa M; Ragab, Iman A; Roushdy, Alaa M; Ahmed, Ahmed G; Aly, Hanan H; Ismail, Eman A

    2017-09-07

    Congenital heart defects are common noninfectious causes of mortality in children. Bleeding and thrombosis are both limiting factors in the management of such patients. We assessed the frequency of thrombocytopenia in pediatric patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease (CCHD) and evaluated determinants of platelet count including immature platelet fraction (IPF) and their role in the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia. Forty-six children and adolescents with CCHD during pre-catheter visits were studied; median age was 20.5 months. Complete blood count including IPF as a marker of platelet production and reticulated hemoglobin content (RET-He) as a marker of red cell production and iron status were done on Sysmex XE 2100 (Sysmex, Japan). C-reactive protein, prothrombin time (PT), Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were also assessed. Thrombocytopenia was found in 6 patients (13%). PT was prolonged (P = .016) and IPF was significantly higher in patients with thrombocytopenia compared with patients with normal platelet count (14.15 ± 5.2% vs 6.68 ± 3.39%; P = .003). Platelet count was negatively correlated with IPF while significant positive correlations were found between IPF and hemoglobin, red blood cells (RBCs) count, hematocrit (Hct), PT, reticulocytes count, and immature reticulocyte fraction. We suggest that elevated IPF in CCHD patients with thrombocytopenia may denote peripheral platelets destruction as an underlying mechanism. Hemoglobin level, RBCs count, Hct, and RET-He were not significant determinants for platelet count in CCHD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  4. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral,"…

  5. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  6. Averaging of TNTC counts.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, C N; Heller, B

    1988-01-01

    When plate count methods are used for microbial enumeration, if too-numerous-to-count results occur, they are commonly discarded. In this paper, a method for consideration of such results in computation of an average microbial density is developed, and its use is illustrated by example. PMID:3178211

  7. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  8. Reticulocyte and Erythrocyte Binding-Like Proteins Function Cooperatively in Invasion of Human Erythrocytes by Malaria Parasites▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Lopaticki, Sash; Maier, Alexander G.; Thompson, Jennifer; Wilson, Danny W.; Tham, Wai-Hong; Triglia, Tony; Gout, Alex; Speed, Terence P.; Beeson, James G.; Healer, Julie; Cowman, Alan F.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria in humans and invades erythrocytes using multiple ligand-receptor interactions. Two important protein families involved in erythrocyte binding are the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) and the reticulocyte binding-like (RBL or P. falciparum Rh [PfRh]) proteins. We constructed P. falciparum lines lacking expression of EBL proteins by creating single and double knockouts of the corresponding genes for eba-175, eba-181, and eba-140 and show that the EBL and PfRh proteins function cooperatively, consistent with them playing a similar role in merozoite invasion. We provide evidence that PfRh and EBL proteins functionally interact, as loss of function of EBA-181 ablates the ability of PfRh2a/b protein antibodies to inhibit merozoite invasion. Additionally, loss of function of some ebl genes results in selection for increased transcription of the PfRh family. This provides a rational basis for considering PfRh and EBL proteins for use as a combination vaccine against P. falciparum. We immunized rabbits with combinations of PfRh and EBL proteins to test the ability of antibodies to block merozoite invasion in growth inhibition assays. A combination of EBA-175, PfRh2a/b, and PfRh4 recombinant proteins induced antibodies that potently blocked merozoite invasion. This validates the use of a combination of these ligands as a potential vaccine that would have broad activity against P. falciparum. PMID:21149582

  9. Terminal-sequence studies of high-molecular-weight ribonucleic acid. The 3'-termini of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Hunt, J A

    1970-11-01

    Sequences of the polynucleotide chains of RNA found in the large and small ribosomal subunits of rabbit reticulocytes have been determined from the 3'-end by use of periodate oxidation and condensation with [(3)H]isoniazid and by stepwise degradation. By these methods the hexanucleotide sequences have been found as -pGpUpUpUpGpU for the 28S RNA and -pGpUpCpGpCpU for the 6S RNA of the large ribosomal subunit and the octanucleotide sequence -pGpApUpCpApUpUpA for the 18S rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit. These sequences are present in at least 70% of all the RNA molecules and are discussed in relation to the specific cleavage of rRNA from its precursors and the role of multiple cistrons for rRNA in the DNA of higher organisms. The feasibility of using the method for longer sequence determinations is discussed.

  10. TOP mRNAs are translationally inhibited by a titratable repressor in both wheat germ extract and reticulocyte lysate.

    PubMed

    Biberman, Y; Meyuhas, O

    1999-08-13

    Vertebrate TOP mRNAs contain a 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5' TOP), which is subject to selective translational repression in non-growing cells or in cell-free translation systems. In the present study, we monitored in vitro the effect of increasing amounts of a 16 nucleotides long oligoribonucleotide representing the 5' terminus of mouse ribosomal protein S16 mRNA on the translation of TOP and non-TOP mRNAs. Our results demonstrate that the wild-type sequence (but not its mutant counterparts) derepresses the translation of mRNAs containing 5' TOP motifs, but failed to stimulate the translation of non-TOP mRNAs, even if the latter differed only by a single nucleotide from their 5' TOP-containing counterparts. Similar results have been obtained with both wheat germ extract and rabbit reticulocyte lysate. It appears, therefore, that translational repression of TOP mRNAs is achieved in vitro by the accumulation of a titratable repressor rather than by the loss of an activator and that this repressor recognizes multiple TOP mRNAs with a diverse set of 5' TOP motifs.

  11. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  12. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach.

  13. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  14. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  15. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Lung Function Infections Iron Overload Low Blood Counts Pain Disease- and Treatment-Related ... cancer research around the world and provides free information and support services. Privacy Policy Security Copyright Link ...

  16. Neutron counting with cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  17. Unwinding protein specific for mRNA translation fractionated together with rabbit reticulocyte initiation factor 3 complex

    PubMed Central

    Ilan, Joseph; Ilan, Judith

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system dependent on the addition of initiation factor 3 (eIF-3) and mRNA were carried out. In this system, using ribosomal subunits, AUG(U)n can direct polyphenylalanine synthesis in the absence of eIF-3 at 3 mM MgCl2. Globin mRNA was not translated under similar conditions; its translation requires the addition of eIF-3. Moreover, the maximal rate of globin synthesis was achieved when the molar ratio of eIF-3 to ribosomes was approximately 1. This was taken to indicate that some ribosomal proteins were fractionated with eIF-3 and functioned in reconstitution of salt-washed ribosomes. In our system, almost all ribosomes were active, as evident from the fact that all were found in polysomes when analyzed at the time of linear incorporation, and the molar ratio of ribosomes to mRNA was maintained at 4:1. When AUG(U)n was hybridized with poly(A), it could not direct polyphenylalanine synthesis with or without eIF-3 and was a potent inhibitor of the translation of globin mRNA in the presence of eIF-3. When poly(A) containing 10% U was hybridized with AUG(U)n and added to the cell-free system, addition of eIF-3 promoted polyphenylalanine synthesis to about 80% of control. Moreover, eIF-3 was seen to shift significantly the melting temperature of globin and synthetic double-stranded RNA. These observations suggest that extraction of ribosomes with 0.5 M KCl may release a ribosomal protein that fractionates with eIF-3. This protein may function in unwinding or melting the secondary structure of mRNA and thus facilitate translation. PMID:267926

  18. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  19. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  20. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside.

  1. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-10-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation.

  2. Characterization of ribonuclease H activities present in two cell-free protein synthesizing systems, the wheat germ extract and the rabbit reticulocyte lysate.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, C; Frank, P; Büsen, W

    1993-01-01

    Experimental evidence accumulated to date by several research groups indicates that antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted against messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences located downstream of the initiation codon fail to inhibit the translation of this mRNA unless the hybrid is cleaved by RNase H. It has previously been shown that exogenous RNase H has to be added to rabbit reticulocyte lysate to obtain translational arrest (unless freshly prepared lysates are used). In contrast there is no need of exogenous RNase H by using wheat germ extract for translation because the level of endogenous RNase H is high enough to ensure cleavage of the hybrid formed between the antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide and its complementary sequence on the mRNA. Surprisingly, we found that these two cell-free translation systems display similar amounts of RNase H activities when tested under standard conditions (extract diluted 500 times in the RNase H reaction mix). The RNase H activity of the rabbit reticulocyte lysate has a divalent cation requirement and sensitivity to inhibitors similar to class I ribonuclease H, whereas the activity of the wheat germ extract shows similarities to class II ribonuclease H. However, when these activities were assayed under conditions similar to those used for translation experiments, only highly reduced levels of activity were found in comparison to the standard assays. This reduction is due in part to sub-optimal ionic conditions for the endogenous RNase H activities in these extracts, and, for the other part, likely due to interactions with other proteins present in the lysates. In these conditions, however, the remaining activity found in the wheat germ extract was three times higher than the activity found in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Whether this difference can by itself explain the indicated differences in the two systems observed in hybrid-arrest of translation experiments remains open to discussion.

  3. Assembly of heterodimeric luciferase after de novo synthesis of subunits in rabbit reticulocyte lysate involves hsc70 and hsp40 at a post-translational stage.

    PubMed

    Tyedmers, J; Kruse, M; Lerner, M; Demand, J; Höhfeld, J; Solsbacher, J; Volkmer, J; Zimmermann, R

    2000-06-01

    Heterodimeric luciferase from Vibrio harveyi had been established as a unique model enzyme for direct measurements of the effects of molecular chaperones and folding catalysts on protein folding and subunit assembly after de novo synthesis of subunits in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. It was observed that luciferase assembly can be separated in time from synthesis of the two subunits and that under these post-translational conditions assembly was inhibited by either ATP depletion or inhibition of peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases, that is, by addition of cyclosporin A or FK506. Furthermore, it was observed that the inhibitory effect of FK506 on luciferase assembly can be suppressed by addition of purified cyclophilin, thereby providing the first direct evidence for the involvement of peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases in protein biogenesis in the eukaryotic cytosol. Here the ATP requirement in luciferase assembly has been characterized. Depletion of either Hsp90 or CCT from reticulocyte lysate did not interfere with luciferase assembly. However, addition of purified Hsc70 stimulated luciferase assembly. While addition of purified Hsp40 did not have any effect on luciferase assembly, the stimulatory effect of Hsc70 was further increased by Hsp40. Thus, after synthesis of the two subunits in reticulocyte lysate assembly of heterodimeric luciferase involves Hsc70 and its co-chaperone Hsp40. Therefore, Hsc70 aids protein biogenesis in the eukaryotic cytosol not only at the levels of nascent polypeptide chains and precursor proteins that have to be kept competent for transport into cell organelles, but also at the level of subunits that have to be kept competent for assembly.

  4. Recommendation for standardization of haematology reporting units used in the extended blood count.

    PubMed

    Brereton, M; McCafferty, R; Marsden, K; Kawai, Y; Etzell, J; Ermens, A

    2016-10-01

    It is desirable in the interest of patient safety that the reporting of laboratory results should be standardized where no valid reason for diversity exists. This study considers the reporting units used for the extended blood cell count and makes a new ICSH recommendation to encourage standardization worldwide. This work is based on a literature review that included the original ICSH recommendations and on data gathered from an international survey of current practice completed by 18 countries worldwide. The survey results show that significant diversity in the use of reporting units for the blood count exists worldwide. The use of either non-SI or other units not recommended by the ICSH in the early 1980s has persisted despite the guidance from that time. The diversity in use of reporting units occurs in three areas: the persistence in use of non-SI units for RBC, WBC and platelet counts, the use of three different units for haemoglobin concentration and the manual reporting of WBC differential, reticulocytes and nucleated RBCs when the latter are available from automated analysis or can be expressed as absolute numbers by calculation. A new recommendation with a rationale for each parameter is made for standardization of the reporting units used for the extended blood count. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Diversity and evolutionary genetics of the three major Plasmodium vivax merozoite genes participating in reticulocyte invasion in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Cerón, Lilia; Cerritos, Rene; Corzo-Mancilla, Jordán; Santillán, Frida

    2015-12-21

    suggest that differential intensities of selective forces are operating on these gene fragments, and probably related to their timing, length of exposure and function during reticulocyte adhesion and invasion. Therefore, these finding are essential for mono and multivalent vaccine development and for epidemiological surveillance.

  6. Frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes, a dosimeter of DNA double-strand breaks, in infants receiving computed tomography or cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Mona; Walker, Dale M; Albertini, Richard J; Nicklas, Janice A; Lundblad, Lennart K A; Vacek, Pamela M; Walker, Vernon E

    2017-08-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT scans) has increased dramatically in recent decades, raising questions about the long-term safety of CT-emitted x-rays especially in infants who are more sensitive to radiation-induced effects. Cancer risk estimates for CT scans typically are extrapolated from models; therefore, new approaches measuring actual DNA damage are needed for improved estimations. Hence, changes in a dosimeter of DNA double-strand breaks, micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) measured by flow cytometry, were investigated in mice and infants exposed to CT scans. In male C57BL/6N mice (6-8 weeks-of-age), there was a dose-related increase in MN-RETs in blood samples collected 48h after CT scans delivering targeted exposures of 1-130 cGy x-rays (n=5-10/group, r=0.994, p=0.01), with significant increases occurring at exposure levels as low as 0.83 cGy x-rays compared to control mice (p=0.002). In paired blood specimens from infants with no history of a prior CT scan, there was no difference in MN-RET frequencies found 2h before (mean, 0.10±0.07%) versus 48h after (mean, 0.11±0.05%) a scheduled CT scan/cardiac catheterization. However, in infants having prior CT scan(s), MN-RET frequencies measured at 48h after a scheduled CT scan (mean=0.22±0.12%) were significantly higher than paired baseline values (mean, 0.17±0.07%; p=0.032). Increases in baseline (r=0.722, p<0.001) and 48-h post exposure (r=0.682, p<0.001) levels of MN-RETs in infants with a history of prior CT scans were significantly correlated with the number of previous CT scans. These preliminary findings suggest that prior CT scans increase the cellular responses to subsequent CT exposures. Thus, further investigation is needed to characterize the potential cancer risk from single versus repeated CT scans or cardiac catheterizations in infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A nontetrameric species is the major soluble form of keratin in Xenopus oocytes and rabbit reticulocyte lysates

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Inside the interphase cell, approximately 5% of the total intermediate filament protein exists in a soluble form. Past studies using velocity gradient sedimentation (VGS) indicate that soluble intermediate filament protein exists as an approximately 7 S tetrameric species. While studying intermediate filament assembly dynamics in the Xenopus oocyte, we used both VGS and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) to analyze the soluble form of keratin. Previous studies (Coulombe, P. A., and E. Fuchs. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 111:153) report that tetrameric keratins migrate on SEC with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 150,000; the major soluble form of keratin in the oocyte, in contrast, migrates with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 750,000. During oocyte maturation, the keratin system disassembles into a soluble form (Klymkowsky, M. W., L. A. Maynell, and C. Nislow. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 114:787) and the amount of the 750-kD keratin complex increases dramatically. Immunoprecipitation analysis of soluble keratin from matured oocytes revealed the presence of type I and type II keratins, but no other stoichiometrically associated polypeptides, suggesting that the 750-kD keratin complex is composed solely of keratin. To further study the formation of the 750-kD keratin complex, we used rabbit reticulocyte lysates (RRL). The 750-kD keratin complex was formed in RRLs contranslating type I and type II Xenopus keratins, but not when lysates translated type I or type II keratin RNAs alone. The 750-kD keratin complex could be formed posttranslationally in an ATP-independent manner when type I and type II keratin translation reactions were mixed. Under conditions of prolonged incubation, such as occur during VGS analysis, the 750-kD keratin complex disassembled into a 7 S (by VGS), 150-kD (by SEC) form. In urea denaturation studies, the 7 S/150-kD form could be further disassembled into an 80-kD species that consists of cofractionating dimeric and monomeric

  8. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants…

  9. Counting “exotics”

    Treesearch

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    An introduced or exotic species is commonly defined as an organism accidentally or intentionally introduced to a new location by human activity (Williamson 1996; Richardson et al. 2000; Guo and Ricklefs 2010). However, the counting of exotics is often inconsistent. For example, in the US, previously published plant richness data for each state are only those either...

