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Sample records for reticulocyte count

  1. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - reticulocyte ... A higher than normal reticulocytes count may indicate: Anemia due to red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn ( ...

  2. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  3. Manual and automated reticulocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Simionatto, Mackelly; de Paula, Josiane Padilha; Chaves, Michele Ana Flores; Bortoloso, Márcia; Cicchetti, Domenic; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José

    2010-12-01

    Manual reticulocyte counts were examined under light microscopy, using the property whereby supravital stain precipitates residual ribosomal RNA versus the automated flow methods, with the suggestion that in the latter there is greater precision and an ability to determine both mature and immature reticulocyte fractions. Three hundred and forty-one venous blood samples of patients were analyzed of whom 224 newborn and the rest adults; 51 males and 66 females, with ages between 0 and 89 years, as part of the laboratory routine for hematological examinations at the Clinical Laboratory of the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná. This work aimed to compare manual and automated methodologies for reticulocyte countings and evaluate random and systematic errors. The results obtained showed that the difference between the two methods was very small, with an estimated 0·4% systematic error and 3·9% random error. Thus, it has been confirmed that both methods, when well conducted, can reflect precisely the reticulocyte counts for adequate clinical use.

  4. Reticulocyte quantification by flow cytometry, image analysis, and manual counting.

    PubMed

    Schimenti, K J; Lacerna, K; Wamble, A; Maston, L; Iaffaldano, C; Straight, M; Rabinovitch, A; Lazarus, H M; Jacobberger, J W

    1992-01-01

    Reticulocyte counting by flow cytometry with thiazole orange was compared to manual or automated counting of new methylene blue stained blood smears. Forty-nine samples were compared for manual counting from randomly chosen clinical samples. Two hundred and eighty-nine samples from bone marrow transplant patients were compared during the period before and through chemo-irradiation and engraftment. The slopes of correlation plots were less than 1 when flow cytometric data were the dependent variable, suggesting that thiazole orange is less sensitive than new methylene blue. In a third study, 407 samples from bone marrow transplant patients were compared after increasing the thiazole orange concentration. The reticulocyte fluorescence distribution was divided into four groups of the brightest (youngest) 40, 60, 80, and 100% of reticulocytes. The slopes from regression analysis were 0.25, 0.49, 0.78, and 1.14, respectively. This demonstrates that thiazole orange is more sensitive than new methylene blue because the window of analysis includes an increased fraction of mature reticulocytes. In addition, the precision of each assay as measured. The rank order of precision from high to low was flow cytometry > image analysis > manual counting.

  5. [Automated measurement of reticulocyte count by flow cytometry. II: Analysis of the blood containing abnormal erythrocytes or giant platelets].

    PubMed

    Oyamatsu, T; Shimizu, N; Takeuchi, K; Yamamoto, M; Kawai, Y; Watanabe, K; Iri, H

    1989-07-01

    We have examined the influence of erythrocytes containing inclusion bodies, nucleated red cells or giant platelets on the measurement of reticulocyte count by automated machine, R-1000. Correlation of the reticulocyte count between automated and conventional method was extremely good in the blood containing red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling . However, correlation was poor when the sample contained the nucleated red cells. Reticulocyte count was decreased in the blood with significant amounts of nucleated red cells. Since nucleated red cells themselves are not counted as reticulocytes in the machine, this was considered to be due to increased young reticulocytes which frequently appeared with nucleated red cells. Both cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets apparently influenced the reticulocyte count by the R-1000. These results suggest that red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling do not influence the automatic counting of reticulocytes. Although nucleated red cells, cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets affected the reticulocyte count, the machine shows abnormal flags in most of above cases (except highly agglutinated red cells), so that one can recount reticulocytes by conventional method. We conclude the machine can safely count the reticulocytes even in the blood containing abnormal red cells or platelets.

  6. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices. PMID:27818730

  7. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-10-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices.

  8. [Automated hematology analysers and spurious counts Part 3. Haemoglobin, red blood cells, cell count and indices, reticulocytes].

    PubMed

    Godon, Alban; Genevieve, Franck; Marteau-Tessier, Anne; Zandecki, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Several situations lead to abnormal haemoglobin measurement or to abnormal red blood cells (RBC) counts, including hyperlipemias, agglutinins and cryoglobulins, haemolysis, or elevated white blood cells (WBC) counts. Mean (red) cell volume may be also subject to spurious determination, because of agglutinins (mainly cold), high blood glucose level, natremia, anticoagulants in excess and at times technological considerations. Abnormality related to one measured parameter eventually leads to abnormal calculated RBC indices: mean cell haemoglobin content is certainly the most important RBC parameter to consider, maybe as important as flags generated by the haematology analysers (HA) themselves. In many circumstances, several of the measured parameters from cell blood counts (CBC) may be altered, and the discovery of a spurious change on one parameter frequently means that the validity of other parameters should be considered. Sensitive flags allow now the identification of several spurious counts, but only the most sophisticated HA have optimal flagging, and simpler ones, especially those without any WBC differential scattergram, do not share the same capacity to detect abnormal results. Reticulocytes are integrated into the CBC in many HA, and several situations may lead to abnormal counts, including abnormal gating, interference with intraerythrocytic particles, erythroblastosis or high WBC counts.

  9. Effects of artemisinins on reticulocyte count and relationship to possible embryotoxicity in confirmed and unconfirmed malarial patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L

    2012-02-01

    Rat studies suggest that artemisinin-induced decreases in reticulocyte count are a marker for embryotoxicity (in one study, r = 0.82; p < 0.05). In clinical studies, therapeutic doses of artemisinins induced decreases in reticulocyte count that were larger in five of six groups of healthy volunteers (mean decreases of 47-75%) than in 12 groups of patients with malaria (mean decreases of 0-34% and incidences of low reticulocyte count of 0.6-18%). Malaria causes hypoferremia and drug concentrates in infected red cells so, among the explanations for the lesser decreases in patients, is that malaria protects against artemisinin-induced decreases in reticulocyte count by reducing the target tissue levels of active drug and/or ferrous iron which activates the drug to toxic free radicals. The disease could also protect against embryotoxicity in which case pregnant women without malaria would be at greater risk of artemisinin-induced embryotoxicity. Malaria protection against artesunate toxicity has been observed in rats. No artemisinin-induced embryotoxicity has been identified in limited numbers of women with confirmed malaria in the first trimester. However, in large parts of tropical Africa, malaria treatment is based on fever rather than confirmation of parasitemia and many pregnant women without malaria are exposed to antimalarials. No clinical studies have been conducted on uninfected women for whom pregnancy was identified and then an artemisinin was administered subsequently. Testing in rats and/or humans is needed to determine if malaria protects against reticulocytopenia and embryotoxicity and whether the parasite is a more or less sensitive target than the embryo and reticulocyte.

  10. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  11. [Reticulocytes in the diagnosis of anaemia].

    PubMed

    Heiligers-Duckers, Connie; Werner, Philo T; van Drunen, Marlea E P

    2013-01-01

    Reticulocytes are immature erythrocytes; the number of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood reflects erythropoietic activity. Two cases are described to illustrate the use of the reticulocyte count in the diagnostic workup of anaemia. The first patient was a 62-year-old woman presenting with fatigue. Laboratory evaluation showed severe macrocytic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and the presence of schistocytes. A low reticulocyte count suggested decreased erythropoiesis underlying the anaemia; this led to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. The second patient, a 52-year-old woman, also presented with fatigue and macrocytic anaemia. A high reticulocyte count indicated increased erythrocyte degradation, and the patient was eventually diagnosed with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. The role of reticulocytes in the differential diagnostic workup of anaemia was explored on the basis of these case descriptions. The test methodology, analytical performance, reference values and pitfalls were discussed, as well as the reticulocyte indices and their use in monitoring therapy.

  12. Reticulocyte count is the most important predictor of acute cerebral ischemia and high-risk transcranial Doppler in a newborn cohort of 395 children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Belisário, André Rolim; Sales, Rahyssa Rodrigues; Toledo, Nayara Evelin; Muniz, Maristela Braga de Sousa Rodrigues; Velloso-Rodrigues, Cibele; Silva, Célia Maria; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2016-10-01

    Stroke is a severe clinical manifestation of sickle cell anemia (SCA). Despite the prognostic relevance of transcranial Doppler (TCD), more accurate tools to assess stroke risk in children with SCA are required. Here, we describe the effect of clinical, laboratory, and molecular features on the risk of stroke and high-risk TCD in children from the newborn cohort of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Outcomes studied were acute cerebral ischemia and high-risk TCD. Clinical and hematological data were retrieved from children's records. Genetic markers, which were known for their association with stroke risk, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. The cumulative incidence of acute cerebral ischemia by the age of 8 years was 7.4 % and that of high-risk TCD by the age of 11.5 years was 14.2 %. The final multivariate model for acute cerebral ischemia risk included high white blood cell count and reticulocyte count, acute chest syndrome rate, and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) TEK rs489347 and TNF-α rs1800629. The model for high-risk TCD included high reticulocyte count and the SNPs TEK rs489347 and TGFBR3 rs284875. Children with risk factors should be considered for intensive risk monitoring and for intervention therapy.

  13. Reticulocytes in sports medicine: an update.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Lanteri, Patrizia; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Reticulocytes are young red blood cells which develop from erythroblasts and circulate in the bloodstream for about 1-4 days before maturing into erythrocytes. With the introduction of reticulocyte count in equations and statistical models for detecting suspected blood doping, its application to sports medicine has attracted growing interest in reticulocyte behavior during training and competition seasons in athletes and experimental blood doping treatment in healthy volunteers. An update on recent publications is therefore needed to improve the interpretation of reticulocyte analysis and its variability in sportsmen. Reticulocyte count constitutes a robust parameter during the preanalytical phase, but cell stability can be assured only if blood samples are kept at constantly cold temperatures (4 degrees C) and test results will differ depending on the blood analyzer system used. Marked intraindividual variability is the principal finding to be evaluated when exercise-induced changes are observed or illicit procedures suspected. Furthermore, reticulocyte variability is greater than that of other hematological parameters such as hemoglobin or hematocrit. Ideally, any variation should be interpreted against long-term time series for the individual athlete: values obtained from large athlete cohorts ought to be used only for extrapolating outliers that deserve further examination. Reticulocyte distribution in athletes is similar to that found in the general population, and a gender effect in some sports disciplines or selected athlete groups may be seen. Reticulocyte variability is strongly influenced by seasonal factors linked to training and competition schedules and by the type of sports discipline. Published experimental data have confirmed the high sensitivity of reticulocyte analysis in identifying abnormal bone marrow stimulation by either erythropoietin administration or blood withdrawal and reinfusion.

  14. Membrane remodeling during reticulocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Guo, Xinhua; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.

    2010-01-01

    The transition of reticulocytes into erythrocytes is accompanied by extensive changes in the structure and properties of the plasma membrane. These changes include an increase in shear resistance, loss of surface area, and acquisition of a biconcave shape. The processes by which these changes are effected have remained largely undefined. Here we examine how the expression of 30 distinct membrane proteins and their interactions change during murine reticulocyte maturation. We show that tubulin and cytosolic actin are lost, whereas the membrane content of myosin, tropomyosin, intercellular adhesion molecule-4, glucose transporter-4, Na-K-ATPase, sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1, glycophorin A, CD47, Duffy, and Kell is reduced. The degradation of tubulin and actin is, at least in part, through the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. In regard to the protein-protein interactions, the formation of membrane-associated spectrin tetramers from dimers is unperturbed, whereas the interactions responsible for the formation of the membrane-skeletal junctions are weaker in reticulocytes, as is the attachment of transmembrane proteins to these structures. This weakness, in part, results from the elevated phosphorylation of 4.1R in reticulocytes, which leads to a decrease in shear resistance by reducing its interaction with spectrin and actin. These observations begin to unravel the mechanistic basis of crucial changes accompanying reticulocyte maturation. PMID:20038785

  15. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocytes and reticulocytes stained with proflavine.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, H; Tatsumi, N

    1997-12-01

    Proflavine, an acridine analog for industrial use, was used to stain blood cells. A drop of blood treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-2K was mixed with a 0.00001% solution of the dye and observed immediately by fluorescence microscopy with a green filter. Leukocytes, platelets, and reticulocytes were stained but mature red blood cells were not. Chromatin in the nuclei of all leukocytes and nucleoli of lymphocytes and monocytes had greenish-yellow fluorescence, and the kind of cell could be identified by the tone and intensity of this color. Granules in granulocytes were in green. Reticular fine-granular or granulofibrous structures in the reticulocytes were brownish. The proflavine could be used routinely in clinical laboratories because this single stain makes possible simultaneous differentiation of leukocytes and counting of reticulocytes.

  16. Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: a viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Russell, Bruce; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Chu, Cindy; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Renia, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on 'subvital' staining. The specialist 'subvital' stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB) and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa's stain (commonly used microbiology and parasitology) in a 'subvital' manner to provide an accurate method to visualize and count reticulocytes in blood samples from normal and malaria-infected individuals.

  17. Evaluation of the automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV ™ compared to the ADVIA ® 2120 for its use in dogs, cats, and horses. Part II: Accuracy of leukocyte differential and reticulocyte count, impact of anticoagulant and sample aging.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Nakagawa, Julia; Dunker, Cathrin; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The automated laser-based hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV™ provides a 5-part differential count and specific cytograms that are of great interest for large veterinary laboratories. The aim of the study was to validate the Sysmex XT-2000iV compared to the laser-based hematology analyzer ADVIA® 2120 and manual differential in dogs, cats, and horses as well as the impact of anticoagulant (heparin, ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid [EDTA], and citrate) and storage at 22°C and 4°C. Consecutive fresh K(3)-EDTA blood samples from 216 cats, 314 dogs, and 174 horses were included. The impact of anticoagulant and sample storage was assessed in specimens obtained from an additional 9 cats, 10 dogs, and 10 horses. Agreement between both analyzers was excellent to good except for monocytes and canine reticulocytes. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r (s)) between Sysmex XT-2000iV and manual differential were good to fair and ranged from 0.91 (cat lymphocytes) to 0.44 (cat monocytes). Hematocrit value (Hct), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration (MCHC; all: P < 0.001), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV; P < 0.01) were higher in canine citrated blood compared to heparin and EDTA. In cats, lymphocytes and monocytes were lower in heparinized blood compared to EDTA (P < 0.05), whereas in horses no significant effect was seen. Regarding storage time and temperature, white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and MCH were stable. Hct, MCV, and MCHC were influenced by erythrocyte swelling. Differential count remained stable for 24 hr (22°C) and nearly 72 hr (4°C) except for monocytes. The overall performance of the Sysmex XT-2000iV was excellent and compared favorably with that of the ADVIA 2120. A special strength was the excellent detection of feline eosinophils.

  18. Automated reticulocyte parameters for hereditary spherocytosis screening.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Elena; Pradier, Olivier; Cotton, Frédéric; Gulbis, Béatrice

    2014-11-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is based on several screening and confirmatory tests; our algorithm includes clinical features, red blood cell morphology analysis and cryohaemolysis test, and, in case of positive screening, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a diagnostic test. Using the UniCel DxH800 (Beckman Coulter) haematology analyser, we investigated automated reticulocyte parameters as HS screening tool, i.e. mean reticulocyte volume (MRV), immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) and mean sphered cell volume (MSCV). A total of 410 samples were screened. Gel electrophoresis was applied to 159 samples that were positive for the screening tests. A total of 48 patients were diagnosed as HS, and seven were diagnosed as acquired autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA). Some other 31 anaemic conditions were also studied. From the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, both delta (mean cell volume (MCV)-MSCV) and MRV presented an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. At the diagnostic cut-off of 100 % sensitivity, MRV showed the best specificity of 88 % and a positive likelihood ratio of 8.7. The parameters IRF, MRV and MSCV discriminated HS not only from controls and other tested pathologies but also from AIHA contrary to the cryohaemolysis test. In conclusion, automated reticulocyte parameters might be helpful for haemolytic anaemia diagnostic orientation even for general laboratories. In combination with cryohaemolysis, they ensure an effective and time-saving screening for HS for more specialised laboratories.

  19. Pig Reticulocytes. III. Glucose permeability in naturally occurring reticulocytes and red cells from newborn piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, HD; Luthra, MG

    1977-01-01

    The loss of facilitated glucose transport of red cells occurring in the newborn pig was monitored in 11 density-separated cells from birth to a 4 wk of age. At birth there was a threefold increase in glucose permeability from the lightest cells to the most dense, suggesting that cells having progressively less glucose permeability are released into the circulation as gestation proceeds. Because of extraordinary stimulation of erythropoietic activity, the uppermost top fraction constituting 2-3 percent of the total cells is composed purely of reticulocytes in the growing animal. The glucose permeability of these reticulocytes which at birth has a slow but significant rate of 3.7 μmol/ml cell x min at 25 degrees C is rapidly decreased within 3-4 days to the level of reticulocytes produced in the adult in response to phenylhydrazine assault. Moreover, reticulocytes themselves discard their membrane permeability to glucose in the course of maturation to red cells. Thus, even though reticulocytes at birth are permeable to glucose, they will become red cells practically impervious to glucose within a few days. These findings suggest that the transition from a glucose- permeable fetal state to a glucose-impermeable postnatal state is brought about by two mechanisms: (a) dilution of fetal cells by glucose-impervious cells produced coincidentally with or shortly after birth; and (b) elimination of fetal cells, which have a shorter half-life, from the circulation. PMID:894256

  20. Additional erythrocytic and reticulocytic parameters helpful for diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis: results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Mullier, François; Lainey, Elodie; Fenneteau, Odile; Da Costa, Lydie; Schillinger, Françoise; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Christian; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is characterised by weakened vertical linkages between the membrane skeleton and the red blood cell's lipid bilayer, leading to the release of microparticles. All the reference tests suffer from specific limitations. The aim of this study was to develop easy to use diagnostic tool for screening of hereditary spherocytosis based on routinely acquired haematological parameters like percentage of microcytes, percentage of hypochromic cells, reticulocyte counts, and percentage of immature reticulocytes. The levels of haemoglobin, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes (Ret), immature reticulocytes fraction (IRF), hypochromic erythrocytes (Hypo-He) and microcytic erythrocytes (MicroR) were determined on EDTA samples on Sysmex instruments from a cohort of 45 confirmed SH. The HS group was then compared with haemolytical disorders, microcytic anaemia, healthy individuals and routine samples (n = 1,488). HS is characterised by a high Ret count without an equally elevated IRF. All 45 HS have Ret >80,000/μl and Ret(10(9)/L)/IRF (%) greater than 7.7 (rule 1). Trait and mild HS had a Ret/IRF ratio greater than 19. Moderate and severe HS had increased MicroR and MicroR/Hypo-He (rule 2). Combination of both rules gave predictive positive value and negative predictive value of respectively 75% and 100% (n=1,488), which is much greater than single parameters or existing rules. This simple and fast diagnostic method could be used as an excellent screening tool for HS. It is also valid for mild HS, neonates and ABO incompatibilities and overcomes the lack of sensitivity of electrophoresis in ankyrin deficiencies.

  1. Novel hematological parameters for the evaluation of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: the immature platelet and reticulocyte fractions.

    PubMed

    Strati, Paolo; Bose, Prithviraj; Lyle, Lindsey; Gaw, Katie; Zhou, Lingsha; Pierce, Sherry A; Huynh-Lu, Julie; Hirsch-Ginsberg, Cheryl F; Bueso-Mendoza, Daniel E; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2017-02-28

    New automated hematology analyzers have led to the availability of novel hematological parameters, including the immature platelet fraction (IPF) and the immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), both of potential interest in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We performed a prospective analysis of 217 patients with MPN, including 32 (15%) with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 43 (20%) with polycythemia vera (PV), and 142 (65%) with myelofibrosis (MF); the IPF and IRF were measured by the Sysmex XN analyzer. As compared to patients with ET, both a higher IPF and IRF were observed among patients with PV and MF. Factors associated with high IPF among patients with PV/ET were male sex, thrombocytopenia, and diagnosis of PV; among patients with MF, they were elevated peripheral blasts, low platelet count, JAK2 V617F mutation, and previous therapy. Factors associated with high IRF among patients with PV/ET were low hemoglobin, high reticulocyte count, and PV diagnosis; among patients with MF, they were peripheral blasts and elevated reticulocytes. The IPF and IRF represent novel parameters in patients with MPN with potential relevant clinical implications. Comparison with healthy subjects and those with secondary polycythemia is needed to confirm our preliminary findings.

  2. Proteolipidic composition of exosomes changes during reticulocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Kévin; Chaoui, Karima; Ronzier, Elsa; Lazar, Ikrame; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Balor, Stéphanie; Terce, François; Lopez, André; Salomé, Laurence; Joly, Etienne

    2011-09-30

    During the orchestrated process leading to mature erythrocytes, reticulocytes must synthesize large amounts of hemoglobin, while eliminating numerous cellular components. Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that play an important role in this process of specific elimination. To understand the mechanisms of proteolipidic sorting leading to their biogenesis, we have explored changes in the composition of exosomes released by reticulocytes during their differentiation, in parallel to their physical properties. By combining proteomic and lipidomic approaches, we found dramatic alterations in the composition of the exosomes retrieved over the course of a 7-day in vitro differentiation protocol. Our data support a previously proposed model, whereby in reticulocytes the biogenesis of exosomes involves several distinct mechanisms for the preferential recruitment of particular proteins and lipids and suggest that the respective prominence of those pathways changes over the course of the differentiation process.

  3. Reticulocyte profile in top-level alpine skiers during four consecutive competitive seasons.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Tavana, Rodolfo; Freschi, Marco; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-06-01

    The role of reticulocytes (Ret) in sports medicine became clear when the count of immature erythrocytes was introduced in protocols used for anti-doping purposes. Because specific research regarding seasonal variations in Ret is lacking, we assessed Ret (and [Hb]) in top-level male and female skiers during four consecutive competitive seasons. A difference (P < 0.05) between males and females was found for [Hb] and Ret values: [Hb] was lower and Ret was higher in females. The difference was maintained across all four competitive seasons. Marked within-subject differences in [Hb], Ret and immature reticulocyte fraction values were noted; the within-subject variability was greater than the between-subject variability in both genders. For instance, a difference for Ret was consistently shown between first and second blood drawings, i.e. between basal value, before the start of training and competition, and the value at middle of season, when training workload was at highest level. Unlike Ret%, the analysis of variance showed significant changes in [Hb] values across competitive seasons for both genders. Comparison between consecutive seasons (e.g., 2005-2006 vs. 2006-2007) showed significant differences for both parameters. The behaviour of [Hb] and Ret during the various seasons was parallel in females, whereas a discrepancy existed in males. In general, inter-individual variability is quite high, thus, Ret and [Hb] modifications should be referred only to the single athlete. We confirm the validity of the use of Ret counts for anti-doping purposes.

  4. Quantitation of CD55 and CD59 expression on reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, aplastic anemia, and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeongsic; Lim, Jihyang; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Lee, Jong-Wook; Han, Kyungja

    2010-01-01

    Since PNH occasionally results in bone marrow failure, it is difficult to differentiate PNH from AA with small numbers of CD(55) (-)CD(59) (-) erythrocytes. We quantified CD55 and CD59 molecules expressed on normal reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), aplastic anemia (AA), and normal individuals in order to determine their usefulness for differentiation between PNH and AA. A total of 56 patients (AA 39 patients, PNH 17 patients) and 10 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Two-color flow cytometric analyses were conducted using thiazole orange, anti-CD55 and CD59 monoclonal antibodies to identify CD(55) (-)CD(59) (-) reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes. Mean fluorescence level of CD(55) (+) mature erythrocytes was lowest in the PNH patients (13.2 x 10(3) MESF), and was significantly lower than in normal controls (16.7 x 10(3) MESF, p <0.05), and highest in the AA subjects (22.8 x 10(3) MESF). Mean fluorescence level of CD(59) (+) mature erythrocytes was lowest in the PNH subjects (24.5 x 10(3) MESF), significantly less than in normal controls (39.0 x 10(3) MESF, p <0.05), and highest in the AA subjects (49.2 x 10(3) MESF). Total reticulocyte counts correlated strongly with the CD(55) (-)CD(59) (-) reticulocytes. Comparative quantitative analysis of CD55 and CD59 molecules expressed on normal erythrocytes may be useful in differentiating PNH from AA patients with small numbers of PNH-phenotype erythrocytes, and the total reticulocyte count may prove useful as a marker for PNH clone size.

  5. Evaluation of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters as indicative of iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Torino, Ana Beatriz Barbosa; Gilberti, Maria de Fátima Pererira; da Costa, Edvilson; de Lima, Gisélia Aparecida Freire; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mature red cell and reticulocyte parameters to identify three conditions: iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency. Methods Peripheral blood cells from 117 adult patients with anemia were classified according to iron status, inflammation, and hemoglobinopathies as: iron deficiency anemia (n = 42), anemia of chronic disease (n = 28), anemia of chronic disease associated with iron deficiency anemia (n = 22), and heterozygous β-thalassemia (n = 25). The percentage of microcytic erythrocytes, hypochromic erythrocytes, and the levels of hemoglobin in both reticulocytes and mature red cells were determined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in differentiating anemia. Results There was no difference between the groups of iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency for any of the parameters. The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes was the best parameter to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease (area under curve = 0.785; 95% confidence interval: 0.661–0.909 with sensitivity of 72.7%, and specificity of 70.4%; cut-off value 1.8%). The formula microcytic erythrocyte count minus hypochromic erythrocyte count was very accurate to differentiate iron deficiency anemia from heterozygous β-thalassemia (area under curve = 0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.950–1.005 with a sensitivity of 96.2%, and specificity of 92.7%; cut-off value 13.8). Conclusion The erythrocyte and reticulocyte indices are moderately good to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease. PMID:25818816

  6. Sensitivity of reticulocyte indices to iron therapy in an intensely training athlete.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, M J; Dobson, G P; Hahn, A G

    1998-09-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia, and its debilitating effect on performance, is an area of concern for many female athletes. Automated technologies that analyse individual reticulocytes may provide a sensitive measure of bone marrow response to iron supplementation. The reticulocyte characteristics of a female volleyball player with frank iron deficiency anaemia, and her subsequent response to oral iron therapy, are reported.

  7. Plasmodium vivax: restricted tropism and rapid remodeling of CD71-positive reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Malleret, Benoit; Li, Ang; Zhang, Rou; Tan, Kevin S W; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Claser, Carla; Cho, Jee Sun; Koh, Esther Geok Liang; Chu, Cindy S; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ng, Mah Lee; Ginhoux, Florent; Ng, Lai Guan; Lim, Chwee Teck; Nosten, François; Snounou, Georges; Rénia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce

    2015-02-19

    Plasmodium vivax merozoites only invade reticulocytes, a minor though heterogeneous population of red blood cell precursors that can be graded by levels of transferrin receptor (CD71) expression. The development of a protocol that allows sorting reticulocytes into defined developmental stages and a robust ex vivo P vivax invasion assay has made it possible for the first time to investigate the fine-scale invasion preference of P vivax merozoites. Surprisingly, it was the immature reticulocytes (CD71(+)) that are generally restricted to the bone marrow that were preferentially invaded, whereas older reticulocytes (CD71(-)), principally found in the peripheral blood, were rarely invaded. Invasion assays based on the CD71(+) reticulocyte fraction revealed substantial postinvasion modification. Thus, 3 to 6 hours after invasion, the initially biomechanically rigid CD71(+) reticulocytes convert into a highly deformable CD71(-) infected red blood cell devoid of host reticular matter, a process that normally spans 24 hours for uninfected reticulocytes. Concurrent with these changes, clathrin pits disappear by 3 hours postinvasion, replaced by distinctive caveolae nanostructures. These 2 hitherto unsuspected features of P vivax invasion, a narrow preference for immature reticulocytes and a rapid remodeling of the host cell, provide important insights pertinent to the pathobiology of the P vivax infection.

