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Sample records for reticulocytes

  1. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - reticulocyte ... A higher than normal reticulocytes count may indicate: Anemia due to red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn ( ...

  2. Reticulocytes in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Reticulocytes are the transitional cells from erythroblasts to mature erythrocytes. Reticulocytes are present in blood for a period of 1-4 days and can be recognized by staining with supravital dyes, such as new methylene blue, or fluorescent markers, which couple residual nucleic acid molecules, a hallmark of the immature forms of erythrocytes. Although reticulocytes could be counted through a microscope (there is a standard of International Committee for Standardisation in Haematology for manual counting), this method is reported to be time consuming, inaccurate and imprecise. The integration of the reticulocyte count in automated haematology systems allowed the widespread use of these parameters, although the lack of calibration material and different markers, technologies and software used in automated systems could engender discrepancies among data obtained from different analytical systems.The importance of reticulocytes in sports medicine derives from their sensitivity, the highest among haematology parameters, in identifying the bone marrow stimulation, especially when recombinant human erythropoietin is fraudulently used. Automated systems are also able to supply information on volume, density and the haemoglobin content of reticulocytes. Some of the related parameters are also used in algorithms for identifying abnormal stimulation of bone marrow as reticulocytes haematocrit. The pre-analytical variability of reticulocytes (transportation, storage, biological variability) should be taken into account in sports medicine also. Reticulocytes remain stable for almost 24 hours at 4 degrees C from blood drawing, they are affected by transportation, and biological variability is not high in general. It could be remarked, however, that the intra-individual variability is high when compared with other haematological parameters such as haemoglobin and haematocrit. The intervals of data reported in athletes are very similar to reference intervals characterizing the

  3. Membrane remodeling during reticulocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Guo, Xinhua; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.

    2010-01-01

    The transition of reticulocytes into erythrocytes is accompanied by extensive changes in the structure and properties of the plasma membrane. These changes include an increase in shear resistance, loss of surface area, and acquisition of a biconcave shape. The processes by which these changes are effected have remained largely undefined. Here we examine how the expression of 30 distinct membrane proteins and their interactions change during murine reticulocyte maturation. We show that tubulin and cytosolic actin are lost, whereas the membrane content of myosin, tropomyosin, intercellular adhesion molecule-4, glucose transporter-4, Na-K-ATPase, sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1, glycophorin A, CD47, Duffy, and Kell is reduced. The degradation of tubulin and actin is, at least in part, through the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. In regard to the protein-protein interactions, the formation of membrane-associated spectrin tetramers from dimers is unperturbed, whereas the interactions responsible for the formation of the membrane-skeletal junctions are weaker in reticulocytes, as is the attachment of transmembrane proteins to these structures. This weakness, in part, results from the elevated phosphorylation of 4.1R in reticulocytes, which leads to a decrease in shear resistance by reducing its interaction with spectrin and actin. These observations begin to unravel the mechanistic basis of crucial changes accompanying reticulocyte maturation. PMID:20038785

  4. Manual and automated reticulocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Simionatto, Mackelly; de Paula, Josiane Padilha; Chaves, Michele Ana Flores; Bortoloso, Márcia; Cicchetti, Domenic; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José

    2010-12-01

    Manual reticulocyte counts were examined under light microscopy, using the property whereby supravital stain precipitates residual ribosomal RNA versus the automated flow methods, with the suggestion that in the latter there is greater precision and an ability to determine both mature and immature reticulocyte fractions. Three hundred and forty-one venous blood samples of patients were analyzed of whom 224 newborn and the rest adults; 51 males and 66 females, with ages between 0 and 89 years, as part of the laboratory routine for hematological examinations at the Clinical Laboratory of the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná. This work aimed to compare manual and automated methodologies for reticulocyte countings and evaluate random and systematic errors. The results obtained showed that the difference between the two methods was very small, with an estimated 0·4% systematic error and 3·9% random error. Thus, it has been confirmed that both methods, when well conducted, can reflect precisely the reticulocyte counts for adequate clinical use.

  5. Normal and disordered reticulocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Ney, Paul A

    2011-05-01

    Reticulocyte remodeling has emerged as an important model for the understanding of vesicular trafficking and selective autophagy in mammalian cells. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of these processes in reticulocytes and the role of these processes in erythroid development. Enucleation is caused by the coalescence of vesicles at the nuclear-cytoplasmic junction and microfilament contraction. Mitochondrial elimination is achieved through selective autophagy, in which mitochondria are targeted to autophagosomes, and undergo subsequent degradation and exocytosis. The mechanism involves an integral mitochondrial outer membrane protein and general autophagy pathways. Plasma membrane remodeling, and the elimination of certain intracellular organelles occur through the exosomal pathway. Vesicular trafficking and selective autophagy have emerged as central processes in cellular remodeling. In reticulocytes, this includes enucleation and the elimination of all membrane-bound organelles and ribosomes. Ubiquitin-like conjugation pathways, which are required for autophagy in yeast, are not essential for mitochondrial clearance in reticulocytes. Thus, in higher eukaryotes, there appears to be redundancy between these pathways and other processes, such as vesicular nucleation. Future studies will address the relationship between autophagy and vesicular trafficking, and the significance of both for cellular remodeling.

  6. [Reticulocytes in the diagnosis of anaemia].

    PubMed

    Heiligers-Duckers, Connie; Werner, Philo T; van Drunen, Marlea E P

    2013-01-01

    Reticulocytes are immature erythrocytes; the number of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood reflects erythropoietic activity. Two cases are described to illustrate the use of the reticulocyte count in the diagnostic workup of anaemia. The first patient was a 62-year-old woman presenting with fatigue. Laboratory evaluation showed severe macrocytic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and the presence of schistocytes. A low reticulocyte count suggested decreased erythropoiesis underlying the anaemia; this led to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. The second patient, a 52-year-old woman, also presented with fatigue and macrocytic anaemia. A high reticulocyte count indicated increased erythrocyte degradation, and the patient was eventually diagnosed with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. The role of reticulocytes in the differential diagnostic workup of anaemia was explored on the basis of these case descriptions. The test methodology, analytical performance, reference values and pitfalls were discussed, as well as the reticulocyte indices and their use in monitoring therapy.

  7. Reticulocytes in sports medicine: an update.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Lanteri, Patrizia; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Reticulocytes are young red blood cells which develop from erythroblasts and circulate in the bloodstream for about 1-4 days before maturing into erythrocytes. With the introduction of reticulocyte count in equations and statistical models for detecting suspected blood doping, its application to sports medicine has attracted growing interest in reticulocyte behavior during training and competition seasons in athletes and experimental blood doping treatment in healthy volunteers. An update on recent publications is therefore needed to improve the interpretation of reticulocyte analysis and its variability in sportsmen. Reticulocyte count constitutes a robust parameter during the preanalytical phase, but cell stability can be assured only if blood samples are kept at constantly cold temperatures (4 degrees C) and test results will differ depending on the blood analyzer system used. Marked intraindividual variability is the principal finding to be evaluated when exercise-induced changes are observed or illicit procedures suspected. Furthermore, reticulocyte variability is greater than that of other hematological parameters such as hemoglobin or hematocrit. Ideally, any variation should be interpreted against long-term time series for the individual athlete: values obtained from large athlete cohorts ought to be used only for extrapolating outliers that deserve further examination. Reticulocyte distribution in athletes is similar to that found in the general population, and a gender effect in some sports disciplines or selected athlete groups may be seen. Reticulocyte variability is strongly influenced by seasonal factors linked to training and competition schedules and by the type of sports discipline. Published experimental data have confirmed the high sensitivity of reticulocyte analysis in identifying abnormal bone marrow stimulation by either erythropoietin administration or blood withdrawal and reinfusion.

  8. Reticulocytes in untreated obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Marrone, O; Salvaggio, A; Gioia, M; Bonanno, A; Profita, M; Riccobono, L; Zito, A; Insalaco, G; Bonsignore, M R

    2008-09-01

    The short, repetitive hypoxaemic episodes observed in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) may determine small augmentations in mature red blood cells. It is unknown whether they affect reticulocyte release. This study explored whether the number and degree of maturation of circulating reticulocytes may be altered in OSA, possibly through the effect of erythropoietin. Fifty male adult patients with suspected OSA, normoxic during wakefulness, were studied. After nocturnal polysomnography, a blood sample was withdrawn for blood cells count, erythropoietin, iron and transferrin determination. Reticulocyte concentration and degree of immaturity [high (H), medium (M), or low (L)] were also determined. Immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) was calculated as (M+H) percentage of reticulocytes. A wide range of OSA severity was found [apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI): 44.3 +/- 30.4, range 0.3-105; sleep time spent at oxyhaemoglobin saturation <90%: 18.1 +/- 22.2%, range 0-81%]. Both reticulocyte count and IRF slightly exceeded the normal range. Patients with a reticulocyte concentration > 2% had higher EPO levels (p < 0.05), but not worse nocturnal desaturations, than those with values < 2%. By contrast, subjects with IRF < 15% showed worse desaturations (p < 0.05), but similar EPO concentrations, when compared to subjects whose IRF was < 10%. At univariate analysis, reticulocyte count correlated to erythropoietin, while IRF to transferrin saturation, BMI and OSA severity. At multiple regression, only lowest nocturnal oxygen saturation remained a significant contributor to IRF (r2 0.223, p < 0.05). This data suggests that hypoxaemia due to OSA could influence the release of immature reticulocytes, but this effect is not mediated by erythropoietin.

  9. Automated reticulocyte parameters for hereditary spherocytosis screening.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Elena; Pradier, Olivier; Cotton, Frédéric; Gulbis, Béatrice

    2014-11-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is based on several screening and confirmatory tests; our algorithm includes clinical features, red blood cell morphology analysis and cryohaemolysis test, and, in case of positive screening, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a diagnostic test. Using the UniCel DxH800 (Beckman Coulter) haematology analyser, we investigated automated reticulocyte parameters as HS screening tool, i.e. mean reticulocyte volume (MRV), immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) and mean sphered cell volume (MSCV). A total of 410 samples were screened. Gel electrophoresis was applied to 159 samples that were positive for the screening tests. A total of 48 patients were diagnosed as HS, and seven were diagnosed as acquired autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA). Some other 31 anaemic conditions were also studied. From the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, both delta (mean cell volume (MCV)-MSCV) and MRV presented an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. At the diagnostic cut-off of 100 % sensitivity, MRV showed the best specificity of 88 % and a positive likelihood ratio of 8.7. The parameters IRF, MRV and MSCV discriminated HS not only from controls and other tested pathologies but also from AIHA contrary to the cryohaemolysis test. In conclusion, automated reticulocyte parameters might be helpful for haemolytic anaemia diagnostic orientation even for general laboratories. In combination with cryohaemolysis, they ensure an effective and time-saving screening for HS for more specialised laboratories.

  10. Pig Reticulocytes. III. Glucose permeability in naturally occurring reticulocytes and red cells from newborn piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, HD; Luthra, MG

    1977-01-01

    The loss of facilitated glucose transport of red cells occurring in the newborn pig was monitored in 11 density-separated cells from birth to a 4 wk of age. At birth there was a threefold increase in glucose permeability from the lightest cells to the most dense, suggesting that cells having progressively less glucose permeability are released into the circulation as gestation proceeds. Because of extraordinary stimulation of erythropoietic activity, the uppermost top fraction constituting 2-3 percent of the total cells is composed purely of reticulocytes in the growing animal. The glucose permeability of these reticulocytes which at birth has a slow but significant rate of 3.7 μmol/ml cell x min at 25 degrees C is rapidly decreased within 3-4 days to the level of reticulocytes produced in the adult in response to phenylhydrazine assault. Moreover, reticulocytes themselves discard their membrane permeability to glucose in the course of maturation to red cells. Thus, even though reticulocytes at birth are permeable to glucose, they will become red cells practically impervious to glucose within a few days. These findings suggest that the transition from a glucose- permeable fetal state to a glucose-impermeable postnatal state is brought about by two mechanisms: (a) dilution of fetal cells by glucose-impervious cells produced coincidentally with or shortly after birth; and (b) elimination of fetal cells, which have a shorter half-life, from the circulation. PMID:894256

  11. Development of a technique for quantification of reticulocytes and assessment of erythrocyte regenerative capacity in birds.

    PubMed

    Johns, Jennifer L; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Christopher, Mary M

    2008-08-01

    To develop a reticulocyte classification scheme, optimize an avian reticulocyte staining protocol, and compare the percentages of reticulocyte types with polychromatophil percentage in blood samples from birds. Blood samples from a red-tailed hawk and 31 ill birds. A single blood sample obtained from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was used to optimize the staining protocol. For optimization of the staining protocol, 4 dilutions of whole blood with new methylene blue stain and 4 incubation times were evaluated. From samples submitted for avian CBCs, EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood samples from 31 ill birds were randomly selected and examined to compare polychromatophil and reticulocyte percentages. Reticulocyte staining was performed in all samples by use of a 1:3 (whole blood to new methylene blue) dilution with incubation for 10 minutes at room temperature (approx 22 degrees C); reticulocytes were assessed as a percentage of 1,000 RBCs by 2 independent observers. In Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears, a polychromatophil percentage was similarly determined. 4 avian reticulocyte types were defined: ring-form reticulocytes, aggregate reticulocytes, and 2 subcategories of punctate reticulocytes. A reticulocyte-staining protocol was optimized. Interobserver and intraobserver variations in assessment of reticulocyte and polychromatophil percentages were not significant. A strong positive correlation (Spearman coefficient of rank correlation [rho] = 0.978) was identified between the percentage of polychromatophils and the percentage of ring-form reticulocytes. Results indicated that quantification of ring-form reticulocytes provides an accurate assessment of erythrocyte regenerative capacity in birds.

  12. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocytes and reticulocytes stained with proflavine.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, H; Tatsumi, N

    1997-12-01

    Proflavine, an acridine analog for industrial use, was used to stain blood cells. A drop of blood treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-2K was mixed with a 0.00001% solution of the dye and observed immediately by fluorescence microscopy with a green filter. Leukocytes, platelets, and reticulocytes were stained but mature red blood cells were not. Chromatin in the nuclei of all leukocytes and nucleoli of lymphocytes and monocytes had greenish-yellow fluorescence, and the kind of cell could be identified by the tone and intensity of this color. Granules in granulocytes were in green. Reticular fine-granular or granulofibrous structures in the reticulocytes were brownish. The proflavine could be used routinely in clinical laboratories because this single stain makes possible simultaneous differentiation of leukocytes and counting of reticulocytes.

  13. Proteolipidic Composition of Exosomes Changes during Reticulocyte Maturation*

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Kévin; Chaoui, Karima; Ronzier, Elsa; Lazar, Ikrame; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Balor, Stéphanie; Terce, François; Lopez, André; Salomé, Laurence; Joly, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    During the orchestrated process leading to mature erythrocytes, reticulocytes must synthesize large amounts of hemoglobin, while eliminating numerous cellular components. Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that play an important role in this process of specific elimination. To understand the mechanisms of proteolipidic sorting leading to their biogenesis, we have explored changes in the composition of exosomes released by reticulocytes during their differentiation, in parallel to their physical properties. By combining proteomic and lipidomic approaches, we found dramatic alterations in the composition of the exosomes retrieved over the course of a 7-day in vitro differentiation protocol. Our data support a previously proposed model, whereby in reticulocytes the biogenesis of exosomes involves several distinct mechanisms for the preferential recruitment of particular proteins and lipids and suggest that the respective prominence of those pathways changes over the course of the differentiation process. PMID:21828046

  14. Proteolipidic composition of exosomes changes during reticulocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Kévin; Chaoui, Karima; Ronzier, Elsa; Lazar, Ikrame; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Balor, Stéphanie; Terce, François; Lopez, André; Salomé, Laurence; Joly, Etienne

    2011-09-30

    During the orchestrated process leading to mature erythrocytes, reticulocytes must synthesize large amounts of hemoglobin, while eliminating numerous cellular components. Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that play an important role in this process of specific elimination. To understand the mechanisms of proteolipidic sorting leading to their biogenesis, we have explored changes in the composition of exosomes released by reticulocytes during their differentiation, in parallel to their physical properties. By combining proteomic and lipidomic approaches, we found dramatic alterations in the composition of the exosomes retrieved over the course of a 7-day in vitro differentiation protocol. Our data support a previously proposed model, whereby in reticulocytes the biogenesis of exosomes involves several distinct mechanisms for the preferential recruitment of particular proteins and lipids and suggest that the respective prominence of those pathways changes over the course of the differentiation process.

  15. Reticulocyte quantification by flow cytometry, image analysis, and manual counting.

    PubMed

    Schimenti, K J; Lacerna, K; Wamble, A; Maston, L; Iaffaldano, C; Straight, M; Rabinovitch, A; Lazarus, H M; Jacobberger, J W

    1992-01-01

    Reticulocyte counting by flow cytometry with thiazole orange was compared to manual or automated counting of new methylene blue stained blood smears. Forty-nine samples were compared for manual counting from randomly chosen clinical samples. Two hundred and eighty-nine samples from bone marrow transplant patients were compared during the period before and through chemo-irradiation and engraftment. The slopes of correlation plots were less than 1 when flow cytometric data were the dependent variable, suggesting that thiazole orange is less sensitive than new methylene blue. In a third study, 407 samples from bone marrow transplant patients were compared after increasing the thiazole orange concentration. The reticulocyte fluorescence distribution was divided into four groups of the brightest (youngest) 40, 60, 80, and 100% of reticulocytes. The slopes from regression analysis were 0.25, 0.49, 0.78, and 1.14, respectively. This demonstrates that thiazole orange is more sensitive than new methylene blue because the window of analysis includes an increased fraction of mature reticulocytes. In addition, the precision of each assay as measured. The rank order of precision from high to low was flow cytometry > image analysis > manual counting.

  16. Erroneously elevated immature reticulocyte counts in leukemic patients determined using a Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jungwon; Moon, Heewon; Chung, Whasoon

    2007-10-01

    The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) in peripheral blood, as determined by automated reticulocyte analysis, is calculated using the sum of medium and highly fluorescent reticulocyte numbers and provides information about erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. The purpose of this study was to investigate erroneously elevated IRF in leukemic patients, as determined using a Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). Normal reticulocyte scattergram patterns show regions corresponding to reticulocytes located between matured RBCs and an upper particle (UPP) region, which show a continuum of non-separated fraction. The UPP represents erythroblasts and some immature reticulocytes. As a control group, peripheral blood was taken from patients with benign hematologic diseases, and their reticulocyte scattergrams all showed a normal pattern; UPP values were all less than 100. However, the reticulocyte scattergrams of 5 of 11 leukemia patients showed abnormal patterns and displayed a gap between RBC and reticulocyte regions. Three patients showed a flag with a message such as "RET Abn Scattergram". IRF results were elevated in these five patients, and their UPP values were above 100. For the remaining six leukemia patients with a normal reticulocyte scattergram pattern, immature reticulocytes were not markedly increased, and UPP values were less than 100. The findings of the present study demonstrate that IRF results may be erroneously elevated in leukemia patients and indicate that hematologists should examine reticulocyte scattergrams and UPP values carefully.

  17. Acquisition of iron from transferrin regulates reticulocyte heme synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ponka, P.; Schulman, H.M.

    1985-11-25

    Fe-salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (SIH), which can donate iron to reticulocytes without transferrin as a mediator, has been utilized to test the hypothesis that the rate of iron uptake from transferrin limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. Reticulocytes take up VZFe from (VZFe)SIH and incorporate it into heme to a much greater extent than from saturating concentrations of (VZFe)transferrin. Also, Fe-SIH stimulates (2- UC)glycine into heme when compared to the incorporation observed with saturating levels of Fe-transferrin. In addition, delta-aminolevulinic acid does not stimulate VZFe incorporation into heme from either (VZFe)transferrin or (VZFe)SIH but does reverse the inhibition of VZFe incorporation into heme caused by isoniazid, an inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. Taken together, these results suggest the hypothesis that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular transferrin to intracellular protoporphyrin limits the overall rate of heme synthesis in reticulocytes.

  18. Spurious reticulocyte profiles in dogs with large form babesiosis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Piane, Laetitia; Young, Karen M; Giraud, Lena; Bourges-Abella, Nathalie; Trumel, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Erroneously high reticulocyte counts (pseudoreticulocytosis) have been reported in dogs with leukemia. Pseudoreticulocytosis and an abnormal reticulocyte profile were observed in a dog with large form babesiosis presented at our institution. The aims of this retrospective study were to determine if dogs with babesiosis and other dogs had abnormal reticulocyte profiles, and to correlate these profiles with the primary diagnosis. All canine CBCs obtained with the Sysmex XT-2000iV or Procyte DX were reviewed. Cases of large form babesiosis were identified and their reticulocyte dot plots were analyzed. Dogs with abnormal reticulocyte profiles but without microscopically apparent intraerythrocytic Babesia piroplasms were identified. The reticulocyte profiles and fluorescence ratios of dogs with and without babesiosis were compared. Twenty of 92 dogs with babesiosis had abnormal reticulocyte profiles, including 8 with a separation between the reticulocyte and mature RBC plots or a continuum of reticulocytes from the RBC plot but with a higher density of dots in the middle of the "comet tail" than in the left quarter of the dot plot. Thirteen of 6980 dogs without Babesia on the blood smear had abnormal reticulocyte profiles, including 3 with leukemia. The medium-fluorescence reticulocyte ratios tended to be higher in dogs with babesiosis and abnormal dot plots than in other dogs, whereas the high-fluorescence ratio was higher in one dog with leukemia. Abnormal reticulocyte dot plots and atypical reticulocyte fluorescence ratios may occur in dogs with babesiosis and alert clinical pathologists to consider this diagnosis. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Plasmodium vivax: restricted tropism and rapid remodeling of CD71-positive reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Malleret, Benoit; Li, Ang; Zhang, Rou; Tan, Kevin S W; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Claser, Carla; Cho, Jee Sun; Koh, Esther Geok Liang; Chu, Cindy S; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ng, Mah Lee; Ginhoux, Florent; Ng, Lai Guan; Lim, Chwee Teck; Nosten, François; Snounou, Georges; Rénia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce

    2015-02-19

    Plasmodium vivax merozoites only invade reticulocytes, a minor though heterogeneous population of red blood cell precursors that can be graded by levels of transferrin receptor (CD71) expression. The development of a protocol that allows sorting reticulocytes into defined developmental stages and a robust ex vivo P vivax invasion assay has made it possible for the first time to investigate the fine-scale invasion preference of P vivax merozoites. Surprisingly, it was the immature reticulocytes (CD71(+)) that are generally restricted to the bone marrow that were preferentially invaded, whereas older reticulocytes (CD71(-)), principally found in the peripheral blood, were rarely invaded. Invasion assays based on the CD71(+) reticulocyte fraction revealed substantial postinvasion modification. Thus, 3 to 6 hours after invasion, the initially biomechanically rigid CD71(+) reticulocytes convert into a highly deformable CD71(-) infected red blood cell devoid of host reticular matter, a process that normally spans 24 hours for uninfected reticulocytes. Concurrent with these changes, clathrin pits disappear by 3 hours postinvasion, replaced by distinctive caveolae nanostructures. These 2 hitherto unsuspected features of P vivax invasion, a narrow preference for immature reticulocytes and a rapid remodeling of the host cell, provide important insights pertinent to the pathobiology of the P vivax infection. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Sensitivity of reticulocyte indices to iron therapy in an intensely training athlete.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, M J; Dobson, G P; Hahn, A G

    1998-09-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia, and its debilitating effect on performance, is an area of concern for many female athletes. Automated technologies that analyse individual reticulocytes may provide a sensitive measure of bone marrow response to iron supplementation. The reticulocyte characteristics of a female volleyball player with frank iron deficiency anaemia, and her subsequent response to oral iron therapy, are reported.

  1. Enrichment of reticulocytes from whole blood using aqueous multiphase systems of polymers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok A; Lim, Caeul; Moreno, Yovany; Mace, Charles R; Syed, Abeer; Van Tyne, Daria; Wirth, Dyann F; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Whitesides, George M

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the enrichment of reticulocytes by centrifuging whole blood through aqueous multiphase systems (AMPSs)-immiscible phases of solutions of polymers that form step-gradients in density. The interfaces of an AMPS concentrate cells; this concentration facilitates the extraction of blood enriched for reticulocytes. AMPS enrich reticulocytes from blood from both healthy and hemochromatosis donors. Varying the osmolality and density of the phases of AMPS provides different levels of enrichment and yield of reticulocytes. A maximum enrichment of reticulocytemia of 64 ± 3% was obtained from donors with hemochromatosis. When used on peripheral blood from normal donors, AMPS can provide a higher yield of enriched reticulocytes and a higher proportion of reticulocytes expressing CD71 than differential centrifugation followed by centrifugation over Percoll. Blood enriched for reticulocytes by AMPS could be useful for research on malaria. Several species of malaria parasites show a preference to invade young erythrocytes and reticulocytes; this preference complicates in vitro cultivation of these species in human blood. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria parasites invade normal human blood enriched for reticulocytes by AMPSs at a rate 2.2 times greater (P < 0.01) than they invade unenriched blood. Parasite invasion in normal blood enriched by AMPS was 1.8 times greater (P < 0.05) than in blood enriched to a similar reticulocytemia by differential centrifugation followed by centrifugation over Percoll. The enrichment of reticulocytes that are invaded by malaria parasites demonstrates that AMPSs can provide a label-free method to enrich cells for biological research.

  2. Reticulocyte parameters of delta beta thalassaemia trait, beta thalassaemia trait and iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Rodríguez, Diego; Alonso-Domínguez, Juan-Manuel; González-Fernández, Fernando-Ataúlfo; Villarrubia, Jesús; Sopeña, María; Abalo, Lorena; Ropero, Paloma; Martínez-Nieto, Jorge; de la Fuente Gonzalo, Félix; Cava, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    To analyse the differences in reticulocyte indices between delta beta thalassaemia trait (δβ-TT), beta thalassaemia trait (β-TT) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), and to correlate those differences with the physiopathological features of these three types of microcytoses. We performed a descriptive study of 428 samples (43 δβ-TT, 179 β-TT and 206 IDA) that were run on Advia 2120 analyser (Siemens). The following reticulocyte indices were assessed: absolute reticulocyte count (ARC), percentage of reticulocytes, mean corpuscular volume of reticulocytes (MCVr), haemoglobin content of reticulocytes (CHr), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of reticulocytes, red blood cell distribution width of reticulocytes (RDWr), haemoglobin distribution width of reticulocytes (HDWr) and reticulocyte subpopulations based on their fluorescence according to mRNA (low (L-R), medium (M-R) and high (H-R)), MCV ratio and MCHC ratio. Correlation between fetal haemoglobin (HbF) and RDWr in patients with thalassaemia was evaluated. RDWr was significantly higher in δβ-TT compared with β-TT (15.03% vs 13.82%, p<0.001), and so were HDWr (3.65% vs 3.27%, p<0.001), CHr (23.68 vs 22.66 pg, p<0.001) and MCVr (88.3 vs 85.5 fL, p<0.001). A good correlation was observed between HbF and RDWr (r=0.551, p<0.001). IDA subjects have more immature reticulocytes, but less ARC than β-TT, suggesting a certain degree of inefficient erythropoiesis in IDA in comparison with β-TT. Previously described differences between δβ-TT, β-TT and IDA in the corpuscular indices of mature red blood cell can also be observed in reticulocytes. The degree of anisocytosis in reticulocytes from patients with thalassaemia is correlated with HbF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Clinical utility of Beckman-Coulter Gen's reticulocyte analysis in the study of anemia of chronic disease (ACD).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana; Ortega, Carlos; Santos, Luís; Teixeira, Alexandre; Dinis, Maria Joáo; Vasconcelos, Iponina; Lacerda, Jorge; Fonseca, Elisa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the reticulocyte parameters (classical and research parameters) acquired by the Beckman Coulter GEN'S blood counter (GEN'S; Brea, CA, USA) to establish the "reticulocyte profile" characteristics of patients with anemia of chronic disease (ACD). The reticulocyte parameters and profile provided by the GEN'S were studied in 38 anemic patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for the ACD, and the results were compared with those of 38 healthy controls in a multivariate statistical analysis using the Student t-test and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis.Statistically significant (P <.05) differences between the 2 population groups were observed in several of the reticulocyte parameters provided by the GEN'S: mean volume of the reticulocyte population (MRV) (high), percentage of high light scatter reticulocytes HLR% (high), mean volume of the whole sphered red cell and reticulocyte population (MSCV) (high) MCV-MSCV (low) with the highest diagnostic value, as measured by the area under the ROC curve (>0.9), for the IRF (high) and the reticulocyte population data: mean channel scatter retics (high) and the mean channel conductivity retics (high). This study establishes the reticulocyte parameters and reticulocyte profile as provided by the GEN'S and characteristic of patients with ACD as compared with normal subjects. This should provide the basis for further studies comparing the reticulocyte profile of patients with ACD with those found in other types of anemia.

  4. The RNA in reticulocytes is not just debris: it is necessary for the final stages of erythrocyte formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, EunMi; Choi, Hye Sook; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hoh, Jeong Kyu; Cho, Youl-Hee; Baek, Eun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Reticulocytes contain both RNA and micro-organelles and represent the last stage of erythropoiesis before full maturation to red blood cells (RBCs). Even though there is continuing synthesis of hemoglobin and membrane-bound proteins in reticulocytes, the small amount of RNA that they contain has been regarded as non-functional residual material. Here we show that this residual RNA is both functional and essential for further reticulocyte maturation. Reticulocytes from which the remnant RNA had been removed by exposure to RNase did not survive or mature into RBCs in either humans or mice. Conversely, reticulocytes treated with an RNase Inhibitor were able to form normal biconcave cells. Similarly, poor survival was also seen in reticulocytes in which protein synthesis had been blocked. To identify the signaling pathways involved we isolated RNAs in reticulocytes versus those present in fully matured erythroblasts cultured from hematopoietic stem cells. RNAs found in erythroblasts were related to exocytosis, metabolism, and signal transduction all of which are critical for maturation through reticulocyte and into a fully mature, biconcave erythrocyte. Our results suggest that the mRNA in reticulocytes has to be translated into novel proteins that act to preserve mitochondria and maintain cell membrane integrity as reticulocytes mature. These results enhance our understanding of the final stage of erythropoiesis and may clarify why in vitro-generated reticulocytes for transfusion purposes survive poorly.

  5. Influence of in vitro hemolysis on nucleated red blood cells and reticulocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Lippi, G; Pavesi, F; Cattabiani, C; Avanzini, P; Pipitone, S

    2013-04-01

    Nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) and reticulocytes are early and important measures of red blood cells' (RBCs) turnover, but little is known on how spurious hemolysis may affect the reliability of these parameters. Ten EDTA-anticoagulated samples were divided into three aliquots. The first was immediately tested, where-as the others (defined A and B) were mechanically hemolyzed by aspiration 5 and 10 times through a small-gauge needle. RBC, NRBC, and reticulocyte counts were performed on Sysmex XE-2100. An increasing amount of hemolysis was produced in hemolyzed aliquots A and B. The RBC and reticulocyte counts progressively decreased from the nonhemolyzed sample to hemolyzed aliquots 'A' and 'B'. The NRBC count increased in 3 of the 10 samples and decreased in the remaining seven. Hemolysis of venous blood samples may seriously jeopardize NRBC and reticulocyte counts. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent to detect thalassemia and thalassemic hemoglobin variants.

    PubMed

    Sudmann, Å A; Piehler, A; Urdal, P

    2012-12-01

    Thalassemia and iron deficiency may both result in hypochromic microcytic anemia. Hematological algorithms that differentiate the two are mainly established in adult selected diagnostic groups. We aimed at creating an algorithm applicable in the presence of children, hemoglobin variants, and iron deficiency. Our study material constituted blood samples referred during 1 year for routine diagnostics of hemoglobinopathy. We included 443 samples, of which 37% were from children 3 months or older. We found β-thalassemia trait (n = 100), α-thalassemia (n = 75), combined α-/β-thalassemia (n = 14), hemoglobin variants (n = 42), and no-hemoglobinopathy (n = 207), of whom 107 had a ferritin at or below 20 μg/L. We included reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent, ferritin, and erythrocyte count in our algorithm. Our algorithm differentiated β-thalassemia trait from no-hemoglobinopathy with a sensitivity of 99% at 83% specificity. It performed better than other published algorithms when applied to all patient samples, while equally or moderately better in the 63% adult samples. Our algorithm also detected the clinically significant α-thalassemias, and most of the combined α-/β-thalassemias and thalassemic hemoglobin variants. Our algorithm efficiently differentiated thalassemia and thalassemic hemoglobin variants from iron deficiency in children and adults. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Sensitivity of reticulocyte indices to iron therapy in an intensely training athlete

    PubMed Central

    Ashenden, M. J.; Dobson, G. P.; Hahn, A. G.

    1998-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia, and its debilitating effect on performance, is an area of concern for many female athletes. Automated technologies that analyse individual reticulocytes may provide a sensitive measure of bone marrow response to iron supplementation. The reticulocyte characteristics of a female volleyball player with frank iron deficiency anaemia, and her subsequent response to oral iron therapy, are reported. 




 PMID:9773180

  8. [Automated measurement of reticulocyte count by flow cytometry. II: Analysis of the blood containing abnormal erythrocytes or giant platelets].

    PubMed

    Oyamatsu, T; Shimizu, N; Takeuchi, K; Yamamoto, M; Kawai, Y; Watanabe, K; Iri, H

    1989-07-01

    We have examined the influence of erythrocytes containing inclusion bodies, nucleated red cells or giant platelets on the measurement of reticulocyte count by automated machine, R-1000. Correlation of the reticulocyte count between automated and conventional method was extremely good in the blood containing red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling . However, correlation was poor when the sample contained the nucleated red cells. Reticulocyte count was decreased in the blood with significant amounts of nucleated red cells. Since nucleated red cells themselves are not counted as reticulocytes in the machine, this was considered to be due to increased young reticulocytes which frequently appeared with nucleated red cells. Both cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets apparently influenced the reticulocyte count by the R-1000. These results suggest that red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling do not influence the automatic counting of reticulocytes. Although nucleated red cells, cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets affected the reticulocyte count, the machine shows abnormal flags in most of above cases (except highly agglutinated red cells), so that one can recount reticulocytes by conventional method. We conclude the machine can safely count the reticulocytes even in the blood containing abnormal red cells or platelets.

  9. VLA-4 blockade by natalizumab inhibits sickle reticulocyte and leucocyte adhesion during simulated blood flow.

    PubMed

    White, Jennell; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Gupta, Dipti; Lancelot, Moira; Moore, Nancy; Sarnaik, Sharada; Hobbs, William E; Light, David R; Hines, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4, α4β1-integrin, ITGA4) orchestrates cell-cell and cell-endothelium adhesion. Given the proposed role of VLA-4 in sickle cell disease (SCD) pathophysiology, we evaluated the ability of the VLA-4 blocking antibody natalizumab to inhibit SCD blood cell adhesion. Natalizumab recognized surface VLA-4 on leucocytes and reticulocytes in whole blood from SCD subjects. SCD reticulocytes were positive for VLA-4, while VLA-4 staining of non-SCD reticulocytes was undetectable. Titrations with natalizumab revealed the presence of saturable levels of VLA-4 on both SCD reticulocytes and leucocytes similar to healthy subject leucocytes. Under physiological flow conditions, the adhesion of SCD whole blood cells and isolated SCD leucocytes to immobilized vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was blocked by natalizumab in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated with cell surface receptor binding. Natalizumab also inhibited >50% of whole blood cell binding to TNF-α activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers under physiological flow at clinically relevant concentrations (10 to 100 μg/ml). This indicates that VLA-4 is the dominant receptor that drives SCD reticulocyte and mononuclear cell adhesion to VCAM-1 and that the VLA-4 adhesion to VCAM-1 is a significant contributor to SCD blood cell adhesion to endothelium. Thus, VLA-4 blockade may be beneficial in sickle cell disease.

  10. DEFECTIVE ERYTHROPOIETIN PRODUCTION AND RETICULOCYTE RESPONSE IN ACUTE PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA-ASSOCIATED ANEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leowattana, Wattana; Krudsood, Srivicha; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Brittenham, Gary; Looareesuwan, Sornchai

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between falciparum malaria-associated anemia and serum erythropoietin (Epo) levels and reticulocyte response during acute malaria infection, 87 adults aged 18-65 years presenting with acute, uncomplicated malaria were examined on enrollment and for 28 days of follow-up. The 87 patients were divided into 2 groups: those with anemia (n = 45) and those without (n = 42). Serum samples were taken on admission (Day 0), then on Days 7, 21, and 28, to measure the reticulocyte count, absolute reticulocyte count, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, and erythropoietin level (Epo). The absolute reticulocyte counts for the anemic patients were significantly higher than for those without anemia on Days 0, 7, 21, and 28. The serum Epo levels for the anemic patients were significantly higher than the non-anemic group only on Day 0 (44.39 ± 4.06 vs 25.91 ± 4.86 mIU/ml, p < 0.001). Inadequate Epo production was found in 31.03% (27/87) of patients on Day 0, 37.93% (33/87) on Day 7, 43.67% (38/87) on Day 21, and 39.08% (34/87) on Day 28. These results indicate defective Epo production and reticulocyte response in adult patients suffering from acute P. falciparum malaria, which differs from pediatric patients. Our findings may provide the basis for further study into the choice of therapeutic strategies to treat acute P. falciparum malaria-associated anemia with recombinant human Epo to correct refractory anemia due to malaria. PMID:19058593

  11. Evaluation of Reticulocyte Parameters in Iron Deficiency, Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Mixed Anemia.

    PubMed

    Balci, Yasemin Isik; Akpinar, Funda Ozgurler; Polat, Aziz; Uzun, Utku; Ergin, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Reticulocytes are the youngest erythrocytes released from the bone marrow into the blood and they circulate for 1-2 days before becoming mature erythrocytes. In literature, there were studies about reticulocyte parameters that could help in differentiation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) from vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. However, in those studies there were no data about differentiation of mixed anemia (vitamin B12 deficiency and IDA). The purpose of this study is to explore a response to 'could reticulocyte parameters help in differential diagnosis of mixed anemia?' in 6-12 years old children. The study enrolled 26 patients with IDA, 22 patients with mixed anemia, 32 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, and 32 age and gender matched healthy controls. Blood for hematological parameters such as complete blood count, reticulocyte count, CHr, MCVr, CHCMr were collected into standard tubes containing EDTA. There is a statistically significant difference of both MCV (mean corpuscular volume)/MCVr (Reticulocyte mean corpuscular volume) ratio and MCVr between IDA and controls; in controls and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia; in controls and mixed anemia; in IDA and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia; in IDA and mixed anemia. Also in terms of both CHr and CHCMr (Corpuscular mean hemoglobin concentration of reticulocyte), there is a statistically significant difference between controls and IDA; controls and mixed anemia; IDA and mixed anemia; IDA and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. In mixed anemia, MCV could be normal or decreased, and in peripheral blood smear erythrocytes cells could be morphologically normal. For this reason diagnosis of mixed anemia is not easy and needs additional laboratory investigations. Our results suggest that in a differential diagnosis of mixed anemia from vitamin B12 deficiency, IDA, and healthy controls, CHr, CHCMr, and MCVr (together with MCV and individually) could be useful. So, with a simple and cheap laboratory parameter, differentiation of

  12. Reticulocyte and erythrocyte hypochromia markers in detection of iron deficiency in adolescent female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Orysiak, J; Szczepańska, B; Turowski, D; Burkhard-Jagodzińska, K; Gajewski, J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of new haematology parameters related to reticulocytes and mature red blood cells to differentiate pre latent and latent iron deficiency. The study included 219 female athletes (aged 15-20 years) representing volleyball, handball, cycling, canoeing, cross-country skiing, swimming and judo. To assess iron status the concentration of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were determined in serum. In addition to blood morphology, the mean cellular haemoglobin content in erythrocytes (CH) and reticulocytes (CHr), mean cellular haemoglobin concentration in reticulocytes (CHCMr), the percentage of erythrocytes (HYPOm) and reticulocytes (HYPOr) with decreased cellular haemoglobin concentration, the percentage of erythrocytes (LowCHm) and reticulocytes (LowCHr) with decreased cellular haemoglobin content, and percentage of erythrocytes with decreased volume (MICROm) were determined. Subjects with ferritin <30 ng/ml were classified as having stage I (pre-latent) iron deficiency (ID). The second stage (latent ID) was diagnosed when low ferritin was accompanied by elevated sTfR and/or elevated TIBC values. The frequency of ID (without anaemia symptoms) was high, amounting to 60% (stage I in 45%, stage II in 15% of subjects). In subjects with stage I ID significant changes in haematological variables concerned mainly reticulocytes: CHCMr (p<.001), CHr (p<.05), LowCHr (p<.05), HYPOr (p<.001) in comparison to normal iron stores. In athletes with latent ID, there were also significant changes (p<.001) in many indices of mature red blood cells, i.e. haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), CH, %LowCHm, as well as %MICROm (p<.01) in relation to the group without iron deficiency. The main finding of this study was that the diminished or exhausted iron stores had already caused changes in

  13. Hexokinase microheterogeneity in rabbit red blood cells and its behaviour during reticulocytes maturation.

    PubMed

    Stocchi, V; Magnani, M; Piccoli, G; Fornaini, G

    1988-02-01

    Hexokinase in rabbit reticulocytes is present in two molecular forms (hexokinase Ia and Ib) separable by ion-exchange chromatography on DE-52 columns. By the use of ion-exchange HPLC we have been able to show that the isozymic form we previously called hexokinase Ia can be resolved into two peaks of activity one of which is (Ia) soluble, the other (Ia*) particulate. Hexokinase Ia* can be solubilized by detergents like saponine and Triton X-100 and disappears during 'in vivo' reticulocytes maturation. This new hexokinase microheterogeneity is not caused by different oxidized forms of the enzyme nor influenced by the presence of proteolytic inhibitors during lysate preparation.

  14. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-10-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices.

  15. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices. PMID:27818730

  16. Accuracy of the CellaVision DM96 platform for reticulocyte counting

    PubMed Central

    Mahe, Etienne R.; Higa, Diane; Naugler, Christopher; Mansoor, Adnan; Shabani-Rad, Meer-Taher

    2014-01-01

    Context: Many hematology laboratories have adopted semi-automated digital platforms for routine use and the evidence supporting their use is increasing. Aims: The CellaVision platforms are among the most thoroughly studied digital hematology platforms; we wished to determine the accuracy of CellaVision for reticulocyte counting. Design, Materials and Methods: We compared reticulocyte counts performed manually, using the Beckman Coulter LH750 automated analyzer and with the CellaVision DM96 platform. We analyzed the results for pair-wise correlation and bias, and precision. Statistical Analyses Used: Analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS), including Spearman's rho correlation coefficient, Friedman's two-way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) for comparison of distributions; bias was compared by way of mean and standard deviation. Results: The CellaVision reticulocyte counts correlated most strongly with those of the analyzer (often considered the benchmark test); the reticulocyte count distributions were noted not to be significantly different from each other across all three methods. The mean and standard deviation of bias were lowest in the comparison of CellaVision and LH750 counts. Conclusions: Our data provide additional support for the accuracy of digital hematology applications using the CellaVision DM96 platform. PMID:25057431

  17. Erythrocyte antigen and reticulocyte engraftment after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, I; Ozer, Y; Yüksel, M K; Arat, M; Arslan, O

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to study the usefulness of erythrocyte antigen (EA) measurement to study engraftment after allogeneic HSCT. In all, 31 consecutive patients receiving HLA-identical bone marrow (BM) (n=13) or peripheral blood stem cells (n=18) were investigated. Apart from the ABO group, 15 EAs representing six minor blood groups were followed by the simple tube agglutination technique. A total of 20 (64.5%) patients received ABO-identical, eight (25.8%) received ABO minor and three (9.7%) received ABO major mismatched grafts. In all, 29 patients were followed for a median of 12 (6-16) months; 65% of the patients expressed donor type EA 1 month and almost all did so 6 months after transplant. Reticulocyte engraftment was significantly shorter than EA engraftment (median 18 vs 35 days) (P=0.001). Patients who received PB stem cells showed significantly faster EA and reticulocyte engraftment than patients who received BM stem cells (P=0.038 and 0.025). ABO compatibility did not have an impact on reticulocyte and EA engraftment (P=0.4 and 0.55). The earliest donor type EA detected was from the Rh and Kidd system. These data suggest that EA and reticulocyte assays are useful in monitoring engraftment.

  18. Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Using Reticulocyte Indices in Dogs Enrolled in a Blood Donor Program.

    PubMed

    Foy, D S; Friedrichs, K R; Bach, J F

    2015-01-01

    People donating blood more than twice annually are at risk of developing iron deficiency. Little is known about the iron status of dogs enrolled in blood donor programs. Dogs donating blood ≥6 times annually will show evidence of iron deficiency based on their reticulocyte indices. Thirteen dogs enrolled in a blood donor program donating ≥6 times over the preceding 12 months and 20 healthy nondonor control dogs. Prospective observational study. Mature red blood cell (RBC) indices, reticulocyte indices, serum iron, serum ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were compared between groups. Packed cell volume (median 47%, range 40-52%, P < .01), hematocrit (median 46.4%, range 40.3-52.5%, P < .01), and reticulocyte count (median 16,000/μL, range 9,000-38,000/μL, P < .01) were significantly lower in the blood donor dogs. No statistically significant differences were noted in the mature RBC indices between groups. Both reticulocyte mean corpuscular volume (median 88.8 fL, range 83.4-95.5 fL, P = .03) and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (median 24.6 pg, range 23.1-26.6 pg, P < .01) were significantly lower in the blood donor group. Serum iron and ferritin were similar between groups; however, TIBC was significantly higher in the control group (median 403 μg/dL, range 225-493 μg/dL, P = .02). The findings in dogs donating ≥6 times annually suggest the presence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis in this population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Age, beta thalassaemia trait, and iron-deficient anaemia significantly affect reticulocyte indices in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Chouliaras, Giorgos L; Stamoulakatou, Alexandra; Tsiftis, George; Perissaki, Georgia; Premetis, Evangelos; Lycopoulou, Lilia

    2010-09-01

    Reticulocyte indices are easy to obtain, low cost parameters and have gained interest in the field of diagnosing anaemias of childhood. We assessed distribution, age and gender variation, relation to indices of iron metabolism and diagnostic performance of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr), percentage of microcytic reticulocytes (micro_r), percentage of hypochromic reticulocytes (hypo_r), and percentage of reticulocytes with low CHr (low_CHr) in 386 pre-school children classified in four groups: healthy, iron deficiency (ID), iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), and beta-thalassaemia carriers (beta-thal). Age had a positive effect in CHr (Spearman's rho = 0.21) and a negative effect in hypo_r (Spearman's rho = -0.2) in healthy children. CHr and low_CHr were related to ferritin in the IDA group (Spearman's rho 0.55 and -0.53, respectively). In the beta-thal group, HbA(2) is strongly related to all reticulocyte indices. micro_r and CHr performed best in discriminating between IDA and beta-thal heterozygosity (ROC analysis, area under the curve (AUC): 0.76 and 0.74, respectively). CHr achieved the best AUC (0.58) in identifying ID among children without anaemia. Age, IDA and beta-thal significantly affect reticulocyte indices. CHr and micro_r may have a role as screening tools in discriminating between IDA and beta-thal heterozygosity.

  20. ATP-dependent degradation of /sup 125/I-bovine serum albumin by rabbit reticulocytes does not need repression of an endogenous inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Saus, J.; Timoneda, J.

    1987-01-01

    The ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of /sup 125/I-bovine serum albumin in rabbit reticulocytes has been investigated. Using various reticulocyte fractions (reticulocyte protease, inhibitor-free protease, ubiquitin and inhibitor) in the presence or absence of ATP, we found that the repression of an endogenous inhibitor, as suggested by others for alpha-casein proteolysis, is unlikely for bovine serum albumin. Therefore, differences exist in the ATP-dependent proteolytic pathway of rabbit reticulocytes depending on the substrate. Fractionation of the reticulocyte ATP-dependent proteolytic system revealed at least two proteolytic and two inhibitory fractions involved in the proteolysis of bovine serum albumin.

  1. Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: a viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Russell, Bruce; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Chu, Cindy; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Renia, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on 'subvital' staining. The specialist 'subvital' stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB) and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa's stain (commonly used microbiology and parasitology) in a 'subvital' manner to provide an accurate method to visualize and count reticulocytes in blood samples from normal and malaria-infected individuals.

  2. Automated analysis of mature red blood cells and reticulocytes in SS and SC disease.

    PubMed

    Maier-Redelsperger, Micheline; Flahault, Antoine; Neonato, Maria Grazia; Girot, Robert; Labie, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic expression of sickle cell disease (SCD) is highly variable. We investigated red blood cells (RBCs) and reticulocytes using a laser light scattering method (ADVIA120, Bayer Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY) in a series of patients with either sickle cell anemia (SS) or compound SC heterozygosity (SC), both groups with or without alpha thalassemia. Results were compared with those of a series of patients without hematological disease. Known data were consistently confirmed, namely heterogeneity in cell volume and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, as well as the premature exit of "stress" reticulocytes from the bone marrow, mostly in SS patients. Specific changes were observed during maturation, including decreases in macrocytic and hypodense cells. Simultaneous viewing of the indices of the different RBC populations provided information on erythropoietic maturation by a rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective method.

  3. [Analysis of reticulocytes: manual microscopy, flow analyzers or image analyzers? (analytical review)].

    PubMed

    Piatnitskiĭ, A M; Medovyĭ, V S; Parpara, A A

    2007-10-01

    Three procedures for determining the quantity and composition of reticulocytes (visual analysis during manual microscopy; flow cytometry, semi-automatic analysis using a computerized microscopy unit) are compared. The errors characteristics for each procedure and the reasons why manual analysis still remains most used are discussed. The paper points out that it is impossible to draw a conclusion on the accuracy of the procedures, by using the values of the correlation coefficient. Evidence is provided for the thesis that the statistical accuracy may be achieved only when the image analyzer of a computerized microscopy unit is employed, therefore this procedure is recommended for use as a reference one. The characteristics of a procedure for analyzing reticulocytes by means of a MEKOS-Ts2 computerized microscopy unit are presented.

  4. Clinical utility of the reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the diagnosis of iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mast, Alan E; Blinder, Morey A; Lu, Qing; Flax, Sherri; Dietzen, Dennis J

    2002-02-15

    Determination of the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) provides an early measure of functional iron deficiency because reticulocytes are the earliest erythrocytes released into blood and circulate for only 1 to 2 days. The CHr in 78 patients undergoing bone marrow examination was measured to assess its clinical utility for the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Twenty-eight patients were iron deficient, based on the lack of stainable iron in the aspirate. The diagnostic power of CHr is limited in patients with high mean cellular volume (MCV) or red cell disorders such as thalassemia. However, when patients with MCV more than 100 fL are excluded, receiver operator curve analysis of CHr, ferritin, transferrin saturation, and MCV demonstrates that CHr has the highest overall sensitivity and specificity of these peripheral blood tests for predicting the absence of bone marrow iron stores.

  5. Additional erythrocytic and reticulocytic parameters helpful for diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis: results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Mullier, François; Lainey, Elodie; Fenneteau, Odile; Da Costa, Lydie; Schillinger, Françoise; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Christian; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is characterised by weakened vertical linkages between the membrane skeleton and the red blood cell's lipid bilayer, leading to the release of microparticles. All the reference tests suffer from specific limitations. The aim of this study was to develop easy to use diagnostic tool for screening of hereditary spherocytosis based on routinely acquired haematological parameters like percentage of microcytes, percentage of hypochromic cells, reticulocyte counts, and percentage of immature reticulocytes. The levels of haemoglobin, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes (Ret), immature reticulocytes fraction (IRF), hypochromic erythrocytes (Hypo-He) and microcytic erythrocytes (MicroR) were determined on EDTA samples on Sysmex instruments from a cohort of 45 confirmed SH. The HS group was then compared with haemolytical disorders, microcytic anaemia, healthy individuals and routine samples (n = 1,488). HS is characterised by a high Ret count without an equally elevated IRF. All 45 HS have Ret >80,000/μl and Ret(10(9)/L)/IRF (%) greater than 7.7 (rule 1). Trait and mild HS had a Ret/IRF ratio greater than 19. Moderate and severe HS had increased MicroR and MicroR/Hypo-He (rule 2). Combination of both rules gave predictive positive value and negative predictive value of respectively 75% and 100% (n=1,488), which is much greater than single parameters or existing rules. This simple and fast diagnostic method could be used as an excellent screening tool for HS. It is also valid for mild HS, neonates and ABO incompatibilities and overcomes the lack of sensitivity of electrophoresis in ankyrin deficiencies.