  10. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  11. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  12. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  13. WY Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

  14. Carbohydrate counting of food.

    PubMed

    Hegar, Karin; Heiber, Stefanie; Brändle, Michael; Christ, Emanuel; Keller, Ulrich

    2011-07-07

    Carbohydrate counting is a principal strategy in nutritional management of type 1 diabetes. The Nutri-Learn buffet (NLB) is a new computer-based tool for patient instruction in carbohydrate counting. It is based on food dummies made of plastic equipped with a microchip containing relevant food content data. The tool enables the dietician to assess the patient's food counting abilities and the patient to learn in a hands-on interactive manner to estimate food contents such as carbohydrate content. Multicentre randomised controlled trial in 134 patients with type 1 diabetes comparing the use of the Nutri-Learn buffet in determining and improving ability to estimate the carbohydrate content of food with the use of conventional counselling tools (i.e. pictures and tables). The NLB group showed significantly better carbohydrate estimation values than the control group. In particular, there was a significant improvement in estimation of starches, fruits and sweets. The NLB was preferred by patients and dieticians in that rating of carbohydrate was closer to reality than the use of conventional tools, and since the tool has a play element, is interactive and adjustable, and can be used with only minimal knowledge of a specific language. Adjustment of preprandial insulin doses to the amounts of dietary carbohydrates ingested during the subsequent meal resulted in improved metabolic control in previous studies. The present study demonstrated that the new tool (Nutri-Learn buffet) improved teaching and learning of carbohydrate counting. In addition, it allowed an objective assessment of the carbohydrate counting skills of patients by the dietician. The findings therefore suggest that the tool is helpful in nutritional counselling of patients with diabetes mellitus.

  15. Hydroxycarbamide decreases sickle reticulocyte adhesion to resting endothelium by inhibiting endothelial lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) through phosphodiesterase 4A activation.

    PubMed

    Chaar, Vicky; Laurance, Sandrine; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Cochet, Sylvie; De Grandis, Maria; Colin, Yves; Elion, Jacques; Le Van Kim, Caroline; El Nemer, Wassim

    2014-04-18

    Vaso-occlusive crises are the main acute complication in sickle cell disease. They are initiated by abnormal adhesion of circulating blood cells to vascular endothelium of the microcirculation. Several interactions involving an intricate network of adhesion molecules have been described between sickle red blood cells and the endothelial vascular wall. We have shown previously that young sickle reticulocytes adhere to resting endothelial cells through the interaction of α4β1 integrin with endothelial Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM). In the present work, we investigated the functional impact of endothelial exposure to hydroxycarbamide (HC) on this interaction using transformed human bone marrow endothelial cells and primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Adhesion of sickle reticulocytes to HC-treated endothelial cells was decreased despite the HC-derived increase of Lu/BCAM expression. This was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Lu/BCAM and up-regulation of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4A expression. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for HC in endothelial cells where it could modulate the function of membrane proteins through the regulation of phosphodiesterase expression and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways.

  16. The Watt Count System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

  17. High Red Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  18. Neural networks counting chimes.

    PubMed Central

    Amit, D J

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the ideas that led to neural networks capable of recalling associatively and asynchronously temporal sequences of patterns can be extended to produce a neural network that automatically counts the cardinal number in a sequence of identical external stimuli. The network is explicitly constructed, analyzed, and simulated. Such a network may account for the cognitive effect of the automatic counting of chimes to tell the hour. A more general implication is that different electrophysiological responses to identical stimuli, at certain stages of cortical processing, do not necessarily imply synaptic modification, a la Hebb. Such differences may arise from the fact that consecutive identical inputs find the network in different stages of an active temporal sequence of cognitive states. These types of networks are then situated within a program for the study of cognition, which assigns the detection of meaning as the primary role of attractor neural networks rather than computation, in contrast to the parallel distributed processing attitude to the connectionist project. This interpretation is free of homunculus, as well as from the criticism raised against the cognitive model of symbol manipulation. Computation is then identified as the syntax of temporal sequences of quasi-attractors. PMID:3353371

  19. Counting RG flows

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerfulmore » enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.« less

  20. Counting RG flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.

  1. Counting coalescent histories.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-04-01

    Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula.

  2. Pig-a gene mutation and micronucleated reticulocyte induction in rats exposed to tumorigenic doses of the leukemogenic agents chlorambucil, thiotepa, melphalan, and 1,3-propane sultone.

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Stephen D; Phonethepswath, Souk; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Torous, Dorothea K; Mereness, Jared; Cottom, John; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Macgregor, James T

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate whether blood-based genotoxicity endpoints can provide temporal and dose-response data within the low-dose carcinogenic range that could contribute to carcinogenic mode of action (MoA) assessments, we evaluated the sensitivity of flow cytometry-based micronucleus and Pig-a gene mutation assays at and below tumorigenic dose rate 50 (TD50) levels. The incidence of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) was used to evaluate chromosomal damage, and the frequency of CD59-negative reticulocytes (RET(CD59-) ) and erythrocytes (RBC(CD59-) ) served as phenotypic reporters of mutation at the X-linked Pig-a gene. Several leukemogenic agents with a presumed genotoxic MoA were studied. Specifically, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated via oral gavage for 28 days with chlorambucil, thiotepa, melphalan, and 1,3-propane sultone at doses corresponding to 0.33x, 1x, and 3x TD50, as well as at the maximum tolerated dose. Frequencies of MN-RET were determined at Days 4 and 29, and RET(CD59-) and RBC(CD59-) data were collected pretreatment as well as Days 15/16, 29, and 56/57. Dose-related increases were observed for each endpoint, and time to maximal effect was consistently: MN-RET < RET(CD59-)  < RBC(CD59-) . For each of the chemicals studied, the genotoxic events occurred long before tumors or preneoplastic lesions would be expected. Furthermore, in the case of Pig-a gene mutation, the responses were observed at or below the TD50 dose for three out of the four chemicals studied. These data illustrate the potential for quantitative blood-based analyses to provide dose-response and temporality information that relates genetic damage to cancer induction.

  3. "Just" Counting: Young Children's Oral Counting and Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John; Bruce, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the specific skills and abilities of young children in oral counting and enumeration. Responses to an oral counting task and an enumeration task by a sample (n=93) of 3- and 4-year old children attending a range of pre-five establishments in an urban district of northern England are described. The findings, whilst providing…

  4. Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile…

  5. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  6. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called…

  7. Low White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  8. Plasmodium falciparum Reticulocyte Binding-Like Homologue Protein 2 (PfRH2) Is a Key Adhesive Molecule Involved in Erythrocyte Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Sahar, Tajali; Reddy, K. Sony; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Pandey, Alok K.; Singh, Shailja; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Gaur, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium merozoites is a complex, multistep process that is mediated by a number of parasite ligand-erythrocyte receptor interactions. One such family of parasite ligands includes the P. falciparum reticulocyte binding homologue (PfRH) proteins that are homologous with the P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins and have been shown to play a role in erythrocyte invasion. There are five functional PfRH proteins of which only PfRH2a/2b have not yet been demonstrated to bind erythrocytes. In this study, we demonstrated that native PfRH2a/2b is processed near the N-terminus yielding fragments of 220 kDa and 80 kDa that exhibit differential erythrocyte binding specificities. The erythrocyte binding specificity of the 220 kDa processed fragment of native PfRH2a/2b was sialic acid-independent, trypsin resistant and chymotrypsin sensitive. This specific binding phenotype is consistent with previous studies that disrupted the PfRH2a/2b genes and demonstrated that PfRH2b is involved in a sialic acid independent, trypsin resistant, chymotrypsin sensitive invasion pathway. Interestingly, we found that the smaller 80 kDa PfRH2a/2b fragment is processed from the larger 220 kDa fragment and binds erythrocytes in a sialic acid dependent, trypsin resistant and chymotrypsin sensitive manner. Thus, the two processed fragments of PfRH2a/2b differed with respect to their dependence on sialic acids for erythrocyte binding. Further, we mapped the erythrocyte binding domain of PfRH2a/2b to a conserved 40 kDa N-terminal region (rPfRH240) in the ectodomain that is common to both PfRH2a and PfRH2b. We demonstrated that recombinant rPfRH240 bound human erythrocytes with the same specificity as the native 220 kDa processed protein. Moreover, antibodies generated against rPfRH240 blocked erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum through a sialic acid independent pathway. PfRH2a/2b thus plays a key role in erythrocyte invasion and its conserved receptor-binding domain

  9. Uncertainty in measurements by counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

    2012-02-01

    Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

  10. The origins of counting algorithms.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Mice can count and optimize count-based decisions.

    PubMed

    Çavdaroğlu, Bilgehan; Balcı, Fuat

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies showed that rats and pigeons can count their responses, and the resultant count-based judgments exhibit the scalar property (also known as Weber's Law), a psychophysical property that also characterizes interval-timing behavior. Animals were found to take a nearly normative account of these well-established endogenous uncertainty characteristics in their time-based decision-making. On the other hand, no study has yet tested the implications of scalar property of numerosity representations for reward-rate maximization in count-based decision-making. The current study tested mice on a task that required them to press one lever for a minimum number of times before pressing the second lever to collect the armed reward (fixed consecutive number schedule, FCN). Fewer than necessary number of responses reset the response count without reinforcement, whereas emitting responses at least for the minimum number of times reset the response counter with reinforcement. Each mouse was tested with three different FCN schedules (FCN10, FCN20, FCN40). The number of responses emitted on the first lever before pressing the second lever constituted the main unit of analysis. Our findings for the first time showed that mice count their responses with scalar property. We then defined the reward-rate maximizing numerical decision strategies in this task based on the subject-based estimates of the endogenous counting uncertainty. Our results showed that mice learn to maximize the reward-rate by incorporating the uncertainty in their numerosity judgments into their count-based decisions. Our findings extend the scope of optimal temporal risk-assessment to the domain of count-based decision-making.

  12. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  13. Back to basics: the untreated rabbit reticulocyte lysate as a competitive system to recapitulate cap/poly(A) synergy and the selective advantage of IRES-driven translation.

    PubMed

    Soto Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Décimo, Didier; Moncorgé, Olivier; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2007-01-01

    Translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs involves the synergistic action between the 5' cap structure and the 3' poly(A) tail at the initiation step. The poly(A) tail has also been shown to stimulate translation of picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites (IRES)-directed translation. These effects have been attributed principally to interactions between eIF4G and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) but also to the participation of PABP in other steps during translation initiation. As the rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) does not recapitulate this cap/poly(A) synergy, several systems based on cellular cell-free extracts have been developed to study the effects of poly(A) tail in vitro but they generally exhibit low translational efficiency. Here, we describe that the non-nuclease-treated RRL (untreated RRL) is able to recapitulate the effects of poly(A) tail on translation in vitro. In this system, translation of a capped/polyadenylated RNA was specifically inhibited by either Paip2 or poly(rA), whereas translation directed by HCV IRES remained unaffected. Moreover, cleavage of eIF4G by FMDV L protease strongly stimulated translation directed by the EMCV IRES, thus recapitulating the competitive advantage that the proteolytic processing of eIF4G confers to IRES-driven RNAs.

  14. Efficiency of cell-free protein synthesis based on a crude cell extract from Escherichia coli, wheat germ, and rabbit reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Hino, Mami; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Takenori; Kido, Jun-Ichi; Shinohara, Yasuo; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2008-01-20

    The efficiency of protein synthesis for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) was examined with several in vitro coupled transcription/translation protein synthesis systems based on Escherichia coli lysate, wheat germ, or reticulocyte lysate, and an in vitro translation system based on wheat germ extract. A significant amount of protein synthesis was observed only in systems based on E. coli using pET/G3PDH as the expression vector. A remarkable increase of protein synthesis was obtained in wheat germ using a pT(N)T expression vector which contains a 5'-globin leader sequence and a synthetic poly(A)(30) tail instead of pET. A significant difference of T7 RNA polymerase presence by Western blot analysis was not observed in the first four systems, and the difference of total RNA presence in each reaction mixture by Northern blot analysis seemed unrelated to protein synthesis. Although a small amount of protein was synthesized using RNA-encoding G3PDH transcribed in vitro with pET/G3PDH by an in vitro translation system, an extreme increase was observed using transcribed RNA with pEU/G3PDH, which contains T7 RNA promoter and a translation enhancer, Omega sequence. These results suggest that the presence of an enhancer sequence for translation is one of the critical steps for protein synthesis by a eukaryotic cell-free protein synthesis system.

  15. PfRH5: a novel reticulocyte-binding family homolog of plasmodium falciparum that binds to the erythrocyte, and an investigation of its receptor.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Marilis; Lustigman, Sara; Montero, Estrella; Oksov, Yelena; Lobo, Cheryl A

    2008-10-01

    Multiple interactions between parasite ligands and their receptors on the human erythrocyte are a condition of successful Plasmodium falciparum invasion. The identification and characterization of these receptors presents a major challenge in the effort to understand the mechanism of invasion and to develop the means to prevent it. We describe here a novel member of the reticulocyte-binding family homolog (RH) of P. falciparum, PfRH5, and show that it binds to a previously unrecognized receptor on the RBC. PfRH5 is expressed as a 63 kDa protein and localized at the apical end of the invasive merozoite. We have expressed a fragment of PfRH5 which contains the RBC-binding domain and exhibits the same pattern of interactions with the RBC as the parent protein. Attachment is inhibited if the target cells are exposed to high concentrations of trypsin, but not to lower concentrations or to chymotrypsin or neuraminidase. We have determined the affinity, copy number and apparent molecular mass of the receptor protein. Thus, we have shown that PfRH5 is a novel erythrocyte-binding ligand and the identification and partial characterization of the new RBC receptor may indicate the existence of an unrecognized P. falciparum invasion pathway.

  16. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  17. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  18. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.

    PubMed

    Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  19. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  1. Photon Counting - One More Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Richard H.

    2012-05-01

    Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

  2. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  3. City & Rural KIDS COUNT Data Book. KIDS COUNT Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides the objective data needed to track and monitor the well-being of children in different types of American communities. It is part of the ongoing work of the Casey Foundation -- advanced primarily through our KIDS COUNT initiative -- designed to give policymakers data that can help them better understand how conditions of…

  4. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  5. The Content of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin and Serum Concentration of the Soluble Transferrin Receptor for Diagnostics of Anemia in Chronically Hemodialyzed Patients.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Teresa; Owczarek, Aleksander; Strzelczyk, Joanna K; Gołąbek, Karolina; Wiczkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal disease constitutes a serious worldwide clinical problem. An important issue arising early during the treatment of renal failure is anemia. Patients in the end-stage of renal disease chronically treated with hemodialysis frequently suffer from anemia with iron deficiency. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of determining the reticulocyte hemoglobin content and serum concentration of soluble transferrin receptor in the detection of anemia caused by iron deficiency in comparison with the classic markers of iron circulation in serum in chronic dialysis patients with ESRD. 66 sets of hematologic results and iron turnover rates were analyzed, sampled from hemodialyzed patients (test group), as well as 34 sets of the same results taken from healthy people (control group). Statistically significant variables were found and a stepwise backward discriminant analysis was performed for them. The results showed that dialyzed patients have a significantly lower serum concentration of hemoglobin, CHr, HCT, TSAT, Fe and TIBC and significantly higher serum concentration of sTfR, ferritin and C-reactive protein compared to the control group. Based on the results of discriminant analysis, we proposed a scheme for assessing the risk of anemia. The concentrations of hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor, iron in the serum and C-reactive protein turned out to be the most useful for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, the concentration of soluble transferrin receptor confirmed its high diagnostic value in the detection of iron deficiency-based anemia in patients undergoing dialysis for chronic renal failure at the end-stage compared to conventional iron turnover ratios in the serum.