  8. Enrichment of reticulocytes from whole blood using aqueous multiphase systems of polymers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok A; Lim, Caeul; Moreno, Yovany; Mace, Charles R; Syed, Abeer; Van Tyne, Daria; Wirth, Dyann F; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Whitesides, George M

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the enrichment of reticulocytes by centrifuging whole blood through aqueous multiphase systems (AMPSs)-immiscible phases of solutions of polymers that form step-gradients in density. The interfaces of an AMPS concentrate cells; this concentration facilitates the extraction of blood enriched for reticulocytes. AMPS enrich reticulocytes from blood from both healthy and hemochromatosis donors. Varying the osmolality and density of the phases of AMPS provides different levels of enrichment and yield of reticulocytes. A maximum enrichment of reticulocytemia of 64 ± 3% was obtained from donors with hemochromatosis. When used on peripheral blood from normal donors, AMPS can provide a higher yield of enriched reticulocytes and a higher proportion of reticulocytes expressing CD71 than differential centrifugation followed by centrifugation over Percoll. Blood enriched for reticulocytes by AMPS could be useful for research on malaria. Several species of malaria parasites show a preference to invade young erythrocytes and reticulocytes; this preference complicates in vitro cultivation of these species in human blood. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria parasites invade normal human blood enriched for reticulocytes by AMPSs at a rate 2.2 times greater (P < 0.01) than they invade unenriched blood. Parasite invasion in normal blood enriched by AMPS was 1.8 times greater (P < 0.05) than in blood enriched to a similar reticulocytemia by differential centrifugation followed by centrifugation over Percoll. The enrichment of reticulocytes that are invaded by malaria parasites demonstrates that AMPSs can provide a label-free method to enrich cells for biological research.

  9. Clinical utility of Beckman-Coulter Gen's reticulocyte analysis in the study of anemia of chronic disease (ACD).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana; Ortega, Carlos; Santos, Luís; Teixeira, Alexandre; Dinis, Maria Joáo; Vasconcelos, Iponina; Lacerda, Jorge; Fonseca, Elisa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the reticulocyte parameters (classical and research parameters) acquired by the Beckman Coulter GEN'S blood counter (GEN'S; Brea, CA, USA) to establish the "reticulocyte profile" characteristics of patients with anemia of chronic disease (ACD). The reticulocyte parameters and profile provided by the GEN'S were studied in 38 anemic patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for the ACD, and the results were compared with those of 38 healthy controls in a multivariate statistical analysis using the Student t-test and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis.Statistically significant (P <.05) differences between the 2 population groups were observed in several of the reticulocyte parameters provided by the GEN'S: mean volume of the reticulocyte population (MRV) (high), percentage of high light scatter reticulocytes HLR% (high), mean volume of the whole sphered red cell and reticulocyte population (MSCV) (high) MCV-MSCV (low) with the highest diagnostic value, as measured by the area under the ROC curve (>0.9), for the IRF (high) and the reticulocyte population data: mean channel scatter retics (high) and the mean channel conductivity retics (high). This study establishes the reticulocyte parameters and reticulocyte profile as provided by the GEN'S and characteristic of patients with ACD as compared with normal subjects. This should provide the basis for further studies comparing the reticulocyte profile of patients with ACD with those found in other types of anemia.

  10. The RNA in reticulocytes is not just debris: it is necessary for the final stages of erythrocyte formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, EunMi; Choi, Hye Sook; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hoh, Jeong Kyu; Cho, Youl-Hee; Baek, Eun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Reticulocytes contain both RNA and micro-organelles and represent the last stage of erythropoiesis before full maturation to red blood cells (RBCs). Even though there is continuing synthesis of hemoglobin and membrane-bound proteins in reticulocytes, the small amount of RNA that they contain has been regarded as non-functional residual material. Here we show that this residual RNA is both functional and essential for further reticulocyte maturation. Reticulocytes from which the remnant RNA had been removed by exposure to RNase did not survive or mature into RBCs in either humans or mice. Conversely, reticulocytes treated with an RNase Inhibitor were able to form normal biconcave cells. Similarly, poor survival was also seen in reticulocytes in which protein synthesis had been blocked. To identify the signaling pathways involved we isolated RNAs in reticulocytes versus those present in fully matured erythroblasts cultured from hematopoietic stem cells. RNAs found in erythroblasts were related to exocytosis, metabolism, and signal transduction all of which are critical for maturation through reticulocyte and into a fully mature, biconcave erythrocyte. Our results suggest that the mRNA in reticulocytes has to be translated into novel proteins that act to preserve mitochondria and maintain cell membrane integrity as reticulocytes mature. These results enhance our understanding of the final stage of erythropoiesis and may clarify why in vitro-generated reticulocytes for transfusion purposes survive poorly.

  11. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content predicts functional iron deficiency in hemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO.

    PubMed

    Mittman, N; Sreedhara, R; Mushnick, R; Chattopadhyay, J; Zelmanovic, D; Vaseghi, M; Avram, M M

    1997-12-01

    Early detection of iron sufficiency at the level of the erythropoietic cell is necessary to optimize management of uremic anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). "Absolute" and "functional" iron deficiency are the most important factors causing resistance to administered rHuEPO. Transferrin saturation and serum ferritin measurements have been noted to be insensitive and inaccurate measures to detect functional iron deficiency. Recently, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) has been shown to be a sensitive and specific indicator of functional iron deficiency in nondialysis patients treated with rHuEPO. The purpose of this study is to compare CHr with currently used indices of iron sufficiency in rHuEPO-treated hemodialysis (HD) patients. In study 1, 364 stable HD patients were studied at two outpatient dialysis centers. CHr was normally distributed, with a mean value of 28.3 pg, and was consistent over two consecutive monthly samples in each center. CHr was weakly but consistently correlated with transferrin saturation and serum ferritin. CHr and reticulocyte number were inversely correlated with red blood cell (RBC) number, suggesting that the erythropoietic stimulus of routinely administered rHuEPO may have resulted in functional iron deficiency. Month-to-month changes in CHr correlated weakly with changes in serum iron and percent transferrin saturation, but not at all with changes in serum ferritin. When we analyzed those patients with baseline CHr less than 26 pg, a level strongly suggestive of functional iron deficiency, these correlations strengthened, and in addition, month-to-month changes in CHr correlated strongly and directly with concomitant changes in RBC count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, suggesting that rising CHr was indicative of an erythropoietic response. In study 2, 79 patients received a single-dose infusion of 500 mg iron dextran. After intravenous iron, CHr rose within 48 hours, peaked at 96 hours, and then fell toward

  12. Sensitivity of reticulocyte indices to iron therapy in an intensely training athlete

    PubMed Central

    Ashenden, M. J.; Dobson, G. P.; Hahn, A. G.

    1998-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia, and its debilitating effect on performance, is an area of concern for many female athletes. Automated technologies that analyse individual reticulocytes may provide a sensitive measure of bone marrow response to iron supplementation. The reticulocyte characteristics of a female volleyball player with frank iron deficiency anaemia, and her subsequent response to oral iron therapy, are reported. 




 PMID:9773180

  13. Absolute Reticulocyte Count and Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content as Predictors of Early Response to Exclusive Oral Iron in Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Emilia; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Ricceri, Fulvio; Aurucci, Maria Luigia; Mazzone, Raffaela; Ramenghi, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    We report data regarding kinetic of response to oral iron in 34 iron deficiency anemia children. Twenty-four/34 patients (70.5%) reached reference value of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration for age and sex at day + 30 from the beginning of treatment (complete early responders (CERs)), and 4/34 (12%) reached an Hb concentration at least 50% higher than the original (partial early responders (PERs)). CHr at T1 (within 7 days from the beginning of treatment) was significantly different in the different groups (22.95 in CERs versus 18.41 in other patients; p = 0.001; 22.42 in early responders versus 18.07 in NERs; p = 0.001). Relative increase of CHr from T0 to T1 resulted significantly higher in CERs than in other patients (0.21 versus 0.11, p = 0.042) and in early responders than in NERs (0.22 versus 0.004, p = 0.006). Multivariate logistic models revealed a higher probability of being a complete early responder due to relative increase of ARC from T0 to T1 [OR (95% CI) = 44.95 (1.54–1311.98)] and to CHr at T1 [OR (95% CI) =3.18 (1.24–8.17)]. Our preliminary data confirm CHr as early and accurate predictor of hematological response to oral iron. PMID:27092272

  14. VLA-4 blockade by natalizumab inhibits sickle reticulocyte and leucocyte adhesion during simulated blood flow.

    PubMed

    White, Jennell; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Gupta, Dipti; Lancelot, Moira; Moore, Nancy; Sarnaik, Sharada; Hobbs, William E; Light, David R; Hines, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4, α4β1-integrin, ITGA4) orchestrates cell-cell and cell-endothelium adhesion. Given the proposed role of VLA-4 in sickle cell disease (SCD) pathophysiology, we evaluated the ability of the VLA-4 blocking antibody natalizumab to inhibit SCD blood cell adhesion. Natalizumab recognized surface VLA-4 on leucocytes and reticulocytes in whole blood from SCD subjects. SCD reticulocytes were positive for VLA-4, while VLA-4 staining of non-SCD reticulocytes was undetectable. Titrations with natalizumab revealed the presence of saturable levels of VLA-4 on both SCD reticulocytes and leucocytes similar to healthy subject leucocytes. Under physiological flow conditions, the adhesion of SCD whole blood cells and isolated SCD leucocytes to immobilized vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was blocked by natalizumab in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated with cell surface receptor binding. Natalizumab also inhibited >50% of whole blood cell binding to TNF-α activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers under physiological flow at clinically relevant concentrations (10 to 100 μg/ml). This indicates that VLA-4 is the dominant receptor that drives SCD reticulocyte and mononuclear cell adhesion to VCAM-1 and that the VLA-4 adhesion to VCAM-1 is a significant contributor to SCD blood cell adhesion to endothelium. Thus, VLA-4 blockade may be beneficial in sickle cell disease.

  15. Quantification of pathways of glucose utilization and balance of energy metabolism of rabbit reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Siems, W; Müller, M; Dumdey, R; Holzhütter, H G; Rathmann, J; Rapoport, S M

    1982-06-01

    In this work it is demonstrated that glucose constitutes the main substrate of energy metabolism of rabbit reticulocytes under aerobic conditions in the presence of 5 mM glucose. Amino acids and fatty acids are minor sources of energy. The shares of processes utilizing glucose in reticulocytes were estimated from tracer experiments. A new mathematical technique used permits the derivation of closed terms for the specific radioactivity of single positions of C atoms of the metabolites of the citrate cycle. By means of regression analysis, the undetermined flux rates in the citrate cycle were calculated. On the basis of the data an overall balance sheet of glucose utilization and of ATP generation is given. About 45% of the glucose of reticulocytes is catabolized via the citrate cycle, about the same percentage yields lactate. Only 2% of the glucose was oxidized in the oxidative pentose pathway whereas the remainder is used for the formation of serine and glycine required for hemoglobin synthesis. These results are related to knowledge about the main processes utilizing ATP in reticulocytes, i.e. the synthesis of hemoglobin and the energy-dependent proteolysis. Our approach to the investigation of metabolic relations in the reticulocytes can be applied to other tissues in which equilibria between large metabolite pools play a role.

  16. Hexokinase microheterogeneity in rabbit red blood cells and its behaviour during reticulocytes maturation.

    PubMed

    Stocchi, V; Magnani, M; Piccoli, G; Fornaini, G

    1988-02-01

    Hexokinase in rabbit reticulocytes is present in two molecular forms (hexokinase Ia and Ib) separable by ion-exchange chromatography on DE-52 columns. By the use of ion-exchange HPLC we have been able to show that the isozymic form we previously called hexokinase Ia can be resolved into two peaks of activity one of which is (Ia) soluble, the other (Ia*) particulate. Hexokinase Ia* can be solubilized by detergents like saponine and Triton X-100 and disappears during 'in vivo' reticulocytes maturation. This new hexokinase microheterogeneity is not caused by different oxidized forms of the enzyme nor influenced by the presence of proteolytic inhibitors during lysate preparation.

  17. WBC count

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... blood is 4,500 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL) or 4.5 to 11. ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal ...

  18. Erythrocyte antigen and reticulocyte engraftment after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, I; Ozer, Y; Yüksel, M K; Arat, M; Arslan, O

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to study the usefulness of erythrocyte antigen (EA) measurement to study engraftment after allogeneic HSCT. In all, 31 consecutive patients receiving HLA-identical bone marrow (BM) (n=13) or peripheral blood stem cells (n=18) were investigated. Apart from the ABO group, 15 EAs representing six minor blood groups were followed by the simple tube agglutination technique. A total of 20 (64.5%) patients received ABO-identical, eight (25.8%) received ABO minor and three (9.7%) received ABO major mismatched grafts. In all, 29 patients were followed for a median of 12 (6-16) months; 65% of the patients expressed donor type EA 1 month and almost all did so 6 months after transplant. Reticulocyte engraftment was significantly shorter than EA engraftment (median 18 vs 35 days) (P=0.001). Patients who received PB stem cells showed significantly faster EA and reticulocyte engraftment than patients who received BM stem cells (P=0.038 and 0.025). ABO compatibility did not have an impact on reticulocyte and EA engraftment (P=0.4 and 0.55). The earliest donor type EA detected was from the Rh and Kidd system. These data suggest that EA and reticulocyte assays are useful in monitoring engraftment.

  19. Evaluation of reticulocyte haemoglobin content as marker of iron deficiency and predictor of response to intravenous iron in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Ihm, C H; Kim, H J

    2008-02-01

    Because serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS) have a limitation in estimating iron status in haemodialysis patients, the reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr) has been proposed as a new tool. We investigate the accuracy of CHr in comparison with conventional tests and the relationship between changes in CHr and haemoglobin levels after therapy. We selected 140 haemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO and intravenous iron supplementation and measured their complete blood count, CHr and iron parameters. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin <100 microg/l and/or a TS <20%. Hb, CHr, ferritin and TS levels were determined 1 month after therapy. Fifty-three patients were iron deficient. CHr were distributed with 33.7 +/- 1.4 pg in the iron sufficient group and with 29.9 +/- 1.9 pg in the iron deficient group (P = 0.001). The cutoff value of CHr for detecting iron deficiency was <32.4 pg. In iron deficient patients, a significant correlation was found between CHr and TS. The change in CHr after therapy was significantly larger in iron-deficient patients, and a lower baseline CHr is associated with a greater haemoglobin change. CHr is useful in screening iron status in dialysis patients, and a CHr cut-off value of 32 pg is appropriate for the assessment of iron deficiency. Moreover, CHr may serve as a predictor of the response to anaemia treatment.

  20. Reticulocyte haemoglobin content vs. soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index in iron deficiency anaemia accompanied with inflammation.

    PubMed

    Marković, M; Majkić-Singh, N; Ignjatović, S; Singh, S

    2007-10-01

    Ferritin concentration, as a parameter of iron status that is commonly used in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), often has limited values if the iron deficiency is accompanied by inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the value of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr) and soluble transferrin receptor-ferritin index (sTfR/F) in the diagnosis of IDA and differential diagnosis of IDA and anaemia of chronic disease. The study included 66 nonanaemic individuals as controls, 86 patients with IDA divided into noninflammatory and inflammatory subgroups, and 32 patients with anaemia of chronic disease. Blood count, iron, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, ferritin, C-reactive protein, sTfR and CHr were determined. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed very high discriminating power for CHr, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR/F in the diagnosis of IDA. In patients with anaemia of chronic disease these parameters showed no significant difference from the control. CHr and sTfR enabled recognition of iron deficiency and were not affected by acute phase reaction. They are sensitive markers of body iron status with additional value to conventional tests for the detection of iron deficiency.

  1. ATP-dependent degradation of /sup 125/I-bovine serum albumin by rabbit reticulocytes does not need repression of an endogenous inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Saus, J.; Timoneda, J.

    1987-01-01

    The ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of /sup 125/I-bovine serum albumin in rabbit reticulocytes has been investigated. Using various reticulocyte fractions (reticulocyte protease, inhibitor-free protease, ubiquitin and inhibitor) in the presence or absence of ATP, we found that the repression of an endogenous inhibitor, as suggested by others for alpha-casein proteolysis, is unlikely for bovine serum albumin. Therefore, differences exist in the ATP-dependent proteolytic pathway of rabbit reticulocytes depending on the substrate. Fractionation of the reticulocyte ATP-dependent proteolytic system revealed at least two proteolytic and two inhibitory fractions involved in the proteolysis of bovine serum albumin.

  2. Clinical utility of the reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the diagnosis of iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mast, Alan E; Blinder, Morey A; Lu, Qing; Flax, Sherri; Dietzen, Dennis J

    2002-02-15

    Determination of the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) provides an early measure of functional iron deficiency because reticulocytes are the earliest erythrocytes released into blood and circulate for only 1 to 2 days. The CHr in 78 patients undergoing bone marrow examination was measured to assess its clinical utility for the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Twenty-eight patients were iron deficient, based on the lack of stainable iron in the aspirate. The diagnostic power of CHr is limited in patients with high mean cellular volume (MCV) or red cell disorders such as thalassemia. However, when patients with MCV more than 100 fL are excluded, receiver operator curve analysis of CHr, ferritin, transferrin saturation, and MCV demonstrates that CHr has the highest overall sensitivity and specificity of these peripheral blood tests for predicting the absence of bone marrow iron stores.

  3. Automated analysis of mature red blood cells and reticulocytes in SS and SC disease.

    PubMed

    Maier-Redelsperger, Micheline; Flahault, Antoine; Neonato, Maria Grazia; Girot, Robert; Labie, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic expression of sickle cell disease (SCD) is highly variable. We investigated red blood cells (RBCs) and reticulocytes using a laser light scattering method (ADVIA120, Bayer Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY) in a series of patients with either sickle cell anemia (SS) or compound SC heterozygosity (SC), both groups with or without alpha thalassemia. Results were compared with those of a series of patients without hematological disease. Known data were consistently confirmed, namely heterogeneity in cell volume and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, as well as the premature exit of "stress" reticulocytes from the bone marrow, mostly in SS patients. Specific changes were observed during maturation, including decreases in macrocytic and hypodense cells. Simultaneous viewing of the indices of the different RBC populations provided information on erythropoietic maturation by a rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective method.

  4. Gene Models, Expression Repertoire, and Immune Response of Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hietanen, Jenni; Chim-ong, Anongruk; Chiramanewong, Thanprakorn; Gruszczyk, Jakub; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein (PvRBP) family are believed to mediate specific invasion of reticulocytes by P. vivax. In this study, we performed molecular characterization of genes encoding members of this protein family. Through cDNA sequencing, we constructed full-length gene models and verified genes that are protein coding and those that are pseudogenes. We also used quantitative PCR to measure their in vivo transcript abundances in clinical P. vivax isolates. Like genes encoding related invasion ligands of P. falciparum, Pvrbp expression levels vary broadly across different parasite isolates. Through antibody measurements, we found that host immune pressure may be the driving force behind the distinctly high diversity of one of the family members, PvRBP2c. Mild yet significant negative correlation was found between parasitemia and the PvRBP2b antibody level, suggesting that antibodies to the protein may interfere with invasion. PMID:26712206

  5. [Analysis of reticulocytes: manual microscopy, flow analyzers or image analyzers? (analytical review)].

    PubMed

    Piatnitskiĭ, A M; Medovyĭ, V S; Parpara, A A

    2007-10-01

    Three procedures for determining the quantity and composition of reticulocytes (visual analysis during manual microscopy; flow cytometry, semi-automatic analysis using a computerized microscopy unit) are compared. The errors characteristics for each procedure and the reasons why manual analysis still remains most used are discussed. The paper points out that it is impossible to draw a conclusion on the accuracy of the procedures, by using the values of the correlation coefficient. Evidence is provided for the thesis that the statistical accuracy may be achieved only when the image analyzer of a computerized microscopy unit is employed, therefore this procedure is recommended for use as a reference one. The characteristics of a procedure for analyzing reticulocytes by means of a MEKOS-Ts2 computerized microscopy unit are presented.

  6. Autophagic vesicles on mature human reticulocytes explain phosphatidylserine-positive red cells in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Mankelow, Tosti J; Griffiths, Rebecca E; Trompeter, Sara; Flatt, Joanna F; Cogan, Nicola M; Massey, Edwin J; Anstee, David J

    2015-10-08

    During maturation to an erythrocyte, a reticulocyte must eliminate any residual organelles and reduce its surface area and volume. Here we show this involves a novel process whereby large, intact, inside-out phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed autophagic vesicles are extruded. Cell surface PS is a well-characterized apoptotic signal initiating phagocytosis. In peripheral blood from patients after splenectomy or in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the number of circulating red cells exposing PS on their surface is elevated. We show that in these patients PS is present on the cell surface of red cells in large (∼1.4 µm) discrete areas corresponding to autophagic vesicles. The autophagic vesicles found on reticulocytes are identical to those observed on red cells from splenectomized individuals and patients with SCD. Our data suggest the increased thrombotic risk associated with splenectomy, and patients with hemoglobinopathies is a possible consequence of increased levels of circulating mature reticulocytes expressing inside-out PS-exposed autophagic vesicles because of asplenia.

  7. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the evaluation of iron status of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, S; Galgano, C; Langley, R C; Canfield, W; Maesaka, J K

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of iron status for hemodialysis patients has been hindered by the inaccuracy of commonly used diagnostic tests. A novel assay, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr), has recently been found to sensitively detect functional iron deficiency among nonuremic patients treated with recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CHr for the assessment of iron status in hemodialysis patients. One hundred sixty-four stable hemodialysis patients had a mean CHr of 27.5 +/- 2.8 pg with a normal distribution of values. The mean CH (mature red cell hemoglobin content) was 26.4 +/- 2.4 pg. There was a close correlation between CHr and CH (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001). A significant subgroup of patients (12.2%) had CHr values < CH. These patients had recent increases in rHuEPO dose, and a lower mean transferrin saturation and hematocrit, suggesting the recent onset of functional iron deficiency due to the increase in rHuEPO dose. In the second phase of the study, 32 patients were randomly selected to receive treatment with a single dose infusion of 1,000 mg of intravenous iron dextran (IVFe). Patients were classified as iron deficient (N = 7) if they responded with a significant reticulocytosis (sustained 1 basis point increase in corrected reticulocyte index within 2 weeks). All other patients were classified as iron replete (N = 25). A CHr < 26 pg at baseline predicted iron deficiency with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 80%. The serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and percentage of hypochromic red blood cells all were less accurate. The time to correction of iron deficiency at the level of the reticulocyte was found to be within 48 hours as measured by correction of the mean CHr to > 26 pg, and by the shift of the vast majority of the reticulocyte population to CHr > 26 pg within this time span. We conclude that CHr < 26 pg is an accurate measure of iron status in hemodialysis patients, that a CHr value < CH indicates the

  8. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  9. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... marrow disease that causes abnormal increase in RBCs ( polycythemia vera ) Your RBC count will increase for several ... Multiple myeloma Myelofibrosis Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Peripheral Polycythemia vera Renal cell carcinoma Splenomegaly Transfusion reaction - hemolytic ...

  10. Mean reticulocyte volume: a specific parameter to screen for hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuchan; Yang, Wang; Liao, Lin; Deng, Zengfu; Qiu, Yuling; Chen, Wenqiang; Lin, Faquan

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the value of mean reticulocyte volume (MRV) for differential diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) so as to develop conventional and new specific screen indexes. Subjects in this study were divided into three groups: 53 cases in HS group, 217 cases in hemolytic anemia control group (109 cases of thalassemia (THAL), 56 cases of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD deficiency anemia, and 52 cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)), and 100 cases in healthy control group. We analyzed erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters including MRV, mean sphered corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and immature reticulocyte fraction. Results demonstrated that MRV was significantly lower in the HS group but significantly higher in the AIHA and G6PD deficiency anemia groups than that in the healthy control group (P = 0.000). MRV was not significantly different between the AIHA and G6PD deficiency anemia groups (P = 0.977) and between the healthy control and THAL groups (P = 0.168). The area under the ROC curve of MRV for diagnosis of HS was 0.942, with a standard error of 0.019, 95% confidence interval of 0.905-0.979, and optimal critical diagnosis point of 95.77 fL. When the MRV was ≤95.77 fL, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of HS were 86.80% and 91.20%, respectively. Therefore, MRV is a general and specific new index for screening HS and important for differential diagnosis of different types of hemolytic anemia.

  11. Gamma Radiation Induces Micronucleated Reticulocytes in 3-D Bone Marrow Bioreactors in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongliang; Dertinger, Stephen D.; Hyrien, Ollivier; David Wu, J. H.; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2009-01-01

    Radiation injury to the bone marrow is potentially lethal due to the potent DNA-damaging effects on cells of the hematopoietic system, including bone marrow stem cell, progenitor, and the precursor cell populations. Investigation of radiation genotoxic effects on bone marrow progenitor/precursor cells has been challenged by the lack of optimal in vitro surrogate organ culture systems, and the overall difficulty to sustain lineage-specific proliferation and differentiation of hematopoiesis in vitro. We report the investigation of radiation genotoxic effects in bone marrow cultures of C57Bl/6 mice established in 3-D bioreactors, which sustain long-term bone marrow cultures. For these studies, genotoxicity is measured by the induction of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET). The kinetics and dose-response relationship of MN-RET induction in response to gamma-radiation of bioreactor-maintained bone marrow cultures are presented. Our data showed that 3-D long-term bone marrow cultures had sustained erythropoiesis capable of generating reticulocytes up to 8 weeks. The peak time-interval of viable cell output and percentage of reticulocytes increased steadily and reached the initial peak between the 14th to 21st days after inoculations. This was followed by a rebound or staying relatively constant until week 8. The percentage of MN-RET reached the maximum between 24 and 32 hours post 1 Gy gamma-ray. There was a near linear MN-RET induction by gamma radiation from 0 Gy to 1.0 Gy, followed by an attenuated increase to 1.5 – 2.0 Gy. The MN-RET response showed a downtrend beyond 2 Gy. Our data suggest that bone marrow culture in the 3-D bioreactor may be a useful organ culture system for the investigation of radiation genotoxic effect in vitro. PMID:19786117

  12. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  13. Electron microscopic evidence for externalization of the transferrin receptor in vesicular form in sheep reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Using ferritin-labeled protein A and colloidal gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG, the fate of the sheep transferrin receptor has been followed microscopically during reticulocyte maturation in vitro. After a few minutes of incubation at 37 degrees C, the receptor is found on the cell surface or in simple vesicles of 100-200 nm, in which the receptor appears to line the limiting membrane of the vesicles. With time (60 min or longer), large multivesicular elements (MVEs) appear whose diameter may reach 1-1.5 micron. Inside these large MVEs are round bodies of approximately 50-nm diam that bear the receptor at their external surfaces. The limiting membrane of the large MVEs is relatively free from receptor. When the large MVEs fuse with the plasma membrane, their contents, the 50-nm bodies, are released into the medium. The 50-nm bodies appear to arise by budding from the limiting membrane of the intracellular vesicles. Removal of surface receptor with pronase does not prevent exocytosis of internalized receptor. It is proposed that the exocytosis of the approximately 50-nm bodies represents the mechanism by which the transferrin receptor is shed during reticulocyte maturation. PMID:2993317

  14. Discovery of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human Reticulocyte 15- Lipoxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ganesha; Kenyon, Victor; Jadhav, Ajit; Schultz, Lena; Armstrong, Michelle; Jameson, J Brian; Hoobler, Eric; Leister, William; Simeonov, Anton; Holman, Theodore R.; Maloney, David J.