  6. Autophagic vesicles on mature human reticulocytes explain phosphatidylserine-positive red cells in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Mankelow, Tosti J; Griffiths, Rebecca E; Trompeter, Sara; Flatt, Joanna F; Cogan, Nicola M; Massey, Edwin J; Anstee, David J

    2015-10-08

    During maturation to an erythrocyte, a reticulocyte must eliminate any residual organelles and reduce its surface area and volume. Here we show this involves a novel process whereby large, intact, inside-out phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed autophagic vesicles are extruded. Cell surface PS is a well-characterized apoptotic signal initiating phagocytosis. In peripheral blood from patients after splenectomy or in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the number of circulating red cells exposing PS on their surface is elevated. We show that in these patients PS is present on the cell surface of red cells in large (∼1.4 µm) discrete areas corresponding to autophagic vesicles. The autophagic vesicles found on reticulocytes are identical to those observed on red cells from splenectomized individuals and patients with SCD. Our data suggest the increased thrombotic risk associated with splenectomy, and patients with hemoglobinopathies is a possible consequence of increased levels of circulating mature reticulocytes expressing inside-out PS-exposed autophagic vesicles because of asplenia. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the evaluation of iron status of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, S; Galgano, C; Langley, R C; Canfield, W; Maesaka, J K

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of iron status for hemodialysis patients has been hindered by the inaccuracy of commonly used diagnostic tests. A novel assay, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr), has recently been found to sensitively detect functional iron deficiency among nonuremic patients treated with recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CHr for the assessment of iron status in hemodialysis patients. One hundred sixty-four stable hemodialysis patients had a mean CHr of 27.5 +/- 2.8 pg with a normal distribution of values. The mean CH (mature red cell hemoglobin content) was 26.4 +/- 2.4 pg. There was a close correlation between CHr and CH (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001). A significant subgroup of patients (12.2%) had CHr values < CH. These patients had recent increases in rHuEPO dose, and a lower mean transferrin saturation and hematocrit, suggesting the recent onset of functional iron deficiency due to the increase in rHuEPO dose. In the second phase of the study, 32 patients were randomly selected to receive treatment with a single dose infusion of 1,000 mg of intravenous iron dextran (IVFe). Patients were classified as iron deficient (N = 7) if they responded with a significant reticulocytosis (sustained 1 basis point increase in corrected reticulocyte index within 2 weeks). All other patients were classified as iron replete (N = 25). A CHr < 26 pg at baseline predicted iron deficiency with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 80%. The serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and percentage of hypochromic red blood cells all were less accurate. The time to correction of iron deficiency at the level of the reticulocyte was found to be within 48 hours as measured by correction of the mean CHr to > 26 pg, and by the shift of the vast majority of the reticulocyte population to CHr > 26 pg within this time span. We conclude that CHr < 26 pg is an accurate measure of iron status in hemodialysis patients, that a CHr value < CH indicates the

  8. Gamma Radiation Induces Micronucleated Reticulocytes in 3-D Bone Marrow Bioreactors in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongliang; Dertinger, Stephen D.; Hyrien, Ollivier; David Wu, J. H.; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2009-01-01

    Radiation injury to the bone marrow is potentially lethal due to the potent DNA-damaging effects on cells of the hematopoietic system, including bone marrow stem cell, progenitor, and the precursor cell populations. Investigation of radiation genotoxic effects on bone marrow progenitor/precursor cells has been challenged by the lack of optimal in vitro surrogate organ culture systems, and the overall difficulty to sustain lineage-specific proliferation and differentiation of hematopoiesis in vitro. We report the investigation of radiation genotoxic effects in bone marrow cultures of C57Bl/6 mice established in 3-D bioreactors, which sustain long-term bone marrow cultures. For these studies, genotoxicity is measured by the induction of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET). The kinetics and dose-response relationship of MN-RET induction in response to gamma-radiation of bioreactor-maintained bone marrow cultures are presented. Our data showed that 3-D long-term bone marrow cultures had sustained erythropoiesis capable of generating reticulocytes up to 8 weeks. The peak time-interval of viable cell output and percentage of reticulocytes increased steadily and reached the initial peak between the 14th to 21st days after inoculations. This was followed by a rebound or staying relatively constant until week 8. The percentage of MN-RET reached the maximum between 24 and 32 hours post 1 Gy gamma-ray. There was a near linear MN-RET induction by gamma radiation from 0 Gy to 1.0 Gy, followed by an attenuated increase to 1.5 – 2.0 Gy. The MN-RET response showed a downtrend beyond 2 Gy. Our data suggest that bone marrow culture in the 3-D bioreactor may be a useful organ culture system for the investigation of radiation genotoxic effect in vitro. PMID:19786117

  9. Gamma-radiation induces micronucleated reticulocytes in 3D bone marrow bioreactors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongliang; Dertinger, Stephen D; Hyrien, Ollivier; Wu, J H David; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2009-01-01

    Radiation injury to the bone marrow is potentially lethal due to the potent DNA-damaging effects on cells of the hematopoietic system, including bone marrow stem cell, progenitor, and the precursor cell populations. Investigation of radiation genotoxic effects on bone marrow progenitor/precursor cells has been challenged by the lack of optimal in vitro surrogate organ culture systems, and the overall difficulty to sustain lineage-specific proliferation and differentiation of hematopoiesis in vitro. We report the investigation of radiation genotoxic effects in bone marrow cultures of C57Bl/6 mice established in 3D bioreactors, which sustain long-term bone marrow cultures. For these studies, genotoxicity is measured by the induction of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs). The kinetics and dose-response relationship of MN-RET induction in response to gamma-radiation of bioreactor-maintained bone marrow cultures are presented. Our data showed that 3D long-term bone marrow cultures had sustained erythropoiesis capable of generating reticulocytes up to 8 weeks. The peak time-interval of viable cell output and percentage of reticulocytes increased steadily and reached the initial peak between the 14th and 21st days after inoculations. This was followed by a rebound or staying relatively constant until week 8. The percentage of MN-RET reached the maximum between 24 h and 32 h post 1 Gy gamma-ray. There was a near linear MN-RET induction by gamma-radiation from 0 Gy to 1.0 Gy, followed by an attenuated increase to 1.5-2.0 Gy. The MN-RET response showed a downtrend beyond 2 Gy. Our data suggest that bone marrow culture in the 3D bioreactor may be a useful organ culture system for the investigation of radiation genotoxic effect in vitro.

  10. Canine reticulocyte hemoglobin content (RET-He) in different types of iron-deficient erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jannika; Moritz, Andreas; Grußendorf, Esther; Lechner, Jörg; Neuerer, Felix; Nickel, Rafael; Rieker, Thomas; Schwedes, Claudia; DeNicola, Dennis B; Russell, James; Bauer, Natali

    2017-09-01

    Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (RET-He) is a diagnostic marker for iron deficiency (ID) in people and dogs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical utility of RET-He in the diagnosis of different causes of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). Canine CBCs were separated into 2 groups according to RET-He values, < 20.9 pg or ≥ 20.9 pg. Erythrocyte and reticulocyte variables were compared between dogs with decreased and normal RET-He values. Additional data for a subgroup of dogs were collected, and dogs with low RET-He values were categorized as having ID, inflammatory disorders (INFL), portosystemic shunt (PSS), miscellaneous diseases (MISC), or combinations of these diseases (ID+INFL, ID+PSS). Hematologic variables were compared between dogs of the different disease groups. Overall, 10.3% (1084/10,553) of canine CBCs showed decreased RET-He values. Significant differences between dogs with decreased and normal RET-He values were found for all erythrocyte and reticulocyte variables. The majority (68.9%, 747/1084) of dogs with low RET-He values was anemic; 28.9% (216/747) of those anemic dogs had microcytosis and hypochromasia. In the subgroup of dogs, 8.9% (205/2306) had low RET-He values. According to their diagnosed diseases, anemic dogs (138/205) could be categorized as ID (17/138; 12.3%), INFL (16/138; 11.6%), PSS (30/138; 21.7%), ID+INFL (63/138; 45.7%), ID+PSS (8/138; 5.8%), and MISC (4/138; 2.9%). Distribution in nonanemic dogs (67/205) was similar, except for a lower number of dogs with PSS. Low RET-He values indicate IDE even in dogs with other CBC variables within the RIs. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. Mean reticulocyte volume: a specific parameter to screen for hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuchan; Yang, Wang; Liao, Lin; Deng, Zengfu; Qiu, Yuling; Chen, Wenqiang; Lin, Faquan

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the value of mean reticulocyte volume (MRV) for differential diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) so as to develop conventional and new specific screen indexes. Subjects in this study were divided into three groups: 53 cases in HS group, 217 cases in hemolytic anemia control group (109 cases of thalassemia (THAL), 56 cases of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD deficiency anemia, and 52 cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)), and 100 cases in healthy control group. We analyzed erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters including MRV, mean sphered corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and immature reticulocyte fraction. Results demonstrated that MRV was significantly lower in the HS group but significantly higher in the AIHA and G6PD deficiency anemia groups than that in the healthy control group (P = 0.000). MRV was not significantly different between the AIHA and G6PD deficiency anemia groups (P = 0.977) and between the healthy control and THAL groups (P = 0.168). The area under the ROC curve of MRV for diagnosis of HS was 0.942, with a standard error of 0.019, 95% confidence interval of 0.905-0.979, and optimal critical diagnosis point of 95.77 fL. When the MRV was ≤95.77 fL, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of HS were 86.80% and 91.20%, respectively. Therefore, MRV is a general and specific new index for screening HS and important for differential diagnosis of different types of hemolytic anemia.

  12. Selective modulation of membrane sphingomyelin fatty acid turnover by nigericin. A study in the rat reticulocyte.

    PubMed

    Le Petit-Thevenin, J; Nobili, O; Vérine, A; Boyer, J

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of rat reticulocytes to Nigericin produced a selective modulation of fatty acid incorporation into sphingomyelin (SM) of the cell membrane, via changes in SM acylation kinetics. At physiological fatty acid concentration, Nigericin accelerated 8-fold SM acylation by decreasing the apparent K(m) for oleate from 14.7 microM to 2.0 microM. The response was diminished in high K(+)-containing media, suggesting an effect of Nigericin as K+ transporter. This constitutes a novel piece of evidence for the important role of ions in SM metabolism.

  13. Characterization of Novel Ribosome-Associated Endoribonuclease SLFN14 from Rabbit Reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Pisareva, Vera P; Muslimov, Ilham A; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Pisarev, Andrey V

    2015-06-02

    Turnover of mRNA is a critical step that allows cells to control gene expression. Endoribonucleases, enzymes cleaving RNA molecules internally, are some of the key components of the degradation process. Here we provide a detailed characterization of novel endoribonuclease SLFN14 purified from rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Schlafen genes encode a family of proteins limited to mammals. Their cellular function is unknown or incompletely understood. In reticulocytes, SLFN14 is strongly overexpressed, represented exclusively by the short form, all tethered to ribosomes, and appears to be one of the major ribosome-associated proteins. SLFN14 binds to ribosomes and ribosomal subunits in the low part of the body and cleaves RNA but preferentially rRNA and ribosome-associated mRNA. This results in the degradation of ribosomal subunits. This process is strictly Mg(2+)- and Mn(2+)-dependent, NTP-independent, and sequence nonspecific. However, in other cell types, SLFN14 is a full-length solely nuclear protein, which lacks ribosomal binding and nuclease activities. Mutational analysis revealed the ribosomal binding site and the aspartate essential for the endonucleolytic activity of protein. Only few endoribonucleases participating in ribosome-mediated processes have been characterized to date. Moreover, none of them are shown to be directly associated with the ribosome. Therefore, our findings expand the general knowledge of endoribonucleases involved in mammalian translation control.

  14. Characterization of Novel Ribosome-Associated Endoribonuclease SLFN14 from Rabbit Reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Turnover of mRNA is a critical step that allows cells to control gene expression. Endoribonucleases, enzymes cleaving RNA molecules internally, are some of the key components of the degradation process. Here we provide a detailed characterization of novel endoribonuclease SLFN14 purified from rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Schlafen genes encode a family of proteins limited to mammals. Their cellular function is unknown or incompletely understood. In reticulocytes, SLFN14 is strongly overexpressed, represented exclusively by the short form, all tethered to ribosomes, and appears to be one of the major ribosome-associated proteins. SLFN14 binds to ribosomes and ribosomal subunits in the low part of the body and cleaves RNA but preferentially rRNA and ribosome-associated mRNA. This results in the degradation of ribosomal subunits. This process is strictly Mg2+- and Mn2+-dependent, NTP-independent, and sequence nonspecific. However, in other cell types, SLFN14 is a full-length solely nuclear protein, which lacks ribosomal binding and nuclease activities. Mutational analysis revealed the ribosomal binding site and the aspartate essential for the endonucleolytic activity of protein. Only few endoribonucleases participating in ribosome-mediated processes have been characterized to date. Moreover, none of them are shown to be directly associated with the ribosome. Therefore, our findings expand the general knowledge of endoribonucleases involved in mammalian translation control. PMID:25996083

  15. Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent as a potential marker for diagnosis of iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Toki, Yasumichi; Ikuta, Katsuya; Kawahara, Yoshie; Niizeki, Noriyasu; Kon, Masayuki; Enomoto, Motoki; Tada, Yuko; Hatayama, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Masayo; Ito, Satoshi; Shindo, Motohiro; Kikuchi, Yoko; Inoue, Mitsutaka; Sato, Kazuya; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2017-07-01

    Evaluation of parameters relating to serum ferritin and iron is critically important in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). The recent development of automated systems for hematology analysis has made it possible to measure reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (RET-He), which is thought to reflect iron content in reticulocytes, in the same sample used for complete blood count tests. If RET-He is, indeed, capable of evaluating iron deficiency (ID), it would be useful for immediate diagnosis of IDA. In the present study, we examined the usefulness of RET-He for diagnosis of ID. Blood samples were obtained from 211 patients. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin (Hb) level of <12 g/dL. Iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin level of <12 ng/mL. Patients were classified into four groups: IDA, ID, control, and non-ID with anemia. Patients in the IDA group had significantly lower RET-He levels than those in the control group. RET-He correlated with serum ferritin in the IDA and ID groups. The area under the curve for RET-He was 0.902, indicating that RET-He facilitates the diagnosis of ID with high accuracy. RET-He changed in parallel with changes in Hb during iron administration for 21 IDA patients. Our results indicate that RET-He may be a clinically useful marker for determining ID in the general population.

  16. Discovery of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human Reticulocyte 15- Lipoxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ganesha; Kenyon, Victor; Jadhav, Ajit; Schultz, Lena; Armstrong, Michelle; Jameson, J Brian; Hoobler, Eric; Leister, William; Simeonov, Anton; Holman, Theodore R.; Maloney, David J.

    2010-01-01

    There are a variety of lipoxygenases in the human body (hLO), each having a distinct role in cellular biology. Human reticulocyte 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-hLO-1), which catalyzes the dioxygenation of 1,4-cis,cis-pentadiene-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, is implicated in a number of diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative conditions. Despite the potential therapeutic relevance of this target, few inhibitors have been reported that are both potent and selective. To this end, we have employed a quantitative high-throughput (qHTS) screen against ~74,000 small molecules in search of reticulocyte 15-hLO-1 selective inhibitors. This screen led to the discovery of a novel chemotype for 15-hLO-1 inhibition, which displays nM potency and is >7,500-fold selective against the related isozymes, 5-hLO, platelet 12-hLO, epithelial 15-hLO-2, ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and human cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, kinetic experiments were performed which indicate that this class of inhibitor is tight binding, reversible, and appears not to reduce the active-site ferric ion. PMID:20866075

  17. Electron microscopic evidence for externalization of the transferrin receptor in vesicular form in sheep reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Using ferritin-labeled protein A and colloidal gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG, the fate of the sheep transferrin receptor has been followed microscopically during reticulocyte maturation in vitro. After a few minutes of incubation at 37 degrees C, the receptor is found on the cell surface or in simple vesicles of 100-200 nm, in which the receptor appears to line the limiting membrane of the vesicles. With time (60 min or longer), large multivesicular elements (MVEs) appear whose diameter may reach 1-1.5 micron. Inside these large MVEs are round bodies of approximately 50-nm diam that bear the receptor at their external surfaces. The limiting membrane of the large MVEs is relatively free from receptor. When the large MVEs fuse with the plasma membrane, their contents, the 50-nm bodies, are released into the medium. The 50-nm bodies appear to arise by budding from the limiting membrane of the intracellular vesicles. Removal of surface receptor with pronase does not prevent exocytosis of internalized receptor. It is proposed that the exocytosis of the approximately 50-nm bodies represents the mechanism by which the transferrin receptor is shed during reticulocyte maturation. PMID:2993317

  18. Malnutrition and infection influence the peripheral blood reticulocyte micronuclei frequency in children.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Ríos, Elsa; Ortiz-Muñiz, Rocío; Martínez-Hernández, Ana Lidia; Cabrera-Rojo, Lilián; Graniel-Guerrero, Jaime; Rodríguez-Cruz, Leonor

    2012-03-01

    Malnutrition is a serious public health problem that affects approximately one third of all children. Developing countries have the highest incidence of malnourished children, and approximately 60% of deaths that occur in children under five are directly related to malnutrition and associated diseases. The relationship between malnutrition and genetic damage has been widely studied in humans and animal models. The micronucleus (MN) assay is useful in detecting chromosome damage induced by several factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infection and malnutrition on the frequency of MN in erythrocytes from the peripheral blood of well-nourished, uninfected (WN) and well-nourished, infected (WNI) children, and moderately malnourished (UNM) and severely malnourished (UNS) children, both with infection, using a flow cytometric analysis technique. The percentage of reticulocytes (RETs) was significantly higher (1.5-fold) in WNI children than well-nourished controls. In addition, the UNS group had a 2.2-fold increase in the percentage of RETs compared to the WNI group. The frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) was 2.5 times greater, in WNI group compared to the WN group. These frequencies were significantly higher (1.7- and 2.1-fold) in UNM and UNS, respectively, compared to the WNI group. The results suggest that infection and malnutrition induce DNA damage in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jie; Wu, Meng; Ren, Jie; Du, Yali; Long, Zhangbiao; Li, Guoxun; Han, Bing; Yang, Lichen

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia) group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia) group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group (n = 56) had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.05) compared with the NIDA group (n = 38) and control group (n = 46). Hematocrit, serum ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for diagnosing

  20. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Wu, Meng; Ren, Jie; Du, Yali; Long, Zhangbiao; Li, Guoxun; Han, Bing; Yang, Lichen

    2017-05-02

    Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia) group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia) group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group (n = 56) had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.05) compared with the NIDA group (n = 38) and control group (n = 46). Hematocrit, serum ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for diagnosing

  1. Hemolysis Is Associated with Low Reticulocyte Production Index and Predicts Blood Transfusion in Severe Malarial Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Rudat, Annika; Kreidenweiss, Andrea; Steur, Claudia; Appelmann, Iris; Ruehe, Bettina; Schröder, Paul; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mordmüller, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background Falciparum Malaria, an infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is among the leading causes of death and morbidity attributable to infectious diseases worldwide. In Gabon, Central Africa, one out of four inpatients have severe malarial anemia (SMA), a life-threatening complication if left untreated. Emerging drug resistant parasites might aggravate the situation. This case control study investigates biomarkers of enhanced hemolysis in hospitalized children with either SMA or mild malaria (MM). Methods and Findings Ninety-one children were included, thereof 39 SMA patients. Strict inclusion criteria were chosen to exclude other causes of anemia. At diagnosis, erythrophagocytosis (a direct marker for extravascular hemolysis, EVH) was enhanced in SMA compared to MM patients (5.0 arbitrary units (AU) (interquartile range (IR): 2.2–9.6) vs. 2.1 AU (IR: 1.3–3.9), p<0.01). Furthermore, indirect markers for EVH, (i.e. serum neopterin levels, spleen size enlargement and monocyte pigment) were significantly increased in SMA patients. Markers for erythrocyte ageing, such as CD35 (complement receptor 1), CD55 (decay acceleration factor) and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin-V-binding) were investigated by flow cytometry. In SMA patients, levels of CD35 and CD55 on the red blood cell surface were decreased and erythrocyte removal markers were increased when compared to MM or reconvalescent patients. Additionally, intravascular hemolysis (IVH) was quantified using several indirect markers (LDH, α-HBDH, haptoglobin and hemopexin), which all showed elevated IVH in SMA. The presence of both IVH and EVH predicted the need for blood transfusion during antimalarial treatment (odds ratio 61.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.9–427). Interestingly, this subpopulation is characterized by a significantly lowered reticulocyte production index (RPI, p<0.05). Conclusions Our results show the multifactorial pathophysiology of SMA

  2. A Novel Erythrocyte Binding Protein of Plasmodium vivax Suggests an Alternate Invasion Pathway into Duffy-Positive Reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson-Luque, Richard; Torres, Letícia de Menezes; Gunalan, Karthigayan; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites is essential for blood-stage development and an important determinant of host range. In Plasmodium vivax, the interaction between the Duffy binding protein (DBP) and its cognate receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), on human erythrocytes is central to blood-stage infection. Contrary to this established pathway of invasion, there is growing evidence of P. vivax infections occurring in Duffy blood group-negative individuals, suggesting that the parasite might have gained an alternative pathway to infect this group of individuals. Supporting this concept, a second distinct erythrocyte binding protein (EBP2), representing a new member of the DBP family, was discovered in P. vivax and may be the ligand in an alternate invasion pathway. Our study characterizes this novel ligand and determines its potential role in reticulocyte invasion by P. vivax merozoites. EBP2 binds preferentially to young (CD71high) Duffy-positive (Fy+) reticulocytes and has minimal binding capacity for Duffy-negative reticulocytes. Importantly, EBP2 is antigenically distinct from DBP and cannot be functionally inhibited by anti-DBP antibodies. Consequently, our results do not support EBP2 as a ligand for invasion of Duffy-negative blood cells, but instead, EBP2 may represent a novel ligand for an alternate invasion pathway of Duffy-positive reticulocytes. PMID:27555313

  3. Anticlastogenic effects of galangin against mitomycin C-induced micronuclei in reticulocytes of mice.

    PubMed

    Heo, M Y; Jae, L H; Jung, S S; Au, W W

    1996-05-17

    We investigated the suppressive effect of galangin on the induction of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs) by mitomycin C (MMC) in mouse peripheral blood. When galangin was given to mice 24 h before the intraperitoneal injection of MMC (1 mg/kg), a more marked decrease in the frequency of MNRETs was observed than in mice with simultaneous and post-treatment of galangin. On the other hand, when galangin was given to mice for 7 consecutive days before MMC injection, galangin showed potent anticlastogenic effects, even at the lowest dose level of 0.1 mg/kg. Results from our in vivo studies indicate that galangin is capable of suppressing the clastogenic activity of the direct acting MMC. Together with our earlier observations, it appears that galangin is capable of protecting cells from the toxic effects of a variety of hazardous chemicals. Therefore, galangin may be an useful chemopreventive compound.

  4. Proteomics: a review and an example using the reticulocyte membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Prenni, Jessica E; Avery, Anne C; Olver, Christine S

    2007-03-01

    Proteomics is a rapidly expanding field of scientific study that combines techniques in protein solubilization and separation, mass spectrometry, and genome and protein database searching. The proteome is most commonly defined as the entire complement of proteins expressed in a given cell type or tissue under a given condition. A proteomics experiment may be as simple as identifying a single protein or as complex as identifying thousands of proteins in a cell lysate. In this review, we describe the general principles of proteomics and its analytic methods and present an example of an experiment to characterize the murine reticulocyte membrane proteome. A brief summary of proteomics applications and their clinical potential and relevance to clinical pathology is also presented.

  5. Response kinetics of radiation-induced micronucleated reticulocytes in human bone marrow culture.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongliang; Tsai, Ying; Nowak, Irena; Dertinger, Stephen D; Wu, J H David; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2011-01-10

    The frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) in the bone marrow or peripheral blood is a sensitive indicator of cytogenetic damage. While the kinetics of MN-RET induction in rodent models following irradiation has been investigated and reported, information about MN-RET induction of human bone marrow after radiation exposure is sparse. In this report, we describe a human long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC), established in three-dimensional (3D) bioreactors, which sustains long-term erythropoiesis. Using this system, we measured the kinetics of human bone marrow red blood cell (RBC) and reticulocyte (RET) production, as well as the kinetics of human MN-RET induction following radiation exposure up to 6Gy. Human bone marrow established in the 3D bioreactor demonstrated an average percentage of RBCs among total viable cells peaking at 21% on day 21. The average percentage of RETs among total viable cells reached a maximum of 11% on day 14, and remained above 5% by day 28, suggesting that terminal erythroid differentiation was still active. Time- and dose-dependent induction of MN-RET by gamma radiation was observed in the human 3D LTBMC, with peak values occurring at approximately 3 days following 1Gy irradiation. A trend towards delayed peak to 3-5 days post-radiation was observed with radiation doses ≥2Gy. Our data reveal valuable information on the kinetics of radiation-induced MN-RET of human bone marrow cultured in the 3D bioreactor, a synthetic bioculture system, and suggest that this model may serve as a promising tool for studying MN-RET formation in human bone marrow, thereby providing opportunities to study bone marrow genotoxicity testing, mitigating agent effects, and other conditions that are not ordinarily feasible to experimental manipulation in vivo. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reticulocyte profile in top-level alpine skiers during four consecutive competitive seasons.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Tavana, Rodolfo; Freschi, Marco; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-06-01

    The role of reticulocytes (Ret) in sports medicine became clear when the count of immature erythrocytes was introduced in protocols used for anti-doping purposes. Because specific research regarding seasonal variations in Ret is lacking, we assessed Ret (and [Hb]) in top-level male and female skiers during four consecutive competitive seasons. A difference (P < 0.05) between males and females was found for [Hb] and Ret values: [Hb] was lower and Ret was higher in females. The difference was maintained across all four competitive seasons. Marked within-subject differences in [Hb], Ret and immature reticulocyte fraction values were noted; the within-subject variability was greater than the between-subject variability in both genders. For instance, a difference for Ret was consistently shown between first and second blood drawings, i.e. between basal value, before the start of training and competition, and the value at middle of season, when training workload was at highest level. Unlike Ret%, the analysis of variance showed significant changes in [Hb] values across competitive seasons for both genders. Comparison between consecutive seasons (e.g., 2005-2006 vs. 2006-2007) showed significant differences for both parameters. The behaviour of [Hb] and Ret during the various seasons was parallel in females, whereas a discrepancy existed in males. In general, inter-individual variability is quite high, thus, Ret and [Hb] modifications should be referred only to the single athlete. We confirm the validity of the use of Ret counts for anti-doping purposes.

  7. Iron depletion in blood donors - Have extended erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters diagnostic utility?

    PubMed

    Aardal Eriksson, Elisabeth; Mobäck, Caroline; Jakobsson, Sandra; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2015-08-01

    Blood donation is associated with iron depletion, but donor iron status is not usually investigated, as such tests are cumbersome and costly. It would therefore be desirable to have simple, fast and inexpensive tests that give information on a donor's risk of developing iron depletion. In a pilot study we investigated whether novel erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters can serve this goal. In regular blood donors extended red cell parameters were measured using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer and conventional biochemical tests of iron status. Donors were compared with a regionally matched group of non-donating controls. In the controls, the reference ranges of extended RBC parameters were well comparable to published data. Donors had significantly more microcytic RBC than controls (median 0.9 vs 0.6%), lower serum ferritin concentration (median 43 vs 91 mg/L) and higher soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index (median 1.60 vs 1.27). Overall 18-28% of the donors were iron depleted. Moreover, 3.3% of donors had iron-restricted erythropoiesis. Microcytic RBC and reticulocyte mean cell hemoglobin content predicted iron depletion with 70% and 64% sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 78%, respectively. When combined these two parameters increased the sensitivity to 82%. Our results in Swedish blood donors confirm a high prevalence of iron depletion, despite iron supplementation used by about half of the donors. Microcytic RBC and MCHr appeared to be helpful in identifying iron-depleted donors, who might benefit from iron supplementation. We recommend larger prospective investigations in order to confirm and extend the findings of this pilot study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Response Kinetics of Radiation-induced Micronucleated Reticulocytes in Human Bone Marrow Culture

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongliang; Tsai, Ying; Nowak, Irena; Dertinger, Stephen D.; David Wu, J. H.; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) in the bone marrow or peripheral blood is a sensitive indicator of cytogenetic damage. While the kinetics of MN-RET induction in rodent models following irradiation have been investigated and reported, information about MN-RET induction of human bone marrow after radiation exposure is sparse. In this report, we describe a human long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC), established in three-dimensional (3D) bioreactors, which sustains long-term erythropoiesis. Using this system, we measured the kinetics of human bone marrow red blood cell (RBC) and reticulocyte (RET) production, as well as the kinetics of human MN-RET induction following radiation exposure up to 6 Gy. Human bone marrow established in the 3D bioreactor demonstrated an average percentage of RBCs among total viable cells peaking at 21% on day 21. The average percentage of RETs among total viable cells reached a maximum of 11% on day 14, and remained above 5% by day 28, suggesting that terminal erythroid differentiation was still active. Time- and dose-dependent induction of MN-RET by gamma radiation was observed in the human 3D LTBMC, with peak values occurring at approximately 3 days following 1 Gy irradiation. A trend towards delayed peak to 3–5 days post-radiation was observed with radiation doses ≥ 2 Gy. Our data reveal valuable information on the kinetics of radiation-induced MN-RET of human bone marrow cultured in the 3D bioreactor, a synthetic bioculture system, and suggest that this model may serve as a promising tool for studying MN-RET formation in human bone marrow, thereby providing opportunities to study bone marrow genotoxicity testing, mitigating agent effects, and other conditions that are not ordinarily feasible to experimental manipulation in vivo. PMID:21056116

  9. Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (Ret He) and assessment of iron-deficient states

    PubMed Central

    BRUGNARA, C; SCHILLER, B; MORAN, J

    2006-01-01

    Direct measurement of the reticulocyte hemoglobin content provides useful information for the diagnosis and treatment of iron-deficient states. We have examined direct measurements of reticulocyte and red cell hemoglobin content on the Sysmex XE 2100 (Ret He and RBC He respectively) and the Bayer ADVIA 2120 (CHr and CH respectively) analyzers. Good agreement was found between Ret He and CHr (Y = 1.04X − 1.06; r2 = 0.88) and between the RBC He and CH parameters (Y = 0.93X + 1; r2 = 0.84 n = 200) in pediatric patients and in normal adults (Ret He and CHr; Y = 1.06X − 0.43; r2 = 0.83; n = 126; RBC He and CH; Y = 0.94X + 1; r2 = 0.87; n = 126). In 1500 blood samples from patients on chronic dialysis, Ret He was compared with traditional parameters for iron deficiency (serum iron <40 μg/dl, Tsat <20%, ferritin <100 ng/ml, hemoglobin <11 g/dl) for identifying iron-deficient states. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed values of the area under the curve for Ret He of 0.913 (P < 0.0001). With a Ret He cutoff level of 27.2 pg, iron deficiency could be diagnosed with a sensitivity of 93.3%, and a specificity of 83.2%. Ret He is a reliable marker of cellular hemoglobin content and can be used to identify the presence of iron-deficient states. PMID:16999719

  10. Effects of artemisinins on reticulocyte count and relationship to possible embryotoxicity in confirmed and unconfirmed malarial patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L

    2012-02-01

    Rat studies suggest that artemisinin-induced decreases in reticulocyte count are a marker for embryotoxicity (in one study, r = 0.82; p < 0.05). In clinical studies, therapeutic doses of artemisinins induced decreases in reticulocyte count that were larger in five of six groups of healthy volunteers (mean decreases of 47-75%) than in 12 groups of patients with malaria (mean decreases of 0-34% and incidences of low reticulocyte count of 0.6-18%). Malaria causes hypoferremia and drug concentrates in infected red cells so, among the explanations for the lesser decreases in patients, is that malaria protects against artemisinin-induced decreases in reticulocyte count by reducing the target tissue levels of active drug and/or ferrous iron which activates the drug to toxic free radicals. The disease could also protect against embryotoxicity in which case pregnant women without malaria would be at greater risk of artemisinin-induced embryotoxicity. Malaria protection against artesunate toxicity has been observed in rats. No artemisinin-induced embryotoxicity has been identified in limited numbers of women with confirmed malaria in the first trimester. However, in large parts of tropical Africa, malaria treatment is based on fever rather than confirmation of parasitemia and many pregnant women without malaria are exposed to antimalarials. No clinical studies have been conducted on uninfected women for whom pregnancy was identified and then an artemisinin was administered subsequently. Testing in rats and/or humans is needed to determine if malaria protects against reticulocytopenia and embryotoxicity and whether the parasite is a more or less sensitive target than the embryo and reticulocyte.

  11. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content predicts functional iron deficiency in hemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO.

    PubMed

    Mittman, N; Sreedhara, R; Mushnick, R; Chattopadhyay, J; Zelmanovic, D; Vaseghi, M; Avram, M M

    1997-12-01

    Early detection of iron sufficiency at the level of the erythropoietic cell is necessary to optimize management of uremic anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). "Absolute" and "functional" iron deficiency are the most important factors causing resistance to administered rHuEPO. Transferrin saturation and serum ferritin measurements have been noted to be insensitive and inaccurate measures to detect functional iron deficiency. Recently, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) has been shown to be a sensitive and specific indicator of functional iron deficiency in nondialysis patients treated with rHuEPO. The purpose of this study is to compare CHr with currently used indices of iron sufficiency in rHuEPO-treated hemodialysis (HD) patients. In study 1, 364 stable HD patients were studied at two outpatient dialysis centers. CHr was normally distributed, with a mean value of 28.3 pg, and was consistent over two consecutive monthly samples in each center. CHr was weakly but consistently correlated with transferrin saturation and serum ferritin. CHr and reticulocyte number were inversely correlated with red blood cell (RBC) number, suggesting that the erythropoietic stimulus of routinely administered rHuEPO may have resulted in functional iron deficiency. Month-to-month changes in CHr correlated weakly with changes in serum iron and percent transferrin saturation, but not at all with changes in serum ferritin. When we analyzed those patients with baseline CHr less than 26 pg, a level strongly suggestive of functional iron deficiency, these correlations strengthened, and in addition, month-to-month changes in CHr correlated strongly and directly with concomitant changes in RBC count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, suggesting that rising CHr was indicative of an erythropoietic response. In study 2, 79 patients received a single-dose infusion of 500 mg iron dextran. After intravenous iron, CHr rose within 48 hours, peaked at 96 hours, and then fell toward

  12. Further observations on the polynucleotide-induced stimulation of protein synthesis by cell-free preparations from rabbit reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K. G.; Arnstein, H. R. V.

    1965-01-01

    1. The effect of high-molecular-weight RNA from reticulocyte polyribosomes (messenger RNA) on protein synthesis by subcellular fractions derived from reticulocytes, reported by Arnstein, Cox & Hunt (1964), has now been studied in detail. Optimum response of the cell-free system requires 30–50mm-K+ and approx. 5mm-Mg2+ in the pH range 7·4–7·6. 2. RNA stimulates the incorporation into protein of both free amino acids and of aminoacyl residues from s-RNA. Stimulation by either RNA or polyuridylic acid is dependent on a labile factor or enzyme, which is present in the `pH5 fraction' and may be concerned with the formation of new polysomes. Quantitatively the response of the cell-free system to RNA is similar to that of polyuridylic acid, and there appears to be competition between messenger RNA and polyuridylic acid or polyadenylic acid. PMID:16749170

  13. Diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia in hospital patients: Use of the reticulocyte haemoglobin content to differentiate iron deficiency anaemia from anaemia of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Schapkaitz, Elise; Buldeo, Suvarna; Mahlangu, Johnny Ndoni

    2015-11-20

    The diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia in hospital patients with chronic infections and inflammation presents a challenge. Recently laboratory tests such as the reticulocyte haemoglobin content, which are independent of infection and inflammation, have become available for routine diagnostic use.

  14. Identification of Immunodominant B-cell Epitope Regions of Reticulocyte Binding Proteins in Plasmodium vivax by Protein Microarray Based Immunoscreening.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Hee; Li, Jian; Wang, Bo; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Na, Sunghun; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum can invade all stages of red blood cells, while Plasmodium vivax can invade only reticulocytes. Although many P. vivax proteins have been discovered, their functions are largely unknown. Among them, P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) recognize and bind to reticulocytes. Both proteins possess a C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain, which drives adhesion to reticulocytes. PvRBP1 and PvRBP2 are large (> 326 kDa), which hinders identification of the functional domains. In this study, the complete genome information of the P. vivax RBP family was thoroughly analyzed using a prediction server with bioinformatics data to predict B-cell epitope domains. Eleven pvrbp family genes that included 2 pseudogenes and 9 full or partial length genes were selected and used to express recombinant proteins in a wheat germ cell-free system. The expressed proteins were used to evaluate the humoral immune response with vivax malaria patients and healthy individual serum samples by protein microarray. The recombinant fragments of 9 PvRBP proteins were successfully expressed; the soluble proteins ranged in molecular weight from 16 to 34 kDa. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to each recombinant PvRBP protein indicated a high antigenicity, with 38-88% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Of them, N-terminal parts of PvRBP2c (PVX_090325-1) and PvRBP2 like partial A (PVX_090330-1) elicited high antigenicity. In addition, the PvRBP2-like homologue B (PVX_116930) fragment was newly identified as high antigenicity and may be exploited as a potential antigenic candidate among the PvRBP family. The functional activity of the PvRBP family on merozoite invasion remains unknown.

  15. [Usefulness of reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent for the safety of pre-operative autologous blood donation].

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Masami; Takami, Akiyoshi; Kimura, Mika; Takamichi, Sayuri; Sakai, Yoshio; Wada, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Pre-operative autologous blood donation (PABD) provides safe blood for patients at the expense of the risk of iron deficiency anemia that may compromise the patients. The reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) is an indirect measure of the functional iron available for the erythropoiesis over the previous 2-3 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of RET-He quickly measured by the automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XE-2100 in patients undergoing PABD at our hospital. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that RET-He was reliable in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. Two of 14 patients in the absence of post-PABD iron replacement developed marked anemia with low RET-He levels after PABD, suggesting that this anemia was due to iron deficiency. Of 26 patients receiving post-PABD iron replacement, 8 who had already showed low RET-He levels at PABD developed statistically significant reduction in hemoglobin levels after PABD despite adequate iron replacement, indicating that the 8 patients had iron deficiency prior to PABD. These findings suggest that automated measurement of RET-He may contribute to improve the safety of PABD.

  16. Cl-, Na+, and H+ fluxes during the acidification of rabbit reticulocyte endocytic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaete, V.; Nunez, M.T.; Glass, J. )

    1991-02-01

    The ionic fluxes associated with the ATP-dependent acidification of endocytic vesicles were studied in a preparation isolated from rabbit reticulocytes enriched for transferrin-transferrin receptor complexes. No vesicle acidification was observed in the absence of intra- and extravesicular ions sucrose(in)/sucrose(out), while maximal acidification was observed with NaCl(in)/KCl(out).K+(in) was a poor substitute for Na+(in), and Cl-(out) could be replaced by other anions with the following efficacy of acidification: Cl- greater than Br- greater than I- greater than PO{sub 4}(3-) greater than gluconate greater than SO{sub 4}(2-). Flux studies using {sup 36}Cl- and {sup 22}Na+ showed that the vesicles had a permeability for Cl- and Na+, and that ATP-dependent H+ pumping was accompanied by a net influx of Cl- and a net efflux of Na+ provided that there was a Na+ concentration gradient. After 3 mins, the time necessary to maximal acidification, the electrical charge generated by the entrance of H+ was countered to about 45% by the Cl- influx and to about 42% by the Na+ efflux. These studies demonstrated that both Cl- and Na+ fluxes are necessary for optimal endocytic vesicle acidification.

  17. The site of hydrolysis by rabbit reticulocyte peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase is the 3'-AMP terminus of susceptible tRNA substrates.

    PubMed

    Gross, M; Crow, P; White, J

    1992-01-25

    The preceding paper (Gross, M., Starn, T.K., Rundquist, C., Crow, P., White, J., Olin, A., and Wagner, T. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 2073-2079) reported the purification and partial characterization of rabbit reticulocyte peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase. In this article we demonstrate that, unlike bacterial and yeast peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase which act by deacylation, the reticulocyte enzyme hydrolyzes N-acylaminoacyl-tRNA to N-acylaminoacyl-AMP. Reticulocyte lysate has a separate enzyme, that we have isolated and termed aminoacyl-AMP deacylase, which hydrolyzes N-acylaminoacyl-AMP and aminoacyl-AMP, recycling the amino acid and nucleotide components. The action of this enzyme is relatively specific for the N-acylaminoacyl-AMP generated by peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, since it is much less active with N-acylaminoacyl-adenosine and inactive with N-acylaminoacyl-ACCAC, N-acylaminoacyl-tRNA, or aminoacyl-tRNA. The tRNA product of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase action is tRNA missing only its 3'-AMP terminus (tRNA(c-c)), since reaminoacylation requires tRNA nucleotidyltransferase but not CTP. The 3' exonucleolytic action of reticulocyte peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase is specific to susceptible tRNA substrates, since it does not hydrolyze CACCA, CACCA-N-acylamino acid, polyuridylic acid, or the 3' polyadenylate tail of globin mRNA, and, since its ability to hydrolyze Escherichia coli f[3H]Met-tRNA(fMet) is not reduced by excess 5 S or 28 S ribosomal RNA and is reduced only slightly by excess tRNA(c-c). Reticulocyte peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase also hydrolyzes th 3'-AMP terminus of deacylated tRNA. This property may explain why the 3'-terminal AMP of tRNA undergoes turnover in reticulocytes and reticulocyte lysate, since we find that such turnover in gel-filtered reticulocyte lysate is increased under conditions where aminoacylation is reduced.

  18. Novel hematological parameters for the evaluation of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: the immature platelet and reticulocyte fractions.

    PubMed

    Strati, Paolo; Bose, Prithviraj; Lyle, Lindsey; Gaw, Katie; Zhou, Lingsha; Pierce, Sherry A; Huynh-Lu, Julie; Hirsch-Ginsberg, Cheryl F; Bueso-Mendoza, Daniel E; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2017-02-28

    New automated hematology analyzers have led to the availability of novel hematological parameters, including the immature platelet fraction (IPF) and the immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), both of potential interest in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We performed a prospective analysis of 217 patients with MPN, including 32 (15%) with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 43 (20%) with polycythemia vera (PV), and 142 (65%) with myelofibrosis (MF); the IPF and IRF were measured by the Sysmex XN analyzer. As compared to patients with ET, both a higher IPF and IRF were observed among patients with PV and MF. Factors associated with high IPF among patients with PV/ET were male sex, thrombocytopenia, and diagnosis of PV; among patients with MF, they were elevated peripheral blasts, low platelet count, JAK2 V617F mutation, and previous therapy. Factors associated with high IRF among patients with PV/ET were low hemoglobin, high reticulocyte count, and PV diagnosis; among patients with MF, they were peripheral blasts and elevated reticulocytes. The IPF and IRF represent novel parameters in patients with MPN with potential relevant clinical implications. Comparison with healthy subjects and those with secondary polycythemia is needed to confirm our preliminary findings.

  19. The water channel aquaporin-1 partitions into exosomes during reticulocyte maturation: implication for the regulation of cell volume.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Lionel; Liu, Jing; Vidal, Michel; Chasis, Joel Anne; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla

    2009-10-29

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1), the universal water channel, is responsible for rapid response of cell volume to changes in plasma tonicity. In the membrane of the red cell the concentration of the protein is tightly controlled. Here, we show that AQP-1 is partially lost during in vitro maturation of mouse reticulocytes and that it is associated with exosomes, released throughout this process. AQP-1 in young reticulocytes localizes to the plasma membrane and also in endosomal compartments and exosomes, formed both in vitro and in vivo. During maturation a part of the total pool of AQP-1 is differentially sorted and released via the exosomal pathway. A proteasome inhibitor, MG132, suppresses secretion of AQP-1, implying that ubiquitination is a sorting signal for its release. We further show that modulation of medium tonicity in vitro regulates the secretion of AQP-1, thus showing that extracellular osmotic conditions can drive sorting of selected proteins by the exosomal pathway. These results lead us to suggest that AQP-1 sorting into exosomes may be the mechanism by which the reticulocyte adapts to environmental changes during its maturation.

  20. Detection of erythropoietin misuse by the Athlete Biological Passport combined with reticulocyte percentage.

    PubMed

    Bejder, Jacob; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Bonne, Thomas Christian; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2016-10-01

    The sensitivity of the adaptive model of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and reticulocyte percentage (ret%) in detection of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) misuse was evaluated using both a long-term normal dose and a brief high dose treatment regime. Sixteen subjects received either 65 IU rHuEPO × kg(-1) every second day for two weeks (normal-dose), 390 IU rHuEPO × kg(-1) on three consecutive days (high-dose), or frequent placebo treatment for 13 days in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. Blood variables were measured 4, 11, and 25 days following treatment initiation. The ABP based on haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and OFF-hr score ([Hb] - 60 × √ret%) yielded atypical profiles following both normal-dose and high-dose treatment (0 %, 31 %, 13 % vs. 21 %, 33 %, 20 % at days 4, 11, and 25 after normal and high dose, respectively). Including ret% as a stand-alone marker for atypical blood profiles increased (P < 0.05) the sensitivity of the adaptive model at day 11 to 63 % and 67 % for normal-dose and high-dose rHuEPO administration, respectively. In conclusion, ~30 % of subjects injecting a normal-dose rHuEPO for two weeks or a high-dose rHuEPO for three days will present an atypical ABP profile. Including ret% as a stand-alone parameter improves the sensitivity two-fold. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of manual and automated measurements of reticulocyte parameters for classification of anemia in dogs: 174 cases (1993-2013).

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Saverio; Rossi, Gabriele; Manca, Michela; Scarpa, Paola; Vitiello, Tiziana; Giordano, Alessia

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess sensitivity and specificity of manual and automated measurements of reticulocyte percentage, number, and production index for classification of anemia in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case series SAMPLE 174 blood smears from client-owned dogs with anemia collected between 1993 and 2013 for which reticulocyte parameters were determined manually (nonregenerative anemia, 22; preregenerative anemia, 23; regenerative anemia, 28) or with an automated laser-based counter (nonregenerative anemia, 66; preregenerative anemia, 17; regenerative anemia, 18). PROCEDURES Diagnostic performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by considering preregenerative anemia as nonregenerative or regenerative. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio were calculated by use of cutoffs determined from ROC curves or published reference limits. RESULTS Considering preregenerative anemia as non regenerative, areas under the curve (AUCs) for reticulocyte percentage, number, and production index were 97%, 93%, and 91% for manual counting and 93%, 90%, and 93% for automated counting. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio were 82% to 86%, 82% to 87%, and 4.6 to 6.4, respectively. Considering preregenerative anemia as regenerative, AUCs were 77%, 82%, and 80% for manual counting and 81%, 82%, and 92% for automated counting. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio were 72% to 74%, 76 to 87%, and 2.7 to 6.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Whereas all reticulocyte parameters identified regeneration in anemic dogs, the performance of specific parameters was dependent on the method used. Findings suggested that lower cutoffs than published reference limits are preferred for reticulocyte number and production index and higher cutoffs are preferred for reticulocyte percentage. Reticulocyte production index may be useful when the pretest probability of regeneration is moderate.

  2. Evaluation of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters as indicative of iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Torino, Ana Beatriz Barbosa; Gilberti, Maria de Fátima Pererira; da Costa, Edvilson; de Lima, Gisélia Aparecida Freire; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mature red cell and reticulocyte parameters to identify three conditions: iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency. Methods Peripheral blood cells from 117 adult patients with anemia were classified according to iron status, inflammation, and hemoglobinopathies as: iron deficiency anemia (n = 42), anemia of chronic disease (n = 28), anemia of chronic disease associated with iron deficiency anemia (n = 22), and heterozygous β-thalassemia (n = 25). The percentage of microcytic erythrocytes, hypochromic erythrocytes, and the levels of hemoglobin in both reticulocytes and mature red cells were determined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in differentiating anemia. Results There was no difference between the groups of iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency for any of the parameters. The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes was the best parameter to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease (area under curve = 0.785; 95% confidence interval: 0.661–0.909 with sensitivity of 72.7%, and specificity of 70.4%; cut-off value 1.8%). The formula microcytic erythrocyte count minus hypochromic erythrocyte count was very accurate to differentiate iron deficiency anemia from heterozygous β-thalassemia (area under curve = 0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.950–1.005 with a sensitivity of 96.2%, and specificity of 92.7%; cut-off value 13.8). Conclusion The erythrocyte and reticulocyte indices are moderately good to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease. PMID:25818816

  3. Evaluation of red cell and reticulocyte parameters as indicative of iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Torino, Ana Beatriz Barbosa; Gilberti, Maria de Fátima Pererira; da Costa, Edvilson; de Lima, Gisélia Aparecida Freire; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mature red cell and reticulocyte parameters under three conditions: iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency. Methods Peripheral blood cells from 117 adult patients with anemia were classified according to iron status, and inflammatory activity, and the results of a hemoglobinopathy investigation as: iron deficiency anemia (n = 42), anemia of chronic disease (n = 28), anemia of chronic disease associated with iron deficiency anemia (n = 22), and heterozygous β thalassemia (n = 25). The percentage of microcytic red cells, hypochromic red cells, and levels of hemoglobin content in both reticulocytes and mature red cells were determined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in differentiating between the different types of anemia. Results There was no significant difference between the iron deficient group and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency in respect to any parameter. The percentage of hypochromic red cells was the best parameter to discriminate anemia of chronic disease with and without absolute iron deficiency (area under curve = 0.785; 95% confidence interval: 0.661–0.909, with sensitivity of 72.7%, and specificity of 70.4%; cut-off value 1.8%). The formula microcytic red cells minus hypochromic red cells was very accurate in differentiating iron deficiency anemia and heterozygous β thalassemia (area under curve = 0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.950–1.005; with sensitivity of 96.2%, and specificity of 92.7%; cut-off value 13.8). Conclusion The indices related to red cells and reticulocytes have a moderate performance in identifying absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease. PMID:25453653

  4. Measurement of reticulocyte and red blood cell indices in the evaluation of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Oustamanolakis, Pantelis; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Kefalogiannis, Georgios; Niniraki, Maria; Kouroumalis, Elias A

    2011-08-01

    The commonest types of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are iron deficiency (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease. The differentiation between these two conditions is important for the management of the patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of reticulocyte and red blood cell indices in the evaluation of anemia in IBD. One hundred IBD patients [49 ulcerative colitis (UC), 51 Crohn's disease (CD)] and 102 healthy controls were enrolled. Measurement of reticulocyte and red blood cell indices was performed using the Coulter LH780 Hematology Analyzer (Beckman Coulter). Additionally, serum levels of ferritin, transferrin saturation (Tsat) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were analyzed in all patients and controls. The prevalence of anemia was 41.2% for UC and 42.9% for CD, whereas 30 IBD patients (30%) had IDA. Red cell Distribution Width (RDW), Red blood cell Size Factor (RSF), and Reticulocyte Distribution Width-Coefficient of Variation (RDWR-CV) were found significantly correlated with both Tsat and sTfR but not with ferritin levels. Patients with IDA had significantly higher RDW and RDWR-CV and significantly lower RSF levels compared with those without IDA. High values of RDW (sensitivity 93%, specificity 81%) and low values of RSF (sensitivity 83%, specificity 82%) were the best markers for the diagnosis of IDA. Both RDWR-CV and RDWR-SD were significantly correlated with disease activity and CRP levels. RDW, RSF and RDWR, could be useful markers for the evaluation of anemia and disease activity in IBD. Copyright © 2011 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spleen-Dependent Immune Protection Elicited by CpG Adjuvanted Reticulocyte-Derived Exosomes from Malaria Infection Is Associated with Changes in T cell Subsets' Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Jaular, Lorena; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Monguió-Tortajada, Marta; Elizalde-Torrent, Aleix; Díaz-Varela, Míriam; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Borras, Francesc E.; Montoya, Maria; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2016-01-01

    Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex) are 30–100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy), had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG. Notably, rexPy immunization of mice induced changes in PD1− memory T cells with effector phenotype. Proteomics analysis of rexPy confirmed their reticulocyte origin and demonstrated the presence of parasite antigens. Our studies thus prove, for what we believe is the first time, that rex from reticulocyte-prone malarial infections are associated with splenic long-lasting memory responses. To try extrapolating these data to human infections, in vitro experiments with spleen cells of human transplantation donors were performed. Plasma-derived exosomes from vivax malaria patients (exPv) were actively uptaken by human splenocytes and stimulated spleen cells leading to changes in T cell subsets. PMID:27900319

  6. Spleen-Dependent Immune Protection Elicited by CpG Adjuvanted Reticulocyte-Derived Exosomes from Malaria Infection Is Associated with Changes in T cell Subsets' Distribution.

    PubMed

    Martín-Jaular, Lorena; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Monguió-Tortajada, Marta; Elizalde-Torrent, Aleix; Díaz-Varela, Míriam; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Borras, Francesc E; Montoya, Maria; Del Portillo, Hernando A

    2016-01-01

    Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex) are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy), had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG. Notably, rexPy immunization of mice induced changes in PD1(-) memory T cells with effector phenotype. Proteomics analysis of rexPy confirmed their reticulocyte origin and demonstrated the presence of parasite antigens. Our studies thus prove, for what we believe is the first time, that rex from reticulocyte-prone malarial infections are associated with splenic long-lasting memory responses. To try extrapolating these data to human infections, in vitro experiments with spleen cells of human transplantation donors were performed. Plasma-derived exosomes from vivax malaria patients (exPv) were actively uptaken by human splenocytes and stimulated spleen cells leading to changes in T cell subsets.

  7. Analysis of reticulocyte parameters on the Sysmex XE 5000 and LH 750 analyzers in the diagnosis of inefficient erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Urrechaga, E; Borque, L; Escanero, J F

    2011-02-01

    The reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (Ret He) represents an indirect measure of the functional iron available for erythropoiesis over the previous 2-3 days. Only the analyzers of a single manufacturer, Sysmex (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan), include Ret He. Red blood cell size factor (RSf) is a new parameter provided by Beckman Coulter, which joins together the volume of the erythrocytes and the volume of reticulocytes. The aims of the study were to investigate the clinical usefulness of RSf in the study of erythropoiesis status and to assess its concordance with Ret He values. Samples from 417 patients were run on both LH 780 (Beckman Coulter) and Sysmex XE 5000 analyzers. Independent samples t-test, Pearson correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and inter-rater reliability (κ index) were applied. Good correlation between RSf and Ret He was observed, r = 0.8184. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were detected when groups with inefficient erythropoiesis were compared with patients undergoing therapy and healthy subjects. ROC analysis for RSf in the diagnosis of inefficient erythropoiesis, cutoff 91.1 fl, area under curve 0.963, sensitivity 91.7%, specificity 88.5%. Concordance between RSf and Ret He κ = 0.68. RSf and Ret He are suitable parameters for the assessment of erythropoiesis status.