  6. Naturally Acquired Antibodies Specific for Plasmodium falciparum Reticulocyte-Binding Protein Homologue 5 Inhibit Parasite Growth and Predict Protection From Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tuan M.; Ongoiba, Aissata; Coursen, Jill; Crosnier, Cecile; Diouf, Ababacar; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Li, Shanping; Doumbo, Safiatou; Doumtabe, Didier; Kone, Younoussou; Bathily, Aboudramane; Dia, Seydou; Niangaly, Moussa; Dara, Charles; Sangala, Jules; Miller, Louis H.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Kayentao, Kassoum; Long, Carole A.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Wright, Gavin J.; Traore, Boubacar; Crompton, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homologue 5 (PfRH5) is a blood-stage parasite protein essential for host erythrocyte invasion. PfRH5-specific antibodies raised in animals inhibit parasite growth in vitro, but the relevance of naturally acquired PfRH5-specific antibodies in humans is unclear. Methods. We assessed pre–malaria season PfRH5-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in 357 Malian children and adults who were uninfected with Plasmodium. Subsequent P. falciparum infections were detected by polymerase chain reaction every 2 weeks and malaria episodes by weekly physical examination and self-referral for 7 months. The primary outcome was time between the first P. falciparum infection and the first febrile malaria episode. PfRH5-specific IgG was assayed for parasite growth-inhibitory activity. Results. The presence of PfRH5-specific IgG at enrollment was associated with a longer time between the first blood-stage infection and the first malaria episode (PfRH5-seropositive median: 71 days, PfRH5-seronegative median: 18 days; P = .001). This association remained significant after adjustment for age and other factors associated with malaria risk/exposure (hazard ratio, .62; P = .02). Concentrated PfRH5-specific IgG purified from Malians inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro. Conclusions. Naturally acquired PfRH5-specific IgG inhibits parasite growth in vitro and predicts protection from malaria. These findings strongly support efforts to develop PfRH5 as an urgently needed blood-stage malaria vaccine. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01322581. PMID:24133188

  7. Upregulation of expression of the reticulocyte homology gene 4 in the Plasmodium falciparum clone Dd2 is associated with a switch in the erythrocyte invasion pathway.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Deepak; Furuya, Tetsuya; Mu, Jianbing; Jiang, Lu-bin; Su, Xin-zhuan; Miller, Louis H

    2006-02-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum clone, Dd2, that requires sialic acid for invasion can switch to a sialic acid independent pathway, Dd2(NM). To elucidate the molecular basis of the switch in invasion phenotype of Dd2 to Dd2(NM), we performed expression profiling of the parasites using an oligonucleotide microarray and real-time RT-PCR. We found that four genes were upregulated in Dd2(NM) by microarray analysis, only two of which could be confirmed by real time RT-PCR. One gene, PfRH4, is a member of the reticulocyte homology family and the other, PEBL, is a pseudogene of the Duffy binding-like family. The two genes are contiguous but transcribed in opposite directions. The DNA sequence of these ORFs, their 5'-intergenic region and a 1.1kb region 3' to each ORF are identical between Dd2 and Dd2(NM), suggesting that their transcription upregulation relates to transactivating factors. The transcription upregulation of PfRH4 was reflected at the protein level as PfRH4 protein expression was detected in Dd2(NM) and not in Dd2. Other sialic acid independent and dependent clones of P. falciparum showed variable transcript levels of PfRH4 and PEBL, unrelated to their dependence on sialic acid for invasion, suggesting that different P. falciparum clones use different receptors for sialic acid independent invasion. As Dd2(NM) is a selected subclone of Dd2, the marked upregulation of PfRH4 expression in Dd2(NM) suggests its role in erythrocyte invasion through the sialic acid independent pathway of Dd2(NM).

  8. A search for O-polypeptidyl-ribonucleic acids in rabbit-reticulocyte ribosomes by electrophoresis in phenol–acetic acid–water systems

    PubMed Central

    Brattsten, Inger; Synge, R. L. M.; Watt, W. B.

    1965-01-01

    1. When solutions of `soluble' or transfer RNA (s-RNA) and of cytochrome c in phenol–acetic acid–water were mixed, intractable coacervates were formed. The addition to the solutions of various strong electrolytes prevented coacervation and allowed electrophoretic separation on filter paper. Protein migrates cationically, leaving RNA at or near the origin. The separation is aided by adsorption of RNA to the paper. Special arrangements were necessary to prevent contamination of the paper by ultraviolet-absorbing electrode-reaction products. 2. Binding of alkali-metal cations to RNA and some other associations were observed in such solvent systems. Possible effects of ionic association on mobilities are discussed. 3. Rabbit-reticulocyte ribosomes were subjected to electrophoresis as above, after their nascent-protein moiety had been labelled with [14C]valine in the intact cell. Most of the radioactivity migrated with the ribosomal protein; such protein as remained near the origin with the RNA had valine of lower specific radioactivity. 4. Molecular-sieve chromatography in phenol–acetic acid–water indicated that the nascent-protein moiety was not of markedly lower molecular weight than the average for the ribosomal proteins. 5. These results are very tentatively taken to mean that the nascent-protein moiety of ribosomes so prepared is not O-polypeptidyl-s-RNA. It is postulated that, in the course of adding each amino acid residue, the growing polypeptide chain is transferred from ester linkage with s-RNA to linkage with ribosomal protein through its carboxyl group, perhaps by ester linkage to an alcoholic group. The two types of intermediate, O-polypeptidyl-s-RNA and polypeptidyl-protein, would be found in different proportions, depending on the isolation procedure used. Some implications and possible tests of this hypothesis are discussed. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:5881657

  9. Counting Multiplicity over Infinite Alphabets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Amaldev; Ramanujam, R.

    In the theory of automata over infinite alphabets, a central difficulty is that of finding a suitable compromise between expressiveness and algorithmic complexity. We propose an automaton model where we count the multiplicity of data values on an input word. This is particularly useful when such languages represent behaviour of systems with unboundedly many processes, where system states carry such counts as summaries. A typical recognizable language is: “every process does at most k actions labelled a”. We show that emptiness is elementarily decidable, by reduction to the covering problem on Petri nets.

  10. Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

  11. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  12. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  13. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  14. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  15. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  16. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

  17. Are we counting mitoses correctly?

    PubMed

    Yigit, Nuri; Gunal, Armagan; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Onguru, Onder; Ozcan, Ayhan

    2013-12-01

    The number of mitotic figures in a predefined area is essential in pathologic evaluation for most tumors. This information sometimes provides clues in differentiating neoplastic lesions from nonneoplastic ones and sometimes in defining and grading of the tumors as well as prognosticating expected lifetime of the patient. As a generally accepted concept, scanning a certain number of consecutive nonoverlapping areas that are rich in viable tumor cells is required. Invasion fronts or the periphery of the tumors is preferred for counting mitosis. The target area to be counted for mitotic activity for various tumors is standardized as the number of mitosis in an established number of high-power fields. However, suggested mitotic counts, which constitute the basis of these studies, were obtained via the old microscopes, which usually had narrower visual fields than the state-of-the-art microscopes. Because the visual fields of the present microscopes provide larger areas compared with the older ones, corrections in mitosis counting are needed to make them compatible with the criteria, which had been put forward in the original reference studies.

  18. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  19. Maryland KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This Kids Count factbook is the fifth to examine statewide and county trends in the well-being of Maryland's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the domains of economic well-being, good health, safety, and preparing for adulthood. The 16 indicators are: (1) child poverty; (2) child support; (3) births to teens; (4) low…

  20. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

  1. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  2. The counting recursive digital filter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the bit-level operations involved in the convolutions realizing recursive digital filters leads to hardware designs of such filters based on the operation of counting. Various designs realizing both the canonic and 'direct' forms are presented with particular emphasis on low-cost low-speed high-flexibility machines.

  3. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

  4. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

  5. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  6. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  7. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  8. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  9. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  10. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  11. 7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size count. 993.105 Section 993.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.105 Size count. Size count means the count or number of...

  12. 7 CFR 993.502 - Size count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size count. 993.502 Section 993.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Pack Specification as to Size Definitions § 993.502 Size count. Size count means the count or number of...

  13. Statistical Aspects of Point Count Sampling

    Treesearch

    Richard J. Barker; John R. Sauer

    1995-01-01

    The dominant feature of point counts is that they do not census birds, but instead provide incomplete counts of individuals present within a survey plot. Considering a simple model for point count sampling, we demonstrate that use of these incomplete counts can bias estimators and testing procedures, leading to inappropriate conclusions. A large portion of the...

  14. Predictive Model Assessment for Count Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-05

    critique count regression models for patent data, and assess the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts...the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts in Germany. We consider a recent suggestion by Baker and...Figure 5. Boxplots for various scores for patent data count regressions. 11 Table 1 Four predictive models for larynx cancer counts in Germany, 1998–2002

  15. Constraint counting for frictional jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, D. A.; Henkes, S.; Schwarz, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    While the frictionless jamming transition has been intensely studied in recent years, more realistic frictional packings are less well understood. In frictionless sphere packings, the transition is predicted by a simple mean-field constraint counting argument, the isostaticity argument. For frictional packings, a modified constraint counting argument, which includes slipping contacts at the Coulomb threshold, has had limited success in accounting for the transition. We propose that the frictional jamming transition is not mean field and is triggered by the nucleation of unstable regions, which are themselves dynamical objects due to the Coulomb criterion. We create frictional packings using MD simulations and test for the presence and shape of rigid clusters with the pebble game to identify the partition of the packing into stable and unstable regions. To understand the dynamics of these unstable regions we follow perturbations at contacts crucial to the stability of the ``frictional house of cards.''

  16. [Platelet count in the cat].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Hoffmann, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of collecting blood samples is primarily responsible for the appearance of platelet-agglomeration in cats. Blood obtained by the conventional way ("one syringe technology", drips of blood) caused in 52% of the cases an activation of the large and therefore active thrombocytes however. Rejection of the first 2-5 ml blood for the platelet count ("two syringe technology") reduced the rate of platelet-agglomeration significantly. No big differences in platelet-agglomeration were found with regard to the place used for collecting blood (V. cephalica antebrachii/V. jugularis). Platelet-agglutination was observed with Li-Heparin, K-EDTA, Na-Citrat or ACD anticoagulated blood samples. Citrat (Na-Citrat, ACD) seemed to have a stabilizing effect on feline thrombocytes as has been described for human thrombocytes. The platelet count in cats should be performed within 30 minutes.

  17. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    PubMed

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  18. Structural Determination of Functional Units of the Nucleotide Binding Domain (NBD94) of the Reticulocyte Binding Protein Py235 of Plasmodium yoelii

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishna, Asha M.; Hunke, Cornelia; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Preiser, Peter R.; Grüber, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Background Invasion of the red blood cells (RBC) by the merozoite of malaria parasites involves a large number of receptor ligand interactions. The reticulocyte binding protein homologue family (RH) plays an important role in erythrocyte recognition as well as virulence. Recently, it has been shown that members of RH in addition to receptor binding may also have a role as ATP/ADP sensor. A 94 kDa region named Nucleotide-Binding Domain 94 (NBD94) of Plasmodium yoelii YM, representative of the putative nucleotide binding region of RH, has been demonstrated to bind ATP and ADP selectively. Binding of ATP or ADP induced nucleotide-dependent structural changes in the C-terminal hinge-region of NBD94, and directly impacted on the RBC binding ability of RH. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to find the smallest structural unit, able to bind nucleotides, and its coupling module, the hinge region, three truncated domains of NBD94 have been generated, termed NBD94444–547, NBD94566–663 and NBD94674–793, respectively. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy NBD94444–547 has been identified to form the smallest nucleotide binding segment, sensitive for ATP and ADP, which became inhibited by 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan. The shape of NBD94444–547 in solution was calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering data, revealing an elongated molecule, comprised of two globular domains, connected by a spiral segment of about 73.1 Å in length. The high quality of the constructs, forming the hinge-region, NBD94566–663 and NBD94674–793 enabled to determine the first crystallographic and solution structure, respectively. The crystal structure of NBD94566–663 consists of two helices with 97.8 Å and 48.6 Å in length, linked by a loop. By comparison, the low resolution structure of NBD94674–793 in solution represents a chair–like shape with three architectural segments. Conclusions These structures give the first insight into how nucleotide binding impacts on

  19. Counting Heron Triangles with Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-25

    A3 INTEGERS 13 (2013) COUNTING HERON TRIANGLES WITH CONSTRAINTS Pantelimon Stănică Applied Mathematics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey...12, Revised: 10/12/12, Accepted: 1/13/13, Published: 1/25/13 Abstract Heron triangles have the property that all three of their sides as well as their...area are positive integers. In this paper, we give some estimates for the number of Heron triangles with two of their sides fixed. We provide a

  20. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  1. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  2. The MIC photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fordham, J. L. A.; Bone, D. A.; Oldfield, M. K.; Bellis, J. G.; Norton, T. J.

    1992-12-01

    The MIC (Microchannel plate Intensified CCD (Charge Coupled Device)) detector is an advanced performance Micro Channel Plate (MCP) intensified CCD photon counting detector developed for high resolution, high dynamic range, astronomical applications. The heart of the detector is an MCP intensifier developed specifically for photon counting applications. The maximum detector format is 3072 by 2304 pixels. The measured resolution of the detector system is 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm. The detector is linear to approximately 1,000,000 events/detector area/sec on a flat field and linear to count rates up to 200 events/object/s on star images. Two versions of the system have been developed. The first for ground based astronomical applications based around a 40 mm diameter intensifier, was proven in trials at a number of large optical telescopes. The second, specifically for the ESA X-Ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM), where the MIC has been accepted as the blue detector for the incorporated Optical Monitor (OM). For the XMM-OM, the system is based around a 25 mm diameter intensifier. At present, under development, is a 75 mm diameter version of the detector which will have a maximum format of 6144 by 4608 pixels. Details of the MIC detector and its performance are presented.

  3. Variations of the Platelet Count in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marchasin, Sidney; Wallerstein, Ralph O.; Aggeler, Paul M.

    1964-01-01

    Platelet counts were obtained in 675 patients with different hematological and other medical disorders. An indirect venous blood dry slide method which gave a normal range of 200 to 400 × 103 per cu mm was used. Platelet counts varied considerably in disease: In 20 patients, exclusive of myeloproliferative disorders, platelet counts in excess of 1,000 × 103 per cu mm were observed; in 20 patients, exclusive of leukemia and megaloblastic anemia, platelet counts were below 100 × 103 per cu mm. In general, platelet counts varied with the leukocyte count, but not with the degree of anemia. PMID:14180504

  4. Deep Count: Fruit Counting Based on Deep Simulated Learning.

    PubMed

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Sheppard, Clay

    2017-04-20

    Recent years have witnessed significant advancement in computer vision research based on deep learning. Success of these tasks largely depends on the availability of a large amount of training samples. Labeling the training samples is an expensive process. In this paper, we present a simulated deep convolutional neural network for yield estimation. Knowing the exact number of fruits, flowers, and trees helps farmers to make better decisions on cultivation practices, plant disease prevention, and the size of harvest labor force. The current practice of yield estimation based on the manual counting of fruits or flowers by workers is a very time consuming and expensive process and it is not practical for big fields. Automatic yield estimation based on robotic agriculture provides a viable solution in this regard. Our network is trained entirely on synthetic data and tested on real data. To capture features on multiple scales, we used a modified version of the Inception-ResNet architecture. Our algorithm counts efficiently even if fruits are under shadow, occluded by foliage, branches, or if there is some degree of overlap amongst fruits. Experimental results show a 91% average test accuracy on real images and 93% on synthetic images.

  5. A Vacuum-Aspirator for Counting Termites

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Jones; Joe K. Mauldin

    1983-01-01

    An aspirator-system powered by a vacuum cleaner is described for manually counting termites. It is significantly faster and termite survival is at least as high as when using a mouth-aspirator for counting large numbers of termites.

  6. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  7. In vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay III. Validation and regulatory acceptance of automated scoring and the use of rat peripheral blood reticulocytes, with discussion of non-hematopoietic target cells and a single dose-level limit test.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makoto; MacGregor, James T; Gatehouse, David G; Blakey, David H; Dertinger, Stephen D; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Krishna, Gopala; Morita, Takeshi; Russo, Antonella; Asano, Norihide; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Wakako; Gibson, Dave

    2007-02-03

    The in vivo micronucleus assay working group of the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) discussed new aspects in the in vivo micronucleus (MN) test, including the regulatory acceptance of data derived from automated scoring, especially with regard to the use of flow cytometry, the suitability of rat peripheral blood reticulocytes to serve as the principal cell population for analysis, the establishment of in vivo MN assays in tissues other than bone marrow and blood (for example liver, skin, colon, germ cells), and the biological relevance of the single-dose-level test. Our group members agreed that flow cytometric systems to detect induction of micronucleated immature erythrocytes have advantages based on the presented data, e.g., they give good reproducibility compared to manual scoring, are rapid, and require only small quantities of peripheral blood. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood reticulocytes has the potential to allow monitoring of chromosome damage in rodents and also other species as part of routine toxicology studies. It appears that it will be applicable to humans as well, although in this case the possible confounding effects of splenic activity will need to be considered closely. Also, the consensus of the group was that any system that meets the validation criteria recommended by the IWGT (2000) should be acceptable. A number of different flow cytometric-based micronucleus assays have been developed, but at the present time the validation data are most extensive for the flow cytometric method using anti-CD71 fluorescent staining especially in terms of inter-laboratory collaborative data. Whichever method is chosen, it is desirable that each laboratory should determine the minimum sample size required to ensure that scoring error is maintained below the level of animal-to-animal variation. In the second IWGT, the potential to use rat peripheral blood reticulocytes as target cells for the micronucleus assay was discussed

  8. Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, Alan L

    2010-12-15

    This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Count Data

    PubMed Central

    Plan, E L

    2014-01-01

    Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273

  10. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  11. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  12. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  13. Monte Carlo Simulation of Counting Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Philip M.