    2010-01-01

    There are a variety of lipoxygenases in the human body (hLO), each having a distinct role in cellular biology. Human reticulocyte 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-hLO-1), which catalyzes the dioxygenation of 1,4-cis,cis-pentadiene-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, is implicated in a number of diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative conditions. Despite the potential therapeutic relevance of this target, few inhibitors have been reported that are both potent and selective. To this end, we have employed a quantitative high-throughput (qHTS) screen against ~74,000 small molecules in search of reticulocyte 15-hLO-1 selective inhibitors. This screen led to the discovery of a novel chemotype for 15-hLO-1 inhibition, which displays nM potency and is >7,500-fold selective against the related isozymes, 5-hLO, platelet 12-hLO, epithelial 15-hLO-2, ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and human cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, kinetic experiments were performed which indicate that this class of inhibitor is tight binding, reversible, and appears not to reduce the active-site ferric ion. PMID:20866075

  15. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  16. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  17. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  18. Hemolysis Is Associated with Low Reticulocyte Production Index and Predicts Blood Transfusion in Severe Malarial Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Rudat, Annika; Kreidenweiss, Andrea; Steur, Claudia; Appelmann, Iris; Ruehe, Bettina; Schröder, Paul; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mordmüller, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background Falciparum Malaria, an infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is among the leading causes of death and morbidity attributable to infectious diseases worldwide. In Gabon, Central Africa, one out of four inpatients have severe malarial anemia (SMA), a life-threatening complication if left untreated. Emerging drug resistant parasites might aggravate the situation. This case control study investigates biomarkers of enhanced hemolysis in hospitalized children with either SMA or mild malaria (MM). Methods and Findings Ninety-one children were included, thereof 39 SMA patients. Strict inclusion criteria were chosen to exclude other causes of anemia. At diagnosis, erythrophagocytosis (a direct marker for extravascular hemolysis, EVH) was enhanced in SMA compared to MM patients (5.0 arbitrary units (AU) (interquartile range (IR): 2.2–9.6) vs. 2.1 AU (IR: 1.3–3.9), p<0.01). Furthermore, indirect markers for EVH, (i.e. serum neopterin levels, spleen size enlargement and monocyte pigment) were significantly increased in SMA patients. Markers for erythrocyte ageing, such as CD35 (complement receptor 1), CD55 (decay acceleration factor) and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin-V-binding) were investigated by flow cytometry. In SMA patients, levels of CD35 and CD55 on the red blood cell surface were decreased and erythrocyte removal markers were increased when compared to MM or reconvalescent patients. Additionally, intravascular hemolysis (IVH) was quantified using several indirect markers (LDH, α-HBDH, haptoglobin and hemopexin), which all showed elevated IVH in SMA. The presence of both IVH and EVH predicted the need for blood transfusion during antimalarial treatment (odds ratio 61.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.9–427). Interestingly, this subpopulation is characterized by a significantly lowered reticulocyte production index (RPI, p<0.05). Conclusions Our results show the multifactorial pathophysiology of SMA

  19. A Novel Erythrocyte Binding Protein of Plasmodium vivax Suggests an Alternate Invasion Pathway into Duffy-Positive Reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson-Luque, Richard; Torres, Letícia de Menezes; Gunalan, Karthigayan; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites is essential for blood-stage development and an important determinant of host range. In Plasmodium vivax, the interaction between the Duffy binding protein (DBP) and its cognate receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), on human erythrocytes is central to blood-stage infection. Contrary to this established pathway of invasion, there is growing evidence of P. vivax infections occurring in Duffy blood group-negative individuals, suggesting that the parasite might have gained an alternative pathway to infect this group of individuals. Supporting this concept, a second distinct erythrocyte binding protein (EBP2), representing a new member of the DBP family, was discovered in P. vivax and may be the ligand in an alternate invasion pathway. Our study characterizes this novel ligand and determines its potential role in reticulocyte invasion by P. vivax merozoites. EBP2 binds preferentially to young (CD71high) Duffy-positive (Fy+) reticulocytes and has minimal binding capacity for Duffy-negative reticulocytes. Importantly, EBP2 is antigenically distinct from DBP and cannot be functionally inhibited by anti-DBP antibodies. Consequently, our results do not support EBP2 as a ligand for invasion of Duffy-negative blood cells, but instead, EBP2 may represent a novel ligand for an alternate invasion pathway of Duffy-positive reticulocytes. PMID:27555313

  20. Proteomics: a review and an example using the reticulocyte membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Prenni, Jessica E; Avery, Anne C; Olver, Christine S

    2007-03-01

    Proteomics is a rapidly expanding field of scientific study that combines techniques in protein solubilization and separation, mass spectrometry, and genome and protein database searching. The proteome is most commonly defined as the entire complement of proteins expressed in a given cell type or tissue under a given condition. A proteomics experiment may be as simple as identifying a single protein or as complex as identifying thousands of proteins in a cell lysate. In this review, we describe the general principles of proteomics and its analytic methods and present an example of an experiment to characterize the murine reticulocyte membrane proteome. A brief summary of proteomics applications and their clinical potential and relevance to clinical pathology is also presented.

  1. Anticlastogenic effects of galangin against mitomycin C-induced micronuclei in reticulocytes of mice.

    PubMed

    Heo, M Y; Jae, L H; Jung, S S; Au, W W

    1996-05-17

    We investigated the suppressive effect of galangin on the induction of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs) by mitomycin C (MMC) in mouse peripheral blood. When galangin was given to mice 24 h before the intraperitoneal injection of MMC (1 mg/kg), a more marked decrease in the frequency of MNRETs was observed than in mice with simultaneous and post-treatment of galangin. On the other hand, when galangin was given to mice for 7 consecutive days before MMC injection, galangin showed potent anticlastogenic effects, even at the lowest dose level of 0.1 mg/kg. Results from our in vivo studies indicate that galangin is capable of suppressing the clastogenic activity of the direct acting MMC. Together with our earlier observations, it appears that galangin is capable of protecting cells from the toxic effects of a variety of hazardous chemicals. Therefore, galangin may be an useful chemopreventive compound.

  2. Diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia in hospital patients: Use of the reticulocyte haemoglobin content to differentiate iron deficiency anaemia from anaemia of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Schapkaitz, Elise; Buldeo, Suvarna; Mahlangu, Johnny Ndoni

    2015-11-20

    The diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia in hospital patients with chronic infections and inflammation presents a challenge. Recently laboratory tests such as the reticulocyte haemoglobin content, which are independent of infection and inflammation, have become available for routine diagnostic use.

  3. Identification of Immunodominant B-cell Epitope Regions of Reticulocyte Binding Proteins in Plasmodium vivax by Protein Microarray Based Immunoscreening.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Hee; Li, Jian; Wang, Bo; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Na, Sunghun; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum can invade all stages of red blood cells, while Plasmodium vivax can invade only reticulocytes. Although many P. vivax proteins have been discovered, their functions are largely unknown. Among them, P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) recognize and bind to reticulocytes. Both proteins possess a C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain, which drives adhesion to reticulocytes. PvRBP1 and PvRBP2 are large (> 326 kDa), which hinders identification of the functional domains. In this study, the complete genome information of the P. vivax RBP family was thoroughly analyzed using a prediction server with bioinformatics data to predict B-cell epitope domains. Eleven pvrbp family genes that included 2 pseudogenes and 9 full or partial length genes were selected and used to express recombinant proteins in a wheat germ cell-free system. The expressed proteins were used to evaluate the humoral immune response with vivax malaria patients and healthy individual serum samples by protein microarray. The recombinant fragments of 9 PvRBP proteins were successfully expressed; the soluble proteins ranged in molecular weight from 16 to 34 kDa. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to each recombinant PvRBP protein indicated a high antigenicity, with 38-88% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Of them, N-terminal parts of PvRBP2c (PVX_090325-1) and PvRBP2 like partial A (PVX_090330-1) elicited high antigenicity. In addition, the PvRBP2-like homologue B (PVX_116930) fragment was newly identified as high antigenicity and may be exploited as a potential antigenic candidate among the PvRBP family. The functional activity of the PvRBP family on merozoite invasion remains unknown.

  4. Influence of counting methodology on erythrocyte ratios in the mouse micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    LeBaron, Matthew J; Schisler, Melissa R; Torous, Dorothea K; Dertinger, Stephen D; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

    2013-04-01

    The mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test is widely used to investigate the potential interaction of a test substance with chromosomes or mitotic apparatus of replicating erythroblasts. In addition to the primary endpoint, micronucleated erythrocyte frequency, the proportion of immature erythrocytes is measured to assess the influence of treatment on erythropoiesis. The guideline recommendation for an acceptable limit of the immature erythrocyte fraction of not < 20% of the controls was based on traditional scoring methods that consider RNA content. Flow-based sample analysis (e.g., MicroFlow®) characterizes a subpopulation of RNA-containing reticulocytes (RETs) based on CD71 (transferrin receptor) expression. As CD71+ cells represent a younger cohort of RETs, we hypothesized that this subpopulation may be more responsive than the RNA+ fraction for acute exposures. This study evaluated RET population in the peripheral blood of two strains of mice treated by oral gavage with three clastogens (cyclophosphamide, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and methyl methanesulfonate). Although CD71+ frequencies correlated with RNA-based counts, the relative treatment-related reductions were substantially greater. Accordingly, when using the flow cytometry-based CD71+ values for scoring RETs in an acute treatment design, it is suggested that a target value ≥ 5% CD71+ reticulocytes (i.e., 95% depression in reticulocytes proportion) be considered as acceptable for a valid assay.

  5. Evaluation of red cell and reticulocyte parameters as indicative of iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Torino, Ana Beatriz Barbosa; Gilberti, Maria de Fátima Pererira; da Costa, Edvilson; de Lima, Gisélia Aparecida Freire; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mature red cell and reticulocyte parameters under three conditions: iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency. Methods Peripheral blood cells from 117 adult patients with anemia were classified according to iron status, and inflammatory activity, and the results of a hemoglobinopathy investigation as: iron deficiency anemia (n = 42), anemia of chronic disease (n = 28), anemia of chronic disease associated with iron deficiency anemia (n = 22), and heterozygous β thalassemia (n = 25). The percentage of microcytic red cells, hypochromic red cells, and levels of hemoglobin content in both reticulocytes and mature red cells were determined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in differentiating between the different types of anemia. Results There was no significant difference between the iron deficient group and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency in respect to any parameter. The percentage of hypochromic red cells was the best parameter to discriminate anemia of chronic disease with and without absolute iron deficiency (area under curve = 0.785; 95% confidence interval: 0.661–0.909, with sensitivity of 72.7%, and specificity of 70.4%; cut-off value 1.8%). The formula microcytic red cells minus hypochromic red cells was very accurate in differentiating iron deficiency anemia and heterozygous β thalassemia (area under curve = 0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.950–1.005; with sensitivity of 96.2%, and specificity of 92.7%; cut-off value 13.8). Conclusion The indices related to red cells and reticulocytes have a moderate performance in identifying absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease. PMID:25453653

  6. Spleen-Dependent Immune Protection Elicited by CpG Adjuvanted Reticulocyte-Derived Exosomes from Malaria Infection Is Associated with Changes in T cell Subsets' Distribution.

    PubMed

    Martín-Jaular, Lorena; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Monguió-Tortajada, Marta; Elizalde-Torrent, Aleix; Díaz-Varela, Míriam; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Borras, Francesc E; Montoya, Maria; Del Portillo, Hernando A

    2016-01-01

    Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex) are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy), had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG. Notably, rexPy immunization of mice induced changes in PD1(-) memory T cells with effector phenotype. Proteomics analysis of rexPy confirmed their reticulocyte origin and demonstrated the presence of parasite antigens. Our studies thus prove, for what we believe is the first time, that rex from reticulocyte-prone malarial infections are associated with splenic long-lasting memory responses. To try extrapolating these data to human infections, in vitro experiments with spleen cells of human transplantation donors were performed. Plasma-derived exosomes from vivax malaria patients (exPv) were actively uptaken by human splenocytes and stimulated spleen cells leading to changes in T cell subsets.

  7. Spleen-Dependent Immune Protection Elicited by CpG Adjuvanted Reticulocyte-Derived Exosomes from Malaria Infection Is Associated with Changes in T cell Subsets' Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Jaular, Lorena; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Monguió-Tortajada, Marta; Elizalde-Torrent, Aleix; Díaz-Varela, Míriam; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Borras, Francesc E.; Montoya, Maria; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2016-01-01

    Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex) are 30–100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy), had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG. Notably, rexPy immunization of mice induced changes in PD1− memory T cells with effector phenotype. Proteomics analysis of rexPy confirmed their reticulocyte origin and demonstrated the presence of parasite antigens. Our studies thus prove, for what we believe is the first time, that rex from reticulocyte-prone malarial infections are associated with splenic long-lasting memory responses. To try extrapolating these data to human infections, in vitro experiments with spleen cells of human transplantation donors were performed. Plasma-derived exosomes from vivax malaria patients (exPv) were actively uptaken by human splenocytes and stimulated spleen cells leading to changes in T cell subsets. PMID:27900319

  8. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  9. Analysis of reticulocyte parameters on the Sysmex XE 5000 and LH 750 analyzers in the diagnosis of inefficient erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Urrechaga, E; Borque, L; Escanero, J F

    2011-02-01

    The reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (Ret He) represents an indirect measure of the functional iron available for erythropoiesis over the previous 2-3 days. Only the analyzers of a single manufacturer, Sysmex (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan), include Ret He. Red blood cell size factor (RSf) is a new parameter provided by Beckman Coulter, which joins together the volume of the erythrocytes and the volume of reticulocytes. The aims of the study were to investigate the clinical usefulness of RSf in the study of erythropoiesis status and to assess its concordance with Ret He values. Samples from 417 patients were run on both LH 780 (Beckman Coulter) and Sysmex XE 5000 analyzers. Independent samples t-test, Pearson correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and inter-rater reliability (κ index) were applied. Good correlation between RSf and Ret He was observed, r = 0.8184. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were detected when groups with inefficient erythropoiesis were compared with patients undergoing therapy and healthy subjects. ROC analysis for RSf in the diagnosis of inefficient erythropoiesis, cutoff 91.1 fl, area under curve 0.963, sensitivity 91.7%, specificity 88.5%. Concordance between RSf and Ret He κ = 0.68. RSf and Ret He are suitable parameters for the assessment of erythropoiesis status.

  10. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  11. From Rabbit Reticulocytes to Clam Oocytes: In Search of the System That Targets Mitotic Cyclins for Degradation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    By the late 1980s, the basic biochemistry of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation had already been elucidated by studies that used reticulocyte lysates. However, the scope and biological functions of this system remained largely obscure. Therefore, I became interested at that time in the mechanisms by which mitotic cyclins are degraded in exit from mitosis. Using a cell-free system from clam oocytes that faithfully reproduced cell cycle stage–specific degradation of cyclins, we identified in 1995 a large ubiquitin ligase complex that targets mitotic cyclins for degradation. Subsequent studies in many laboratories showed that this ubiquitin ligase, now called the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, has centrally important roles in many aspects of cell cycle control. PMID:20335505

  12. Averaging of TNTC counts.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, C N; Heller, B

    1988-01-01

    When plate count methods are used for microbial enumeration, if too-numerous-to-count results occur, they are commonly discarded. In this paper, a method for consideration of such results in computation of an average microbial density is developed, and its use is illustrated by example. PMID:3178211

  13. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  14. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral,"…

  15. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  16. TOP mRNAs are translationally inhibited by a titratable repressor in both wheat germ extract and reticulocyte lysate.

    PubMed

    Biberman, Y; Meyuhas, O

    1999-08-13

    Vertebrate TOP mRNAs contain a 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5' TOP), which is subject to selective translational repression in non-growing cells or in cell-free translation systems. In the present study, we monitored in vitro the effect of increasing amounts of a 16 nucleotides long oligoribonucleotide representing the 5' terminus of mouse ribosomal protein S16 mRNA on the translation of TOP and non-TOP mRNAs. Our results demonstrate that the wild-type sequence (but not its mutant counterparts) derepresses the translation of mRNAs containing 5' TOP motifs, but failed to stimulate the translation of non-TOP mRNAs, even if the latter differed only by a single nucleotide from their 5' TOP-containing counterparts. Similar results have been obtained with both wheat germ extract and rabbit reticulocyte lysate. It appears, therefore, that translational repression of TOP mRNAs is achieved in vitro by the accumulation of a titratable repressor rather than by the loss of an activator and that this repressor recognizes multiple TOP mRNAs with a diverse set of 5' TOP motifs.

  17. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  18. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Lung Function Infections Iron Overload Low Blood Counts Pain Disease- and Treatment-Related ... cancer research around the world and provides free information and support services. Privacy Policy Security Copyright Link ...

  19. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  20. Calorie count - Fast food

    MedlinePlus

    ... count - fast food FOOD ITEM SERVING SIZE CALORIES Breakfast Foods Dunkin Donuts Egg White Veggie Wrap 1 ... Cheese Biscuit Sandwich 1 sandwich 510 BK Ultimate Breakfast Platter 1 platter 1190 McDonalds Fruit 'n Yogurt ...

  1. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the other main nutrients. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and fiber. Carbohydrate counting can help you control ... called starchy vegetables because they are high in starch. These vegetables have more carbohydrates per serving than ...

  2. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach.

  3. Neutron counting with cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  4. Unwinding protein specific for mRNA translation fractionated together with rabbit reticulocyte initiation factor 3 complex

    PubMed Central

    Ilan, Joseph; Ilan, Judith

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system dependent on the addition of initiation factor 3 (eIF-3) and mRNA were carried out. In this system, using ribosomal subunits, AUG(U)n can direct polyphenylalanine synthesis in the absence of eIF-3 at 3 mM MgCl2. Globin mRNA was not translated under similar conditions; its translation requires the addition of eIF-3. Moreover, the maximal rate of globin synthesis was achieved when the molar ratio of eIF-3 to ribosomes was approximately 1. This was taken to indicate that some ribosomal proteins were fractionated with eIF-3 and functioned in reconstitution of salt-washed ribosomes. In our system, almost all ribosomes were active, as evident from the fact that all were found in polysomes when analyzed at the time of linear incorporation, and the molar ratio of ribosomes to mRNA was maintained at 4:1. When AUG(U)n was hybridized with poly(A), it could not direct polyphenylalanine synthesis with or without eIF-3 and was a potent inhibitor of the translation of globin mRNA in the presence of eIF-3. When poly(A) containing 10% U was hybridized with AUG(U)n and added to the cell-free system, addition of eIF-3 promoted polyphenylalanine synthesis to about 80% of control. Moreover, eIF-3 was seen to shift significantly the melting temperature of globin and synthetic double-stranded RNA. These observations suggest that extraction of ribosomes with 0.5 M KCl may release a ribosomal protein that fractionates with eIF-3. This protein may function in unwinding or melting the secondary structure of mRNA and thus facilitate translation. PMID:267926

  5. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  6. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  7. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-10-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation.

  8. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside.

  9. Characterization of ribonuclease H activities present in two cell-free protein synthesizing systems, the wheat germ extract and the rabbit reticulocyte lysate.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, C; Frank, P; Büsen, W

    1993-01-01

    Experimental evidence accumulated to date by several research groups indicates that antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted against messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences located downstream of the initiation codon fail to inhibit the translation of this mRNA unless the hybrid is cleaved by RNase H. It has previously been shown that exogenous RNase H has to be added to rabbit reticulocyte lysate to obtain translational arrest (unless freshly prepared lysates are used). In contrast there is no need of exogenous RNase H by using wheat germ extract for translation because the level of endogenous RNase H is high enough to ensure cleavage of the hybrid formed between the antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide and its complementary sequence on the mRNA. Surprisingly, we found that these two cell-free translation systems display similar amounts of RNase H activities when tested under standard conditions (extract diluted 500 times in the RNase H reaction mix). The RNase H activity of the rabbit reticulocyte lysate has a divalent cation requirement and sensitivity to inhibitors similar to class I ribonuclease H, whereas the activity of the wheat germ extract shows similarities to class II ribonuclease H. However, when these activities were assayed under conditions similar to those used for translation experiments, only highly reduced levels of activity were found in comparison to the standard assays. This reduction is due in part to sub-optimal ionic conditions for the endogenous RNase H activities in these extracts, and, for the other part, likely due to interactions with other proteins present in the lysates. In these conditions, however, the remaining activity found in the wheat germ extract was three times higher than the activity found in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Whether this difference can by itself explain the indicated differences in the two systems observed in hybrid-arrest of translation experiments remains open to discussion.

  10. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  11. WY Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

  12. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  13. A nontetrameric species is the major soluble form of keratin in Xenopus oocytes and rabbit reticulocyte lysates

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Inside the interphase cell, approximately 5% of the total intermediate filament protein exists in a soluble form. Past studies using velocity gradient sedimentation (VGS) indicate that soluble intermediate filament protein exists as an approximately 7 S tetrameric species. While studying intermediate filament assembly dynamics in the Xenopus oocyte, we used both VGS and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) to analyze the soluble form of keratin. Previous studies (Coulombe, P. A., and E. Fuchs. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 111:153) report that tetrameric keratins migrate on SEC with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 150,000; the major soluble form of keratin in the oocyte, in contrast, migrates with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 750,000. During oocyte maturation, the keratin system disassembles into a soluble form (Klymkowsky, M. W., L. A. Maynell, and C. Nislow. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 114:787) and the amount of the 750-kD keratin complex increases dramatically. Immunoprecipitation analysis of soluble keratin from matured oocytes revealed the presence of type I and type II keratins, but no other stoichiometrically associated polypeptides, suggesting that the 750-kD keratin complex is composed solely of keratin. To further study the formation of the 750-kD keratin complex, we used rabbit reticulocyte lysates (RRL). The 750-kD keratin complex was formed in RRLs contranslating type I and type II Xenopus keratins, but not when lysates translated type I or type II keratin RNAs alone. The 750-kD keratin complex could be formed posttranslationally in an ATP-independent manner when type I and type II keratin translation reactions were mixed. Under conditions of prolonged incubation, such as occur during VGS analysis, the 750-kD keratin complex disassembled into a 7 S (by VGS), 150-kD (by SEC) form. In urea denaturation studies, the 7 S/150-kD form could be further disassembled into an 80-kD species that consists of cofractionating dimeric and monomeric

  14. The Watt Count System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

  15. Hydroxycarbamide decreases sickle reticulocyte adhesion to resting endothelium by inhibiting endothelial lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) through phosphodiesterase 4A activation.

    PubMed

    Chaar, Vicky; Laurance, Sandrine; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Cochet, Sylvie; De Grandis, Maria; Colin, Yves; Elion, Jacques; Le Van Kim, Caroline; El Nemer, Wassim

    2014-04-18

    Vaso-occlusive crises are the main acute complication in sickle cell disease. They are initiated by abnormal adhesion of circulating blood cells to vascular endothelium of the microcirculation. Several interactions involving an intricate network of adhesion molecules have been described between sickle red blood cells and the endothelial vascular wall. We have shown previously that young sickle reticulocytes adhere to resting endothelial cells through the interaction of α4β1 integrin with endothelial Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM). In the present work, we investigated the functional impact of endothelial exposure to hydroxycarbamide (HC) on this interaction using transformed human bone marrow endothelial cells and primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Adhesion of sickle reticulocytes to HC-treated endothelial cells was decreased despite the HC-derived increase of Lu/BCAM expression. This was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Lu/BCAM and up-regulation of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4A expression. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for HC in endothelial cells where it could modulate the function of membrane proteins through the regulation of phosphodiesterase expression and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways.

  16. High Red Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  17. Counting RG flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.

  18. Counting RG flows

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerfulmore » enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.« less

  19. Neural networks counting chimes.

    PubMed Central

    Amit, D J

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the ideas that led to neural networks capable of recalling associatively and asynchronously temporal sequences of patterns can be extended to produce a neural network that automatically counts the cardinal number in a sequence of identical external stimuli. The network is explicitly constructed, analyzed, and simulated. Such a network may account for the cognitive effect of the automatic counting of chimes to tell the hour. A more general implication is that different electrophysiological responses to identical stimuli, at certain stages of cortical processing, do not necessarily imply synaptic modification, a la Hebb. Such differences may arise from the fact that consecutive identical inputs find the network in different stages of an active temporal sequence of cognitive states. These types of networks are then situated within a program for the study of cognition, which assigns the detection of meaning as the primary role of attractor neural networks rather than computation, in contrast to the parallel distributed processing attitude to the connectionist project. This interpretation is free of homunculus, as well as from the criticism raised against the cognitive model of symbol manipulation. Computation is then identified as the syntax of temporal sequences of quasi-attractors. PMID:3353371

  20. Pig-a gene mutation and micronucleated reticulocyte induction in rats exposed to tumorigenic doses of the leukemogenic agents chlorambucil, thiotepa, melphalan, and 1,3-propane sultone.

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Stephen D; Phonethepswath, Souk; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Torous, Dorothea K; Mereness, Jared; Cottom, John; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Macgregor, James T

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate whether blood-based genotoxicity endpoints can provide temporal and dose-response data within the low-dose carcinogenic range that could contribute to carcinogenic mode of action (MoA) assessments, we evaluated the sensitivity of flow cytometry-based micronucleus and Pig-a gene mutation assays at and below tumorigenic dose rate 50 (TD50) levels. The incidence of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) was used to evaluate chromosomal damage, and the frequency of CD59-negative reticulocytes (RET(CD59-) ) and erythrocytes (RBC(CD59-) ) served as phenotypic reporters of mutation at the X-linked Pig-a gene. Several leukemogenic agents with a presumed genotoxic MoA were studied. Specifically, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated via oral gavage for 28 days with chlorambucil, thiotepa, melphalan, and 1,3-propane sultone at doses corresponding to 0.33x, 1x, and 3x TD50, as well as at the maximum tolerated dose. Frequencies of MN-RET were determined at Days 4 and 29, and RET(CD59-) and RBC(CD59-) data were collected pretreatment as well as Days 15/16, 29, and 56/57. Dose-related increases were observed for each endpoint, and time to maximal effect was consistently: MN-RET < RET(CD59-)  < RBC(CD59-) . For each of the chemicals studied, the genotoxic events occurred long before tumors or preneoplastic lesions would be expected. Furthermore, in the case of Pig-a gene mutation, the responses were observed at or below the TD50 dose for three out of the four chemicals studied. These data illustrate the potential for quantitative blood-based analyses to provide dose-response and temporality information that relates genetic damage to cancer induction.

  1. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  2. Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile…

  3. "Just" Counting: Young Children's Oral Counting and Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John; Bruce, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the specific skills and abilities of young children in oral counting and enumeration. Responses to an oral counting task and an enumeration task by a sample (n=93) of 3- and 4-year old children attending a range of pre-five establishments in an urban district of northern England are described. The findings, whilst providing…

  4. Low White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  5. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called…

  6. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  7. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  8. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  9. Efficiency of cell-free protein synthesis based on a crude cell extract from Escherichia coli, wheat germ, and rabbit reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Hino, Mami; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Takenori; Kido, Jun-Ichi; Shinohara, Yasuo; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2008-01-20

    The efficiency of protein synthesis for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) was examined with several in vitro coupled transcription/translation protein synthesis systems based on Escherichia coli lysate, wheat germ, or reticulocyte lysate, and an in vitro translation system based on wheat germ extract. A significant amount of protein synthesis was observed only in systems based on E. coli using pET/G3PDH as the expression vector. A remarkable increase of protein synthesis was obtained in wheat germ using a pT(N)T expression vector which contains a 5'-globin leader sequence and a synthetic poly(A)(30) tail instead of pET. A significant difference of T7 RNA polymerase presence by Western blot analysis was not observed in the first four systems, and the difference of total RNA presence in each reaction mixture by Northern blot analysis seemed unrelated to protein synthesis. Although a small amount of protein was synthesized using RNA-encoding G3PDH transcribed in vitro with pET/G3PDH by an in vitro translation system, an extreme increase was observed using transcribed RNA with pEU/G3PDH, which contains T7 RNA promoter and a translation enhancer, Omega sequence. These results suggest that the presence of an enhancer sequence for translation is one of the critical steps for protein synthesis by a eukaryotic cell-free protein synthesis system.

  10. Back to basics: the untreated rabbit reticulocyte lysate as a competitive system to recapitulate cap/poly(A) synergy and the selective advantage of IRES-driven translation.