  8. Inhibition of reticulocyte lysate protein synthesis by heavy metal ions involves eIF-2. cap alpha. phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Matts, R.; Hurst, R.; Schatz, J.

    1987-05-01

    Heavy metal ions inhibit protein synthesis and disaggregate polyribosomes in several tissues and cell types. They have initiated studies to determine the mechanism by which this inhibition occurs utilizing the hemin-supplemented rabbit reticulocyte lysate as a model system. The inhibition of protein synthesis observed in the presence of heavy metal ions occurs with biphasic kinetics in a concentration dependent manner, which correlates with the biological toxicity of the ion. Highly toxic ions (AsO/sub 2//sup -/, Cd/sup + +/, Hg/sup + +/, Pb/sup + +/) inhibit protein synthesis by 50% at concentrations of 5-10 ..mu..M. In comparison, Cu/sup + +/, Fe/sup + +/, Zn/sup + +/ and GSSG inhibited protein synthesis by 50% at concentrations of 60, 250, 300 and 350 ..mu..M, respectively. The inhibition of protein synthesis was accompanied by the phosphorylation of eIF-2..cap alpha.., and was reversed or prevented by the addition of 1 mM DTT, 10 mM cAMP, 2 mM MgGTP, eIF-2 or the reversing factor (RF). Glucose-6-phosphate was found to have no effect. The data indicate that the inhibition of protein synthesis observed with the addition of heavy metal ions to reticulocyte lysates is due to the phosphorylation of eIF-2..cap alpha...

  9. Discrimination of various thalassemia syndromes and iron deficiency and utilization of reticulocyte measurements in monitoring response to iron therapy.

    PubMed

    Winichagoon, Pranee; Kumbunlue, Rawiprapa; Sirankapracha, Pornpan; Boonmongkol, Piathip; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2015-04-01

    Decreased hemoglobinization of red cells resulting in hypochromia and microcytosis are the main features of thalassemia syndromes, and also of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). A simple and reliable method is required to distinguish the two conditions in the routine laboratories. In this study we analyzed the red cell and reticulocyte parameters from 414 samples of various types of thalassemias and IDA and discovered a variety of discriminating criteria including a discrimination index (DI) which should be useful for differential diagnosis. Slightly decreased MCV and CH are suggestive of α-thalassemia 2, Hb CS, and Hb E heterozygotes whereas the increased Rbc counts are obvious in α-thalassemia 1 and β-thalassemia. In Hb E, the number of microcytic red cells was greater than the number of hypochromic red cells resulting in an increased M/H ratio. Hb H diseases are characterized by a higher number of hypochromic red cells and decreased CHCM, while broadening of hemoglobin concentration histogram results in increased HDW in β-thalassemia diseases. Iron deficiency anemia results in hypochromic-microcytic red cells and increased RDW. The number of reticulocyte with %High Retic and CHr value were increased in the first month of iron supplementation indicating the response to iron therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and immature reticulocytes evaluations in mobilization process: new parameters measured by conventional blood cell counter.

    PubMed

    Noronha, J F A; Lorand-Metze, I G H; Grotto, H Z W

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring the timing of leukapheresis in peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) mobilization is an important clinical decision that requires an accurate analytical tool. The present study assessed hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) counts provided by a routine automated blood counter as potential parameters for predicting the appropriate time for harvesting. The HPC and IRF values were compared with white blood cell (WBC) and CD34+ cell counts obtained by flow cytometry in 30 adult patients with hematological malignancies undergoing PBSC mobilization. It was observed that there was a significant correlation between HPC counts and CD34(+) cells in peripheral blood counts (r=0.61, P=0.0003) and between the number of HPC and CD34+cells collected by leukapheresis (r=0.5733, P=0.0009). Comparing HPC, IRF, WBC, and CD34+ cells parameters as a sign of hematological recovery showed that the raise in immature reticulocytes counts preceded the increase of WBC (P=0.0002), HPC (P=0.0001), and CD34(+) (P=0.0001) cells in peripheral blood counts. According to our results, HPC and IRF parameters may be integrated into clinical protocols to evaluate the timing of leukapheresis. IRF, as previously demonstrated in bone marrow transplantation, is the earliest sign of hematopoietic recovery in mobilization process.

  11. Mechanism of activation of the heme-stabilized translational inhibitor of reticulocyte lysates by calcium ions and phospholipid.

    PubMed Central

    de Herreros, A G; de Haro, C; Ochoa, S

    1985-01-01

    We have reported previously that calcium ions and phospholipid activate the heme-stabilized proinhibitor form (pro-HCI) of the heme-controlled translational inhibitor (HCI) in reticulocyte lysates and promote the first step of the reaction pro-HCI in equilibrium reversible HCI----irreversible HCI. This suggested the possible involvement of a Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) in the activation. However, further investigation revealed, among other things, that polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., arachidonic acid) were as effective as Ca2+/phospholipid in promoting translational inhibition and phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the chain-initiation factor eIF-2 and, moreover, HCI activation could be prevented or reversed in either case by NADPH-generating systems or by dithiols. Our results suggest that pro-HCI is activated by lipoperoxides produced in reticulocyte lysates from either phospholipid or polyunsaturated fatty acids; the presence of Ca2+ is required in the former but not in the latter case. The reversible activation of HCI by Ca2+ and phospholipid might suggest a possible modulatory role of Ca2+ in translational control. Images PMID:3159012

  12. Plasmodium vivax ligand-receptor interaction: PvAMA-1 domain I contains the minimal regions for specific interaction with CD71+ reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Pinzón, Gabriela; Bermúdez, Maritza; Hernández, Diana; Curtidor, Hernando; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2017-08-30

    The malarial parasite's invasion is complex, active and coordinated, involving many low and high affinity interactions with receptors on target cell membrane. Proteomics analysis has described around 40 proteins in P. vivax which could be involved in reticulocyte invasion; few have been studied with the aim of elucidating how many of them establish specific interactions with their respective host cells. Given the importance of knowing which of the parasite's protein regions are functionally important for invasion, minimum regions mediating specific interaction between Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (PvAMA-1) and its host cell were here elucidated. The region covering PvAMA-1 domains I and II (PvAMA-DI-II) specifically bound to the CD71(+) red blood cell subpopulation. A 20 residue-long region ((81)EVENAKYRIPAGRCPVFGKG(100)) located in domain I was capable of inhibiting PvAMA-DI-II recombinant protein binding to young reticulocytes (CD71(+)CD45(-)) and rosette formation. This conserved peptide specifically interacted with high affinity with reticulocytes (CD71(+)) through a neuraminidase- and chymotrypsin-treatment sensitive receptor. Such results showed that, despite AMA-1 having universal functions during late Plasmodium invasion stages, PvAMA-1 had reticulocyte-preferring binding regions, suggesting that P. vivax target cell selection is not just restricted to initial interactions but maintained throughout the erythrocyte invasion cycle, having important implications for designing a specific anti-P. vivax vaccine.

  13. From Rabbit Reticulocytes to Clam Oocytes: In Search of the System That Targets Mitotic Cyclins for Degradation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    By the late 1980s, the basic biochemistry of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation had already been elucidated by studies that used reticulocyte lysates. However, the scope and biological functions of this system remained largely obscure. Therefore, I became interested at that time in the mechanisms by which mitotic cyclins are degraded in exit from mitosis. Using a cell-free system from clam oocytes that faithfully reproduced cell cycle stage–specific degradation of cyclins, we identified in 1995 a large ubiquitin ligase complex that targets mitotic cyclins for degradation. Subsequent studies in many laboratories showed that this ubiquitin ligase, now called the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, has centrally important roles in many aspects of cell cycle control. PMID:20335505

  14. [Induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow reticulocytes of male mice after subchronic exposure to x-rays and bisphenol A].

    PubMed

    Radzikowska, Joanna; Gajowik, Aneta; Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and xenoestrogens are widely present in the human environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics, epoxy and polyester resins. BPA is present in a great variety of products including: baby bottles, compact disks, thermal paper, safety helmets, bullet resistant laminate, plastic windows, car parts, adhesives, protective coatings, powder paints, polycarbonate bottles and containers, the sheathing of electrical and electronic parts, dental fillings. Food and beverage cans are protected from rusting and corrosion by the application of epoxy resins as inner coatings. Human activities involving the use of radiation and radioactive materials in industry, agriculture and research cause radiation exposure in addition to natural exposure coming from cosmic rays and naturally occurring radioactive substances. The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of bisphenol A, X-rays and combined exposure to X-rays and bisphenol A on the induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and in bone marrow reticulocytes of laboratory mice. Pzh-Sfis male mice were exposed for 8 weeks. Animals were treated with bisphenol A diluted in drinking water (5 mg/kg bw, 10 mg/kg bw, 20 mg/kg bw), irradiated 0.05 Gy of X-rays or exposed to a combination of both (0.05 Gy + 5 mg/kg bw BPA). The samples of peripheral blood were taken at 1, 4 and 8 week following the start of exposure, whereas the bone marrow after the end of experiment, only. The induction of micronuclei in reticulocytes were evaluated by using fluorescence microscope. Bisphenol A as well as ionizing radiation stimulated induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow reticulocytes. After the irradiation the level of micronuclei increased, whereas after exposure to BPA decreased related to time expired from beginning of experiment. Combined exposure of ionizing radiation and bisphenol A induced significantly higher frequency of micronuclei compared to the effect

  15. Biologic dosimetry of bone marrow: induction of micronuclei in reticulocytes after exposure to 32P and 90Y.

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, M; Goddu, S M; Rao, D V; Howell, R W

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow is the dose-limiting organ in targeted radionuclide therapy. Hence, determination of the absorbed dose to bone marrow from incorporated radionuclides is a critical element in treatment planning. This study investigated the potential of the micronucleus assay in peripheral blood reticulocytes (MnRETs) as an in vivo biologic dosimeter for bone marrow. After intravenous administration of 32P-orthophosphate or 90Y-citrate in Swiss Webster mice, DNA damage induced in bone marrow erythroblastoid cells was measured by subsequent scoring of MnRETs in peripheral blood. The response to exponentially decreasing dose rates was calibrated by irradiating animals with external 137Cs-gamma-rays. The gamma-ray dose rate was decreased exponentially, with the dose-rate decrease half-time corresponding to the effective clearance half-time (Te) of the radioactivity from the femoral bone (Te = 64 h for 90Y-citrate and Te = 255 h for 32P-orthophosphate). The maximum MnRETs frequency occurred on the second and third day after injection of 90Y-citrate and 32P-orthophosphate, respectively. The same pattern was observed for exponentially decreasing dose rates of 137Cs-gamma-rays. For each type of exposure, the maximum MnRETs frequency increased in a dose-dependent manner. Using the calibrated dosimeter, the initial dose rates to the marrow per unit of injected activity were 0.0020 cGy/h/kBq and 0.0026 cGy/h/kBq for 32P-orthophosphate and 90Y-citrate, respectively. Micronuclei in peripheral blood reticulocytes can be used as a noninvasive biologic dosimeter for measuring absorbed dose rate and absorbed dose to bone marrow from incorporated radionuclides.

  16. Quantitation of CD55 and CD59 expression on reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, aplastic anemia, and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeongsic; Lim, Jihyang; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Lee, Jong-Wook; Han, Kyungja

    2010-01-01

    Since PNH occasionally results in bone marrow failure, it is difficult to differentiate PNH from AA with small numbers of CD(55) (-)CD(59) (-) erythrocytes. We quantified CD55 and CD59 molecules expressed on normal reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), aplastic anemia (AA), and normal individuals in order to determine their usefulness for differentiation between PNH and AA. A total of 56 patients (AA 39 patients, PNH 17 patients) and 10 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Two-color flow cytometric analyses were conducted using thiazole orange, anti-CD55 and CD59 monoclonal antibodies to identify CD(55) (-)CD(59) (-) reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes. Mean fluorescence level of CD(55) (+) mature erythrocytes was lowest in the PNH patients (13.2 x 10(3) MESF), and was significantly lower than in normal controls (16.7 x 10(3) MESF, p <0.05), and highest in the AA subjects (22.8 x 10(3) MESF). Mean fluorescence level of CD(59) (+) mature erythrocytes was lowest in the PNH subjects (24.5 x 10(3) MESF), significantly less than in normal controls (39.0 x 10(3) MESF, p <0.05), and highest in the AA subjects (49.2 x 10(3) MESF). Total reticulocyte counts correlated strongly with the CD(55) (-)CD(59) (-) reticulocytes. Comparative quantitative analysis of CD55 and CD59 molecules expressed on normal erythrocytes may be useful in differentiating PNH from AA patients with small numbers of PNH-phenotype erythrocytes, and the total reticulocyte count may prove useful as a marker for PNH clone size.

  17. Use of Nramp2-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells and reticulocytes from mk/mk mice to study iron transport mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, An-Sheng; Canonne-Hergaux, Francois; Gruenheid, Samantha; Gros, Philippe; Ponka, Prem

    2009-01-01

    Objective We investigated mechanisms involved in iron (Fe) transport by DMT1 (endosomal Fe(II) exporter, encoded by the Nramp2 gene) using wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Nramp2-transfected CHO cells, as well as reticulocytes from normal and mk/mk mice that have a defect in DMT1. Materials and Methods CHO cells and reticulocytes were incubated with 59Fe bound to various ligands. The radioiron was present in its Fe(II) or Fe(III) forms or bound to transferrin (Tf), and the internalized 59Fe measured under varying experimental conditions. Additionally, 125I-Tf interaction with reticulocytes was investigated and 59Fe incorporation into their heme was determined. Results Hyperexpression of DMT1 in CHO cells greatly increases their capacity to acquire ferrous iron. Although CHO-Nramp2 cells showed an increase in Fe(III) uptake as compared to CHO cells, they transported Fe(III) with much lower efficacy than Fe(II). In addition to their defect in Fe uptake, mk/mk reticulocytes also showed a decrease in Tf receptor levels. Conclusions Given that CHO cells acquire iron from Fe(II)-ascorbate with much higher rates than from Fe(III)-Tf, Tf-receptor levels represent the rate-limiting step in their iron uptake. As Fe(III) transport by CHO-Nramp2 cells can be inhibited by the impermeable oxidant K3Fe(CN)6, a membrane ferric reductase is probably needed for reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which is then transported by DMT1. DMT1 is not a limiting factor in Fe acquisition by normal reticulocytes and their heme synthesis. PMID:18722041

  18. Reticulocyte and Erythrocyte Binding-Like Proteins Function Cooperatively in Invasion of Human Erythrocytes by Malaria Parasites▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Lopaticki, Sash; Maier, Alexander G.; Thompson, Jennifer; Wilson, Danny W.; Tham, Wai-Hong; Triglia, Tony; Gout, Alex; Speed, Terence P.; Beeson, James G.; Healer, Julie; Cowman, Alan F.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria in humans and invades erythrocytes using multiple ligand-receptor interactions. Two important protein families involved in erythrocyte binding are the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) and the reticulocyte binding-like (RBL or P. falciparum Rh [PfRh]) proteins. We constructed P. falciparum lines lacking expression of EBL proteins by creating single and double knockouts of the corresponding genes for eba-175, eba-181, and eba-140 and show that the EBL and PfRh proteins function cooperatively, consistent with them playing a similar role in merozoite invasion. We provide evidence that PfRh and EBL proteins functionally interact, as loss of function of EBA-181 ablates the ability of PfRh2a/b protein antibodies to inhibit merozoite invasion. Additionally, loss of function of some ebl genes results in selection for increased transcription of the PfRh family. This provides a rational basis for considering PfRh and EBL proteins for use as a combination vaccine against P. falciparum. We immunized rabbits with combinations of PfRh and EBL proteins to test the ability of antibodies to block merozoite invasion in growth inhibition assays. A combination of EBA-175, PfRh2a/b, and PfRh4 recombinant proteins induced antibodies that potently blocked merozoite invasion. This validates the use of a combination of these ligands as a potential vaccine that would have broad activity against P. falciparum. PMID:21149582

  19. Evaluation of reticulocyte haemoglobin content as marker of iron deficiency and predictor of response to intravenous iron in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Ihm, C H; Kim, H J

    2008-02-01

    Because serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS) have a limitation in estimating iron status in haemodialysis patients, the reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr) has been proposed as a new tool. We investigate the accuracy of CHr in comparison with conventional tests and the relationship between changes in CHr and haemoglobin levels after therapy. We selected 140 haemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO and intravenous iron supplementation and measured their complete blood count, CHr and iron parameters. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin <100 microg/l and/or a TS <20%. Hb, CHr, ferritin and TS levels were determined 1 month after therapy. Fifty-three patients were iron deficient. CHr were distributed with 33.7 +/- 1.4 pg in the iron sufficient group and with 29.9 +/- 1.9 pg in the iron deficient group (P = 0.001). The cutoff value of CHr for detecting iron deficiency was <32.4 pg. In iron deficient patients, a significant correlation was found between CHr and TS. The change in CHr after therapy was significantly larger in iron-deficient patients, and a lower baseline CHr is associated with a greater haemoglobin change. CHr is useful in screening iron status in dialysis patients, and a CHr cut-off value of 32 pg is appropriate for the assessment of iron deficiency. Moreover, CHr may serve as a predictor of the response to anaemia treatment.

  20. Terminal-sequence studies of high-molecular-weight ribonucleic acid. The 3'-termini of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Hunt, J A

    1970-11-01

    Sequences of the polynucleotide chains of RNA found in the large and small ribosomal subunits of rabbit reticulocytes have been determined from the 3'-end by use of periodate oxidation and condensation with [(3)H]isoniazid and by stepwise degradation. By these methods the hexanucleotide sequences have been found as -pGpUpUpUpGpU for the 28S RNA and -pGpUpCpGpCpU for the 6S RNA of the large ribosomal subunit and the octanucleotide sequence -pGpApUpCpApUpUpA for the 18S rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit. These sequences are present in at least 70% of all the RNA molecules and are discussed in relation to the specific cleavage of rRNA from its precursors and the role of multiple cistrons for rRNA in the DNA of higher organisms. The feasibility of using the method for longer sequence determinations is discussed.

  1. Reticulocyte haemoglobin content vs. soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index in iron deficiency anaemia accompanied with inflammation.

    PubMed

    Marković, M; Majkić-Singh, N; Ignjatović, S; Singh, S

    2007-10-01

    Ferritin concentration, as a parameter of iron status that is commonly used in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), often has limited values if the iron deficiency is accompanied by inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the value of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr) and soluble transferrin receptor-ferritin index (sTfR/F) in the diagnosis of IDA and differential diagnosis of IDA and anaemia of chronic disease. The study included 66 nonanaemic individuals as controls, 86 patients with IDA divided into noninflammatory and inflammatory subgroups, and 32 patients with anaemia of chronic disease. Blood count, iron, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, ferritin, C-reactive protein, sTfR and CHr were determined. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed very high discriminating power for CHr, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR/F in the diagnosis of IDA. In patients with anaemia of chronic disease these parameters showed no significant difference from the control. CHr and sTfR enabled recognition of iron deficiency and were not affected by acute phase reaction. They are sensitive markers of body iron status with additional value to conventional tests for the detection of iron deficiency.

  2. [Automated hematology analysers and spurious counts Part 3. Haemoglobin, red blood cells, cell count and indices, reticulocytes].

    PubMed

    Godon, Alban; Genevieve, Franck; Marteau-Tessier, Anne; Zandecki, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Several situations lead to abnormal haemoglobin measurement or to abnormal red blood cells (RBC) counts, including hyperlipemias, agglutinins and cryoglobulins, haemolysis, or elevated white blood cells (WBC) counts. Mean (red) cell volume may be also subject to spurious determination, because of agglutinins (mainly cold), high blood glucose level, natremia, anticoagulants in excess and at times technological considerations. Abnormality related to one measured parameter eventually leads to abnormal calculated RBC indices: mean cell haemoglobin content is certainly the most important RBC parameter to consider, maybe as important as flags generated by the haematology analysers (HA) themselves. In many circumstances, several of the measured parameters from cell blood counts (CBC) may be altered, and the discovery of a spurious change on one parameter frequently means that the validity of other parameters should be considered. Sensitive flags allow now the identification of several spurious counts, but only the most sophisticated HA have optimal flagging, and simpler ones, especially those without any WBC differential scattergram, do not share the same capacity to detect abnormal results. Reticulocytes are integrated into the CBC in many HA, and several situations may lead to abnormal counts, including abnormal gating, interference with intraerythrocytic particles, erythroblastosis or high WBC counts.

  3. TOP mRNAs are translationally inhibited by a titratable repressor in both wheat germ extract and reticulocyte lysate.

    PubMed

    Biberman, Y; Meyuhas, O

    1999-08-13

    Vertebrate TOP mRNAs contain a 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5' TOP), which is subject to selective translational repression in non-growing cells or in cell-free translation systems. In the present study, we monitored in vitro the effect of increasing amounts of a 16 nucleotides long oligoribonucleotide representing the 5' terminus of mouse ribosomal protein S16 mRNA on the translation of TOP and non-TOP mRNAs. Our results demonstrate that the wild-type sequence (but not its mutant counterparts) derepresses the translation of mRNAs containing 5' TOP motifs, but failed to stimulate the translation of non-TOP mRNAs, even if the latter differed only by a single nucleotide from their 5' TOP-containing counterparts. Similar results have been obtained with both wheat germ extract and rabbit reticulocyte lysate. It appears, therefore, that translational repression of TOP mRNAs is achieved in vitro by the accumulation of a titratable repressor rather than by the loss of an activator and that this repressor recognizes multiple TOP mRNAs with a diverse set of 5' TOP motifs.

  4. Unwinding protein specific for mRNA translation fractionated together with rabbit reticulocyte initiation factor 3 complex

    PubMed Central

    Ilan, Joseph; Ilan, Judith

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system dependent on the addition of initiation factor 3 (eIF-3) and mRNA were carried out. In this system, using ribosomal subunits, AUG(U)n can direct polyphenylalanine synthesis in the absence of eIF-3 at 3 mM MgCl2. Globin mRNA was not translated under similar conditions; its translation requires the addition of eIF-3. Moreover, the maximal rate of globin synthesis was achieved when the molar ratio of eIF-3 to ribosomes was approximately 1. This was taken to indicate that some ribosomal proteins were fractionated with eIF-3 and functioned in reconstitution of salt-washed ribosomes. In our system, almost all ribosomes were active, as evident from the fact that all were found in polysomes when analyzed at the time of linear incorporation, and the molar ratio of ribosomes to mRNA was maintained at 4:1. When AUG(U)n was hybridized with poly(A), it could not direct polyphenylalanine synthesis with or without eIF-3 and was a potent inhibitor of the translation of globin mRNA in the presence of eIF-3. When poly(A) containing 10% U was hybridized with AUG(U)n and added to the cell-free system, addition of eIF-3 promoted polyphenylalanine synthesis to about 80% of control. Moreover, eIF-3 was seen to shift significantly the melting temperature of globin and synthetic double-stranded RNA. These observations suggest that extraction of ribosomes with 0.5 M KCl may release a ribosomal protein that fractionates with eIF-3. This protein may function in unwinding or melting the secondary structure of mRNA and thus facilitate translation. PMID:267926

  5. Characterization of ribonuclease H activities present in two cell-free protein synthesizing systems, the wheat germ extract and the rabbit reticulocyte lysate.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, C; Frank, P; Büsen, W

    1993-01-01

    Experimental evidence accumulated to date by several research groups indicates that antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted against messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences located downstream of the initiation codon fail to inhibit the translation of this mRNA unless the hybrid is cleaved by RNase H. It has previously been shown that exogenous RNase H has to be added to rabbit reticulocyte lysate to obtain translational arrest (unless freshly prepared lysates are used). In contrast there is no need of exogenous RNase H by using wheat germ extract for translation because the level of endogenous RNase H is high enough to ensure cleavage of the hybrid formed between the antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide and its complementary sequence on the mRNA. Surprisingly, we found that these two cell-free translation systems display similar amounts of RNase H activities when tested under standard conditions (extract diluted 500 times in the RNase H reaction mix). The RNase H activity of the rabbit reticulocyte lysate has a divalent cation requirement and sensitivity to inhibitors similar to class I ribonuclease H, whereas the activity of the wheat germ extract shows similarities to class II ribonuclease H. However, when these activities were assayed under conditions similar to those used for translation experiments, only highly reduced levels of activity were found in comparison to the standard assays. This reduction is due in part to sub-optimal ionic conditions for the endogenous RNase H activities in these extracts, and, for the other part, likely due to interactions with other proteins present in the lysates. In these conditions, however, the remaining activity found in the wheat germ extract was three times higher than the activity found in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Whether this difference can by itself explain the indicated differences in the two systems observed in hybrid-arrest of translation experiments remains open to discussion.

  6. Assembly of heterodimeric luciferase after de novo synthesis of subunits in rabbit reticulocyte lysate involves hsc70 and hsp40 at a post-translational stage.

    PubMed

    Tyedmers, J; Kruse, M; Lerner, M; Demand, J; Höhfeld, J; Solsbacher, J; Volkmer, J; Zimmermann, R

    2000-06-01

    Heterodimeric luciferase from Vibrio harveyi had been established as a unique model enzyme for direct measurements of the effects of molecular chaperones and folding catalysts on protein folding and subunit assembly after de novo synthesis of subunits in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. It was observed that luciferase assembly can be separated in time from synthesis of the two subunits and that under these post-translational conditions assembly was inhibited by either ATP depletion or inhibition of peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases, that is, by addition of cyclosporin A or FK506. Furthermore, it was observed that the inhibitory effect of FK506 on luciferase assembly can be suppressed by addition of purified cyclophilin, thereby providing the first direct evidence for the involvement of peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases in protein biogenesis in the eukaryotic cytosol. Here the ATP requirement in luciferase assembly has been characterized. Depletion of either Hsp90 or CCT from reticulocyte lysate did not interfere with luciferase assembly. However, addition of purified Hsc70 stimulated luciferase assembly. While addition of purified Hsp40 did not have any effect on luciferase assembly, the stimulatory effect of Hsc70 was further increased by Hsp40. Thus, after synthesis of the two subunits in reticulocyte lysate assembly of heterodimeric luciferase involves Hsc70 and its co-chaperone Hsp40. Therefore, Hsc70 aids protein biogenesis in the eukaryotic cytosol not only at the levels of nascent polypeptide chains and precursor proteins that have to be kept competent for transport into cell organelles, but also at the level of subunits that have to be kept competent for assembly.

  7. Diversity and evolutionary genetics of the three major Plasmodium vivax merozoite genes participating in reticulocyte invasion in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Cerón, Lilia; Cerritos, Rene; Corzo-Mancilla, Jordán; Santillán, Frida

    2015-12-21

    suggest that differential intensities of selective forces are operating on these gene fragments, and probably related to their timing, length of exposure and function during reticulocyte adhesion and invasion. Therefore, these finding are essential for mono and multivalent vaccine development and for epidemiological surveillance.

  8. Frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes, a dosimeter of DNA double-strand breaks, in infants receiving computed tomography or cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Mona; Walker, Dale M; Albertini, Richard J; Nicklas, Janice A; Lundblad, Lennart K A; Vacek, Pamela M; Walker, Vernon E

    2017-08-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT scans) has increased dramatically in recent decades, raising questions about the long-term safety of CT-emitted x-rays especially in infants who are more sensitive to radiation-induced effects. Cancer risk estimates for CT scans typically are extrapolated from models; therefore, new approaches measuring actual DNA damage are needed for improved estimations. Hence, changes in a dosimeter of DNA double-strand breaks, micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) measured by flow cytometry, were investigated in mice and infants exposed to CT scans. In male C57BL/6N mice (6-8 weeks-of-age), there was a dose-related increase in MN-RETs in blood samples collected 48h after CT scans delivering targeted exposures of 1-130 cGy x-rays (n=5-10/group, r=0.994, p=0.01), with significant increases occurring at exposure levels as low as 0.83 cGy x-rays compared to control mice (p=0.002). In paired blood specimens from infants with no history of a prior CT scan, there was no difference in MN-RET frequencies found 2h before (mean, 0.10±0.07%) versus 48h after (mean, 0.11±0.05%) a scheduled CT scan/cardiac catheterization. However, in infants having prior CT scan(s), MN-RET frequencies measured at 48h after a scheduled CT scan (mean=0.22±0.12%) were significantly higher than paired baseline values (mean, 0.17±0.07%; p=0.032). Increases in baseline (r=0.722, p<0.001) and 48-h post exposure (r=0.682, p<0.001) levels of MN-RETs in infants with a history of prior CT scans were significantly correlated with the number of previous CT scans. These preliminary findings suggest that prior CT scans increase the cellular responses to subsequent CT exposures. Thus, further investigation is needed to characterize the potential cancer risk from single versus repeated CT scans or cardiac catheterizations in infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A nontetrameric species is the major soluble form of keratin in Xenopus oocytes and rabbit reticulocyte lysates

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Inside the interphase cell, approximately 5% of the total intermediate filament protein exists in a soluble form. Past studies using velocity gradient sedimentation (VGS) indicate that soluble intermediate filament protein exists as an approximately 7 S tetrameric species. While studying intermediate filament assembly dynamics in the Xenopus oocyte, we used both VGS and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) to analyze the soluble form of keratin. Previous studies (Coulombe, P. A., and E. Fuchs. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 111:153) report that tetrameric keratins migrate on SEC with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 150,000; the major soluble form of keratin in the oocyte, in contrast, migrates with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 750,000. During oocyte maturation, the keratin system disassembles into a soluble form (Klymkowsky, M. W., L. A. Maynell, and C. Nislow. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 114:787) and the amount of the 750-kD keratin complex increases dramatically. Immunoprecipitation analysis of soluble keratin from matured oocytes revealed the presence of type I and type II keratins, but no other stoichiometrically associated polypeptides, suggesting that the 750-kD keratin complex is composed solely of keratin. To further study the formation of the 750-kD keratin complex, we used rabbit reticulocyte lysates (RRL). The 750-kD keratin complex was formed in RRLs contranslating type I and type II Xenopus keratins, but not when lysates translated type I or type II keratin RNAs alone. The 750-kD keratin complex could be formed posttranslationally in an ATP-independent manner when type I and type II keratin translation reactions were mixed. Under conditions of prolonged incubation, such as occur during VGS analysis, the 750-kD keratin complex disassembled into a 7 S (by VGS), 150-kD (by SEC) form. In urea denaturation studies, the 7 S/150-kD form could be further disassembled into an 80-kD species that consists of cofractionating dimeric and monomeric

  10. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... monitor response to treatment, such as that for iron-deficiency anemia To monitor bone marrow function following treatments ... condition known to affect RBC production, such as iron deficiency anemia , vitamin B12 or folate deficiency , or kidney ...

  11. Reticulocyte count is the most important predictor of acute cerebral ischemia and high-risk transcranial Doppler in a newborn cohort of 395 children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Belisário, André Rolim; Sales, Rahyssa Rodrigues; Toledo, Nayara Evelin; Muniz, Maristela Braga de Sousa Rodrigues; Velloso-Rodrigues, Cibele; Silva, Célia Maria; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2016-10-01

    Stroke is a severe clinical manifestation of sickle cell anemia (SCA). Despite the prognostic relevance of transcranial Doppler (TCD), more accurate tools to assess stroke risk in children with SCA are required. Here, we describe the effect of clinical, laboratory, and molecular features on the risk of stroke and high-risk TCD in children from the newborn cohort of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Outcomes studied were acute cerebral ischemia and high-risk TCD. Clinical and hematological data were retrieved from children's records. Genetic markers, which were known for their association with stroke risk, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. The cumulative incidence of acute cerebral ischemia by the age of 8 years was 7.4 % and that of high-risk TCD by the age of 11.5 years was 14.2 %. The final multivariate model for acute cerebral ischemia risk included high white blood cell count and reticulocyte count, acute chest syndrome rate, and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) TEK rs489347 and TNF-α rs1800629. The model for high-risk TCD included high reticulocyte count and the SNPs TEK rs489347 and TGFBR3 rs284875. Children with risk factors should be considered for intensive risk monitoring and for intervention therapy.

  12. Development and evaluation of a novel in-clinic automated hematology analyzer, ProCyte Dx, for canine erythrocyte indices, leukogram, platelet counts and reticulocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakamura, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2013-11-01

    A novel hematology analyzer for small animal medicine, ProCyte Dx, was developed from combination of the fluorescence laser flow cytometry and laminar flow impedance technologies, and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing with the conventional impedance-based hematology analyzer, pocH-100iV Diff, or microscopic manual cell counting methods with staining blood smears in the canine blood. Blood samples of 59 dogs were hematologically analyzed and compared by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Analyses between the two analyzers showed excellent correlation in RBC (r=0.998), HGB (r=0.999), HCT (r=0.998), MCV (r=0.994), MCH (r=0.974), MCHC (r=0.906), WBC (r=0.998) and PLT (r=0.993). Analyses between ProCyte Dx and microscopic manual counting results showed excellent correlation in neutrophils (r=0.920), lymphocytes (r=0.913) and reticulocyte percentages (r=0.924), good correlation in eosinophils (r=0.815) and reticulocyte numbers (r=0.850) and fair correlation in monocytes (r=0.770). The present study indicates that ProCyte Dx is acceptably accurate and can be a powerful tool for canine clinical medicine.

  13. Hydroxycarbamide decreases sickle reticulocyte adhesion to resting endothelium by inhibiting endothelial lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) through phosphodiesterase 4A activation.

    PubMed

    Chaar, Vicky; Laurance, Sandrine; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Cochet, Sylvie; De Grandis, Maria; Colin, Yves; Elion, Jacques; Le Van Kim, Caroline; El Nemer, Wassim

    2014-04-18

    Vaso-occlusive crises are the main acute complication in sickle cell disease. They are initiated by abnormal adhesion of circulating blood cells to vascular endothelium of the microcirculation. Several interactions involving an intricate network of adhesion molecules have been described between sickle red blood cells and the endothelial vascular wall. We have shown previously that young sickle reticulocytes adhere to resting endothelial cells through the interaction of α4β1 integrin with endothelial Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM). In the present work, we investigated the functional impact of endothelial exposure to hydroxycarbamide (HC) on this interaction using transformed human bone marrow endothelial cells and primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Adhesion of sickle reticulocytes to HC-treated endothelial cells was decreased despite the HC-derived increase of Lu/BCAM expression. This was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Lu/BCAM and up-regulation of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4A expression. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for HC in endothelial cells where it could modulate the function of membrane proteins through the regulation of phosphodiesterase expression and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways.

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Novel In-Clinic Automated Hematology Analyzer, ProCyte Dx, for Canine Erythrocyte Indices, Leukogram, Platelet Counts and Reticulocyte Counts

    PubMed Central

    FUJINO, Yasuhito; NAKAMURA, Yoichi; MATSUMOTO, Hideaki; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; OHNO, Koichi; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel hematology analyzer for small animal medicine, ProCyte Dx, was developed from combination of the fluorescence laser flow cytometry and laminar flow impedance technologies, and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing with the conventional impedance-based hematology analyzer, pocH-100iV Diff, or microscopic manual cell counting methods with staining blood smears in the canine blood. Blood samples of 59 dogs were hematologically analyzed and compared by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Analyses between the two analyzers showed excellent correlation in RBC (r=0.998), HGB (r=0.999), HCT (r=0.998), MCV (r=0.994), MCH (r=0.974), MCHC (r=0.906), WBC (r=0.998) and PLT (r=0.993). Analyses between ProCyte Dx and microscopic manual counting results showed excellent correlation in neutrophils (r=0.920), lymphocytes (r=0.913) and reticulocyte percentages (r=0.924), good correlation in eosinophils (r=0.815) and reticulocyte numbers (r=0.850) and fair correlation in monocytes (r=0.770). The present study indicates that ProCyte Dx is acceptably accurate and can be a powerful tool for canine clinical medicine. PMID:23811854

  15. Developmental toxicity of artesunate in the rat: comparison to other artemisinins, comparison of embryotoxicity and kinetics by oral and intravenous routes, and relationship to maternal reticulocyte count.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L; Lerman, Steven A; Cox, Estella M; Gristwood, William E; White, Tacey E K

    2008-08-01

    The antimalarial, artesunate, is teratogenic and embryolethal in rats, with peak sensitivity on Days 10 and 11 postcoitum (pc). We compared the developmental toxicity of structurally related artemisinins, dihdyroartemisinin (DHA), artemether (ARTM), and arteether (ARTE) to that of artesunate after oral administration to rats on Day 10 pc. In separate studies, embryolethality was characterized after single intravenous (IV) administration of artesunate on Day 11 pc, and toxicokinetic parameters following oral and IV administration were compared. Lastly, to determine whether maternal hematologic effects occurred at doses that affect embryonic erythroblasts, artesunate was orally administered on Day 11 pc at a dose that caused 100% embryolethality. All artemisinins caused the same pattern of embryolethality and fetal cardiovascular and skeletal abnormalities as previously shown for artesunate. In the IV study, marked postimplantation loss occurred at 1.5 and 3 mg/kg artesunate, but not at 0.75 mg/kg. Among the toxicokinetic parameters evaluated, only the DHA AUC(0-t) was similar at embryolethal oral and IV doses of artesunate. An embryolethal dose of artesunate caused a 15% decrease in maternal reticulocyte counts and no other hematologic effects. Several structurally related artemisinins cause similar developmental toxicity, suggesting an artemisinin class effect. Equally embryotoxic oral and IV treatments of one artemisinin compound (artesunate) produced similar systemic exposure to the artesunate metabolite, DHA, suggesting that DHA may be the proximate developmental toxicant. Embryolethal doses of artesunate only caused minor changes in maternal reticulocyte counts indicating that adult hematology parameters are not as sensitive as embryonic erythroblasts. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Pig-a gene mutation and micronucleated reticulocyte induction in rats exposed to tumorigenic doses of the leukemogenic agents chlorambucil, thiotepa, melphalan, and 1,3-propane sultone.

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Stephen D; Phonethepswath, Souk; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Torous, Dorothea K; Mereness, Jared; Cottom, John; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Macgregor, James T

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate whether blood-based genotoxicity endpoints can provide temporal and dose-response data within the low-dose carcinogenic range that could contribute to carcinogenic mode of action (MoA) assessments, we evaluated the sensitivity of flow cytometry-based micronucleus and Pig-a gene mutation assays at and below tumorigenic dose rate 50 (TD50) levels. The incidence of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) was used to evaluate chromosomal damage, and the frequency of CD59-negative reticulocytes (RET(CD59-) ) and erythrocytes (RBC(CD59-) ) served as phenotypic reporters of mutation at the X-linked Pig-a gene. Several leukemogenic agents with a presumed genotoxic MoA were studied. Specifically, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated via oral gavage for 28 days with chlorambucil, thiotepa, melphalan, and 1,3-propane sultone at doses corresponding to 0.33x, 1x, and 3x TD50, as well as at the maximum tolerated dose. Frequencies of MN-RET were determined at Days 4 and 29, and RET(CD59-) and RBC(CD59-) data were collected pretreatment as well as Days 15/16, 29, and 56/57. Dose-related increases were observed for each endpoint, and time to maximal effect was consistently: MN-RET < RET(CD59-)  < RBC(CD59-) . For each of the chemicals studied, the genotoxic events occurred long before tumors or preneoplastic lesions would be expected. Furthermore, in the case of Pig-a gene mutation, the responses were observed at or below the TD50 dose for three out of the four chemicals studied. These data illustrate the potential for quantitative blood-based analyses to provide dose-response and temporality information that relates genetic damage to cancer induction.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum Reticulocyte Binding-Like Homologue Protein 2 (PfRH2) Is a Key Adhesive Molecule Involved in Erythrocyte Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Sahar, Tajali; Reddy, K. Sony; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Pandey, Alok K.; Singh, Shailja; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Gaur, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium merozoites is a complex, multistep process that is mediated by a number of parasite ligand-erythrocyte receptor interactions. One such family of parasite ligands includes the P. falciparum reticulocyte binding homologue (PfRH) proteins that are homologous with the P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins and have been shown to play a role in erythrocyte invasion. There are five functional PfRH proteins of which only PfRH2a/2b have not yet been demonstrated to bind erythrocytes. In this study, we demonstrated that native PfRH2a/2b is processed near the N-terminus yielding fragments of 220 kDa and 80 kDa that exhibit differential erythrocyte binding specificities. The erythrocyte binding specificity of the 220 kDa processed fragment of native PfRH2a/2b was sialic acid-independent, trypsin resistant and chymotrypsin sensitive. This specific binding phenotype is consistent with previous studies that disrupted the PfRH2a/2b genes and demonstrated that PfRH2b is involved in a sialic acid independent, trypsin resistant, chymotrypsin sensitive invasion pathway. Interestingly, we found that the smaller 80 kDa PfRH2a/2b fragment is processed from the larger 220 kDa fragment and binds erythrocytes in a sialic acid dependent, trypsin resistant and chymotrypsin sensitive manner. Thus, the two processed fragments of PfRH2a/2b differed with respect to their dependence on sialic acids for erythrocyte binding. Further, we mapped the erythrocyte binding domain of PfRH2a/2b to a conserved 40 kDa N-terminal region (rPfRH240) in the ectodomain that is common to both PfRH2a and PfRH2b. We demonstrated that recombinant rPfRH240 bound human erythrocytes with the same specificity as the native 220 kDa processed protein. Moreover, antibodies generated against rPfRH240 blocked erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum through a sialic acid independent pathway. PfRH2a/2b thus plays a key role in erythrocyte invasion and its conserved receptor-binding domain

  18. Back to basics: the untreated rabbit reticulocyte lysate as a competitive system to recapitulate cap/poly(A) synergy and the selective advantage of IRES-driven translation.

    PubMed

    Soto Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Décimo, Didier; Moncorgé, Olivier; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2007-01-01

    Translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs involves the synergistic action between the 5' cap structure and the 3' poly(A) tail at the initiation step. The poly(A) tail has also been shown to stimulate translation of picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites (IRES)-directed translation. These effects have been attributed principally to interactions between eIF4G and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) but also to the participation of PABP in other steps during translation initiation. As the rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) does not recapitulate this cap/poly(A) synergy, several systems based on cellular cell-free extracts have been developed to study the effects of poly(A) tail in vitro but they generally exhibit low translational efficiency. Here, we describe that the non-nuclease-treated RRL (untreated RRL) is able to recapitulate the effects of poly(A) tail on translation in vitro. In this system, translation of a capped/polyadenylated RNA was specifically inhibited by either Paip2 or poly(rA), whereas translation directed by HCV IRES remained unaffected. Moreover, cleavage of eIF4G by FMDV L protease strongly stimulated translation directed by the EMCV IRES, thus recapitulating the competitive advantage that the proteolytic processing of eIF4G confers to IRES-driven RNAs.

  19. Efficiency of cell-free protein synthesis based on a crude cell extract from Escherichia coli, wheat germ, and rabbit reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Hino, Mami; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Takenori; Kido, Jun-Ichi; Shinohara, Yasuo; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2008-01-20

    The efficiency of protein synthesis for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) was examined with several in vitro coupled transcription/translation protein synthesis systems based on Escherichia coli lysate, wheat germ, or reticulocyte lysate, and an in vitro translation system based on wheat germ extract. A significant amount of protein synthesis was observed only in systems based on E. coli using pET/G3PDH as the expression vector. A remarkable increase of protein synthesis was obtained in wheat germ using a pT(N)T expression vector which contains a 5'-globin leader sequence and a synthetic poly(A)(30) tail instead of pET. A significant difference of T7 RNA polymerase presence by Western blot analysis was not observed in the first four systems, and the difference of total RNA presence in each reaction mixture by Northern blot analysis seemed unrelated to protein synthesis. Although a small amount of protein was synthesized using RNA-encoding G3PDH transcribed in vitro with pET/G3PDH by an in vitro translation system, an extreme increase was observed using transcribed RNA with pEU/G3PDH, which contains T7 RNA promoter and a translation enhancer, Omega sequence. These results suggest that the presence of an enhancer sequence for translation is one of the critical steps for protein synthesis by a eukaryotic cell-free protein synthesis system.

  20. PfRH5: a novel reticulocyte-binding family homolog of plasmodium falciparum that binds to the erythrocyte, and an investigation of its receptor.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Marilis; Lustigman, Sara; Montero, Estrella; Oksov, Yelena; Lobo, Cheryl A

    2008-10-01

    Multiple interactions between parasite ligands and their receptors on the human erythrocyte are a condition of successful Plasmodium falciparum invasion. The identification and characterization of these receptors presents a major challenge in the effort to understand the mechanism of invasion and to develop the means to prevent it. We describe here a novel member of the reticulocyte-binding family homolog (RH) of P. falciparum, PfRH5, and show that it binds to a previously unrecognized receptor on the RBC. PfRH5 is expressed as a 63 kDa protein and localized at the apical end of the invasive merozoite. We have expressed a fragment of PfRH5 which contains the RBC-binding domain and exhibits the same pattern of interactions with the RBC as the parent protein. Attachment is inhibited if the target cells are exposed to high concentrations of trypsin, but not to lower concentrations or to chymotrypsin or neuraminidase. We have determined the affinity, copy number and apparent molecular mass of the receptor protein. Thus, we have shown that PfRH5 is a novel erythrocyte-binding ligand and the identification and partial characterization of the new RBC receptor may indicate the existence of an unrecognized P. falciparum invasion pathway.

  1. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  2. Immature Reticulocyte Fraction and Absolute Neutrophil Count as Predictor of Hemopoietic Recovery in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on Remission Induction Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rauf, Shan E.; Khan, Saleem Ahmed; Ali, Nadir; Afridi, Nabeel Khan; Haroon, Maria; Arslan, Ammara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) encompasses a group of lymphoid neoplasms that are more common in children and arise from B-and T-lineage lymphoid precursor cells. The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), a new routine parameter in hematology analyzers, can give an indication of hemopoietic recovery like absolute neutrophil count (ANC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate IRF in excess of 5% was considered as IRF recovery. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 2.5 to 3 mL of EDTA blood of 45 ALL patients undergoing the remission induction phase of their treatment was sampled and analyzed with a Sysmex XE-5000 on day 1 and every second day thereafter until the day of recovery. ANC of >0.5x109/L on the day corresponding to the first of the three consecutive counts was considered as the day of ANC recovery. IRF recovery was an IRF in excess of 5%. Results: The mean age of the patients was 12.04±5.30 years; 25 patients (55.6%) were male and 20 patients (44.4%) were female. On day 1 of induction remission, the mean IRF value was 9.68±1.41, while the mean ANC value was 0.077±0.061. Mean recovery day for IRF was 11.84±7.44 and mean recovery day for ANC was 17.67±8.77 (two- tailed p-value <0.0001 with 95% confidence interval). By day 28, out of 45 patients 36 (80%) showed ANC recovery, while 41 (91%) showed IRF recovery. The remaining patients who had not shown recovery by day 28 were further followed up and all of them showed recovery of both parameters by day 39. Conclusion: This study concluded that postinduction bone marrow hemopoietic recovery was earlier by IRF than ANC in children with ALL on chemotherapy. PMID:26377739

  3. The Content of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin and Serum Concentration of the Soluble Transferrin Receptor for Diagnostics of Anemia in Chronically Hemodialyzed Patients.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Teresa; Owczarek, Aleksander; Strzelczyk, Joanna K; Gołąbek, Karolina; Wiczkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal disease constitutes a serious worldwide clinical problem. An important issue arising early during the treatment of renal failure is anemia. Patients in the end-stage of renal disease chronically treated with hemodialysis frequently suffer from anemia with iron deficiency. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of determining the reticulocyte hemoglobin content and serum concentration of soluble transferrin receptor in the detection of anemia caused by iron deficiency in comparison with the classic markers of iron circulation in serum in chronic dialysis patients with ESRD. 66 sets of hematologic results and iron turnover rates were analyzed, sampled from hemodialyzed patients (test group), as well as 34 sets of the same results taken from healthy people (control group). Statistically significant variables were found and a stepwise backward discriminant analysis was performed for them. The results showed that dialyzed patients have a significantly lower serum concentration of hemoglobin, CHr, HCT, TSAT, Fe and TIBC and significantly higher serum concentration of sTfR, ferritin and C-reactive protein compared to the control group. Based on the results of discriminant analysis, we proposed a scheme for assessing the risk of anemia. The concentrations of hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor, iron in the serum and C-reactive protein turned out to be the most useful for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, the concentration of soluble transferrin receptor confirmed its high diagnostic value in the detection of iron deficiency-based anemia in patients undergoing dialysis for chronic renal failure at the end-stage compared to conventional iron turnover ratios in the serum.

  4. Naturally Acquired Antibodies Specific for Plasmodium falciparum Reticulocyte-Binding Protein Homologue 5 Inhibit Parasite Growth and Predict Protection From Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tuan M.; Ongoiba, Aissata; Coursen, Jill; Crosnier, Cecile; Diouf, Ababacar; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Li, Shanping; Doumbo, Safiatou; Doumtabe, Didier; Kone, Younoussou; Bathily, Aboudramane; Dia, Seydou; Niangaly, Moussa; Dara, Charles; Sangala, Jules; Miller, Louis H.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Kayentao, Kassoum; Long, Carole A.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Wright, Gavin J.; Traore, Boubacar; Crompton, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homologue 5 (PfRH5) is a blood-stage parasite protein essential for host erythrocyte invasion. PfRH5-specific antibodies raised in animals inhibit parasite growth in vitro, but the relevance of naturally acquired PfRH5-specific antibodies in humans is unclear. Methods. We assessed pre–malaria season PfRH5-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in 357 Malian children and adults who were uninfected with Plasmodium. Subsequent P. falciparum infections were detected by polymerase chain reaction every 2 weeks and malaria episodes by weekly physical examination and self-referral for 7 months. The primary outcome was time between the first P. falciparum infection and the first febrile malaria episode. PfRH5-specific IgG was assayed for parasite growth-inhibitory activity. Results. The presence of PfRH5-specific IgG at enrollment was associated with a longer time between the first blood-stage infection and the first malaria episode (PfRH5-seropositive median: 71 days, PfRH5-seronegative median: 18 days; P = .001). This association remained significant after adjustment for age and other factors associated with malaria risk/exposure (hazard ratio, .62; P = .02). Concentrated PfRH5-specific IgG purified from Malians inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro. Conclusions. Naturally acquired PfRH5-specific IgG inhibits parasite growth in vitro and predicts protection from malaria. These findings strongly support efforts to develop PfRH5 as an urgently needed blood-stage malaria vaccine. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01322581. PMID:24133188

  5. Upregulation of expression of the reticulocyte homology gene 4 in the Plasmodium falciparum clone Dd2 is associated with a switch in the erythrocyte invasion pathway.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Deepak; Furuya, Tetsuya; Mu, Jianbing; Jiang, Lu-bin; Su, Xin-zhuan; Miller, Louis H

    2006-02-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum clone, Dd2, that requires sialic acid for invasion can switch to a sialic acid independent pathway, Dd2(NM). To elucidate the molecular basis of the switch in invasion phenotype of Dd2 to Dd2(NM), we performed expression profiling of the parasites using an oligonucleotide microarray and real-time RT-PCR. We found that four genes were upregulated in Dd2(NM) by microarray analysis, only two of which could be confirmed by real time RT-PCR. One gene, PfRH4, is a member of the reticulocyte homology family and the other, PEBL, is a pseudogene of the Duffy binding-like family. The two genes are contiguous but transcribed in opposite directions. The DNA sequence of these ORFs, their 5'-intergenic region and a 1.1kb region 3' to each ORF are identical between Dd2 and Dd2(NM), suggesting that their transcription upregulation relates to transactivating factors. The transcription upregulation of PfRH4 was reflected at the protein level as PfRH4 protein expression was detected in Dd2(NM) and not in Dd2. Other sialic acid independent and dependent clones of P. falciparum showed variable transcript levels of PfRH4 and PEBL, unrelated to their dependence on sialic acid for invasion, suggesting that different P. falciparum clones use different receptors for sialic acid independent invasion. As Dd2(NM) is a selected subclone of Dd2, the marked upregulation of PfRH4 expression in Dd2(NM) suggests its role in erythrocyte invasion through the sialic acid independent pathway of Dd2(NM).

  6. A search for O-polypeptidyl-ribonucleic acids in rabbit-reticulocyte ribosomes by electrophoresis in phenol–acetic acid–water systems

    PubMed Central

    Brattsten, Inger; Synge, R. L. M.; Watt, W. B.