    A computer program to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of counting experiments was written. The program was based on a mathematical derivation which started with counts in a time interval. The time interval was subdivided to form a binomial distribution with no two counts in the same subinterval. Then the number of subintervals was extended to…

  14. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  15. Fast bedside measurement of blood count and C-reactive protein in newborns compared with conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Papa, F; Rongioletti, M; Majolini, M B; Collegiani, V; Vaccarella, C; Notarmuzi, M L; Cortesi, M; Pasqualetti, P; Cicchese, M; Agostino, R; Liumbruno, G M

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal complete blood count (CBC) and high plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with neonatal infections and could be helpful in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and to monitor the antibiotic treatment. The aim of this work is to evaluate and compare the performance of a bedside analyzer for blood count and C-reactive protein (CRP) with a conventional analyzer in a neonatal population. 150 capillary or venous blood samples of term and preterm newborns were processed on an ABX-MicrosCRP200 analyzer and on a SysmexXE2100 (conventional hematology analyzer) for CBC, leukocyte differential, reticulocytes, and nucleated red blood cells (NRBC); high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) was performed on a ModularPE. The differences between complete blood count and CRP were regressed against their means and assessed by means of intra-class-correlation. The intra-class-correlation for white blood cell (WBC) was 0.98, for hemoglobin 0.97, for hematocrit 0.96, for mean corpuscular volume 0.95, and for platelet 0.98. ABX-MicrosCRP200 overestimated the WBC (+1.27 x 10(3)/microL; p < 0.001), hematocrit (+1.80%; p < 0.001), and platelet (+13.55 x 10(3)/microL; p < 0.001). The intra-class-correlation for CRP was high (0.97), without systematic difference between the two values (p = 0.64). The agreement between the two methods was high for both tests. However, the SD of the difference for WBC and platelet could be clinically important in leukopenic or thrombocytopenic newborns.

  16. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  17. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Pablo; Kemp, Garreth; Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  18. Well coincidence counting and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.; Ceo, R.N.; Collins, L.L.

    1994-03-01

    In several recent papers a physical/mathematical model was developed to describe the nuclear multiplicative processes in samples containing fissile material from a general statistical viewpoint, starting with the basic underlying physical phenomena. The results of this model agreed with the established picture used in ``standard`` HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) measurements, but considerably extended them, and allowed a more detailed interpretation of the underlying physical mechanisms and of the higher moments of the neutron counts. The present paper examines some recent measurements made at Y-12 (Oak Ridge) using the AWCC, in the light of this model. The results show internal consistency under a variety of conditions, and give good agreement between experiment and theory.

  19. Yoctocalorimetry: phonon counting in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukes, M. L.

    1999-03-01

    It appears feasible with nanostructures to perform calorimetry at the level of individual thermal phonons. Here I outline an approach employing monocrystalline mesoscopic insulators, which can now be patterned from semiconductor heterostructures into complex geometries with full, three-dimensional relief. Successive application of these techniques also enables definition of integrated nanoscale thermal transducers; coupling these to a dc SQUID readout yields the requisite energy sensitivity and temporal resolution with minimal back action. The prospect of phonon counting opens intriguing experimental possibilities with analogies in quantum optics. These include fluctuation-based phonon spectroscopy, phonon shot noise in the energy relaxation of nanoscale systems, and quantum statistical phenomena such as phonon bunching and anticorrelated electron-phonon exchange.

  20. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  1. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-07

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  2. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  3. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  4. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  5. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  6. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index.

  7. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... Administrator for Field Operations (DAFO), shall begin counting requests no later than November 30, 2007....

  8. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  9. Statistical aspects of point count sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Ralph, C.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.

    1995-01-01

    The dominant feature of point counts is that they do not census birds, but instead provide incomplete counts of individuals present within a survey plot. Considering a simple model for point count sampling, we demon-strate that use of these incomplete counts can bias estimators and testing procedures, leading to inappropriate conclusions. A large portion of the variability in point counts is caused by the incomplete counting, and this within-count variation can be confounded with ecologically meaningful varia-tion. We recommend caution in the analysis of estimates obtained from point counts. Using; our model, we also consider optimal allocation of sampling effort. The critical step in the optimization process is in determining the goals of the study and methods that will be used to meet these goals. By explicitly defining the constraints on sampling and by estimating the relationship between precision and bias of estimators and time spent counting, we can predict the optimal time at a point for each of several monitoring goals. In general, time spent at a point will differ depending on the goals of the study.

  10. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, G.G.; Post, G. )

    1989-07-01

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

  11. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  12. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  13. "Knots on a Counting Rope": Teaching Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Daphne

    2001-01-01

    Argues that reflecting on important "marker" stories in people's lives by using counting ropes (based on the children's book "Knots on a Counting Rope" by Bill Martin Jr. and John Archambault) helps students and teachers make sense of their complex worlds. Describes how they are used in the author's language arts methods course. Describes a…

  14. Photon counts from stellar occultation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

  15. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  16. Monitoring bird populations by point counts

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph; John R. Sauer; Sam Droege

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains in part papers presented at the Symposium on Monitoring Bird Population Trends by Point Counts, which was held November 6-7, 1991, in Beltsville, Md., in response to the need for standardization of methods to monitor bird populations by point counts. Data from various investigators working under a wide variety of conditions are presented, and...

  17. Correcting Finger Counting to Snellen Acuity.

    PubMed

    Karanjia, Rustum; Hwang, Tiffany Jean; Chen, Alexander Francis; Pouw, Andrew; Tian, Jack J; Chu, Edward R; Wang, Michelle Y; Tran, Jeffrey Show; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the authors describe an online tool with which to convert and thus quantify count finger measurements of visual acuity into Snellen equivalents. It is hoped that this tool allows for the re-interpretation of retrospectively collected data that provide visual acuity in terms of qualitative count finger measurements.

  18. Correcting Finger Counting to Snellen Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Karanjia, Rustum; Hwang, Tiffany Jean; Chen, Alexander Francis; Pouw, Andrew; Tian, Jack J.; Chu, Edward R.; Wang, Michelle Y.; Tran, Jeffrey Show; Sadun, Alfredo A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, the authors describe an online tool with which to convert and thus quantify count finger measurements of visual acuity into Snellen equivalents. It is hoped that this tool allows for the re-interpretation of retrospectively collected data that provide visual acuity in terms of qualitative count finger measurements. PMID:27928408

  19. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  20. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable…

  1. It Is Time to Count Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henscheid, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    As the modern learning community movement turns 30, it is time to determine just how many, and what type, of these programs exist at America's colleges and universities. This article first offers a rationale for counting learning communities followed by a description of how disparate counts and unclear definitions hamper efforts to embed these…

  2. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  3. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

  4. Taxonomic counts of cognition in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Louis

    2011-01-01

    In 1985, Kummer & Goodall pleaded for an ecology of intelligence and proposed that innovations might be a good way to measure cognition in the wild. Counts of innovation per taxonomic group are now available in hundreds of avian and primate species, as are counts of tactical deception, tool use and social learning. Robust evidence suggests that innovation rate and its neural correlates allow birds and mammals to cope better with environmental change. The positive correlations between taxonomic counts, and the increasing number of cognitive and neural measures found to be associated with ecological variables, suggest that domain general processes might be more pervasive than previously thought in the evolution of intelligence. PMID:20719769

  5. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  6. A miniaturized counting technique for anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, A N; Pettipher, G L; Lloyd, G R

    1976-12-01

    A miniaturized counting technique gave results as good as the pour-plate and Most Probable Number (MPN) techniques for enumeration of clostridia spp. and anaerobic isolates from the gut. Highest counts were obtained when ascorbic acid (1%) and dithiothreitol (0.015%) were added to the reinforced clostridial medium used for counting. This minimized the effect of exposure to air before incubation. The miniature technique allowed up to 40 samples to be plated and incubated in one McIntosh-Filde's-type anaerobic jar, compared with 3 or 4 by the normal pour plate.

  7. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications.

  8. Discrepancies in sperm count using improved Neubauer, Makler, and Horwells counting chambers.

    PubMed

    Imade, G E; Towobola, O A; Sagay, A S; Otubu, J A

    1993-01-01

    Semen analysis still remains an important diagnostic procedure in male infertility evaluation. For the purpose of standardization and uniformity in the interpretation of sperm count results, the accuracy of three different counting chambers (improved Neubauer (IMN), Makler, and Horwells) were evaluated. Semen samples produced by 50 men were analyzed with the three different counting chambers using World Health Organization guidelines. The overall precision values of sperm count were: IMN 9.7%, Makler 5.9%, and Horwells 7.1%. The mean sperm counts (+/- SEM) were 78.6 (+/- 10.1), 119.1 (+/- 14.1), and 211.5 (+/- 27.5) million spermatozoa/ml respectively. Statistically significant differences were revealed when the sperm count results obtained with the different counting chambers were compared, i.e., IMN vs Makler (P < 0.05), IMN vs Horwells (P < 0.001), and Makler vs Horwells (P < 0.01). The sperm count results obtained from the 50 samples were classified into four subgroups (A = 1-20, B = 21-50, C = 51-100, and D = > 100 million spermatozoa/ml) using IMN as a reference chamber. Errors reflected as progressively poor SEM of sperm count (A = 1.1, 3.2, 4.1; B = 3.0, 6.1, 12.4; C = 3.4, 17.0, 23.9; and D = 14.1, 21.3, 46.3) were observed for IMN, Makler, and Horwells counting chamber respectively in each group. This study revealed that inherent errors abound when different counting chambers are used for sperm count. While IMN gave the lowest sperm count, Horwells recorded the highest. Makler counting chamber gave midway values and conforms with recommendations in the literature about its accuracy.

  9. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like ...

  10. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  11. Clicks counting system for a riflescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Granciu, Dana

    2015-02-01

    A very useful requirement for a zoom aiming scope with high magnification used for long range rifle shooting is counting and display of knob's clicks number needed for elevation corrections. The paper analyzes one method for clicks counting usable with existing mechanical knobs and describes a microcontroller based system that implements it. Practical aspects like required changes in mechanical construction, influence of perturbations, complexity of electronics or power consumption are also analyzed.

  12. TVFMCATS. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, R.K.

    1999-05-01

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor`s hardware.

  13. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, Russell Kevin

    1999-06-03

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor''s hardware.

  14. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle.

  15. Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

    Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

  16. Preverbal and verbal counting and computation.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Gelman, R

    1992-08-01

    We describe the preverbal system of counting and arithmetic reasoning revealed by experiments on numerical representations in animals. In this system, numerosities are represented by magnitudes, which are rapidly but inaccurately generated by the Meck and Church (1983) preverbal counting mechanism. We suggest the following. (1) The preverbal counting mechanism is the source of the implicit principles that guide the acquisition of verbal counting. (2) The preverbal system of arithmetic computation provides the framework for the assimilation of the verbal system. (3) Learning to count involves, in part, learning a mapping from the preverbal numerical magnitudes to the verbal and written number symbols and the inverse mappings from these symbols to the preverbal magnitudes. (4) Subitizing is the use of the preverbal counting process and the mapping from the resulting magnitudes to number words in order to generate rapidly the number words for small numerosities. (5) The retrieval of the number facts, which plays a central role in verbal computation, is mediated via the inverse mappings from verbal and written numbers to the preverbal magnitudes and the use of these magnitudes to find the appropriate cells in tabular arrangements of the answers. (6) This model of the fact retrieval process accounts for the salient features of the reaction time differences and error patterns revealed by experiments on mental arithmetic. (7) The application of verbal and written computational algorithms goes on in parallel with, and is to some extent guided by, preverbal computations, both in the child and in the adult.

  17. Power counting to better jet observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2014-12-01

    Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia 8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

  18. Leukocyte Count and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Expansion.

    PubMed

    Morotti, Andrea; Phuah, Chia-Ling; Anderson, Christopher D; Jessel, Michael J; Schwab, Kristin; Ayres, Alison M; Pezzini, Alessandro; Padovani, Alessandro; Gurol, M Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M; Goldstein, Joshua N; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Acute leukocytosis is a well-established response to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Leukocytes, because of their interaction with platelets and coagulation factors, may in turn play a role in hemostasis. We investigated whether admission leukocytosis was associated with reduced bleeding after acute ICH. Consecutive patients with primary ICH were prospectively collected from 1994 to 2015 and retrospectively analyzed. We included subjects with a follow-up computed tomographic scan available and automated complete white blood cell count performed within 48 hours from onset. Baseline and follow-up hematoma volumes were calculated with semiautomated software, and hematoma expansion was defined as volume increase >30% or 6 mL. The association between white blood cell count and ICH expansion was investigated with multivariate logistic regression. A total of 1302 subjects met eligibility criteria (median age, 75 years; 55.8% men), of whom 207 (15.9%) experienced hematoma expansion. Higher leukocyte count on admission was associated with reduced risk of hematoma expansion (odds ratio for 1000 cells increase, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.96; P=0.001). The risk of hematoma expansion was inversely associated with neutrophil count (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96; P=0.001) and directly associated with monocyte count (odds ratio, 2.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.83; P=0.034). There was no association between lymphocyte count and ICH expansion (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.17; P=0.718). Higher admission white blood cell count is associated with lower risk of hematoma expansion. This highlights a potential role of the inflammatory response in modulating the coagulation cascade after acute ICH. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  20. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  1. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  2. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  3. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  4. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe. Pollen counts are different than pollen forecasts. Forecasts are predicted based on the previous year’s counts and current weather conditions. The counts are reported for specific plants such as trees, grasses, and weeds and mold ...

  5. Hematocrit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crit; Packed Cell Volume; PCV; H and H (Hemoglobin and Hematocrit) Formal name: Hematocrit Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Hemoglobin , RBC Count , Blood Smear , Iron Tests , Reticulocyte Count , ...

  6. Photon-counting spaceborne altimeter simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazej, Josef

    2004-11-01

    We are presenting of a photon counting laser altimeter simulator. The simulator is designed to be a theoretical and numerical complement for a Technology Demonstrator of the space born laser altimeter for planetary studies built on our university. The European Space Agency has nominated the photon counting altimeter as one of the attractive devices for planetary research. The device should provide altimetry in the range 400 to 1400 km with one meter range resolution under rough conditions - Sun illumination, radiation, etc. The general altimeter concept expects the photon counting principle laser radar. According to this concept, the simulator is based on photon counting radar simulation, which has been enhanced to handle planetary surface roughness, vertical terrain profile and its reflectivity. The simulator is useful complement for any photon counting altimeter both for altimeter design and for measured data analysis. Our simulator enables to model the orbital motion, range, terrain profile, reflectivity, and their influence on the over all energy budget and the ultimate signal to noise ratio acceptable for the altimetry. The simulator can be adopted for various air or space born application.

  7. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  8. Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct application of the original algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. The modified algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive estimation algorithm to each initial component. Applying the algorithm to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the modified algorithm on six classes of cells--myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, and PolyMorphoNuclear--are very close to the human expert's numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is similar to the deviation of counts produced by human experts. The important technical contributions are that the modified algorithm uses prior statistics for each shape class in place or prior knowledge of the total number of objects in an image, and it allows for more than one primitive from each class.