    PubMed

    Soto Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Décimo, Didier; Moncorgé, Olivier; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2007-01-01

    Translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs involves the synergistic action between the 5' cap structure and the 3' poly(A) tail at the initiation step. The poly(A) tail has also been shown to stimulate translation of picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites (IRES)-directed translation. These effects have been attributed principally to interactions between eIF4G and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) but also to the participation of PABP in other steps during translation initiation. As the rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) does not recapitulate this cap/poly(A) synergy, several systems based on cellular cell-free extracts have been developed to study the effects of poly(A) tail in vitro but they generally exhibit low translational efficiency. Here, we describe that the non-nuclease-treated RRL (untreated RRL) is able to recapitulate the effects of poly(A) tail on translation in vitro. In this system, translation of a capped/polyadenylated RNA was specifically inhibited by either Paip2 or poly(rA), whereas translation directed by HCV IRES remained unaffected. Moreover, cleavage of eIF4G by FMDV L protease strongly stimulated translation directed by the EMCV IRES, thus recapitulating the competitive advantage that the proteolytic processing of eIF4G confers to IRES-driven RNAs.

  11. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.

    PubMed

    Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  12. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  14. Photon Counting - One More Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Richard H.

    2012-05-01

    Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

  15. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  16. Counting Multiplicity over Infinite Alphabets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Amaldev; Ramanujam, R.

    In the theory of automata over infinite alphabets, a central difficulty is that of finding a suitable compromise between expressiveness and algorithmic complexity. We propose an automaton model where we count the multiplicity of data values on an input word. This is particularly useful when such languages represent behaviour of systems with unboundedly many processes, where system states carry such counts as summaries. A typical recognizable language is: “every process does at most k actions labelled a”. We show that emptiness is elementarily decidable, by reduction to the covering problem on Petri nets.

  17. Comparison of three-colour flow cytometry and slide-based microscopy for the scoring of micronucleated reticulocytes in rat bone-marrow and peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changhui; Wang, Qingli; Wang, Zheng; Chang, Yan

    2013-12-12

    The aim of this study was to perform the first transferability assessment in China of the micronucleus (MN) scoring method based on three-colour flow cytometry (FCM). This was accomplished for both rat bone-marrow and peripheral blood specimens following exposure to a variety of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals, whereby micronucleus induction was measured both with FCM and with traditional microscopy. In an initial study, rats were treated with vehicle or cyclophosphamide (CP) for 2 consecutive days by oral gavage, and blood and bone marrow were sampled at 24 h after the second treatment. Staining with acridine orange (AO) of methanol-fixed slides was used for microscopical analysis and 2000 reticulocytes (RET) or polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were scored for MN frequency. The erythrocytes in the remaining bone-marrow cell suspensions were eluted on cellulose columns. The eluted bone marrow as well as the peripheral blood cells was fixed, incubated and analyzed by FCM. In another experiment, the performance of the FCM-MN method was further evaluated with five clastogens (urethane, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C, methylmethane sulfonate and 6-thioguanine), two aneugens (vincristine sulfate and colchicine) and two non-genotoxic new drugs (compounds A and B), whose results were negative in the routine mouse-micronucleus test (MNT). The MN frequencies in rat peripheral blood induced by the positive chemicals were found to be lower than the frequencies in rat bone-marrow by both scoring methods. However, a high level of agreement for the MN frequencies in both compartments was obtained. Good correspondence between the two analysis methods was also achieved. These data provide support that the three-colour FCM method is more rapid and objective than manual microscopy, while yielding comparable data. It further supports the premise that rat peripheral blood may be an alternative to rat bone marrow in the MNT.

  18. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  19. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

  20. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  1. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  2. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

  3. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

  4. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  5. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  6. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  7. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  8. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the platelet count is too low, a person can be in danger of bleeding in any part of the body. The CBC can also test for loss of blood, abnormalities in the production or destruction of blood cells, acute and chronic infections, allergies, and problems with ...

  9. Maryland KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This Kids Count factbook is the fifth to examine statewide and county trends in the well-being of Maryland's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the domains of economic well-being, good health, safety, and preparing for adulthood. The 16 indicators are: (1) child poverty; (2) child support; (3) births to teens; (4) low…

  10. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  11. Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

  12. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  13. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  14. Predictive Model Assessment for Count Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-05

    critique count regression models for patent data, and assess the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts...the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts in Germany. We consider a recent suggestion by Baker and...Figure 5. Boxplots for various scores for patent data count regressions. 11 Table 1 Four predictive models for larynx cancer counts in Germany, 1998–2002

  15. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    PubMed

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  16. [Platelet count in the cat].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Hoffmann, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of collecting blood samples is primarily responsible for the appearance of platelet-agglomeration in cats. Blood obtained by the conventional way ("one syringe technology", drips of blood) caused in 52% of the cases an activation of the large and therefore active thrombocytes however. Rejection of the first 2-5 ml blood for the platelet count ("two syringe technology") reduced the rate of platelet-agglomeration significantly. No big differences in platelet-agglomeration were found with regard to the place used for collecting blood (V. cephalica antebrachii/V. jugularis). Platelet-agglutination was observed with Li-Heparin, K-EDTA, Na-Citrat or ACD anticoagulated blood samples. Citrat (Na-Citrat, ACD) seemed to have a stabilizing effect on feline thrombocytes as has been described for human thrombocytes. The platelet count in cats should be performed within 30 minutes.

  17. Counting Heron Triangles with Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-25

    A3 INTEGERS 13 (2013) COUNTING HERON TRIANGLES WITH CONSTRAINTS Pantelimon Stănică Applied Mathematics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey...12, Revised: 10/12/12, Accepted: 1/13/13, Published: 1/25/13 Abstract Heron triangles have the property that all three of their sides as well as their...area are positive integers. In this paper, we give some estimates for the number of Heron triangles with two of their sides fixed. We provide a

  18. The MIC photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fordham, J. L. A.; Bone, D. A.; Oldfield, M. K.; Bellis, J. G.; Norton, T. J.

    1992-12-01

    The MIC (Microchannel plate Intensified CCD (Charge Coupled Device)) detector is an advanced performance Micro Channel Plate (MCP) intensified CCD photon counting detector developed for high resolution, high dynamic range, astronomical applications. The heart of the detector is an MCP intensifier developed specifically for photon counting applications. The maximum detector format is 3072 by 2304 pixels. The measured resolution of the detector system is 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm. The detector is linear to approximately 1,000,000 events/detector area/sec on a flat field and linear to count rates up to 200 events/object/s on star images. Two versions of the system have been developed. The first for ground based astronomical applications based around a 40 mm diameter intensifier, was proven in trials at a number of large optical telescopes. The second, specifically for the ESA X-Ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM), where the MIC has been accepted as the blue detector for the incorporated Optical Monitor (OM). For the XMM-OM, the system is based around a 25 mm diameter intensifier. At present, under development, is a 75 mm diameter version of the detector which will have a maximum format of 6144 by 4608 pixels. Details of the MIC detector and its performance are presented.

  19. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  20. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  1. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Count Data

    PubMed Central

    Plan, E L

    2014-01-01

    Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273

  3. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  4. Monte Carlo Simulation of Counting Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Philip M.

    A computer program to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of counting experiments was written. The program was based on a mathematical derivation which started with counts in a time interval. The time interval was subdivided to form a binomial distribution with no two counts in the same subinterval. Then the number of subintervals was extended to…

  5. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  6. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  7. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  8. In vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay III. Validation and regulatory acceptance of automated scoring and the use of rat peripheral blood reticulocytes, with discussion of non-hematopoietic target cells and a single dose-level limit test.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makoto; MacGregor, James T; Gatehouse, David G; Blakey, David H; Dertinger, Stephen D; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Krishna, Gopala; Morita, Takeshi; Russo, Antonella; Asano, Norihide; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Wakako; Gibson, Dave

    2007-02-03

    The in vivo micronucleus assay working group of the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) discussed new aspects in the in vivo micronucleus (MN) test, including the regulatory acceptance of data derived from automated scoring, especially with regard to the use of flow cytometry, the suitability of rat peripheral blood reticulocytes to serve as the principal cell population for analysis, the establishment of in vivo MN assays in tissues other than bone marrow and blood (for example liver, skin, colon, germ cells), and the biological relevance of the single-dose-level test. Our group members agreed that flow cytometric systems to detect induction of micronucleated immature erythrocytes have advantages based on the presented data, e.g., they give good reproducibility compared to manual scoring, are rapid, and require only small quantities of peripheral blood. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood reticulocytes has the potential to allow monitoring of chromosome damage in rodents and also other species as part of routine toxicology studies. It appears that it will be applicable to humans as well, although in this case the possible confounding effects of splenic activity will need to be considered closely. Also, the consensus of the group was that any system that meets the validation criteria recommended by the IWGT (2000) should be acceptable. A number of different flow cytometric-based micronucleus assays have been developed, but at the present time the validation data are most extensive for the flow cytometric method using anti-CD71 fluorescent staining especially in terms of inter-laboratory collaborative data. Whichever method is chosen, it is desirable that each laboratory should determine the minimum sample size required to ensure that scoring error is maintained below the level of animal-to-animal variation. In the second IWGT, the potential to use rat peripheral blood reticulocytes as target cells for the micronucleus assay was discussed

  9. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  10. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-07

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  11. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  12. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Pablo; Kemp, Garreth; Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  13. Yoctocalorimetry: phonon counting in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukes, M. L.

    1999-03-01

    It appears feasible with nanostructures to perform calorimetry at the level of individual thermal phonons. Here I outline an approach employing monocrystalline mesoscopic insulators, which can now be patterned from semiconductor heterostructures into complex geometries with full, three-dimensional relief. Successive application of these techniques also enables definition of integrated nanoscale thermal transducers; coupling these to a dc SQUID readout yields the requisite energy sensitivity and temporal resolution with minimal back action. The prospect of phonon counting opens intriguing experimental possibilities with analogies in quantum optics. These include fluctuation-based phonon spectroscopy, phonon shot noise in the energy relaxation of nanoscale systems, and quantum statistical phenomena such as phonon bunching and anticorrelated electron-phonon exchange.

  14. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  15. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index.

  16. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  17. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  18. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  19. Statistical aspects of point count sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Ralph, C.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.

    1995-01-01

    The dominant feature of point counts is that they do not census birds, but instead provide incomplete counts of individuals present within a survey plot. Considering a simple model for point count sampling, we demon-strate that use of these incomplete counts can bias estimators and testing procedures, leading to inappropriate conclusions. A large portion of the variability in point counts is caused by the incomplete counting, and this within-count variation can be confounded with ecologically meaningful varia-tion. We recommend caution in the analysis of estimates obtained from point counts. Using; our model, we also consider optimal allocation of sampling effort. The critical step in the optimization process is in determining the goals of the study and methods that will be used to meet these goals. By explicitly defining the constraints on sampling and by estimating the relationship between precision and bias of estimators and time spent counting, we can predict the optimal time at a point for each of several monitoring goals. In general, time spent at a point will differ depending on the goals of the study.

  20. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, G.G.; Post, G. )

    1989-07-01

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

  1. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... ineligibility determinations, the requests shall be counted no later than the 14th business day following...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... Administrator for Field Operations (DAFO), shall begin counting requests no later than November 30, 2007....

  3. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable…

  4. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  5. "Knots on a Counting Rope": Teaching Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Daphne

    2001-01-01

    Argues that reflecting on important "marker" stories in people's lives by using counting ropes (based on the children's book "Knots on a Counting Rope" by Bill Martin Jr. and John Archambault) helps students and teachers make sense of their complex worlds. Describes how they are used in the author's language arts methods course. Describes a…

  6. Photon counts from stellar occultation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

  7. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  8. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  9. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  10. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

  11. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications.

  12. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  13. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like ...

  14. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND..., the requests shall be counted no later than the 14th business day following the final day of...

  15. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  16. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle.

  17. Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

    Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

  18. Preverbal and verbal counting and computation.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Gelman, R

    1992-08-01

    We describe the preverbal system of counting and arithmetic reasoning revealed by experiments on numerical representations in animals. In this system, numerosities are represented by magnitudes, which are rapidly but inaccurately generated by the Meck and Church (1983) preverbal counting mechanism. We suggest the following. (1) The preverbal counting mechanism is the source of the implicit principles that guide the acquisition of verbal counting. (2) The preverbal system of arithmetic computation provides the framework for the assimilation of the verbal system. (3) Learning to count involves, in part, learning a mapping from the preverbal numerical magnitudes to the verbal and written number symbols and the inverse mappings from these symbols to the preverbal magnitudes. (4) Subitizing is the use of the preverbal counting process and the mapping from the resulting magnitudes to number words in order to generate rapidly the number words for small numerosities. (5) The retrieval of the number facts, which plays a central role in verbal computation, is mediated via the inverse mappings from verbal and written numbers to the preverbal magnitudes and the use of these magnitudes to find the appropriate cells in tabular arrangements of the answers. (6) This model of the fact retrieval process accounts for the salient features of the reaction time differences and error patterns revealed by experiments on mental arithmetic. (7) The application of verbal and written computational algorithms goes on in parallel with, and is to some extent guided by, preverbal computations, both in the child and in the adult.

  19. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  20. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  1. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  2. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  3. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  4. Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct application of the original algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. The modified algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive estimation algorithm to each initial component. Applying the algorithm to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the modified algorithm on six classes of cells--myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, and PolyMorphoNuclear--are very close to the human expert's numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is similar to the deviation of counts produced by human experts. The important technical contributions are that the modified algorithm uses prior statistics for each shape class in place or prior knowledge of the total number of objects in an image, and it allows for more than one primitive from each class.

  5. Sedimentation counting and morphology of Mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Clark, H W

    1965-11-01

    Clark, Harold W. (The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.). Sedimentation counting and morphology of Mycoplasma. J. Bacteriol. 90:1373-1386. 1965.-The sedimentation technique for counting viral particles was applied to the quantitation and morphological identification of Mycoplasma in broth cultures. Mycoplasma, apparently in their native form, firmly adhered to the surface, when sedimented on glass cover slips or onto electron microscope grids. The sedimented cover slip preparations stained with crystal violet could be readily counted in the light microscope. The cultures sedimented onto electron microscope grids were readily counted at low magnification and provided excellent preparations for morphological examination at higher magnifications. It was found that air-dried Mycoplasma particles were enlarged considerably because of excessive flattening. Fixation of sedimented Mycoplasma particles in diluted OsO(4) prior to air drying yielded a more realistic morphology, with various sizes and shapes in the stages of the growth cycle exhibited. A new technique of differentially staining Mycoplasma colonies on agar plates was developed to facilitate the quantitation of viable colony-forming units for comparison with total counts. The use of plastic or Parafilm gaskets for dry mounting was developed to facilitate the handling and examination of the stained cover slip preparations. The results of this investigation indicated that the growth cycle of some Mycoplasma species includes a stage of hexadic fission with the cleavage of minimal reproductive units (less than 100 mmu) containing a limited deoxyribonucleic acid genetic coding molecule (approximately 4 x 10(6)).

  6. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  7. Photon-counting spaceborne altimeter simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazej, Josef

    2004-11-01

    We are presenting of a photon counting laser altimeter simulator. The simulator is designed to be a theoretical and numerical complement for a Technology Demonstrator of the space born laser altimeter for planetary studies built on our university. The European Space Agency has nominated the photon counting altimeter as one of the attractive devices for planetary research. The device should provide altimetry in the range 400 to 1400 km with one meter range resolution under rough conditions - Sun illumination, radiation, etc. The general altimeter concept expects the photon counting principle laser radar. According to this concept, the simulator is based on photon counting radar simulation, which has been enhanced to handle planetary surface roughness, vertical terrain profile and its reflectivity. The simulator is useful complement for any photon counting altimeter both for altimeter design and for measured data analysis. Our simulator enables to model the orbital motion, range, terrain profile, reflectivity, and their influence on the over all energy budget and the ultimate signal to noise ratio acceptable for the altimetry. The simulator can be adopted for various air or space born application.

  8. Hematocrit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crit; Packed Cell Volume; PCV; H and H (Hemoglobin and Hematocrit) Formal name: Hematocrit Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Hemoglobin , RBC Count , Blood Smear , Iron Tests , Reticulocyte Count , ...

  9. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  10. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Geller, Joseph D; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller.

  11. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

  12. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  13. A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data

    PubMed Central

    Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

  14. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galano, Joseph; Nezlek, John B.; Wood, Lisa

    This KIDS COUNT data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) healthy births; (2) children's health; (3) school success; (4) risky behavior; (5) families; and (6) community well-being. Key indicators in these six areas include the…

  15. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  18. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  19. Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching…

  20. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…

  1. County Data Book 1995: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Kentucky children age birth through 19. For each county, and for the state, comparisons are provided between the base years of 1980-1982 and the most recent years 1992-1994. Counties are ranked against each other and trend graphs are provided for the studied…

  2. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…

  3. Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

  4. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  5. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  6. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  7. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  8. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These two Kids Count brief reports discuss issues related to the well-being of Rhode Island children. The first report identifies ways to measure the impact of state and federal welfare reform proposals on children who receive benefits through Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Potential measures of success for welfare reform include…

  9. A generalized model for coincidence counting

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.

    1993-12-31

    A generalized model for coincidence counting has been developed based on the dual probability generating function introduced. The model accounts explicitly and simultaneously the effects of multiplication, absorption by poison and instrument detection and is applicable for a wide class of NDA including Pu in waste.

  10. KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  11. KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  12. Single Entity Electrochemistry Progresses to Cell Counting.

    PubMed

    Gooding, J Justin

    2016-10-10

    Red blood cells have been counted in an electrochemical collision experiment recently described by Compton and co-workers. As a cell collides with the electrode it lyses and a current is observed from the reduction of oxygen from within the cell.

  13. Restricted Schur polynomials and finite N counting

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Storm

    2009-01-15

    Restricted Schur polynomials have been posited as orthonormal operators for the change of basis from N=4 SYM to type IIB string theory. In this paper we briefly expound the relationship between the restricted Schur polynomials and the operators forwarded by Brown, Heslop, and Ramgoolam. We then briefly examine the finite N counting of the restricted Schur polynomials.

  14. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  15. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators of general areas of children's well being: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without a high school diploma; (3) low birth weight; (4) infant…

  16. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentz, Cara Anderson

    This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

  17. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassatt, Susan

    This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

  18. All Our Children: Massachusetts Kids Count 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Franna, Ed.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends from 1990 to 1994 in the well-being of Massachusetts' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being in five areas: (1) economic well-being of children and their families, including child poverty rate, family income, job loss, earnings of male high school dropouts and…

  19. Numbers, Counting, and Infinity in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meconi, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of middle-school students' natural understanding of large numbers to introduce the concept of infinity. Presents activities that investigate infinite sets by demonstrating a one-to-one correspondence between the counting numbers and the given set. Examples include prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, fractions, even and odd numbers,…

  20. Kids Count in Missouri 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on outcome measures of general areas of children's well being: (1) students free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  1. Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  2. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  3. South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  4. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowshen, Steven, Ed.; Greback, Robert, Ed.; Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Schooley, Teresa L., Ed.; Sturgis, Janice, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT report details statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths, age 1-14 years; (5) teen violent deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (6) juvenile…

  5. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  6. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

  7. Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…

  8. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  9. Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine…

  10. Kids Count in Indiana: 1994 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This booklet provides data on a series of related measures of child and family well-being in Indiana, following national guidelines established by the Kids Count project to help Americans better understand the problems faced by children and adolescents and to foster greater commitment to improving outcomes for vulnerable children and their…

  11. Fast box-counting algorithm on GPU.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J; Ruiz de Miras, J

    2012-12-01

    The box-counting algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the fractal dimension (FD). The FD has many image analysis applications in the biomedical field, where it has been used extensively to characterize a wide range of medical signals. However, computing the FD for large images, especially in 3D, is a time consuming process. In this paper we present a fast parallel version of the box-counting algorithm, which has been coded in CUDA for execution on the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The optimized GPU implementation achieved an average speedup of 28 times (28×) compared to a mono-threaded CPU implementation, and an average speedup of 7 times (7×) compared to a multi-threaded CPU implementation. The performance of our improved box-counting algorithm has been tested with 3D models with different complexity, features and sizes. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm has been confirmed using models with well-known FD values. As a case study, a 3D FD analysis of several brain tissues has been performed using our GPU box-counting algorithm.

  12. Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

  13. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  14. WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

    This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…

  15. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  16. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paula R.

    This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…

  17. Virginia KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: healthy births, adolescent well-being, health and safety, education, and economic security. Specific indicators examined are: (1) births to single women; (2) early prenatal…

  18. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  19. KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…

  20. Montana Kids Count 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This 1996 KIDS COUNT data book presents comparative data on child well-being for each county in Montana and for the state as a whole. Data in the county profiles, which comprise the bulk of the report, are grouped into: background facts (demographic, mental health, education, security, and income support information); charts showing changes in…

  1. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  2. Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention;…

  3. Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…

  4. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

  5. Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

  6. Large Actuator Count MEMS Deformable Mirror Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-07

    Large-actuator-count deformable mirrors (DM) are essential for high-contrast imaging systems NASA is developing for exoplanet detection. These same...applications: Nulling coronagraphs for exoplanet imaging, Atmospheric turbulence compensation for free-space laser communication, laser guide star

  7. Weighted power counting and perturbative unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Dylan

    2011-02-15

    We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

  8. Illinois Kids Count 2001: Envisioning the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Brenda; Familia, Yahaira; Gifford, Amy; Knowlton, Gretchen; Matakis, Brian; Olson, Melissa; Owens, Tracy; Zasadny, Julie

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of family, education and child care, arts and recreation, safety, health, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) percent of children living in poverty; (2) number of children enrolled in…

  9. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

  10. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

  11. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

  12. Kids Count Report in Nebraska, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trend data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 of the report presents U.S. Census data on population trends in Nebraska as well as child poverty rates, and urges Nebraskans to work together to ensure that its youngest citizens have the best start possible. Section 2, the bulk of this…

  13. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  14. Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…

  15. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  16. WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…

  17. County Data Book 1996: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky children on a state-wide, county, and school district basis. An introductory essay finds a strong link between the percentage of adults completing high school in a given school district and various indicators: As the percentage of adults completing high school increases, the…

  18. Kids Count in Nebraska 1996 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Nebraska's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven general areas of children's well-being: (1) early care and education; (2) physical and behavioral health; (3) child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence; (4) out of home care; (5) education; (6) economic…

  19. KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

  20. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

    This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

  1. County Data Book 1997: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children on a statewide and county basis. An introduction summarizes some of the trends for Kentucky's children in the 1990s. The bulk of the report presents statewide and county data grouped into five categories: (1) poverty rates and programs (persons in poverty; median…

  2. Asynchronous ASCII Event Count Status Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    IRIG STANDARD 215-12 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP ASYNCHRONOUS ASCII EVENT COUNT STATUS CODES...Inter-range Instrumentation Group ( IRIG ) Standard for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)-formatted EC status transfer which can be...circuits and Ethernet networks. Provides systems engineers and equipment vendors with an Inter-range Instrumentation Group ( IRIG ) Standard for American

  3. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well being: health, safety, education, families, and economic factors. Key indicators in these five areas include: (1) prenatal care rates; (2) low birthweight; (3) child deaths; (4)…

  4. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

  5. Photon-counting-based dust monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamal, Karel; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Eslerova, Iva; Sopko, Bruno; Pasta, Armin

    1999-05-01

    Most of the dust monitors are based on optical principle: the scattered light intensity is registered. The classical approach is using the multiple photon optical signal intensity and processing. Single photon detection -- photon counting is exploited in Satellite Laser Ranging and was implemented in space born application for Mars Surveyor Program 98, as well. The main advantage of single photon detection is an extreme sensitivity, the entire digital approach, no analog signal is treated. All the light intensity information is acquired on the basis of statistical data treatment. The dust detector consists of the LED diode based transmitter, single photon solid state diode detector and the digital data processing unit. The light beam from the LED diode passing the dust column is detected in a photo detector. The detector employs the avalanche Silicon photodiode 40 micrometers diameter active area and is operated in a passive gating and active quenching mode above its breakdown voltage. The detector provides uniform digital pulses, one for each photon detected. The light intensity measurement is converted into the photon flux counting -- frequency or event counting. The microcomputer controlled data processing electronics counts the detector output pulses, accounts for detector dark count rate, calibration constants, and computes the corresponding dust concentration averaged over desired period. The second LED located close to the detector is used as a reference light source to eliminate the temperature, aging and sensor contamination influence. The laboratory measurements show the long term and temperature stability of the scale within 1%. The setup was tested at the cement plant smoke stack and compared to the commercial optical dust concentration monitor operating on analog multiphoton principle. Due to an extreme optical sensitivity of the photon counting detector, the energy balance is favorable to realize lightweight equipment by a factor of ten in comparison

  6. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  7. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  8. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count if... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they...

  10. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  11. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  12. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  13. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  14. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  15. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  16. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-15

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  17. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  18. To count or not to count: the effect of instructions on expecting a break in timing.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette

    2013-04-01

    When a break is expected during a time interval production, longer intervals are produced as the break occurs later during the interval. This effect of break location was interpreted as a result of distraction related to break expectancy in previous studies. In the present study, the influence of target duration and of instructions about chronometric counting strategies on the break location effect was examined. Using a strategy such as chronometric counting enhances the reliability of temporal processing, typically in terms of reduced variability, and could influence how timing is affected by break expectancy, especially when relatively long target durations are used. In two experiments, results show that time productions lengthened with increasing value of break location at various target durations and that variability was greater in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. More important, the break location effect was stronger in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. We conclude that chronometric counting orients attention toward timing processes, making them less likely to be disrupted by concurrent nontemporal processes.

  19. What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-01-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…

  20. Differential resistance to proteinase K digestion of the yeast prion-like (Ure2p) protein synthesized in vitro in wheat germ extract and rabbit reticulocyte lysate cell-free translation systems.

    PubMed

    Komar, A A; Lesnik, T; Cullin, C; Guillemet, E; Ehrlich, R; Reiss, C

    1997-09-22

    The Ure2p yeast prion-like protein was translated in vitro in the presence of labeled [35S]methionine in either rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) or wheat germ extract (WGE) cell-free systems. When subjected to proteinase K digestion, the Ure2p protein synthesized in WGE was proteolysed much more slowly compared to that synthesized in RRL; this displays fragments of about 31-34 kDa, persisting over 8 min. Thus, the digestion rate and pattern of the protein synthesized in WGE, unlike that synthesized in RRL, revealed characteristic features of the [URE3] prion-like isoform of the Ure2p protein [Masison, D.C. and Wickner, R.B. (1995) Science 270, 93-95]. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, synthesized under the same conditions, differed fundamentally in its proteolytic sensitivity toward proteinase K (PK); in the RRL system it was more slowly digested than in WGE, proving specific PK inhibitors to be absent in both systems. Posttranslational addition of the WGE to the RRL-synthesized Ure2p does not protect Ure2p from efficient PK degradation either. The differences in Ure2p degradation may be ascribed to a specific structure or specific states of association of Ure2p synthesized in WGE; obviously, they yield a protein that mimics the behavior of the Ure2p in [URE3] yeast strains. The present data suggest that particular conditions of the Ure2p protein translation and/or certain cellular components (accessory proteins and extrinsic factors), as well as the nature of the translation process itself, could affect the intracellular folding pathway of Ure2p leading to the de novo formation of the prion [URE3] isoform.