    1965-01-01

    1. When solutions of `soluble' or transfer RNA (s-RNA) and of cytochrome c in phenol–acetic acid–water were mixed, intractable coacervates were formed. The addition to the solutions of various strong electrolytes prevented coacervation and allowed electrophoretic separation on filter paper. Protein migrates cationically, leaving RNA at or near the origin. The separation is aided by adsorption of RNA to the paper. Special arrangements were necessary to prevent contamination of the paper by ultraviolet-absorbing electrode-reaction products. 2. Binding of alkali-metal cations to RNA and some other associations were observed in such solvent systems. Possible effects of ionic association on mobilities are discussed. 3. Rabbit-reticulocyte ribosomes were subjected to electrophoresis as above, after their nascent-protein moiety had been labelled with [14C]valine in the intact cell. Most of the radioactivity migrated with the ribosomal protein; such protein as remained near the origin with the RNA had valine of lower specific radioactivity. 4. Molecular-sieve chromatography in phenol–acetic acid–water indicated that the nascent-protein moiety was not of markedly lower molecular weight than the average for the ribosomal proteins. 5. These results are very tentatively taken to mean that the nascent-protein moiety of ribosomes so prepared is not O-polypeptidyl-s-RNA. It is postulated that, in the course of adding each amino acid residue, the growing polypeptide chain is transferred from ester linkage with s-RNA to linkage with ribosomal protein through its carboxyl group, perhaps by ester linkage to an alcoholic group. The two types of intermediate, O-polypeptidyl-s-RNA and polypeptidyl-protein, would be found in different proportions, depending on the isolation procedure used. Some implications and possible tests of this hypothesis are discussed. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:5881657

  7. Structural Determination of Functional Units of the Nucleotide Binding Domain (NBD94) of the Reticulocyte Binding Protein Py235 of Plasmodium yoelii

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishna, Asha M.; Hunke, Cornelia; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Preiser, Peter R.; Grüber, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Background Invasion of the red blood cells (RBC) by the merozoite of malaria parasites involves a large number of receptor ligand interactions. The reticulocyte binding protein homologue family (RH) plays an important role in erythrocyte recognition as well as virulence. Recently, it has been shown that members of RH in addition to receptor binding may also have a role as ATP/ADP sensor. A 94 kDa region named Nucleotide-Binding Domain 94 (NBD94) of Plasmodium yoelii YM, representative of the putative nucleotide binding region of RH, has been demonstrated to bind ATP and ADP selectively. Binding of ATP or ADP induced nucleotide-dependent structural changes in the C-terminal hinge-region of NBD94, and directly impacted on the RBC binding ability of RH. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to find the smallest structural unit, able to bind nucleotides, and its coupling module, the hinge region, three truncated domains of NBD94 have been generated, termed NBD94444–547, NBD94566–663 and NBD94674–793, respectively. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy NBD94444–547 has been identified to form the smallest nucleotide binding segment, sensitive for ATP and ADP, which became inhibited by 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan. The shape of NBD94444–547 in solution was calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering data, revealing an elongated molecule, comprised of two globular domains, connected by a spiral segment of about 73.1 Å in length. The high quality of the constructs, forming the hinge-region, NBD94566–663 and NBD94674–793 enabled to determine the first crystallographic and solution structure, respectively. The crystal structure of NBD94566–663 consists of two helices with 97.8 Å and 48.6 Å in length, linked by a loop. By comparison, the low resolution structure of NBD94674–793 in solution represents a chair–like shape with three architectural segments. Conclusions These structures give the first insight into how nucleotide binding impacts on

  8. In vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay III. Validation and regulatory acceptance of automated scoring and the use of rat peripheral blood reticulocytes, with discussion of non-hematopoietic target cells and a single dose-level limit test.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makoto; MacGregor, James T; Gatehouse, David G; Blakey, David H; Dertinger, Stephen D; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Krishna, Gopala; Morita, Takeshi; Russo, Antonella; Asano, Norihide; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Wakako; Gibson, Dave

    2007-02-03

    The in vivo micronucleus assay working group of the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) discussed new aspects in the in vivo micronucleus (MN) test, including the regulatory acceptance of data derived from automated scoring, especially with regard to the use of flow cytometry, the suitability of rat peripheral blood reticulocytes to serve as the principal cell population for analysis, the establishment of in vivo MN assays in tissues other than bone marrow and blood (for example liver, skin, colon, germ cells), and the biological relevance of the single-dose-level test. Our group members agreed that flow cytometric systems to detect induction of micronucleated immature erythrocytes have advantages based on the presented data, e.g., they give good reproducibility compared to manual scoring, are rapid, and require only small quantities of peripheral blood. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood reticulocytes has the potential to allow monitoring of chromosome damage in rodents and also other species as part of routine toxicology studies. It appears that it will be applicable to humans as well, although in this case the possible confounding effects of splenic activity will need to be considered closely. Also, the consensus of the group was that any system that meets the validation criteria recommended by the IWGT (2000) should be acceptable. A number of different flow cytometric-based micronucleus assays have been developed, but at the present time the validation data are most extensive for the flow cytometric method using anti-CD71 fluorescent staining especially in terms of inter-laboratory collaborative data. Whichever method is chosen, it is desirable that each laboratory should determine the minimum sample size required to ensure that scoring error is maintained below the level of animal-to-animal variation. In the second IWGT, the potential to use rat peripheral blood reticulocytes as target cells for the micronucleus assay was discussed

  9. The PIGRET assay, a method for measuring Pig-a gene mutation in reticulocytes, is reliable as a short-term in vivo genotoxicity test: Summary of the MMS/JEMS-collaborative study across 16 laboratories using 24 chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Takafumi; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Miura, Daishiro; Chikura, Satsuki; Okada, Yuki; Ukai, Akiko; Itoh, Satoru; Nakayama, Shiho; Sanada, Hisakazu; Koyama, Naomi; Muto, Shigeharu; Uno, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Mika; Suzuki, Yuta; Fukuda, Takayuki; Goto, Ken; Wada, Kunio; Kyoya, Takahiro; Shigano, Miyuki; Takasawa, Hironao; Hamada, Shuichi; Adachi, Hideki; Uematsu, Yasuaki; Tsutsumi, Eri; Hori, Hisako; Kikuzuki, Ryuta; Ogiwara, Yosuke; Yoshida, Ikuma; Maeda, Akihisa; Narumi, Kazunori; Fujiishi, Yohei; Morita, Takeshi; Yamada, Masami; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-11-15

    The in vivo mutation assay using the X-linked phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene (Pig-a in rodents, PIG-A in humans) is a promising tool for evaluating the mutagenicity of chemicals. Approaches for measuring Pig-a mutant cells have focused on peripheral red blood cells (RBCs) and reticulocytes (RETs) from rodents. The recently developed PIGRET assay is capable of screening >1×10(6) RETs for Pig-a mutants by concentrating RETs in whole blood prior to flow cytometric analysis. Additionally, due to the characteristics of erythropoiesis, the PIGRET assay can potentially detect increases in Pig-a mutant frequency (MF) sooner after exposure compared with a Pig-a assay targeting total RBCs (RBC Pig-a assay). In order to test the merits and limitations of the PIGRET assay as a short-term genotoxicity test, an interlaboratory trial involving 16 laboratories was organized by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group of the Japanese Environmental Mutagenicity Society (MMS/JEMS). First, the technical proficiency of the laboratories and transferability of the assay were confirmed by performing both the PIGRET and RBC Pig-a assays on rats treated with single doses of N-nitroso-N-ethylurea. Next, the collaborating laboratories used the PIGRET and RBC Pig-a assays to assess the mutagenicity of a total of 24 chemicals in rats, using a single treatment design and mutant analysis at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the treatment. Thirteen chemicals produced positive responses in the PIGRET assay; three of these chemicals were not detected in the RBC Pig-a assay. Twelve chemicals induced an increase in RET Pig-a MF beginning 1 week after dosing, while only 3 chemicals positive for RBC Pig-a MF produced positive responses 1 week after dosing. Based on these results, we conclude that the PIGRET assay is useful as a short-term test for in vivo mutation using a single-dose protocol.

  10. Differential resistance to proteinase K digestion of the yeast prion-like (Ure2p) protein synthesized in vitro in wheat germ extract and rabbit reticulocyte lysate cell-free translation systems.

    PubMed

    Komar, A A; Lesnik, T; Cullin, C; Guillemet, E; Ehrlich, R; Reiss, C

    1997-09-22

    The Ure2p yeast prion-like protein was translated in vitro in the presence of labeled [35S]methionine in either rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) or wheat germ extract (WGE) cell-free systems. When subjected to proteinase K digestion, the Ure2p protein synthesized in WGE was proteolysed much more slowly compared to that synthesized in RRL; this displays fragments of about 31-34 kDa, persisting over 8 min. Thus, the digestion rate and pattern of the protein synthesized in WGE, unlike that synthesized in RRL, revealed characteristic features of the [URE3] prion-like isoform of the Ure2p protein [Masison, D.C. and Wickner, R.B. (1995) Science 270, 93-95]. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, synthesized under the same conditions, differed fundamentally in its proteolytic sensitivity toward proteinase K (PK); in the RRL system it was more slowly digested than in WGE, proving specific PK inhibitors to be absent in both systems. Posttranslational addition of the WGE to the RRL-synthesized Ure2p does not protect Ure2p from efficient PK degradation either. The differences in Ure2p degradation may be ascribed to a specific structure or specific states of association of Ure2p synthesized in WGE; obviously, they yield a protein that mimics the behavior of the Ure2p in [URE3] yeast strains. The present data suggest that particular conditions of the Ure2p protein translation and/or certain cellular components (accessory proteins and extrinsic factors), as well as the nature of the translation process itself, could affect the intracellular folding pathway of Ure2p leading to the de novo formation of the prion [URE3] isoform.

  11. Evaluation of the automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV ™ compared to the ADVIA ® 2120 for its use in dogs, cats, and horses. Part II: Accuracy of leukocyte differential and reticulocyte count, impact of anticoagulant and sample aging.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Nakagawa, Julia; Dunker, Cathrin; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The automated laser-based hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV™ provides a 5-part differential count and specific cytograms that are of great interest for large veterinary laboratories. The aim of the study was to validate the Sysmex XT-2000iV compared to the laser-based hematology analyzer ADVIA® 2120 and manual differential in dogs, cats, and horses as well as the impact of anticoagulant (heparin, ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid [EDTA], and citrate) and storage at 22°C and 4°C. Consecutive fresh K(3)-EDTA blood samples from 216 cats, 314 dogs, and 174 horses were included. The impact of anticoagulant and sample storage was assessed in specimens obtained from an additional 9 cats, 10 dogs, and 10 horses. Agreement between both analyzers was excellent to good except for monocytes and canine reticulocytes. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r (s)) between Sysmex XT-2000iV and manual differential were good to fair and ranged from 0.91 (cat lymphocytes) to 0.44 (cat monocytes). Hematocrit value (Hct), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration (MCHC; all: P < 0.001), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV; P < 0.01) were higher in canine citrated blood compared to heparin and EDTA. In cats, lymphocytes and monocytes were lower in heparinized blood compared to EDTA (P < 0.05), whereas in horses no significant effect was seen. Regarding storage time and temperature, white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and MCH were stable. Hct, MCV, and MCHC were influenced by erythrocyte swelling. Differential count remained stable for 24 hr (22°C) and nearly 72 hr (4°C) except for monocytes. The overall performance of the Sysmex XT-2000iV was excellent and compared favorably with that of the ADVIA 2120. A special strength was the excellent detection of feline eosinophils.

  12. Absolute Reticulocyte Count and Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content as Predictors of Early Response to Exclusive Oral Iron in Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Emilia; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Ricceri, Fulvio; Aurucci, Maria Luigia; Mazzone, Raffaela; Ramenghi, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    We report data regarding kinetic of response to oral iron in 34 iron deficiency anemia children. Twenty-four/34 patients (70.5%) reached reference value of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration for age and sex at day + 30 from the beginning of treatment (complete early responders (CERs)), and 4/34 (12%) reached an Hb concentration at least 50% higher than the original (partial early responders (PERs)). CHr at T1 (within 7 days from the beginning of treatment) was significantly different in the different groups (22.95 in CERs versus 18.41 in other patients; p = 0.001; 22.42 in early responders versus 18.07 in NERs; p = 0.001). Relative increase of CHr from T0 to T1 resulted significantly higher in CERs than in other patients (0.21 versus 0.11, p = 0.042) and in early responders than in NERs (0.22 versus 0.004, p = 0.006). Multivariate logistic models revealed a higher probability of being a complete early responder due to relative increase of ARC from T0 to T1 [OR (95% CI) = 44.95 (1.54–1311.98)] and to CHr at T1 [OR (95% CI) =3.18 (1.24–8.17)]. Our preliminary data confirm CHr as early and accurate predictor of hematological response to oral iron. PMID:27092272

  13. Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human Reticulocyte 12/15-Lipoxygenase as Anti-Stroke Therapies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A key challenge facing drug discovery today is variability of the drug target between species, such as with 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), which contributes to ischemic brain injury, but its human and rodent isozymes have different inhibitor specificities. In the current work, we have utilized a quantitative high-throughput (qHTS) screen to identify compound 1 (ML351), a novel chemotype for 12/15-LOX inhibition that has nanomolar potency (IC50 = 200 nM) against human 12/15-LOX and is protective against oxidative glutamate toxicity in mouse neuronal HT22 cells. In addition, it exhibited greater than 250-fold selectivity versus related LOX isozymes, was a mixed inhibitor, and did not reduce the active-site ferric ion. Lastly, 1 significantly reduced infarct size following permanent focal ischemia in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. As such, this represents the first report of a selective inhibitor of human 12/15-LOX with demonstrated in vivo activity in proof-of-concept mouse models of stroke. PMID:24684213

  14. THE IRON TRANSPORTER DMT1 (OR NRAMP2 OR DCT1) IS LOCATED MOSTLY IN ENDOSOMES IN NORMAL AND BELGRADE RAT RETICULOCYTES. (R826248)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Determination of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange fluorescent staining in peripheral blood reticulocytes of mice treated topically with different lubricant oils and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Martins, C R; Grisolia, C K

    2007-09-30

    To ascertain whether used and re-refined lubricant oil absorbed through the skin can produce a genotoxic effect or cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, we examined the induction of micronucleated erythrocytes of peripheral blood after cutaneous application. Both re-refined and used lubricant oils showed a weak but significant induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes compared with control, while virgin oil did not show micronucleus induction. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was used not only as positive control but also to compare the sensitivity between intraperitoneal and dermal routes of administration of the test compounds in mice. The efficacy of intraperitoneal injection of CP is well known. On the other hand, dermal exposure is not so common and when CP was diluted in glycerin statistically significant values (P = 0.0036) of micronuclei were also found. Topically applied lubricant oils (virgin, re-refined and used) have the capacity to interfere with mouse bone marrow hematopoiesis evidenced by a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Physical and chemical analysis revealed that used oil is more viscous than other lubricants, suggesting the presence of insoluble compounds, oxidized products and water as well as aromatic hydrocarbons. Used oil differs from other lubricant oils in metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Re-refined oil revealed a neutral value typical of pure mineral oil. This assay is an important tool to evaluate environmental pollutants that cause genotoxicity and/or cytotoxicity through skin exposure.

  16. RN-1, a potent and selective lysine-specific demethylase 1 inhibitor, increases γ-globin expression, F reticulocytes, and F cells in a sickle cell disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Angela; Vaitkus, Kestis; Ruiz, Maria Armila; Ibanez, Vinzon; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Kouznetsova, Tatiana; DeSimone, Joseph; Lavelle, Donald

    2015-07-01

    Increased levels of fetal hemoglobin are associated with decreased symptoms and increased lifespan in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Hydroxyurea, the only drug currently approved for SCD, is not effective in a large fraction of patients, and therefore, new agents are urgently needed. Recently it was found that lysine demethylase 1, an enzyme that removes monomethyl and dimethyl residues from the lysine 4 residue of histone H3, is a repressor of γ-globin gene expression. In this article, we have compared the ability of tranylcypromine (TCP) and a more potent TCP derivative, RN-1, to increase γ-globin expression in cultured baboon erythroid progenitor cells and in the SCD mouse model. The results indicate that the ability of RN-1 to induce F cells and γ-globin mRNA in SCD mice is similar to that of decitabine, the most powerful fetal hemoglobin-inducing drug known, and greater than that of either TCP or hydroxyurea. We conclude that RN-1 and other lysine demethylase 1 inhibitors may be promising new γ-globin-inducing agents for the treatment of SCD that warrant further studies in other preclinical models, such as nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2015 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Polychromatophilia

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells (RBCs) called reticulocytes. These cells have a blue-colored center. Increased reticulocytes are the result of the bone marrow making more red blood cells than normal. This can be caused by ...

  18. Hematocrit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crit; Packed Cell Volume; PCV; H and H (Hemoglobin and Hematocrit) Formal name: Hematocrit Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Hemoglobin , RBC Count , Blood Smear , Iron Tests , Reticulocyte Count , ...

  19. Clinical utility of the IRF: assessment of erythroid regeneration following parvo B19 infection.

    PubMed

    Wyrick-Glatzel, Janis; Conway-Klaassen, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Parvo B19 (Fifth disease) is an erythrotropic virus which attaches through the 'P' globoside receptor on the surface of human red blood cells and precursors. This typically benign viral infection can cause a transient aplastic anemia in patients with underlying red cell disorders. In this case, a two-year-old child presents with severe aplastic anemia without evidence of underlying disease. Erythroid regeneration is monitored through the use of the immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) and is demonstrated by the presence of high and medium fluorescence reticulocytes in the peripheral blood three to five days prior to the peak in absolute reticulocytes.

  20. Anemia - B12 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... done include: Complete blood count ( CBC ) Reticulocyte count Lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ) level Vitamin B12 level Methylmalonic acid ( ... Updated by: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by ...

  1. Immune hemolytic anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Absolute reticulocyte count Direct or indirect Coombs test Hemoglobin in the urine LDH (level of this enzyme ... of tissue damage) Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin, and hematocrit Serum bilirubin level Serum free hemoglobin ...

  2. Bilirubin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Total Bilirubin; TBIL; Neonatal Bilirubin; Direct Bilirubin; Conjugated Bilirubin; Indirect Bilirubin; Unconjugated Bilirubin Formal ... Hepatitis B ; Hepatitis C ; Complete Blood Count ; Urinalysis ; Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Haptoglobin ; Reticulocyte Count All content on ...

  3. Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    PubMed

    Harvey, John W; Harr, Kendal E; Murphy, David; Walsh, Michael T; Nolan, Elizabeth C; Bonde, Robert K; Pate, Melanie G; Deutsch, Charles J; Edwards, Holly H; Clapp, William L

    2009-06-01

    Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals.

  4. Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. Quantitative analysis of mechanisms that govern red blood cell age structure and dynamics during anaemia.

    PubMed

    Savill, Nicholas J; Chadwick, William; Reece, Sarah E

    2009-06-01

    Mathematical modelling has proven an important tool in elucidating and quantifying mechanisms that govern the age structure and population dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs). Here we synthesise ideas from previous experimental data and the mathematical modelling literature with new data in order to test hypotheses and generate new predictions about these mechanisms. The result is a set of competing hypotheses about three intrinsic mechanisms: the feedback from circulating RBC concentration to production rate of immature RBCs (reticulocytes) in bone marrow, the release of reticulocytes from bone marrow into the circulation, and their subsequent ageing and clearance. In addition we examine two mechanisms specific to our experimental system: the effect of phenylhydrazine (PHZ) and blood sampling on RBC dynamics. We performed a set of experiments to quantify the dynamics of reticulocyte proportion, RBC concentration, and erythropoietin concentration in PHZ-induced anaemic mice. By quantifying experimental error we are able to fit and assess each hypothesis against our data and recover parameter estimates using Markov chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference. We find that, under normal conditions, about 3% of reticulocytes are released early from bone marrow and upon maturation all cells are released immediately. In the circulation, RBCs undergo random clearance but have a maximum lifespan of about 50 days. Under anaemic conditions reticulocyte production rate is linearly correlated with the difference between normal and anaemic RBC concentrations, and their release rate is exponentially correlated with the same. PHZ appears to age rather than kill RBCs, and younger RBCs are affected more than older RBCs. Blood sampling caused short aperiodic spikes in the proportion of reticulocytes which appear to have a different developmental pathway than normal reticulocytes. We also provide evidence of large diurnal oscillations in serum erythropoietin levels during anaemia.

  6. Structural analysis of the messenger RNA cap-binding protein: presence of phosphate, sulfhydryl, and disulfide groups

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    The messenger-RNA cap-binding protein (CBP) was isolated from human erythrocyte, rabbit erythrocyte, and rabbit reticulocyte lysate by affinity chromatography on 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate-Sepharose. The specific activity of binding to capped oligonucleotides was similar for the human erythrocyte and rabbit reticulocyte CBPs. Isoelectric focusing of human and rabbit preparations revealed that each was composed of up to five species. The pI values of human and rabbit CBPs ranged from 5.7 to 6.5. The predominant form in erythrocytes had a pI of 6.3 while in reticulocytes, two major species, having pI values of 5.9 and 6.3, were present. Labeling of rabbit reticulocytes with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate revealed that the pI 5.9 but not the pI 6.3 form contained phosphate. All of the phosphate was found in phosphoserine residues. The amino acid compositions of human erythrocyte and rabbit reticulocyte CBPs were quite similar. Both proteins had 7 tryptophanyl and 6 cysteinyl residues. Labeling with (1-/sup 14/C)iodoacetic acid under native and denaturing conditions provided evidence that 2 of the cysteinyl residues are present in the reduced form and 4 in disulfide bridges.

  7. Reticulum vs Inclusions: A Learning Experience in Haemoglobin H Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, Hanaganahalli B; Hegde, Anupama; Balanthimogru, Prashantha; Khadilkar, Urmila N.

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobin H disease, also known as the alpha-thalassaemia is characterized by the presence of HbH inclusions in red blood cells, detectable on supra-vital stain. We present a case of a previously asymptomatic 31-year-old male, who insidiously developed anaemia and had prominent splenomegaly. Peripheral smear examination revealed microcytic hypochromic anaemia with numerous spherocytes and moderate polychromasia. In reticulocyte preparation with Brilliant cresyl blue, HbH inclusions were mistakenly identified as granulofilamentous reticulum of reticulocytes, giving a spuriously high reticulocyte percentage. After the literature review, repeat assessment was performed and with the aid of high performance liquid chromatography result, it was possible to delineate the HbH inclusions. PMID:26557534

  8. Cord blood transferrin receptors to assess fetal iron status

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, D.; Savage, G.; Tubman, R.; Lappin, T.; Halliday, H.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study iron status at different gestational ages using cord blood serum transferrin receptors (STfRs).
METHODS—STfRs, iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, haemoglobin, and reticulocytes were measured in 144 cord blood samples. The babies were divided into three groups according to gestation (26 very preterm (24-29 weeks); 50 preterm (30-36 weeks); 68 term (37-41 weeks)).
RESULTS—Serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity were highest at term, whereas reticulocytes were highest in the very preterm. STfR levels were not influenced by gestation. Haemoglobin (r = 0.46; p < 0.0001) and reticulocytes (r = 0.42; p < 0.0001) were the only indices that independently correlated with STfR levels.
CONCLUSIONS—STfR levels in cord blood are not directly influenced by gestation and probably reflect the iron requirements of the fetus for erythropoiesis.

 PMID:11420322

  9. How to approach chronic anemia.

    PubMed

    Koury, Mark J; Rhodes, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    We present herein an approach to diagnosing the cause of chronic anemia based on a patient's history and complete blood cell count (CBC). Four patterns that are encountered frequently in CBCs associated with chronic anemias are considered: (1) anemia with abnormal platelet and/or leukocyte counts, (2) anemia with increased reticulocyte counts, (3) life-long history of chronic anemia, and (4) anemia with inappropriately low reticulocytes. The pathophysiologic bases for some chronic anemias with low reticulocyte production are reviewed in terms of the bone marrow (BM) events that reduce normal rates of erythropoiesis. These events include: apoptosis of erythroid progenitor and precursor cells by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, development of macrocytosis when erythroblast DNA replication is impaired, and development of microcytosis due to heme-regulated eIF2α kinase inhibition of protein synthesis in iron-deficient or thalassemic erythroblasts.

  10. Do biomarkers of exposure and effect correlate with internal exposure to PAHs in swine?

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel E; Wickstrom, Mark; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Humans are commonly exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a family of compounds present as mixtures in the environment. This study exposed swine to PAH mixtures in single and subacute dose regimens and collected liver and ileum tissue to measure cytochrome P450 mRNA expression and enzyme activity as biomarkers of exposure and DNA adducts and oxidized proteins as biomarkers of effect. Micronucleated reticulocytes were measured as systemic biomarkers of effect. Duration of exposure did not influence biomarkers of exposure, though exposure duration produced significant increases in DNA adducts and oxidative stress. Micronucleated reticulocyte numbers were not affected by exposure length.

  11. Predicting erythroid response to recombinant erythropoietin plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy following a single subcutaneous bolus in patients with myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bowen, David; Hyslop, Ann; Keenan, Norene; Groves, Michael; Culligan, Dominic; Johnson, Peter; Shaw, Ann; Geddes, Fiona; Evans, Patricia; Porter, John; Cavill, Ivor

    2006-05-01

    We randomized 21 patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to receive a single subcutaneous bolus of recombinant erythropoietin (epoietin) +/- granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), or placebo and monitored erythropoietic response over 7 days. In this small study, the reticulocyte response at day 7 was highly predictive of subsequent response to a therapeutic trial of epoietin + G-CSF.

  12. Effects of Acute and Subacute Oral Methylnitroguanidine (MeNQ) Exposure to Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-20

    6 6.7 Clinical Chemistry and Hematology ....................................................................... 7 6.8 Histopathology...Clinical Chemistry and Individual Data ........................... H-1 I Summary of 14-Day Hematology and Individual Data...mass gain, clinical chemistry, hematology , organ weights or weight ratios, incidence of micronucleated reticulocytes, or effects on sperm motility or

  13. p,p'-DDT induces microcytic anemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Mariko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Fukumori, Junko; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Kojima, Sayuri; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Ohnuma-Koyama, Aya; Takahashi, Naofumi; Takeuchi-Kashimoto, Yukiko; Kuwahara, Maki; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Ohtsuka, Ryoichi; Takeda, Makio; Kosaka, Tadashi; Harada, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that chronic exposure to DDT and its derivatives is associated with a variety of human disorders such as anemia. The present study demonstrated that p,p'-DDT caused microcystic anemia in a dose-dependent manner (0, 5, 50, and 500 ppm) in the long-term study up to 2 years. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which p,p'-DDT induces anemia, certain hematological parameters were assessed in rats fed specific doses of p,p'-DDT for 2 weeks, and the effect of lipopolysaccharide on anemia of inflammation was also examined in p,p'-DDT-treated rats. The parameters included the content of hemoglobin per reticulocyte, mean corpuscular volume of reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration mean of mature erythrocytes, and saturation levels of transferrin and iron. During the 2-week treatment period, hypochromic microcytic reticulocytes and hypochromic normocytic mature erythrocytes were observed in p,p'-DDT-treated rats, with no evidence of alteration in plasma iron levels. p,p'-DDT enhanced microcytosis of reticulocytes, as well as mature erythrocytes, which occurred due to severe hypoferremia resulting from anemia of inflammation; however, plasma iron levels were attenuated probably through the inhibition of interleukin-6. Our data suggests that long-term treatment with p,p'-DDT induces microcytic anemia, possibly because of the impairment of iron utility in erythrocytes.

  14. Globin chain synthesis ratios in sideroblastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Peters, R E; May, A; Jacobs, A

    1983-02-01

    Globin synthesis ratios were measured on reticulocytes from nine patients with primary acquired sideroblastic anaemia (SA), four patients with hereditary or congenital SA, two patients with secondary acquired SA and three patients with iron deficiency (ID). Ten of the samples from patients with SA and all the samples from patients with ID had normal ratios. Samples from three patients had significantly abnormal ratios, one from a patient with SA and acquired Hb H disease (alpha/beta 0 X 26), one from a patient with secondary acquired SA (alpha/beta 0 X 88), and one from a patient who went on to develop acute myeloblastic leukaemia (alpha/beta 1 X 36). Globin synthesis was stimulated by 100 microM haem similarly in normal, SA and ID reticulocytes. Any limitation of globin synthesis in SA and ID is therefore not easily reversible by adding haem. Inhibition of haem synthesis in nonsideroblastic reticulocytes using 4 mM isonicotinic acid hydrazide for 1 h incubation affected neither total globin synthesis nor the alpha/beta ratio. These results contradict the view that decreased haem synthesis decreases globin chain synthesis and decreases the alpha/beta globin chain synthesis ratios in human reticulocytes. Previously reported findings that haem could reverse globin chain synthesis inhibition in SA were good evidence for a primary deficiency of haem synthesis in the erythroblasts of these patients. Our inability to substantiate these findings emphasizes the need for a re-evaluation of the aetiology of sideroblastic anaemia.

  15. Characterization of the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus 25K FP gene

    Treesearch

    David S. Bischoff; James M. Slavicek

    1996-01-01

    The Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) gene encoding the 25K FP protein has been cloned and sequenced. The 25KFP gene codes for a 217 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 24870 Da. Expression of the 25K FP protein in a rabbit reticulocyte system generated a 27 kDa protein, in close agreement with the...

  16. Identification and characterization of an early gene in the Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    David S. Bischoff; James M. Slavicek

    1995-01-01

    The Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) gene encoding G22 was cloned and sequenced. The G22 gene codes for a 191 amino acid protein with a predicted Mr of 22000. Expression of G22 in a rabbit reticulocyte system generated a protein with an M...

  17. Hereditary Spherocytosis and Hereditary Elliptocytosis: Aberrant Protein Sorting during Erythroblast Enucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Salomao, Marcela; Chen, Ke; Villalobos, Jonathan; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2010-02-08

    During erythroblast enucleation, membrane proteins distribute between extruded nuclei and reticulocytes. In hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), deficiencies of membrane proteins, in addition to those encoded by the mutant gene, occur. Elliptocytes, resulting from protein 4.1R gene mutations, lack not only 4.1R but also glycophorin C, which links the cytoskeleton and bilayer. In HS resulting from ankyrin-1 mutations, band 3, Rh-associated antigen, and glycophorin A are deficient. The current study was undertaken to explore whether aberrant protein sorting, during enucleation, creates these membrane-spanning protein deficiencies. We found that although glycophorin C sorts to reticulocytes normally, it distributes to nuclei in 4.1R-deficient HE cells. Further, glycophorin A and Rh-associated antigen, which normally partition predominantly to reticulocytes, distribute to both nuclei and reticulocytes in an ankyrin-1-deficient murine model of HS. We conclude that aberrant protein sorting is one mechanistic basis for protein deficiencies in HE and HS.

  18. Double diagnostic meaning of serum transferrin receptor in hemodialysis patients: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Passanante, S; Diquattro, M; Greco, V; Li Cavoli, G; Bono, L; Palma, B; Scola, S; Faraci, C; Rotolo, U; Menozzi, I

    2004-01-01

    Hemodialysis patients on maintenance erythropoietin need an adequate supply of iron to optimize therapy and achieve and maintain target levels of hemoglobin. Evaluation of iron stores and early detection of iron deficiency are essential for management of erythropoiesis in chronic renal failure, but there is still no single biochemical or hematological parameter that is sensitive or specific enough to completely describe the distribution of iron in the body. Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) is a marker of iron that is available for erythropoiesis. We selected 2 clinical cases in which hemodialysis patients were receiving maintenance erythropoietin. To suggest how sTfR can be used in its double diagnostic meaning according to the clinical context of the patient, sTfR was evaluated in one case as a marker of iron deficiency and in the other as a marker of erythropoiesis. The association of sTfR with hematological parameters of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (reticulocyte hemoglobin content, percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes, ratio of reticulocyte hemoglobin content to hemoglobin content) and parameters of stimulated erythropoiesis (absolute reticulocyte count, immature reticulocyte fraction) increases the accuracy of sTfR in its double diagnostic power.

  19. Kinetics of erythrogenesis after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, H M; Chahine, A; Lacerna, K; Wamble, A; Iaffaldano, C; Straight, M; Rabinovitch, A; Schimenti, K J; Jacobberger, J

    1992-04-01

    To determine the kinetics of bone marrow erythrogenesis after bone marrow transplantation, the authors counted reticulocytes (by blood smear and flow cytometry) and compared those data with neutrophil and platelet recovery in 23 consecutive bone marrow transplant patients. The earliest indication of marrow recovery after allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation was defined as the second increasing cell count after the lowest recorded count, provided that the trend continued upward. Recovery of marrow function was detected earlier in 10 of 23 patients using reticulocyte counts than by either neutrophil or platelet count alone. Specifically, in 8 of these 10 patients, recovery of erythropoiesis was determined earlier by flow cytometric examination than by the blood smear method. On the other hand, combining the data using the earliest value of platelet, neutrophil, and reticulocyte counts indicated that the mean day of recovery in our patient population was determined to be 12.1 +/- 4 days after marrow infusion. In patients undergoing autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, serial neutrophil and reticulocyte count determinations are complementary in early clinical detection of successful engraftment.

  20. Examination of Reticulocytosis among Chronically Transfused Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Megha; Byrnes, Colleen; Khademian, Zarir; Duncan, Natalie; Luban, Naomi L. C.; Miller, Jeffery L.; Fasano, Ross M.; Meier, Emily Riehm

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited hemolytic anemia with compensatory reticulocytosis. Recent studies have shown that increased levels of reticulocytosis during infancy are associated with increased hospitalizations for SCA sequelae as well as cerebrovascular pathologies. In this study, absolute reticulocyte counts (ARC) measured prior to transfusion were analysed among a cohort of 29 pediatric SCA patients receiving chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) for primary and secondary stroke prevention. A cross-sectional flow cytometric analysis of the reticulocyte phenotype was also performed. Mean duration of CTT was 3.1 ± 2.6 years. Fifteen subjects with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) -vasculopathy had significantly higher mean ARC prior to initiating CTT compared to 14 subjects without MRA-vasculopathy (427.6 ± 109.0 K/μl vs. 324.8 ± 109.2 K/μl, p<0.05). No significant differences in hemoglobin or percentage sickle hemoglobin (HbS) were noted between the two groups at baseline. Reticulocyte phenotyping further demonstrated that the percentages of circulating immature [CD36(+), CD71(+)] reticulocytes positively correlated with ARC in both groups. During the first year of CTT, neither group had significant reductions in ARC. Among this group of children with SCA, cerebrovasculopathy on MRA at initiation of CTT was associated with increased reticulocytosis, which was not reduced after 12 months of transfusions. PMID:27116614

  1. [Hemopoietic response to americium and plutonium exposure in nuclear industry workers].

    PubMed

    Gasteva, G N; Ivanova, T A; Gordeeva, A A; Suvorova, L A; Molokanov, A A; Bad'in, V I; Kasymova, O A; Mezhakova, E V

    2004-01-01

    The examinees demonstrated definite effects caused by total influence of Am-241 and Pu-239: chronic radiation sickness with diffuse pneumosclerosis, chronic toxic radiation bronchitis and peripheral blood changes (reactive alterations and stable lower platelets and reticulocytes count), microfocal hypoplasia, osteodysplasia, reactive hepatopathy. Frequency of these effects increased with higher radiation exposure and did not depend on the age.

  2. [Erythropoietin treatment for late anaemia after haemolytic disease of the newborn].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Domínguez, E; Pérez Fernández, J M; Figueras Aloy, J; Carbonell Estrany, X

    2010-12-01

    After several years of erythropoietin (EPO) use in the prophylaxis of anaemia of prematurity, it also began to be administered to treat post-haemolytic disease anaemia of the newborn in order to avoid blood transfusions. To show the results obtained with EPO treatment in post-haemolytic disease anemia of the newborn. Observational study in 13 newborns with late anaemia due to an hemolytic disease caused by Rh isoimmunization (9 cases), AB0 isoimmunization (2 cases), glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase deficiency (1 case) or idiopathic (1 case). The newborns began EPO treatment when they reached the haematocrit level for a blood transfusion. EPO treatment was started at 26±7 days of life (15-46), with a haematocrit value of 21.7±3% (18-27) and a reticulocyte count of 3.8±2.2%. Blood transfusion was not necessary in 11 newborns (haematocrit of 30.7±4.4% and reticulocytes of 5.9±1.4%), and only 2 newborns were admitted for a blood transfusion (haematocrit 18±4.4% and reticulocytes 0.6%). Significant increases in haemoglobin and reticulocyte figures were seen after EPO treatment. EPO administration proved useful to avoid blood transfusion in 84% of treated newborns. No adverse events were detected which could be attributed to this treatment,. Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Mouse Pig-a and micronucleus assays respond to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene, and ethyl carbamate, but not pyrene or methyl carbamate.

    PubMed

    Labash, Carson; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Carlson, Kristine; Berg, Ariel; Torous, Dorothea K; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; MacGregor, James T; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    This laboratory previously described a method for scoring the incidence of peripheral blood Pig-a mutant phenotype rat erythrocytes using immunomagnetic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow®). The current work extends the method to mouse blood, using the frequency of CD24-negative reticulocytes (RET(CD24-)) and erythrocytes (RBC(CD24-)) as phenotypic reporters of Pig-a gene mutation. Following assay optimization, reconstruction experiments demonstrated the ability of the methodology to return expected values. Subsequently, the responsiveness of the assay to the genotoxic carcinogens N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene, and ethyl carbamate was studied in male CD-1 mice exposed for 3 days to several dose levels via oral gavage. Blood samples were collected on Day 4 for micronucleated reticulocyte analyses, and on Days 15 and 30 for determination of RET(CD24-) and RBC(CD24-) frequencies. The same design was used to study pyrene, with benzo[a]pyrene as a concurrent positive control, and methyl carbamate, with ethyl carbamate as a concurrent positive control. The three genotoxicants produced marked dose-related increases in the frequencies of Pig-a mutant phenotype cells and micronucleated reticulocytes. Ethyl carbamate exposure resulted in moderately higher micronucleated reticulocyte frequencies relative to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea or benzo[a]pyrene (mean ± SEM = 3.0 ± 0.36, 2.3 ± 0.17, and 2.3 ± 0.49%, respectively, vs. an aggregate vehicle control frequency of 0.18 ± 0.01%). However, it was considerably less effective at inducing Pig-a mutant cells (e.g., Day 15 mean no. RET(CD24-) per 1 million reticulocytes = 7.6 ± 3, 150 ± 9, and 152 ± 43 × 10(-6), respectively, vs. an aggregate vehicle control frequency of 0.6 ± 0.13 × 10(-6)). Pyrene and methyl carbamate, tested to maximum tolerated dose or limit dose levels, had no effect on mutant cell or micronucleated reticulocyte frequencies. Collectively, these results

  4. Therapy with hydroxyurea is associated with reduced adhesion molecule gene and protein expression in sickle red cells with a concomitant reduction in adhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Gambero, Sheley; Canalli, Andreia A; Traina, Fabiola; Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M; Saad, Sara T O; Costa, Fernando F; Conran, Nicola

    2007-02-01

    Propagation of the vaso-occlusive process in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a complex process involving the adhesion of steady-state SCA patients red cells and reticulocytes to the vascular endothelium. The effect of hydroxyurea therapy (HUT) on the adhesive properties of sickle cells and the expression of adhesion molecule genes by erythroid cells of SCA individuals is not yet fully understood. The expressions of the CD36 gene and the VLA-4-integrin subunit genes, CD49d (alpha-subunit) and CD29 (beta-subunit), were compared in the reticulocytes of steady-state SCA patients and patients on HUT using real-time PCR. Basal adhesion of red cells from these subjects was also compared using static adhesion assays, as was surface protein expression, using flow cytometry. Basal sickle red cell adhesion to fibronectin was significantly greater than that of normal cells (P < 0.01); in contrast, HUT was associated with significantly lower levels (P < 0.01) of red cell adhesion that were similar to those of control cells; this decrease could not be justified solely by altered reticulocyte numbers in this population. Accordingly, flow cytometry demonstrated that reticulocytes from patients on HUT had significantly lower CD36 and CD49d surface expressions (P < 0.01) and, importantly, significantly lower expressions of the CD36, CD49d and CD29 genes (P < 0.05) than reticulocytes of SCA patients not on HUT. Taken together, data support the hypothesis that HUT reduces the adhesive properties of sickle cells and that this decrease appears to be mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in the gene and, consequently, surface protein expression of adhesion molecules such as VLA-4 and CD36.

  5. A single mRNA, transcribed from an alternative, erythroid-specific, promoter, codes for two non-myristylated forms of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Two forms of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase are produced from one gene: a myristylated membrane-bound enzyme, expressed in all tissues, and a soluble, erythrocyte-specific, isoform. The two forms are identical in a large cytoplasmic domain (Mr approximately 30,000) and differ at the NH2-terminus, which, in the membrane form, is responsible for binding to the bilayer, and which contains the myristylation consensus sequence and an additional 14 uncharged amino acids. To investigate how the two differently targeted forms of the reductase are produced, we cloned a reductase transcript from reticulocytes, and studied its relationship to the previously cloned liver cDNA. The reticulocyte transcript differs from the liver transcript in the 5' non-coding portion and at the beginning of the coding portion, where the seven codons specifying the myristoylation consensus are replaced by a reticulocyte-specific sequence which codes for 13 non-charged amino acids. Analysis of genomic reductase clones indicated that the ubiquitous transcript is generated from an upstream "housekeeping" type promoter, while the reticulocyte transcript originates from a downstream, erythroid- specific, promoter. In vitro translation of the reticulocyte-specific mRNA generated two products: a minor one originating from the first AUG, and a major one starting from a downstream AUG, as indicated by mutational analysis. Both the AUGs used as initiation codons were in an unfavorable sequence context. The major, lower relative molecular mass product behaved as a soluble protein, while the NH2-terminally extended minor product interacted with microsomes in vitro. The generation of soluble reductase from a downstream AUG was confirmed in vivo, in Xenopus oocytes. Thus, differently localized products, with respect both to tissues and to subcellular compartments, are generated from the same gene by a combination of transcriptional and translational mechanisms. PMID:1577871

  6. Artesunate and artelinic acid: association of embryotoxicity, reticulocytopenia, and delayed stimulation of hematopoiesis in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L; Brannen, Kimberly C; Sanders, James E; Hoberman, Alan M

    2011-02-01

    The artemisinin antimalarials cause embryo death and malformations in animals by killing embryonic erythroblasts. Groups of pregnant rats (N = 4) were administered 35 and 48 µmol/kg artesunate and 17.2, 28.7, 48, 96, and 191 µmol/kg artelinic acid as a single oral dose on gestational day (GD) 12. Litters were examined on GD21. The ED(50) for embryo death with artelinic acid (23.4 µmol/kg) was just slightly lower than that for decreased reticulocyte count at 24 hr postdose (33.5 µmol/kg) and both had similarly steep dose responses (maximal effects of total litter loss and ∼60% decreases in reticulocyte count at 48 µmol/kg). Results with artesunate were similar. The correlation coefficient between embryo death and decreased reticulocyte count was 0.82 (p<0.01). The close relationship between embryotoxicity and reticulocytopenia is suggestive of a common mechanism-artemisinin-induced mitochondrial damage leading to cell death. At 9 days postdose, treatment with artesunate and artelinic acid also caused increases in counts of reticulocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and monocytes (up to 3.7 ×, 1.7 ×, 4.7 ×, and 1.7 × control, respectively). This stimulation of hematopoiesis may have been mediated by the direct oxidative conversion of artesunate or artelinic acid to the artemisininyl hydroperoxide within the bone marrow cells or by an indirect increase in reactive oxygen species. The high correlation between embryotoxicity and reticulocytopenia further supports the assertion that therapeutic dosage regimens of artemisinins that cause decreases in reticulocyte count in pregnant women during the putative critical period (approximately postconception wk 3 to 9) are at risk of also causing adverse effects on the embryo.

  7. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Rana; Thukral, Anubhav; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC) turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover) were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism. PMID:28217494

  8. Stability of haematological parameters and its relevance on the athlete's biological passport model.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Colombini, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The stability of haematological parameters is crucial to guarantee accurate and reliable data for implementing and interpreting the athlete's biological passport (ABP). In this model, the values of haemoglobin, reticulocytes and out-of-doping period (OFF)-score (Hb-60√Ret) are used to monitor the possible variations of those parameters, and also to compare the thresholds developed by the statistical model for the single athlete on the basis of its personal values and the variance of parameters in the modal group. Nevertheless, a critical review of the current scientific literature dealing with the stability of the haematological parameters included in the ABP programme, and which are used for evaluating the probability of anomalies in the athlete's profile, is currently lacking. In addition, we collected information from published studies, in order to supply a useful, practical and updated review to sports physicians and haematologists. There are some parameters that are highly stable, such as haemoglobin and erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]), whereas others, (e.g. reticulocytes, mean RBC volume and haematocrit) appear less stable. Regardless of the methodology, the stability of haematological parameters is improved by sample refrigeration. The stability of all parameters is highly affected from high storage temperatures, whereas the stability of RBCs and haematocrit is affected by initial freezing followed by refrigeration. Transport and rotation of tubes do not substantially influence any haematological parameter except for reticulocytes. In all the studies we reviewed that used Sysmex instrumentation, which is recommended for ABP measurements, stability was shown for 72 hours at 4 ° C for haemoglobin, RBCs and mean curpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); up to 48 hours for reticulocytes; and up to 24 hours for haematocrit. In one study, Sysmex instrumentation shows stability extended up to 72 hours at 4 ° C for all the parameters. There are

  9. Evaluation of a novel haematology analyser for use with feline blood.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher, S; Riond, B; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H

    2011-03-01

    A novel haematology analyser was evaluated for its use with feline samples. Complete blood cell counts, a five-part differential count, and reticulocyte numbers were determined, and the results compared with reference data. Coefficients of correlation, Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altmann difference plots with biases and 95% limits of agreement are reported. Precision and linearity were also studied. The instrument demonstrated very low imprecision, and the tested range of linearity exceeded the reference ranges provided by the manufacturer. For all parameters except monocytes (r = 0.65), the analyser results correlated well with reference methods. Compared with the manual count of aggregated reticulocytes, the instrument showed good agreement with a positive bias. The optical platelet count correlated well with the manual chamber count. In conclusion the analyser was found to be highly reliable for the analysis of feline blood samples in a large veterinary laboratory.

  10. Dianthin 30 and 32 from Dianthus caryophyllus: two inhibitors of plant protein synthesis and their tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Reisbig, R R; Bruland, O

    1983-07-15

    The ability of dianthin 30 and 32 to inhibit translation in reticulocyte lysates and wheat germ extracts has been studied. The dianthins, like the A chains of the toxins abrin and ricin, inhibited protein synthesis in reticulocyte lysates by inactivating the 60S ribosomal subunit. They also inhibited, at concentrations of 10 ng/ml, a protein-synthesizing system from wheat germ and inactivated isolated wheat germ ribosomes. The concentration of the dianthins in different tissues of the plant was determined by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and by the dianthin's ability to inhibit protein synthesis. Dianthin 32 was found only in the leaves and in growing shoots, while dianthin 30 was present throughout the plant. In the older parts of the plant, the dianthins constituted between 1 and 3% of the total extractable protein whereas much less was found in the younger parts.

  11. Conjugated Bilirubin Triggers Anemia by Inducing Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Gatidis, Sergios; Freise, Noemi F; Bock, Hans; Kubitz, Ralf; Lauermann, Christian; Orth, Hans Martin; Klindt, Caroline; Schuier, Maximilian; Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Liu, Guilai; Schmidt, Sebastian; Xu, Haifeng C; Qadri, Syed M; Herebian, Diran; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Mayatepek, Ertan; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Karl S; Föller, Michael; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca2+ influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide, and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, patients with hyperbilirubinemia had significantly lower erythrocyte and significantly higher reticulocyte counts compared to patients with low bilirubin levels. Conclusion: Bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death, thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. (Hepatology 2015;61:275–284) PMID:25065608

  12. The effects of superoxide dismutase knockout on the oxidative stress parameters and survival of mouse erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Grzelak, Agnieszka; Kruszewski, Marcin; Macierzyńska, Ewa; Piotrowski, Łukasz; Pułaski, Łukasz; Rychlik, Błazej; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    The erythrocytes of 12-month old Sod1 (-/-) mice showed an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as estimated by the degree of dihydroethidine and dihydrorhodamine oxidation, and the increased level of Heinz bodies. No indices of severe oxidative stress were found in the red blood cells and blood plasma of Sod1 (-/-) mice as judged from the lack of significant changes in the levels of erythrocyte and plasma glutathione, plasma protein thiol and carbonyl groups and thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances in the blood plasma. However, a decreased erythrocyte lifespan, increased reticulocyte count and splenomegaly were noted, indicating the importance of superoxide dismutase for maintaining erythrocyte viability. The levels of erythrocyte ROS and Heinz bodies and the reticulocyte count were indistinguishable in Sod1 (+/+) and Sod1 (+/-) mice, suggesting that a superoxide dismutase activity decrease to half of its normal value may be sufficient to secure the protective effects of the enzyme.

  13. Evaluation of macrocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kaferle, Joyce; Strzoda, Cheryl E

    2009-02-01

    Macrocytosis, generally defined as a mean corpuscular volume greater than 100 fL, is frequently encountered when a complete blood count is performed. The most common etiologies are alcoholism, vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies, and medications. History and physical examination, vitamin B12 level, reticulocyte count, and a peripheral smear are helpful in delineating the underlying cause of macrocytosis. When the peripheral smear indicates megaloblastic anemia (demonstrated by macro-ovalocytes and hyper-segmented neutrophils), vitamin B12 or folate deficiency is the most likely cause. When the peripheral smear is non-megaloblastic, the reticulocyte count helps differentiate between drug or alcohol toxicity and hemolysis or hemorrhage. Of other possible etiologies, hypothyroidism, liver disease, and primary bone marrow dysplasias (including myelodysplasia and myeloproliferative disorders) are some of the more common causes.

  14. Critical role for NAD glycohydrolase in regulation of erythropoiesis by hematopoietic stem cells through control of intracellular NAD content.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tae-Sik; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Shawl, Asif Iqbal; Kim, Byung-Ju; Han, Myung-Kwan; Kim, Youngho; Moss, Joel; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2014-06-06

    NAD glycohydrolases (NADases) catalyze the hydrolysis of NAD to ADP-ribose and nicotinamide. Although many members of the NADase family, including ADP-ribosyltransferases, have been cloned and characterized, the structure and function of NADases with pure hydrolytic activity remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a novel NADase from rabbit reticulocytes. The novel NADase is a glycosylated, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface protein exclusively expressed in reticulocytes. shRNA-mediated knockdown of the NADase in bone marrow cells resulted in a reduction of erythroid colony formation and an increase in NAD level. Furthermore, treatment of bone marrow cells with NAD, nicotinamide, or nicotinamide riboside, which induce an increase in NAD content, resulted in a significant decrease in erythroid progenitors. These results indicate that the novel NADase may play a critical role in regulating erythropoiesis of hematopoietic stem cells by modulating intracellular NAD.

  15. The sorting of blood group active proteins during enucleation.

    PubMed

    Satchwell, Timothy J; Bell, Amanda J; Toye, Ashley M

    2015-04-01

    Enucleation represents the critical stage during red blood cell development when the nucleus is extruded from an orthochromatic erythroblast in order to generate a nascent immature reticulocyte. Extrusion of the nucleus results in loss of a proportion of the erythroblast plasma membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, the bulk of the endoplasmic reticulum and a small region of cytoplasm. For this reason enucleation provides an important point in erythroblast differentiation at which proteins not required for the function of the erythrocyte can be lost, whilst those that are important for the structure-function properties of the mature erythrocyte must be efficiently retained in the reticulocyte plasma membrane. Disturbances in protein distribution during enucleation are envisaged to occur during human diseases such as Hereditary Spherocytosis. This article will discuss the current knowledge of erythroblast enucleation in the context of retention and loss of proteins that display antigenic blood group sites and that exist within multiprotein complexes within the erythrocyte membrane.

  16. [Seasonal changes in mechanical resistance of erythrocytes of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus)].

    PubMed

    Gulevsky, A K; Shchenyavsky, I I

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes of relative blood reticulocyte counts, free plasma hemoglobin and mechanical erythrocyte resistance were studied in the long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus), under different functional conditions (winter hibernation, forced arousal in winter, and summer activity). A significant increase in reticulocyte counts in the ground squirrel blood was observed in April and October, indicating enhancement of erythropoeisis. This conclusion is also confirmed by a significant increase in free plasma hemoglobin at these periods. It has been also shown that erythrocytes of hibernating and forcibly awaken winter ground squirrels have a significantly lower mechanical resistance in comparison with those of active summer animals. The obtained data indicate that during the periods preceding the onset of winter hibernation and transition to summer activity there occurs a seasonal replacement of the erythrocyte pool by a pool more adapted to performance of functions in the novel functional state of the animal-hibernator.

  17. [Risk factors for children's population health in stressed environmental conditions of lead pollition].

    PubMed

    Baidaulet, I O; Namazbaeva, Z I; Dasybayeva, G N; Bazeluk, L T; Sabirov, Zh V; Kusainova, D S

    2013-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions in Shymkent significantly increase the risk of accumulation of lead in the bodies of the children of the third generation of the population residing in the contaminated areas, cause deteriorations of antioxidant defense in the respiratory system, greatly decline barrier-protective properties of cellular systems of the local immunity, disturb the process of hematopoiesis. Performed statistical analysis of the data permitted to identify a correlation relationship between the accumulation of lead in the soil and the change in the functional activity of the cells of buccal cheek epithelium, catalase activity in expired breath condensate. Haematological signs of lead poisoning include not only the number of reticulocytes, but also the correction (RPI) for the alteration with allowances made for the maturation of reticulocytes in peripheral blood circulation as early criterion for toxic anemia.

  18. In vivo lability of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in GdA- and Gdmediterranean deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Piomelli, Sergio; Corash, Laurence M.; Davenport, Deatra D.; Miraglia, Janet; Amorosi, Edward L.

    1968-01-01

    A decreased level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase might result from decreased rate of synthesis, synthesis of an enzyme of lower catalytic efficiency, increased lability, or a combined mechanism. To test the hypothesis of increased lability, the rate of decline of the enzyme in vivo was measured in three groups of individuals, controls, Gd(—),A-males, and Gd(—), Mediterranean males, by the slope of decline of activity in fractions containing erythrocytes of progressively increasing mean age. These fractions were obtained by ultracentrifugation on a discontinuous density gradient of erythrocyte suspensions free of contaminating platelets and leukocytes. The rate of in vivo decline of pyruvate kinase (another age-dependent enzyme) was also measured and found very similar in the three groups. The in vivo decline of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was found to follow an exponential rate, with a half-life of 62 days for controls and 13 days for Gd(—),A- erythrocytes. The activity in normal reticulocytes was estimated at 9.7 U and in Gd(—),A- reticulocytes at 8.8 U. These estimates were confirmed by direct measurements in reticulocytes isolated from patients with extreme reticulocytosis. In Gd(—),Mediterranean erythrocytes activity could be demonstrated only in reticulocytes, which were estimated to average 1.4 U. The rate of decline is so extreme that no activity could be detected in mature erythrocytes. These data suggest that the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency of both the GdA- and the GdMediterranean variant results from different degrees of in vivo instability of the abnormal enzyme. PMID:5641629

  19. Analytic errors in Sysmex-generated hematology results in blood from a dog with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Novacco, Marilisa; Martini, Valeria; Grande, Carmen; Comazzi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    A blood sample from a 14-year-old dog was submitted to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory of the University of Milan for marked leukocytosis with atypical cells. A diagnosis of chronic T-cell lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was made based on blood smear evaluation and flow cytometric phenotyping. A CBC by Sysmex XT-2000iV revealed a moderate normocytic normochromic anemia. Red blood cells counted by optic flow cytometry (RBC-O) resulted in a higher value than using electrical impedance (RBC-I). The relative reticulocyte count based on RNA content and size was 35.3%, while the manual reticulocyte count was < 1%. The WBC count of 1,562,680 cells/μL was accompanied by a flag. Manual counts for RBC and WBC using the Bürker chamber confirmed the Sysmex impedance results. Finally the manual PCV was lower than HCT by Sysmex. While Sysmex XT can differentiate between RBC and WBC by impedance, even in the face of extreme lymphocytosis due to CLL, RBC-O can be affected by bias, resulting in falsely increased RBC and reticulocyte numbers. Overestimation of RBC-O may be due to incorrect Sysmex classification of leukemic cells or their fragments as reticulocytes. This phenomenon is known as pseudoreticulocytosis and can lead to misinterpretation of regenerative anemia. On the other side PCV can be affected by bias in CLL due to the trapping of RBC in the buffy coat, resulting in a pink hue in the separation area. As HGB concentration is not affected by flow cytometric or other cell-related artifacts it may represent the most reliable variable to assess the degree of anemia in cases of CLL.