  9. Sedimentation counting and morphology of Mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Clark, H W

    1965-11-01

    Clark, Harold W. (The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.). Sedimentation counting and morphology of Mycoplasma. J. Bacteriol. 90:1373-1386. 1965.-The sedimentation technique for counting viral particles was applied to the quantitation and morphological identification of Mycoplasma in broth cultures. Mycoplasma, apparently in their native form, firmly adhered to the surface, when sedimented on glass cover slips or onto electron microscope grids. The sedimented cover slip preparations stained with crystal violet could be readily counted in the light microscope. The cultures sedimented onto electron microscope grids were readily counted at low magnification and provided excellent preparations for morphological examination at higher magnifications. It was found that air-dried Mycoplasma particles were enlarged considerably because of excessive flattening. Fixation of sedimented Mycoplasma particles in diluted OsO(4) prior to air drying yielded a more realistic morphology, with various sizes and shapes in the stages of the growth cycle exhibited. A new technique of differentially staining Mycoplasma colonies on agar plates was developed to facilitate the quantitation of viable colony-forming units for comparison with total counts. The use of plastic or Parafilm gaskets for dry mounting was developed to facilitate the handling and examination of the stained cover slip preparations. The results of this investigation indicated that the growth cycle of some Mycoplasma species includes a stage of hexadic fission with the cleavage of minimal reproductive units (less than 100 mmu) containing a limited deoxyribonucleic acid genetic coding molecule (approximately 4 x 10(6)).

  10. Comparative clinical study of canine and feline total blood cell count results with seven in-clinic and two commercial laboratory hematology analyzers

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Martina; Moritz, Andreas; Giger, Urs

    2009-01-01

    Background A CBC is an integral part of the assessment of health and disease in companion animals. While in the past newer technologies for CBC analysis were limited to large clinical pathology laboratories, several smaller and affordable automated hematology analyzers have been developed for in-clinic use. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare CBC results generated by 7 in-clinic laser- and impedance-based hematology instruments and 2 commercial laboratory analyzers. Methods Over a 3-month period, fresh EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples from healthy and diseased dogs (n = 260) and cats (n = 110) were analyzed on the LaserCyte, ForCyte, MS45, Heska CBC, Scil Vet ABC, VetScan HMT, QBC Vet Autoread, CELL-DYN 3500, and ADVIA 120 analyzers. Results were compared by regression correlation (linear, Deming, Passing-Bablok) and Bland-Altman bias plots using the ADVIA as the criterion standard for all analytes except HCT, which was compared with manual PCV Precision, linearity, and carryover also were evaluated. Results For most analytes, the in-clinic analyzers and the CELL-DYN performed similarly and correlated well with the ADVIA. The biases ranged from −0.6 to 2.4 × 109/L for WBC count, 0 to 0.9 × 1012/L for RBC count, − 1.5 to 0.7g/dL for hemoglobin concentration, −4.3 to 8.3 fL for MCV, and −69.3 to 77.2 × 109/L for platelet count. Compared with PCV, the HCT on most analyzers had a bias from 0.1% to 7.2%. Canine reticulocyte counts on the LaserCyte and ForCyte correlated but had a negative bias compared with those on the ADVIA. Precision, linearity, and carryover results were excellent for most analyzers. Conclusions Total WBC and RBC counts were acceptable on all in-clinic hematology instruments studied, with limitations for some RBC parameters and platelet counts. Together with evaluation of a blood film, these in-clinic instruments can provide useful information on canine and feline patients in veterinary practices. PMID:19055571

  11. Comparative clinical study of canine and feline total blood cell count results with seven in-clinic and two commercial laboratory hematology analyzers.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martina; Moritz, Andreas; Giger, Urs

    2008-12-01

    A CBC is an integral part of the assessment of health and disease in companion animals. While in the past newer technologies for CBC analysis were limited to large clinical pathology laboratories, several smaller and affordable automated hematology analyzers have been developed for in-clinic use. The purpose of this study was to compare CBC results generated by 7 in-clinic laser- and impedance-based hematology instruments and 2 commercial laboratory analyzers. Over a 3-month period, fresh EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples from healthy and diseased dogs (n=260) and cats (n=110) were analyzed on the LaserCyte, ForCyte, MS45, Heska CBC, Scil Vet ABC, VetScan HMT, QBC Vet Autoread, CELL-DYN 3500, and ADVIA 120 analyzers. Results were compared by regression correlation (linear, Deming, Passing-Bablok) and Bland-Altman bias plots using the ADVIA as the criterion standard for all analytes except HCT, which was compared with manual PCV. Precision, linearity, and carryover also were evaluated. For most analytes, the in-clinic analyzers and the CELL-DYN performed similarly and correlated well with the ADVIA. The biases ranged from -0.6 to 2.4 x 10(9)/L for WBC count, 0 to 0.9 x 10(12)/L for RBC count, -1.5 to 0.7 g/dL for hemoglobin concentration, -4.3 to 8.3 fL for MCV, and -69.3 to 77.2 x 10(9)/L for platelet count. Compared with PCV, the HCT on most analyzers had a bias from 0.1% to 7.2%. Canine reticulocyte counts on the LaserCyte and ForCyte correlated but had a negative bias compared with those on the ADVIA. Precision, linearity, and carryover results were excellent for most analyzers. Total WBC and RBC counts were acceptable on all in-clinic hematology instruments studied, with limitations for some RBC parameters and platelet counts. Together with evaluation of a blood film, these in-clinic instruments can provide useful information on canine and feline patients in veterinary practices.

  12. Sub electron readout noise & photon counting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gach, J.-L.; Balard, Ph.; Daigle, O.; Destefanis, G.; Feautrier, Ph.; Guillaume, Ch.; Rothman, J.

    We present recent advances on ultra low noise visible detectors at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, photon counting and EMCCD developments in collaboration with Observatoire de haute provence, Laboratoire d'astrophysique de l'observatoire de Grenoble and Laboratoire d'Astrophysique Experimentale (Montreal). After a review of the progress with third generation Image Photon Counting Systems (IPCS), we present the OCAM camera, based on the E2V CCD220 EMCCD, part of the Opticon JRA2 programme, and the CCCP controller, a new controller for the 3DNTT instrument that reduces the clock induced charge of an EMCCD by a factor 10, making it competitive with IPCS detectors for very faint fluxes. We will finally present the RAPID project and the concept of photon counting avalanche photodiode CMOS device (in collaboration with CEA-LETI) which is foreseen to be the ultimate detector for the visible-IR range providing no readout noise, high QE and extremely fast readout.

  13. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  14. Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-06-01

    The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.

  15. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Geller, Joseph D; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller.

  16. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-06-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low.

  17. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

  18. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  19. Power counting in nuclear effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valderrama, M. Pavon

    2015-10-01

    The effective field theory formulation of nuclear forces is able to provide a systematic and model independent description of nuclear physics, where all processes involving nucleons and pions can be described in terms of the same set of couplings, the theoretical errors are known in advance and the connection with QCD is present. These features are a consequence of renormalization group invariance, which in turn determines the power counting of the theory. Here we present a brief outline of how to determine the power counting of nuclear effective field theory, what does it looks like and what are the predictions for the two-nucleon sector at lowest orders.

  20. Advances in photon counting for bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Martin B.; Powell, Ralph

    1998-11-01

    Photon counting systems were originally developed for astronomy, initially by the astronomical community. However, a major application area is in the study of luminescent probes in living plants, fishes and cell cultures. For these applications, it has been necessary to develop camera system capability at very low light levels -- a few photons occasionally -- and also at reasonably high light levels to enable the systems to be focused and to collect quality images of the object under study. The paper presents new data on MTF at extremely low photon flux and conventional ICCD illumination, counting efficiency and dark noise as a function of temperature.

  1. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960

  2. A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data

    PubMed Central

    Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

  3. Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…

  4. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…

  5. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

  6. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…

  7. Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention;…

  8. Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…

  9. Virginia KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: healthy births, adolescent well-being, health and safety, education, and economic security. Specific indicators examined are: (1) births to single women; (2) early prenatal…

  10. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

  11. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  12. KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jenifer

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

  13. KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  14. KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

  15. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentz, Cara Anderson

    This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

  16. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    We Can, Inc., Las Vegas, NV.

    This Kids Count data book is the first to examine statewide indicators of the well being of Nevada's children. The statistical portrait is based on 15 indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birth-weight babies; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) percent of children in poverty; (4) percent of children in single-parent families; (5) percent of…

  17. KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

  18. Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  19. KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  20. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  1. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

  2. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  3. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paula R.

    This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…

  4. County Data Book 1997: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children on a statewide and county basis. An introduction summarizes some of the trends for Kentucky's children in the 1990s. The bulk of the report presents statewide and county data grouped into five categories: (1) poverty rates and programs (persons in poverty; median…

  5. Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Lynn

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…

  6. Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

  7. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  8. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

  9. South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…

  10. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  11. WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…

  12. County Data Book 1996: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky children on a state-wide, county, and school district basis. An introductory essay finds a strong link between the percentage of adults completing high school in a given school district and various indicators: As the percentage of adults completing high school increases, the…

  13. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  14. Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  15. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooley, Teresa L.; And Others

    This Kids Count report investigates statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical report is based on 10 indicators of child well being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths, children 1-14 years; (5) teen violent deaths; (6) juvenile violent crime arrests; (7) high…

  16. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

  17. All Our Children: Massachusetts Kids Count 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Franna, Ed.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends from 1990 to 1994 in the well-being of Massachusetts' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being in five areas: (1) economic well-being of children and their families, including child poverty rate, family income, job loss, earnings of male high school dropouts and…

  18. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…

  19. Large Actuator Count MEMS Deformable Mirror Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-07

    Large-actuator-count deformable mirrors (DM) are essential for high-contrast imaging systems NASA is developing for exoplanet detection. These same...applications: Nulling coronagraphs for exoplanet imaging, Atmospheric turbulence compensation for free-space laser communication, laser guide star

  20. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  1. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

  2. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

    This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

  3. Kids Count in Nebraska 1996 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Nebraska's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven general areas of children's well-being: (1) early care and education; (2) physical and behavioral health; (3) child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence; (4) out of home care; (5) education; (6) economic…

  4. An analytical model of crater count equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Minton, David A.; Fassett, Caleb I.

    2017-06-01

    Crater count equilibrium occurs when new craters form at the same rate that old craters are erased, such that the total number of observable impacts remains constant. Despite substantial efforts to understand this process, there remain many unsolved problems. Here, we propose an analytical model that describes how a heavily cratered surface reaches a state of crater count equilibrium. The proposed model formulates three physical processes contributing to crater count equilibrium: cookie-cutting (simple, geometric overlap), ejecta-blanketing, and sandblasting (diffusive erosion). These three processes are modeled using a degradation parameter that describes the efficiency for a new crater to erase old craters. The flexibility of our newly developed model allows us to represent the processes that underlie crater count equilibrium problems. The results show that when the slope of the production function is steeper than that of the equilibrium state, the power law of the equilibrium slope is independent of that of the production function slope. We apply our model to the cratering conditions in the Sinus Medii region and at the Apollo 15 landing site on the Moon and demonstrate that a consistent degradation parameterization can successfully be determined based on the empirical results of these regions. Further developments of this model will enable us to better understand the surface evolution of airless bodies due to impact bombardment.

  5. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators of general areas of children's well being: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without a high school diploma; (3) low birth weight; (4) infant…

  6. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  7. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  8. Numbers, Counting, and Infinity in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meconi, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of middle-school students' natural understanding of large numbers to introduce the concept of infinity. Presents activities that investigate infinite sets by demonstrating a one-to-one correspondence between the counting numbers and the given set. Examples include prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, fractions, even and odd numbers,…

  9. WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

    This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…

  10. Weighted power counting and perturbative unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Dylan

    2011-02-15

    We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

  11. Illinois Kids Count 2001: Envisioning the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Brenda; Familia, Yahaira; Gifford, Amy; Knowlton, Gretchen; Matakis, Brian; Olson, Melissa; Owens, Tracy; Zasadny, Julie

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of family, education and child care, arts and recreation, safety, health, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) percent of children living in poverty; (2) number of children enrolled in…

  12. Iowa Kids Count Quarterly, 1991-January 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Mike, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the eight consecutive issues of a newsletter of the Iowa Kids Count Project. The newsletter provides information about work undertaken by the Project, other important information on trends in child well-being, and updates on research and data development activities of interest on child and family issues. The Spring…

  13. Kids Count in Indiana: 1994 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This booklet provides data on a series of related measures of child and family well-being in Indiana, following national guidelines established by the Kids Count project to help Americans better understand the problems faced by children and adolescents and to foster greater commitment to improving outcomes for vulnerable children and their…

  14. Fast box-counting algorithm on GPU.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J; Ruiz de Miras, J

    2012-12-01

    The box-counting algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the fractal dimension (FD). The FD has many image analysis applications in the biomedical field, where it has been used extensively to characterize a wide range of medical signals. However, computing the FD for large images, especially in 3D, is a time consuming process. In this paper we present a fast parallel version of the box-counting algorithm, which has been coded in CUDA for execution on the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The optimized GPU implementation achieved an average speedup of 28 times (28×) compared to a mono-threaded CPU implementation, and an average speedup of 7 times (7×) compared to a multi-threaded CPU implementation. The performance of our improved box-counting algorithm has been tested with 3D models with different complexity, features and sizes. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm has been confirmed using models with well-known FD values. As a case study, a 3D FD analysis of several brain tissues has been performed using our GPU box-counting algorithm.

  15. Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching…

  16. Kids Count in Missouri 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on outcome measures of general areas of children's well being: (1) students free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  17. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowshen, Steven, Ed.; Greback, Robert, Ed.; Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Schooley, Teresa L., Ed.; Sturgis, Janice, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT report details statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths, age 1-14 years; (5) teen violent deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (6) juvenile…

  18. Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…

  19. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  20. Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine…

  1. Making Academics Count: Action Guide. Successful Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Amanda Sodoma; Meeder, Hans; Rosen, Linda P.; Silver, Steve; Williams, Andra

    This document is intended to help communities plan and implement initiatives modeled after Making Academics Count, a campaign that was launched in 1997 by the Business Coalition for Education Reform (BCER) to encourage employers to ask job applicants for their school records and thereby help motivate students to achieve at higher levels. The guide…

  2. KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…

  3. Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

  4. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  5. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  6. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  7. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  8. Montana Kids Count 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This 1996 KIDS COUNT data book presents comparative data on child well-being for each county in Montana and for the state as a whole. Data in the county profiles, which comprise the bulk of the report, are grouped into: background facts (demographic, mental health, education, security, and income support information); charts showing changes in…

  9. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These two Kids Count brief reports discuss issues related to the well-being of Rhode Island children. The first report identifies ways to measure the impact of state and federal welfare reform proposals on children who receive benefits through Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Potential measures of success for welfare reform include…

  10. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…

  11. Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching…

  12. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  13. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassatt, Susan

    This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

  14. Maine Kids Count 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indictors children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) community and family environment; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  15. Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

  16. Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

  17. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1995 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ. Medical Center, Omaha.

    While a vast majority of children in Nebraska are experiencing a safe, healthy, and nurturing childhood, a significant number are not, and some of these numbers are growing. This Kids Count report is the third annual comprehensive review of available data in nine areas of child health and well-being in the state. Presented with these statistics…

  18. County Data Book 1995: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Kentucky children age birth through 19. For each county, and for the state, comparisons are provided between the base years of 1980-1982 and the most recent years 1992-1994. Counties are ranked against each other and trend graphs are provided for the studied…

  19. Single Entity Electrochemistry Progresses to Cell Counting.

    PubMed

    Gooding, J Justin

    2016-10-10

    Red blood cells have been counted in an electrochemical collision experiment recently described by Compton and co-workers. As a cell collides with the electrode it lyses and a current is observed from the reduction of oxygen from within the cell.

  20. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  1. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  2. A generalized model for coincidence counting

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.

    1993-12-31

    A generalized model for coincidence counting has been developed based on the dual probability generating function introduced. The model accounts explicitly and simultaneously the effects of multiplication, absorption by poison and instrument detection and is applicable for a wide class of NDA including Pu in waste.

  3. Kansas Kids Count Data Book, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    This 1996 Kids Count data book presents data on 20 indicators of child well-being in Kansas, grouped into 6 areas: economic well-being, physical health and safety, educational achievement, early childhood care and education, emotional well-being, and social behavior and social control. The data are grouped by county for each indicator, by…

  4. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  5. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  6. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  7. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators of general areas of children's well being: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without a high school diploma; (3) low birth weight; (4) infant…

  8. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…

  9. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galano, Joseph; Nezlek, John B.; Wood, Lisa

    This KIDS COUNT data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) healthy births; (2) children's health; (3) school success; (4) risky behavior; (5) families; and (6) community well-being. Key indicators in these six areas include the…

  10. Restricted Schur polynomials and finite N counting

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Storm

    2009-01-15

    Restricted Schur polynomials have been posited as orthonormal operators for the change of basis from N=4 SYM to type IIB string theory. In this paper we briefly expound the relationship between the restricted Schur polynomials and the operators forwarded by Brown, Heslop, and Ramgoolam. We then briefly examine the finite N counting of the restricted Schur polynomials.