  1. The PIGRET assay, a method for measuring Pig-a gene mutation in reticulocytes, is reliable as a short-term in vivo genotoxicity test: Summary of the MMS/JEMS-collaborative study across 16 laboratories using 24 chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Takafumi; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Miura, Daishiro; Chikura, Satsuki; Okada, Yuki; Ukai, Akiko; Itoh, Satoru; Nakayama, Shiho; Sanada, Hisakazu; Koyama, Naomi; Muto, Shigeharu; Uno, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Mika; Suzuki, Yuta; Fukuda, Takayuki; Goto, Ken; Wada, Kunio; Kyoya, Takahiro; Shigano, Miyuki; Takasawa, Hironao; Hamada, Shuichi; Adachi, Hideki; Uematsu, Yasuaki; Tsutsumi, Eri; Hori, Hisako; Kikuzuki, Ryuta; Ogiwara, Yosuke; Yoshida, Ikuma; Maeda, Akihisa; Narumi, Kazunori; Fujiishi, Yohei; Morita, Takeshi; Yamada, Masami; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-11-15

    The in vivo mutation assay using the X-linked phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene (Pig-a in rodents, PIG-A in humans) is a promising tool for evaluating the mutagenicity of chemicals. Approaches for measuring Pig-a mutant cells have focused on peripheral red blood cells (RBCs) and reticulocytes (RETs) from rodents. The recently developed PIGRET assay is capable of screening >1×10(6) RETs for Pig-a mutants by concentrating RETs in whole blood prior to flow cytometric analysis. Additionally, due to the characteristics of erythropoiesis, the PIGRET assay can potentially detect increases in Pig-a mutant frequency (MF) sooner after exposure compared with a Pig-a assay targeting total RBCs (RBC Pig-a assay). In order to test the merits and limitations of the PIGRET assay as a short-term genotoxicity test, an interlaboratory trial involving 16 laboratories was organized by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group of the Japanese Environmental Mutagenicity Society (MMS/JEMS). First, the technical proficiency of the laboratories and transferability of the assay were confirmed by performing both the PIGRET and RBC Pig-a assays on rats treated with single doses of N-nitroso-N-ethylurea. Next, the collaborating laboratories used the PIGRET and RBC Pig-a assays to assess the mutagenicity of a total of 24 chemicals in rats, using a single treatment design and mutant analysis at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the treatment. Thirteen chemicals produced positive responses in the PIGRET assay; three of these chemicals were not detected in the RBC Pig-a assay. Twelve chemicals induced an increase in RET Pig-a MF beginning 1 week after dosing, while only 3 chemicals positive for RBC Pig-a MF produced positive responses 1 week after dosing. Based on these results, we conclude that the PIGRET assay is useful as a short-term test for in vivo mutation using a single-dose protocol.

  2. Modern microbiological methods for foods: colony count and direct count methods. A review.

    PubMed

    García-Armesto, M R; Prieto, M; García-López, M L; Otero, A; Moreno, B

    1993-04-01

    Over the last years methods for enumeration of microorganisms in foods are changing rapidly. Techniques based on totally new concepts as well as instruments and miniaturized systems that allow the automation and simplification of existing microbiological procedures have been developed. These rapid methodologies should satisfy the increasing requirements for effective quality assurance of foods. In the present paper we review some of the more interesting methods based on colony count or direct bacterial count.

  3. Direct calibration of click-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohmann, M.; Kruse, R.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce and experimentally implement a method for the detector calibration of photon-number-resolving time-bin multiplexing layouts based on the measured click statistics of superconducting nanowire detectors. In particular, the quantum efficiencies, the dark count rates, and the positive operator-valued measures of these measurement schemes are directly obtained with high accuracy. The method is based on the moments of the click-counting statistics for coherent states with different coherent amplitudes. The strength of our analysis is that we can directly conclude—on a quantitative basis—that the detection strategy under study is well described by a linear response function for the light-matter interaction and that it is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light field. Moreover, our method is further extended to a two-mode detection scenario. Finally, we present possible applications for such well-characterized detectors, such as sensing of atmospheric loss channels and phase sensitive measurements.

  4. Photon counting micrometer and video CCD.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Qiongxian; Li, Chennfei

    The structure and observational method of the photon counting slotted micrometer are proposed. The micrometer is made up of a piece of slotted plate and a photomultiplier. The photon counting micrometer is replaced by a video CCD for regular trial observation and as a test for the equipment of one scientific CCD, because the micrometer transmission in the instrumental vertical angle transmission mechanism is dull, and the telescope is not able to observe regularly since the optical axis changes greatly as the telescope points to different vertical distance. The video CCD is fixed in the course of observation, recording a picture every forty milliseconds, or one hundred pictures within four seconds, resulting in simultaneously after smoothing treatment the moment and stellar zenith distance when a star passes through the meridian or prime vertical.

  5. Mesoscopic full counting statistics and exclusion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, P.-E.; Derrida, B.; Douçot, B.

    2005-02-01

    We calculate the distribution of current fluctuations in two simple exclusion models. Although these models are classical, we recover even for small systems such as a simple or a double barrier, the same distibution of current as given by traditional formalisms for quantum mesoscopic conductors. Due to their simplicity, the full counting statistics in exclusion models can be reduced to the calculation of the largest eigenvalue of a matrix, the size of which is the number of internal configurations of the system. As examples, we derive the shot noise power and higher order statistics of current fluctuations (skewness, full counting statistics, ....) of various conductors, including multiple barriers, diffusive islands between tunnel barriers and diffusive media. A special attention is dedicated to the third cumulant, which experimental measurability has been demonstrated lately.

  6. Fetal leucocyte count in rhesus disease.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Noble, P N; Layton, D M; Nicolaides, K H

    1992-01-01

    The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in these cells and the degree of fetal anaemia. Possible mechanisms for leucopenia include (i) stimulation of erythroid progenitor production at the expense of production of myeloid progenitors, (ii) non-specific haemophagocytosis, or (iii) general suppression of haemopoiesis. Further understanding of the underlying mechanism and the implications of leucopenia as well as the previously reported thrombocytopenia and anaemia may provide a basis for improved antenatal and/or postnatal treatment. PMID:1586179

  7. Counting and Enumeration Problems with Bounded Treewidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Reinhard; Rümmele, Stefan; Woltran, Stefan

    By Courcelle's Theorem we know that any property of finite structures definable in monadic second-order logic (MSO) becomes tractable over structures with bounded treewidth. This result was extended to counting problems by Arnborg et al. and to enumeration problems by Flum et al. Despite the undisputed importance of these results for proving fixed-parameter tractability, they do not directly yield implementable algorithms. Recently, Gottlob et al. presented a new approach using monadic datalog to close the gap between theoretical tractability and practical computability for MSO-definable decision problems. In the current work we show how counting and enumeration problems can be tackled by an appropriate extension of the datalog approach.

  8. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  9. Progress on the Aberystwyth electron counting array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langstaff, D. P.; Evans, D. A.; Roberts, O. R.; Zhu, Xi

    2009-06-01

    An extended electron counting detector with a linear array of 1536 pixels across an active area of 38 mm×5 mm is presented. Also presented is an improved control electronics package, based on the National Instruments Compact RIO instrument programmed in Labview. Also presented is an application of the existing detector with 768 pixels, showing how the improvement in detection technology enables fresh insights into the formation of aluminium contacts on diamond.

  10. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  11. Enabling photon counting detectors with dynamic attenuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are being investigated as a replacement for conventional x-ray detectors because they promise several advantages, including better dose efficiency, higher resolution and spectral imaging. However, many of these advantages disappear when the x-ray flux incident on the detector is too high. We recently proposed a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator (or beam shaping filter) that can control the flux incident on the detector. This can restrict the operating range of the PCXD to keep the incident count rate below a given limit. We simulated a system with the piecewise-linear attenuator and a PCXD using raw data generated from forward projected DICOM files. We investigated the classic paralyzable and nonparalyzable PCXD as well as a weighted average of the two, with the weights chosen to mimic an existing PCXD (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). The dynamic attenuator has small synergistic benefits with the nonparalyzable detector and large synergistic benefits with the paralyzable detector. Real PCXDs operate somewhere between these models, and the weighted average model still shows large benefits from the dynamic attenuator. We conclude that dynamic attenuators can reduce the count rate performance necessary for adopting PCXDs.

  12. Estimation of population trajectories from count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring of changes in animal population size is rarely possible through complete censuses; frequently, the only feasible means of monitoring changes in population size is to use counts of animals obtained by skilled observers as indices to abundance. Analysis of changes in population size can be severely biased if factors related to the acquisition of data are not adequately controlled for. In particular we identify two types of observer effects: these correspond to baseline differences in observer competence, and to changes through time in the ability of individual observers. We present a family of models for count data in which the first of these observer effects is treated as a nuisance parameter. Conditioning on totals of negative binomial counts yields a Dirichlet compound multinomial vector for each observer. Quasi-likelihood is used to estimate parameters related to population trajectory and other parameters of interest; model selection is carried out on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. An example is presented using data on Wood thrush from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

  13. Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim

    2006-10-01

    The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.

  14. Counts of galaxies in a merger model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colin, P.; Schramm, D. N.; Peimbert, M.

    1994-01-01

    A model for the photometric evolution of galaxies has been developed and has been applied to the problem of galaxy counts. The integrated colors of galaxies are calculated using the most recently computed evolutionary tracks from Maeder and collaborators complemented with evolutionary tracks derived by other authors. The asymptotic giant branch lifetime is left as a free parameter. A series of cosmological models using different values of the cosmological constant, lambda(sub 0), and the density parameter, omega(sub 0), have been computed. The universality hypothesis of the luminosity function of galaxies has been abandoned. The influence of galaxy merging on the counts has been considered in a simple manner by assuming that the number of strongly interacting galaxies in a comoving volume increases with redshift as a power law given by (1 + z)(exp 3.8). Taking a Schechter parametrization for the luminosity function of the different types of galaxies, we are able to reproduce the observations reasonably well. We have also considered models with a Gaussian distribution for the luminosity function of the brighter galaxies that provide a poorer fit to the observations. It is shown that galaxy count data are not yet able to make unambiguous cosmological statements since evolutionary assumptions are critical. In particular, an omega(sub 0) = 1, lambda(sub 0) = 0 cosmology is shown to be consistent with the data.

  15. Automatic vehicle counting system for traffic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzil, Alain; Khoudour, Louahdi; Valiere, Paul; Truong Cong, Dung Nghy

    2016-09-01

    The article is dedicated to the presentation of a vision-based system for road vehicle counting and classification. The system is able to achieve counting with a very good accuracy even in difficult scenarios linked to occlusions and/or presence of shadows. The principle of the system is to use already installed cameras in road networks without any additional calibration procedure. We propose a robust segmentation algorithm that detects foreground pixels corresponding to moving vehicles. First, the approach models each pixel of the background with an adaptive Gaussian distribution. This model is coupled with a motion detection procedure, which allows correctly location of moving vehicles in space and time. The nature of trials carried out, including peak periods and various vehicle types, leads to an increase of occlusions between cars and between cars and trucks. A specific method for severe occlusion detection, based on the notion of solidity, has been carried out and tested. Furthermore, the method developed in this work is capable of managing shadows with high resolution. The related algorithm has been tested and compared to a classical method. Experimental results based on four large datasets show that our method can count and classify vehicles in real time with a high level of performance (>98%) under different environmental situations, thus performing better than the conventional inductive loop detectors.

  16. Temporal differences in point counts of bottomland forest landbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    We compared number of avian species and individuals in morning and evening point counts during the breeding season and during winter in a bottomland hardwood forest in west-central Mississippi. USA. In both seasons, more species and individuals were recorded during morning counts than during evening counts. We also compared morning and evening detections for 18 species during the breeding season and 9 species during winter. Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura), and Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) were detected significantly more often in morning counts than in evening counts during the breeding season. Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) was recorded more often in morning Counts than evening counts during the breeding season and during winter. No species was detected more often in evening counts. Thus, evening point counts of birds during either the breeding season or winter will likely underestimate species richness, overall avian abundance, and the abundance of some individual species in bottomland hardwood forests.

  17. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Daniel B; Stoll, Eli L; Kindy, Sonam D; Merry, Hillary L; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  18. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. PMID:25386148

  19. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Hay fever and pollen counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has ... Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air ...

  20. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method...

  1. The Audubon Christmas Bird Count: A Valuable Teaching Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferner, John W.

    1977-01-01

    The author explains how he uses the Audubon Christmas Bird Count to teach a laboratory exercise in vertebrate population dynamics. Problems and limitations associated with using these Christmas Counts are also enumerated. Graphs illustrate the material. (MA)

  2. Counting Attribute Blocks: Constructing Meaning for the Multiplication Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elliott

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity in which attribute blocks help middle school students understand the fundamental counting principle and the multiplication rule. Demonstrates how these materials can aid students in building a conceptual understanding of multiplication and the counting principle. (ASK)

  3. Accurate atom counting in mesoscopic ensembles.

    PubMed

    Hume, D B; Stroescu, I; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-12-20

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  4. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagi, Janos; Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw; Dufour, Jean-Luc; Holzleitner, Ludwig; Huszti, Joseph; Looman, Marc; Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Lambert, Thierry; Peerani, Paolo; Rackham, Jamie; Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve; Weber, Anne-Laure; Wilson, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of "virtual instruments." These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will describe the

  5. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, D. B.; Stroescu, I.; Joos, M.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Oberthaler, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  6. Point counts of birds: what are we estimating?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Point counts of birds are made for many reasons, including estimating local densities, determining population trends, assessing habitat preferences, and exploiting the activities of recreational birdwatchers. Problems arise unless there is a clear understanding of what point counts mean in terms of actual populations of birds. Criteria for conducting point counts depend strongly on the purposes to which they will be put. This paper provides a simple mathematical conceptualization of point counts and illustrates graphically some of the influences on them.

  7. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

  8. Not everything that counts can be counted: ants use multiple metrics for a single nest trait

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Nigel R; Dornhaus, Anna; Metherell, Bonnie G; Nelson, Toby R; Lanfear, Sophie A.J; Symes, William S

    2005-01-01

    There are claims in the literature that certain insects can count. We question the generality of these claims and suggest that summation rather than counting (sensu stricto) is a more likely explanation. We show that Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies can discriminate between potential nest sites with different numbers of entrances. However, our experiments suggest that the ants use ambient light levels within the nest cavity to assess the abundance of nest entrances rather than counting per se. Intriguingly, Weber's Law cannot explain the ants' inaccuracy. The ants also use a second metric, independent of light, to assess and discriminate against wide entrances. Thus, these ants use at least two metrics to evaluate one nest trait: the configuration of the portals to their potential homes. PMID:16555783

  9. 75 FR 64615 - National Character Counts Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Counts Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's strength... National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality, fairness, and compassion that lie... becomes a lifelong commitment. During National Character Counts Week, let us take this opportunity...

  10. Word Count of Elementary Modern Literary Arabic Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarus, Ernest N.; Rammuny, Raji M.

    A computerized word count is presented of 11 elementary Modern Literary Arabic textbooks used in the United States. The word count was started in 1967 to provide a practical vocabulary base for a fully-programmed self-instructional course on the phonology and script of Modern Literary Arabic. The first part of the count is a cumulative list…

  11. Differential Counting in Mixed Cultures with Coulter Counters

    PubMed Central

    Drake, J. F.; Tsuchiya, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A critical comparison of Coulter, viable, and microscope counts for several mixed cultures of microorganisms has been made. This investigation shows that Coulter counting can provide reliable estimates of microbial numbers in mixed cultures. Precautions and limitations of Coulter counting in mixed cultures are discussed. PMID:4199341

  12. Putting Counting to Work: Preschoolers' Understanding of Cardinal Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon, Kevin; Lewis, Charlie; Freeman, Norman H.

    2003-01-01

    Preschool children are often good at counting things but seem slow to learn that there is more to counting than simply finding out how many are in a single set. Counting is useful when comparing sets and when creating new sets to match existing ones. This is part of the numerical understanding that educators wish to foster in schools. In two…

  13. Tutorial on Using Regression Models with Count Outcomes Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Morgan, Grant B.

    2016-01-01

    Education researchers often study count variables, such as times a student reached a goal, discipline referrals, and absences. Most researchers that study these variables use typical regression methods (i.e., ordinary least-squares) either with or without transforming the count variables. In either case, using typical regression for count data can…

  14. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.4 When do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...

  15. Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

    2011-12-01

    In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

  16. Automated Counting of Particles To Quantify Cleanliness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, James

    2005-01-01

    A machine vision system, similar to systems used in microbiological laboratories to count cultured microbes, has been proposed for quantifying the cleanliness of nominally precisely cleaned hardware by counting residual contaminant particles. The system would include a microscope equipped with an electronic camera and circuitry to digitize the camera output, a personal computer programmed with machine-vision and interface software, and digital storage media. A filter pad, through which had been aspirated solvent from rinsing the hardware in question, would be placed on the microscope stage. A high-resolution image of the filter pad would be recorded. The computer would analyze the image and present a histogram of sizes of particles on the filter. On the basis of the histogram and a measure of the desired level of cleanliness, the hardware would be accepted or rejected. If the hardware were accepted, the image would be saved, along with other information, as a quality record. If the hardware were rejected, the histogram and ancillary information would be recorded for analysis of trends. The software would perceive particles that are too large or too numerous to meet a specified particle-distribution profile. Anomalous particles or fibrous material would be flagged for inspection.

  17. Low lymphocyte count and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Núñez, J; Miñana, G; Bodí, V; Núñez, E; Sanchis, J; Husser, O; Llàcer, A

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation plays a crucial pathophysiological role in the entire continuum of the atherosclerotic process, from its initiation, progression, and plaque destabilization leading ultimately to an acute coronary event. Furthermore, once the clinical event has occurred, inflammation also influences the left ventricular remodelling process. Under the same paradigm, there is evidence that lymphocytes play an important role in the modulation of the inflammatory response at every level of the atherosclerotic process. Low lymphocyte count (LLC) is a common finding during the systemic inflammatory response, and clinical and animal studies suggest that LCC plays a putative role in accelerated atherosclerosis. For instance, there is recent evidence that LLC is associated with worse outcomes in patients with heart failure, chronic ischemic heart disease and acute coronary syndromes. Further indirect evidence supports the pathologic role of LLC related to the fact that 1) lymphopenia--due to a decreased count of lymphocyte T cells--normally occurs as a part of the human ageing process, and 2) increased incidence of cardiovascular events has been reported in conditions where lymphopenia is common, such as renal transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus infection, survivors of nuclear disasters and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present article is to review: a) the pathophysiological mechanisms that have been proposed for the observed association between LLC and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), b) the available evidence regarding the diagnostic and prognostic role attributable to LLC in patients with CVD, and; c) the potential therapeutic implications of these findings.

  18. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  19. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Iseley

    2009-10-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

  20. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year.

  1. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1

  2. Optimal allocation of point-count sampling effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Both unlimited and fixedradius point counts only provide indices to population size. Because longer count durations lead to counting a higher proportion of individuals at the point, proper design of these surveys must incorporate both count duration and sampling characteristics of population size. Using information about the relationship between proportion of individuals detected at a point and count duration, we present a method of optimizing a pointcount survey given a fixed total time for surveying and travelling between count points. The optimization can be based on several quantities that measure precision, accuracy, or power of tests based on counts, including (1) meansquare error of estimated population change; (2) mean-square error of average count; (3) maximum expected total count; or (4) power of a test for differences in average counts. Optimal solutions depend on a function that relates count duration at a point to the proportion of animals detected. We model this function using exponential and Weibull distributions, and use numerical techniques to conduct the optimization. We provide an example of the procedure in which the function is estimated from data of cumulative number of individual birds seen for different count durations for three species of Hawaiian forest birds. In the example, optimal count duration at a point can differ greatly depending on the quantities that are optimized. Optimization of the mean-square error or of tests based on average counts generally requires longer count durations than does estimation of population change. A clear formulation of the goals of the study is a critical step in the optimization process.

  3. What counts as knowing? The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge of counting from kindergarten through Grade 2.

    PubMed

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-04-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual counts. On incorrect counts, the frog violated the word-object correspondence principle. On unusual counts, the frog violated a conventional but inessential feature of counting, for example, starting in the middle of the array of objects. Procedural knowledge was assessed using speed and accuracy in counting objects. The patterns of change for procedural knowledge and conceptual knowledge were different. Counting speed and accuracy (procedural knowledge) improved with grade. In contrast, there was a curvilinear relation between conceptual knowledge and grade that was further moderated by children's numeration skills (as measured by a standardized test); the most skilled children gradually increased their acceptance of unusual counts over grade, whereas the least skilled children decreased their acceptance of these counts. These results have implications for studying conceptual and procedural knowledge about mathematics.

  4. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…

  5. Increasing point-count duration increases standard error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.; Hamel, P.B.; Ford, R.P.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    We examined data from point counts of varying duration in bottomland forests of west Tennessee and the Mississippi Alluvial Valley to determine if counting interval influenced sampling efficiency. Estimates of standard error increased as point count duration increased both for cumulative number of individuals and species in both locations. Although point counts appear to yield data with standard errors proportional to means, a square root transformation of the data may stabilize the variance. Using long (>10 min) point counts may reduce sample size and increase sampling error, both of which diminish statistical power and thereby the ability to detect meaningful changes in avian populations.

  6. What counts and how to count it: physicians' constructions of evidence in a disinvestment context.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Elshaug, Adam G; Hiller, Janet E

    2012-12-01

    Internationally, there is an increasing focus on quality and sustainability measures oriented to reducing inefficiencies in health provision. The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for older women represents a case study in this area. This paper analyses the constructions of evidence brought to bear by ART physicians in the context of deliberative stakeholder engagements (held 2010) around options for restricting public subsidy of ART in Australia. Physicians participated in two deliberative engagements during which they were presented with results of a systematic review of ART effectiveness, as well as ethical and cost analyses. These sessions were part of a broader research program of engagements held with policymakers, community members and consumers. Physicians deliberated around the data presented with a view to formulating an informed contribution to policy. The ensuing discussions were transcribed and subject to discourse analysis. Physicians questioned the evidence presented on the grounds of 'currency', 'proximity', 'selectivity' and 'bias'. We outline physicians' accounts of what should count as evidence informing ART policy, and how this evidence should be counted. These accounts reflect implicit decisions around both the inclusion of evidence (selection) and the status it is accorded (evaluation). Our analysis suggests that participatory policy processes do not represent the simple task of assessing the quality/effectiveness of a given technology against self-evident criteria. Rather, these processes involve the negotiation of different orders of evidence (empirical, contextual and anecdotal), indicating a need for higher-level discussion around 'what counts and how to count it' when making disinvestment decisions.

  7. Transition Years Count: An Adolescent Profile. KIDS COUNT County Data Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This Kids Count data book is the ninth to examine trends in the well-being of Kentucky children, focusing on the transition period of adolescence, based on the view that lessons learned and foundations laid in early adolescence directly impact the transition to adulthood. This statistical portrait is based on trends in indicators of well-being in…

  8. Make Kids Count in '97: Hawai'i Kids Count 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Marcia; Davidson, Dana; Greenfield, Theresa; Grogan, Beverley

    This Kids Count report is the third to examine statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and…

  9. Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

  10. Make Kids Count in '99: Hawai'i Kids Count 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Marcia

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator findings and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, family formation, births to teens, children in single-parent families, children…

  11. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  12. Differential leucocyte count for ewe milk with low and high somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, Marzia; Caroprese, Mariangela

    2011-02-01

    This study was undertaken to compare flow cytometry (FC) and direct microscopic leucocyte count (MDLC) for the differentiation of macrophages, lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) and to evaluate leucocyte distribution in ewe milk with low and high somatic cell count (SCC). Milk samples were grouped for somatic cell count in low SCC (LSCC) when the content was lower than 5·00 × 10(5)/ml and high SCC (HSCC) when the content was higher than 1·00 × 10(6)/ml. No differences were found between the two methods tested suggesting that FC could be used as a routine test for rapid discrimination of leucocytes. Percentages of lymphocytes in ewe milk were higher in LSCC (50%) than in HSCC (39%) and count ranged from 273·91 ± 56·62 × 10(3) cells/ml (LSCC) to 308·90 ± 46·15 × 10(3) cells/ml (HSCC). PMN number was lower in LSCC than in HSCC (248·83 ± 46·87 × 10(3) cells/ml v. 444·38 ± 58·62 × 10(3) cells/ml); accordingly the percentage was lower in LSCC (40%) than in HSCC (57%). No differences were found for macrophages which were 36·36 ± 5·51 × 10(3) cells/ml and 39·32 ± 6·83 × 10(3) cells/ml in LSCC and HSCC, respectively. Lymphocytes in ewe milk did not vary with increased number of somatic cells and were the predominant cell type in LSCC. PMN represented the main population detected in HSCC and the correlation with SCC evidenced that this leucocyte class could be useful in differentiating ewe milk cell count, being strictly responsible for the SCC increase.

  13. Total Leucocyte Count, C-reactive Protein and Neutrophil Count: Diagnostic Aid in Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Sheikh Muzamil; Afsheen, Misbha; Reshi, Farooq A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value. PMID:19568576

  14. On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin

    Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

  15. Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  16. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-03-13

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change.

  17. Radionuclide counting technique for measuring wind velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.J.; Khandelwal, G.S.

    1981-12-01

    A technique for measuring wind velocities of meteorological interest is described. It is based on inverse-square-law variation of the counting rates as the radioactive source-to-counter distance is changed by wind drag on the source ball. Results of a feasibility study using a weak bismuth 207 radiation source and three Geiger-Muller radiation counters are reported. The use of the technique is not restricted to Martian or Mars-like environments. A description of the apparatus, typical results, and frequency response characteristics are included. A discussion of a double-pendulum arrangement is presented. Measurements reported herein indicate that the proposed technique may be suitable for measuring wind speeds up to 100 m/sec, which are either steady or whose rates of fluctuation are less than 1 kHz.

  18. Counting lattice animals in high dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Sebastian; Mertens, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    We present an implementation of Redelemeier's algorithm for the enumeration of lattice animals in high-dimensional lattices. The implementation is lean and fast enough to allow us to extend the existing tables of animal counts, perimeter polynomials and series expansion coefficients in d-dimensional hypercubic lattices for 3 <= d <= 10. From the data we compute formulae for perimeter polynomials for lattice animals of size n <= 11 in arbitrary dimension d. When amended by combinatorial arguments, the new data suffice to yield explicit formulae for the number of lattice animals of size n <= 14 and arbitrary d. We also use the enumeration data to compute numerical estimates for growth rates and exponents in high dimensions that agree very well with Monte Carlo simulations and recent predictions from field theory.

  19. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

  20. The bispectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Dio, Enea Di; Durrer, Ruth; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch E-mail: Francesco.Montanari@helsinki.fi

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the dominant terms of the relativistic galaxy number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory on sub-Hubble scales and on intermediate to large redshifts. In particular, we determine their contribution to the bispectrum. In addition to the terms already known from Newtonian second order perturbation theory, we find that there are a series of additional 'lensing-like' terms which contribute to the bispectrum. We derive analytical expressions for the full leading order bispectrum and we evaluate it numerically for different configurations, indicating how they can be measured with upcoming surveys. In particular, the new 'lensing-like' terms are not negligible for wide redshift bins and even dominate the bispectrum at well separated redshifts. This offers us the possibility to measure them in future surveys.

  1. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lympho

  2. Counting OCR errors in typeset text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Jonathan S.

    1995-03-01

    Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

  3. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h. PMID:16349033

  4. Improved aerobic colony count technique for hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Parrington, L J; Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I

    1993-09-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h.

  5. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  6. Counting in the dark: non-intrusive laser scanning for population counting and identifying roosting bats.

    PubMed

    Azmy, Suzanna Noor; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Ariffin, Azman; Majid, Zulkepli; Ismail, Muhamad Nor Akmal; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir

    2012-01-01

    Population surveys and species recognition for roosting bats are either based on capture, sight or optical-mechanical count methods. However, these methods are intrusive, are tedious and, at best, provide only statistical estimations. Here, we demonstrated the successful use of a terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) laser scanner for remotely identifying and determining the exact population of roosting bats in caves. LIDAR accurately captured the 3D features of the roosting bats and their spatial distribution patterns in minimal light. The high-resolution model of the cave enabled an exact count of the visibly differentiated Hipposideros larvatus and their roosting pattern within the 3D topology of the cave. We anticipate that the development of LIDAR will open up new research possibilities by allowing researchers to study roosting behaviour within the topographical context of a cave's internal surface, thus facilitating rigorous quantitative characterisations of cave roosting behaviour.

  7. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f{sub 50} (spatial

  8. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at

  9. Statistical mapping of count survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Scott, J. Michael; Heglund, Patricia J.; Morrison, Michael L.; Haufler, Jonathan B.; Wall, William A.