  20. Biosynthesis of heme in immature erythroid cells. The regulatory step for heme formation in the human erythron

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, L.C.; Cox, T.M.

    1988-05-15

    Heme formation in reticulocytes from rabbits and rodents is subject to end product negative feedback regulation: intracellular free heme has been shown to control acquisition of transferrin iron for heme synthesis. To identify the site of control of heme biosynthesis in the human erythron, immature erythroid cells were obtained from peripheral blood and aspirated bone marrow. After incubation with human 59Fe transferrin, 2-(14C)glycine, or 4-(14C)delta-aminolevulinate, isotopic incorporation into extracted heme was determined. Addition of cycloheximide to increase endogenous free heme, reduced incorporation of labeled glycine and iron but not delta-aminolevulinate into cell heme. Incorporation of glycine and iron was also sensitive to inhibition by exogenous hematin (Ki, 30 and 45 microM, respectively) i.e. at concentrations in the range which affect cell-free protein synthesis in reticulocyte lysates. Hematin treatment rapidly diminished incorporation of intracellular 59Fe into heme by human erythroid cells but assimilation of 4-(14C)delta-aminolevulinate into heme was insensitive to inhibition by hematin (Ki greater than 100 microM). In human reticulocytes (unlike those from rabbits), addition of ferric salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone, to increase the pre-heme iron pool independently of the transferrin cycle, failed to promote heme synthesis or modify feedback inhibition induced by hematin. In human erythroid cells (but not rabbit reticulocytes) pre-incubation with unlabeled delta-aminolevulinate or protoporphyrin IX greatly stimulated utilization of cell 59Fe for heme synthesis and also attenuated end product inhibition. In human erythroid cells heme biosynthesis is thus primarily regulated by feedback inhibition at one or more steps which lead to delta-aminolevulinate formation.

  1. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR242511 in Rats. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-14

    Nucleated RBCs Platelet count Reticulocyte count ’Measured with a Co-oximeter (Instrumentation Laboratory Model 282). The assay was performed...Part I: Part II: Part III: Part IV: Identity and Purity Study of WR242511 Assay Precision and Accuracy for the Quantitation of WR2425U Stability...standard deviation - 0.02%, terminal 99.59% ± 0.02%. The assay results are presented in Tables 1 and 2. FIGURE 1 MASS SPECTRUM OF WR2425U SAMPLE 8

  2. [Research proceeding on the effect of microgravity on erythropoiesis].

    PubMed

    Dong, Q; Shen, X Y

    2001-08-01

    The reduction of red blood cell mass is a main change of hematology under microgravity. It is considered that the decrease of erythroid cell production is the key cause. The studies on reticulocytes, Price-Jones curve, ferrum turn over, cytology of bone marrow and Erythropoietin (Epo) level suggested the suppression of erythropoiesis was due to microgravity. The mechanisms about it and the aspects of research in the future were discussed briefly.

  3. Role of Myelofibrosis in Hematotoxicity of Munition RDX Environmental Degradation Product MNX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    consequence of anemia in the absence of sufficient regeneration from bone marrow erythroid precursors is recruitment of extramedullatory sites of...Another event associated with a successful regeneration of an anemic episode is increased reticulocytes in the peripheral blood. We quantitated...planned. Statistics: Effects of MNX and RDX on endpoints with normally distributed data ( EPO , BUN, liver weights) were determined by ANOVA with post

  4. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn with late-onset anemia due to anti-M: a case report and review of the Japanese literature.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Ohto, Hitoshi; Nollet, Kenneth E; Kawabata, Kinuyo; Saito, Shunnichi; Yagi, Yoshihito; Negishi, Yutaka; Ishida, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) attributed to M/N-incompatibility varies from asymptomatic to lethally hydropic. Case reports are rare, and the clinical significance of anti-M is not completely understood. A challenging case of HDFN due to anti-M prompted an investigation of the Japanese literature, in order to characterize the clinical spectrum of M/N-incompatibility pregnancies in Japan and report results to English-language readers. Japanese reports of HDFN attributed to M/N incompatibility were compiled. Abstracted data include maternal antibody titers at delivery, fetal direct antiglobulin test, hemoglobin, total bilirubin, reticulocyte count at birth, and therapeutic interventions. We investigated characteristics of HDFN due to M/N-incompatible pregnancies in Japan after encountering a case of severe HDFN along with late-onset anemia in an infant born to a woman carrying IgG anti-M with a titer of 1. In total, thirty-three babies with HDFN due to anti-M and one due to anti-N have been reported in Japan since 1975. The median maternal antibody titer was 64 at delivery and was 16 or less in 10 of 34 women (29%). Five of 34 babies (15%) were stillborn or died as neonates. Twenty-one of 29 survivors (72%) had severe hemolytic anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. The reticulocyte count of neonates with anemia stayed below the reference interval. Sixteen (55%) developed late-onset anemia and 14 (48%) were transfused with M-negative RBCs. Significant positive correlation (P < .05) between the hemoglobin value and the reticulocyte count within 4 days of birth was obtained in 16 babies with anti-M HDFN. In the Japanese population, 21 of 34 cases of M/N-incompatible HDFN (72%) have manifested as severe hemolytic anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Low reticulocyte count in neonates with late-onset anemia is consistent with suppressed erythropoiesis due to anti-M.

  5. B19 parvovirus infection in children with malignant solid tumors receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rao, S P; Miller, S T; Cohen, B J

    1994-01-01

    Two children with rhabdomyosarcoma developed severe anemia following chemotherapy; anemia was more severe compared to that observed following earlier chemotherapy cycles. While one patient had a brisk reticulocytosis, the other had no demonstrable reticulocytes. Both patients had evidence of acute B19 parovirus infection and subsequently developed appropriate antibody response. A diagnosis of B19 parvovirus infection should be considered in any patient who develops persistent or severe anemia while on chemotherapy.

  6. Pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation patient: inside the erythroblast

    PubMed Central

    Labbadia, Francesca; Salido-Fierréz, Eduardo; Majado-Martinez, Juliana; Cabañas-Perianes, Valentin; Moraleda, Jiménez José M.

    2012-01-01

    A case of pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy is reported here. The patient presented with anemia unresponsive to erythropoietin treatment. Bone marrow cytomorphology was highly suggestive of parvovirus pure red cell aplasia, which was confirmed with serology and polymerase chain reaction positive for parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. After the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin the anemia improved with a rising number of the reticulocytes. PMID:23087806

  7. Rice embryos can express heat-shock genes under anoxia.

    PubMed

    Mocquot, B; Ricard, B; Pradet, A

    1987-01-01

    Heat-shock proteins (hsps) are induced by a number of oxidative stresses. The proposal that the reduction products of oxygen initiate hsp induction was tested in rice embryos, capable of coleoptile growth under oxygen-free conditions. In such embryos, hsps could be detected by both in vivo labeling and in vitro translation of RNA using the reticulocyte lysate system. It is therefore improbable that the mechanism for hsp induction involves oxygen.

  8. Release, Identification, and Isolation of Messenger RNA from Mammalian Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, Günter

    1971-01-01

    The puromycin-induced dissociation, at high ionic strength, of active ribosomes from reticulocytes resulted in the release of protein-free, apparently undegraded, messenger RNA for globin, which was identified by centrifugation on a sucrose density gradient. This procedure should make messenger RNA from various cells available for isolation on a large scale, and has several advantages over procedures that use detergents or magnesium chelators. PMID:5279524

  9. Thirteen Week Oral (Diet) Toxicity Study of Trinitrotoluene (TNT), Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) and TNT/RDX Mixtures in the Fischer 344 Rat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    differential Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) Reticulocyte count Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Methemoglobin lIT RIESEARCH INSTITUTE 15 L...the deqenerative tubule. The SertolV cells and spermatogonia appeared to lie unaffected. Lesions graded as marked in severity consisted of atrophic...sepiiniferou. tubules lined with a few Sertoli cells and spermatogonia . Diffuse intertubu’lar edema was also observed in the testes of these animals. In

  10. Induction of hyperchromic microcytic anaemia by repeated oral administration of methotrexate in rats.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Sayuri; Yoshida, Toshinori; Sasaki, Junya; Takahashi, Naofumi; Kuwahara, Maki; Shutoh, Yasufumi; Saka, Machiko; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Kosaka, Tadashi; Harada, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    Anaemia is a significant prognostic factor in cancer patients receiving anticancer drugs such as methotrexate (MTX). This study focuses on the effects of toxicological changes on the hematopoietic systems in male and female Wistar Hannover rats when MTX is orally administered at a dose of 0, 0.05, 0.15, or 0.45 mg/(kg·day) for a period of 28 days. Both male and female rats receiving 0.45 mg/kg MTX showed a decrease in the haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit, and erythrocyte count. Female rats showed a decrease in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and an increase in cell mean Hb (CHCM) in total erythrocytes, including the mature erythrocytes. These results indicate that MTX causes the production of small, mature erythrocytes that contain a high concentration of Hb. MTX reduced the number of peripheral reticulocytes but produced the cells with a large size and a high concentration of Hb, as demonstrated by the reticulocyte MCV and CHCM as well as the content of haemoglobin per reticulocyte (CHr). Consistent with these findings, bone marrow haematopoiesis was impaired by MTX, as there was a reduction in erythroid count in rats of both sexes. The number of cells of the myeloid lineage reduced in female rats, followed by a reduction in the total leukocyte and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood. Thrombocytopenia was detected in a small population of rats. These results indicate that MTX induces hyperchromic microcytic anaemia and pancytopenia, and the use of MCV and CHCM in mature erythrocytes and reticulocytes, along with the CHr, gives a better understanding of the development and nature of anaemia.

  11. Patients with sickle cell anemia on simple chronic transfusion protocol show gender differences for hemodynamic and hematologic responses to transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Detterich, Jon A.; Sangkatumvong, Suvimol; Kato, Roberta; Dongelyan, Ani; Bush, Adam; Khoo, Michael; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Coates, Thomas D.; Wood, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) is a mainstay for stroke prophylaxis in sickle cell anemia, but its effects on hemodynamics are poorly characterized. Transfusion improves oxygen carrying capacity, reducing demands for high cardiac output, while decreasing hemoglobin S%, reticulocyte count, and hemolysis. We hypothesized that transfusion would improve oxygen carrying capacity, but that would be counteracted by a decrease in cardiac output due to increased hematocrit and vascular resistance, leaving oxygen delivery unchanged. Study Design and Methods To test this hypothesis, we examined patients on CTT immediately pre transfusion and again 12–120 hours post transfusion, using echocardiography and near infrared spectroscopy. Results Comparable increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit, and decreases in reticulocyte count and hemoglobin S with transfusion were observed in all patients; but males had a larger rebound of hemoglobin S%, reticulocyte count, and free hemoglobin levels between transfusions. In males, transfusion decreased heart rate by 12%, stroke volume by 15%, and cardiac index by 24% while estimates for pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance rose, culminating in 6% decrease in oxygen delivery. In contrast, stroke volume and cardiac index, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance did not change in women following transfusion, such that oxygen delivery improved 17%. Conclusion In our sample population, males exhibit a paradoxical reduction in oxygen delivery in response to transfusion because the rise in vascular resistance is larger than the increase in oxygen capacity. This may result from an inability to adequately suppress their hemoglobin S% between transfusion cycles. PMID:23176402

  12. Ex-vivo generation of human red cells for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Anstee, David J; Gampel, Alexandra; Toye, Ashley M

    2012-05-01

    The present article reviews the recent data concerning the generation of red blood cells from haematopoietic stem cells using laboratory culture and discusses the potential for generating cultured red cells in sufficient quantity for use in transfusion practice. Functional human reticulocytes have been generated from adult peripheral blood haematopoietic stem cells in laboratory culture without the use of heterologous feeder cells and their viability was demonstrated in vivo. Human erythroid progenitor cells lines have been produced from cord and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) haematopoietic progenitors. Availability of cultured human red cells from haematopoietic stem cells in the quantities required for transfusion therapy would have a major impact on healthcare provision worldwide. Recent studies provide cause for optimism that this ambitious goal is achievable. Functional adult reticulocytes have been made in culture and shown to survive in vivo. Erythroid progenitor cell lines have been derived from cord blood and from human induced pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that large-scale culture of erythroid cell lines and their differentiation to reticulocytes will be possible. Significant problems remain. More efficient enucleation and induction of maturation to an adult phenotype will be required in order to exploit high proliferative capacity of human embryonic stem cells and hiPSCs. Novel bioengineering solutions will be required to generate cultured red cells in the large quantities required, and in this context, use of synthetic three-dimensional scaffolds to mimic the bone marrow niche holds great promise for the future.

  13. Elevated erythrocyte adenosine deaminase activity in a patient with primary acquired sideroblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Kanno, H; Fujii, H; Tani, K; Morisaki, T; Takahashi, K; Horiuchi, N; Kizaki, M; Ogawa, T; Miwa, S

    1988-03-01

    We report a case of primary acquired sideroblastic anemia (PASA) associated with elevated erythrocyte adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity. The patient was an 85-year-old Japanese male. Analysis of the peripheral blood revealed pancytopenia, and the bone marrow findings showed marked ringed sideroblasts and chromosomal deletion (46XY, 11q-). The erythrocyte ADA activity was 17 times higher than that of normal control, the leukocyte ADA activity was within the normal range, and the plasma ADA activity was 2 times higher than the normal mean. The adenine nucleotides in the patient's erythrocytes were within normal range. According to starch gel electrophoresis, ADA isozyme of the patient was ADA 1. Western blotting showed an increased amount of ADA protein in the patient's erythrocytes. Southern blotting revealed no gene amplification or large structural change. Dot blot analysis of the reticulocyte mRNA showed no increase in the amount of ADA mRNA in the patient's reticulocytes compared with those of reticulocyte-rich controls. We considered that the mechanism of elevated ADA activity in this acquired defect was similar to that found in hereditary hemolytic anemia associated with ADA overproduction.

  14. Erythroid Adhesion Molecules in Sickle Cell Anaemia Infants: Insights Into Early Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Brousse, Valentine; Colin, Yves; Pereira, Catia; Arnaud, Cecile; Odièvre, Marie Helene; Boutemy, Anne; Guitton, Corinne; de Montalembert, Mariane; Lapouméroulie, Claudine; Picot, Julien; Le Van Kim, Caroline; El Nemer, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) results from a single mutation in the β globin gene. It is seldom symptomatic in the first semester of life. We analysed the expression pattern of 9 adhesion molecules on red blood cells, in a cohort of 54 SCA and 17 non-SCA very young infants of comparable age (median 144 days, 81-196). Haemoglobin F (HbF) level was unsurprisingly elevated in SCA infants (41.2% ± 11.2) and 2-4 fold higher than in non-SCA infants, yet SCA infants presented significantly decreased Hb level and increased reticulocytosis. Cytometry analysis evidenced a specific expression profile on reticulocytes of SCA infants, with notably an increased expression of the adhesion molecules Lu/BCAM, ICAM-4 and LFA-3, both in percentage of positive cells and in surface density. No significant difference was found on mature red cells. Our findings demonstrate the very early onset of reticulocyte membrane modifications in SCA asymptomatic infants and allow an insight into the first pathological changes with the release of stress reticulocytes expressing a distinctive profile of adhesion molecules.

  15. Height indicates hematopoietic capacity in elderly Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yuji; Sato, Shimpei; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kadota, Koichiro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported that height is an indicator of the capacity of vascular repair in elderly men, especially hypertensive men. On the other hand, hemoglobin could act as a possible biochemical index of hypertension-induced vascular damage. However, no studies have clarified the correlation between height and hematopoietic activity. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 249 men aged 65-69 undergoing a general health check-up. Reticulocyte was used to evaluate hematopoietic activity. Because hemoglobin concentration should influence hematopoietic activity, analyses stratified by hemoglobin level were performed. Independent of known cardiovascular risk factors and other hematological parameters (white blood cell count), a significant positive correlation was seen between height and reticulocytes for total subjects and subjects with a high hemoglobin concentration (≥14.5 g/dL), but not in subjects with a low hemoglobin concentration (<14.5 g/dL). The standardized parameter estimates (β) were β=0.18, p=0.003 for total subjects, β=0.28, p=0.001 for subjects with a high hemoglobin concentration, and β=0.03, p=0.717 for subjects with low hemoglobin. Independently, height is significantly positively correlated with reticulocyte in elderly Japanese men, particularly in men with a high hemoglobin concentration. These results indicate that subjects with a short stature might have lower hematopoietic capacity than those with a high stature. PMID:27705902

  16. Impact of external haematology proficiency testing programme on quality of laboratories.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Renu; Katoch, S C; Srinivas, Upendra; Rao, Seema; Anand, Hema

    2007-11-01

    A reliable and reproducible report from a laboratory needs internal quality control within the laboratory and participation in external proficiency testing programmes (EPTP). This study conducted at the Department of Haematology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, which has been conducting an EPTP since 1992, was undertaken to assess the efficacy of this programme in improving the performance of participating laboratories in reporting test samples sent for Hb, total leucocyte count (TLC), reticulocyte count and assessment of peripheral blood smear (PBS). The samples were prepared in our laboratory according to the International Standards Organization (ISO) guidelines. The performance of individual laboratories was assessed using robust Z score, which is an indicator of acceptability of the test result. An improvement in the overall percentage of laboratories with acceptable reports was seen during the study period. It has increased from 38,40,40 per cent in 1992 to 85, 90,94.7 per cent in 2006 for Hb, TLC, reticulocyte count, respectively. However, the results for peripheral smear assessment improved only marginally. The external haematology proficiency testing programme run by our department for Hb, TLC, reticulocyte count, and peripheral blood smear assessment, has helped in improving the reporting standards of these parameters in Indian laboratories.

  17. Serum transferrin receptor is a marker of iron deficiency in patients included in programs for preoperative autologous blood donation.

    PubMed

    Dimonte, Donato; Pepe, Maria; Silletti, Immacolata; Cazzato, Luciano; Fiore, Rosa

    2002-12-01

    Recently programs for preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) have expanded to reduce the need for allogenic blood transfusion. Nevertheless, the ability of the patients's bone marrow to replace the red blood cells (RBCs) mass reduced by phlebotomies determines the efficacy of PABD. In mild anemia, known as iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) or iron deficiency without anemia, precipitated by PABD, the marrow response is suboptimal and needs adjuvant therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) for the assessment of IDE in patients undergoing PABD. Two autologous blood units from 50 consecutive patients scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery were collected preoperatively. Serial measurements of RBCs, haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, serum ferritin, reticulocyte count, reticulocyte maturity index (RMI), endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) and sTfR were performed throughout the phlebotomy program. RBC, Hct, Hb and serum iron significantly decreased although within the normal range. There was no change in serum ferritin levels. Reticulocytes, RMI and EPO significantly increased as did sTfR which significantly exceeds the normal range. These results demonstrate that the sTfR is a reliable laboratory marker for detecting mild anemia or IDE. In patients undergoing PABD increased sTfR levels may suggest a treatment with recombinant human EPO (rh-EPO) or iron to improve the bone marrow performance.

  18. Effects of repeated blood donations on iron status and hematologic variables of canine blood donors.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rui R F; Gopegui, Rafael R; Araujo, Maria Manuela R C; de Matos, Augusto J F

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the bone marrow regenerative response and iron status of canine blood donors subjected to repeated blood collections for 1 year. Prospective cohort study. 57 blood donor dogs. Hematologic variables, including reticulocyte percentage, were evaluated before and 10 days after each blood collection in 16 dogs donating 13% of total blood volume (TBV) every 2 months (group 1), 16 dogs donating 13% of TBV every 3 months (group 2), and 25 dogs donating 15% of TBV every 3 months (group 3) for 1 year. Serum concentrations of iron, transferrin, and ferritin were analyzed before inclusion in the study and 10 days after the last donation. Significant increases in RBC distribution width, platelet count, WBC count, and reticulocyte percentage were detected after blood donation in all groups. Dogs of group 2 had a significantly higher serum ferritin concentration than did dogs of group 1; dogs of group 1 had a significant decrease in serum ferritin concentration. A positive correlation between the number of blood donations and both RBC distribution width and reticulocyte percentage was found for all groups. All blood donation regimens induced a bone marrow regenerative response, which was able to restore depleted blood cells within 10 days after blood donation while maintaining iron status within the calculated reference range. However, dogs donating 13% of TBV every 2 months had a significant decrease in iron stores, which suggested that iron-related variables must be monitored during prolonged blood donor programs.

  19. The encephalomyocarditis virus 3C protease is a substrate for the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system.

    PubMed

    Lawson, T G; Gronros, D L; Werner, J A; Wey, A C; DiGeorge, A M; Lockhart, J L; Wilson, J W; Wintrode, P L

    1994-11-11

    The encephalomyocarditis virus 3C protease has been shown to be rapidly degraded in infected cells and in vitro in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The in vitro degradation, at least, is accomplished by a virus-independent, ATP-dependent proteolytic system. Here we identify this proteolytic system as the ubiquitin-mediated system. Incubation of the 3C protease in rabbit reticulocyte or cultured mouse cell lysate preparations, alone or in the presence of added ubiquitin or methylated ubiquitin, resulted in the generation of new higher molecular weight species. These new products were shown to be 3C protease-ubiquitin conjugates by their ability to bind antibodies against both the 3C protease and ubiquitin. Supplemental ubiquitin also stimulated the degradation of the 3C protease in these preparations. Large 3C protease-polyubiquitin conjugates were observed to accumulate in reticulocyte lysate in the presence of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), an inhibitor of the 26 S multicatalytic protease. This, combined with the fact that the proteolytic activity could be removed from the lysate by sedimentation, implicates the multicatalytic protease in the degradation of the 3C protease-ubiquitin conjugates. It was also found that the slow rate of degradation of a model polyprotein, which resembles the stable viral 3CD diprotein produced in vivo, is likely due to the fact that the polyprotein is a poor substrate for the ubiquitin-conjugating system.

  20. Erythropoietic drive is the strongest predictor of hepcidin level in adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Karafin, Matthew S; Koch, Kathryn L; Rankin, Amy B; Nischik, Debora; Rahhal, Ghady; Simpson, Pippa; Field, Joshua J

    2015-12-01

    Levels of hepcidin, a key modulator of iron metabolism, are influenced by erythropoiesis, iron, and inflammation, all of which may be increased in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the variation in hepcidin level, and 2) the relative contribution of erythropoietic drive, iron, and inflammation to differences in hepcidin level in an adult cohort with SCD. In a prospective study, cross-sectional measurements of hepcidin, reticulocyte percentage, erythropoietin, ferritin, and high-sensitivity CRP were obtained. A regression tree analysis was used to measure the association between these interacting factors and hepcidin level. The cohort was comprised of 40 adults with SCD. Median age was 26years, 68% were female, and all had HbSS. Hepcidin values ranged from 30ng/ml to 326ng/ml, with a median of 87ng/ml. Regression tree analysis demonstrated that reticulocyte percentage, erythropoietin, ferritin and hs-CRP all were associated with hepcidin. The highest hepcidin values were found in subjects with low reticulocyte percentage and erythropoietin. In conclusion, erythropoietic drive, iron status, and inflammation all contribute to variation in hepcidin level. The strongest contributor is erythropoietic drive. Future studies could determine whether suppression of erythropoiesis with chronic transfusion influences hepcidin level.

  1. Selection of AUG initiation codons differs in plants and animals.

    PubMed Central

    Lütcke, H A; Chow, K C; Mickel, F S; Moss, K A; Kern, H F; Scheele, G A

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the nucleotide at position -3 relative to the AUG initiation codon on the initiation of protein synthesis was studied in two different in vitro translation systems using synthetic mRNAs. The four mRNAs, transcribed from cDNAs directed by an SP6 promoter, were identical except for mutations at nucleotide -3. In each case, translation of mRNAs produced a single protein of Mr = 12,600. Relative translational efficiencies showed a hierarchy in the reticulocyte lysate system (100, 85, 61 and 38% for A, G, U and C in position -3, respectively) but no differences in the wheat germ system. Differential mRNA degradation or polypeptide chain elongation were excluded as causes of the differences observed in translation in the reticulocyte lysate. mRNA competition increased the differences observed in translational efficiencies in reticulocyte lysate but showed no effect in wheat germ. Analysis of 61 plant and 209 animal mRNA sequences revealed qualitative and quantitative differences between the consensus sequences surrounding AUG initiation codons. Whereas the consensus sequence for animals was CACCAUG that for plants was AACAAUGGC. Both the structural and functional findings suggest that the factors which select AUG initiation codons in plants and animals differ significantly. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3556162

  2. Influence of counting methodology on erythrocyte ratios in the mouse micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    LeBaron, Matthew J; Schisler, Melissa R; Torous, Dorothea K; Dertinger, Stephen D; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

    2013-04-01

    The mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test is widely used to investigate the potential interaction of a test substance with chromosomes or mitotic apparatus of replicating erythroblasts. In addition to the primary endpoint, micronucleated erythrocyte frequency, the proportion of immature erythrocytes is measured to assess the influence of treatment on erythropoiesis. The guideline recommendation for an acceptable limit of the immature erythrocyte fraction of not < 20% of the controls was based on traditional scoring methods that consider RNA content. Flow-based sample analysis (e.g., MicroFlow®) characterizes a subpopulation of RNA-containing reticulocytes (RETs) based on CD71 (transferrin receptor) expression. As CD71+ cells represent a younger cohort of RETs, we hypothesized that this subpopulation may be more responsive than the RNA+ fraction for acute exposures. This study evaluated RET population in the peripheral blood of two strains of mice treated by oral gavage with three clastogens (cyclophosphamide, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and methyl methanesulfonate). Although CD71+ frequencies correlated with RNA-based counts, the relative treatment-related reductions were substantially greater. Accordingly, when using the flow cytometry-based CD71+ values for scoring RETs in an acute treatment design, it is suggested that a target value ≥ 5% CD71+ reticulocytes (i.e., 95% depression in reticulocytes proportion) be considered as acceptable for a valid assay.

  3. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol ester increases red blood cell scramblase activity and external phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Barber, Latorya A; Palascak, Mary B; Qi, Xiaoyang; Joiner, Clinton H; Franco, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) is thought to contribute to sickle cell disease (SCD) pathophysiology. The red blood cell (RBC) aminophospholipid translocase (APLT) mediates the transport of PS from the outer to the inner RBC membrane leaflet to maintain an asymmetric distribution of PL, while phospholipid scramblase (PLSCR) equilibrates PL across the RBC membrane, promoting PS externalization. We previously identified an association between PS externalization level and PLSCR activity in sickle RBC under basal conditions. Other studies showed that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by PMA (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate) causes increased external PS on RBC. Therefore, we hypothesized that PMA-activated PKC stimulates PLSCR activity in RBC and thereby contributes to increased PS externalization. In the current studies, we show that PMA treatment causes immediate and variable PLSCR activation and subsequent PS externalization in control and sickle RBC. While TfR+ sickle reticulocytes display some endogenous PLSCR activity, we observed a robust activation of PLSCR in sickle reticulocytes treated with PMA. The PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine (Chel), significantly inhibited PMA-dependent PLSCR activation and PS externalization. Chel also inhibited endogenous PLSCR activity in sickle reticulocytes. These data provide evidence that PKC mediates PS externalization in RBC through activation of PLSCR.

  4. Complementary markers for the clinical severity classification of hereditary spherocytosis in unsplenectomized patients.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Susana; Costa, Elísio; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Ferreira, Fátima; Cleto, Esmeralda; Barbot, José; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Belo, Luís; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2011-02-15

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is usually classified as mild, moderate or severe using conventional features, namely, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, reticulocyte count and bilirubin levels, which do not always contribute to an adequate clinical classification. The aim of our study was to establish the importance of some laboratory routine parameters, as markers of HS clinical outcome, by studying a control group (n=26) and unsplenectomized HS patients (n=82) presenting mild, moderate or severe HS. We performed a basic hematologic study and evaluated the reticulocyte count, bilirubin, erythropoietin (EPO) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels; the osmotic fragility (OFT) and criohemolysis tests (CHT); the ratios Hb/MCHC (mean cell hemoglobin concentration), Hb/RDW (red cell distribution width) and MCHC/RDW, were calculated. Hb changed significantly in accordance with HS severity, but not reticulocytes or bilirubin. We found that MCHC, RDW, EPO, sTfR, OFT, CHT and the calculated ratios were significantly changed in patients, and, therefore, were valuable as complementary diagnostic tools for HS. Moreover, RDW, Hb/MCHC, Hb/RDW and MCHC/RDW changed significantly with worsening of HS; thus, they are also good markers for the clinical outcome of HS. In conclusion, we propose the use of these routine parameters as useful to complement the analysis of HS severity.

  5. An Electrophoretically Silent Polymorphism for the Beta Chains of Rabbit Hemoglobin and Associated Polyribosome Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Michael D.; Bricker, J.; Garrick, Laura M.

    1974-01-01

    The β chain of rabbit (Oryctolagus caniculus) hemoglobin has previously been reported to contain a single residue of isoleucine at β112. We have detected other rabbits with either zero isoleucyl residues or half a residue per β chain. This character is polymorphic and inherited as a simple mendelian autosomal codominant.—Normally the modal number of ribosomes per polyribosome is 4 to 6 in reticulocyte lysates; but incubation of rabbit reticulocytes prior to lysis with L-o-methylthreonine (OMT), an isostere of isoleucine, leads to a bimodal distribution in lysates with 2–3 and 8–12 ribosomes as modes. This alteration has been attributed to ribosomal traffic jams caused by starvation for ile-tRNA at mRNA codons corresponding to the locations of isoleucyl residues at positions α10, α17, α55 and β112. We have confirmed this interpretation by incubating OMT with reticulocytes from rabbits with integral, half integral and nil values for isoleucyl residues per β chain to show that formation of the larger clusters of polyribosomes requires that β112 = ile. PMID:4818267

  6. Flow cytometric analysis of Pig-a gene mutation and chromosomal damage induced by procarbazine hydrochloride in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Phonethepswath, Souk; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Torous, Dorothea K; Mereness, Jared; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Macgregor, James T; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2013-05-01

    Procarbazine is a genotoxic carcinogen whose DNA-damaging activities are not reliably detected in vitro. We evaluated the in vivo genotoxic effects of procarbazine on hematopoietic cells of male CD-1 mice using a multi-endpoint study design that scored micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequency and gene mutation at the Pig-a locus. CD-1 mice were treated for 3 days with procarbazine, up to 150 mg/kg/day. Blood samples collected on Day 3 exhibited robust induction of MN-RETs, with the high dose group exhibiting a mean 29-fold increase. Blood collected 15 and 30 days after treatment began was analyzed for Pig-a mutation with a dual labeling method that facilitated mutant cell frequency measurements in both total erythrocytes and the reticulocyte subpopulation. Procarbazine significantly increased mutant reticulocyte frequencies by Day 15. Mutant erythrocyte responses were also apparent, with a peak incidence observed for the high dose group on Day 30. These results demonstrate that the complex metabolism and resulting genotoxicity of procarbazine is best evaluated in intact animal models, and show that the flow cytometric methods employed offer a means to efficiently monitor both in vivo chromosomal damage and mutation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Patients with sickle cell disease taking hydroxyurea in the Hemocentro Regional de Montes Claros

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernanda Kelle de Souza; Maia, Caroline Nogueira

    2011-01-01

    Background The development of therapies for sickle cell disease has received special attention, particularly those that reduce the polymerization of hemoglobin S. Hydroxyurea is a commonly used medication because it has the ability to raise levels of fetal hemoglobin, decrease the frequency of vaso-occlusive episodes and thus improve the clinical course of sickle cell disease patients. Objective To study hematological data and the clinical profile of sickle cell disease patients taking hydroxyurea in a regional blood center. Methods From the charts of 20 patients with sickle cell anemia, the clinical outcomes and a number of hematological variables were analyzed before and during treatment with hydroxyurea. Results The patients' ages ranged from 6 to 41 years old, most were dark skinned and there was a predominance of women. The main symptom that defined whether patients were prescribed hydroxyurea was painful crises followed by hospitalizations. During treatment with hydroxyurea there were significant increases in hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The reticulocyte and white blood cell counts dropped significantly with treatment. A positive correlation was found between fetal hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume before and during treatment. Additionally, a correlation was found between the white blood cell and reticulocyte counts before treatment with hydroxyurea. Conclusion Most patients showed improvements with treatment as demonstrated by increases in hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume, as well as by reductions in the reticulocyte and white blood cell counts. Clinically, more than 50% of patients had a significant reduction of events. PMID:23284256

  8. Contribution of whole cell and cytoplasmic polypeptides to apparent red cell membrane alterations.

    PubMed

    Sauberman, N; Snyder, L M

    1980-11-04

    We have compared densitometric tracings of whole cell, cytoplasmic and membrane polypeptide electrophoretic patterns in an attempt to distinguish atypical partitioning from intrinsic membrane polypeptide changes occurring as a result of reticulocyte enrichment, metabolic depletion, N-ethylmaleimide treatment and hereditary xerocytosis. We report that membrane alterations seen in a reticulocyte-enriched population of normal cells are present in the whole cells prior to membrane isolation. Some of the membrane alterations in metabolically depleted cells and all of those in N-ethylmaleimide-treated cells are traced to modifications in tary xerocytosis. We report that membrane alterations seen in a reticulocyte-enriched population of normal cells are present in the whole cells prior to membrane isolation. Some of the membrane alterations in metabolically depleted cells and all of those in N-ethylmaleimide-treated cells are traced to modifications in the partitioning of polypeptides between membranes and supernatant (cytoplasm) at hemolysis. The power of this approach in resolving the sources of apparent red cell membrane protein alterations is demonstrated in studies with hereditary xerocytes. Suggested altered partitioning of these cells described earlier (Sauberman, N., Fortier, N.L., Fairbanks, G., O'Connor, R.J. and Snyder, L.M. (1979) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 556, 292-313) is further documented and found to be unrelated to the younger cell population or slight metabolic depletion that occurs during the washing of xerocytes prior to hemolysis.

  9. Diagnosing anemia in inflammatory bowel disease: beyond the established markers.

    PubMed

    Oustamanolakis, Pantelis; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Kouroumalis, Elias A

    2011-10-01

    The main types of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of inflammatory etiology, or anemia of chronic disease (ACD). In the management of IBD patients with anemia it is essential for the physician to diagnose the type of anemia in order to decide in an evidence-based manner for the appropriate treatment. However, the assessment of iron status in IBD in many cases is rather difficult due to coexistent inflammation. For this assessment several indices and markers have been suggested. Ferritin, seems to play a central role in the definition and diagnosis of anemia in IBD and transferrin, transferrin saturation (Tsat), and soluble transferrin receptors are also valuable markers. All these biochemical markers have several limitations because they are not consistently reliable indices, since they are influenced by factors other than changes in iron balance. In this review, in addition to them, we discuss the newer alternative markers for iron status that may be useful when serum ferritin and Tsat are not sufficient. The iron metabolism regulators, hepcidin and prohepcidin, are still under investigation in IBD. Erythrocytes parameters like the red cell distribution width (RDW) and the percentage of hypochromic red cells as well as reticulocyte parameters such as hemoglobin concentration of reticulocytes, red blood cell size factor and reticulocyte distribution width could be useful markers for the evaluation of anemia in IBD.

  10. In vivo flow cytometric Pig-a and micronucleus assays: highly sensitive discrimination of the carcinogen/noncarcinogen pair benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene using acute and repeated-dose designs.

    PubMed

    Torous, Dorothea K; Phonethepswath, Souk; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Mereness, Jared; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Weller, Pamela; Bell, Sara; Gleason, Carol; Custer, Laura L; MacGregor, James T; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Combining multiple genetic toxicology endpoints into a single in vivo study, and/or integrating one or more genotoxicity assays into general toxicology studies, is attractive because it reduces animal use and enables comprehensive comparative analysis using toxicity, metabolism, and pharmacokinetic information from the same animal. This laboratory has developed flow cytometric scoring techniques for monitoring two blood-based genotoxicity endpoints-micronucleated reticulocyte frequency and gene mutation at the Pig-a locus-thereby making combination and integration studies practical. The ability to effectively monitor these endpoints in short-term and repeated dosing schedules was investigated with the carcinogen/noncarcinogen pair benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and pyrene (Pyr). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated via oral gavage for 3 or 28 consecutive days with several dose levels of Pyr, including maximum tolerated doses. BP exposure was administered by the same route but at one dose level, 250 or 125 mg/kg/day for 3-day and 28-day studies, respectively. Serial blood samples were collected up to Day 45, and were analyzed for Pig-a mutation with a dual labeling method (SYTO 13 in combination with anti-CD59-PE) that facilitated mutant cell frequency measurements in both total erythrocytes and the reticulocyte subpopulation. A mutant cell enrichment step based on immunomagnetic column separation was used to increase the statistical power of the assay. BP induced robust mutant reticulocyte responses by Day 15, and elevated frequencies persisted until study termination. Mutant erythrocyte responses lagged mutant reticulocyte responses, with peak incidences observed on Day 30 of the 3-day study (43-fold increase) and on Day 42 of the 28-day study (171-fold increase). No mutagenic effects were apparent for Pyr. Blood samples collected on Day 4, and Day 29 for the 28-day study, were evaluated for micronucleated reticulocyte frequency. Significant increases in micronucleus

  11. Erythrocyte-based Pig-a gene mutation assay: demonstration of cross-species potential.

    PubMed

    Phonethepswath, Souk; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2008-12-08

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors attach specific proteins to the cell surface of hematopoietic cells. Of the genes required to form GPI anchors, only Pig-a is located on the X-chromosome. Prior work with rats suggests that the GPI anchor deficient phenotype is a reliable indicator of Pig-a mutation [Bryce et al., Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 49 (2008) 256-264]. The current report extends this line of investigation by describing simplified blood handling procedures, and by testing the assay principle in a second species, Mus musculus. With this method, erythrocytes are isolated, incubated with anti-CD24-PE, and stained with SYTO 13. Flow cytometric analyses quantify GPI anchor-deficient erythrocytes and reticulocytes. After reconstruction experiments with mutant-mimicking cells demonstrated that the analytical performance of the method is high, CD-1 mice were treated on three occasions with 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 75 mg/kg/day) or ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU, 40 mg/kg/day). Two weeks after the final treatment, DMBA-treated mice were found to exhibit markedly elevated frequencies of GPI anchor deficient erythrocytes and reticulocytes. For the ENU experiment, blood specimens were collected at weekly intervals over a 5-week period. Whereas the frequencies of mutant reticulocytes were significantly elevated 1 week after the last administration, the erythrocyte population was unchanged until the second week. Thereafter, both populations exhibited persistently elevated frequencies for the duration of the experiment (mean frequency at termination=310x10(-6) and 523x10(-6) for erythrocyte and reticulocyte populations, respectively). These data provide evidence that Pig-a mutation does not convey an appreciable positive or negative cell survival advantage to affected erythroid progenitors, although they do suggest that affected erythrocytes have a reduced lifespan in circulation. Collectively, accumulated data support the hypothesis that flow cytometric

  12. Structurally conserved erythrocyte-binding domain in Plasmodium provides a versatile scaffold for alternate receptor engagement

    PubMed Central

    Gruszczyk, Jakub; Lim, Nicholas T. Y.; Arnott, Alicia; He, Wen-Qiang; Nguitragool, Wang; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Mok, Yee-Foong; Murphy, James M.; Smith, Katherine R.; Lee, Stuart; Bahlo, Melanie; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites gain entry into human red blood cells is essential for developing strategies to stop blood stage infection. Plasmodium vivax preferentially invades reticulocytes, which are immature red blood cells. The organism has two erythrocyte-binding protein families: namely, the Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP) and the reticulocyte-binding protein (PvRBP) families. Several members of the PvRBP family bind reticulocytes, specifically suggesting a role in mediating host cell selectivity of P. vivax. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution crystal structure of an erythrocyte-binding domain from PvRBP2a, solved at 2.12 Å resolution. The monomeric molecule consists of 10 α-helices and one short β-hairpin, and, although the structural fold is similar to that of PfRh5—the essential invasion ligand in Plasmodium falciparum—its surface properties are distinct and provide a possible mechanism for recognition of alternate receptors. Sequence alignments of the crystallized fragment of PvRBP2a with other PvRBPs highlight the conserved placement of disulfide bonds. PvRBP2a binds mature red blood cells through recognition of an erythrocyte receptor that is neuraminidase- and chymotrypsin-resistant but trypsin-sensitive. By examining the patterns of sequence diversity within field isolates, we have identified and mapped polymorphic residues to the PvRBP2a structure. Using mutagenesis, we have also defined the critical residues required for erythrocyte binding. Characterization of the structural features that govern functional erythrocyte binding for the PvRBP family provides a framework for generating new tools that block P. vivax blood stage infection. PMID:26715754

  13. Application of Innovative Hemocytometric Parameters and Algorithms for Improvement of Microcytic Anemia Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Schoorl, Margreet; Schoorl, Marianne; van Pelt, Johannes; Bartels, Piet C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Hemocytometric parameters like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean red blood cell volume (MCV), reticulocyte count, red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) are frequently established for discrimination between iron-deficiency anemia and thalassemia in subjects with microcytic erythropoiesis. However, no single marker or combination of tests is optimal for discrimination between iron-deficiency anemia and thalassemia. This is the reason why many algorithms have been introduced. However, application of conventional algorithms, only resulted in appropriate classification of 30-40% of subjects. In this mini-review the efficacy of innovative hematological parameters for detection of alterations in RBCs has been considered. It refers to parameters concerning hemoglobinization of RBCs and reticulocytes and the percentages microcytic and hypochromic RBCs, for discrimination between subjects with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) or thalassemia as well as a combination of both. A new discriminating tool including the above mentioned parameters was developed, based on two precondition steps and discriminating algorithms. The percentage microcytic RBCs is considered in the first precondition step. MCV, RDW-SD and RBC count are applied in the second precondition step. Subsequently, new algorithms, including conventional as well as innovative hematological parameters, were assessed for subgroups with microcytic erythropoiesis. The new algorithms for IDA discrimination yielded results for sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 97%, positive and negative predictive values of 74% and 98% respectively. The algorithms for β-thalassemia discrimination revealed similar results (74%, 98%, 75% and 99% respectively). We advocate that innovative algorithms, including parameters reflecting hemoglobinization of RBCs and reticulocytes, are integrated in an easily accessible software program linked to the hematology equipment to improve the discrimination between IDA and

  14. Doppler-Defined Pulmonary Hypertension in Sickle Cell Anemia in Kurdistan, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Allawi, Nasir; Mohammad, Ameen M; Jamal, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency, clinical and laboratory associations of pulmonary hypertension in Iraqi Kurds with sickle cell anemia, a total of ninety four such patients attending a major hemoglobinopathy center in Iraqi Kurdistan were enrolled. All patients were re-evaluated clinically and had their blood counts, HbF, serum ferritin, LDH, renal and liver function assessed. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography with measurement of tricuspid valve regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was performed. A TRV in excess of 2.8 m/s was considered for the purposes of this study as indicative of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The prevalence of TRV in excess of 2.8m/s was 10.6%. By univariate analysis: significantly higher reticulocyte count, more frequent blood transfusions and pain episodes were encountered in the PH group as compared to the non-PH group (p = 0.001, 0.045 and 0.02 respectively). Moreover, PH patients had significantly higher mean right atrial area, left atrial size, E wave/A wave ratio and ejection fraction by echocardiography (p = 0.027, 0.037, <0.001 and 0.008 respectively). Except for reticulocyte count none of the other parameters remained significant by multivariate analysis (p = 0.024). In conclusion the current study revealed that pulmonary hypertension is rather frequent among Iraqi Kurds with sickle cell anemia, and identified reticulocyte count as an independently associated parameter with PH in this population. Future prospective studies including right heart catheterization and appropriate medical intervention are warranted.

  15. Cessation of intensive treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin is followed by secondary anemia.

    PubMed

    Piron, M; Loo, M; Gothot, A; Tassin, F; Fillet, G; Beguin, Y

    2001-01-15

    Little information is available on the evolution of erythropoiesis after interruption of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) therapy. Iron-overloaded rats received 20 daily injections of rHuEpo. During treatment, reticulocytes, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hematocrit increased progressively. This was accompanied by a substantial expansion of spleen erythropoiesis but a decrease in the bone marrow. Five weeks after treatment, rats developed a significant degree of a regenerative anemia. Erythropoietic activity, as assessed by reticulocytes, sTfR, erythroid cellularity, iron incorporation into heme, and the number of erythroid colonies, was severely depressed 3 weeks after cessation of rHuEpo. This was followed by regeneration of erythroblasts and reticulocytes at weeks 6 to 7 post-Epo, but erythroid progenitors recovered only partially by that time. The anemia was definitely corrected 2 months after cessation of rHuEpo treatment. Serum Epo levels remained elevated for several weeks, but the sensitivity of marrow erythroid precursors to Epo was preserved. No rat antibodies to rHuEpo were detected, and serum from post-Epo animals did not exert any inhibitory activity on erythropoiesis. In conclusion, after cessation of intensive rHuEpo therapy, there was a strong inhibition of erythropoietic activity with secondary anemia followed by late recovery. This was not due to antibodies or other soluble inhibitory factors, a defect in endogenous Epo production, or a loss of sensitivity to Epo. This may rather represent intrinsic erythroid marrow exhaustion, mostly at the level of erythroid progenitors but also at later stages of erythropoiesis.

  16. Incidence of megaloblastic anaemia and its correction in leishmaniasis--a prospective study at BPKIHS hospital, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Arvind K; Rijal, Suman; Karki, Prahlad; Majhi, S

    2006-10-01

    Fifty (50) cases of Leishmaniasis were included in a prospective study after making the diagnosis based on the demonstration of L D Bodies on bone marrow aspirate. Hemoglobin (Hb) and total leucocyte count (TLC) were less than 10 gm/dl and 4000 per/ml respectively in 22 out of 50 cases. Among 50 cases, 30 showed macrocytic red cell and hypersegmented neutrophils on peripheral blood smear as features of megaloblastic anemia. Out of 30 cases of leishmaniasis with megaloblastic anemia, 10 cases showed decreased reticulocyte count. Bone marrow aspiration cytology showed megaloblastic maturation in erythroid series and giant metamyelocytes in myeloid series in all 30 cases of leishmaniasis with megaloblastic changes. Bone marrow iron was also increased in these cases. However megakaryocyte was normal in all. Among 30 cases of leishmaniasis with megaloblastic changes, 15 cases were treated with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) only and other 15 with SAG, folic acid and Vit. B12. Rest 20 cases of leishmaniasis without megaloblastic changes were also treated with SAG only. After treatment with SAG alone as well as with SAG, folic acid and vit. B12, hemoglobin and TLC improved in all 50 cases. Of 15 cases of leishmaniasis with megaloblastic changes, who were treated with SAG, folic acid and vit. B12, the reticulocyte count reached at peak on the 7th day and normalized at the end of 4th week. Red blood cells (RBC) also became normocytic normochromic and neutrophils became normal on peripheral blood smear. But no change was observed in reticulocyte count, RBC and white blood cell (WBC) morphology on peripheral blood smear in cases of leishmaniasis without megaloblastic changes and other 15 cases of leishmaniasis with megaloblastic changes, who received SAG only.

  17. CNTO 530 increases expression of HbA and HbF in murine models of β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Makropoulos, Dorie A; Achuthanandam, Ram; Avery, Justin; Wilson, Krista; Brosnan, Kerry; Miller, Andrew; Nesspor, Thomas; Chroscinski, Denise; Walker, Mindi; Egenolf, Devon; Huang, ChiChi; Bugelski, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    CNTO 530 is an erythropoietin receptor agonist MIMETIBODYTM construct. CNTO 530 has been shown to be active in a number of rodent models of acquired anemia (e.g. renal insufficiency and chemotherapy induced anemia). We investigated the efficacy of CNTO 530 in murine models of β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia (Berkeley mice). β- thalassemic mice are deficient in expression of α-globin chain and heterozygous mice are characterized by a clinical syndrome similar to the human β-thalassemia intermedia. Berkeley mice are knocked out for murine alpha and beta globin and are transgenic for human alpha, beta (sickle) and gamma globin genes. Berkeley mice thus express human sickle hemoglobin A (HbS) and can also express human fetal hemoglobin. These mice express a severe compensated hypochromic microcytic anemia and display the sickle cell phenotype. To test the effectiveness of CNTO 530, mice from both genotypes received a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose of CNTO 530 or darbepoetin-α (as a comparator) at 10,000 U/kg, a dose shown to cause a similar increase in reticulocytes and hemoglobin in normal mice. Hematologic parameters were evaluated over time. CNTO 530, but not darbepoetin-α, increased reticulocytes, red blood cells and total hemoglobin in β- thalassemic mice. In Berkeley mice CNTO 530 showed an increase in reticulocytes, red blood cells, F-cells, total hemoglobin and fetal hemoglobin. In conclusion, CNTO 530 is effective in murine models of β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. These data suggest that CNTO 530 may have beneficial effects in patients with genetically mediated hemoglobinopathies.

  18. CNTO 530 Increases Expression of HbA and HbF in Murine Models of β-Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Makropoulos, Dorie A; Achuthanandam, Ram; Avery, Justin; Wilson, Krista; Brosnan, Kerry; Miller, Andrew; Nesspor, Thomas; Chroscinski, Denise; Walker, Mindi; Egenolf, Devon; Huang, ChiChi; Bugelski, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    CNTO 530 is an erythropoietin receptor agonist MIMETIBODYTM construct. CNTO 530 has been shown to be active in a number of rodent models of acquired anemia (e.g. renal insufficiency and chemotherapy induced anemia). We investigated the efficacy of CNTO 530 in murine models of β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia (Berkeley mice). β- thalassemic mice are deficient in expression of α-globin chain and heterozygous mice are characterized by a clinical syndrome similar to the human β-thalassemia intermedia. Berkeley mice are knocked out for murine alpha and beta globin and are transgenic for human alpha, beta (sickle) and gamma globin genes. Berkeley mice thus express human sickle hemoglobin A (HbS) and can also express human fetal hemoglobin. These mice express a severe compensated hypochromic microcytic anemia and display the sickle cell phenotype. To test the effectiveness of CNTO 530, mice from both genotypes received a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose of CNTO 530 or darbepoetin-α (as a comparator) at 10,000 U/kg, a dose shown to cause a similar increase in reticulocytes and hemoglobin in normal mice. Hematologic parameters were evaluated over time. CNTO 530, but not darbepoetin-α, increased reticulocytes, red blood cells and total hemoglobin in β- thalassemic mice. In Berkeley mice CNTO 530 showed an increase in reticulocytes, red blood cells, F-cells, total hemoglobin and fetal hemoglobin. In conclusion, CNTO 530 is effective in murine models of β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. These data suggest that CNTO 530 may have beneficial effects in patients with genetically mediated hemoglobinopathies. PMID:23157711

  19. B12 deficiency leading to marked poikilocytosis versus true schistocytosis, a pernicious problem.

    PubMed

    Hall, James A; Mason, James; Choi, Julia; Holguin, Mark

    2017-06-20

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency is caused most commonly by autoimmune atrophic gastritis leading to loss of intrinsic factor. Vitamin B12 deficiency leading to megaloblastic anemia and demyelinating central nervous system disease is well known; however, a rare presentation of B12 deficiency described as pseudothrombotic microangiopathy is not well known. This complication presents with signs of mechanical hemolysis, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), thrombocytopenia, and a low reticulocyte count, which can be incorrectly diagnosed as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and managed incorrectly. Decreased reticulocyte count and an LDH >2500IU/L is more commonly seen in B12 deficiency. However, recognizing the differences in marked poikilocytosis can be challenging, as seen with megaloblastic changes and true schistocytosis. To illustrate the challenge in differentiating between megaloblastic changes and true schistocytosis, we present the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented to her physician for symptomatic anemia and complaints of nausea, vomiting, and loose stool. She had a hemoglobin of 5.1g/dL, platelet count of 39×10(9)/L, LDH of 9915IU/L, haptoglobin below assay limit, and a reticulocyte count of 2.5%. Peripheral smear showed macrocytic anemia, rare hypersegmented neutrophils, and schistocytes. Vitamin B12 level was less than 50pg/mL, methylmalonic acid was 0.33μmol/L, anti-parietal cell antibody was >1:640, and intrinsic factor blocking antibody was positive-confirming the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. While hospitalized, she was treated with vitamin B12 1000μg intramuscular injections daily and thereafter continued with monthly injections, which ultimately resolved her severe macrocytic anemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HIF-mediated increased ROS from reduced mitophagy and decreased catalase causes neocytolysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jihyun; Yoon, Donghoon; Christensen, Robert D; Horvathova, Monika; Thiagarajan, Perumal; Prchal, Josef T

    2015-08-01

    During prolonged hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) mediate an increase in erythropoiesis, leading to an increased red blood cell (RBC) mass and polycythemia. Upon return to normoxia, the increased RBC mass is abruptly overcorrected by the preferential destruction of hypoxia-formed young RBCs, a phenomenon termed neocytolysis. The molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in neocytolysis are unknown. We developed a murine model of neocytolysis by exposing mice to 12 % oxygen for 10 days followed by return to normoxia. Upon return to normoxia, there was excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RBCs from an increased reticulocyte mitochondrial mass correlating with decreased Bnip3L transcripts (Bnip3L mediates reticulocyte mitophagy) and reduced catalase activity. During hypoxia, upregulated miR-21 resulted in low catalase activity in young RBCs. Furthermore, neocytolysis was attenuated by antioxidants and plasma catalase and blunted in mice that had constitutively high expression of HIFs. Among human neonates studied, we report data supporting the existence of neocytolysis during the first week of life. Together, these experiments indicate that the major mechanisms causing neocytolysis involve (1) production of young RBCs with low catalase during hypoxia and (2) lysis of the young RBCs after return to normoxia, mediated by ROS from an increased mitochondrial mass. We report a mouse model of neocytolysis. Neocytolysis is caused by excessive ROS formation mediated by HIF. ROS is generated from increased mitochondria in reticulocytes. Hypoxia-generated RBCs have low catalase and are preferentially destroyed. Reduced catalase is regulated by increased microRNA-21.