  11. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

  12. Reading Authentic Texts: What Counts as Cognate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements…

  13. Kids Count Report in Nebraska, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trend data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 of the report presents U.S. Census data on population trends in Nebraska as well as child poverty rates, and urges Nebraskans to work together to ensure that its youngest citizens have the best start possible. Section 2, the bulk of this…

  14. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

  15. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well being: health, safety, education, families, and economic factors. Key indicators in these five areas include: (1) prenatal care rates; (2) low birthweight; (3) child deaths; (4)…

  16. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

  17. County Data Book 1997: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children on a statewide and county basis. An introduction summarizes some of the trends for Kentucky's children in the 1990s. The bulk of the report presents statewide and county data grouped into five categories: (1) poverty rates and programs (persons in poverty; median…

  18. South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  19. Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

  20. Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

  1. Photon-counting-based dust monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamal, Karel; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Eslerova, Iva; Sopko, Bruno; Pasta, Armin

    1999-05-01

    Most of the dust monitors are based on optical principle: the scattered light intensity is registered. The classical approach is using the multiple photon optical signal intensity and processing. Single photon detection -- photon counting is exploited in Satellite Laser Ranging and was implemented in space born application for Mars Surveyor Program 98, as well. The main advantage of single photon detection is an extreme sensitivity, the entire digital approach, no analog signal is treated. All the light intensity information is acquired on the basis of statistical data treatment. The dust detector consists of the LED diode based transmitter, single photon solid state diode detector and the digital data processing unit. The light beam from the LED diode passing the dust column is detected in a photo detector. The detector employs the avalanche Silicon photodiode 40 micrometers diameter active area and is operated in a passive gating and active quenching mode above its breakdown voltage. The detector provides uniform digital pulses, one for each photon detected. The light intensity measurement is converted into the photon flux counting -- frequency or event counting. The microcomputer controlled data processing electronics counts the detector output pulses, accounts for detector dark count rate, calibration constants, and computes the corresponding dust concentration averaged over desired period. The second LED located close to the detector is used as a reference light source to eliminate the temperature, aging and sensor contamination influence. The laboratory measurements show the long term and temperature stability of the scale within 1%. The setup was tested at the cement plant smoke stack and compared to the commercial optical dust concentration monitor operating on analog multiphoton principle. Due to an extreme optical sensitivity of the photon counting detector, the energy balance is favorable to realize lightweight equipment by a factor of ten in comparison

  2. Mapping of Bird Distributions from Point Count Surveys

    Treesearch

    John R. Sauer; Grey W. Pendleton; Sandra Orsillo

    1995-01-01

    Maps generated from bird survey data are used for a variety of scientific purposes, but little is known about their bias and precision. We review methods for preparing maps from point count data and appropriate sampling methods for maps based on point counts. Maps based on point counts can be affected by bias associated with incomplete counts, primarily due to changes...

  3. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half peanut. ...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half peanut. ...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half peanut. ...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half peanut. ...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half peanut. ...

  9. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  10. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  11. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  12. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  13. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  14. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  15. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  16. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count if... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they...

  17. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-15

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  18. To count or not to count: the effect of instructions on expecting a break in timing.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette

    2013-04-01

    When a break is expected during a time interval production, longer intervals are produced as the break occurs later during the interval. This effect of break location was interpreted as a result of distraction related to break expectancy in previous studies. In the present study, the influence of target duration and of instructions about chronometric counting strategies on the break location effect was examined. Using a strategy such as chronometric counting enhances the reliability of temporal processing, typically in terms of reduced variability, and could influence how timing is affected by break expectancy, especially when relatively long target durations are used. In two experiments, results show that time productions lengthened with increasing value of break location at various target durations and that variability was greater in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. More important, the break location effect was stronger in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. We conclude that chronometric counting orients attention toward timing processes, making them less likely to be disrupted by concurrent nontemporal processes.

  19. [Count rate characteristics and count loss correction of Positologica II: a whole body positron emission tomograph].

    PubMed

    Endo, M; Nohara, N; Iinuma, T A; Shinoto, H; Tanaka, E; Yoshida, K; Himi, T; Kagaya, A; Ogushi, A; Inoue, S

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes evaluation and correction of count rate characteristics of POSITOLOGICA II, a multi-slice whole body positron emission tomography system. The present study was performed using three phantoms; a 5 cm inner diameter, water-filled lucite cylinder, a 20 cm inner diameter, water-filled lucite cylinder and a chest phantom. After injection of high activity (about 1.85 GBq (50 mCi] of 13N ammonia into each phantom, rates of true coincidence, random coincidence and single photon detections were measured during decay of the isotope through more than two orders of magnitude of activity. At very high levels of activity, count rate characteristics of the system were saturated and limited to 660 kcps of total coincidence rate, which was the sum of rates in on-time and off-time windows, by the FIFO (first-in first-out) output frequency. Below those levels of activity the relationship between count loss and true coincidence rate was not unique but depended on the phantom configurations, suggesting that count loss correction using the above relationship was inadequate for quantitative study. However, the relationship between count loss and single rate was almost independent of the phantom configurations. Thus in conclusion count loss could be corrected using single rate for POSITOLOGICA II. A practical method of count loss correction was also proposed.

  20. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  1. Breast carcinoma vascularity: a comparison of manual microvessel count and Chalkley count.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Bassarova, Assia; Naume, Bjørn; Synnestvedt, Marit; Borgen, Elin; Kaaresen, Rolf; Schlichting, Ellen; Wiedswang, Gro; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Nesland, Jahn M

    2009-08-01

    Manual counting of microvessels as intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) and Chalkley counting have been used in several studies to assess the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas. In our present study, the aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinoma assessed by MVD and Chalkley techniques in the same series of patients. A total of 498 breast carcinoma patients with median follow up time 85 months were evaluated. The tumour vascularity was quantified by both manual microvessel count (MVD) and Chalkley count in CD34 stained breast carcinoma slides by a single investigator blinded to clinical information. Other relevant clinicopathological parameters were noted, including breast cancer related death and both loco-regional and systemic relapse. The patients were stratified by converting MVD and Chalkley counts to categorical variables to assess prognostic impact, and results were compared. High vascular grades using MVD count did not demonstrate any prognostic significance for breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) or distant disease free survival (DDFS) either in whole patient group (BCSS, p=0.517, DDFS, p=0.301) or in non-treated node negative patients (p>0.05). Chalkley count showed prognostic significance for both DDFS and BCSS in whole patient group (p<0.001) and also in untreated node negative patient group (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, Chalkley count, but not MVD, retained the prognostic value for BCSS (p=0.007) and DDFS (p=0.014). The Chalkley count for assessing angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinomas demonstrated prognostic value. The Chalkley method appears to be the better method in estimating the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas.

  2. The PIGRET assay, a method for measuring Pig-a gene mutation in reticulocytes, is reliable as a short-term in vivo genotoxicity test: Summary of the MMS/JEMS-collaborative study across 16 laboratories using 24 chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Takafumi; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Miura, Daishiro; Chikura, Satsuki; Okada, Yuki; Ukai, Akiko; Itoh, Satoru; Nakayama, Shiho; Sanada, Hisakazu; Koyama, Naomi; Muto, Shigeharu; Uno, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Mika; Suzuki, Yuta; Fukuda, Takayuki; Goto, Ken; Wada, Kunio; Kyoya, Takahiro; Shigano, Miyuki; Takasawa, Hironao; Hamada, Shuichi; Adachi, Hideki; Uematsu, Yasuaki; Tsutsumi, Eri; Hori, Hisako; Kikuzuki, Ryuta; Ogiwara, Yosuke; Yoshida, Ikuma; Maeda, Akihisa; Narumi, Kazunori; Fujiishi, Yohei; Morita, Takeshi; Yamada, Masami; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-11-15

    The in vivo mutation assay using the X-linked phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene (Pig-a in rodents, PIG-A in humans) is a promising tool for evaluating the mutagenicity of chemicals. Approaches for measuring Pig-a mutant cells have focused on peripheral red blood cells (RBCs) and reticulocytes (RETs) from rodents. The recently developed PIGRET assay is capable of screening >1×10(6) RETs for Pig-a mutants by concentrating RETs in whole blood prior to flow cytometric analysis. Additionally, due to the characteristics of erythropoiesis, the PIGRET assay can potentially detect increases in Pig-a mutant frequency (MF) sooner after exposure compared with a Pig-a assay targeting total RBCs (RBC Pig-a assay). In order to test the merits and limitations of the PIGRET assay as a short-term genotoxicity test, an interlaboratory trial involving 16 laboratories was organized by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group of the Japanese Environmental Mutagenicity Society (MMS/JEMS). First, the technical proficiency of the laboratories and transferability of the assay were confirmed by performing both the PIGRET and RBC Pig-a assays on rats treated with single doses of N-nitroso-N-ethylurea. Next, the collaborating laboratories used the PIGRET and RBC Pig-a assays to assess the mutagenicity of a total of 24 chemicals in rats, using a single treatment design and mutant analysis at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the treatment. Thirteen chemicals produced positive responses in the PIGRET assay; three of these chemicals were not detected in the RBC Pig-a assay. Twelve chemicals induced an increase in RET Pig-a MF beginning 1 week after dosing, while only 3 chemicals positive for RBC Pig-a MF produced positive responses 1 week after dosing. Based on these results, we conclude that the PIGRET assay is useful as a short-term test for in vivo mutation using a single-dose protocol.

  3. Differential resistance to proteinase K digestion of the yeast prion-like (Ure2p) protein synthesized in vitro in wheat germ extract and rabbit reticulocyte lysate cell-free translation systems.

    PubMed

    Komar, A A; Lesnik, T; Cullin, C; Guillemet, E; Ehrlich, R; Reiss, C

    1997-09-22

    The Ure2p yeast prion-like protein was translated in vitro in the presence of labeled [35S]methionine in either rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) or wheat germ extract (WGE) cell-free systems. When subjected to proteinase K digestion, the Ure2p protein synthesized in WGE was proteolysed much more slowly compared to that synthesized in RRL; this displays fragments of about 31-34 kDa, persisting over 8 min. Thus, the digestion rate and pattern of the protein synthesized in WGE, unlike that synthesized in RRL, revealed characteristic features of the [URE3] prion-like isoform of the Ure2p protein [Masison, D.C. and Wickner, R.B. (1995) Science 270, 93-95]. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, synthesized under the same conditions, differed fundamentally in its proteolytic sensitivity toward proteinase K (PK); in the RRL system it was more slowly digested than in WGE, proving specific PK inhibitors to be absent in both systems. Posttranslational addition of the WGE to the RRL-synthesized Ure2p does not protect Ure2p from efficient PK degradation either. The differences in Ure2p degradation may be ascribed to a specific structure or specific states of association of Ure2p synthesized in WGE; obviously, they yield a protein that mimics the behavior of the Ure2p in [URE3] yeast strains. The present data suggest that particular conditions of the Ure2p protein translation and/or certain cellular components (accessory proteins and extrinsic factors), as well as the nature of the translation process itself, could affect the intracellular folding pathway of Ure2p leading to the de novo formation of the prion [URE3] isoform.

  4. What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-01-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…

  5. What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-01-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…

  6. Effects of sampling strategy, detection probability, and independence of counts on the use of point counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, G.W.; Ralph, C. John; Sauer, John R.; Droege, Sam

    1995-01-01

    Many factors affect the use of point counts for monitoring bird populations, including sampling strategies, variation in detection rates, and independence of sample points. The most commonly used sampling plans are stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling. Each of these might be most useful for different objectives or field situations. Variation in detection probabilities and lack of independence among sample points can bias estimates and measures of precision. All of these factors should be con-sidered when using point count methods.

  7. Modern microbiological methods for foods: colony count and direct count methods. A review.

    PubMed

    García-Armesto, M R; Prieto, M; García-López, M L; Otero, A; Moreno, B

    1993-04-01

    Over the last years methods for enumeration of microorganisms in foods are changing rapidly. Techniques based on totally new concepts as well as instruments and miniaturized systems that allow the automation and simplification of existing microbiological procedures have been developed. These rapid methodologies should satisfy the increasing requirements for effective quality assurance of foods. In the present paper we review some of the more interesting methods based on colony count or direct bacterial count.

  8. Mesoscopic full counting statistics and exclusion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, P.-E.; Derrida, B.; Douçot, B.

    2005-02-01

    We calculate the distribution of current fluctuations in two simple exclusion models. Although these models are classical, we recover even for small systems such as a simple or a double barrier, the same distibution of current as given by traditional formalisms for quantum mesoscopic conductors. Due to their simplicity, the full counting statistics in exclusion models can be reduced to the calculation of the largest eigenvalue of a matrix, the size of which is the number of internal configurations of the system. As examples, we derive the shot noise power and higher order statistics of current fluctuations (skewness, full counting statistics, ....) of various conductors, including multiple barriers, diffusive islands between tunnel barriers and diffusive media. A special attention is dedicated to the third cumulant, which experimental measurability has been demonstrated lately.

  9. Counting the ions surrounding nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nucleic acids are strongly negatively charged, and thus electrostatic interactions—screened by ions in solution—play an important role in governing their ability to fold and participate in biomolecular interactions. The negative charge creates a region, known as the ion atmosphere, in which cation and anion concentrations are perturbed from their bulk values. Ion counting experiments quantify the ion atmosphere by measuring the preferential ion interaction coefficient: the net total number of excess ions above, or below, the number expected due to the bulk concentration. The results of such studies provide important constraints on theories, which typically predict the full three-dimensional distribution of the screening cloud. This article reviews the state of nucleic acid ion counting measurements and critically analyzes their ability to test both analytical and simulation-based models. PMID:28034959

  10. Direct calibration of click-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohmann, M.; Kruse, R.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce and experimentally implement a method for the detector calibration of photon-number-resolving time-bin multiplexing layouts based on the measured click statistics of superconducting nanowire detectors. In particular, the quantum efficiencies, the dark count rates, and the positive operator-valued measures of these measurement schemes are directly obtained with high accuracy. The method is based on the moments of the click-counting statistics for coherent states with different coherent amplitudes. The strength of our analysis is that we can directly conclude—on a quantitative basis—that the detection strategy under study is well described by a linear response function for the light-matter interaction and that it is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light field. Moreover, our method is further extended to a two-mode detection scenario. Finally, we present possible applications for such well-characterized detectors, such as sensing of atmospheric loss channels and phase sensitive measurements.

  11. Fetal leucocyte count in rhesus disease.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Noble, P N; Layton, D M; Nicolaides, K H

    1992-01-01

    The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in these cells and the degree of fetal anaemia. Possible mechanisms for leucopenia include (i) stimulation of erythroid progenitor production at the expense of production of myeloid progenitors, (ii) non-specific haemophagocytosis, or (iii) general suppression of haemopoiesis. Further understanding of the underlying mechanism and the implications of leucopenia as well as the previously reported thrombocytopenia and anaemia may provide a basis for improved antenatal and/or postnatal treatment. PMID:1586179

  12. Photon counting micrometer and video CCD.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Qiongxian; Li, Chennfei

    The structure and observational method of the photon counting slotted micrometer are proposed. The micrometer is made up of a piece of slotted plate and a photomultiplier. The photon counting micrometer is replaced by a video CCD for regular trial observation and as a test for the equipment of one scientific CCD, because the micrometer transmission in the instrumental vertical angle transmission mechanism is dull, and the telescope is not able to observe regularly since the optical axis changes greatly as the telescope points to different vertical distance. The video CCD is fixed in the course of observation, recording a picture every forty milliseconds, or one hundred pictures within four seconds, resulting in simultaneously after smoothing treatment the moment and stellar zenith distance when a star passes through the meridian or prime vertical.

  13. Radioactive Background Evaluation by Atom Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzel, Chad; McKinsey, Daniel

    2005-09-01

    We propose a new method of measuring 85Kr background levels by direct counting of impurity atoms. The beta-decay of 85Kr is a significant radioactive background for experiments that use liquified noble gases to search for dark matter and measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux. While there are several proposed methods for reducing Kr levels in these experiments, an independent technique is needed for measuring very low Kr levels. By selectively exciting Kr atoms to a metastable state, capturing them in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and detecting fluorescence from the trapped atoms, individual Kr atoms can be counted with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This approach offers both higher sensitivity and shorter measurement times than more conventional techniques, with an estimated sensitivity of 3 × 10-14 in only 3 hours of integration.