    2002-01-01

    We apply a Poisson mixed model to the problem of mapping (or predicting) bird relative abundance from counts collected from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). The model expresses the logarithm of the Poisson mean as a sum of a fixed term (which may depend on habitat variables) and a random effect which accounts for remaining unexplained variation. The random effect is assumed to be spatially correlated, thus providing a more general model than the traditional Poisson regression approach. Consequently, the model is capable of improved prediction when data are autocorrelated. Moreover, formulation of the mapping problem in terms of a statistical model facilitates a wide variety of inference problems which are cumbersome or even impossible using standard methods of mapping. For example, assessment of prediction uncertainty, including the formal comparison of predictions at different locations, or through time, using the model-based prediction variance is straightforward under the Poisson model (not so with many nominally model-free methods). Also, ecologists may generally be interested in quantifying the response of a species to particular habitat covariates or other landscape attributes. Proper accounting for the uncertainty in these estimated effects is crucially dependent on specification of a meaningful statistical model. Finally, the model may be used to aid in sampling design, by modifying the existing sampling plan in a manner which minimizes some variance-based criterion. Model fitting under this model is carried out using a simulation technique known as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Application of the model is illustrated using Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) counts from Pennsylvania BBS routes. We produce both a model-based map depicting relative abundance, and the corresponding map of prediction uncertainty. We briefly address the issue of spatial sampling design under this model. Finally, we close with some discussion of mapping in relation to

  10. Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/μL3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ∪ C) ∩ (B ∪ D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

  11. Analysis of general power counting rules in effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavela, Belen; Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Merlo, Luca

    2016-09-01

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in {d} dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and they predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. We show that the size of the cross sections is controlled by the Λ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory (χ PT). The relation between Λ and f is generalized to {d} dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis 4π counting is related to hbar counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to χ PT, low-energy weak interactions, Standard Model EFT and the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT.

  12. Recovery of Platelet Count among Apheresis Platelet Donors

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Anandan, Ashwin; Panicker, Vinod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increase in awareness regarding use of single donor platelets and the availability of technology has resulted in increased platelet pheresis procedures. The interval between two succesive plateletpheresis donations is much less compared to whole blood donations. Plateletpheresis procedures are associated with short term and long term adverse events. The effect of plateletpheresis on haematopoietic system remains significant. Aim To study the recovery of platelet count to baseline in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods Fifty, first time apheresis donors were followed for platelet count recovery. Platelet count was measured before donation and at 30 minutes, 48 hours, 7th day and 14th day post-donation. Donor platelet count recovery to baseline was observed during the two week period. Results were analysed statistically, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Platelet count recovered to baseline by 7th day post-donation in 50% of donors in groups I (Pre-donation platelet count 1.5 lacs/μl to 2.2 lacs/μl) and II (Donors with platelet count >2.2 lacs/μl to 2.75 lacs/μl), 30% of donors in group III (Donors with platelet count >2.75 lacs/μl to 3.5 lacs/μl) of the donors. Donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in 85% of donors by day 14 in across the three groups. Recruitment of platelets from spleen was observed in donors with pre-donation platelet count on the lower limit of normal. Conclusion By day 7, donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in majority of the donors. Allowing enough recovery periods for donor platelet count, the minimum interval between two apheresis donations can be 7 days till more prospective studies conclude on the frequency and minimum interval between plateletpheresis donations. PMID:28208861

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Color quench correction for low level Cherenkov counting.

    PubMed

    Tsroya, S; Pelled, O; German, U; Marco, R; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2009-05-01

    The Cherenkov counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, thus correction curves must be used to obtain correct results. The external (152)Eu source of a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system was used to obtain a quench indicative parameter based on spectra area ratio. A color quench correction curve for aqueous samples containing (90)Sr/(90)Y was prepared. The main advantage of this method over the common spectra indicators is its usefulness also for low level Cherenkov counting.

  16. Counting Statistics and Ion Interval Density in AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J S; Ognibene, T; Palmblad, M; Reimer, P

    2004-08-03

    Confidence in the precisions of AMS and decay measurements must be comparable for the application of the {sup 14}C calibration to age determinations using both technologies. We confirmed the random nature of the temporal distribution of {sup 14}C ions in an AMS spectrometer for a number of sample counting rates and properties of the sputtering process. The temporal distribution of ion counts was also measured to confirm the applicability of traditional counting statistics.

  17. VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY COUNTING MEASURES RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN THE BODY. DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RADIATION, BODY COUNTING ROOMS ARE CONSTRUCTED OF PRE-WORLD WAR II (WWII) STEEL. PRE-WWII STEEL, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN AFFECTED BY NUCLEAR FALLOUT, IS LOWER IS RADIOACTIVITY THAN STEEL CREATED AFTER WWII. (10/25/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Estimating resource selection with count data.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Ryan M; Sawyer, Hall

    2013-07-01

    Resource selection functions (RSFs) are typically estimated by comparing covariates at a discrete set of "used" locations to those from an "available" set of locations. This RSF approach treats the response as binary and does not account for intensity of use among habitat units where locations were recorded. Advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology allow animal location data to be collected at fine spatiotemporal scales and have increased the size and correlation of data used in RSF analyses. We suggest that a more contemporary approach to analyzing such data is to model intensity of use, which can be estimated for one or more animals by relating the relative frequency of locations in a set of sampling units to the habitat characteristics of those units with count-based regression and, in particular, negative binomial (NB) regression. We demonstrate this NB RSF approach with location data collected from 10 GPS-collared Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range enclosure. We discuss modeling assumptions and show how RSF estimation with NB regression can easily accommodate contemporary research needs, including: analysis of large GPS data sets, computational ease, accounting for among-animal variation, and interpretation of model covariates. We recommend the NB approach because of its conceptual and computational simplicity, and the fact that estimates of intensity of use are unbiased in the face of temporally correlated animal location data.

  19. Estimating resource selection with count data

    PubMed Central

    Nielson, Ryan M; Sawyer, Hall

    2013-01-01

    Resource selection functions (RSFs) are typically estimated by comparing covariates at a discrete set of “used” locations to those from an “available” set of locations. This RSF approach treats the response as binary and does not account for intensity of use among habitat units where locations were recorded. Advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology allow animal location data to be collected at fine spatiotemporal scales and have increased the size and correlation of data used in RSF analyses. We suggest that a more contemporary approach to analyzing such data is to model intensity of use, which can be estimated for one or more animals by relating the relative frequency of locations in a set of sampling units to the habitat characteristics of those units with count-based regression and, in particular, negative binomial (NB) regression. We demonstrate this NB RSF approach with location data collected from 10 GPS-collared Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range enclosure. We discuss modeling assumptions and show how RSF estimation with NB regression can easily accommodate contemporary research needs, including: analysis of large GPS data sets, computational ease, accounting for among-animal variation, and interpretation of model covariates. We recommend the NB approach because of its conceptual and computational simplicity, and the fact that estimates of intensity of use are unbiased in the face of temporally correlated animal location data. PMID:23919165

  20. Counting test facility for the Borexino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranucci, G.; Meroni, E.

    2014-05-01

    A fundamental breakthrough which opened the way to the realization of the Borexino detector was the demonstration of exceptionally low, unprecedented radioactive contaminations in the liquid scintillator, obtained with its pilot prototype Counting Test Facility. Though of limited dimension, with its 4.8 m3 of active liquid core, CTF has however been a key milestone not only for Borexino, but also for the entire field of the ultra-low background searches. Here, we succinctly remind the motivations, which concurred to lay down the project, as well as the specific radiopurity challenge, which guided the design. After the description of the technical elements of the detector, the main outcomes are summarized, both regarding optical and purity scintillator properties, with special emphasis on the exceptional achievements in term of ultra-low traces of radioactive contaminants. The discussion is completed with the description of how CTF was employed for the pre-qualification of the entire inventory of the Borexino scintillator, confirming also in the final phase of its life its essential role for the success of the overall Borexino solar neutrino program.

  1. Advanced Reference Counting Pointers for Better Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinholtz, William

    2007-01-01

    A computer program implements reference counting pointers (RCPs) that are lock-free, thread-safe, async-safe, and operational on a multiprocessor computer. RCPs are powerful and convenient means of managing heap memory in C++ software. Most prior RCP programs use locks to ensure thread safety and manage concurrency. The present program was developed in a continuing effort to explore ways of using the C++ programming language to develop safety-critical and mission- critical software. This effort includes exploration of lock-free algorithms because they offer potential to avoid some costly and difficult verification problems. Unlike previously published RCP software, the present program does not use locks (meaning that no thread can block progress on another thread): Instead, this program implements algorithms that exploit capabilities of central-processing- unit hardware so as to avoid locks. Once locks are eliminated, it becomes possible to realize the other attributes mentioned in the first sentence. In addition to the abovementioned attributes, this program offers several advantages over other RCP programs that use locks: It is smaller (and, hence, is faster and uses less memory), it is immune to priority inversion, and there is no way for it to cause a C++ exception.

  2. Sample Size Determination for Clustered Count Data

    PubMed Central

    Amatya, A.; Bhaumik, D.; Gibbons, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of sample size determination for count data. Such data arise naturally in the context of multi-center (or cluster) randomized clinical trials, where patients are nested within research centers. We consider cluster-specific and population-average estimators (maximum likelihood based on generalized mixed-effects regression and generalized estimating equations respectively) for subject-level and cluster-level randomized designs respectively. We provide simple expressions for calculating number of clusters when comparing event rates of two groups in cross-sectional studies. The expressions we derive have closed form solutions and are based on either between-cluster variation or inter-cluster correlation for cross-sectional studies. We provide both theoretical and numerical comparisons of our methods with other existing methods. We specifically show that the performance of the proposed method is better for subject-level randomized designs, whereas the comparative performance depends on the rate ratio for the cluster-level randomized designs. We also provide a versatile method for longitudinal studies. Results are illustrated by three real data examples. PMID:23589228

  3. Distributed vs. Focused Attention (count vs. estimate)

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sang Chul; Evans, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Quantity or numerosity is one of the basic properties of our environment. Humans and animals both have the neural representation of quantity or “number sense”. The ability to extract and to manipulate numbers is closely related to our various cognitive functions such as the capacity of working memory, mathematical achievement, and texture perception. Evidence shows that the sense of number is not a unitary mechanism but rather a composition of two distinct processes; enumeration and estimation. The review examines how numerosity is represented in the visual domain and its relation to different modes of attention. Enumeration or counting permits an exact representation of a distinct number of objects, with an awareness of each object achieved through focal deployment of attention to each object serially. On the other hand, estimation involves an approximation of the number of different items or a sense of ensemble statistics, achieved through fast deployment of distributed attention over a set of objects as a whole. In this overview we suggest that a focused attention mode is more suitable for enumeration, whereas a distributed attention mode is better for estimation. PMID:22121459

  4. Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

    1989-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

  5. Region counting algorithm based on region labeling automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sudi; Gu, Guoqing

    2007-12-01

    Region counting is a conception in computer graphics and image analysis, and it has many applications in medical area recently. The existing region-counting algorithms are almost based on filling method. Although filling algorithm has been improved well, the speed of these algorithms used to count regions is not satisfied. A region counting algorithm based on region labeling automaton is proposed in this paper. By tracing the boundaries of the regions, the number of the region can be obtained fast. And the proposed method was found to be fastest and requiring less memory.

  6. Bacterial counts associated with poultry processing at different sampling times.

    PubMed

    Geornaras, I; von Holy, A

    2000-01-01

    Aerobic plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Pseudomonas counts were performed on neck skin samples from six processing steps in a poultry abattoir at three different sampling times. Sampling time 1 was shortly after start-up of processing operations, time 2 after a tea break which was preceded by a cold water rinse-down of equipment surfaces, and time 3 before shut-down. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in microbial numbers of neck skin samples were observed between the three sampling times at the six sampling sites. At this particular processing plant, therefore, sampling at any time of the processing shift would thus not lead to significantly different bacterial counts of neck skins. The lowest aerobic plate counts, over all three sampling times, were obtained for neck skins sampled after spray washing, and the highest for neck skins sampled after packaging. This indicated the efficacy of the washing step in reducing microbial contamination but subsequent re-contamination of carcasses. Despite the Pseudomonas counts of neck skins being lower than the Enterobacteriaceae counts at the beginning of processing, packaging of carcasses resulted in Pseudomonas counts that were higher than the Enterobacteriaceae counts.

  7. Generalized quantum counting algorithm for non-uniform amplitude distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jianing; Ruan, Yue; Li, Xi; Chen, Hanwu

    2017-03-01

    We give generalized quantum counting algorithm to increase universality of quantum counting algorithm. Non-uniform initial amplitude distribution is possible due to the diversity of situations on counting problems or external noise in the amplitude initialization procedure. We give the reason why quantum counting algorithm is invalid on this situation. By modeling in three-dimensional space spanned by unmarked state, marked state and free state to the entire Hilbert space of n qubits, we find Grover iteration can be regarded as improper rotation in the space. This allows us to give formula to solve counting problem. Furthermore, we express initial amplitude distribution in the eigenvector basis of improper rotation matrix. This is necessary to obtain mathematical analysis of counting problem on various situations. Finally, we design four simulation experiments, the results of which show that compared with original quantum counting algorithm, generalized quantum counting algorithm wins great satisfaction from three aspects: (1) Whether initial amplitude distribution is uniform; (2) the diversity of situations on counting problems; and (3) whether phase estimation technique can get phase exactly.

  8. Accuracy and reliability of naevus self-counts.

    PubMed

    Fiessler, Cornelia; Pfahlberg, Annette; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    A high number of melanocytic naevi is one of the major risk factors for cutaneous melanoma. Therefore, counting the number of acquired naevi could be a useful strategy to identify individuals at an increased risk for targeted skin cancer screening. The aim of this study was to assess agreement between naevus self-counts and counts of trained examiners as well as to analyse potential determinants of the magnitude of agreement. In a large cross-sectional survey (n=1772), university students counted their naevi on both arms and were additionally examined by specifically trained examiners in a mutually blinded manner. Further data on other melanoma risk factors such as skin phototype, hair colour or freckling were collected by a questionnaire. The relative difference between the two naevus counts and the ratio of the counts were calculated to quantify agreement. Regression modelling was performed to identify independent determinants of agreement. The overall agreement was moderate, with participants counting on average 14% more naevi than the examiners. In terms of the potential determinants associated with agreement, skin type and medical education showed a strong effect. The difference in naevus counts was significantly larger for individuals with lighter skin types compared with those with a dark skin (Fitzpatrick type IV), and medical students yielded a naevus count more similar to the examiner's count than nonmedical students. Naevus self-counts can only provide a rough estimate of the number of naevi, but may not be accurate enough to reliably identify a high-risk group for melanoma screening, especially in individuals with light skin types.

  9. Evaluation of a semi-automated platelet-counting system.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, R M; Fraser, C; Gray, J H; McDonald, G A

    1977-01-01

    Coulter Electronics Ltd have produced a semi-automated platelet-counting system. Platelet-rich plasma may be obtained either by tube sedimentation or by means of the Thrombo-fuge, the latter being an instrument designed to produce accelerated sedimentation. The instrument is linear over the entire range of platelet counts, and machine reproducibility is good. Comparison of machine-rated with visual counts satisfied statistical evaluation. The technique can be handled by one operator and platelet counts can be achieved at the rate of 30 per hour by both methods although individual counts on the Thrombo-fuge may be obtained in approximately one-quarter of the time required for tube sedimentation. The throughput using the Thrombo-fuge could certainly be doubled were two sample plates supplied. Few problems were encountered during the evaluation and most could be avoided by meticulous technique. Visual counts must be performed when the sample haematocrit is greater than 50%-Discrepant counts have been obtained in patients with white cell counts exceeding 50 X 10(9)/1 and in patients with giant platelets. ESR elevation for any reason does not lead to serious discrepancy in results. The incidence of platelet clumping due to the presence of platelet agglutinins and of microclot formation due to inadequate mixing is probably much higher than is commonly thought, and certainly peripheral blood film scrutiny should never be omitted in patients with low counts. Careful examination of peripheral blood films must be combined with instrument counting for some time lest further causes of discrepant counting emerge. PMID:856881

  10. Counting signal processing and counting level normalization techniques of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Chu; Lin, Hermann

    2006-12-01

    A counting signal processing technique of the fiber-optic interferometric sensor is proposed. The technique is capable of counting the numbers of the maximum and minimum of the output interferometric signal in a specific time duration, and it can be used as the basis to distinguish the sensing phase signal. It can also be used as a signal detector on applications such as intrusion detection. All sensors are subject to aging of the optical components and bending loss, and therefore the output signal of each sensor may vary with time. We propose a counting level normalization technique to compensate for these variations and to obtain the correct counting numbers.

  11. The Quanta Image Sensor: Every Photon Counts

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Eric R.; Ma, Jiaju; Masoodian, Saleh; Anzagira, Leo; Zizza, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The Quanta Image Sensor (QIS) was conceived when contemplating shrinking pixel sizes and storage capacities, and the steady increase in digital processing power. In the single-bit QIS, the output of each field is a binary bit plane, where each bit represents the presence or absence of at least one photoelectron in a photodetector. A series of bit planes is generated through high-speed readout, and a kernel or “cubicle” of bits (x, y, t) is used to create a single output image pixel. The size of the cubicle can be adjusted post-acquisition to optimize image quality. The specialized sub-diffraction-limit photodetectors in the QIS are referred to as “jots” and a QIS may have a gigajot or more, read out at 1000 fps, for a data rate exceeding 1 Tb/s. Basically, we are trying to count photons as they arrive at the sensor. This paper reviews the QIS concept and its imaging characteristics. Recent progress towards realizing the QIS for commercial and scientific purposes is discussed. This includes implementation of a pump-gate jot device in a 65 nm CIS BSI process yielding read noise as low as 0.22 e− r.m.s. and conversion gain as high as 420 µV/e−, power efficient readout electronics, currently as low as 0.4 pJ/b in the same process, creating high dynamic range images from jot data, and understanding the imaging characteristics of single-bit and multi-bit QIS devices. The QIS represents a possible major paradigm shift in image capture. PMID:27517926

  12. From particle counting to Gaussian tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, K. R.; Sengupta, Ritabrata

    2015-12-01

    The momentum and position observables in an n-mode boson Fock space Γ(ℂn) have the whole real line ℝ as their spectrum. But the total number operator N has a discrete spectrum ℤ+ = {0, 1, 2,…}. An n-mode Gaussian state in Γ(ℂn) is completely determined by the mean values of momentum and position observables and their covariance matrix which together constitute a family of n(2n + 3) real parameters. Starting with N and its unitary conjugates by the Weyl displacement operators and operators from a representation of the symplectic group Sp(2n) in Γ(ℂn), we construct n(2n + 3) observables with spectrum ℤ+ but whose expectation values in a Gaussian state determine all its mean and covariance parameters. Thus measurements of discrete-valued observables enable the tomography of the underlying Gaussian state and it can be done by using five one-mode and four two-mode Gaussian symplectic gates in single and pair mode wires of Γ(ℂn) = Γ(ℂ)⊗n. Thus the tomography protocol admits a simple description in a language similar to circuits in quantum computation theory. Such a Gaussian tomography applied to outputs of a Gaussian channel with coherent input states permit a tomography of the channel parameters. However, in our procedure the number of counting measurements exceeds the number of channel parameters slightly. Presently, it is not clear whether a more efficient method exists for reducing this tomographic complexity. As a byproduct of our approach an elementary derivation of the probability generating function of N in a Gaussian state is given. In many cases the distribution turns out to be infinitely divisible and its underlying Lévy measure can be obtained. However, we are unable to derive the exact distribution in all cases. Whether this property of infinite divisibility holds in general is left as an open problem.

  13. Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Chandrasekaran, V; Gamarmik, D; Shah, D; Sin, J

    2009-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

  14. The Quanta Image Sensor: Every Photon Counts.

    PubMed

    Fossum, Eric R; Ma, Jiaju; Masoodian, Saleh; Anzagira, Leo; Zizza, Rachel

    2016-08-10

    The Quanta Image Sensor (QIS) was conceived when contemplating shrinking pixel sizes and storage capacities, and the steady increase in digital processing power. In the single-bit QIS, the output of each field is a binary bit plane, where each bit represents the presence or absence of at least one photoelectron in a photodetector. A series of bit planes is generated through high-speed readout, and a kernel or "cubicle" of bits (x, y, t) is used to create a single output image pixel. The size of the cubicle can be adjusted post-acquisition to optimize image quality. The specialized sub-diffraction-limit photodetectors in the QIS are referred to as "jots" and a QIS may have a gigajot or more, read out at 1000 fps, for a data rate exceeding 1 Tb/s. Basically, we are trying to count photons as they arrive at the sensor. This paper reviews the QIS concept and its imaging characteristics. Recent progress towards realizing the QIS for commercial and scientific purposes is discussed. This includes implementation of a pump-gate jot device in a 65 nm CIS BSI process yielding read noise as low as 0.22 e- r.m.s. and conversion gain as high as 420 µV/e-, power efficient readout electronics, currently as low as 0.4 pJ/b in the same process, creating high dynamic range images from jot data, and understanding the imaging characteristics of single-bit and multi-bit QIS devices. The QIS represents a possible major paradigm shift in image capture.

  15. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  16. 78 FR 62955 - National Character Counts Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Counts Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As Americans, we are..., and that, above all, we are one people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect on the ways..., but also the values that keep our country strong. This week, we reaffirm our commitment to helping...

  17. 77 FR 65091 - National Character Counts Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... October 24, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8891--National Character Counts Week, 2012 Proclamation 8892--National Forest Products Week, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal...-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8891 of October 19, 2012 National Character Counts Week, 2012 By...

  18. 76 FR 65095 - National Character Counts Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Counts Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In times of adversity... humanity. During National Character Counts Week, we celebrate our country's core values and commit to... week, we resolve to stay true to the American spirit and live according to our highest ideals....

  19. Pinochle Poker: An Activity for Counting and Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroughton, Jacqueline; Nolan, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Understanding counting rules is challenging for students; in particular, they struggle with determining when and how to implement combinations, permutations, and the multiplication rule as tools for counting large sets and computing probability. We present an activity--using ideas from the games of poker and pinochle--designed to help students…

  20. 12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General counting requirements. 1281.12 Section 1281.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.12 General counting requirements. (a) Calculating the...

  1. 76 FR 12694 - The 2010 Census Count Question Resolution Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... (GIS) files, aerial photography, and Global Positioning System (GPS) data from various sources.... The SF1 will contain block-level housing unit and GQ counts. Collectively, these census data products... apportionment counts, redistricting data, or 2010 Census data products. The Census Bureau will send a...

  2. Internalization of Character Traits by Those Who Teach Character Counts!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Kristyn; Fritz, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Cooperative extension personnel (n=53) completed a Web-based survey analyzing the impact of the Character Counts! program on extension, their personal lives, and society. Results demonstrated that extension educators and assistants were more likely to make ethical decisions as a result of teaching Character Counts! The need for increased…

  3. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  4. Epidemiological assessment of occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Milby, T.H.; Whorton, D.

    1980-02-01

    Occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression is a recently recognized problem, first brought to light in connection with the manufacture and formulation of dibromochloropropane (DBCP). The authors studied sperm count data from four occupational cohorts - two exposed to DBCP and two exposed to epichlorohydrin (ECH). In both DBCP cohorts there was a significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between sperm count distribution functions of the exposed group and of the non-exposed group. A much higher percentage of exposed men was oligospermic and the median sperm count for each exposed group was substantially lower than that for the respective non-exposed group. In the ECH cohorts there was no significant difference between sperm count data for the exposed group and for the non-exposed group. The authors concluded that exposure to DBCP, but not to ECH, was positively associated with detectable sperm count suppression. It is suggested that the key to identifying and assessing occupationally related sperm count suppression lies in the proper classification and interpretation of group sperm count data.

  5. New Jersey Kids Count 2011: The State of Our Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "New Jersey Kids Count 2011" again documents both advances and setbacks in key areas that affect child well-being--poverty, health, child protection, education, including early learning, and adolescent well-being. To better gauge New Jersey's progress in essential areas, a "New Jersey Kids Count Report Card" that identifies…

  6. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  7. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

  8. Modification of Poisson Distribution in Radioactive Particle Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drotter, Michael T.

    This paper focuses on radioactive practicle counting statistics in laboratory and field applications, intended to aid the Health Physics technician's understanding of the effect of indeterminant errors on radioactive particle counting. It indicates that although the statistical analysis of radioactive disintegration is best described by a Poisson…

  9. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  10. 29 CFR 825.105 - Counting employees for determining coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Counting employees for determining coverage. 825.105... Act § 825.105 Counting employees for determining coverage. (a) The definition of employ for purposes... knowledge by an employer of work done for the employer by another is sufficient to create the...

  11. 29 CFR 825.105 - Counting employees for determining coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Counting employees for determining coverage. 825.105... Act § 825.105 Counting employees for determining coverage. (a) The definition of employ for purposes... knowledge by an employer of work done for the employer by another is sufficient to create the...

  12. 29 CFR 825.105 - Counting employees for determining coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Counting employees for determining coverage. 825.105... Act § 825.105 Counting employees for determining coverage. (a) The definition of “employ” for purposes... knowledge by an employer of work done for the employer by another is sufficient to create the...

  13. Estimating population diversity with unreliable low frequency counts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We consider the classical population diversity estimation scenario based on frequency count data (the number of classes or taxa represented once, twice, etc. in the sample), but with the proviso that the lowest frequency counts, especially the singletons, may not be reliably observed. This arises es...

  14. Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

  15. Automatic platelet counting with the Coulter particle counter

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R. E.; Green, R. E.

    1967-01-01

    A method for accurately counting platelets is described using the Coulter counter model B fitted with a standard 100μ aperture tube. This enables the counter to be used for red and white cell as well as platelet counts using the same aperture tube. The method uses standard equipment except for a small inexpensive electronic speed controller. PMID:5602990

  16. On Optimal Differentially Private Mechanisms for Count-Range Queries*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chen; Cai, Jin-Yi; Lu, Pinyan; Naughton, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large and growing body of literature on differentially private mechanisms for answering various classes of queries, to the best of our knowledge “count-range” queries have not been studied. These are a natural class of queries that ask “is the number of rows in a relation satisfying a given predicate between two integers θ1 and θ2?” Such queries can be viewed as a simple form of SQL “having” queries. We begin by developing a provably optimal differentially private mechansim for count-range queries for a single consumer. For count queries (in contrast to count-range queries), Ghosh et al. [9] have provided a differentially private mechanism that simultaneously maximizes utility for multiple consumers. This raises the question of whether such a mechanism exists for count-range queries. We prove that the answer is no — for count range queries, no such mechanism exists. However, perhaps surprisingly, we prove that such a mechanism does exist for “threshold” queries, which are simply count-range queries for which either θ1 = 0 or θ2 = +∞. Furthermore, we prove that this mechanism is a two-approximation for general count-range queries. PMID:25364783

  17. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...

  18. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...

  19. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...

  20. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...

  1. Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R.

    1997-11-01

    Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E. J.; Axelrod, A. E.

    2012-07-01

    A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which originally was developed for use in machine speech-recognition. The strength of the layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to an ice core record from Greenland. The algorithm shows high skill in reproducing the results from manual layer counts.

  3. Probing cosmology with weak lensing peak counts

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, Jan M.; Haiman, Zoltan; May, Morgan

    2010-02-15

    We propose counting peaks in weak lensing (WL) maps, as a function of their height, to probe models of dark energy and to constrain cosmological parameters. Because peaks can be identified in two-dimensional WL maps directly, they can provide constraints that are free from potential selection effects and biases involved in identifying and determining the masses of galaxy clusters. As a pilot study, we have run cosmological N-body simulations to produce WL convergence maps in three models with different constant values of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, w=-0.8, -1, and -1.2, with a fixed normalization of the primordial power spectrum (corresponding to present-day normalizations of {sigma}{sub 8}=0.742, 0.798, and 0.839, respectively). By comparing the number of WL peaks in eight convergence bins in the range of -0.1<{kappa}<0.4, in multiple realizations of a single simulated 3x3 degree field, we show that the first (last) pair of models differ at the 95% (85%) confidence level. A survey with depth and area comparable to those expected from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should have a factor of {approx_equal}50 better parameter sensitivity. These results warrant further investigation, in order to assess the constraints available when marginalization over other uncertain parameters is included, and with the specifications of a realistic survey folded into the analysis. Here we find that relatively low-amplitude peaks ({kappa}{approx}0.03), which typically do not correspond to a single collapsed halo along the line of sight, account for most of the parameter sensitivity. We study a range of smoothing scales and source galaxy redshifts (z{sub s}). With a fixed source galaxy density of 15 arcmin{sup -2}, the best results are provided by the smallest scale we can reliably simulate, 1 arcmin, and z{sub s}=2 provides substantially better sensitivity than z{sub s{<=}}1.5.