  1. Comparison of five automated hematology analyzers in a university hospital setting: Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphire, Beckman Coulter DxH 800, Siemens Advia 2120i, Sysmex XE-5000, and Sysmex XN-2000.

    PubMed

    Bruegel, Mathias; Nagel, Dorothea; Funk, Manuela; Fuhrmann, Petra; Zander, Johannes; Teupser, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Various types of automated hematology analyzers are used in clinical laboratories. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of five current top of the range routine hematology analyzers in the setting of a university hospital central laboratory. Complete blood counts (CBC), differentials, reticulocyte and nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts of 349 patient samples, randomly taken out of routine diagnostics, were analyzed with Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott), DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter), Advia 2120i (Siemens), XE-5000 and XN-2000 (Sysmex). Inter-instrument comparison of CBCs including reticulocyte and NRBC counts and investigation of flagging quality in relation to microscopy were performed with the complete set of samples. Inter-instrument comparison of five-part differential was performed using samples without atypical cells in blood smear (n=292). Automated five-part differentials and NRBCs were additionally compared with microscopy. The five analyzers showed a good concordance for basic blood count parameters. Correlations between instruments were less well for reticulocyte counts, NRBCs, and differentials. The poorest concordance for NRBCs with microscopy was observed for Advia 2120i (Kendall's τb=0.37). The highest flagging sensitivity for blasts was observed for XN-2000 (97% compared to 65%-76% for other analyzers), whereas overall specificity was comparable between different instruments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive side-by-side comparison of five current top of the range routine hematology analyzers. Variable analyzer quality and parameter specific limitations must be considered in defining laboratory algorithms in clinical practice.

  2. Severe Ankyrin-R deficiency results in impaired surface retention and lysosomal degradation of RhAG in human erythroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Satchwell, Timothy J.; Bell, Amanda J.; Hawley, Bethan R.; Pellegrin, Stephanie; Mordue, Kathryn E.; van Deursen, Cees Th. B. M.; Braak, Nicole Heitink-ter; Huls, Gerwin; Leers, Mathie P.G; Overwater, Eline; Tamminga, Rienk Y. J.; van der Zwaag, Bert; Fermo, Elisa; Bianchi, Paola; van Wijk, Richard; Toye, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    Ankyrin-R provides a key link between band 3 and the spectrin cytoskeleton that helps to maintain the highly specialized erythrocyte biconcave shape. Ankyrin deficiency results in fragile spherocytic erythrocytes with reduced band 3 and protein 4.2 expression. We use in vitro differentiation of erythroblasts transduced with shRNAs targeting ANK1 to generate erythroblasts and reticulocytes with a novel ankyrin-R ‘near null’ human phenotype with less than 5% of normal ankyrin expression. Using this model, we demonstrate that absence of ankyrin negatively impacts the reticulocyte expression of a variety of proteins, including band 3, glycophorin A, spectrin, adducin and, more strikingly, protein 4.2, CD44, CD47 and Rh/RhAG. Loss of band 3, which fails to form tetrameric complexes in the absence of ankyrin, alongside GPA, occurs due to reduced retention within the reticulocyte membrane during erythroblast enucleation. However, loss of RhAG is temporally and mechanistically distinct, occurring predominantly as a result of instability at the plasma membrane and lysosomal degradation prior to enucleation. Loss of Rh/RhAG was identified as common to erythrocytes with naturally occurring ankyrin deficiency and demonstrated to occur prior to enucleation in cultures of erythroblasts from a hereditary spherocytosis patient with severe ankyrin deficiency but not in those exhibiting milder reductions in expression. The identification of prominently reduced surface expression of Rh/RhAG in combination with direct evaluation of ankyrin expression using flow cytometry provides an efficient and rapid approach for the categorization of hereditary spherocytosis arising from ankyrin deficiency. PMID:27247322

  3. Application of Innovative Hemocytometric Parameters and Algorithms for Improvement of Microcytic Anemia Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Schoorl, Margreet; Schoorl, Marianne; van Pelt, Johannes; Bartels, Piet C M

    2015-06-03

    Hemocytometric parameters like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean red blood cell volume (MCV), reticulocyte count, red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) are frequently established for discrimination between iron-deficiency anemia and thalassemia in subjects with microcytic erythropoiesis. However, no single marker or combination of tests is optimal for discrimination between iron-deficiency anemia and thalassemia. This is the reason why many algorithms have been introduced. However, application of conventional algorithms, only resulted in appropriate classification of 30-40% of subjects. In this mini-review the efficacy of innovative hematological parameters for detection of alterations in RBCs has been considered. It refers to parameters concerning hemoglobinization of RBCs and reticulocytes and the percentages microcytic and hypochromic RBCs, for discrimination between subjects with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) or thalassemia as well as a combination of both. A new discriminating tool including the above mentioned parameters was developed, based on two precondition steps and discriminating algorithms. The percentage microcytic RBCs is considered in the first precondition step. MCV, RDW-SD and RBC count are applied in the second precondition step. Subsequently, new algorithms, including conventional as well as innovative hematological parameters, were assessed for subgroups with microcytic erythropoiesis. The new algorithms for IDA discrimination yielded results for sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 97%, positive and negative predictive values of 74% and 98% respectively. The algorithms for β-thalassemia discrimination revealed similar results (74%, 98%, 75% and 99% respectively). We advocate that innovative algorithms, including parameters reflecting hemoglobinization of RBCs and reticulocytes, are integrated in an easily accessible software program linked to the hematology equipment to improve the discrimination between IDA and

  4. Changes in haematology measurements with the Sysmex XT-2000iV during storage of feline blood sampled in EDTA or EDTA plus CTAD.

    PubMed

    Granat, Fanny; Geffré, Anne; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    In veterinary medicine a complete blood cell count (CBC) cannot always be performed within 24 h as usually recommended, particularly for specimens shipped to a reference laboratory. This raises the question of the stability of the variables, especially in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) feline blood specimens, known to be prone to in vitro platelet aggregation. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) has been reported to limit platelet aggregation in feline blood specimens. The aim of this study was to measure the stability of the haematological variables and the platelet aggregation score in EDTA and EDTA plus CTAD (EDCT) feline blood specimens during 48 h of storage at room temperature. Forty-six feline EDTA and EDCT blood specimens were analysed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser, and the platelet count and score of platelet aggregation were estimated immediately and after 24 and 48 h of storage. A significant increase in mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit, reticulocyte and eosinophil counts, and a significant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and monocyte count were observed. Haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and red blood cell, white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts remained stable. Changes in reticulocyte indexes with time (low fluorescence ratio, medium fluorescence ratio, high fluorescence ratio and immature reticulocyte fraction) were not significant. Changes were generally more pronounced in EDTA than in EDCT. Platelet aggregation decreased markedly in initially highly aggregated EDTA specimens, and increased slightly in initially non- or mildly-aggregated EDTA or EDCT specimens. Platelet counts increased and decreased, or remained stable, respectively. CTAD can reduce storage-induced changes of the haematological variables in feline samples, thus improving the reliability of a CBC and limiting clinical misinterpretations.

  5. Heinz body formation in cats fed baby food containing onion powder.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J E; Christopher, M M; Rogers, Q R

    1998-04-15

    To determine whether cats fed baby food with onion powder develop Heinz bodies and anemia and to establish a dose-response relation between dietary onion powder content and Heinz body formation. Prospective study. 42 healthy, adult, specific-pathogen-free cats. Commercial baby food with and without onion powder was fed to 2 groups of 6 cats for 5 weeks. Heinz body percentage, PCV, reticulocyte percentage, turbidity index, and methemoglobin and reduced glutathione concentrations were determined twice weekly and then weekly for 4 weeks following removal of the diet. For the dose-response study, 5 groups of 6 cats were fed a canned diet for 2 months that contained 0, 0.3, 0.75, 1.5, or 2.5% onion powder. Heinz body percentage, PCV, and reticulocyte percentage were determined twice weekly. Compared with cats fed baby food without onion powder, cats ingesting baby food with onion powder had significantly higher Heinz body percentages that peaked at 33 to 53%. Methemoglobin concentration also significantly increased but did not exceed 1.2%. Glutathione concentration, PCV, and food intake did not differ between the 2 groups. Rate and degree of Heinz body formation differed significantly between various onion powder concentrations fed. Compared with 0% onion powder, the diet with 2.5% onion powder caused a significant decrease in PCV and an increased punctate reticulocyte percentage. Baby food or other foods containing similar amounts of onion powder should be avoided for use in cats because of Heinz body formation and the potential for development of anemia, particularly with high food intake. Cats with diseases associated with oxidative stress may develop additive hemoglobin damage when fed baby food containing onion powder.

  6. Correlation between the Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels with Laboratory Variables in the Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Anemia in Congolese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mikobi, Tite Minga; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Mvumbi Lelo, Georges; Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean Jacques; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; Mbuyi Mwamba, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia is an inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic hemolysis. We sought to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase levels with specific clinical phenotypes and laboratory variables in patients with sickle cell anemia. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sickle Cell Centre of Yolo in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and eleven patients with Sickle Cell Anemia in steady state were recruited. Seventy-four participants with normal Hb (Hb-AA) were selected as a control group. Results The average rates of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells tended to be significantly lower in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes and serum LDH were significantly higher in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of Hb, HbF, hematocrit and red blood cells of Hb-SS patients with asymptomatic clinical phenotype were significantly higher than those of the two other phenotypes. However, the average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes, and LDH of Hb-SS patients with the severe clinical phenotype are higher than those of two other clinical phenotypes. Significant correlations were observed between Hb and white blood cell in severe clinical phenotype (r3 = -0.37 *) between Hb and red blood cells in the three phenotypes (r1 = 0.69 * r2 * = 0.69, r3 = 0.83 *), and finally between Hb and reticulocytes in the asymptomatic clinical phenotype and severe clinical phenotype (r1 = -0.50 * r3 = 0.45 *). A significant increase in LDH was observed in patients with leg ulcer, cholelithiasis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. Conclusion The increase in serum LDH is accompanied by changes in hematological parameters. In our midst, serum LDH may be considered as an indicator of the severity of the disease. PMID:25946088

  7. Hematological and iron content evolution in exclusively breastfed late-preterm newborns

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Renato Takeshi; Leone, Cléa Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the evolution of hematological parameters and body iron content between exclusively breastfed late-preterm and term newborns during the first two months of life. METHODS: Cohort study. Weight, length, head circumference, body mass index, hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum iron and ferritin were measured in 25 late-preterm and 21 term newborns (at birth and at one and two months of age) who were exclusively breastfed. Statistical analysis: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test; and Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Significance: p<0.05. RESULTS: The corrected gestational ages of the late-preterm infants were 39.98 weeks at one month of life and 44.53 weeks at two months. Anthropometric measures and the body mass index increased over time (p<0.001) and hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes and body iron content decreased (p<0.001). Late-preterm infants at term corrected gestational age had reduced hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocyte concentrations, and reduced total iron-binding capacity (p<0.001) and serum iron (p = 0.0034) compared with values observed in term newborns at birth. Late-preterm newborns at a corrected gestational age of one month post-term had hemoglobin (p = 0.0002), hematocrit (p = 0.0008), iron (p<0.0001) and transferrin saturation (p<0.001) levels lower than those of term newborns at one month of age and a higher total iron-binding capacity (p = 0.0018). Ferritin did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Exclusively breastfed late-preterm newborns presented greater reductions in hemoglobin/hematocrit and lower iron stores at a corrected gestational age of one month post-term than did term newborns, suggesting specific iron supplementation needs. PMID:25627989

  8. The immunochemical detection and quantitation of intracellular ubiquitin-protein conjugates.

    PubMed

    Haas, A L; Bright, P M

    1985-10-15

    ATP, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis proceeds through covalent intermediates between target proteins destined for degradation and the 8,600-Da polypeptide ubiquitin. The ubiquitin moiety therefore represents a sensitive immunological marker for the specificity and function of this novel post-translational modification. Methods are described for the immunochemical detection of ubiquitin conjugates immobilized on nitrocellulose filters following electrophoretic transfer from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. A further modification allows quantitation of conjugated ubiquitin to the exclusion of free polypeptide. Comparisons of conjugate pools in rabbit reticulocytes and erythrocytes demonstrate that 83 +/- 3% and 31 +/- 0.2%, respectively, of total intracellular ubiquitin exists covalently bound to target proteins. Similar large proportions of conjugated ubiquitin were found in three tissue culture cell lines. Subcellular fractionation revealed that 25% of total ubiquitin conjugates of reticulocytes sediment with the 22,000 X g stromal fraction with the remainder found in the 100,000 X g supernatant. In contrast, significant levels of erythrocyte ubiquitin conjugates occur only in the 100,000 X g supernatant, suggesting ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis actively degrades stromal components lost during terminal maturation. Reticulocytes retain their full complement of active ubiquitin during maturation indicating the concomitant decline in energy-dependent proteolysis does not result from ubiquitin inactivation. That the lower level of ubiquitin conjugates and the accompanying rate of energy-dependent proteolysis in erythrocytes is a consequence of limited substrate availability is suggested by observed increases in conjugate pools and induction of specific ubiquitin-protein adducts on incubation with either phenylhydrazine or sodium nitrite.

  9. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of recombinant human erythropoietin after intravenous and subcutaneous dose administration in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Rohini; Cheung, Wing K; Farrell, Francis; Joffee, Linda; Jusko, William J

    2003-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) were investigated in monkeys. A two-compartment model with dual input and nonlinear disposition could adequately characterize the PK of rHuEpo upon three intravenous and six s.c. administrations. The kinetic model suggests rapid zero-order absorption of part of the s.c. dose (35%) followed by a slow first-order entry through the lymphatics. The s.c. treatments caused a delayed dose-dependent rise in reticulocyte numbers peaking between 100 and 200 h and returning to baseline by 300 to 400 h. This was followed by steady rises in red blood cell (RBC) and hemoglobin counts. A physiological catenary model based on a life span concept with rHuEpo stimulating the production of two cell populations (progenitor cells and erythroblasts) was applied. The model could adequately describe the reticulocyte responses upon the various s.c. treatments, giving estimates of maturation times for cells in the various stages of differentiation including the early progenitor cells (70.4 h), erythroblasts (15.0 h), and reticulocytes (141.6 h) that are close to the literature reported values. An Smax of 3.13 was estimated indicating a moderate maximum stimulation of erythropoiesis, whereas the SC50 was 842 IU/l. The model was used to effectively predict the increases in RBC and hemoglobin counts as well. In conclusion, the physiological PK/PD model developed could adequately describe the time course of rHuEpo effects, yielding realistic estimates of cell life span parameters.

  10. Characterization of monoferric fragments obtained by tryptic cleavage of bovine transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, J H; Arzabe, F R; Richardson, N E; Deverson, E V

    1978-01-01

    1. The electrophoretically fast (F) and slow (S) fragments obtained by tryptic cleavage of bovine iron-saturated transferrin differed in carbohydrate content and peptide 'maps'. 2. A fragment capable of binding one Fe3+ ion per molecule was isolated after brief tryptic digestion of bovine apotransferrin and shown closely to resemble the S fragment obtained from the iron-saturated protein. 3. Fragments F and S are probably derived from the N- and C-terminal halves of the transferrin molecule respectively. 4. Bovine transferrin could donate iron to rabbit reticulocytes, but the monoferric fragments possessed little iron-donating ability. Images PLATE 1 PMID:646825

  11. Specific activities of poetam preparation (superlow-doses of antibodies to erythropoietin) and recombinant erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Dygai, A M; Zhdanov, V V; Udut, E V; Simanina, E V; Gur'yantseva, L A; Khrichkova, T Yu; Epshtein, O I; Sergeeva, S A

    2006-09-01

    We compared the capacity of superlow-dose of antibodies to erythropoietin (Poetam) and recombinant erythropoietin (Recormon) to stimulate the recovery of adriamycin-suppressed erythropoiesis in mice. Both preparations exhibited high erythron activation capacity and considerably increased the content of erythrocytes and reticulocytes in the peripheral blood and content of erythrokaryocytes and erythroid precursors in the hemopoietic tissue of experimental animals. The effect of Recormon manifested immediately after injection, while the effect of Poetam was somewhat delayed, but more lasting (due to activation of host erythropoietin system).

  12. Reversible Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting with Acute Dementia, Paraparesis, and Normal Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Mehdawi, Fahtima S.; Cheikh, Mohammed M.; Al-dhaheri, Fahmi; Aqeel, Abdullah Mahir

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential for neurological function and its deficiency is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 53-year-old male patient presenting with delirium and multiple neurological findings. Complete blood analysis indicated megaloblastic anemia. All infectious causes were excluded owing to negative cultures (blood and urine). Tests for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and toxoplasma were also negative. Metabolic workup showed severe vitamin B12 deficiency, decreased reticulocyte count, and increased direct bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase. Intramuscular injection of cobalamin was started, and the patient showed significant improvement. PMID:28070432

  13. Purification and characterization of moschins, arginine-glutamate-rich proteins with translation-inhibiting activity from brown pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Parkash, A; Tso, W W

    2002-10-01

    From fresh brown pumpkin seeds, two proteins with a molecular mass of 12kDa and an N-terminal sequence rich in arginine and glutamate residues were obtained. The protein designated alpha-moschin closely resembled the fruitfly programmed-cell death gene product and the protein designated beta-moschin demonstrated striking similarity to prepro 2S albumin in N-terminal sequence. alpha- and beta-moschins inhibited translation in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 17 microM and 300nM, respectively.

  14. Isolation of cucurmoschin, a novel antifungal peptide abundant in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues from black pumpkin seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2003-07-01

    A novel antifungal peptide, with a molecular mass of 8 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in gel filtration on Superdex 75 and designated cucurmoschin, was isolated from the seeds of the black pumpkin. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel. Cucurmoschin inhibited mycelial growth in the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella oxysporum. It inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC50 of 1.2 microM. The N-terminal sequence of cucurmoschin was rich in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues.

  15. Isolation of ribosomes and polysomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-03-02

    Here we describe a preparative differential centrifugation protocol for the isolation of ribosomes from a crude cell homogenate. The subcellular fraction obtained is enriched in ribosome monomers and polysomes. The protocol has been optimized for the homogenization and collection of the ribosomal fraction from prokaryotic cells, mammalian and plant tissues, reticulocytes, and chloroplasts. The quality of the ribosomal preparation is enhanced by the removal of the remaining cellular components and adsorbed proteins by pelleting through a sucrose cushion with a high concentration of monovalent salts, NH4Cl or KCl. The different components of the ribosomal fraction isolated using this protocol can be further purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation.

  16. Investigation of nonpoikilocytic normochromic normocytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Ward, P C

    1979-03-01

    When the mean corpuscular volume is normal in an anemic patient, examination of a blood smear becomes of paramount importance. When the RBCs are normochronic, normocytic, and nonpoikilocytic, the reticulocyte count determines the line of investigation. When the count is increased, either hemorrhage or hemolysis is present. When the count is not increased (ie, normal or low), the differential diagnosis includes anemias due to iron deficiency, chronic disease, renal disease, hemodilution, marrow infiltration, and marrow failure (aplastic anemia). Some morphologic clues to cause other than those pertaining to RBC morphology are discussed and illustrated. A working approach to the investigation of nonpoikilocytic normochromic normocytic anemia is suggested.

  17. Suggested guidelines for patient monitoring: hepatic and hematologic toxicity attributable to systemic dermatologic drugs.

    PubMed

    Wolverton, Stephen E; Remlinger, Kathleen

    2007-04-01

    Hepatic and hematologic toxicity are among the most fearful adverse effects that occasionally occur as a result of systemic drugs in the dermatologist's therapeutic armamentarium. Drugs of greatest interest concerning hepatic toxicity include methotrexate, azathioprine, dapsone, and acitretin. Somewhat overlapping are drugs that have important hematologic toxicities, including methotrexate, azathioprine, dapsone, sulfonamides, cyclophosphamide, and chlorambucil. Laboratory tests most commonly used include (1) hepatic monitoring: transaminases (AST/SGOT and ALT/SGPT) and the ultrasound-guided liver biopsy, and (2) hematologic monitoring: CBC with diff and platelets along with occasional use of the reticulocyte count. Important principles and specific guidelines for monitoring by drug group are highlighted.

  18. Monoclonal gammopathy-associated pure red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Korde, Neha; Zhang, Yong; Loeliger, Kelsey; Poon, Andrea; Simakova, Olga; Zingone, Adriana; Costello, Rene; Childs, Richard; Noel, Pierre; Silver, Samuel; Kwok, Mary; Mo, Clifton; Young, Neal; Landgren, Ola; Sloand, Elaine; Maric, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare disorder characterized by inhibition of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow and normochromic, normocytic anaemia with reticulocytopenia. Among 51 PRCA patients, we identified 12 (24%) patients having monoclonal gammopathy, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or smouldering multiple myeloma, with presence of monoclonal protein or abnormal serum free light chains and atypical bone marrow features of clonal plasmacytosis, hypercellularity and fibrosis. Thus far, three patients treated with anti-myeloma based therapeutics have responded with reticulocyte recovery and clinical transfusion independence, suggesting plasma cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of this specific monoclonal gammopathy-associated PRCA.

  19. Dysregulated Erythropoietin, Hepcidin, and Bone Marrow Iron Metabolism Contribute to Interferon-Induced Anemia in Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    van Rijnsoever, Marius; Galhenage, Sumedha; Mollison, Lindsay; Gummer, Joel; Trengove, Robert; Olynyk, John K

    2016-11-01

    Anemia is a complication of interferon-containing hepatitis C treatments. We characterized effects of interferon-based therapy on hepcidin and erythropoietin (EPO) production, iron metabolism, hemolysis, and hematopoiesis. Standard hemopoiesis [reticulocyte hemoglobin (Hb), reticulocyte production index (RPI), free Hb, and haptoglobin], iron biochemistry, hepcidin, and EPO levels were measured in 10 subjects over 12 weeks. There was a rapid decline in Hb during treatment, from a mean pretreatment (t = 0 weeks) Hb of 158.6 to 125.2 g/L at week 4 (P = 0.003) and 122.8 g/L at week 12 (P = 0.005). Paradoxically, the RPI (a measure of bone marrow responsiveness to EPO) decreased on initiation of hepatitis C virus treatment from 0.78% to 0.53% (P = 0.04). Despite worsening anemia, there was no significant increase in EPO levels. Hepcidin levels increased to >20 nM in 3 subjects from 5.8 to 27.5 nM (P = 0.009) compared with 9.6 to 12.3 nM (P = 0.5) for the remainder of subjects. Hepcidin levels peaked at week 1 before returning to baseline levels at week 4. Subjects who responded with a rise in serum hepcidin levels to >20 nM had a significantly greater drop in Hb (27.2 g/L, P = 0.008) and reticulocyte Hb (-1.4 g/L, P = 0.013) compared with the subjects who did not exhibit any change in hepcidin production. In conclusion, 30% of subjects treated with interferon exhibited significant transient increase in serum hepcidin levels, which was associated with more extreme anemia and decreased iron availability as evidenced by decreased reticulocyte Hb. In addition, there was a failure to upregulate EPO production in response to anemia and hemolysis ( https://clinicaltrials.gov trial NCT01726400).

  20. Electrostimulation and morphologic study of the nerves to the bone marrow of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    DePace, D M; Webber, R H

    1975-01-01

    The innervation of the bone marrow of the albino rat was investigated by electrostimulation and morphological methods. Stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic trunks resulted in the release of reticulocytes and neutrophils into the circulating blood. The effects of stimulation on other cell types in the bone marrow could not be definitely established. It was concluded that the nerve fibers to the bone marrow were distributed to the arteries. It is postulated that the transmitter substance released at the autonomic nerve endings may have an effect upon the permeability of the venous sinusiods and the mobility of the blood cells in the marrow parenchyma resulting in their release into the circulating blood.

  1. Anemia for the Primary Care Physician.

    PubMed

    Powell, Darryl J; Achebe, Maureen Okam

    2016-12-01

    Anemia denotes a reduced red blood cell (RBC) mass from any cause. The causes of anemia are numerous and due to decreased (or abnormal) erythropoesis, shortened RBC life span, or blood loss. The most common etiology of anemia is iron deficiency. A judicious work up of anemia includes evaluating the reticulocyte count and peripheral smear. The severity of illness of a patient with anemia is determined by the degree of anemia and the seriousness of the underlying disorder. Management of patients with hereditary and hemolytic anemias should involve a hematologist.

  2. Anemia: Evaluation and Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Michael J; DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2017-03-01

    Anemia is among the most common medical problems and clinical and laboratory evaluation need to be approached logically. The complete blood count with red cell indices offers clues to diagnosis. Many anemias have characteristic red cell morphology. The reticulocyte count serves as a useful screen for hemolysis or blood loss. Testing for specific causes of the anemia is performed. Occasionally, examination of the bone marrow is required for diagnosis. Molecular testing is increasingly being use to aid the diagnostic process. This article reviews diagnostic tests for anemia and suggests a rational approach to determining the etiology of a patient's anemia.

  3. Plasmodium vivax in Africa: hidden in plain sight?

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Ronald

    2007-05-01

    People who live in tropical Africa, south of the Sahara, are predominantly negative for the Duffy blood-group antigen, which mediates invasion of reticulocytes by Plasmodium vivax. Recent reports of a parasite that was molecularly diagnosed as P. vivax from populations who are suspected, or known, to be Duffy negative confound a large body of evidence that states that invasion of P. vivax requires the Duffy antigen. If confirmed, one of several possible explanations is that P. vivax, which originated in Asia, is now evolving to exploit alternate invasion receptors in Africa.

  4. [Aregenerative anemia and erythrocytes hemighosts: a case report].

    PubMed

    Bibi-Triki, Tewfik; Bélien, Valérie; Chapelon, Emeline; Sauvion, Sylvie; Gaudelus, Joel; Laurian, Yves; de Pontual, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    An 11 year old African boy without previous history was hospitalised for fever and a severe anaemia (haemoglobin = 55 g/L) with low reticulocyte count. Blood smear showed more than 35% of ghost red blood cells which allows the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency (< 1% of normal level). Anaemia was demonstrated as haemolytic and was associated with a drepanocytosis trait. Aspect of red blood cells on blood smear remains important for the diagnosis of congenital or acquired red blood cell diseases, even abnormalities are often of low specificity.

  5. [A comparative study of the anti-anemic effect of new Bulgarian iron-dextran complexes with miofer-100 and ferroglucin-75 in rats and swine].

    PubMed

    Dilov, P

    1975-01-01

    It was found that the A-100 preparation (obtained from oxidized dextrane) produces highest antianaemic effects. It is to be used advantageously in cases of pigs born with negligible supplies of irod. Studied were the possibilities of inducing iron deficiency anemia in young rats through feeding with cow milk and macaroni having no eggs. The reticulocyte count rise and the drop in the haemoglobin level in the blood were shown to demonstrate most clearly the iron deficiency anaemia in albino rats. The anemia induced is said to be instrumental in the study of ferrodextrane preparations.

  6. Hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria successfully treated with plasma exchange.

    PubMed

    Keskar, V S; Jamale, T E; Hase, N K

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in an adult patient with Plasmodium vivax malaria. The patient presented with worsening anemia, persistent thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. HUS was diagnosed based on the high serum lactate dehydrogenase, elevated reticulocyte count and presence of schistocytes on peripheral blood smear. Kidney biopsy showed features of thrombotic microangiopathy. Complete hematological remission was achieved after five sessions of therapeutic plasma exchange. Renal function partially recovered and stabilized at discharge. Vivax malaria, generally considered benign, may be rarely associated with HUS.

  7. Delta-He, Ret-He and a New Diagnostic Plot for Differential Diagnosis and Therapy Monitoring of Patients Suffering from Various Disease-Specific Types of Anemia.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Andreas; Cremer, Malte; Hernáiz-Driever, Pablo; Zimmermann, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to prove the usefulness of a new diagnostic plot (Hema-Plot), illustrating the relationship between the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (Ret-He) as a marker of functional iron deficiency and the difference between the reticulocyte and erythrocyte hemoglobin content (Delta-He) as a marker of an impaired hemoglobinization of newly formed reticulocytes occurring during inflammatory processes, to differentiate between various disease-specific types of anemia. A complete blood and reticulocyte count was performed on routine EDTA blood samples from 345 patients with and without various disease-specific types of anemia using the Sysmex XN-9000 hematology analyzer: blood healthy newborns (n = 23), blood healthy adults (n = 31), patients suffering from anemia of chronic disease (ACD) due to diverse oncological, chronic inflammatory, or autoimmune diseases (total n = 138) with (n = 65) and without therapy (n = 73), patients with thalassemia and/or hemoglobinopathy (n = 18), patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) (n = 35), patients with a combination of ACD and IDA (n = 17), as well as patients suffering from sepsis (total n = 83) with (n = 32) and without therapy (n = 51). The results for Ret-He, Delta-He, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were statistically compared (Mann-Whitney U Test) between the particular patient groups and the diagnostic plots were drawn. Delta-Hemoglobin showed a statistically significant difference between blood healthy newborns and blood healthy adults (p ≤ 0.05), while Ret-He and C-reactive protein did not. In addition, of all three biomarkers only Delta-He showed a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the ACD/IDA and IDA cohort. Delta-He, Ret-He, and CRP showed a statistically significant difference between patient cohorts with and without therapy suffering from ACD, ACD/IDA, and sepsis before and after medical therapy (p ≤ 0.05). The Hema-Plot illustrated the dynamic character of Ret-He and

  8. Comparative analysis of eukaryotic cell-free expression systems.

    PubMed

    Hartsough, Emily M; Shah, Pankti; Larsen, Andrew C; Chaput, John C

    2015-09-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) allows researchers to rapidly generate functional proteins independent of cell culture. Although advances in eukaryotic lysates have increased the amount of protein that can be produced, the nuances of different translation systems lead to variability in protein production. To help overcome this problem, we have compared the relative yield and template requirements for three commonly used commercial cell-free translation systems: wheat germ extract (WGE), rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), and HeLa cell lysate (HCL). Our results provide a general guide for researchers interested in using cell-free translation to generate recombinant protein for biomedical applications.

  9. Folding of proteins with WD-repeats: comparison of six members of the WD-repeat superfamily to the G protein beta subunit.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Higuera, I; Fenoglio, J; Li, Y; Lewis, C; Panchenko, M P; Reiner, O; Smith, T F; Neer, E J

    1996-11-05

    The family of WD-repeat proteins comprises over 30 different proteins that share a highly conserved repeating motif [Neer, E. J., Schmidt, C. J., Nambudripad, R., & Smith, T. F. (1994) Nature 371, 297-300]. Members of this family include the signal-transducing G protein beta subunit, as well as other proteins that regulate signal transduction, transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, cytoskeletal organization, and vesicular fusion. The crystal structure of one WD-repeat protein (G beta) has now been solved (Wall et al., 1995; Sondek et al, 1996) and reveals that the seven repeating units form a circular, propeller-like structure with seven blades each made up of four beta strands. It is very likely that all WD-repeat proteins form a similar structure. If so, it will be possible to use information about important surface regions of one family member to predict properties of another. If WD proteins form structures similar to G beta, their hydrodynamic properties should be those of compact, globular proteins, and they should be resistant to cleavage by trypsin. However, the only studied example of a WD-repeat protein, G beta, synthesized in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate, is unable to fold into a native structure without its partner protein G gamma. The non-WD-repeat amino terminal alpha helix of G beta does not inhibit folding because G beta does not fold even when this region is removed. It is not known whether all WD-repeat proteins are unable to fold when synthesized in an in vitro system. We synthesized seven members of the family in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate, determined their Stokes radius, sedimentation coefficient, and frictional ratio, and assayed their stability to trypsin. Our working definition of folding was that the proteins from globular, trypsin-resistant structures because, except for G beta gamma, their functions are not known or cannot be assayed in reticulocyte lysates. We chose proteins that include amino and carboxyl extensions as well as

  10. Studies on the proteins from the seeds of Croton tiglium and of Jatropha curcas. Toxic properties and inhibition of protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Stirpe, F; Pession-Brizzi, A; Lorenzoni, E; Strocchi, P; Montanaro, L; Sperti, S

    1976-01-01

    1. Proteins extracted from the seeds of the Euphorbiaceae croton tiglium and Jatropha curcas were separated into three major peaks (I,II,and III) by Sephadex chromatography. 2. The crude protein from both seeds and peaks I and II from Croton and peak I from Jatropha were toxic to mice, to different extents. 3. The crude protein and peak I and peak II from both seeds, inhibited protein synthesis by a reticulocyte lysate; maximum inhibition was exerted by peak II from both seeds. None of these preparations affected protein synthesis in vitro by Ehrlich ascites cells. PMID:942394

  11. Use of Eukaryotic Native Small Ribosomal Subunits for the Translation of Globin Messenger RNA

    PubMed Central

    Freienstein, Christoph; Blobel, Günter

    1974-01-01

    A highly active in vitro system for the translation of globin mRNA, resulting in more than 10 rounds of translation, is described. The reconstituted system consists of native small ribosomal subunits of rabbit reticulocytes (as a source of initiation factors as well as small ribosomal subunits), large subunits derived from rat liver polysomes by the puromycin-KCl procedure, and a pH 5 fraction obtained from a Krebs ascites cell high speed supernatant. In this system no differences were found between globin messenger ribonucleoprotein and globin mRNA. Images PMID:4530315

  12. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia during adalimumab treatment for plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yukinori; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Sato, Midori; Kodaira, Mutsuki; Kono, Tsunesuke

    2015-01-01

    Adalimumab is commonly used to treat autoimmune diseases with few reported hematological adverse reactions. We herein describe the case of an 85-year-old Japanese man with plaque psoriasis who developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) after 3 years of adalimumab treatment. The patient suddenly developed hematuria and dyspnea on exertion while receiving adalimumab treatment. Laboratory data showed low hemoglobin levels and slightly increased reticulocyte counts, while direct and indirect antiglobulin tests were positive. The patient was diagnosed with AIHA which resolved after replacing the adalimumab treatment with prednisolone therapy. The findings from this case indicate that AIHA may be caused by long-term adalimumab treatment.

  13. Isoniazid-induced Pure Red Cell Aplasia in a Patient with Sarcoidosis: A Patient Summary and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasuyuki; Sawada, Yuri; Koga, Yasuhiko; Sunaga, Noriaki; Tsukagoshi, Yusuke; Hachisu, Yoshimasa; Osaki, Takashi; Sakurai, Reiko; Kaira, Kyoichi; Ono, Akihiro; Sato, Ken; Koiso, Hiromi; Oyama, Tetsunari; Hisada, Takeshi; Yamada, Masanobu

    2017-09-15

    A 41-year-old woman treated with isoniazid (INH) for latent tuberculosis infection and an oral corticosteroid for sarcoidosis developed severe anemia two months after initiating INH. A bone marrow examination showed erythroblastopenia, and a diagnosis of INH-induced pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) was made. Her reticulocyte count and hemoglobin levels improved two weeks after discontinuation of INH. A literature review of INH-induced PRCA shows that it occurs very rarely in the context of autoimmune disorders. This report describes a case of INH-induced PRCA occurring in a patient with sarcoidosis.

  14. Effects of ribosome-inactivating proteins on Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens translation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Girbés, T; Barbieri, L; Ferreras, M; Arias, F J; Rojo, M A; Iglesias, R; Alegre, C; Escarmis, C; Stirpe, F

    1993-01-01

    The effects of 30 type 1 and of 2 (ricin and volkensin) type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) on Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens cell-free translation systems were compared with the effects on a rabbit reticulocyte translation system. The depurinating activity of RIPs on E. coli ribosomes was also evaluated. Only six type 1 RIPs inhibited endogenous mRNA-directed translational activity of E. coli lysates, with submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. Four RIPs had similar activities on poly(U)-directed phenylalanine polymerization by E. coli ribosomes, and three RIPs inhibited poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis by A. tumefaciens ribosomes, with submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. Images PMID:8407849

  15. Altered red blood cell surface area in hereditary xerocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sauberman, N; Fairbanks, G; Lutz, H U; Fortier, N L; Snyder, L M

    1981-08-10

    Hereditary xerocytes appear larger than normal red cells in scanning electron micrographs and exhibit a higher ghost packing volume. The major chemical components--protein, phosphorus, cholesterol and sialic acid--are increased uniformly, as are all polypeptides visible on gel electrophoresis patterns of xerocyte membranes. These data are consistent with a xerocyte surface area 15 to 25% above normal. Certain clinical anomalies common to this disorder, including unexpectedly low reticulocyte count and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level, are discussed in the light of the present findings.

  16. Evaluation of Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Sodium 2,2 Dimethylbutyrate, a Novel Short Chain Fatty Acid Derivative, in a Phase 1, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single- and Repeat-Dose Studies in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Susan P.; Wargin, William A.; Boosalis, Michael S.; Wallis, Wayne J.; Case, Sally; Keefer, Jeffrey R.; Faller, Douglas V.; Welch, William C.; Berenson, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacologic induction of fetal globin synthesis is an accepted therapeutic strategy for treatment of the beta hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias, as even small increases in hemoglobin F (HbF) levels reduce clinical severity in sickle cell disease and reduce anemia in beta thalassemia. Prior generation short chain fatty acid therapeutics, arginine butyrate and phenylbutyrate, increased fetal and total hemoglobin levels in patients, but were limited by high doses or intravenous infusion. A fetal globin-inducing therapeutic with convenient oral dosing would be an advance for these classic molecular diseases. Healthy adult human subjects were treated with a novel SCFA derivative, sodium 2,2 dimethylbutyrate (SDMB), or placebo, with one of four single dose levels (2, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) or daily doses (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg) over 14 days, and monitored for adverse clinical and laboratory events, drug levels, reticulocytes, and HbF assays. SDMB was well-tolerated with no clinically significant adverse events related to study medication. The terminal half-life ranged from 9–15 hours. Increases in mean absolute reticulocytes were observed at all dose levels in the 14-day study. The favorable PK profiles and safety findings indicate that SDMB warrants further investigation for treatment of anemic subjects with beta hemoglobinopathies. PMID:21422239

  17. Influence of repeated subcutaneous G-CSF injections on selected blood parameters relevant for monitoring programmes in sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Walpurgis, Katja; Slijepcevic, Mirjana; Wenzel, Folker; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Franz, Stefan; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-10-01

    The use of growth factors in sports is restricted under the terms of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC). While the beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on erythropoiesis and therefore its performance-enhancing properties have been well documented and established for decades, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relevance of the cytokine G-CSF in a doping control context, particularly concerning its influence on selected blood parameters representing central aspects of the Athlete Biological Passport. For that purpose, the effect of repeated subcutaneous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) injections in therapeutic dosages (10 µg/kg/d) on white blood cells, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and percent reticulocytes was analyzed by using commonly employed fluorescence flow cytometry-based approaches. A total of 20 people were tested (14 male, 6 female) and both white blood cell count and reticulocyte percentages were found to significantly increase following a 5-day treatment with G-CSF. Simultaneously, all other volume-dependent parameters (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) slightly but significantly decreased. Due to the relevance of these measurands for the validity of blood tests for doping controls and the anecdotal evidence of G-CSF being potentially misused by elite athletes, G-CSF analyses might be indicated in case of unusually altered blood profiles. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. RNase activity in erythroid cell lysates

    PubMed Central

    Burka, Edward R.

    1969-01-01

    The characteristics of degradation of reticulocyte ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ribosomes were studied in a whole erythroid cell lysate system. The process followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and indicated that RNA degradation in the erythroid cell is mediated by an enzyme previously isolated from reticulocyte hemolysates. Erythroid cell RNase activity had a temperature optimum of 50°C, a pH optimum of 7.0, was not energy dependent, was heat labile at physiologic pH, and was inhibited by Mg++, Ca++, and exposure to bentonite and deoxycholate. Free sulfhydryl groups were not essential for RNase activity. Of the substrates occurring naturally within the erythroid cell, isolated ribosomal RNA was most susceptible to the action of the enzyme, intact ribosomes least susceptible, and transfer RNA intermediate between them. Natural substrates were degraded completely to nucleotides in cell lysates. Competitive inhibition studies indicate that one enzyme system is capable of degrading both RNA and ribosomes, although the existence of more than one enzyme has not been excluded. Erythroid cell lysates quickly broke down polyribosomes into single ribosomes. The more rapid degradation of ribosomes, as compared with transfer RNA, which occurs in vivo, as opposed to findings in vitro, suggests that there is a special intracellular mechanism responsible for ribosome degradation in the maturing erythroid cell. Images PMID:5822581

  19. New parameters and reference values for monitoring iron status in Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Voss, S C; Varamenti, E; Elzain Elgingo, M; Bourdon, P C

    2014-04-01

    Hematological and biochemical parameters of 160 Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes (aged from 12-18 years) were tested in order to investigate their iron status and to establish reference values for this population. A focus of this study was also the investigation of Reticulocyte hemoglobin (RetHe) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Complete blood count, reticulocyte and sera parameters were analyzed at the beginning of the training season for these adolescent athletes. As the diagnosis of iron deficiency in adolescents is extremely difficult subjects were subdivided in three age groups (12-13, 14-15, 16-18). For most of the parameters our results confirmed the existing reference values reported in young athletes. Exceptions were however found with lower Mean Cell Volumes (79.9±4.3 fl) in this group when compared to other age matched data. RetHe, ferritin and sTfR levels were monitored for the interpretation of the iron status in this population and reference values for these parameters were also established. Information to help evidence based decision making about the need for supplementation or further investigations is provided to physicians and nutritionists. RetHe with a proposed threshold value of 25 pg expands the list of parameters which can be used to monitor athletes.

  20. Biomarkers of Hypochromia: The Contemporary Assessment of Iron Status and Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Urrechaga, Eloísa; Borque, Luís; Escanero, Jesús F.

    2013-01-01

    Iron status is the result of the balance between the rate of erythropoiesis and the amount of the iron stores. Direct consequence of an imbalance between the erythroid marrow iron requirements and the actual supply is a reduction of red cell hemoglobin content, which causes hypochromic mature red cells and reticulocytes. The diagnosis of iron deficiency is particularly challenging in patients with acute or chronic inflammatory conditions because most of the biochemical markers for iron metabolism (serum ferritin and transferrin ) are affected by acute phase reaction. For these reasons, interest has been generated in the use of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters, available on the modern hematology analyzers. Reported during blood analysis routinely performed on the instrument, these parameters can assist in early detection of clinical conditions (iron deficiency, absolute, or functional; ineffective erythropoiesis, including iron restricted or thalassemia), without additional cost. Technological progress has meant that in recent years modern analyzers report new parameters that provide further information from the traditional count. Nevertheless these new parameters are exclusive of each manufacturer, and they are patented. This is an update of these new laboratory test biomarkers of hypochromia reported by different manufactures, their meaning, and clinical utility on daily practice. PMID:23555091

  1. Fetal hemoglobin silencing in humans

    PubMed Central

    Oneal, Patricia A.; Gantt, Nicole M.; Schwartz, Joseph D.; Bhanu, Natarajan V.; Lee, Y. Terry; Moroney, John W.; Reed, Christopher H.; Schechter, Alan N.; Luban, Naomi L. C.; Miller, Jeffery L.

    2006-01-01

    Interruption of the normal fetal-to-adult transition of hemoglobin expression should largely ameliorate sickle cell and beta-thalassemia syndromes. Achievement of this clinical goal requires a robust understanding of gamma-globin gene and protein silencing during human development. For this purpose, age-related changes in globin phenotypes of circulating human erythroid cells were examined from 5 umbilical cords, 99 infants, and 5 adult donors. Unexpectedly, an average of 95% of the cord blood erythrocytes and reticulocytes expressed HbA and the adult beta-globin gene, as well as HbF and the gamma-globin genes. The distribution of hemoglobin and globin gene expression then changed abruptly due to the expansion of cells lacking HbF or gamma-globin mRNA (silenced cells). In adult reticulocytes, less than 5% expressed gamma-globin mRNA. These data are consistent with a “switching” model in humans that initially results largely from gamma- and beta-globin gene coexpression and competition during fetal development. In contrast, early postnatal life is marked by the rapid accumulation of cells that possess undetectable gamma-globin mRNA and HbF. The silencing phenomenon is mediated by a mechanism of cellular replacement. This novel silencing pattern may be important for the development of HbF-enhancing therapies. PMID:16735596

  2. Vitamin E levels during early iron supplementation in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Shmuel; Regev, Rivka H; Bauer, Sofia; Shainkin-Kestenbaum, Ruth; Shiff, Yakov; Bental, Yoram; Dolfin, Tzipora; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2009-05-01

    On the basis of preliminary data, this larger bi-institutional continuation trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of early iron supplementation in preterm infants calls attention to the levels of vitamin E, a marker of antioxidant activity, during iron treatment. A total of 116 preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive at 2 or 4 weeks of age ( N = 62, N = 54, respectively) 5 mg/kg/d of nonionic iron polymaltose complex concomitantly with a daily dose of 25 IU vitamin E (as dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate) from 2 weeks of age. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) levels, iron, ferritin, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte count were recorded from 2 to 8 weeks of age. The morbidities of prematurity associated with free radicals formation were also documented. A gradual increase of alpha-tocopherol levels within physiological range (0.8 to 3.5 mg/dL) was found in the 2-week and 4-week groups during the study period with no difference among the groups ( P > 0.05 for all comparisons). At 8 weeks of age, iron and ferritin levels, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte count were higher in the 2-week group. No correlation was observed between timing of both iron and vitamin E supplement and hemolysis or morbidities associated with prematurity. Thus, treatment of iron with vitamin E supplement at 2 weeks of age is, in our experience, an efficacious and safe treatment for improving anemia in preterm infants.

  3. Blood volume changes. [weightlessness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.; Driscoll, T. B.; Leblance, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of radionuclide volume determinations made for the crewmembers of selected Gemini and Apollo missions showed that orbital spaceflight has an effect on red cell mass. Because the methods and the protocol developed for earlier flights were used for the crews of the three Skylab missions, direct comparisons are possible. After each Skylab mission, decreases were found in crewmembers' red cell masses. The mean red cell mass decrease of 11 percent or 232 milliliters was approximately equal to the 10 percent mean red cell mass decrease of the Apollo 14 to 17 crewmembers. The red cell mass drop was greatest and the postrecovery reticulocyte response least for crewmembers of the 28-day Skylab 2 mission. Analyses of data from the red cell mass determinations indicate that the red cell mass drops occurred in the first 30 days of flight and that a gradual recovery of the red cell mass deficits began approximately 60 days after launch. The beginning of red cell mass regeneration during the Skylab 4 flight may explain the higher postmission reticulocyte counts.

  4. Neocytolysis on descent from altitude: a newly recognized mechanism for the control of red cell mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, L.; Ruiz, W.; Driscoll, T.; Whitley, C. E.; Tapia, R.; Hachey, D. L.; Gonzales, G. F.; Alfrey, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of space-flight anemia have uncovered a physiologic process, neocytolysis, by which young red blood cells are selectively hemolyzed, allowing rapid adaptation when red cell mass is excessive for a new environment. OBJECTIVES: 1) To confirm that neocytolysis occurs in another situation of acute plethora-when high-altitude dwellers with polycythemia descend to sea level; and 2) to clarify the role of erythropoietin suppression. DESIGN: Prospective observational and interventional study. SETTING: Cerro de Pasco (4380 m) and Lima (sea level), Peru. PARTICIPANTS: Nine volunteers with polycythemia. INTERVENTIONS: Volunteers were transported to sea level; three received low-dose erythropoietin. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in red cell mass, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, reticulocyte count, ferritin level, serum erythropoietin, and enrichment of administered(13)C in heme. RESULTS: In six participants, red cell mass decreased by 7% to 10% within a few days of descent; this decrease was mirrored by a rapid increase in serum ferritin level. Reticulocyte production did not decrease, a finding that establishes a hemolytic mechanism.(13)C changes in circulating heme were consistent with hemolysis of young cells. Erythropoietin was suppressed, and administration of exogenous erythropoietin prevented the changes in red cell mass, serum ferritin level, and(13)C-heme. CONCLUSIONS: Neocytolysis and the role of erythropoietin are confirmed in persons with polycythemia who descend from high altitude. This may have implications that extend beyond space and altitude medicine to renal disease and other situations of erythropoietin suppression, hemolysis, and polycythemia.

  5. Evaluations of the mutagenicity of a pigment extract from bulb culture of Hippeastrum reticulatum.

    PubMed

    Nitteranon, Viriya; Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Vuttipongchaikij, Supachai; Sakulkoo, Jenjira; Srijakkoat, Monthira; Chokratin, Pakawieng; Harinasut, Poontariga; Suputtitada, Saowanee; Apisitwanich, Somsak

    2014-07-01

    The use of anthocyanins in food products as colorants has been limited because of their instability toward alkaline pH and high temperature. This study aimed to determine color stability and mutagenicity of the anthocyanin-based pigment extract from bulb cultures of Hippeastrum (Hippeastrum reticulatum). The pigment extract retained its reddish-orange color under alkaline conditions (⩽pH 11) and was stable up to 6 h at 95 °C. The mutagenicity of the extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Hippeastrum pigment extract up to 1.25 mg plate(-1) was found non-mutagenic in Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100. Chromosome aberrations were observed when human lymphocytes were treated with the extract up to 1.5 mg ml(-1). However, the extract up to 1.4 mg ml(-1) was found to exhibit relatively low or no mutagenicity in in vitro comet assays with human lymphocytes. In in vivo micronucleated reticulocyte assay, mice were treated orally with the extract up to 1 g kg(-1). No significant increase of the percentage of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes compared to the negative control groups was found. Taken together, our study indicates that Hippeastrum pigment extract is potentially applicable as an additive colorant in the diet and related products.

  6. Biosynthesis of heme in immature erythroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, L.C.; Cox, T.M.

    1988-05-15

    Heme formation in reticulocytes from rabbits and rodents is subject to end produce negative feedback regulation: intracellular free heme has been shown to control acquisition of transferrin iron for heme synthesis. To identify the site of control of heme biosynthesis in the human erythron, immature erythroid cells were obtained from peripheral blood and aspirated bone marrow. After incubation with human /sup 59/Fe transferrin, 2-(/sup 14/C)glycine, or 4-(/sup 14/C)delta-aminolevulinate, isotopic incorporation into extracted heme was determined. Addition of cycloheximide to increase endogenous free heme, reduced incorporation of labeled glycine and iron but not delta-aminolevulinate into cell heme. Incorporation of glycine and iron was also sensitive to inhibition by exogenous hematin. Hematin treatment rapidly diminished incorporation of intracellular /sup 59/Fe into heme by human erythroid cells but assimilation of 4-(/sup 14/C)delta-aminolevulinate into heme was insensitive to inhibition by hematin. In human erythroid cells (but not rabbit reticulocytes) pre-incubation with unlabeled delta-aminolevulinate or protoporphyrin IX greatly stimulated utilization of cell /sup 59/Fe for heme synthesis and also attenuated end product inhibition. In human erythroid cells heme biosynthesis is thus primarily regulated by feedback inhibition at one or more steps which lead to delta-aminolevulinate formation. Hence in man the regulatory process affects generation of the first committed precursor of porphyrin biosynthesis by delta-aminolevulinate synthetase, whereas in the rabbit separate regulatory mechanisms exist which control the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin IX.

  7. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  8. Immunogenicity of a synthetic vaccine based on Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein region II.