  14. Airborne UV photon-counting radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Marc C.; Wilcher, George; Banks, Calvin R.; Wood, Ronald L.

    2000-11-01

    The radiometric measurements group at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) has developed new solar-blind radiometers for the SENSOR TALON flight test. These radiometers will be flown in an instrument pod by the 46th Test Wing at Eglin AFB. The radiometers are required to fit into a single quadrant of a 22-in.-diam sphere turret of the instrument pod. Because of minimal space requirements and photon-counting sensitivity needs, the radiometric measurements group used image intensifiers instead of the standard photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The new design concept improved the photon-counting sensitivity, dynamic range, and uniformity of the field of view as compared to standard PMTs. A custom data acquisition system was required to miniaturize the electronics and generate a pulse code-modulated (PCM) data stream to the standard tape recording system.

  15. Counting and Enumeration Problems with Bounded Treewidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Reinhard; Rümmele, Stefan; Woltran, Stefan

    By Courcelle's Theorem we know that any property of finite structures definable in monadic second-order logic (MSO) becomes tractable over structures with bounded treewidth. This result was extended to counting problems by Arnborg et al. and to enumeration problems by Flum et al. Despite the undisputed importance of these results for proving fixed-parameter tractability, they do not directly yield implementable algorithms. Recently, Gottlob et al. presented a new approach using monadic datalog to close the gap between theoretical tractability and practical computability for MSO-definable decision problems. In the current work we show how counting and enumeration problems can be tackled by an appropriate extension of the datalog approach.

  16. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  17. Photon Counting Chirped Amplitude Modulation Ladar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    135 S. Taylor Ave., Room 103, Louisville, CO 80027-3025 14. ABSTRACT This work developed a method using Geiger - mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD...effort to develop a method using Geiger - mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD) photon counting detectors in the U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s chirped...architecture are discussed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS laser radar, ladar, avalanche photo-detectors, Geiger mode detectors, chirped amplitude modulation

  18. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  19. Soudan Low Background Counting Facility (SOLO)

    SciTech Connect

    Attisha, Michael; Viveiros, Luiz de; Gaitksell, Richard; Thompson, John-Paul

    2005-09-08

    The Soudan Low Background Counting Facility (SOLO) has been in operation at the Soudan Mine, MN since March 2003. In the past two years, we have gamma-screened samples for the Majorana, CDMS and XENON experiments. With individual sample exposure times of up to two weeks we have measured sample contamination down to the 0.1 ppb level for 238U / 232Th, and down to the 0.25 ppm level for 40K.

  20. Progress on the Aberystwyth electron counting array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langstaff, D. P.; Evans, D. A.; Roberts, O. R.; Zhu, Xi

    2009-06-01

    An extended electron counting detector with a linear array of 1536 pixels across an active area of 38 mm×5 mm is presented. Also presented is an improved control electronics package, based on the National Instruments Compact RIO instrument programmed in Labview. Also presented is an application of the existing detector with 768 pixels, showing how the improvement in detection technology enables fresh insights into the formation of aluminium contacts on diamond.

  1. Lost caps in histological counting methods.

    PubMed

    Hedreen, J C

    1998-03-01

    In methods with the goal of counting objects in a sectioned tissue volume by examining their profiles or segments in the sections, lost caps, i.e., small object fragments unnoticed or missing at the section surfaces, are an unavoidable issue. The problem of lost caps is examined as it applies to four methods for counting in histological sections, the method usually referred to as the Abercrombie correction, the empirical method, the optical disector, and the physical disector. Lost caps are an insoluble problem in the Abercrombie method; the lost caps error correction factor should be incorporated into the Abercrombie equation. Lost caps cancel out in the optical disector. The empirical method logically requires, to avoid lost caps error, either a preliminary blind identification of object segments in the serial sections or identification of segments with reference to adjacent sections in the counting sections. Similarly, the physical disector method requires either a preliminary blind identification of object segments in both look-up and sampling sections, or use of three sections rather than two.

  2. Estimation of population trajectories from count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring of changes in animal population size is rarely possible through complete censuses; frequently, the only feasible means of monitoring changes in population size is to use counts of animals obtained by skilled observers as indices to abundance. Analysis of changes in population size can be severely biased if factors related to the acquisition of data are not adequately controlled for. In particular we identify two types of observer effects: these correspond to baseline differences in observer competence, and to changes through time in the ability of individual observers. We present a family of models for count data in which the first of these observer effects is treated as a nuisance parameter. Conditioning on totals of negative binomial counts yields a Dirichlet compound multinomial vector for each observer. Quasi-likelihood is used to estimate parameters related to population trajectory and other parameters of interest; model selection is carried out on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. An example is presented using data on Wood thrush from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

  3. Homeostatic regulation of blood neutrophil counts

    PubMed Central

    von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Ley, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophil counts in blood are determined by the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells in the bone marrow, release of mature neutrophils into the blood, margination in organs like the lung and spleen, and transmigration through the endothelial lining followed by neutrophil apoptosis and uptake by phagocytes. This brief review summarizes how the regulation of neutrophil production by G-CSF is in part controlled by IL-17 and IL-23. Neutrophils are retained in the bone marrow through interaction of CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4. The relevance of this mechanism is illustrated by rare diseases in which disrupting the desensitization of CXCR4 results in neutrophil accumulation in the bone marrow. Although blood neutrophil numbers in inbred mouse strains and individual human subjects are tightly controlled, the large variation of blood neutrophil counts among outbred populations suggests genetic control. One example is benign ethnic neutropenia, which is found in about 5% of African Americans. Reduced and elevated neutrophil counts, even within the normal range, are associated with excess all-cause mortality. PMID:18832668

  4. Enabling photon counting detectors with dynamic attenuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are being investigated as a replacement for conventional x-ray detectors because they promise several advantages, including better dose efficiency, higher resolution and spectral imaging. However, many of these advantages disappear when the x-ray flux incident on the detector is too high. We recently proposed a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator (or beam shaping filter) that can control the flux incident on the detector. This can restrict the operating range of the PCXD to keep the incident count rate below a given limit. We simulated a system with the piecewise-linear attenuator and a PCXD using raw data generated from forward projected DICOM files. We investigated the classic paralyzable and nonparalyzable PCXD as well as a weighted average of the two, with the weights chosen to mimic an existing PCXD (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). The dynamic attenuator has small synergistic benefits with the nonparalyzable detector and large synergistic benefits with the paralyzable detector. Real PCXDs operate somewhere between these models, and the weighted average model still shows large benefits from the dynamic attenuator. We conclude that dynamic attenuators can reduce the count rate performance necessary for adopting PCXDs.

  5. Counts of galaxies in a merger model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colin, P.; Schramm, D. N.; Peimbert, M.

    1994-01-01

    A model for the photometric evolution of galaxies has been developed and has been applied to the problem of galaxy counts. The integrated colors of galaxies are calculated using the most recently computed evolutionary tracks from Maeder and collaborators complemented with evolutionary tracks derived by other authors. The asymptotic giant branch lifetime is left as a free parameter. A series of cosmological models using different values of the cosmological constant, lambda(sub 0), and the density parameter, omega(sub 0), have been computed. The universality hypothesis of the luminosity function of galaxies has been abandoned. The influence of galaxy merging on the counts has been considered in a simple manner by assuming that the number of strongly interacting galaxies in a comoving volume increases with redshift as a power law given by (1 + z)(exp 3.8). Taking a Schechter parametrization for the luminosity function of the different types of galaxies, we are able to reproduce the observations reasonably well. We have also considered models with a Gaussian distribution for the luminosity function of the brighter galaxies that provide a poorer fit to the observations. It is shown that galaxy count data are not yet able to make unambiguous cosmological statements since evolutionary assumptions are critical. In particular, an omega(sub 0) = 1, lambda(sub 0) = 0 cosmology is shown to be consistent with the data.

  6. Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim

    2006-10-01

    The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.

  7. Recommendations for reducing positive whole body counts

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, W.E. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant); Garner, R.E.; Harding, P.C. )

    1988-08-01

    This paper reports that the number of positive whole body counts (+WBCs) is often used as a performance indicator for evaluating contamination control and respiratory protection programs at nuclear power plants. For evaluation purposes, +WBCs are generally grouped into two categories -- those between 1% and 5% of a Maximum Permissible Organ Burden (MPOB), and those above 5% MPOB. The +WBCs in the first category are insignificant (in terms of dose commitment) and are commonly assumed to be caused mostly by external contamination or counting anomalies such as incorrect calibrations or variable background (i.e., some may be false positives). Position WBCs above 5% MPOB are more significant and are well within the reliable sensitivity of most whole body counting systems. Thus, +WBCs in the 1-5% MPOB range may be difficult to assign to specific causes, but those above 5% MPOB can be assumed to have been caused by internal contamination-that is, uptakes resulting from a contamination control or respiratory protection related incident.

  8. Shuffler bias corrections using calculated count rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, Phillip M.; Hurd, J. R.; Hsue, F.

    2001-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has two identical shufflers that have been calibrated with a dozen U{sub 3}O{sub 8} certified standards from 10 g {sup 235}U to 3600 g {sup 235}U. The shufflers are used to assay a wide variety of material types for their {sup 235}U contents. When the items differ greatly in chemical composition or shape from the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} standards a bias is introduced because the calibration is not appropriate. Recently a new tool has been created to calculate shuffler count rates accurately, and this has been applied to generate bias correction factors. The tool has also been used to verify the masses and count rates of some uncertified U{sub 3}O{sub 8} standards up to 8.0 kg of {sup 235}U which were used to provisionally extend the calibration beyond the 3.6 kg of {sup 235}U mass when a special need arose. Metallic uranium has significantly different neutronic properties from the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} standards and measured count rates from metals are biased low when the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} calibration is applied. The application of the calculational tool to generate bias corrrections for assorted metals will be described. The accuracy of the calculational tool was verified using highly enriched metal disk standards that could be stacked to form cylinders or put into spread arrays.

  9. Automatic vehicle counting system for traffic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzil, Alain; Khoudour, Louahdi; Valiere, Paul; Truong Cong, Dung Nghy

    2016-09-01

    The article is dedicated to the presentation of a vision-based system for road vehicle counting and classification. The system is able to achieve counting with a very good accuracy even in difficult scenarios linked to occlusions and/or presence of shadows. The principle of the system is to use already installed cameras in road networks without any additional calibration procedure. We propose a robust segmentation algorithm that detects foreground pixels corresponding to moving vehicles. First, the approach models each pixel of the background with an adaptive Gaussian distribution. This model is coupled with a motion detection procedure, which allows correctly location of moving vehicles in space and time. The nature of trials carried out, including peak periods and various vehicle types, leads to an increase of occlusions between cars and between cars and trucks. A specific method for severe occlusion detection, based on the notion of solidity, has been carried out and tested. Furthermore, the method developed in this work is capable of managing shadows with high resolution. The related algorithm has been tested and compared to a classical method. Experimental results based on four large datasets show that our method can count and classify vehicles in real time with a high level of performance (>98%) under different environmental situations, thus performing better than the conventional inductive loop detectors.

  10. Temporal differences in point counts of bottomland forest landbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    We compared number of avian species and individuals in morning and evening point counts during the breeding season and during winter in a bottomland hardwood forest in west-central Mississippi. USA. In both seasons, more species and individuals were recorded during morning counts than during evening counts. We also compared morning and evening detections for 18 species during the breeding season and 9 species during winter. Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura), and Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) were detected significantly more often in morning counts than in evening counts during the breeding season. Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) was recorded more often in morning Counts than evening counts during the breeding season and during winter. No species was detected more often in evening counts. Thus, evening point counts of birds during either the breeding season or winter will likely underestimate species richness, overall avian abundance, and the abundance of some individual species in bottomland hardwood forests.

  11. Particle Energy Spectrum, Revisited from a Counting Statistics Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-28

    In nuclear science, gamma and neutron spectra are counted energy by energy, and then particle by particle. Until recently, few studies have been performed on how exactly those energy spectra are counted, or how those counts are correlated. Because of lack of investigation, cross section covariance and correlation matrices are usually estimated using perturbation method. We will discuss a statistical counting scheme that shall mimic the gamma and neutron counting process used in nuclear science. From this counting scheme, the cross section covariance and correlation can be statistically derived.

  12. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Daniel B; Stoll, Eli L; Kindy, Sonam D; Merry, Hillary L; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  13. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. PMID:25386148

  14. The Audubon Christmas Bird Count: A Valuable Teaching Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferner, John W.

    1977-01-01

    The author explains how he uses the Audubon Christmas Bird Count to teach a laboratory exercise in vertebrate population dynamics. Problems and limitations associated with using these Christmas Counts are also enumerated. Graphs illustrate the material. (MA)

  15. Counting Attribute Blocks: Constructing Meaning for the Multiplication Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elliott

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity in which attribute blocks help middle school students understand the fundamental counting principle and the multiplication rule. Demonstrates how these materials can aid students in building a conceptual understanding of multiplication and the counting principle. (ASK)

  16. Solid scintillation counting: a new technique for measuring radiolabeled compounds.

    PubMed

    Wunderly, S W

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the theory and practice of anew solid scintillator technique for measurement of radiolabeled compounds useful in bioresearch. Solid scintillation counting is expected to replace liquid scintillation counting in certain applications involving non-volatile radiolabeled substrates.

  17. The Audubon Christmas Bird Count: A Valuable Teaching Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferner, John W.

    1977-01-01

    The author explains how he uses the Audubon Christmas Bird Count to teach a laboratory exercise in vertebrate population dynamics. Problems and limitations associated with using these Christmas Counts are also enumerated. Graphs illustrate the material. (MA)

  18. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagi, Janos; Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw; Dufour, Jean-Luc; Holzleitner, Ludwig; Huszti, Joseph; Looman, Marc; Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Lambert, Thierry; Peerani, Paolo; Rackham, Jamie; Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve; Weber, Anne-Laure; Wilson, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of "virtual instruments." These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will describe the

  19. Buffon needle method of track counting

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1981-09-04

    A new technique of quantitative track counting, the Buffon needle method, is advanced. It is based on random sampling of the solid state track recorder (SSTR) surface. This new method extends quantitative track scanning to track densities well up into the track pile-up regime. It is shown that the Buffon needle method possesses a reduced dependence upon both track density nonuniformity and track size distribution. Sources of experimental error arising in the Buffon needle method are assessed. The validity of the Buffon needle method is demonstrated down to at least the 10% uncertainty level (1sigma) by manual sampling of high fission track density mica SSTR observed with scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Accurate atom counting in mesoscopic ensembles.

    PubMed

    Hume, D B; Stroescu, I; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-12-20

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  1. Counting planar diagrams with various restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    Explicit expressions are considered for the generating functions concerning the number of planar diagrams with given numbers of 3- and 4-point vertices. It is observed that planar renormalization theory requires diagrams with restrictions, in the sense that one wishes to omit 'tadpole' insertions and 'seagull' insertions; at a later stage also self-energy insertions are to be removed, and finally also the dressed 3-point insertions and the dressed 4-point insertions. Diagrams with such restrictions can all be counted exactly. This results in various critical lines in the λ- g plane, where λ and g are effective zero-dimensional coupling constants. These lines can be localized exactly.

  2. Monitoring of interfacial tensions by drop counting

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Boring, C.P.; McLaughlin, J.F.; Harless, D.P.