  4. Photon Counting Airborne Laser Swath Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, K. C.

    2004-05-01

    During the past decade airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) has brought topographic mapping to the forefront of geodesy. ALSM has made it possible, for the first time, to study natural geo-surficial processes on spatial scales extending from meters to hundreds of kilometers, all in a consistent geodetic frame of reference. The conventional approach to ALSM has been to use lasers with enough energy per pulse, and optics with large enough collecting areas, to obtain returns of thousands of photons per shot. This approach minimizes the impact of spurious range values caused by noise, such as background solar radiation and sensor thermal noise, but also constrains the minimum size, weight and power consumption of the hardware. Current systems typically operate at rates approaching 100,000 pulses per second, and another order of magnitude increase would be needed to provide contiguous coverage with a spatial resolution of 30 cm or better. This high signal-to-noise ratio approach affords little scalability for significantly downsizing the hardware, or reducing the costs. University of Florida (UF) researchers are developing an ALSM unit based on a different paradigm, which we refer to as photon counting ALSM, or simply PC-ALSM. The approach is to transmit relatively low energy laser pulses, and to illuminate a surface `patch' about an order of magnitude larger than the typical footprint of a conventional ALSM system. The returning signal will have far fewer photons per unit area of the receive optics, making it more difficult to discriminate between return signal and noise. If a single channel detector were used, the spatial resolution would also be degraded. However, by using a multi-channel photomultiplier tube to detect the returns, the surface patch can be divided into an array of groundals, and by using a multi-stop timing system false ranges can be filtered out of the data during post flight processing. Researchers at NASA GSFC have already tested a first generation

  5. Relationship between somatic cell count, polymorphonuclear leucocyte count and quality parameters in bovine bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Wickström, Erik; Persson-Waller, Karin; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Ostensson, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2009-05-01

    The somatic cell count (SCC) in bovine bulk tank milk is presently used as an indicator of raw milk quality, reflecting the udder health status of the herd. During mastitis, SCC increases, mostly owing to an influx of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) from blood into milk, with a concomitant change in milk composition. Bulk tank milk samples were categorized according to their SCC, as well as polymorphonuclear leucocyte count (PMNC), to study relationships between SCC, PMNC and various raw milk quality traits, i.e. contents of total protein, whey protein, casein, fat and lactose, casein number, proteolysis and rheological properties. The proportion of PMN, obtained by direct microscopy, was significantly higher in samples with high SCC compared with low SCC samples. SCC and PMNC were strongly correlated, yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.85. High SCC samples had lower lactose and casein contents, lower casein number and more proteolysis than low SCC samples. Samples with high PMNC had a lower casein number than low PMNC samples. Samples with high and low SCC or PMNC did not differ in respect to rheological properties. Our results do not indicate that PMNC is a better biomarker than SCC for raw bulk tank milk quality, as previously proposed.

  6. You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers

    PubMed Central

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

  7. 34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made? 222.34 Section 222.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... PROGRAMS Payments for Federally Connected Children Under Section 8003(b) and (e) of the Act § 222.34 If...

  8. 34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made? 222.34 Section 222.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... PROGRAMS Payments for Federally Connected Children Under Section 8003(b) and (e) of the Act § 222.34 If...

  9. 34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made? 222.34 Section 222.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... PROGRAMS Payments for Federally Connected Children Under Section 8003(b) and (e) of the Act § 222.34 If...

  10. 34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made? 222.34 Section 222.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... PROGRAMS Payments for Federally Connected Children Under Section 8003(b) and (e) of the Act § 222.34 If...

  11. 34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made? 222.34 Section 222.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... PROGRAMS Payments for Federally Connected Children Under Section 8003(b) and (e) of the Act § 222.34 If...

  12. The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces the impact of count rate loss with photon-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-06-01

    Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a ‘hybrid’ detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089-102 ). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping (‘bowtie’) filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors.

  13. The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces the impact of count rate loss with photon-counting detectors.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2014-06-07

    Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a 'hybrid' detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089-102). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping ('bowtie') filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors.

  14. Learning to count begins in infancy: evidence from 18 month olds' visual preferences.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Itakura, Shoji; Kutsuki, Aya; Siegal, Michael

    2011-10-07

    We used a preferential looking paradigm to evaluate infants' preferences for correct versus incorrect counting. Infants viewed a video depicting six fish. In the correct counting sequence, a hand pointed to each fish in turn, accompanied by verbal counting up to six. In the incorrect counting sequence, the hand moved between two of the six fish while there was still verbal counting to six, thereby violating the one-to-one correspondence principle of correct counting. Experiment 1 showed that Australian 18 month olds, but not 15 month olds, significantly preferred to watch the correct counting sequence. In experiment 2, Australian infants' preference for correct counting disappeared when the count words were replaced by beeps or by Japanese count words. In experiment 3, Japanese 18 month olds significantly preferred the correct counting video only when counting was in Japanese. These results show that infants start to acquire the abstract principles governing correct counting prior to producing any counting behaviour.

  15. Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

    2010-01-01

    The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

  16. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana.

  17. Bubble Counts for Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Using Image Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P L; Gezahegne, A G; Cook, A W; Cabot, W H; Kamath, C

    2007-01-24

    We describe the use of image analysis to count bubbles in 3-D, large-scale, LES [1] and DNS [2] of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We analyze these massive datasets by first converting the 3-D data to 2-D, then counting the bubbles in the 2-D data. Our plots for the bubble count indicate there are four distinct regimes in the process of the mixing of the two fluids. We also show that our results are relatively insensitive to the choice of parameters in our analysis algorithms.

  18. Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitri; Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe

    2011-10-15

    In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

  19. Origin of limiting magnitude counting triangles and squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggemans, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Meteor astronomers worldwide struggled for over a century with the problem of how to calibrate visual meteor counts. Although the effect of variable sky conditions was already recognized in the earliest studies of meteor counts, it took until the end of the 1940s before the limiting magnitude was commonly considered as the parameter to calibrate the sky conditions. The brilliant idea to use counting areas in the sky for limiting magnitude determination was proposed by Hugo van Woerden in the 1950s. This method is still used today and helped the IMO to fulfill the expectations of Hugo van Woerden many years after it was first published.

  20. Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.

  1. Particle and Photon Detection: Counting and Energy Measurement.

    PubMed

    Janesick, James; Tower, John

    2016-05-12

    Fundamental limits for photon counting and photon energy measurement are reviewed for CCD and CMOS imagers. The challenges to extend photon counting into the visible/nIR wavelengths and achieve energy measurement in the UV with specific read noise requirements are discussed. Pixel flicker and random telegraph noise sources are highlighted along with various methods used in reducing their contribution on the sensor's read noise floor. Practical requirements for quantum efficiency, charge collection efficiency, and charge transfer efficiency that interfere with photon counting performance are discussed. Lastly we will review current efforts in reducing flicker noise head-on, in hopes to drive read noise substantially below 1 carrier rms.

  2. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Van Nevel, S; Koetzsch, S; Proctor, C R; Besmer, M D; Prest, E I; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Knezev, A; Boon, N; Hammes, F

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  3. Rapid detection and counting of viable bacteria in vegetables and environmental water using a photon-counting TV camera.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Kuramitsu, Y; Ookuma, A; Trevanich, S; Honjoh, K; Hatano, S

    1998-10-01

    A bioluminescence assay carried out with a photon-counting TV camera was evaluated for rapid enumeration of viable bacterial counts. The test sample was filtered through a membrane filter, and the membrane filter retaining bacteria was incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 h on a filter paper soaked with nutrient broth supplemented with 0.5% NaCl. The membrane filter was then subjected to a bioluminescence reaction, and the intensity of light and numbers of light emission points on the filter were measured with a photon-counting TV camera. The light intensity measured on seven different bacteria correlated with initial viable counts; the correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0.89. The number of light emission points measured on Escherichia coli also correlated with the initial viable counts (r = 0.81) in a range from 1 to 100 CFU. Presumptive bacterial counts by the present bioluminescence assay determined on 79 samples of vegetables and 122 samples of environmental water correlated well with the viable counts obtained by the conventional plating method, with correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.82, respectively.

  4. Correlation analysis on total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuming; Liang, Shuying; Yu, Erman; Guo, Jinling; Li, Zizhao; Wang, Zhe; Du, Yukai

    2011-10-01

    CD4 count is the standard method for determining eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and monitoring HIV/AIDS disease progression, but it is not widely available in resource-limited settings. This study examined the correlation between total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count of HIV-infected patients before and after HAART, and assessed the thresholds of TLC for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART. A retrospective study was performed, and 665 HIV-infected patients with TLC and CD4 count from four counties (Shangcai, Queshan, Shenqiu and Weishi) were included in the study. Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used. TLC and CD4 count after HAART was significantly increased as compared with pre-HAART (P<0.01). An overall positive correlation was noted between TLC and CD4 count (pre-HAART, r=0.73, P=0.0001; follow-up HAART, r=0.56, P=0.0001). The ROC curve between TLC and CD4 count showed that TLC ≤ 1200 cells/mm(3) could predict CD4 < 200 cells/mm(3) with a sensitivity of 71.12%, specificity of 66.35% at pre-HAART. After 12-month HAART, the optimum prediction for CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 was a TLC ≤ 1300 cells/mm(3), with a sensitivity of 63.27%, and a specificity of 74.84%. Further finding indicated that TLC change was positively correlated to CD4 change (r=0.77, P=0.0001) at the time point of 12-month treatment, and the best prediction point of TLC change for CD4 increasing was 135 cells/mm(3). TLC and its change can be used as a surrogate marker for CD4 count and its change of HIV-infected individuals for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART in resource-limited settings.

  5. Interferometer combines laser light source and digital counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Measurement of small linear displacements in digital readouts with extreme accuracy and sensitivity is achieved by an interferometer. The instrument combines a digital electro-optical fringe-counting system and a laser light source.

  6. Highly stable high-rate discriminator for nuclear counting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. J.; Howard, R. H.; Rudnick, S. J.

    1969-01-01

    Pulse amplitude discriminator is specially designed for nuclear counting applications. At very high rates, the threshold is stable. The output-pulse width and the dead time change negligibly. The unit incorporates a provision for automatic dead-time correction.

  7. Counts of low-Redshift SDSS quasar candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Zeljko Ivezic et al.

    2004-03-12

    We analyze the counts of low-redshift quasar candidates selected using nine-epoch SDSS imaging data. The co-added catalogs are more than 1 mag deeper than single-epoch SDSS data, and allow the selection of low-redshift quasar candidates using UV-excess and also variability techniques. The counts of selected candidates are robustly determined down to g = 21.5. This is about 2 magnitudes deeper than the position of a change in the slope of the counts reported by Boyle et al. (1990, 2000) for a sample selected by UV-excess, and questioned by Hawkins & Veron (1995), who utilized a variability-selected sample. Using SDSS data, we confirm a change in the slope of the counts for both UV-excess and variability selected samples, providing strong support for the Boyle et al. results.

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of motion sensor step-counting error.

    PubMed

    Abel, Mark G; Peritore, Nicole; Shapiro, Robert; Mullineaux, David R; Rodriguez, Kelly; Hannon, James C

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the effect that walking speed, gender, leg length, motion sensor tilt angle, brand, and placement have on motion sensor step-counting error. Fifty-nine participants performed treadmill walking trials at 6 speeds while wearing 5 motion sensor brands placed on the anterior (Digiwalker, DW; Walk4Life, WFL; New Lifestyles, NL; Omron, OM), midaxillary (DW; WFL; NL; ActiGraph, AG), and posterior (DW, WFL, NL) aspects of the waistline. The anterior-placed NL and midaxillary-placed AG were the most accurate motion sensors. Motion sensor step-count error tended to decrease at faster walking speeds, with lesser tilt angles, and with an anterior waistline placement. Gender and leg length had no effect on motion sensor step-count error. We conclude that the NL and AG yielded the most accurate step counts at a range of walking speeds in individuals with different physical characteristics.

  9. 29 CFR 825.105 - Counting employees for determining coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave... suspension, etc., are counted as long as the employer has a reasonable expectation that the employee...

  10. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Miklas S.; Dueholm, Jacob V.; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences. PMID:26742047

  11. Simple pulse counting circuit computes sum of squares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    Pulse counting circuit with an extra chain of flip-flops, delay lines, and gates computes the sum of the squares of the pulse sequences. A pulse train and the sum of the squares of the pulses are simultaneously completed.

  12. High performance universal analog and counting photodetector for LIDAR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linga, Krishna; Krutov, Joseph; Godik, Edward; Seemungal, Wayne; Shushakov, Dmitry; Shubin, V. E.

    2005-08-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of applying the emerging technology of internal discrete amplification to create an efficient, ultra low noise, universal analog and counting photodetector for LIDAR remote sensing. Photodetectors with internal discrete amplification can operate in the linear detection mode with a gain-bandwidth product of up to 1015 and in the photon counting mode with count rates of up to 109 counts/sec. Detectors based on this mechanism could have performance parameters superior to those of conventional avalanche photodiodes and photomultiplier tubes. For silicon photodetector prototypes, measured excess noise factor is as low as 1.02 at gains greater than 100,000. This gives the photodetectors and, consequently, the LIDAR systems new capabilities that could lead to important advances in LIDAR remote sensing.

  13. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

    1980-05-23

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  14. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, James A.; Kopp, Manfred K.

    1981-01-01

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  15. A Comparison of Galaxy Counting Techniques in Spectroscopically Undersampled Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specian, Mike A.; Szalay, Alex S.

    2016-11-01

    Accurate measures of galactic overdensities are invaluable for precision cosmology. Obtaining these measurements is complicated when members of one’s galaxy sample lack radial depths, most commonly derived via spectroscopic redshifts. In this paper, we utilize the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Main Galaxy Sample to compare seven methods of counting galaxies in cells when many of those galaxies lack redshifts. These methods fall into three categories: assigning galaxies discrete redshifts, scaling the numbers counted using regions’ spectroscopic completeness properties, and employing probabilistic techniques. We split spectroscopically undersampled regions into three types—those inside the spectroscopic footprint, those outside but adjacent to it, and those distant from it. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the preferred counting techniques are a function of region type, cell size, and redshift. We conclude by reporting optimal counting strategies under a variety of conditions.

  16. Correlated neutron counting for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G

    2010-12-01

    Correlated neutron counting techniques, such as neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, are widely employed at nuclear fuel cycle facilities for the accountancy of nuclear material such as plutonium. These techniques need to be improved and enhanced to meet the challenges of complex measurement items and future nuclear safeguards applications, for example; the non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel, high counting rate applications, small sample measurements, and Helium-3 replacement. At the same time simulation tools, used for the design of detection systems based on these techniques, are being developed in anticipation of future needs. This seminar will present the theory and current state of the practice of temporally correlated neutron counting. A range of future safeguards applications will then be presented in the context of research projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  17. Investigating Children's Abilities to Count and Make Quantitative Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate children's abilities to count and make quantitative comparisons. In addition, this study utilized reasoning questions (i.e., how did you know?). Thirty-four preschoolers, mean age 4.5 years old, participated in the study. According to the results, 89% of the children (n = 30) were able to do rote counting and…

  18. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, confidence interval [CI] = 0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR = 0.22, CI = 0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi.

  19. Photon Counting Chirped AM Ladar: Concept, Simulation, and Experimental Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    sensitivity. This noise is well above the signal shot noise limit. We are developing a method using Geiger -mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) photon counting...Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law ...photon counting receiver bandwidth, and therefore, sets the minimum achievable timing/range resolution. The inverse of the dead time sets the upper

  20. Effects of Counting and Matching on Conservation of Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuson, Karen C.; And Others

    Forty-five children aged four-and-a-half to five-and-a-half years old were given number conservation tasks in three conditions: (1) a count condition in which children were helped to count each set after the transformation; (2) a match condition in which children were helped to connect by a string each animal with its peanut; and (3) the standard…

  1. Photon counting detectors for Fabry-Perot interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlington, E. H.; Haviland, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Sealed channel plate photomultipliers with multiple discrete anodes for use as photon counting detectors in the image plane of Fabry-Perot interferometers are described. The influence of design and construction on performance of completed devices is discussed. Effects on spatial resolution, lifetime, and counting efficiency are described. It is shown that devices can be optimized for particular applications. The results should be generally applicable to resistive anode and wedge and strip anode types of sealed detectors.

  2. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Sherif

    2015-12-01

    A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image.

  3. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image. PMID:26380843

  4. Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-01-01

    The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

  5. Higher order relativistic galaxy number counts: dominating terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TrØst Nielsen, Jeppe; Durrer, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    We review the number counts to second order concentrating on the terms which dominate on sub horizon scales. We re-derive the result for these terms and compare it with the different versions found in the literature. We generalize our derivation to higher order terms, especially the third order number counts which are needed to compute the 1-loop contribution to the power spectrum.

  6. The Argonne low level /sup 14/C counting system

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.; Rymas, S.J.; Studebaker, L.D.; Yule, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    A low level /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ counting system is described. This system was used to process several thousand CO/sub 2/ samples derived from atmospheric collections at various altitudes. Special features include counter construction utilizing electrolytic copper and shielding with neutron moderating and absorbing paraffin containing sodium metaborate. The effect of steel shielding thickness is shown, and the anticoincidence counters are described. Purification of the CO/sub 2/ for proportional counting is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Oral Counting Sequences: A Theoretical Discussion and Analysis through the Lens of Representational Redescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voutsina, Chronoula

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research has documented how children's early counting develops into an increasingly abstract process, and initial counting procedures are reified as children develop and use more sophisticated counting. In this development, the learning of different oral counting sequences that allow children to count in steps bigger than one is seen as…

  8. Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1991-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.

  9. Dysfunctional counting of mental time in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Motoyasu; Kuroda, Takeshi; Futamura, Akinori; Shiromaru, Azusa; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often underestimate time intervals, however it remains unclear why they underestimate rather than overestimate them. The current study examined time underestimation and counting in patients with PD, in relation to dopamine transporter (DaT) located on presynaptic nerve endings in the striatum. Nineteen non-dementia patients with PD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed two time estimation tasks to produce or reproduce time intervals with counting in the head, to examine dysfunctional time counting processing. They also performed tapping tasks to measure cycles of counting with 1 s interval with time estimation. Compared to controls, patients underestimated time intervals above 10 s on time production not reproduction tasks, and the underestimation correlated with fast counting on the tapping task. Furthermore, striatal DaT protein levels strongly correlated with underestimation of time intervals. These findings suggest that distortion of time intervals is guided by cumulative output of fast cycle counting and that this is linked with striatal DaT protein deficit. PMID:27146904

  10. Measuring PET scanner sensitivity; Relating count rates to image signal-to-noise ratios using noise equivalent counts

    SciTech Connect

    Strother, S.C. ); Casey, M.E. ); Hoffman, E.J. . Nuclear Medicine Lab.)

    1990-04-01

    Sensitivity parameters derived from a plot of a scanner's true coincidence count (TCC) rates as a function of activity in a 20 cm cylindrical phantom have no direct link to image quality. Noise equivalent count (NEC) rate curves, which incorporate the noise effects of subtracting the randoms and scatter count components provide a direct link between image signal-to-noise ratios and the scatter, randoms and trues coincidence count rates. The authors have measured TCC and NEC curves with a standardized 20 cm diameter nylon cylinder for five different PET scanners with several scanner-collimator combinations. In addition, the authors have compared TCC and NEC curves on one scanner with those from an Alderson brain phantom.

  11. Determination of confidence limits for experiments with low numbers of counts. [Poisson-distributed photon counts from astrophysical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Two different methods, classical and Bayesian, for determining confidence intervals involving Poisson-distributed data are compared. Particular consideration is given to cases where the number of counts observed is small and is comparable to the mean number of background counts. Reasons for preferring the Bayesian over the classical method are given. Tables of confidence limits calculated by the Bayesian method are provided for quick reference.

  12. The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Müller, J D; So, P T; Gratton, E

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is generally used to obtain information about the number of fluorescent particles in a small volume and the diffusion coefficient from the autocorrelation function of the fluorescence signal. Here we demonstrate that photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis constitutes a novel tool for extracting quantities from fluorescence fluctuation data, i.e., the measured photon counts per molecule and the average number of molecules within the observation volume. The photon counting histogram of fluorescence fluctuation experiments, in which few molecules are present in the excitation volume, exhibits a super-Poissonian behavior. The additional broadening of the PCH compared to a Poisson distribution is due to fluorescence intensity fluctuations. For diffusing particles these intensity fluctuations are caused by an inhomogeneous excitation profile and the fluctuations in the number of particles in the observation volume. The quantitative relationship between the detected photon counts and the fluorescence intensity reaching the detector is given by Mandel's formula. Based on this equation and considering the fluorescence intensity distribution in the two-photon excitation volume, a theoretical expression for the PCH as a function of the number of molecules in the excitation volume is derived. For a single molecular species two parameters are sufficient to characterize the histogram completely, namely the average number of molecules within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling time epsilon. The PCH for multiple molecular species, on the other hand, is generated by successively convoluting the photon counting distribution of each species with the others. The influence of the excitation profile upon the photon counting statistics for two relevant point spread functions (PSFs), the three-dimensional Gaussian PSF conventionally employed in confocal detection and the square of the Gaussian

  13. Statistical treatment of photon/electron counting: extending the linear dynamic range from the dark count rate to saturation.

    PubMed

    Kissick, David J; Muir, Ryan D; Simpson, Garth J

    2010-12-15

    An experimentally simple photon counting method is demonstrated providing 7 orders of magnitude in linear dynamic range (LDR) for a single photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. In conventional photon/electron counting methods, the linear range is dictated by the agreement between the binomially distributed measurement of counted events and the underlying Poisson distribution of photons/electrons. By explicitly considering the log-normal probability distribution in voltage transients as a function of the number of photons present and the Poisson distribution of photons, observed counts for a given threshold can be related to the mean number of photons well beyond the conventional limit. Analytical expressions are derived relating counts and photons that extend the linear range to an average of ∼11 photons arriving simultaneously with a single threshold. These expressions can be evaluated numerically for multiple thresholds extending the linear range to the saturation point of the PMT. The peak voltage distributions are experimentally shown to follow a Poisson weighted sum of log-normal distributions that can all be derived from the single photoelectron voltage peak-height distribution. The LDR that results from this method is compared to conventional single photon counting (SPC) and to signal averaging by analog to digital conversion (ADC).

  14. The limits of counting accuracy in distributed neural representations.

    PubMed

    Gardner-Medwin, A R; Barlow, H B

    2001-03-01

    Learning about a causal or statistical association depends on comparing frequencies of joint occurrence with frequencies expected from separate occurrences, and to do this, events must somehow be counted. Physiological mechanisms can easily generate the necessary measures if there is a direct, one-to-one relationship between significant events and neural activity, but if the events are represented across cell populations in a distributed manner, the counting of one event will be interfered with by the occurrence of others. Although the mean interference can be allowed for, there is inevitably an increase in the variance of frequency estimates that results in the need for extra data to achieve reliable learning. This lowering of statistical efficiency (Fisher, 1925) is calculated as the ratio of the minimum to actual variance of the estimates. We define two neural models, based on presynaptic and Hebbian synaptic modification, and explore the effects of sparse coding and the relative frequencies of events on the efficiency of frequency estimates. High counting efficiency must be a desirable feature of biological representations, but the results show that the number of events that can be counted simultaneously with 50% efficiency is fewer than the number of cells or 0.1-0.25 of the number of synapses (on the two models) - many fewer than can be unambiguously represented. Direct representations would lead to greater counting efficiency, but distributed representations have the versatility of detecting and counting many unforeseen or rare events. Efficient counting of rare but important events requires that they engage more active cells than common or unimportant ones. The results suggest reasons that representations in the cerebral cortex appear to use extravagant numbers of cells and modular organization, and they emphasize the importance of neuronal trigger features and the phenomena of habituation and attention.

  15. SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca

    2009-12-20

    We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.

  16. Methods of detecting and counting raptors: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, M.R.; Mosher, J.A.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    Most raptors are wide-ranging, secretive, and occur at relatively low densities. These factors, in conjunction with the nocturnal activity of owls, cause the counting of raptors by most standard census and survey efforts to be very time consuming and expensive. This paper reviews the most common methods of detecting and counting raptors. It is hoped that it will be of use to the ever-increasing number of biologists, land-use planners, and managers that must determine the occurrence, density, or population dynamics of raptors. Road counts of fixed station or continuous transect design are often used to sample large areas. Detection of spontaneous or elicited vocalizations, especially those of owls, provides a means of detecting and estimating raptor numbers. Searches for nests are accomplished from foot surveys, observations from automobiles and boats, or from aircraft when nest structures are conspicuous (e.g., Osprey). Knowledge of nest habitat, historic records, and inquiries of local residents are useful for locating nests. Often several of these techniques are combined to help find nest sites. Aerial searches have also been used to locate or count large raptors (e.g., eagles), or those that may be conspicuous in open habitats (e.g., tundra). Counts of birds entering or leaving nest colonies or colonial roosts have been attempted on a limited basis. Results from Christmas Bird Counts have provided an index of the abundance of some species. Trapping and banding generally has proven to be an inefficient method of detecting raptors or estimating their populations. Concentrations of migrants at strategically located points around the world afford the best opportunity to count many rap tors in a relatively short period of time, but the influence of many unquantified variables has inhibited extensive interpretation of these counts. Few data exist to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods. We believe more research on sampling techniques, rather than complete

  17. Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

    We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

  18. Multiplicity counting from fission chamber signals in the current mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pázsit, I.; Pál, L.; Nagy, L.

    2016-12-01

    In nuclear safeguards, estimation of sample parameters using neutron-based non-destructive assay methods is traditionally based on multiplicity counting with thermal neutron detectors in the pulse mode. These methods in general require multi-channel analysers and various dead time correction methods. This paper proposes and elaborates on an alternative method, which is based on fast neutron measurements with fission chambers in the current mode. A theory of "multiplicity counting" with fission chambers is developed by incorporating Böhnel's concept of superfission [1] into a master equation formalism, developed recently by the present authors for the statistical theory of fission chamber signals [2,3]. Explicit expressions are derived for the first three central auto- and cross moments (cumulants) of the signals of up to three detectors. These constitute the generalisation of the traditional Campbell relationships for the case when the incoming events represent a compound Poisson distribution. Because now the expressions contain the factorial moments of the compound source, they contain the same information as the singles, doubles and triples rates of traditional multiplicity counting. The results show that in addition to the detector efficiency, the detector pulse shape also enters the formulas; hence, the method requires a more involved calibration than the traditional method of multiplicity counting. However, the method has some advantages by not needing dead time corrections, as well as having a simpler and more efficient data processing procedure, in particular for cross-correlations between different detectors, than the traditional multiplicity counting methods.

  19. Blood baseline neutrophil count predicts bevacizumab efficacy in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bertaut, Aurélie; Truntzer, Caroline; Madkouri, Rachid; Kaderbhai, Coureche Guillaume; Derangère, Valentin; Vincent, Julie; Chauffert, Bruno; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie Hélene; Farah, Wahlid; Mourier, Klaus Luc; Boidot, Romain; Ghiringhelli, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab is used to treat glioblastoma; however, no current biomarker predicts its efficacy. We used an exploratory cohort of patients treated with the radiochemotherapy then bevacizumab or chemotherapy at recurrence (N = 265). Bevacizumab use increased median overall survival (OS) 18.7 vs 11.3 months, p = 0.0014). In multivariate analysis, age, initial surgery, neutrophil count, Karnofsky status >70% and bevacizumab administration were independent prognostic factors of survival. We found an interaction between bevacizumab use and baseline neutrophil count. The cut-off value for the neutrophil count was set at 6000/mm3. Only patients with a high neutrophil count benefited from the bevacizumab treatment (17.3 vs 8.8 months p < 0.0001). We validated this result using data from the TEMAVIR trial, which tested the efficacy of neoadjuvant bevacizumab plus irinotecan versus radiochemotherapy in the first-line treatment of glioblastoma. Transcriptomic data from TCGA underlined that CSF3 expression, the gene encoding G-CSF, the growth factor for neutrophils, correlated with VEGF-A-dependent angiogenesis. In another independent cohort (BELOB trial), which compared lomustine versus lomustine plus bevacizumab at recurrence, bevacizumab only benefited patients with high CSF3 expression in the tumor. These data suggest that only patients with a high peripheral neutrophil count before bevacizumab treatment benefited from this therapy. PMID:27487142

  20. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Richard A.