    PubMed

    Ntumngia, Francis B; Barnes, Samantha J; McHenry, Amy M; George, Miriam T; Schloegel, Jesse; Adams, John H

    2014-09-01

    Molecules that play a role in Plasmodium merozoite invasion of host red blood cells represent attractive targets for blood-stage vaccine development against malaria. In Plasmodium vivax, merozoite invasion of reticulocytes is mediated by the Duffy binding protein (DBP), which interacts with its cognate receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines, on the surface of reticulocytes. The DBP ligand domain, known as region II (DBPII), contains the critical residues for receptor recognition, making it a prime target for vaccine development against blood-stage vivax malaria. In natural infections, DBP is weakly immunogenic and DBPII allelic variation is associated with strain-specific immunity, which may compromise vaccine efficacy. In a previous study, a synthetic vaccine termed DEKnull that lacked an immunodominant variant epitope in DBPII induced functional antibodies to shared neutralizing epitopes on the native Sal1 allele. Anti-DEKnull antibody titers were lower than anti-Sal1 titers but produced more consistent, strain-transcending anti-DBPII inhibitory responses. In this study, we further characterized the immunogenicity of DEKnull, finding that immunization with recombinant DEKnull produced an immune response comparable to that obtained with native recombinant DBP alleles. Further investigation of DEKnull is necessary to enhance its immunogenicity and broaden its specificity. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Familial-skewed X-chromosome inactivation as a predisposing factor for late-onset X-linked sideroblastic anemia in carrier females.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, M; May, A; Bergamaschi, G; Cerani, P; Rosti, V; Bishop, D F

    2000-12-15

    X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) is caused by mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS2) gene. An elderly woman who presented with an acquired sideroblastic anemia is studied. Molecular analysis revealed that she was heterozygous for a missense mutation in the ALAS2 gene, but she expressed only the mutated gene in reticulocytes. Her 2 daughters and a granddaughter were heterozygous for this mutation, had normal hemoglobin levels, and expressed the normal ALAS2 gene in reticulocytes. A grandson with a previous diagnosis of thalassemia intermedia was found to be hemizygous for the ALAS2 mutation. Treatment with pyridoxine completely corrected the anemia both in the proband and her grandson. All women who were analyzed in this family showed skewed X-chromosome inactivation in leukocytes, which indicated a hereditary condition associated with unbalanced lyonization. Because the preferentially active X chromosome carried the mutant ALAS2 allele, acquired skewing in the elderly likely worsened the genetic condition and abolished the normal ALAS2 allele expression in the proband. (Blood. 2000;96:4363-4365)

  10. Hematological responses to arsine exposure: quantitation of exposure response in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.P.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Hematological responses of the of mice to arsine exposures for 1 hr at 5 to 26 part per million volume (ppmv) are described. Exposure concentrations ranged from a no-effect level for the endpoints studied (5 ppmv) to a concentration lethal to all mice in 4 days (26 ppmv). Hematocrit values at 24 hr after exposure decreased linearly with increasing arsine concentration in the range 5 to 26 ppmv; the hematocrits of the 26-ppmv group reached 10.5% at 24 hr, compared to 48.4% for control mice. Hematocritis of mice from all surviving groups were at or slightly above control values by 11 days after exposure. Changes in numbers of erythrocytes paralleled changes in hematocrit. Significant increases in circulating reticulocytes occurred at 1 and 5 days after exposure ; reticulocyte values returned to control levels by 11 days after exposure. Changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility were observed in mice exposed to 15 and 26 ppmv arsine. 22 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Safety and mutagenicity evaluation of red mold dioscorea fermented from Monascus purpureus NTU 568.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Chuan; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Hong, Chih-Chun; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Monascus-fermented products, including red mold rice and red mold dioscorea, have been developed as functional foods with many health benefits. We performed safety and mutagenic evaluations on red mold dioscorea powder (RMDP) fermented from Monascus purpureus NTU 568. The results of Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 showed that RMDP (⩽5 mg/plate) was not mutagenic. The mammalian chromosomal aberration test showed that the number of Chinese hamster ovary cells with abnormal chromosomes was <3% after RMDP treatment (maximum concentration: 5 mg/mL). Imprinting control region mice were used to estimate the genotoxicity of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) did not show significant differences in the number of reticulocytes or the occurrence of micronucleated reticulocytes. A 28-day oral toxicity assay in Sprague-Dawley rats was performed to investigate the no observed adverse effect level of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) caused no toxicological responses such as mortality, variation in body weight, or toxicopathologic lesions. Thus, RMDP from M. purpureus NTU 568 shows no significant mutagenic or toxic effects.

  12. Novel red cell indices indicating reduced availability of iron are associated with high erythropoietin concentration and low ph level in the venous cord blood of newborns.

    PubMed

    Ervasti, Mari; Sankilampi, Ulla; Heinonen, Seppo; Punnonen, Kari

    2008-08-01

    There is evidence that an elevated erythropoietin (EPO) concentration is associated with signs of iron deficient erythropoiesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iron status by means of novel cellular indices and serum iron markers and to determine whether these are associated with EPO and pH in the venous cord blood of 193 full-term newborns. There were positive correlations between EPO and the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells (%HYPOm) and reticulocytes (%HYPOr) [r = 0.45 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.56 (p < 0.001), respectively]. %HYPOm and %HYPOr also had negative correlations with pH [r = -0.53 (p = 0.001) and r = -0.46 (p = 0.001), respectively]. Newborns who had low pH (pH < or =7.15, n = 16) had significantly higher %HYPOm, %HYPOr, and serum transferrin receptor and transferrin concentrations in their cord blood than newborns with normal pH. Thus, in newborn cord blood, the higher number of red cells and reticulocytes with lower Hb content may have impaired the oxygen carrying capacity that has been a trigger for EPO production. Furthermore, signs of lower hemoglobinization of red cells are associated with low umbilical vein pH in the newborns, indicating an increased risk of birth asphyxia.

  13. Hematological Profile and Martial Status in Rugby Players during Whole Body Cryostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (−110°C to −140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers. PMID:23383348

  14. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Lis R V; Leoratti, Fabiana M S; Costa, Pedro A C; Rocha, Bruno C; Diniz, Suelen Q; Tada, Mauro S; Pereira, Dhelio B; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Golenbock, Douglas T; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2014-09-01

    Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+)CD16- (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16(+) (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+) cells, in particular the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+) were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+)CD16(+) cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection.

  15. Coefficient of variation of R-R intervals in electrocardiogram is a sensitive marker of anemia induced by autonomic neuropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takatoshi; Tojo, Katsuyoshi; Nishimura, Rimei; Kageyama, Shigeru; Tajima, Naoko

    2007-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between hemoglobin (Hb) levels and autonomic failure using a sensitive marker, coefficient of variation of R-R intervals in electrocardiogram (CVR-R) in order to clarify a cause of normocytic normochromic anemia in type 1 diabetic patients without overt nephropathy. We recruited 46 patients with type 1 diabetes and measured creatinine clearance (Ccr), HbA1c, albuminuria, Hb levels and CVR-R of all patients. In addition, the status of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy were also evaluated. Serum erythropoietin (EPO), Fe, total iron binding capacity, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin levels and number of reticulocytes and mean corpuscular volume were also measured to distinguish types of anemia. To survey the statistical correlation existing between Hb and body mass index (BMI), Ccr, HbA1c, albuminuria or retinopathy, multiple regression analysis was performed. Serum EPO, Fe, TIBC, LDH and TB levels and number of reticulocytes and MCV were within normal limits. Multiple regression analysis disclosed that HbA1c, nephropathy evaluated by albuminuria and Ccr, and retinopathy has no concern with Hb level. There is only significant relationship between Hb levels and CVR-R. Similar results were obtained even if we analyzed a group of male and female separately. We conclude that CVR-R has the strong relationship on anemia without overt nephropathy in type 1 diabetes, indicating that autonomic failure contributes on the progression of anemia via a poor response of EPO to anemia.

  16. The External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS): Experiences of a medium sized accredited laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Vivek; Chavan, Preeti; Naresh, Chital; Poladia, Pratik

    2015-06-15

    We put forth our experiences of EQAS, analyzed the result discrepancies, reviewed the corrective actions and also put forth strategies for risk identification and prevention of potential errors in a medical laboratory. For hematology, EQAS samples - blood, peripheral and reticulocyte smears - were received quarterly every year. All the blood samples were processed on HMX hematology analyzer by Beckman-Coulter. For clinical chemistry, lyophilized samples were received and were processed on Siemens Dimension Xpand and RXL analyzers. For microbiology, EQAS samples were received quarterly every year as lyophilized strains along with smears and serological samples. In hematology no outliers were noted for reticulocyte and peripheral smear examination. Only one outlier was noted for CBC. In clinical chemistry outliers (SDI ≥ 2) were noted in 7 samples (23 parameters) out of total 36 samples (756 parameters) processed. Thirteen of these parameters were analyzed as random errors, 3 as transcriptional errors and seven instances of systemic error were noted. In microbiology, one discrepancy was noted in isolate identification and in the grading of smears for AFB by Ziehl Neelsen stain. EQAS along with IQC is a very important tool for maintaining optimal quality of services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance evaluation of the Abbott CELL-DYN Ruby and the Sysmex XT-2000i haematology analysers.

    PubMed

    Leers, M P G; Goertz, H; Feller, A; Hoffmann, J J M L

    2011-02-01

    Two mid-range haematology analysers (Abbott CELL-DYN Ruby and Sysmex XT-2000i) were evaluated to determine their analytical performance and workflow efficiency in the haematology laboratory. In total 418 samples were processed for determining equivalence of complete blood count (CBC) measurements, and 100 for reticulocyte comparison. Blood smears served for assessing the agreement of the differential counts. Inter-instrument agreement for most parameters was good although small numbers of discrepancies were observed. Systematic biases were found for mean cell volume, reticulocytes, platelets and mean platelet volume. CELL-DYN Ruby WBC differentials were obtained with all samples while the XT-2000i suppressed differentials partially or completely in 13 samples (3.1%). WBC subpopulation counts were otherwise in good agreement with no major outliers. Following first-pass CBC/differential analysis, 88 (21%) of XT-2000i samples required further analyser processing compared to 18 (4.3%) for the CELL-DYN Ruby. Smear referrals for suspected WBC/nucleated red blood cells and platelet abnormalities were indicated for 106 (25.4%) and 95 (22.7%) of the XT-2000i and CELL-DYN Ruby samples respectively. Flagging efficiencies for both analysers were found to be similar. The Sysmex XT-2000i and Abbott CELL-DYN Ruby analysers have broadly comparable analytical performance, but the CELL-DYN Ruby showed superior first-pass efficiency. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Hepcidin/Ferritin Quotient Helps to Predict Spontaneous Recovery from Iron Loss following Blood Donation.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ramin; Kroll, Christine; Plonné, Dietmar; Jahrsdörfer, Bernd; Schrezenmeier, Hubert

    2015-11-01

    Iron supplementation is generally recommended for blood donors even though there are inter-individual differences in iron homeostasis. Ferritin levels of repeat donors were compared with first-time donors, retrospectively. Prospectively, we tested 27 male repeat donors for the following parameters at the day of blood donation as well as 1, 3, 7, 10, and 56 days thereafter: ferritin, hepcidin, transferrin, transferrin receptor, hemoglobin, erythropoietin, reticulocytes, hemoglobin in reticulocyte, twisted gastrulation protein homolog 1, and growth differentiation factor-15. 56 days after blood donation, donors' average ferritin dropped to 55% (range 30-100%) compared to the initial value. Of all tested parameters hepcidin showed the highest and most significant changes beginning 1 day after donation and lasting for the whole period of 56 days. Along with ferritin, there was a high variation in hepcidin levels indicating inter-individual differences in hepcidin response to iron loss. Donors with a hepcidin/ferritin quotient < 0.3 regained 60% of their initial ferritin after 56 days, while those with a quotient ≥ 0.3 reached less than 50%. As hepcidin appears to integrate erythropoietic and iron-loading signals, clinical measurement of hepcidin (together with the hepcidin-ferritin ratio) may become a useful indicator of erythropoiesis and iron kinetics.

  19. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E in the treatment of nutritional iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Şimşek Orhon, Filiz; Öztürk, Gülyüz; Erbaş, Deniz; Hasanoğlu, Alev

    2006-03-05

    Oxidant status and antioxidants play important roles in anemias. The present study was conducted to investigate the oxidant-antioxidant status in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E in IDA treatment. Ten patients with IDA aged nine months were given only iron treatment, whereas another 10 patients were administered both iron and vitamin E. The complete blood count, plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA) level, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase level, and the serum vitamin E level, both before and within the treatment phases were examined. The reticulocyte count at the first week of treatment was found lower in the vitamin E-treated group. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was found higher in the vitamin E-treated group at the end of therapy. The malonyldialdehyde levels of the group treated with vitamin E were found lower during treatment. These results suggest that iron administration in IDA treatment may stimulate lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E supplied with iron may reduce the MDA production. The hematological indications of the findings of our study are that the reticulocyte response develops earlier and the microcytosis recovery occurs more rapidly in the vitamin E-administered group in comparison with the group treated with iron only.

  20. Time-course changes of hematology and clinical chemistry values in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, Tatsuya; Honda, Katsuya; Kokubun, Chisato; Nishimura, Tomonari; Hasegawa, Mina; Nishida, Atsuyuki; Inui, Toshihide; Kitamura, Kazuyuki

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report how pregnancy alters hematology and clinical chemistry values in rats. Female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were mated; the day of copulation was designated as Day 0. Hematology and clinical chemistry measurements were conducted on Days 7, 14, 17 and 21 in pregnant rats. Measurements were also conducted in non-pregnant rats. Red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), total protein and albumin decreased on Days 7, 14, 17 and 21; sodium, chloride and glucose decreased on Days 14, 17 and 21; iron decreased on Days 17 and 21; hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (CHr), calcium, inorganic phosphorus and the albumin/globulin ratio decreased on Day 21; and total cholesterol, phospholipid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased on Day 14 in pregnant rats compared with non-pregnant rats. Reticulocyte increased on Days 7, 14 and 17; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophil count and rate increased on Days 14, 17 and 21; platelets, fibrinogen, triglyceride and free fatty acid increased on Days 17 and 21; and activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged on Days 17 and 21 in pregnant rats compared with non-pregnant rats. The decreased RBC, Hb, Ht, CHr and iron in pregnant rats indicated that they suffered from iron deficiency anemia. These data can be used as background information for effective evaluation in reproductive toxicology studies.

  1. [Curative Effects of Hydroxyurea on the Patients with β-thalassaemia Intermadia].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Yao, Hong-Xia

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the clinical features of β-thalassaemia intermediate (TI) patients and the curative effect and side reactions of hydroxyurea therapys. Twenty nine patients with TI were divided into hydroxyurea therapy group and no hydroxyurea therapy group; the curative effect and side reactions in 2 groups were compared; the situation of blood transfusion in the 2 groups was evaluated. In hydroxyurea therapy group, the hemoglobin level increased after treatment for 3 months; the reticulocyte percentage obviously decreased after treatment for 12 months; the serum ferritin had been maintained at a low level; while in no hydroxyurea therapy group, the levels of hemoglobin and reticulocytes were not significantly improved after treatment, the serum ferritin level gradually increased. In hydroxyurea therapy group, 12 cases were out of blood transfusion after treatment for 12 months, effective rate of treatment was 85.71%; while in no hydroxyurea therapy group, the blood transfusion dependency was not improved after treatment. No serious side reactions were found in all the hydroxyurea treated patients. The hydroxyurea shows a better curative effect on TI patients, no serious side reactions occur in all the patients treated with hydroxyurea, but the long-term curative effect and side reactions should be observed continuously.

  2. Etiopathological mechanisms and clinical characteristics of hyperhemolysis syndrome in Spanish patients with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Vagace, Jose Manuel; Cardesa, Rocío; Corbacho, Antonio; Vázquez, Teresa; de la Maya, Maria Dolores; Gonzalez, Fernando Ataulfo; Nieto, José Bartolomé; Urrutia, Emilia; Gómez, María Jesus; Pascual, Teresa; Aguinaco, Maria Reyes; Gervasini, Guillermo

    2016-09-01

    Hyperhemolysis syndrome (HHS) is characterized by severe intravascular hemolysis with a decrease in the reticulocyte count, which is triggered and aggravated by transfusion and cannot be explained by standard immunohematological studies. A nationwide study was conducted in order to retrospectively identify thalassemia patients with HHS in Spain in order to assess pre-disposing mechanisms for this syndrome. For this, the expression of adhesion (CD49, CD36) and complement-related molecules (C3a, CD59) and the levels of reticulocyte apoptosis and macrophage activation were measured in 4 thalassemia patients with HHS, 14 patients without HHS, and 10 healthy subjects. Five of the six thalassemia patients had δβ-thalassemia. The patients were not alloimmunized prior to the syndrome, which was developed after the first transfusion in all but one case. Patients with δβ-thalassemia did not respond to corticoids or immunoglobulins; only splenectomy was successful. The expression of CD49 (α4β1 integrin) was far higher in patients who had experienced HHS (85.07 ± 18.46 vs. 46.28 ± 24.31; p < 0.01), and the difference remained significant after correcting by the number of molecules analyzed (Bonferroni p < 0.05). In our population, δβ-thalassemia was the most common hemoglobinopathy in patients with HHS. Furthermore, the risk to develop this syndrome may be associated with an increased expression of α4β1 integrin.

  3. Stress and body condition in a population of largemouth bass: implications for red-sore disease

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1980-09-01

    The body conditions, K = 10/sup 5/(weight, g)/(standard length)/sup 3/, and various hematological characters were examined for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) taken from Par Pond, a reservoir heated by effluent from a nuclear production reactor at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Largemouth bass with K less than 2.0 had significantly lower (P < 0.05) hematocrits, hemoglobin concentrations, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte fractions, and significantly higher granulocyte fractions and cortisol concentrations, than those with K greater than 2.0; monocyte, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte fractions were not different between the two K-factor groupings. When data were pooled, all blood variables except the reticulocyte fraction were significantly correlated with K. Hematocrit, the lymphocyte fraction, and cortisol concentration account for 20.5% of the variation in K. These data support a previous hypothesis that elevated water temperature promotes stress. Stress within the Par Pond largemouth bass population may play an important role in the epizootiology of red-sore disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila.

  4. Hematological response to short-term oral cyanocobalamin therapy for the treatment of cobalamin deficiencies in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Andrès, E; Kaltenbach, G; Noblet-Dick, M; Noel, E; Vinzio, S; Perrin, A E; Berthel, M; Blicklé, J F

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to demonstrate the efficacy of one month of oral cobalamin (vitamin B12) therapy in elderly patients with cobalamin deficiency related to food-cobalamin malabsorption (FCM). Twenty elderly patients (mean age: 78+/-17 years) with established cobalamin deficiency related to FCM were included in an open-label, non-randomized, non-placebo trial. They were treated with a maximum of 1,000 microgram per day of oral crystalline cyanocobalamin for at least 1 month. Serum cobalamin levels (primary endpoint), blood count abnormalities and reticulocytes count (secondary endpoints) were determined at baseline and during the first month of treatment. 85% of the patients normalized their serum cobalamin levels with a mean increase of+167 pg/ml (p<0.001 compared with baseline). 100% of the patients corrected their initial macrocytosis and 25% their anemia; 100% of the patients had medullar regeneration with a mean increase of reticulocytes count of 32+/-11.3 x 106/l (p=0.03 compared with baseline). Our findings support the view that one month of oral crystalline cyanocobalamin is effective to correct serum vitamin B12 levels and to obtain hematological responses in elderly patients with cobalamin deficiency related to FCM.

  5. Use of Sysmex XE-2100 and XE-5000 hematology analyzers for the diagnosis of malaria in a nonendemic country (France).

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, P; Pihet, M; Cau, S; Croquefer, S; Deguigne, P A; Godon, A; Genevieve, F; De Gentile, L; Zandecki, M

    2014-04-01

    Most studies dealing with automated hematology analyzers (HAs) and malaria diagnosis are conducted in endemic countries. We retrospectively studied cell blood counts (CBCs) performed with Sysmex XE-2100 and XE-5000 HAs in our center (Angers, France) regarding 67 patients returning from endemic areas and infected with various Plasmodium species. In 83% of infected samples with Plasmodium vivax (Pv), ovale (Po), or malariae (Pm), extra clouds of dots were present in neutrophil and/or eosinophil area(s) on routine differential (DIFF) scattergrams. In contrast, samples infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) failed to show such DIFF scattergrams, or any other suggesting malaria infection (0/ 49 pts). Abnormal areas from DIFF scattergrams were related to the presence of mature schizonts and gametocytes, undestroyed by lysis agent, the latter not observed in Pf-infected patients from our series. The internal parameter WBC[DIFF] - WBC[BASO] raised in parallel to parasitemia in Pv, Po, and Pm samples but could not be used as a surrogate for parasitemia. In Pf infection, reticulocyte/ immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) ratio showed a significant correlation with parasitemia (P < 0.05). A diagnostic model developed for Pf in endemic countries showed sensitivity of 77%. Using SYSMEX analyzers, Pv, Po, and Pm infections are easy to ascertain as DIFF scattergrams are almost specific (specificity = 99.9%). Pf infection diagnosis by CBC may be a more promising tool. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in a Patient with Pernicious Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Shambhu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has been associated with different autoimmune disorders. However, its association with pernicious anemia is rarely reported. Case Report. A 46-year-old male presented with blood in sputum and urine for one day. The vitals were stable. The physical examination was significant for icterus. Lab tests' results revealed leukocytosis, macrocytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. He had an elevated LDH, low haptoglobin levels with many schistocytes, nucleated RBCs, and reticulocytes on peripheral smear. Low ADAMTS13 activity (<10%) with elevated ADAMTS13 antibody clinched the diagnosis of severe acquired TTP, and plasmapheresis was started. There was an initial improvement in his hematological markers, which were however not sustained on discontinuation of plasmapheresis. For his refractory TTP, he was resumed on daily plasmapheresis and Rituximab was started. Furthermore, the initial serum Vitamin B12 and reticulocyte index were low in the presence of anti-intrinsic factor antibody. So with the concomitant diagnosis of pernicious anemia, Vitamin B12 was supplemented. The rest of the immunological workups were negative. Subsequently, his symptoms resolved and his hematological parameters improved. Discussion. While pernicious anemia can masquerade as TTP, an actual association between the two can also occur and needs further evaluation and characterization. PMID:28473932

  7. Changes in hematological profiles during winter field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Reed, L.; D'Alesandro, M. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors have previously shown that there are changes in hematological profiles during experimental cold acclimation. They now report on hematological changes in 9 military volunteers during a 12 week winter field operation and show results similar to those observed during experimental cold acclimation. Blood was collected before and after completion of winter field operations and analyzed in a paired fashion. Hematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte counts (RBC) were decreased; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and plasma volume (PV), which was calculated from hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and HCT, were increased. In addition, the reticulocyte count was increased from 1.37 {plus minus} 0.10% to 2.62 {plus minus} 0.24% after completion of field operations. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between HCT and reticulocyte count, indicating the need for an enhanced rate of red cell production. Hemoglobin concentration, leukocyte count, and mean corpuscular volume were unchanged. The RBC population, to remain at steady state during periods of chronic cold exposure, shows alterations in the number of circulating cells, Hb concentration per cell and possibly cell turnover.

  8. High-Sensitivity Detection of PNH Red Blood Cells, Red Cell Precursors, and White Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, D Robert; Illingworth, Andrea; Keeney, Michael; Richards, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Flow cytometry is the method of choice to 'diagnose' paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and has led to improved patient management. Most laboratories have limited experience with PNH testing, and many different flow approaches are used. Careful selection and validation of antibody conjugates has allowed the development of reagent cocktails suitable for detection of PNH RBCs, CD71+ reticulocytes, and WBCs in clinical/sub-clinical PNH samples. A CD235a-FITC/CD59-PE assay was developed capable of detecting Type III PNH RBCs at 0.01% sensitivity. A protocol targeting immature CD71+ RBCs can detect PNH reticulocytes at similar sensitivity. Four-color FLAER-based neutrophil and monocyte assays were developed to detect PNH phenotypes at a level of 0.01% and 0.04% sensitivity, respectively. For instrumentation with five or more PMTs, a single-tube 5-color FLAER/CD157-based assay to simultaneously detect PNH neutrophils and monocytes is described. Using these standardized approaches, results have demonstrated good intra- and inter-laboratory performance characteristics even in laboratories with little prior experience performing PNH testing.

  9. Translation in cell-free systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jagus, R.

    1987-01-01

    The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Messenger RNA protein product identification is important in the isolation of a particular mRNA species for cDNA cloning and in the identification of positive cDNA clones. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ. Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated, the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently. However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination.

  10. Critical band 3 multiprotein complex interactions establish early during human erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Satchwell, Timothy J; Bell, Amanda J.; Pellegrin, Stephanie; Kupzig, Sabine; Ridgwell, Kay; Daniels, Geoff; Anstee, David J

    2015-01-01

    Band 3, the major anion transport protein of human erythrocytes forms the core of a multiprotein complex in the erythrocyte membrane. Here we studied the spatio-temporal mechanisms of band 3 multiprotein complex assembly during erythropoiesis. Significant pools of intracellular band 3 and RhAG were found in the basophilic erythroblast. These intracellular pools decreased in the polychromatic erythroblast whilst surface expression increased, and were lowest in the orthochromatic erythroblast and reticulocytes. Protease treatment of intact cells to remove extracellular epitopes recognized by antibodies to band 3 and RhAG was used to study surface delivery kinetics and intracellular complex composition from the proerythroblast stage to the enucleated reticulocyte. Newly synthesized band 3 and protein 4.2 interact initially in the early stages of the secretory pathway and are found associated at the plasma membrane from the basophilic stage of erythropoiesis. Although we could successfully co-immunoprecipitate Rh with RhAG from plasma membrane pools at a similar stage, no intracellular interaction between these proteins was detectable. Knockdown of RhAG during early erythropoiesis was accompanied by a concomitant drop in membrane expression of Rh polypeptides. These data are consistent with assembly of major components of the band 3 macrocomplex at an early stage during erythropoiesis. PMID:21527529

  11. Erythroblastosis of the Donor Twin of Twin Anemia-Polycythemia Sequence.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Miharu; Maruyama, Hidehiko; Oura, Naoko; Kanazawa, Akane; Nakata, Yusei; Minami, Susumu; Kikkawa, Kiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is a group of disorders in monochorionic twins characterized by a large intertwin hemoglobin difference without amniotic fluid discordance. Reticulocyte count is used to diagnose this condition, but little is known about the role of erythroblasts, which are the prior stage of reticulocytes. In the present case of TAPS, the 25-yr-old Japanese mother showed no signs of oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios throughout gestation. The twins were born at 36 weeks and 6 days, weighing 2,648g and 1,994g. The intertwin hemoglobin difference in umbilical cord blood was (21.1-5.0=) 16.1g/dL and the donor twin showed signs of chronic anemia, including myocardial hypertrophy and pericardial effusion. Erythroblastosis of the donor twin was prolonged (53,088.5, 42,114.8 and 44,217.9/μL on days 0, 1 and 2, respectively). Erythroblastosis, which indicates chronic anemia, is also a good diagnostic indicator of TAPS.

  12. Genetic variation in CD36, HBA, NOS3 and VCAM1 is associated with chronic haemolysis level in sickle cell anaemia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Andreia; Dias, Alexandra; Morais, Anabela; Nunes, Baltazar; Ferreira, Emanuel; Picanço, Isabel; Faustino, Paula; Lavinha, João

    2014-03-01

    Chronic haemolysis stands out as one of the hallmarks of sickle cell anaemia, a clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive monogenic anaemia. However, the genetic architecture of this sub-phenotype is still poorly understood. Here, we report the results of an association study between haemolysis biomarkers (serum LDH, total bilirubin and reticulocyte count) and the inheritance of 41 genetic variants of ten candidate genes in a series of 99 paediatric SS patients (median current age of 9.9 yr) followed up in two general hospitals in Greater Lisboa area (median follow-up per patient of 5.0 yr). Although in a large number of tests a seemingly significant (i.e. P < 0.05) association was observed, the following ones were confirmed upon correction for multiple comparisons: (i) an increased serum LDH level was associated with haplotype 7 within VCAM1 gene; (ii) a lower total bilirubin was associated with the 3.7-kb deletion at HBA gene, rs2070744_T allele at NOS3 gene, and haplotype 9 within VCAM1 promoter; and (iii) a diminished reticulocyte count was associated with the 3.7-kb deletion at HBA, whereas an increased count was associated with rs1984112_G allele at CD36 gene. On the whole, our findings suggest a complex genetic architecture for the sickle cell anaemia haemolysis process involving multiple pathways, namely control of vascular cell adhesion, NO synthesis and erythrocyte volume and haemoglobinisation.

  13. Seasonal variations of haematological parameters in athletes.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The influence of training and competition workloads is crucial for evaluation of longitudinal haematological data in athletes. There are only a few papers on the variation of haematological parameters during long-lasting periods and, especially, during an entire competitive season. We summarized that some haematological parameters can be influenced by long-term training and competition periods. Haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Ht) are decreased during the more intense periods of training, throughout the season. In different sport disciplines, the decline of Hb ranges from 3 to 8% during the competition season, while the range of reticulocytes (Ret%) varies from 5 to 21%. Reticulocytes are also decreased after long periods of training and competitions, but their variation is not necessarily associated with that of Hb. The qualitative variations (trend of modifications) of haematological parameters are roughly independent of the sport discipline, but quantitatively (amount of modifications) dependent on sport discipline. The modifications are more evident in cycling, running, swimming than they are in football and rugby. The variations of haematological parameters within the same sport discipline are qualitatively concordant and quantitatively different among separate but consecutive competitive seasons. These findings are described in aerobic and team sports sportsmen. The definition of reliable reference ranges in sportsmen would only be possible by following the best laboratory practices. For antidoping purposes more studies investigating haematological modifications during the season are advisable.

  14. Tracking Resilience to Infections by Mapping Disease Space

    PubMed Central

    Thomas Tate, Ann; Rath, Poonam; Cumnock, Katherine; Schneider, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Infected hosts differ in their responses to pathogens; some hosts are resilient and recover their original health, whereas others follow a divergent path and die. To quantitate these differences, we propose mapping the routes infected individuals take through “disease space.” We find that when plotting physiological parameters against each other, many pairs have hysteretic relationships that identify the current location of the host and predict the future route of the infection. These maps can readily be constructed from experimental longitudinal data, and we provide two methods to generate the maps from the cross-sectional data that is commonly gathered in field trials. We hypothesize that resilient hosts tend to take small loops through disease space, whereas nonresilient individuals take large loops. We support this hypothesis with experimental data in mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi, finding that dying mice trace a large arc in red blood cells (RBCs) by reticulocyte space as compared to surviving mice. We find that human malaria patients who are heterozygous for sickle cell hemoglobin occupy a small area of RBCs by reticulocyte space, suggesting this approach can be used to distinguish resilience in human populations. This technique should be broadly useful in describing the in-host dynamics of infections in both model hosts and patients at both population and individual levels. PMID:27088359

  15. The levels of nitric oxide in megaloblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Aydoğdu, İsmet; Bayraktar, Nihayet; Kuku, İrfan; Kuku, İrfan; Kaya, Emin

    2009-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitric oxide degradation products (nitrate and nitrite) levels and megaloblastic anemia which is treated with cyalocobalamin. A total of 30 patients with megaloblastic anemia (16 Male, 14 Female) were included in the study. Cyanocobalamin was administered (1.000 µg/day intramuscularly) until the reticulocyte crisis occurred to the normal range. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects (15 Male, 15 Female). Nitric oxide levels were measured before treatment and compared with the values obtained during peak reticulocyte count. Plasma direct nitrite, total nitrite and nitrate levels were 24,86±3,87, 60.56±7,01 and 36,02±5,24 in before treatment versus 15,48±3,05, 38,92±6,44 and 22,77±6,04 μmol/dl in after treatment, respectively. Plasma direct nitrite, total nitrite and nitrate levels were significantly lower in after treatment compared with the before treatment (p<0.001). Nitric oxide levels are seen to increase in megaloblastic anemia. This study suggested that abnormalities in the nitric oxide levels in megaloblastic anemia are restored by vitamin B12 replacement therapy.

  16. AMPKalpha1 deletion shortens erythrocyte life span in mice: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Dale, George L; Song, Ping; Viollet, Benoit; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2010-06-25

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor essential for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report that AMPKalpha1 is the predominant isoform of AMPK in murine erythrocytes and mice globally deficient in AMPKalpha1 (AMPKalpha1(-/-)), but not in those lacking AMPKalpha2, and the mice had markedly enlarged spleens with dramatically increased proportions of Ter119-positive erythroid cells. Blood tests revealed significantly decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels with increased reticulocyte counts and elevated plasma erythropoietin concentrations in AMPKalpha1(-/-) mice. The life span of erythrocytes from AMPKalpha1(-/-) mice was less than that in wild-type littermates, and the levels of reactive oxygen species and oxidized proteins were significantly increased in AMPKalpha1(-/-) erythrocytes. In keeping with the elevated oxidative stress, treatment of AMPKalpha1(-/-) mice with the antioxidant, tempol, resulted in decreased reticulocyte counts and improved erythrocyte survival. Furthermore, the expression of Foxo3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes was significantly decreased in erythroblasts from AMPKalpha1(-/-) mice. Collectively, these results establish an essential role for AMPKalpha1 in regulating oxidative stress and life span in erythrocytes.

  17. Flow cytometric scoring of micronucleated erythrocytes: an efficient platform for assessing in vivo cytogenetic damage.

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Stephen D; Torous, Dorothea K; Hayashi, Makoto; MacGregor, James T

    2011-01-01

    The relative simplicity of the micronucleated erythrocyte endpoint has made it amenable to automated scoring approaches. Flow cytometry is one such scoring platform that has been employed successfully. This review describes the evolution and properties of flow cytometry-based scoring of micronucleated erythrocytes. The methodology has become widely applied to rodent blood specimens and the high throughput nature of the technology provides a number of advantages over manual microscopic scoring. For instance, the ability to efficiently survey many dose levels and many more cells per specimen relative to microscopy benefits studies that are designed to identify no observable effect levels or lowest observable effect levels. Furthermore, flow cytometry makes it practical to study species with low spontaneous reticulocyte (RET) counts and micronucleus (MN) frequencies, thereby facilitating integration of blood-based micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequency measurements into experiments conducted across species of toxicological interest. This capability enhances genotoxicity assessments that have historically been made in dedicated MN tests performed in one species. Importantly, the feasibility of using MN-RET frequencies in blood from humans as an index of genetic damage in bone marrow opens a critical area of application that had not been practical previously. We conclude with recommendations for additional work that is needed to more fully realise the potential of flow cytometric in vivo MN scoring.

  18. Recombinant human erythropoietin modulates erythrocyte complement receptor 1 functional activity in patients with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Kiss, E; Kávai, M; Csipõ, I; Szegedi, G

    1998-06-01

    Deposition of immune complexes (IC) is an important step in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Impairment of IC-clearance contributes to the accumulation of IC. It may be partly attributed to decreased complement containing immune complex (ICC) binding by erythrocytic complement receptor 1 (ECR1). Stimulating erythropoiesis with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) may enhance the IC-clearance as increasing ECR1 expression and/or functional activity. Ten anemic patients with lupus nephritis were treated with 50 IU rHuEPO (Eprex) per kg body weight three times a week during a five week period. ICC-binding capacity of ECR1 was determined with 125I-labelled, C3ib containing BSA-anti-BSA complexes. In addition to effective correction of anemia, indicated by increased red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration and reticulocyte ratio, rHuEPO significantly improved decreased ECR1 functional (ICC-binding) activity in patients with lupus nephritis. This improvement correlated with the increase in reticulocyte ratio. Although patients were kept on their previous therapy during Eprex administration, their clinical condition also improved. That was shown by a decrease in Westergreen ratio, serum creatinine concentration and anti-dsDNA level and also by an increase in creatinine clearance. Results suggest a beneficial immune modulatory effect of rHuEPO in lupus nephritis.

  19. Neocytolysis on descent from altitude: a newly recognized mechanism for the control of red cell mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, L.; Ruiz, W.; Driscoll, T.; Whitley, C. E.; Tapia, R.; Hachey, D. L.; Gonzales, G. F.; Alfrey, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of space-flight anemia have uncovered a physiologic process, neocytolysis, by which young red blood cells are selectively hemolyzed, allowing rapid adaptation when red cell mass is excessive for a new environment. OBJECTIVES: 1) To confirm that neocytolysis occurs in another situation of acute plethora-when high-altitude dwellers with polycythemia descend to sea level; and 2) to clarify the role of erythropoietin suppression. DESIGN: Prospective observational and interventional study. SETTING: Cerro de Pasco (4380 m) and Lima (sea level), Peru. PARTICIPANTS: Nine volunteers with polycythemia. INTERVENTIONS: Volunteers were transported to sea level; three received low-dose erythropoietin. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in red cell mass, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, reticulocyte count, ferritin level, serum erythropoietin, and enrichment of administered(13)C in heme. RESULTS: In six participants, red cell mass decreased by 7% to 10% within a few days of descent; this decrease was mirrored by a rapid increase in serum ferritin level. Reticulocyte production did not decrease, a finding that establishes a hemolytic mechanism.(13)C changes in circulating heme were consistent with hemolysis of young cells. Erythropoietin was suppressed, and administration of exogenous erythropoietin prevented the changes in red cell mass, serum ferritin level, and(13)C-heme. CONCLUSIONS: Neocytolysis and the role of erythropoietin are confirmed in persons with polycythemia who descend from high altitude. This may have implications that extend beyond space and altitude medicine to renal disease and other situations of erythropoietin suppression, hemolysis, and polycythemia.

  20. Prevalence of iron deficiency in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Natalia E; Crissman, Blythe G; Smith, P Brian; Zimmerman, Sherri A; Worley, Gordon; Kishnani, Priya S

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in a sample of children with Down syndrome (DS) and to evaluate the effect of macrocytosis on the diagnosis of ID/IDA in these children. Children with DS ≥ 12 months of age who were followed at the Duke University Medical Center Comprehensive DS Clinic from December 2004 to March 2007 were screened for ID/IDA with a complete blood count, reticulocyte count, iron panel, and erythrocytic protoporphyrins. A total of 114 children were enrolled, with a median age of 4.7 years. ID was identified in 12 subjects (10%), and IDA was identified in 3 subjects (3%). ID/IDA would not have been accurately diagnosed in 13 of 15 subjects (86%) if red blood cell (RBC) indices alone had been used for screening. Abnormal RBC indices with low transferrin saturation were 100% sensitive for ID/ IDA screening. Prevalence of ID/IDA in children with DS was comparable with that in the general pediatric population. Macrocytosis had implications for screening of ID/IDA with only RBC indices. We suggest ID/IDA screening in DS children be done with a laboratory panel at least including complete blood count, reticulocyte count, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HER-2 UPSTREAM OPEN READING FRAME EFFECTS ON THE USE OF DOWNSTREAM INITIATION CODONS

    PubMed Central

    Spevak, Christina C.; Park, Eun-Hee; Geballe, Adam P.; Pelletier, Jerry; Sachs, Matthew S.

    2006-01-01

    The her-2 (neu, erbB-2) oncogene encodes a 185-kDa transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. HER2 overexpression occurs in numerous primary human tumors and contributes to 25–30% of breast and ovarian carcinomas. Synthesis of HER2 is controlled in part by an upstream open reading frame (uORF) present in the transcript. We used synthetic capped and polyadenylated mRNAs containing sequences derived from the 5′ region of the her-2 transcript fused to firefly luciferase (LUC) reporter to examine this ORF’s effect on translation in cell-free systems derived from reticulocytes, wheat germ and Neurospora crassa, and in RNA-transfected HeLa cells. The uORF reduced translation of the downstream cistron in all systems. [35S]Met-labeling of in vitro translation products obtained indicated that the uORF also affected downstream start-site selection. Primer extension inhibition (toeprint) assays of ribosomes loaded at initiation codons in reticulocyte lysates indicated that the uORF affected the interaction of ribosomes with the primary her-2 AUG codon. PMID:17045969

  2. A systematic review of the literature for severity predictors in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Emily Riehm; Fasano, Ross M; Levett, Paul R

    2017-02-02

    All patients with HbSS (SCA) share the same genetic mutation but the clinical phenotype is variable and difficult to predict early in life. A reliable severity predictor would be invaluable toward directing therapeutic decisions in those patients at highest risk of SCA complications. A search of PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, and Scopus was performed to determine which SCA severity predictors have been validated in pediatric patients. The full text of 94 of the 590 references identified was reviewed based on the title/abstract. Fifty-four articles were included in the analysis. Alpha globin gene number was the most commonly studied severity predictor, followed by fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and reticulocyte count. Alpha thalassemia trait was protective against overt stroke and abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD) in all but one study, but not frequency of painful crisis or silent cerebral infarct. Two thirds of the HbF studies reported beneficial effects with increasing HbF levels; however, increased HbF levels were not associated with lower hospitalization or stroke rates in others. The ability to predict SCA complications was mixed for all variables, except TCD and absolute reticulocyte count. More reliable predictors are urgently needed to guide therapeutic decisions in children with SCA.

  3. The familial Parkinson's disease gene DJ-1 (PARK7) is expressed in red cells and plays a role in protection against oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiuling; Martin, Florent; Friedman, Jeffrey S

    2010-10-15

    The antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) serves as the primary defense against mitochondrial superoxide. Impaired SOD2 activity in murine hematopoietic cells affects erythroid development, resulting in anemia characterized by intra-mitochondrial iron deposition, reticulocytosis and shortened red cell life span. Gene expression profiling of normal and SOD2 deficient erythroblasts identified the Parkinson's disease locus DJ-1 (Park7) as a differentially expressed transcript. To investigate the role of DJ-1 in hematopoietic cell development and protection against oxidative stress caused by Sod2 loss, we evaluated red cell parameters, reticulocyte count, red cell turnover and reactive oxygen species production in DJ-1 knockout animals and chimeric animals lacking both SOD2 and DJ-1 in hematopoietic cells generated by fetal liver transplantation. We also investigated DJ-1 protein expression in primary murine erythroid and erythroleukemia cells (MEL). Loss of DJ-1 exacerbates the phenotype of SOD2 deficiency, increasing reticulocyte count and decreasing red cell survival. Using MEL cells, we show that DJ-1 is up-regulated at the protein level during erythroid differentiation. These results indicate that DJ-1 plays a physiologic role in protection of erythroid cells from oxidant damage, a function unmasked in the context of oxidative stress.

  4. Delayed blood regeneration in lead exposure: An effect on reserve capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Jensen, B.M.; Sando, S.H.; Jogensen, P.J.; Antonsen, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Twenty-five lead-exposed Danish battery production workers and 25-age-matched controls were examined to evaluate subclinical effects on blood formation. Blood lead levels averaged 2.14 mumol/L and 0.35 mumol/L in the two groups; the lead workers also showed high levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin, as compared to the controls. Otherwise, the hematological parameters indicated an appropriate iron status and no other deviations. From all subjects, 0.45 L of blood was bled as part of a normal blood donation. Five and 11 days later, reticulocyte counts were significantly higher in the control group than in the lead-exposed workers. On day 15, the lead workers showed a significant delay in blood regeneration, as evidenced by lower hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts. The lead exposure in the present study was within legal limits, and lead-induced anemia would be expected only at much higher exposure levels. Thus, despite the normal hematological findings in the initial examination, the lead exposure caused a decreased reserve capacity for blood formation, and this effect became evident only after the blood loss.

  5. In-clinic laboratory diagnosis of canine babesiosis (Babesia canis canis) for veterinary practitioners in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kirtz, G; Leschnik, M; Hooijberg, E; Tichy, A; Leidinger, E

    2012-04-24

    Haematological changes in dogs and climatic conditions favourable for the vector may assist in the quick in-house diagnosis of canine babesiosis. Blood samples from 358 dogs suspected to have canine babesiosis were evaluated. The diagnosis was confirmed in 113 dogs by detection of Babesia canis by microscopic examination of a stained blood smear using the concentration line technique. Thrombocytopenia was present in all 113 dogs. Red blood cell count, packed cell volume and haemoglobin values were below the reference range in 62.8%, 61.1% and 46.0% of affected dogs, respectively. An increased reticulocyte count was apparent in five Babesia canis -positive dogs. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and monocytosis were present in 54.9%, 47.8%, 30.4% and 6.5% of the dogs, respectively. Evaluating haematological parameters by CART-analysis revealed a predictive model (accuracy= 93.5%) for canine babesiosis, when using the leucocyte, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte count. Climatic conditions present at the most probable time of Babesia canis- infection accounted for biseasonal occurrence. Changes of climatic factors during the year influence the vector activity and in conclusion should highlight babesiosis in the ranking of differentials for veterinarians. The results demonstrate that a tentative diagnosis of canine babesiosis can be made based on typical haematological changes. The results recorded match well with the seasonality of the tick vector and were confirmed here by the month of sample submission.

  6. Conjugated bilirubin triggers anemia by inducing erythrocyte death.

    PubMed

    Lang, Elisabeth; Gatidis, Sergios; Freise, Noemi F; Bock, Hans; Kubitz, Ralf; Lauermann, Christian; Orth, Hans Martin; Klindt, Caroline; Schuier, Maximilian; Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Liu, Guilai; Schmidt, Sebastian; Xu, Haifeng C; Qadri, Syed M; Herebian, Diran; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Mayatepek, Ertan; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Karl S; Föller, Michael; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca(2+) influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide, and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, patients with hyperbilirubinemia had significantly lower erythrocyte and significantly higher reticulocyte counts compared to patients with low bilirubin levels. Bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death, thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. © 2014 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Hematologic responses to hypobaric hyperoxia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, E. C.; Adams, J. D.; Williams, W. T.; Duncan, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the effects of hypoxia, activity, and G forces on human hematopoiesis in an attempt to elucidate these phenomena more precisely. Eight subjects were exposed to an atmosphere of 100% O2 at 258 mm Hg for 30 days, and thereafter immediately exposed to transverse G forces, simulating the Gemini flights' reentry profile. All subjects displayed a significant continuous decline in red cell mass during the exposure period, as measured by the carbon monoxide-dilution method. The Cr51 method also indicated a decline in red blood corpuscle mass. The decrease in red cell mass was due to suppression of erythropoiesis and to hemolysis. After exposure to hyperoxia, all subjects exhibited elevated plasma hemoglobin levels, decreased reticulocyte counts, and decreased red cell survivals. CO production rates and urine erythropoietin levels were unchanged. Two hours after termination of exposure to hyperoxia, all subjects exhibited increased reticulocyte counts which were sustained for longer than two weeks. The progressive decrease in red cell mass was promptly arrested on return to ground level atmospheres. Within 116 days after exposure to hyperoxia, the hematologic parameters of all eight subjects had returned to control levels.

  8. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Nejdet; Karadeniz, Ali; Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N; Unal, Bünyami

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina+lead (Sp+Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina+cadmium (Sp+Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  9. Purification and characterization of mRNA cap-binding protein from Drosophila melanogaster embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Maroto, F G; Sierra, J M

    1989-01-01

    A protein with specific affinity for the mRNA cap structure was purified both from the postribosomal supernatant and from the ribosomal high-salt wash of Drosophila melanogaster embryos by m7GTP-Sepharose chromatography. This protein had an apparent molecular mass of 35 kilodaltons (kDa) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a size very different from those of the cap-binding proteins that have been characterized thus far. Drosophila 35-kDa cap-binding protein (CBP) could also be isolated from the ribosomal high-salt wash as part of a salt-stable protein complex consisting of polypeptides of 35, 72, and 140 to 180 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies against Drosophila 35-kDa CBP neither reacted with eucaryotic initiation factor 4E from rabbit reticulocytes nor affected mRNA translation in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system. However, in a cell-free system from Drosophila embryos, mRNA translation was specifically inhibited by these antibodies. The requirement of 35-kDa CBP for mRNA translation in Drosophila was diminished under ionic conditions in which the importance of mRNA cap structure recognition was reduced. Despite the structural differences between Drosophila 35-kDa CBP and mammalian initiation factor 4E, both proteins were functionally interchangeable in the in vitro translation system from Drosophila embryos. Images PMID:2501660

  10. Clinical Applications of Hemolytic Markers in the Differential Diagnosis and Management of Hemolytic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Barcellini, W; Fattizzo, B

    2015-01-01

    Several hemolytic markers are available to guide the differential diagnosis and to monitor treatment of hemolytic conditions. They include increased reticulocytes, an indicator of marrow compensatory response, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, a marker of intravascular hemolysis, reduced haptoglobin, and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. The direct antiglobulin test is the cornerstone of autoimmune forms, and blood smear examination is fundamental in the diagnosis of congenital membrane defects and thrombotic microangiopathies. Marked increase of lactate dehydrogenase and hemosiderinuria are typical of intravascular hemolysis, as observed in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hyperferritinemia is associated with chronic hemolysis. Prosthetic valve replacement and stenting are also associated with intravascular and chronic hemolysis. Compensatory reticulocytosis may be inadequate/absent in case of marrow involvement, iron/vitamin deficiency, infections, or autoimmune reaction against bone marrow-precursors. Reticulocytopenia occurs in 20-40% of autoimmune hemolytic anemia cases and is a poor prognostic factor. Increased reticulocytes, lactate dehydrogenase, and bilirubin, as well as reduced haptoglobin, are observed in conditions other than hemolysis that may confound the clinical picture. Hemoglobin defines the clinical severity of hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia suggests a possible thrombotic microangiopathy or Evans' syndrome. A comprehensive clinical and laboratory evaluation is advisable for a correct diagnostic and therapeutic workup of the different hemolytic conditions.

  11. Erythrocyte Enrichment in Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Cultures Based on Magnetic Susceptibility of the Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaoxia; Abbot, Stewart; Zhang, Xiaokui; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Zhao, Rui; Kameneva, Marina V.; Moore, Lee R.; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Using novel media formulations, it has been demonstrated that human placenta and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells can be expanded and differentiated into erythroid cells with high efficiency. However, obtaining mature and functional erythrocytes from the immature cell cultures with high purity and in an efficient manner remains a significant challenge. A distinguishing feature of a reticulocyte and maturing erythrocyte is the increasing concentration of hemoglobin and decreasing cell volume that results in increased cell magnetophoretic mobility (MM) when exposed to high magnetic fields and gradients, under anoxic conditions. Taking advantage of these initial observations, we studied a noninvasive (label-free) magnetic separation and analysis process to enrich and identify cultured functional erythrocytes. In addition to the magnetic cell separation and cell motion analysis in the magnetic field, the cell cultures were characterized for cell sedimentation rate, cell volume distributions using differential interference microscopy, immunophenotyping (glycophorin A), hemoglobin concentration and shear-induced deformability (elongation index, EI, by ektacytometry) to test for mature erythrocyte attributes. A commercial, packed column high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) was used for magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched fraction comprised 80% of the maturing cells (predominantly reticulocytes) that showed near 70% overlap of EI with the reference cord blood-derived RBC and over 50% overlap with the adult donor RBCs. The results demonstrate feasibility of label-free magnetic enrichment of erythrocyte fraction of CD34+ progenitor-derived cultures based on the presence of paramagnetic hemoglobin in the maturing erythrocytes. PMID:22952572

  12. Erythrocyte enrichment in hematopoietic progenitor cell cultures based on magnetic susceptibility of the hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoxia; Abbot, Stewart; Zhang, Xiaokui; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Zhao, Rui; Kameneva, Marina V; Moore, Lee R; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Using novel media formulations, it has been demonstrated that human placenta and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells can be expanded and differentiated into erythroid cells with high efficiency. However, obtaining mature and functional erythrocytes from the immature cell cultures with high purity and in an efficient manner remains a significant challenge. A distinguishing feature of a reticulocyte and maturing erythrocyte is the increasing concentration of hemoglobin and decreasing cell volume that results in increased cell magnetophoretic mobility (MM) when exposed to high magnetic fields and gradients, under anoxic conditions. Taking advantage of these initial observations, we studied a noninvasive (label-free) magnetic separation and analysis process to enrich and identify cultured functional erythrocytes. In addition to the magnetic cell separation and cell motion analysis in the magnetic field, the cell cultures were characterized for cell sedimentation rate, cell volume distributions using differential interference microscopy, immunophenotyping (glycophorin A), hemoglobin concentration and shear-induced deformability (elongation index, EI, by ektacytometry) to test for mature erythrocyte attributes. A commercial, packed column high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) was used for magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched fraction comprised 80% of the maturing cells (predominantly reticulocytes) that showed near 70% overlap of EI with the reference cord blood-derived RBC and over 50% overlap with the adult donor RBCs. The results demonstrate feasibility of label-free magnetic enrichment of erythrocyte fraction of CD34+ progenitor-derived cultures based on the presence of paramagnetic hemoglobin in the maturing erythrocytes.

  13. Vitamin B12, folic acid and haematological status of 132 Thai vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Tungtrongchitr, R; Pongpaew, P; Prayurahong, B; Changbumrung, S; Vudhivai, N; Migasena, P; Schelp, F P

    1993-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12, folic acid and haematological variables of 132 Thai vegetarians (64 males and 68 females) were investigated. Forty-seven healthy omnivorous individuals served as controls. No statistical differences in haemoglobin concentration, packed red cell volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration between the vegetarians and controls had been detected. In the female vegetarians, the haemoglobin concentration and packed red cell volume were, however, statistically lower. No significant differences in the white cell counts and platelet counts were observed in both groups. A significant increase of basophilic stippling and reticulocytes was observed in the vegetarians. Serum vitamin B12 decreased and serum folic acid levels increased according to the duration of vegetarianism in the vegetarians. In the females practicing vegetarianism for 6-10 years or more, the proportion of serum vitamin B12 deficiencies was particularly high. The high percentage of vitamin B12 deficiency in the vegetarians might be related to megaloblastic anaemia. This form of anaemia is commonly associated with the presence of basophilic stippling. Therefore, the increased presence of basophilic stippling and reticulocytes might indicate a mild stage of this type of anaemia among the vegetarians.

  14. Stability of athlete passport parameters during extended storage.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, M; Clarke, A; Sharpe, K; d'Onofrio, G; Plowman, J; Gore, C J

    2013-04-01

    Extended intervals between sample collection and analyses render athlete's whole-blood specimens collected in the field for antidoping purposes susceptible to storage degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stability of key blood variables under different storage durations and temperatures. We evaluated stability of full blood count indices (plus reticulocytes) in individual tubes left undisturbed during 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h of storage at approximately 4, 6 and 12 °C. Samples were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i instrument. The two key variables in the context of antidoping (haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes) were stable for at least 168 h, except under 12 °C (stable 48 h only). Volume-dependent variables changed in a predictable manner that enabled a nomogram to be generated to predict original values provided storage duration and temperature were known. Key blood results can be relied upon for at least 7 days if storage temperature is kept at 4-6 °C. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Stability of athlete blood passport parameters during air freight.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, M; Sharpe, K; Plowman, J; Allbon, G; Lobigs, L; Baron, A; Gore, C J

    2014-10-01

    Fluctuations in ambient temperature and pressure, as well as physical jostling, may affect the stability of whole blood samples transported by air freight. The aim of this study was to characterize the stability of key blood variables during air freight and to investigate whether vibration or reduced pressure alone affected results. Over a 72-h interval, we evaluated the stability of full blood count indices (plus reticulocytes) in tubes that were air-freighted a total of 2, 10 and 28 h. We also examined the impact of 24 h of reduced atmospheric pressure (750 hpa or approximately 2500 m.a.s.l) and vibration (5 Hz). Samples were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i instrument. The two key variables in the context of antidoping (haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes) remained stable over a 72-h period regardless of the duration of air freight. Atmospheric pressure and vibration had no discernible effect. Whole blood samples stored in NanoCool devices can be relied upon to remain stable for at least 72 h despite interim air freight. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ricin - inhibitor design. Annual report, 15 April 1994-14 April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, V.L.