    1988-11-01

    A capillary tube device was shown to provide a rapid means of measuring the interfacial tension between water and Freon-113. The measurement technique is based on counting the number of drops that form when a fixed volume of water passes through the capillary tube into the bulk Freon. The interfacial tension is predicted to be proportional to the number of drops to the negative 2/3 power. Calibration curves were obtained for Freon-water samples containing known concentrations of a surfactant. A standard Gibbs adsorption curve was obtained. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Back to Basics: Counting Soft Surgical Goods.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Retained surgical items (RSIs) pose serious consequences for patients and are a significant threat to patient safety. Perioperative team members are morally and ethically responsible for the prevention of RSIs and should understand how to reduce the risk of occurrence. The prevention of RSIs does not rest in the hands of one individual. It is a multidisciplinary endeavor that aims to reduce the risk of RSIs, and team members should hold each other accountable. This Back to Basics article focuses on the process of counting soft surgical goods, which are the most common RSIs. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, D. B.; Stroescu, I.; Joos, M.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Oberthaler, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  5. CALCULATING ACCURATE SHUFFLER COUNT RATES WITH APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    P. M. RINARD

    2001-05-01

    Shufflers are used to assay uranium and other fissile elements in bulk and waste quantities. They normally require physical calibration standards to achieve the most-accurate results, but such standards are generally rare and expensive, so inappropriate standards are often used out of necessity. This paper reports on a new technique that has been developed to calculate accurate count rates, in effect simulating physical standards with rapid and inexpensive calculations. The technique has been benchmarked on existing oxide and metallic standards, used to study a variety of conditions for which standards do not exist, and applied to inventory items needing verification measurements even though appropriate physical standards do not exist.

  6. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

  7. Point counts of birds: what are we estimating?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Point counts of birds are made for many reasons, including estimating local densities, determining population trends, assessing habitat preferences, and exploiting the activities of recreational birdwatchers. Problems arise unless there is a clear understanding of what point counts mean in terms of actual populations of birds. Criteria for conducting point counts depend strongly on the purposes to which they will be put. This paper provides a simple mathematical conceptualization of point counts and illustrates graphically some of the influences on them.

  8. Not everything that counts can be counted: ants use multiple metrics for a single nest trait

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Nigel R; Dornhaus, Anna; Metherell, Bonnie G; Nelson, Toby R; Lanfear, Sophie A.J; Symes, William S

    2005-01-01

    There are claims in the literature that certain insects can count. We question the generality of these claims and suggest that summation rather than counting (sensu stricto) is a more likely explanation. We show that Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies can discriminate between potential nest sites with different numbers of entrances. However, our experiments suggest that the ants use ambient light levels within the nest cavity to assess the abundance of nest entrances rather than counting per se. Intriguingly, Weber's Law cannot explain the ants' inaccuracy. The ants also use a second metric, independent of light, to assess and discriminate against wide entrances. Thus, these ants use at least two metrics to evaluate one nest trait: the configuration of the portals to their potential homes. PMID:16555783

  9. Point Counts of Birds: What Are We Estimating?

    Treesearch

    Douglas H. Johnson

    1995-01-01

    Point counts of birds are made for many reasons, including estimating local densities, determining population trends, assessing habitat preferences, and exploiting the activities of recreational birdwatchers. Problems arise unless there is a clear understanding of what point counts mean in terms of actual populations of birds. Criteria for conducting point counts...

  10. 75 FR 64615 - National Character Counts Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Counts Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's strength... National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality, fairness, and compassion that lie... becomes a lifelong commitment. During National Character Counts Week, let us take this opportunity to...

  11. Tutorial on Using Regression Models with Count Outcomes Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Morgan, Grant B.

    2016-01-01

    Education researchers often study count variables, such as times a student reached a goal, discipline referrals, and absences. Most researchers that study these variables use typical regression methods (i.e., ordinary least-squares) either with or without transforming the count variables. In either case, using typical regression for count data can…

  12. Putting Counting to Work: Preschoolers' Understanding of Cardinal Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon, Kevin; Lewis, Charlie; Freeman, Norman H.

    2003-01-01

    Preschool children are often good at counting things but seem slow to learn that there is more to counting than simply finding out how many are in a single set. Counting is useful when comparing sets and when creating new sets to match existing ones. This is part of the numerical understanding that educators wish to foster in schools. In two…

  13. Point Count Length and Detection of Forest Neotropical Migrant Birds

    Treesearch

    Deanna K. Dawson; David R. Smith; Chandler S. Robbins

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of bird abundances among years or among habitats assume that the rates at which birds are detected and counted are constant within species. We use point count data collected in forests of the Mid-Atlantic states to estimate detection probabilities for Neotropical migrant bird species as a function of count length. For some species, significant differences...

  14. Automated vehicle counting using image processing and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meany, Sean; Eskew, Edward; Martinez-Castro, Rosana; Jang, Shinae

    2017-04-01

    Vehicle counting is used by the government to improve roadways and the flow of traffic, and by private businesses for purposes such as determining the value of locating a new store in an area. A vehicle count can be performed manually or automatically. Manual counting requires an individual to be on-site and tally the traffic electronically or by hand. However, this can lead to miscounts due to factors such as human error A common form of automatic counting involves pneumatic tubes, but pneumatic tubes disrupt traffic during installation and removal, and can be damaged by passing vehicles. Vehicle counting can also be performed via the use of a camera at the count site recording video of the traffic, with counting being performed manually post-recording or using automatic algorithms. This paper presents a low-cost procedure to perform automatic vehicle counting using remote video cameras with an automatic counting algorithm. The procedure would utilize a Raspberry Pi micro-computer to detect when a car is in a lane, and generate an accurate count of vehicle movements. The method utilized in this paper would use background subtraction to process the images and a machine learning algorithm to provide the count. This method avoids fatigue issues that are encountered in manual video counting and prevents the disruption of roadways that occurs when installing pneumatic tubes

  15. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section 1210.16... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of...

  16. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section 1210.16... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of...

  17. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section 1210.16... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of...

  18. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section 1210.16... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of...

  19. Word Count of Elementary Modern Literary Arabic Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarus, Ernest N.; Rammuny, Raji M.

    A computerized word count is presented of 11 elementary Modern Literary Arabic textbooks used in the United States. The word count was started in 1967 to provide a practical vocabulary base for a fully-programmed self-instructional course on the phonology and script of Modern Literary Arabic. The first part of the count is a cumulative list…

  20. Tutorial on Using Regression Models with Count Outcomes Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Morgan, Grant B.

    2016-01-01

    Education researchers often study count variables, such as times a student reached a goal, discipline referrals, and absences. Most researchers that study these variables use typical regression methods (i.e., ordinary least-squares) either with or without transforming the count variables. In either case, using typical regression for count data can…

  1. Counting does not improve the accuracy of long time productions.

    PubMed

    Thönes, Sven; Hecht, Heiko

    2017-08-29

    It is common to use counting strategies to produce time intervals accurately. Does counting improve the accuracy (deviation of produced duration from veridical duration) and precision (variability of produced duration) of time productions in the range of seconds to minutes? In a series of experiments, we compared chronometric counting to intuitive timing (no counting) and to attentional control (simultaneously performing mental arithmetic). In a field experiment, participants had to produce time intervals of 60-s duration in a classroom setting. Relative to intuitive timing, counting did not improve the accuracy (absolute error) of time productions but led to overproduction of duration (larger constant error). In four laboratory experiments, we tested the effects of counting on time production of 10-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 90-s intervals. Consistently, counting did not improve the accuracy of time production. The relative overproduction due to counting was replicated for long intervals (60 and 90 s) but disappeared at shorter intervals. However, across all intervals tested, counting had positive effects on the precision of time production. As expected, mental arithmetic impaired accuracy and precision and led to overproduction of duration, indicating that participants followed instructions. Based on the experimental data, the overproduction of longer intervals due to counting can neither be explained in terms of attentional processes nor by means of a word-length effect when counting multisyllabic numbers or when participants switch their pace of counting from mono- to multisyllables.

  2. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.4 When do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count if...

  3. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.4 When do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count if...

  4. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.4 When do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count if...

  5. Differential Counting in Mixed Cultures with Coulter Counters

    PubMed Central

    Drake, J. F.; Tsuchiya, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A critical comparison of Coulter, viable, and microscope counts for several mixed cultures of microorganisms has been made. This investigation shows that Coulter counting can provide reliable estimates of microbial numbers in mixed cultures. Precautions and limitations of Coulter counting in mixed cultures are discussed. PMID:4199341

  6. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.4 When do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...

  7. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year.

  8. Fixation, Counting, and Manipulation of Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Bloem, Jaap; Bär-Gilissen, Marie-José B.; Cappenberg, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative effects of several fixatives on heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) and phototrophic nanoflagellates (PNAN) were investigated by hemacytometer and epifluorescence counting techniques. Counts of Monas sp. cultures before and after fixation with unbuffered 0.3% glutaraldehyde and 5% formaldehyde showed no loss of cells during fixation, and cell concentrations remained constant for several weeks after fixation. Buffering of fixatives with borax caused severe losses, up to 100% within 2 h. Field samples from Lake Vechten showed no decline of HNAN and total nanoflagellate concentrations for at least 1 week after fixation with 5% formaldehyde and with 1% glutaraldehyde. With 1% glutaraldehyde, the chlorophyll autofluorescence of PNAN was much brighter than with 5% formaldehyde, although it was lost after a few days and thus limited the storage time of samples. However, when primulin-stained slides were prepared soon after fixation and stored at −30°C, the loss of autofluorescence was prevented and PNAN and HNAN concentrations were stable for at least 16 weeks. Effects of filtration and centrifugation on HNAN were also studied. Filtration vacuum could not exceed 3 kPa since 10 kPa already caused losses of 15 to 20%. Similar losses were caused by centrifugation, even at low speed (500 × g). PMID:16347232

  9. Automated Counting of Particles To Quantify Cleanliness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, James

    2005-01-01

    A machine vision system, similar to systems used in microbiological laboratories to count cultured microbes, has been proposed for quantifying the cleanliness of nominally precisely cleaned hardware by counting residual contaminant particles. The system would include a microscope equipped with an electronic camera and circuitry to digitize the camera output, a personal computer programmed with machine-vision and interface software, and digital storage media. A filter pad, through which had been aspirated solvent from rinsing the hardware in question, would be placed on the microscope stage. A high-resolution image of the filter pad would be recorded. The computer would analyze the image and present a histogram of sizes of particles on the filter. On the basis of the histogram and a measure of the desired level of cleanliness, the hardware would be accepted or rejected. If the hardware were accepted, the image would be saved, along with other information, as a quality record. If the hardware were rejected, the histogram and ancillary information would be recorded for analysis of trends. The software would perceive particles that are too large or too numerous to meet a specified particle-distribution profile. Anomalous particles or fibrous material would be flagged for inspection.

  10. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  11. Signatures of Synchrony in Pairwise Count Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Tchumatchenko, Tatjana; Geisel, Theo; Volgushev, Maxim; Wolf, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Concerted neural activity can reflect specific features of sensory stimuli or behavioral tasks. Correlation coefficients and count correlations are frequently used to measure correlations between neurons, design synthetic spike trains and build population models. But are correlation coefficients always a reliable measure of input correlations? Here, we consider a stochastic model for the generation of correlated spike sequences which replicate neuronal pairwise correlations in many important aspects. We investigate under which conditions the correlation coefficients reflect the degree of input synchrony and when they can be used to build population models. We find that correlation coefficients can be a poor indicator of input synchrony for some cases of input correlations. In particular, count correlations computed for large time bins can vanish despite the presence of input correlations. These findings suggest that network models or potential coding schemes of neural population activity need to incorporate temporal properties of correlated inputs and take into consideration the regimes of firing rates and correlation strengths to ensure that their building blocks are an unambiguous measures of synchrony. PMID:20422044

  12. B Decay Charm Counting via Topological Vertexing

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Aaron S

    2001-10-15

    We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97-98 run. The method takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BR(B {yields} (0D)X) = (3.7{+-}1.1(stat) {+-} 2.1(syst))%; and BR(B {yields} (2D)X) = (17.9{+-}1.4(stat) {+-} 3.3(syst))% where B and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, N{sub c} = 1.188 {+-} 0.010 {+-} 0.040 {+-} 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.

  13. Low lymphocyte count and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Núñez, J; Miñana, G; Bodí, V; Núñez, E; Sanchis, J; Husser, O; Llàcer, A

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation plays a crucial pathophysiological role in the entire continuum of the atherosclerotic process, from its initiation, progression, and plaque destabilization leading ultimately to an acute coronary event. Furthermore, once the clinical event has occurred, inflammation also influences the left ventricular remodelling process. Under the same paradigm, there is evidence that lymphocytes play an important role in the modulation of the inflammatory response at every level of the atherosclerotic process. Low lymphocyte count (LLC) is a common finding during the systemic inflammatory response, and clinical and animal studies suggest that LCC plays a putative role in accelerated atherosclerosis. For instance, there is recent evidence that LLC is associated with worse outcomes in patients with heart failure, chronic ischemic heart disease and acute coronary syndromes. Further indirect evidence supports the pathologic role of LLC related to the fact that 1) lymphopenia--due to a decreased count of lymphocyte T cells--normally occurs as a part of the human ageing process, and 2) increased incidence of cardiovascular events has been reported in conditions where lymphopenia is common, such as renal transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus infection, survivors of nuclear disasters and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present article is to review: a) the pathophysiological mechanisms that have been proposed for the observed association between LLC and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), b) the available evidence regarding the diagnostic and prognostic role attributable to LLC in patients with CVD, and; c) the potential therapeutic implications of these findings.

  14. Martian crater counts on Elysium Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Kathleen; Barlow, Nadine G.

    1990-01-01

    Without returned samples from the Martian surface, relative age chronologies and stratigraphic relationships provide the best information for determining the ages of geomorphic features and surface regions. Crater-size frequency distributions of six recently mapped geological units of Elysium Mons were measured to establish their relative ages. Most of the craters on Elysium Mons and the adjacent plains units are between 500 and 1000 meters in diameter. However, only craters 1 km in diameter or larger were used because of inadequate spatial resolution of some of the Viking images and to reduce probability of counting secondary craters. The six geologic units include all of the Elysium Mons construct and a portion of the plains units west of the volcano. The surface area of the units studied is approximately 128,000 sq km. Four of the geologic units were used to create crater distribution curves. There are no craters larger than 1 km within the Elysium Mons caldera. Craters that lacked raised rims, were irregularly shaped, or were arranged in a linear pattern were assumed to be endogenic in origin and not counted. A crater frequency distribution analysis is presented.

  15. Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

    2011-12-01

    In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

  16. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Iseley

    2009-10-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

  17. High-order counting statistics and interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flindt, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Full counting statistics concerns the stochastic transport of electrons in mesoscopic structures [1]. Recently it has been shown that the charge transport statistics for noninteracting electrons in a two-terminal system is always generalized binomial: it can be decomposed into independent single-particle events, and the zeros of the generating function are real and negative [2]. In this talk I show how the zeros of the generating function move into the complex plane due to interactions and demonstrate how the positions of the zeros can be detected using high-order factorial cumulants [3]. As an illustrative example I discuss electron transport through a Coulomb blockade quantum dot for which the interactions on the quantum dot are clearly visible in the high-order factorial cumulants. These findings are important for understanding the influence of interactions on counting statistics, and the characterization in terms of zeros of the generating function provides a simple interpretation of recent experiments, where high-order statistics have been measured [4]. [4pt] [1] Yu. V. Nazarov, ed., Quantum Noise in Mesoscopic Physics, NATO Science Series, Vol. 97 (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2003) [2] A. G. Abanov and D. A. Ivanov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 086602 (2008), Phys. Rev. B 79, 205315 (2009) [3] D. Kambly, C. Flindt, and M. B"uttiker, Phys. Rev. B 83, 075432 (2011) -- Editors' Suggestion [4] C. Flindt, C. Fricke, F. Hohls, T. Novotn'y, K. Netocn'y, T. Brandes, and R. J. Haug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10116 (2009)

  18. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1

  19. Optimal allocation of point-count sampling effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Both unlimited and fixedradius point counts only provide indices to population size. Because longer count durations lead to counting a higher proportion of individuals at the point, proper design of these surveys must incorporate both count duration and sampling characteristics of population size. Using information about the relationship between proportion of individuals detected at a point and count duration, we present a method of optimizing a pointcount survey given a fixed total time for surveying and travelling between count points. The optimization can be based on several quantities that measure precision, accuracy, or power of tests based on counts, including (1) meansquare error of estimated population change; (2) mean-square error of average count; (3) maximum expected total count; or (4) power of a test for differences in average counts. Optimal solutions depend on a function that relates count duration at a point to the proportion of animals detected. We model this function using exponential and Weibull distributions, and use numerical techniques to conduct the optimization. We provide an example of the procedure in which the function is estimated from data of cumulative number of individual birds seen for different count durations for three species of Hawaiian forest birds. In the example, optimal count duration at a point can differ greatly depending on the quantities that are optimized. Optimization of the mean-square error or of tests based on average counts generally requires longer count durations than does estimation of population change. A clear formulation of the goals of the study is a critical step in the optimization process.

  20. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…