    1981-01-01

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for counting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensated circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  1. Photon counting spectroscopy as done with a Thomson scattering diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Ruppert, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    The measurement and reduction of photon counting spectral data is demonstrated within the context of a Thomson scattering diagnostic. This diagnostic contains a microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) as the photon sensing device. The MCP PMT is not an ideal photon sensor, the loss of photoelectrons at the MCP input and the broad charge pulse distribution at the output add to the uncertainty in recorded data. Computer simulations are used to demonstrate an approach to quantification of this added uncertainty and to develop an understanding of its source; the methodology may be applicable to the development of an understanding of photon detectors other than an MCP PMT. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson statistical character of the data, because the assumption that a Gaussian probability distribution is a reasonable statistical description of photon counting data is often questionable. When the count rate is low, the product the possible number of photon counts and the probability of measurement of a single photon is usually not sufficiently large to justify Gaussian statistics. Rather, because probabilities of measurement are so low, the Poisson probability distribution best quantifies the inherent statistical fluctuations in such counting measurements. The method of maximum likelihood is applied to derive the Poisson statistics equivalent of {sub X}{sup 2}. A Poisson statistics based data fitting code is implemented using the Newton-Raphson method of multi-dimensional root finding; we also demonstrate an algorithm to estimate the uncertainties in derived quantities.

  2. The Relationship Between Blood Monocyte Count and Coronary Artery Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mehmet; Demir, Canan; Keceoglu, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) has not been clearly identified, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis have been reported. It is known that monocytes play an important role in inflammation, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to compare the numbers of monocyte counts of the CAE patients versus controls. Method This study included 84 CAE patients (40 male, mean age 55.4 ± 9.7 years) and 30 controls (10 male, mean age 57.86 ± 11.6 years). Concurrent routine biochemical tests and neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte count and mean platelet volume (MPV) on whole blood count were performed for these participants. These parameters were compared between groups. Results Baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. CAE patients had a higher MPV value and monocyte count than controls (8.8 ± 0.2 vs. 6.2 ± 1.6 fL and 732 ± 88 vs. 321 ± 75 cell/μL; both P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion As a result, our study revealed a relationship between monocyte count and MPV in patients with CAE. PMID:28348713

  3. Reproducibility of Manual Platelet Estimation Following Automated Low Platelet Counts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hosni, Zainab S; Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Al-Mamari, Sahimah; Al-Qasabi, Jamal; Davis, Hiedi; Al-Lawati, Hatim; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Manual platelet estimation is one of the methods used when automated platelet estimates are very low. However, the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation has not been adequately studied. We sought to assess the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation following automated low platelet counts and to evaluate the impact of the level of experience of the person counting on the reproducibility of manual platelet estimates. Methods In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood films of patients with platelet counts less than 100 × 109/L were retrieved and given to four raters to perform manual platelet estimation independently using a predefined method (average of platelet counts in 10 fields using 100× objective multiplied by 20). Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a method of reproducibility assessment. Results The ICC across the four raters was 0.840, indicating excellent agreement. The median difference of the two most experienced raters was 0 (range: -64 to 78). The level of platelet estimate by the least-experienced rater predicted the disagreement (p = 0.037). When assessing the difference between pairs of raters, there was no significant difference in the ICC (p = 0.420). Conclusions The agreement between different raters using manual platelet estimation was excellent. Further confirmation is necessary, with a prospective study using a gold standard method of platelet counts. PMID:27974955

  4. Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

  5. Correction for nonlinear photon counting effects in lidar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, D. P.; Whiteway, J. A.; Carswell, A. I.

    1992-01-01

    Photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) employed in the photon counting (PC) mode of operation are widely used as detectors in lidar systems. In our laboratory, we have developed a versatile Nd:YAG lidar which is used for measurement of both the middle atmosphere and the troposphere. With this system, we encounter a very wide range of signal levels ranging from the extremely weak signals from the top of the mesosphere to the very strong returns from low level clouds. Although the system is capable of operating the PMT's in either the analog detection or photon counting mode, we find that often when we use photon counting we have portions of our lidar return which contain very useful information but are not within the linear operating regime of the PC system. We report the results of our efforts to explore the extent to which such high intensity PC signals can be quantitatively analyzed. In particular, a useful model relating the mean 'true' count rate and the observed count rate is presented and it's application to our system demonstrated. This model takes into account the variation in height of the PMT output pulses and the effect of the pulse height discrimination threshold.

  6. An improved differential box-counting method of image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cancan; Cheng, Longfei; He, Tao; Chen, Lang; Yu, Fei; Yang, Liangen

    2016-01-01

    Fractal dimension is an important quantitative characteristic of a image, which can be widely used in image analysis. Differential box-counting method which is one of many calculation methods of a fractal dimension has been frequently used due to its simple calculation . In differential box-counting method, a window size M is limited in the integer power of 2. It leads to inaccurate calculation results of a fractal dimension. Aiming at solving the issues , in this paper, an improved algorithm is discussed that the window size M has been improved to be able to accommodate non-integer power of 2, and making the calculated fractal dimension error smaller. In order to verify superiority of the improved algorithm, the values of fractal dimension are regarded as parameters, and are applied for image segmentation combined with Ostu algorithm . Both traditional and improved differential box-counting methods are respectively used to estimate fractal dimensions and do threshold segmentation for a thread image . The experimental results show that image segmentation details by improved differential box-counting method are more obvious than that by traditional differential box-counting method, with less impurities, clearer target outline and better segmentation effect.

  7. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E. J.; Axelrod, A. E.

    2012-11-01

    A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of hidden Markov models (HMMs), which originally was developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of the layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to two ice core records from Greenland: one displaying a distinct annual signal and one which is more challenging. The algorithm shows high skill in reproducing the results from manual layer counts, and the resulting timescale compares well to absolute-dated volcanic marker horizons where these exist.

  8. Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.

  9. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count reliably predicts autograft yield.

    PubMed

    Chapple, P; Prince, H M; Quinn, M; Bertoncello, I; Juneja, S; Wolf, M; Januszewicz, H; Brettell, M; Gardyn, J; Seymour, C; Venter, D

    1998-07-01

    A reliable measure to predict peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) autograft CD34+ cell content is required to optimize the timing of PBPC collection. We prospectively examined the peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cell count in 59 consecutive patients with various malignancies and analyzed the correlation between the PB CD34+ cell count and various parameters in the PBPC autograft. Two hundred and thirty-five collections were performed with a median of 4.0 collections per patient (range, 2-10). The median PB CD34+ cell count at the time of collection was 39 x 10(6)/1 (range, 0.0-285.6). The PBPC autograft parameters measured were the CD34+ cell, colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and mononuclear cell (MNC) content. There was a strong linear correlation between PB CD34+ cells/l and autograft CD34+ cells/kg (r = 0.8477). The correlation with CFU-GM/kg (r = 0.5512) was weaker. There was no correlation between autograft CD34+ cells/kg and PB WBC (r= 0.0684), PB MNC (r = 0.1518) or PB platelet count (r = 0.2010). At our institution we aim to obtain a minimum of 0.5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg with each day of collection. We demonstrate that such a collection can be reliably obtained if the PB CD34+ cell count exceeds 5.0 x 10(6)/l.

  10. Particle and Photon Detection: Counting and Energy Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Janesick, James; Tower, John

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental limits for photon counting and photon energy measurement are reviewed for CCD and CMOS imagers. The challenges to extend photon counting into the visible/nIR wavelengths and achieve energy measurement in the UV with specific read noise requirements are discussed. Pixel flicker and random telegraph noise sources are highlighted along with various methods used in reducing their contribution on the sensor’s read noise floor. Practical requirements for quantum efficiency, charge collection efficiency, and charge transfer efficiency that interfere with photon counting performance are discussed. Lastly we will review current efforts in reducing flicker noise head-on, in hopes to drive read noise substantially below 1 carrier rms. PMID:27187398

  11. HAPPY PEOPLE BECOME HAPPIER THROUGH KINDNESS: A COUNTING KINDNESSES INTERVENTION.

    PubMed

    Otake, Keiko; Shimai, Satoshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko; Otsui, Kanako; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2006-09-01

    We examined the relationship between the character strength of kindness and subjective happiness (Study 1), and the effects of a counting kindnesses intervention on subjective happiness (Study 2). In Study 1, participants were 175 Japanese undergraduate students and in Study 2, participants were 119 Japanese women (71 in the intervention group and 48 in the control group). Results showed that: (a) Happy people scored higher on their motivation to perform, and their recognition and enactment of kind behaviors. (b) Happy people have more happy memories in daily life in terms of both quantity and quality. (c) Subjective happiness was increased simply by counting one's own acts of kindness for one week. (d) Happy people became more kind and grateful through the counting kindnesses intervention. Discussion centers on the importance of kindness in producing subjective happiness.

  12. Photon counting detector array algorithms for deep space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Meera; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Farr, William H.; Wong, Andre

    2016-03-01

    For deep-space optical communications systems utilizing an uplink optical beacon, a single-photon-counting detector array on the flight terminal can be used to simultaneously perform uplink tracking and communications as well as accurate downlink pointing at photon-starved (pW=m2) power levels. In this paper, we discuss concepts and algorithms for uplink signal acquisition, tracking, and parameter estimation using a photon-counting camera. Statistical models of detector output data and signal processing algorithms are presented, incorporating realistic effects such as Earth background and detector/readout blocking. Analysis and simulation results are validated against measured laboratory data using state-of-the-art commercial photon-counting detector arrays, demonstrating sub-microradian tracking errors under channel conditions representative of deep space optical links.

  13. Single-molecule localization software applied to photon counting imaging.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Liisa M; Kilfeather, Tiffany; Suhling, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Centroiding in photon counting imaging has traditionally been accomplished by a single-step, noniterative algorithm, often implemented in hardware. Single-molecule localization techniques in superresolution fluorescence microscopy are conceptually similar, but use more sophisticated iterative software-based fitting algorithms to localize the fluorophore. Here, we discuss common features and differences between single-molecule localization and photon counting imaging and investigate the suitability of single-molecule localization software for photon event localization. We find that single-molecule localization software packages designed for superresolution microscopy-QuickPALM, rapidSTORM, and ThunderSTORM-can work well when applied to photon counting imaging with a microchannel-plate-based intensified camera system: photon event recognition can be excellent, fixed pattern noise can be low, and the microchannel plate pores can easily be resolved.

  14. Inverse counting statistics based on generalized factorial cumulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Philipp; König, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    We propose a procedure to reconstruct characteristic features of an unknown stochastic system from the long-time full counting statistics of some of the system’s transitions that are monitored by a detector. The full counting statistics is conveniently parametrized by so-called generalized factorial cumulants. Taking only a few of them as input information is sufficient to reconstruct important features such as the lower bound of the system dimension and the full spectrum of relaxation rates. The use of generalized factorial cumulants reveals system dimensions and rates that are hidden for ordinary cumulants. We illustrate the inverse counting-statistics procedure for two model systems: a single-level quantum dot in a Zeeman field and a single-electron box subjected to sequential and Andreev tunneling.

  15. A mixed time series model of binomial counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Wooi Chen; Ong, Seng Huat

    2015-10-01

    Continuous time series modelling has been an active research in the past few decades. However, time series data in terms of correlated counts appear in many situations such as the counts of rainy days and access downloading. Therefore, the study on count data has become popular in time series modelling recently. This article introduces a new mixture model, which is an univariate non-negative stationary time series model with binomial marginal distribution, arising from the combination of the well-known binomial thinning and Pegram's operators. A brief review of important properties will be carried out and the EM algorithm is applied in parameter estimation. A numerical study is presented to show the performance of the model. Finally, a potential real application will be presented to illustrate the advantage of the new mixture model.

  16. On the reproducibility of SSNTD track counting efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes O, S.; Hadler N, J. C.; Iunes, P. J.; Paulo, S. R.; Tello S, C. A.

    1998-12-01

    In this work, the influence of track density and chemical etching on the reproducibility of the track counting efficiency, ɛ0, in solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) is studied. This was performed by means of the analysis of CR-39 sheets that were attached to a thin film of natural uranium. Maintaining the chemical etching parameters constant and varying the exposition time, ɛ0 is observed to be constant for track densities varying between values approximately equal to the track background and those corresponding to the track overlapping limit, where track counting becomes difficult ( ˜10 5 cm-2 at our conditions). Otherwise, keeping constant the exposition time and varying the etching temperature, a variation in ɛ0 is found if a usual track counting criterion is employed. However, such a variation vanishes statistically when a more rigorous criterion is adopted.

  17. Bayesian inference from count data using discrete uniform priors.

    PubMed

    Comoglio, Federico; Fracchia, Letizia; Rinaldi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    We consider a set of sample counts obtained by sampling arbitrary fractions of a finite volume containing an homogeneously dispersed population of identical objects. We report a Bayesian derivation of the posterior probability distribution of the population size using a binomial likelihood and non-conjugate, discrete uniform priors under sampling with or without replacement. Our derivation yields a computationally feasible formula that can prove useful in a variety of statistical problems involving absolute quantification under uncertainty. We implemented our algorithm in the R package dupiR and compared it with a previously proposed Bayesian method based on a Gamma prior. As a showcase, we demonstrate that our inference framework can be used to estimate bacterial survival curves from measurements characterized by extremely low or zero counts and rather high sampling fractions. All in all, we provide a versatile, general purpose algorithm to infer population sizes from count data, which can find application in a broad spectrum of biological and physical problems.

  18. Bayesian Blocks: A New Method to Analyze Photon Counting Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A Bayesian analysis of photon-counting data leads to a new time-domain algorithm for detecting localized structures (bursts), revealing pulse shapes, and generally characterizing intensity variations. The raw counting data -- time-tag events (TTE), time-to-spill (TTS) data, or binned counts -- is converted to a maximum likelihood segmentation of the observation into time intervals during which the photon arrival rate is perceptibly constant -- i.e. has a fixed intensity without statistically significant variations. The resulting structures, Bayesian Blocks, can be thought of as bins with arbitrary spacing determined by the data. The method itself sets no lower limit to the time scale on which variability can be detected. We have applied the method to RXTE data on Cyg X-1, yielding information on this source's short-time-scale variability.

  19. Rescaled box counting for the topological analysis of spatial data

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1994-04-01

    Topological analysis of surfaces of natural objects can provide information about surface features (ridges, fragmentation, dendritic patterns) and surface roughness. Box counting is a general method useful for such surfaces, but it is currently limited to cases where the x, y, and z directions are all in the same metric. A method, rescaled box counting, is presented for overcoming these limitations. The local first omnidirectional semivariance (lag 1) is calculated for boxes of different sizes. If the semivariance is not small for small box sizes, then the z data need to be scaled up to allow detection of a difference between patches that are significantly different This rescaling converts the z metric into a distance equivalent (z units are converted into distances based on the horizontal distance over which a significant change in z is found to occur). Once rescaling is done, box counting can be used to quantify surface topology.

  20. Blood platelet counts, morphology and morphometry in lions, Panthera leo.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, L

    2009-09-01

    Due to logistical problems in obtaining sufficient blood samples from apparently healthy animals in the wild in order to establish normal haematological reference values, only limited information regarding the blood platelet count and morphology of free-living lions (Panthera leo) is available. This study provides information on platelet counts and describes their morphology with particular reference to size in two normal, healthy and free-ranging lion populations. Blood samples were collected from a total of 16 lions. Platelet counts, determined manually, ranged between 218 and 358 x 10(9)/l. Light microscopy showed mostly activated platelets of various sizes with prominent granules. At the ultrastructural level the platelets revealed typical mammalian platelet morphology. However, morphometric analysis revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in platelet size between the two groups of animals. Basic haematological information obtained in this study may be helpful in future comparative studies between animals of the same species as well as in other felids.

  1. 48-channel coincidence counting system for multiphoton experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Wei; Hu, Yi; Yang, Tao; Jin, Ge; Jiang, Xiao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a coincidence counting system with 48 input channels which is aimed to count all coincidence events, up to 531 441 kinds, in a multiphoton experiment. Using the dynamic delay adjusting inside the Field Programmable Gate Array, the alignment of photon signals of 48 channels is achieved. After the alignment, clock phase shifting is used to sample signal pulses. Logic constraints are used to stabilize the pulse width. The coincidence counting data stored in a 1G bit external random access memory will be sent to the computer to analyze the amount of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-fold coincidence events. This system is designed for multiphoton entanglement experiments with multiple degrees of freedom of photons.

  2. Loss-Free Counting with Digital Signal Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Markku Koskelo; Dave Hall; Martin Moslinger

    2000-11-12

    Loss-free-counting (LFC) techniques have frequently been used with traditional analog pulse processing systems to compensate for the time or pulses lost when a spectroscopy system is unavailable (busy) for processing an accepted pulse. With the availability of second-generation digital signal processing (DSP) electronics that offer a significantly improved performance for both high and low count rate applications, the LFC technique has been revisited. Specific attention was given to the high and ultra-high count rate behavior, using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with both transistor reset preamplifiers (TRP) and conventional RC preamplifiers. The experiments conducted for this work show that the known LFC techniques further benefit when combined with modern DSP pulse shaping.

  3. Estimation of Sparse Directed Acyclic Graphs for Multivariate Counts Data

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Won; Zhong, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Summary The next-generation sequencing data, called high throughput sequencing data, are recorded as count data, which is generally far from normal distribution. Under the assumption that the count data follow the Poisson log-normal distribution, this paper provides an L1-penalized likelihood framework and an efficient search algorithm to estimate the structure of sparse directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) for multivariate counts data. In searching for the solution, we use iterative optimization procedures to estimate the adjacency matrix and the variance matrix of the latent variables. The simulation result shows that our proposed method outperforms the approach which assumes multivariate normal distributions, and the log-transformation approach. It also shows that the proposed method outperforms the rank-based PC method under sparse network or hub network structures. As a real data example, we demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method in estimating the gene regulatory networks of the ovarian cancer study. PMID:26849781

  4. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N.; Sharpe, T.J.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Platelet count on slow induction to high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Subhash C.

    1986-03-01

    Platelet counts were estimated at sea level in 50 lowlanders. They were divided at random in two groups (A and B) of 25 each. Group A went up by train/road transport to 3658 m, while group B reached the same height after 8 days of acclimatisation enroute. Platelet counts were estimated serially in both groups at high altitude. Symptoms of high altitude exposure were also recorded. No significant change in the counts was noted in either group and none became “Symptomatic”. All were brought back to sea level by air and deinduction studies carried out on days 1 and 4 of return. The importance of these findings in the light of our existing knowledge is discussed.

  6. Dead time correction in coincidence counting of photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M. S.; Lee, D.-H.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. Y.; Choi, S.-K.; Park, H. S.

    2008-08-01

    We describe two methods for evaluating the dead time of a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). The dead time is obtained by measuring either the corresponding time interval in an oscilloscope trace or the relation between the single count rate and the coincidence count rate. Values for the TAC dead time are obtained in the range from 3.4 µs to 14.3 µs for the two methods with respective standard uncertainties of 2.9 × 10-8 s and 3.3 × 10-9 s. The TAC dead time is applied to the calibration of coincidence-counting measurements of optical transmission and photon-heralding efficiency.

  7. Attention during active visual tasks: counting, pointing, or simply looking

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, John D.; Schnitzer, Brian S.; Gersch, Timothy M.; Dosher, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention and saccades are typically studied in artificial situations, with stimuli presented to the steadily fixating eye, or saccades made along specified paths. By contrast, in the real world saccadic patterns are constrained only by the demands of the motivating task. We studied attention during pauses between saccades made to perform 3 free-viewing tasks: counting dots, pointing to the same dots with a visible cursor, or simply looking at the dots using a freely-chosen path. Attention was assessed by the ability to identify the orientation of a briefly-presented Gabor probe. All primary tasks produced losses in identification performance, with counting producing the largest losses, followed by pointing and then looking-only. Looking-only resulted in a 37% increase in contrast thresholds in the orientation task. Counting produced more severe losses that were not overcome by increasing Gabor contrast. Detection or localization of the Gabor, unlike identification, were largely unaffected by any of the primary tasks. Taken together, these results show that attention is required to control saccades, even with freely-chosen paths, but the attentional demands of saccades are less than those attached to tasks such as counting, which have a significant cognitive load. Counting proved to be a highly demanding task that either exhausted momentary processing capacity (e.g., working memory or executive functions), or, alternatively, encouraged a strategy of filtering out all signals irrelevant to counting itself. The fact that the attentional demands of saccades (as well as those of detection/localization) are relatively modest makes it possible to continually adjust both the spatial and temporal pattern of saccades so as to re-allocate attentional resources as needed to handle the complex and multifaceted demands of real-world environments. PMID:18649913

  8. Counting and Surveying Homeless Youth: Recommendations from YouthCount 2.0!, a Community-Academic Partnership.

    PubMed

    Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane M; Ha, Yoonsook; Cooper, Jenna; Schieszler, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Communities across the United States are increasing efforts to find and count homeless youth. This paper presents findings and lessons learned from a community/academic partnership to count homeless youth and conduct an in depth research survey focused on the health needs of this population. Over a 4 week recruitment period, 632 youth were counted and 420 surveyed. Methodological successes included an extended counting period, broader inclusion criteria to capture those in unstable housing, use of student volunteers in health training programs, recruiting from magnet events for high risk youth, and partnering with community agencies to disseminate findings. Strategies that did not facilitate recruitment included respondent driven sampling, street canvassing beyond known hotspots, and having community agencies lead data collection. Surveying was successful in gathering data on reasons for homelessness, history in public systems of care, mental health history and needs, sexual risk behaviors, health status, and substance use. Youth were successfully surveyed across housing types including shelters or transitional housing (n = 205), those in unstable housing such as doubled up with friends or acquaintances (n = 75), and those who were literally on the streets or living in a place not meant for human habitation (n = 140). Most youth completed the self-report survey and provided detailed information about risk behaviors. Recommendations to combine research data collection with counting are presented.

  9. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-11-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (˜80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  10. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization.

    PubMed

    Peronio, P; Acconcia, G; Rech, I; Ghioni, M

    2015-11-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  11. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-11-15

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring “long” data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  12. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    PubMed Central

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring “long” data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed. PMID:26628115

  13. An analysis of dependency of counting efficiency on worker anatomy for in vivo measurements: whole-body counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binquan; Mille, Matthew; Xu, X. George

    2008-07-01

    In vivo radiobioassay is integral to many health physics and radiological protection programs dealing with internal exposures. The Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) physical phantom has been widely used for whole-body counting calibrations. However, the shape of BOMAB phantoms—a collection of plastic, cylindrical shells which contain no bones or internal organs—does not represent realistic human anatomy. Furthermore, workers who come in contact with radioactive materials have rather different body shape and size. To date, there is a lack of understanding about how the counting efficiency would change when the calibrated counter is applied to a worker with complicated internal organs or tissues. This paper presents a study on various in vivo counting efficiencies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two BOMAB phantoms and three tomographic image-based models (VIP-Man, NORMAN and CNMAN) for a scenario involving homogeneous whole-body radioactivity contamination. The results reveal that a phantom's counting efficiency is strongly dependent on the shape and size of a phantom. Contrary to what was expected, it was found that only small differences in efficiency were observed when the density and material composition of all internal organs and tissues of the tomographic phantoms were changed to water. The results of this study indicate that BOMAB phantoms with appropriately adjusted size and shape can be sufficient for whole-body counting calibrations when the internal contamination is homogeneous.

  14. Alpha counting and spectrometry using liquid scintillation methods

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W J

    1986-01-01

    The material in this report is intended to be a practical introduction and guide to the use of liquid scintillation for alpha counting and spectrometry. Other works devoted to the development of the theory of liquid scintillation exist and a minimum of such material is repeated here. Much remains to be learned and many improvements remain to be made in the use of liquid scintillation for alpha counting and spectrometry. It is hoped that this modest work will encourage others to continue development in the field.

  15. Dawn Grand Calibrated (RDR) Ceres Counts V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Yamashita, N.

    2016-04-01

    The GRaND Reduced Data Records (RDR) contain a time series of calibrated spectra, counting data, and ephemeris, pointing, and geometry (EPG) data. The EPG data are contained in a single file, with an entry for every science data record acquired by GRaND within the dataset start-stop times. Each record has a unique identifier, spacecraft clock ticks, which is used as a serial number to identify data from the same record in other files containing spectra and counting data. The RDR data set includes a time series of corrected gamma ray spectra acquired by GRaND's bismuth-germanate (BGO) scintillator.

  16. Dawn Grand Calibrated (RDR) Vesta Counts V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Yamashita, N.

    2014-12-01

    The GRaND Reduced Data Records (RDR) contain a time series of calibrated spectra, counting data, and ephemeris, pointing, and geometry (EPG) data. The data set is specific to Vesta encounter. The EPG data are contained in a single file, with an entry for every science data record acquired by GRaND at Vesta. Each record has a unique identifier, spacecraft clock ticks, which is used as a serial number to identify data from the same record in other files containing spectra and counting data. The RDR data set includes a time series of corrected gamma ray spectra acquired by GRaND's bismuth-germanate (BGO) scintillator.

  17. Progress towards photon-counting infrared arrays for interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscher, David F.; Seneta, Eugene B.; Sun, Xiaowei; Young, John S.; Finger, Gert

    2016-08-01

    The advent of low-dark-current eAPD arrays in the near infrared ushers in the possibility for photon-counting, high quantum efficiency detectors at these wavelengths. Such detectors would revolutionise the sensitivity of interferometry because near-infrared wavelengths are at the "sweet spot" between the corrupting effects of atmospheric seeing at shorter wavelengths and thermal noise at longer wavelengths. We report on laboratory experiments with cooled Selex Saphira detectors aimed at demonstrating photon-counting performance with these devices by exploiting enhanced avalanche gain and multiple non-destructive readouts. We explain the optimum modes for employing these detectors in interferometry.

  18. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P.; Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S.

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  19. Modelling habitat associations with fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) counts at multiple spatial scales using hierarchical count models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, B.R.; Haro, R.J.; Rogala, J.T.; Sauer, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    1. Macroinvertebrate count data often exhibit nested or hierarchical structure. Examples include multiple measurements along each of a set of streams, and multiple synoptic measurements from each of a set of ponds. With data exhibiting hierarchical structure, outcomes at both sampling (e.g. Within stream) and aggregated (e.g. Stream) scales are often of interest. Unfortunately, methods for modelling hierarchical count data have received little attention in the ecological literature. 2. We demonstrate the use of hierarchical count models using fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) count data and habitat predictors derived from sampling and aggregated spatial scales. The sampling scale corresponded to that of a standard Ponar grab (0.052 m(2)) and the aggregated scale to impounded and backwater regions within 38-197 km reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Impounded and backwater regions were resampled annually for 10 years. Consequently, measurements on clams were nested within years. Counts were treated as negative binomial random variates, and means from each resampling event as random departures from the impounded and backwater region grand means. 3. Clam models were improved by the addition of covariates that varied at both the sampling and regional scales. Substrate composition varied at the sampling scale and was associated with model improvements, and reductions (for a given mean) in variance at the sampling scale. Inorganic suspended solids (ISS) levels, measured in the summer preceding sampling, also yielded model improvements and were associated with reductions in variances at the regional rather than sampling scales. ISS levels were negatively associated with mean clam counts. 4. Hierarchical models allow hierarchically structured data to be modelled without ignoring information specific to levels of the hierarchy. In addition, information at each hierarchical level may be modelled as functions of covariates that themselves vary by and within levels. As

  20. Counting black hole microscopic states in loop quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.; Mitra, P.

    2006-09-15

    Counting of microscopic states of black holes is performed within the framework of loop quantum gravity. This is the first calculation of the pure horizon states using statistical methods, which reveals the possibility of additional states missed in the earlier calculations, leading to an increase of entropy. Also for the first time a microcanonical temperature is introduced within the framework.