    1995-05-14

    Substrates for ricin A-chain include short RNA stem-loop structures which have been synthesized with radioactive labels for ease of catalytic assay and for kinetic isotope effects. Ricin A-chain from several sources is incapable of completing multiple catalytic cycles using these substrates. A family of ricin substrate analogue molecules have been synthesized and tested which are specific for transition states with oxycarbonium character or for enzymatic mechanisms involving protonation of the adenine leaving group. Formycin analogues were incorporated into RNA oligomeric structures and tested for binding to ricin A-chain or as inhibitors of the ricin-inactivation of in vitro translation using rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Ribo-oxycarbonium ion analogues containing iminoribitol analogues of ribose were synthetically incorporated into RNA oligomeric structures. Neither formycin nor ribo-oxycarbonium analogues, either singly or in RNA oligomers caused significant inhibition of ricin A-chain when assayed in reticulocyte lysate translation assays. The results indicate a novel transition state mechanism for ricin A-chain, or a requirement for additional features of 28s rRNA to bind transition state analogues.

  17. Human placental Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Chehab, F.F.; Kan, Y.W.; Law, M.L.; Hartz, J.; Kao, F.T.; Blostein, R.

    1987-11-01

    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (approx. = 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine > placenta > liver > pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia > butyrate-induced colon > colon > brain > HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with the authors failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected ( > 2 kilobases) lambdagt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed by a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the ..cap alpha.. subunit is on the short is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1.

  18. Comparison of male versus female responses in the Pig-a mutation assay

    PubMed Central

    Labash, Carson; Avlasevich, Svetlana L.; Carlson, Kristine; Torous, Dorothea K.; Berg, Ariel; Bemis, Jeffrey C.; MacGregor, James T.; Dertinger, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Validation of the Pig-a gene mutation assay has been based mainly on studies in male rodents. To determine if the mutagen-induced responses of the X-linked Pig-a gene differ in females compared to males, 7- or 14-week old male and female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). In the study with the 7-week old rats, exposure was to 0, 1, 5 or 25mg ENU/kg/day for three consecutive days (study Days 1–3). Pig-a mutant phenotype reticulocyte (RETCD59−) and mutant phenotype erythrocyte (RBCCD59−) frequencies were determined on study Days −4, 15, 29 and 46 using immunomagnetic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow®). Additionally, blood samples collected on Day 4 were analysed for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequency (In Vivo MicroFlow®). The percentage of reticulocytes (%RET) was markedly higher in the 7-week old males compared to females through Day 15 (2.39-fold higher on Day −4). At 25mg/kg/day, ENU reduced Day 4 RET frequencies in both sexes, and the two highest dose levels resulted in elevated MN-RET frequencies, with no sex or treatment × sex interaction. The two highest dose levels significantly elevated the frequencies of mean RETCD59− and RBCCD59− in both sexes from Day 15 onward. RETCD59− and RBCCD59− frequencies were somewhat lower for females compared to males at the highest dose level studied, and differences in RETCD59− resulted in a statistically significant interaction effect of treatment × sex. In the study with 14-week old rats, treatment was for 3 days with 0 or 25mg ENU/kg/day. RET frequencies differed to a lesser degree between the sexes, and in this case there was no evidence of a treatment × sex interaction. These results suggest that the slightly higher response in younger males than in the younger females may be related to differences in erythropoiesis function at that age. In conclusion, while some quantitative differences were noted, there were no

  19. Human Erythrocyte PIG-A Assay: An Easily Monitored Index of Gene Mutation Requiring Low Volume Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Dertinger, Stephen D.; Avlasevich, Svetlana L.; Bemis, Jeffrey C.; Chen, Yuhchyau; MacGregor, James T.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory has previously described a method for scoring the incidence of rodent blood Pig-a mutant phenotype erythrocytes using immunomag-netic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow®). The current work extends this approach to human blood. The frequencies of CD59- and CD55-negative reticulo-cytes (RETCD59−/CD55−) and erythrocytes (RBCCD59−/CD55−) seve as phenotypic reporters of PIG-A gene mutation. Immunomagnetic separation was found to provide an effective means of increasing the number of reticulocytes and erythro-cytes evaluated. Technical replicates were utilized to provide a sufficient number of cells for precise scoring while at the same time controlling for procedural accuracy by allowing comparison of replicate values. Cold whole blood samples could be held for at least one week without affecting reticulo-cyte, RETCD59−/CD55− or RBCCD59−/CD55− frequencies. Specimens from a total of 52 nonsmoking, self-reported healthy adult subjects were evaluated. The mean frequency of RETCD59−/CD55− and RBCCD592−/CD55− were 6.0 × 10−6 and 2.9 × 10−6, respectively. The difference is consistent with a modest selective pressure against mutant phenotype erythrocytes in the circulation, and suggests advantages of studying both populations of erythrocytes. Whereas intra-subject variability was low, inter-subject variability was relatively high, with RETCD59−/CD55− frequencies differing by more than 30-fold. There was an apparent correlation between age and mutant cell frequencies. Taken together, the results indicate that the frequency of human PIG-A mutant phenotype cells can be efficiently and reliably estimated using a labeling and analysis protocol that is well established for rodent-based studies. The applicability of the assay across species, its simplicity and statistical power, and the relatively non-invasive nature of the assay should benefit myriad research areas involving DNA damage

  20. Rat Pig-a mutation assay responds to the genotoxic carcinogen ethyl carbamate but not the non-genotoxic carcinogen methyl carbamate.

    PubMed

    Bemis, Jeffrey C; Labash, Carson; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Carlson, Kristine; Berg, Ariel; Torous, Dorothea K; Barragato, Matthew; MacGregor, James T; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Determination of the mode of action of carcinogenic agents is an important factor in risk assessment and regulatory practice. To assess the ability of the erythrocyte-based Pig-a mutation assay to discriminate between genotoxic and non-genotoxic modes of action, the mutagenic response of Sprague Dawley rats exposed to methyl carbamate (MC) or ethyl carbamate (EC) was investigated. EC, a potent carcinogen, is believed to induce DNA damage through the formation of a DNA-reactive epoxide group, whereas the closely structurally related compound, MC, cannot form this epoxide and its weaker carcinogenic activity is thought to be secondary to inflammation and promotion of cell proliferation. The frequency of Pig-a mutant phenotype cells was monitored before, during, and after 28 consecutive days of oral gavage exposure to either MC (doses ranging from 125 to 500 mg/kg/day) or EC (250 mg/kg/day). Significant increases in the frequency of mutant reticulocytes were observed from Days 15 through 43, with a peak mean frequency of 19.9×10(-6) on Day 29 (i.e. 24.9-fold increase relative to mean vehicle control across all four sampling times). As expected, mutant erythrocyte responses lagged behind mutant reticulocyte responses, with a maximal mean frequency of 8.2×10(-6) on Day 43 (i.e. 16.4-fold increase). No mutagenic effects were observed with MC. A second indicator of in vivo genotoxicity, peripheral blood micronucleated reticulocytes, was also studied. This endpoint was responsive to EC (3.3-fold mean increase), but not to MC. These results support the hypothesis that genotoxicity contributes to the carcinogenicity of EC but not of MC, and illustrates the value of the Pig-a assay for discriminating between genotoxic and non-genotoxic modes of action. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Efficient Monitoring of In Vivo Pig-a Gene Mutation and Chromosomal Damage: Summary of 7 Published Studies and Results From 11 New Reference Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Dertinger, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to effectively monitor gene mutation and micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequency in short-term and repeated dosing schedules was investigated using the recently developed flow cytometric Pig-a mutation assay and flow cytometric micronucleus analysis. Eight reference genotoxicants and three presumed nongenotoxic compounds were studied: chlorambucil, melphalan, thiotepa, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, 2-acetylaminofluorene, hydroxyurea, methyl methanesulfonate, o-anthranilic acid, sulfisoxazole, and sodium chloride. These experiments extend previously published results with seven other chemicals. Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated via gavage for 3 or 28 consecutive days with several dose levels of each chemical up to the maximum tolerated dose. Blood samples were collected at several time points up to day 45 and were analyzed for Pig-a mutation with a dual-labeling method that facilitates mutant cell frequency measurements in both total erythrocytes and the reticulocyte subpopulation. An immunomagnetic separation technique was used to increase the efficiency of scoring mutant cells. Blood samples collected on day 4, and day 29 for the 28-day study, were evaluated for MN-RET frequency. The three nongenotoxicants did not induce Pig-a or MN-RET responses. All genotoxicants except hydroxyurea increased the frequency of Pig-a mutant reticulocytes and erythrocytes. Significant increases in MN-RET frequency were observed for each of the genotoxicants at both time points. Whereas the highest Pig-a responses tended to occur in the 28-day studies, when total dose was greatest, the highest induction of MN-RET was observed in the 3-day studies, when dose per day was greatest. There was no clear relationship between the maximal Pig-a response of a given chemical and its corresponding maximal MN-RET response, despite the fact that both endpoints were determined in the same cell lineage. Taken with other previously published results, these data demonstrate

  2. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes both contribute to acquired immunity to blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi AS.

    PubMed

    Podoba, J E; Stevenson, M M

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, the contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes to acquired immunity to blood-stage infection with the murine malaria species Plasmodium chabaudi AS was investigated. C57BL/6 mice, which are genetically resistant to infection with this hemoprotozoan parasite and exhibit a transient course of infection, were treated intraperitoneally with monoclonal antibodies to T-cell epitopes, either anti-Thy-1, anti-CD4, or anti-CD8. After intraperitoneal infection with 10(6) parasitized erythrocytes, control C57BL/6 mice exhibited a peak parasitemia on day 9 of approximately 35% parasitized erythrocytes and eliminated the infection within 4 weeks. Mice depleted of Thy-1+ or CD4+ T cells had significantly higher parasitemias on day 7 as well as significantly higher peak parasitemias. These mice were unable to control the infection and developed a persistent, high parasitemia that fluctuated between 40 and 60% until the experiment was terminated on day 56 postinfection. Depletion of CD8+ T lymphocytes was found to have no effect on the early course of parasitemia or on the level of peak parasitemia. However, mice depleted of CD8+ T cells experienced two recurrent bouts of parasitemia during the later stage of the infection and required more than 5 weeks to eliminate the parasites. After the peak parasitemia, which occurred in control and experimental animals on day 9, there was a sharp drop in parasitemia coinciding with a wave of reticulocytosis. Therefore, the contribution of the influx of reticulocytes, which are not the preferred host cell of this hemoprotozoan parasite, to limiting the parasitemia was also examined by determining the course of reticulocytosis during infection in control and T cell-depleted animals. Early in infection, there was a marked and comparable reticulocytosis in the peripheral blood of control and T cell-depleted mice; the reticulocytosis peaked on day 12 and coincided with the dramatic and sudden reduction in parasitemia

  3. Alteration of the major phosphorylation site of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 4E prevents its association with the 48 S initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Barve, S; Rychlik, W; Rhoads, R E

    1990-02-15

    Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace the serine residue at the primary phosphorylation site of human eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E with an alanine residue. The mutated cDNA was transcribed in vitro, and the transcript was used to direct protein synthesis in a reticulocyte lysate system. The variant protein (eIF-4EAla) was retained on a 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate (m7GTP)-Sepharose affinity column and was specifically eluted by m7GTP. Examination of eIF-4EAla by isoelectric focusing revealed two species which had the same pI values as the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of unaltered eIF-4E (here designated eIF-4ESer). However, conversion of unphosphorylated eIF-4EAla to the putative phosphorylated eIF-4EAla in the reticulocyte lysate system was slower than the corresponding conversion of eIF-4ESer. The possibility that the more acidic form of eIF-4EAla was due to NH2-terminal acetylation was ruled out by an experiment in which the acetyl-CoA pool of the reticulocyte lysate system was depleted with oxaloacetate and citrate synthase. The more acidic form of eIF-4EAla was, however, eliminated by treatment with calf intestine alkaline phosphatase, suggesting that it results from a second-site phosphorylation. When translation reaction mixtures were resolved on sucrose density gradients, the 35S-labeled eIF-4ESer was found on the 48 S initiation complex in the presence of guanylyl imidodiphosphate, as reported earlier (Hiremath, L.S., Hiremath, S.T., Rychlik, W., Joshi, S., Domier, L.L., and Rhoads, R.E. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 1132-1138). eIF-4EAla, by contrast, was not found on the 48 S complex, suggesting that phosphorylation of eIF-4E is necessary for it to carry out its role of transferring mRNA to the 48 S complex. Supporting this interpretation was the finding that eIF-4ESer isolated from 48 S initiation complexes consisted predominantly of the phosphorylated form.

  4. Changes in erythroid membrane proteins during erythropoietin-mediated terminal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koury, M J; Bondurant, M C; Rana, S S

    1987-12-01

    Membrane and membrane skeleton proteins were examined in erythroid progenitor cells during terminal differentiation. The employed model system of erythroid differentiation was that in which proerythroblasts from mice infected with the anemia-inducing strain of Friend virus differentiate in vitro in response to erythropoietin (EP). With this system, developmentally homogeneous populations of cells can be examined morphologically and biochemically as they progress from proerythroblasts through enucleated reticulocytes. alpha and beta spectrins, the major proteins of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, are synthesized in the erythroblasts both before and after EP exposure. At all times large portions of the newly synthesized spectrins exist in and are turned over in the cytoplasm. The remaining newly synthesized spectrin is found in a cellular fraction containing total membranes. Pulse-chase experiments show that little of the cytoplasmic spectrins become membrane associated, but that the proportion of newly synthesized spectrin which is membrane associated increases as maturation proceeds. A membrane fraction enriched in plasma membranes has significant differences in the stoichiometry of spectrin accumulation as compared to total cellular membranes. Synthesis of band 3 protein, the anion transporter, is induced only after EP addition to the erythroblasts. All of the newly synthesized band 3 is membrane associated. A two-dimensional gel survey was conducted of newly synthesized proteins in the plasma membrane enriched fraction of the erythroblasts as differentiation proceeded. A majority of the newly synthesized proteins remain in the same proportion to each other during maturation; however, a few newly synthesized proteins greatly increase following EP induction while others decrease markedly. Of the radiolabeled proteins observed in two dimensional gels, only the spectrins, band 3 and actin become major proteins of the mature erythrocyte membrane. Examination of

  5. Accelerating the clinical development of protein-based vaccines for malaria by efficient purification using a four amino acid C-terminal 'C-tag'.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Silk, Sarah E; Brown, Rebecca E; Labbé, Geneviève M; Marshall, Jennifer M; Wright, Katherine E; Bezemer, Sandra; Clemmensen, Stine B; Biswas, Sumi; Li, Yuanyuan; El-Turabi, Aadil; Douglas, Alexander D; Hermans, Pim; Detmers, Frank J; de Jongh, Willem A; Higgins, Matthew K; Ashfield, Rebecca; Draper, Simon J

    2017-01-30

    Development of bespoke biomanufacturing processes remains a critical bottleneck for translational studies, in particular when modest quantities of a novel product are required for proof-of-concept Phase I/II clinical trials. In these instances the ability to develop a biomanufacturing process quickly and relatively cheaply, without risk to product quality or safety, provides a great advantage by allowing new antigens or concepts in immunogen design to more rapidly enter human testing. These challenges with production and purification are particularly apparent when developing recombinant protein-based vaccines for difficult parasitic diseases, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria being a prime example. To that end, we have previously reported the expression of a novel protein vaccine for malaria using the ExpreS(2)Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 stable cell line system, however, a very low overall process yield (typically <5% recovery of hexa-histidine-tagged protein) meant the initial purification strategy was not suitable for scale-up and clinical biomanufacture of such a vaccine. Here we describe a newly available affinity purification method that was ideally suited to purification of the same protein which encodes the P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 - currently the leading antigen for assessment in next generation vaccines aiming to prevent red blood cell invasion by the blood-stage parasite. This purification system makes use of a C-terminal tag known as 'C-tag', composed of the four amino acids, glutamic acid - proline - glutamic acid - alanine (E-P-E-A), which is selectively purified on a CaptureSelect™ affinity resin coupled to a camelid single chain antibody, called NbSyn2. The C-terminal fusion of this short C-tag to P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 achieved >85% recovery and >70% purity in a single step purification directly from clarified, concentrated Schneider 2 cell supernatant under mild conditions

  6. Genotoxic effects of bisphenol A on somatic cells of female mice, alone and in combination with X-rays.

    PubMed

    Gajowik, Aneta; Radzikowska, Joanna; Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M

    2013-10-09

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer used in the manufacture of epoxy, polycarbonate, and polystyrene resins, is a xenoestrogen present in many consumer products. We investigated the effects of 2-week exposure to BPA, either alone or in combination with X-rays, on the induction of DNA damage in somatic cells of female mice in vivo. The micronucleus and alkaline comet assays were used to evaluate genotoxicity. BPA induced DNA strand breaks in lung cells but not in bone marrow lymphocytes, liver, kidney, or spleen cells. Induction of micronuclei was observed only in polychromatic reticulocytes of peripheral blood. Levels of damage following combination exposure to ionizing radiation plus BPA depended on tissue, assay, and time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan

    SciTech Connect

    Bronn, L.J.; Paquelet, J.R.; Tetalman, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan.

  8. Procedures for monitoring recombinant erythropoietin and analogues in doping control.

    PubMed

    Segura, Jordi; Pascual, José A; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo

    2007-08-01

    The present report summarizes the main analytical strategies developed to identify the presence of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) administered as a doping agent. Indirect evidence is based on the analysis of blood parameters (haemoglobin, haematocrit, reticulocytes, macrocytes, etc.) and serum markers (concentration of EPO and serum transferrin receptors, etc.). The problem of intertechnique comparison for reliable results evaluation is emphasized, especially for serum markers. Charge differences between isoforms of recombinant EPO and native urinary EPO are the grounds for the isoelectric focusing-double blotting-chemiluminescence detection method presently approved for doping control. Works addressing its advantages and limitations are presented and commented on. The chemical bases of the differential detection are highlighted and some future approaches for detection are also presented. The appearance and detectability of EPO analogues and mimetics susceptible for abuse are also addressed.

  9. Limenin, a defensin-like peptide with multiple exploitable activities from shelf beans.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jack H; Ng, T B

    2006-05-01

    From the seeds of the shelf bean, an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa was isolated. The isolation procedure comprised affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The peptide was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. It potently suppressed mycelial growth in Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola with an IC(50) of 2.9, 2.1, and 0.34 microM, respectively. It exerted antibacterial activity toward several bacterial species with an IC(50) approximating 100 microM. [Methyl-(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into isolated mouse splenocytes was stimulated. [Methyl-(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into M1 (myeloma) and L1210 (leukemia) cells was inhibited. The peptide reduced the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and also inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system.

  10. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome in a 5-year-old Iranian boy

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzipour, K.; Zavvar, N.; Behnam, B.; Ahmadi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (IGS) is a rare syndrome characterized by clinical symptoms and signs of Vitamin B12 deficiency and proteinuria. Our patient was a 5-year-old boy with pallor, lack of appetite, and low weight gain. Laboratory studies showed severe macrocytic anemia, normal reticulocyte count, negative direct coombs test, normal osmotic fragility, and autohemolysis test. He has had intermittent proteinuria since 3 years ago despite normal creatinine level and absence of hematuria or hypertension. Finally, based on low level of serum B12 vitamin and normal folate level accompanied by asymptomatic proteinuria, the diagnosis of IGS was made. Furthermore, his sister has had laboratory abnormalities without any symptoms. IGS responded to B12 replacement therapy dramatically but intermittent proteinuria persisted even after appropriate therapy. PMID:27942180

  11. Translational Regulation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 mRNA by the Peptide SEQIKA, Shared by Rabbit α1-Globin and Human Cytokeratin 7

    PubMed Central

    Kanduc, Darja

    2002-01-01

    The possible biochemical factors able to affect the in vitro expression of the high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein have been analyzed. Evidence is provided that E7 mRNA stability is increased and, conversely, transcript translation is inhibited by binding to a 32-kDa protein from rabbit reticulocyte lysate; sequence analysis identified the 32-kDa binding protein as rabbit α1-globin protein; and interaction between rabbit α1-globin and E7 mRNA occurs through the 6-mer peptide SEQIKA present in human cytokeratin 7 protein. The in vitro data were confirmed by the occurrence of HPV16 E7 mRNA-cytokeratin 7 binding in squamous cervical cancer SiHa cells. PMID:12072504

  12. A 2-month-old boy with hemolytic anemia and reticulocytopenia following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for Kawasaki disease: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Yeon; Kim, Joon Hwan; Park, Jin Suk; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cho, Yeon Kyung; Cha, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ki Eun; Kang, Myung Suh; Lim, Kyung Ah

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a rare case of hemolytic anemia with reticulocytopenia following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a young infant treated for Kawasaki disease. A 2-month-old boy presented with fever lasting 3 days, conjunctival injection, strawberry tongue, erythematous edema of the hands, and macular rash, symptoms and signs suggestive of incomplete Kawasaki disease. His fever resolved 8 days after treatment with aspirin and high dose infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin. The hemoglobin and hematocrit decreased from 9.7 g/dL and 27.1% to 7.4 g/dL and 21.3%, respectively. The patient had normocytic hypochromic anemia with anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, immature neutrophils, and nucleated red blood cells. The direct antiglobulin test result was positive, and the reticulocyte count was 1.39%. The patient had an uneventful recovery. However, reticulocytopenia persisted 1 month after discharge. PMID:28018448

  13. Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: an enigma.

    PubMed

    Saha, M; Ray, S; Kundu, S; Chakrabarti, P

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease.

  14. Oral cyclophosphamide was effective for Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia in CD16+CD56- chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK-cells.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Nodoka; Nishina, Sayaka; Kawakami, Toru; Sakai, Hitoshi; Senoo, Noriko; Senoo, Yasushi; Ito, Toshiro; Saito, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Ishida, Fumihiro

    2016-12-27

    An 84-year-old woman was referred to our hospital presenting anemia. Her hemoglobin level was 5.8 g/dL, and white blood cell count was 9400/μL, consisting of 82% lymphocytes. Given the lymphocyte phenotype (CD2+, CD3-, CD16+, and CD56-) and negative whole blood EBV viral load, we made a diagnosis of chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells (CLPD-NK). We suspected hemolytic anemia because of the high levels of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood and the low haptoglobin value. Although the direct Coombs test was negative and there was no cold agglutination, we examined her red-blood-cell-bound IgG (RBC-IgG), which was elevated. She was diagnosed as having as Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We report the effectiveness of oral cyclophosphamide for Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia in CLPD-NK.

  15. Hematopoiesis in antiorthostatic, hypokinesic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Rats exposed to antiorthostatic, hypokinesia showed the following effects which are comparable to those seen in man during or after space flight: weight loss, reduced food and water consumption, transient increases in peripheral hematocrit and RBC count, decreasing MCV and reduced reticulocyte count. In addition, the hemoglobin P50 was shifted to the right. A significant shortening of RBC t1/2 was only seen after suspension. Changes in leukocyte and platelet numbers in suspended rats were also comparable to those in man during space flight, but leukocyte PHA sensitivity in rats showed no consistent alteration. The results demonstrate that this model reproduces many of the hematological effects of space flight and has potential as a tool in understanding the hematopoietic response to zero gravity.

  16. [The first pillar of patient blood management. Types of anemia and diagnostic parameters].

    PubMed

    Basora Macaya, M; Bisbe Vives, E

    2015-06-01

    Patient Blood Management (PBM) is the design of a personalized, multimodal multidisciplinary plan for minimizing transfusion and simultaneously achieving a positive impact on patient outcomes. The first pillar of PBM consists of optimizing the erythrocyte mass. The best chance for this step is offered by preoperative preparation. In most cases, a detailed medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests will identify the cause of anemia. A correct evaluation of parameters that assess the state and function of iron, such as ferritin levels, and the parameters that measure functional iron, such as transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor levels, provide us with essential information for guiding the treatment with iron. The new blood count analyzers that measure hypochromia (% of hypochromic red blood cells and reticulocyte hemoglobin concentrations) provide us useful information for the diagnosis and follow-up of the response to iron treatment. Measuring serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels is essential for treating deficiencies and thereby achieving better hemoglobin optimization.

  17. Clinical utility of flow cytometry in the study of erythropoiesis and nonclonal red cell disorders.

    PubMed

    Chesney, Alden; Good, David; Reis, Marciano

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoiesis involves proliferation and differentiation of small population of hematopoietic stem cells resident in the bone marrow into mature red blood cells. The determination of the cellular composition of the blood is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of therapy. Flow cytometric analysis is increasingly being used to characterize the heterogeneous cell populations present in the blood and the hematopoietic cell differentiation and maturation pathways of the bone marrow. Here we discuss the role of flow cytometry in the study of erythropoiesis and nonclonal red blood cell disorders. First, we discuss flow cytometric analysis of reticulocytes. Next, we review salient quantitative methods that can be used for detection of fetal-maternal hemorrhage (FMH). We also discuss flow cytometric analysis of high hemoglobin F (HbF) in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), red cell survival and red cell volume. We conclude by discussing cell cycle of erythroid cells.

  18. Homozygous hemoglobin Knossos (alpha 2 beta 227(B9) Ala----Ser): a new variety of beta (+)-thalassemia intermedia associated with delta (0)-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Baklouti, F; Dorléac, E; Morlé, L; Laselve, P; Peyramond, D; Aubry, M; Godet, J; Delaunay, J

    1986-04-01

    Hb Knossos (beta 27 (B9) Ala----Ser) is a recently discovered hemoglobin variant endowed with beta-thalassemic properties (1,2) We present the first homozygous cases. The propositus, a 19-year-old man is originally from northeast Algeria, but is unrelated to other Algerians who have hemoglobin Knossos. He has a beta(+)-thalassemia intermedia syndrome, including microcytic, hypochromic anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and an increase in the number of reticulocytes. The reduction of beta-chain synthesis is pronounced (alpha/non alpha:2.76). Whole cells containing Hb Knossos have a dramatically low oxygen affinity (P50:38 mm Hg). The propositus also has homozygous delta(0)-thalassemia. The chromosome carrying these mutations is characterized by the DNA haplotype I.

  19. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  20. Isolation and characterization of luffacylin, a ribosome inactivating peptide with anti-fungal activity from sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Parkash, A; Ng, T B; Tso, W W

    2002-06-01

    A purification scheme involving ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose and Mono S was employed to isolate a peptide with a molecular weight of 7.8kDa from sponge gourd seeds. The peptide, which was designated luffacylin, exhibited an N-terminal sequence with pronounced resemblance to that of the 6.5kDa arginine-glutamate rich polypeptide previously isolated from sponge gourd seeds. Luffacylin inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 140pM and reacted positively in the N-glycosidase assay for ribosome inactivating proteins. Luffacylin exerted anti-fungal activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Fusarium oxysporum.

  1. Production of ribosome-inactivating protein from hairy root cultures of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem.

    PubMed

    di Toppi, L S; Gorini, P; Properzi, G; Barbieri, L; Spanò, L

    1996-09-01

    Transformed root lines of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. (Cucurbitaceae) were established by inoculation of in vitro grown plantlets with wild type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 1855. Cloned lines of hairy roots were tested for the presence of ribosome-inactivating proteins; crude extracts inhibited protein synthesis in a reaction mixture based on rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Inhibitory activity increased during culture period, reaching a maximum value in the stationary phase. No activity could be detected in the culture medium, nor in extracts from callus and/or suspension cultures. A ribosome-inactivating protein having specific activity of 62,100 U mg protein(-1) and a molecular mass of 26-28,000 Da was purified to homogeneity. The protein showed N-glycosidase activity on rat liver ribosomes. The results demonstrate that hairy root cultures can be successfully utilized for the in vitro production of ribosome-inactivating proteins.

  2. Purification and characterization of Luffin P1, a ribosome-inactivating peptide from the seeds of Luffa cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Yang, Xin-xiu; Xia, Hen-chuan; Zeng, Rong; Hu, Wei-guo; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Zu-chuan

    2003-06-01

    A peptide designated Luffin P1 was purified from the seeds of Luffa cylindrica. Its molecular mass was determined to be 5226.1 Da by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The purified Luffin P1 shows a strong inhibitory activity on protein synthesis in the cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate with IC(50) of 0.88 nM. Its reaction mechanism is the same as that of the ribosome-inactivating protein trichosanthin, which is an rRNA N-glycosidase. Besides, the results of gel filtration chromatography suggested the existence of polymers of Luffin P1 and polymerization of Luffin P1 enhanced its rRNA N-glycosidase activity. Luffin P1 was the smallest peptide yet reported that has translational inhibitory activity. The cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of Luffin P1 has also been determined.

  3. [Familial pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anaemia. One case (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Garbarz, M; Bernard, J F; Boivin, P

    1980-11-22

    In a 24-year old man presenting with hypochromic microcytic anaemia, low reticulocyte count, increased serum iron and bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia with numerous ringed sideroblasts, the diagnosis of sideroblastic anaemia was confirmed by radioisotope study and bone marrow electron microscopy. The hereditary nature of the disease was demonstrated by the presence of microcytosis and increased serum iron in the mother and two sisters of the patient. One of the two sisters also had anaemia and abnormal ringed sideroblasts in her bone marrow. Her haemoglobin values and those of the propositus returned to normal under pyridoxine treatment, but hypochromia and abnormal sideroblasts persisted. This case of familial pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anaemia is consisted with X-chromosome-mediated transmission. The incomplete effect of pyridoxine suggests a congenital deficiency of some pyridoxine metabolism enzyme or another, as yet unidentified mechanism.

  4. Chronic Restraint Stress Upregulates Erythropoiesis through Glucocorticoid Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Voorhees, Jeffrey L.; Powell, Nicole D.; Moldovan, Leni; Mo, Xiaokui; Eubank, Timothy D.; Marsh, Clay B.

    2013-01-01

    In response to elevated glucocorticoid levels, erythroid progenitors rapidly expand to produce large numbers of young erythrocytes. Previous work demonstrates hematopoietic changes in rodents exposed to various physical and psychological stressors, however, the effects of chronic psychological stress on erythropoiesis has not be delineated. We employed laboratory, clinical and genomic analyses of a murine model of chronic restraint stress (RST) to examine the influence of psychological stress on erythropoiesis. Mice exposed to RST demonstrated markers of early erythroid expansion involving the glucocorticoid receptor. In addition, these RST-exposed mice had increased numbers of circulating reticulocytes and increased erythropoiesis in primary and secondary erythroid tissues. Mice also showed increases in erythroid progenitor populations and elevated expression of the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 in these cells. Together this work reports some of the first evidence of psychological stress affecting erythroid homeostasis through glucocorticoid stimulation. PMID:24205034

  5. A metastatic breast carcinoma presenting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Adorno, G; Girelli, G; Perrone, M P; Arista, M C; Coluzzi, S; Masi, M; Giudiceandrea, P; Papa, G

    1991-10-31

    The authors describe the case of a 75-year-old female who was hospitalized for anemia of unknown origin. Physical examination revealed a swelling in the right mammary region, where a mastectomy scar was present from surgery for a breast carcinoma. On admission, laboratory tests disclosed anemia (Hb, 8.5 g/dl), with a reticulocyte count of 65,000/mm3 and slightly increased bilirubin. Immunohematologic study revealed the presence of a red cell autoantibody with anti-D specificity in the serum and in the eluate from the patient's erythrocytes. A biopsy of the swelling was performed and histologic examination showed the presence of metastatic cells of breast carcinoma. The patient was given chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At this writing the anemia was absent, the immunohematologic study was negative, the swelling was greatly reduced, and no other metastatic lesions of breast carcinoma were present.

  6. A Chemical Screening Approach to Identify Novel Key Mediators of Erythroid Enucleation.

    PubMed

    Wölwer, Christina B; Pase, Luke B; Pearson, Helen B; Gödde, Nathan J; Lackovic, Kurt; Huang, David C S; Russell, Sarah M; Humbert, Patrick O

    2015-01-01

    Erythroid enucleation is critical for terminal differentiation of red blood cells, and involves extrusion of the nucleus by orthochromatic erythroblasts to produce reticulocytes. Due to the difficulty of synchronizing erythroblasts, the molecular mechanisms underlying the enucleation process remain poorly understood. To elucidate the cellular program governing enucleation, we utilized a novel chemical screening approach whereby orthochromatic cells primed for enucleation were enriched ex vivo and subjected to a functional drug screen using a 324 compound library consisting of structurally diverse, medicinally active and cell permeable drugs. Using this approach, we have confirmed the role of HDACs, proteasomal regulators and MAPK in erythroid enucleation and introduce a new role for Cyclin-dependent kinases, in particular CDK9, in this process. Importantly, we demonstrate that when coupled with imaging analysis, this approach provides a powerful means to identify and characterize rate limiting steps involved in the erythroid enucleation process.

  7. The Asymmetric Cell Division Regulators Par3, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 Are Not Essential for Erythroid Development or Enucleation.

    PubMed

    Wölwer, Christina B; Gödde, Nathan; Pase, Luke B; Elsum, Imogen A; Lim, Krystle Y B; Sacirbegovic, Faruk; Walkley, Carl R; Ellis, Sarah; Ohno, Shigeo; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Russell, Sarah M; Humbert, Patrick O

    2017-01-01

    Erythroid enucleation is the process by which the future red blood cell disposes of its nucleus prior to entering the blood stream. This key event during red blood cell development has been likened to an asymmetric cell division (ACD), by which the enucleating erythroblast divides into two very different daughter cells of alternate molecular composition, a nucleated cell that will be removed by associated macrophages, and the reticulocyte that will mature to the definitive erythrocyte. Here we investigated gene expression of members of the Par, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 asymmetric cell division complexes in erythroid cells, and functionally tested their role in erythroid enucleation in vivo and ex vivo. Despite their roles in regulating ACD in other contexts, we found that these polarity regulators are not essential for erythroid enucleation, nor for erythroid development in vivo. Together our results put into question a role for cell polarity and asymmetric cell division in erythroid enucleation.

  8. Electron microscopic studies on experimental poisoning in mice induced by cylindrospermopsin isolated from blue-green alga Umezakia natans.

    PubMed

    Terao, K; Ohmori, S; Igarashi, K; Ohtani, I; Watanabe, M F; Harada, K I; Ito, E; Watanabe, M

    1994-07-01

    The effects of cylindrospermopsin isolated from a blue-green alga Umezakia natans on mice were examined morphologically and biochemically. The main target of the phycotoxin was the liver. The thymus, kidneys and heart were also affected. There were four consecutive phases of the pathological changes in the liver. The initial phase was that of inhibition of the protein synthesis, the second phase of membrane proliferation followed, and then the third phase of fat droplet accumulation and finally the phase of cell death. Using globin synthesis in the rabbit reticulocytes system, it was clearly demonstrated that cylindrospermopsin is a potent inhibitor of the protein synthesis. Protein in microsomes from the mouse livers treated by cylindrospermopsin decreased in amount more significantly than that of phospholipid in microsomes. Furthermore, the amount of total P450 was extensively diminished in the toxin treated with hepatic microsomes.

  9. Purification of castamollin, a novel antifungal protein from Chinese chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2003-11-01

    A novel antifungal protein, designated castamollin, was isolated from Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollisima) seeds with a procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. Castamollin possessed a novel N-terminal sequence demonstrating little similarity to N-terminal sequences of Castanea sativa chitinase. Castamollin exhibited a molecular mass of 37kDa in gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. It inhibited the activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 7microM and translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 2.7microM. Castamollin displayed antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola, and Coprinus comatus but was devoid of lectin activity.

  10. Chloroplast ribosomal proteins of Chlamydomonas synthesized in the cytoplasm are made as precursors

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Polyadenylated RNA from Chlamydomonas was translated in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte system that employed [35S]methionine. Antibodies made to four chloroplast ribosomal proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm and imported into the organelle were used for indirect immunoprecipitation of the labeled translation products, which were subsequently visualized on fluorographs of SDS gels. The cytoplasmically synthesized chloroplast ribosomal proteins were first seen as precursors with apparent molecular weights of 1,000 to 6,000 greater than their respective mature forms. Processing of the ribosomal protein precursors to mature proteins was affected by adding a postribosomal supernatant that had been extracted from cells of Chlamydomonas. In contrast to the chloroplast ribosomal proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm, two such proteins made within the chloroplast were found to be synthesized in mature form in cell-free wheat germ translation systems programmed with nonpolyadenylated RNA. PMID:6202701

  11. [Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of anemia].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Keiya

    2008-03-01

    Anemia can result from deficient erythropoiesis [aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease (ACD), thalassemia, megaloblastic anemia, chronic renal failure, hematological malignancies, etc.], excessive RBC destruction [hereditary spherocytosis, inherited enzyme deficiency, hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), etc.], and blood loss. Based on the measured red cell size(MCV), anemia is classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic. Iron parameters (serum iron, serum ferritin, etc.), reticulocyte count, bone marrow examination, Coombs test, serum vitamin B12 level, and Ham test are also useful in the differential diagnosis of anemia. Novel treatment of anemia includes lenalidomide for 5q(-)MDS, azacitidine for high-risk MDS, and eculizumab for PNH. Oral iron chelator(deferasirox) developed for the treatment of transfusional iron overload is also very useful for the management of patients with bone marrow failure syndromes.

  12. Baicalein protects mice against radiation-induced DNA damages and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nitin Motilal

    2013-07-01

    Baicalein is the major flavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicaleins. This flavonoid is used extensively in Chinese herbal medicine. In the present study baicalein is evaluated for its radioprotective properties. Human blood cells when exposed to the γ-radiation ex vivo in presence of baicalein underwent the reduced DNA damage compared to the control. Baicalein administration prior to the whole-body γ-radiation (4 Gy) exposure of mice resulted in protecting the damage to the DNA as measured in their blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Mice when exposed to the radiation (whole body; 1.7 Gy) resulted in damage to the bone marrow as measured by micronucleated reticulocyte (MNRET) formation. Baicalein pre-treatment reduces the radiation induced damage to the bone marrow cells, as there was decrease in the percentage MNRET formation. These findings indicate radio-protecting ability of baicalein.

  13. Synthesis in vitro of precursors of the catalytic subunits of acetylcholinesterase from Torpedo marmorata and Electrophorus electricus.

    PubMed

    Sikorav, J L; Grassi, J; Bon, S

    1984-12-17

    We translated poly(A-rich messenger RNA prepared from the electric organs of Electrophorus electricus and Torpedo marmorata in a reticulocyte lysate system. In the case of Electrophorus, which appears to contain only one type of acetylcholinesterase catalytic subunit, an anti-(Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase) antiserum precipitated a single 65-kDa polypeptide from the products translation obtained in vitro. In the case of Torpedo, where a number of distinct catalytic subunits corresponding to different fractions of the enzyme have been described, an anti-(Torpedo acetylcholinesterase) antiserum precipitated two main polypeptides, 61 kDa and 65 kDa, both of which could be displaced by unlabelled purified Torpedo acetylcholinesterase. Synthesis in vitro thus appears to produce a single type of precursor of the acetylcholinesterase catalytic subunit for Electrophorus, and at least two distinct precursors for Torpedo, suggesting that several mRNAs code for the catalytic subunits in the latter species.

  14. Normocytic normochromic anemia due to automatic neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients without severe nephropathy: a possible role of microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takatoshi; Tojo, Katsuyoshi; Morimoto, Aya; Tajima, Naoko

    2005-12-01

    We describe here four male patients with long-term and poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. They shared many common characteristic complications, such as severe autonomic neuropathy, proliferative retinopathy and normocytic normochromic anemia without progressive renal failure and macroangiopathy. They also showed normal levels of erythropoietin and reticulocyte, which was considered relatively low. The coefficient of variation of R-R, a useful method to estimate autonomic failure, showed markedly advanced autonomic neuropathy in all four patients. Coronary angiography did not reveal stenosis, anomaly or collateral vessels, but left ventriclography showed diffuse or partial hypokinesis. Massive proteinuria, high urinary levels of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamidase (NAG) and beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) were detected, though creatinine clearance (Ccr) was not so deteriorated. Treatment with recombinant erythropoietin increased their hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. These common points have a possibility to be brought about by tubulointerstitial damage and microangiopathy may be involved in it.

  15. Refractory anemia in human immunodeficiency virus: Expect the unexpected.

    PubMed

    Mirgh, Sumeet Prakash; Mishra, Vikas A; Shah, Virti D; Sorabjee, Jehangir Soli

    2016-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon hematological disorder affecting selectively the erythroid cell lines. PRCA is defined as anemia with normal leukocyte and platelet counts, a corrected reticulocyte count <1%, <5% erythroid precursors in the bone marrow and an absence of hemolysis. We describe a case of Zidovudine (AZT) induced PRCA causing severe anemia in a patient taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) after 4 months of starting therapy and in whom all other causes were excluded. The hematological abnormalities resolved after AZT was replaced with tenofovir and the patient remained transfusion independent thereafter. A slowly progressive normocytic-normochromic anemia and reticulocytopenia, without leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in a patient, should raise the suspicion of PRCA. Search for underlying diseases, infections and drugs may help in the diagnosis and etiology of acquired PRCA. Elimination of potentially causative factors may induce complete recovery. AZT is a well-known cause of anemia and thus should be used with caution in the initiation of ART.

  16. Coincidental Finding of Beta Thalassaemia Minor in a Patient of Lacquer Thinner Poisoning Presenting as Methaemoglobinemia

    PubMed Central

    Mohanpuria, Anisha; Buxi, Gurdeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain various aromatic hydrocarbons and naphtha; if ingested, may cause methaemoglobinemia. We report a case of 13-year-old girl who presented with episodes of vomiting, abdominal pain and numbness of limbs. Peripheral blood smear showed few fragmented erythrocytes and 10-12 nucleated red blood cells /100 white blood cells. Reticulocyte count was 15% with presence of Heinz bodies. There was a history of accidental ingestion of lacquer paint thinner. Levels of methaemoglobin were very high along with raised HbA2 levels. An impression of haemolytic anaemia, due to lacquer thinner paint poisoning, with methaemoglobinemia was given. Incidentally High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed increased HbA2 levels i.e., heterozygous inheritance of beta thalassaemia minor. Patient responded well to methylene blue. Blood transfusion was performed and symptomatic treatment was given. PMID:28050380

  17. Some Biochemical Properties of an Acido-Thermophilic Archae-Bacterium Sulfolobus Acidocaldarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Tairo; Ohba, Masayuki; Wagaki, Takayoshi

    1984-12-01

    To elucidate the phylogenic status of archaebacteria, some basic cellular components of an acido-thermophilic archaebacterium,Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, were studied. Poly(A) containing RNA was present in the cells, and performed the role of mRNA in a cell-free extract of reticulocyte or the archaebacteria. Poly(A) containing RNA was also found in other archaebacterial cells. The absence of cap structure was suggested in these RNAs. The cell-free protein synthesis using the archaebacterial extract was inhibited by anisomycin, a specific inhibitor for eukaryotic ribosomes. Two unique membrane-bound ATPases were detected. Based on resistance to H+-ATPase inhibitors, these enzymes seemed not to be F0F1-ATPase.

  18. Activation of the heat-stable polypeptide of the ATP-dependent proteolytic system.

    PubMed Central

    Ciechanover, A; Heller, H; Katz-Etzion, R; Hershko, A

    1981-01-01

    It had been shown previously that the heat-stable polypeptide of the ATP-dependent proteolytic system of reticulocytes, designated APF-1, forms covalent conjugates with protein substrates in an ATP-requiring process. We now describe an enzyme that carries out the activation by ATP of the polypeptide with pyrophosphate displacement. The formation of AMP-polypeptide and transfer of the polypeptide to a secondary acceptor are suggested by an APF-1 requirement for ATP-PPi and ATP-AMP exchange reactions, respectively. With radiolabeled polypeptide, an ATP-dependent labeling of the enzyme was shown to be by a linkage that is acid stable but is labile to treatment with mild alkali, hydroxylamine, borohydride, or mercuric salts. It therefore appears that the AMP-polypeptide undergoes attack by an -SH group of the enzyme to form a thiolester. PMID:6262770

  19. Reading two bases twice: mammalian antizyme frameshifting in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Matsufuji, S; Matsufuji, T; Wills, N M; Gesteland, R F; Atkins, J F

    1996-01-01

    Programmed translational frameshifting is essential for the expression of mammalian ornithine decarboxylase antizyme, a protein involved in the regulation of intracellular polyamines. A cassette containing antizyme frameshift signals is found to direct high-level (16%) frameshifting in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to +1 frameshifting in the mammalian system, in yeast the same frame is reached by -2 frameshifting. Two bases are read twice. The -2 frameshifting is likely to be mediated by slippage of mRNA and re-pairing with the tRNA in the P-site. The downstream pseudoknot stimulates frameshifting by 30-fold compared with 2.5-fold in reticulocyte lysates. When the length of the spacer between the shift site and the pseudoknot is extended by three nucleotides, +1 and -2 frameshifting become equal. Images PMID:8635469

  20. The role of exosomes in hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiliang; Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Yu, Hong; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Yaping; Liang, Yuelong; Li, Zheyong; Feng, Xu; Zhao, Jie; Duan, Lian; Cai, Xiujun

    2017-02-22

    Exosomes are small vesicles that were initially thought to be a mechanism for discarding unneeded membrane proteins from reticulocytes. Their mediation of intercellular communication appears to be associated with several biological functions. Current studies have shown that most mammalian cells undergo the process of exosome formation and utilize exosome-mediated cell communication. Exosomes contain various microRNAs, mRNAs and proteins. They have been reported to mediate multiple functions, such as antigen presentation, immune escape and tumour progression. This concise review highlights the findings regarding the roles of exosomes in liver diseases, particularly hepatitis B, hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, further elucidation of the contributions of exosomes to intercellular information transmission is needed. The potential medical applications of exosomes in liver diseases seem practical and will depend on the ingenuity of future investigators and their insights into exosome-mediated biological processes.

  1. Age-related changes in haematology and serum chemistry of Weiser-Maples guineapigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, M; Yamaguchi, M; Nakamura, M; Sakurada, K; Suwa, T; Sasa, H

    2005-07-01

    Age-related changes in haematology and serum chemistry values were examined in male and female Weiser-Maples guineapigs (Cavia porcellus). Haematological changes that significantly (P<0.01) correlated with ageing were increased white blood cell and neutrophil counts in both sexes, decreased lymphocyte counts in both sexes, decreased reticulocyte and platelet counts in males, and decreased basophil counts in females. For serum chemistry, increases in total protein, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were seen in both sexes, along with increases in total cholesterol in males and sodium in females. Decreased alkaline phosphatase in both sexes and decreased chloride in males were significantly (P<0.01) associated with age. These age-related changes are compared with the published literature.

  2. Clinico-biochemical studies on acute toxic nephropathy in goats due to uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, P.K.; Joshi, H.C.

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxic nephropathy was produced in 6 healthy goats by injecting intravenously 1% uranyl nitrate (UN) (15 mg/kg body weight). The early painful clinical signs simulating shock progressed with subnormal temperature, slow-shallow respiration and arrhythmic pulse followed by death due to respiratory failure within 96 to 120 hr. All the affected goats had normocytic normochromic anemia, leucocytosis, neutrophilia with left shift eosinopenia, decreased monocytes and presence of 1-2% reticulocytes in the peripheral blood smears. On blood chemical analysis, a uniform and continuous rise was seen in serum creatinine with a concomitant daily increase of serum urea and uric acid. Simultaneous analysis of urine indicated polyuria leading to oliguria, acidic pH, albuminuria, glycosuria with presence of neutrophils, RBC's, epithelial and fatty casts, increase of triple phosphate, and cystine crystals reflecting acute damage of kidneys in the affected goats.

  3. Analyses of Interactions Between Heparin and the Apical Surface Proteins of Plasmodium falciparum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Takano, Ryo; Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Ishiwa, Akiko; Gong, Haiyan; Recuenco, Frances C.; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi; Kato, Kentaro

    2013-11-01

    Heparin, a sulfated glycoconjugate, reportedly inhibits the blood-stage growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Elucidation of the inhibitory mechanism is valuable for developing novel invasion-blocking treatments based on heparin. Merozoite surface protein 1 has been reported as a candidate target of heparin; however, to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved, we characterized the molecules that bind to heparin during merozoite invasion. Here, we show that heparin binds only at the apical tip of the merozoite surface and that multiple heparin-binding proteins localize preferentially in the apical organelles. To identify heparin-binding proteins, parasite proteins were fractionated by means of heparin affinity chromatography and subjected to immunoblot analysis with ligand-specific antibodies. All tested members of the Duffy and reticulocyte binding-like families bound to heparin with diverse affinities. These findings suggest that heparin masks the apical surface of merozoites and blocks interaction with the erythrocyte membrane after initial attachment.

  4. Iron-binding fragments from the carboxyl-terminal region of hen ovotransferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J

    1975-01-01

    1. When iron-saturated hen ovotransferrin was treated with subtilisin the N-terminal half was digested at a faster rate than the C-terminal half, allowing the latter to be isolated as a single-chain fragment of mol.wt 35000. 2. In mildly acid conditions iron-ovotransferrin loses iron preferentially from its N-terminal binding site. Trypsin digestion of the resulting monoferric ovotransferrin also gave rise to a C-terminal fragment. 3. Comparison of the N-terminal fragment with the C-terminal fragments shows differences in composition, peptide 'maps', CNBr-cleavage patterns and antigenic structures. The C-terminal fragments carry the carbohydrate group of ovotransferrin. 4. Both N-terminal and C-terminal fragments donate their bound iron to rabbit reticulocytes. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:811217

  5. Depurination of ribosomal RNA and inhibition of viral RNA translation by an antiviral protein of Celosia cristata.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, V K; Tumer, Nilgun E; Kapoor, H C

    2002-10-01

    An antiviral protein (25 kD) isolated from leaves of Celosia cristata (CCP 25) was tested for depurination study on ribosomal RNA from yeast. Ribosomal RNA yielded 360 nucleotide base fragment after treatment with CCP 25 indicating that CCP 25 was a ribosome inactivating protein. CCP 25 also inhibited translation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) and pokeweed mosaic virus (PMV) RNAs in rabbit reticulocyte translation system. The radioactive assay showed that incorporation of [35S]-methionine was less in translation proteins of BMV nucleic acid when CCP 25 was added to translation system. This indicated that antiviral protein from Celosia cristata not only depurinated ribosomal RNA but also inhibited translation of viral RNA in vitro.

  6. Coincidental Finding of Beta Thalassaemia Minor in a Patient of Lacquer Thinner Poisoning Presenting as Methaemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Charu; Mohanpuria, Anisha; Buxi, Gurdeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-11-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain various aromatic hydrocarbons and naphtha; if ingested, may cause methaemoglobinemia. We report a case of 13-year-old girl who presented with episodes of vomiting, abdominal pain and numbness of limbs. Peripheral blood smear showed few fragmented erythrocytes and 10-12 nucleated red blood cells /100 white blood cells. Reticulocyte count was 15% with presence of Heinz bodies. There was a history of accidental ingestion of lacquer paint thinner. Levels of methaemoglobin were very high along with raised HbA2 levels. An impression of haemolytic anaemia, due to lacquer thinner paint poisoning, with methaemoglobinemia was given. Incidentally High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed increased HbA2 levels i.e., heterozygous inheritance of beta thalassaemia minor. Patient responded well to methylene blue. Blood transfusion was performed and symptomatic treatment was given.

  7. Preparation of a cDNA library from the hagfish slime gland

    SciTech Connect

    Gadbois, D.M.; Salo, W.L.; Ann, D.K.; Downing, S.W.; Carlson, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    The slime glands of hagfish have two major cell types, gland thread cells (GTCs) and gland mucous cells (GMCs), both of which upon contact with water contribute to an abundant viscous mucus. GTCs are unique specialized cells in which 60-80% of the mature GTC volume is occupied by a single tapered thread about 60 cm long formed by bundling keratin intermediate filaments (IFs). Each IF is composed of three 63.5 kD protein subunits (..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma..). Poly (A/sup +/) mRNA was isolated from GTCs and translated by the rabbit reticulocyte system with (/sup 35/S) Met. Analysis of the translation products showed a major labeled protein at 65 kD. A cDNA library prepared from the poly (A/sup +/) mRNAs was screened with /sup 32/P-labeled IF probes from human epidermis. Several clones containing cross-hybridizing inserts were identified.

  8. New procedure for isolation of Rous sarcoma virus-specific RNA from infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, P A; Spahr, P F; Darlix, J L

    1979-01-01

    The use of mercurated "strong stop" complementary DNA (complementary to the 5'-terminal 101 nucleotides of Rous sarcoma virus RNA) in the isolation of virus-specific RNA from infected chicken embryo fibroblasts is described. Strong stop Rous sarcoma virus complementary DNA was mercurated chemically, and, as a result of the low complexity of this DNA, short hybridization times (up to 15 min) and heating in the absence of formamide were found to be adequate conditions for the isolation of virus-specific RNA. The purity of the isolated RNA was demonstrated by analysis of labeled RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isolated RNA could be translated in the in vitro protein synthesis system derived from rabbit reticulocytes, and an analysis of polypeptides programmed by isolated RNA before and after immunoprecipitation further demonstrated both the purity of the isolated mRNA and the quantitative nature of the isolation procedure. Images PMID:228062

  9. [Iron deficiency in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Helsen, Tuur; Joosten, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    Anemia is a common diagnosis in the geriatric population, especially in institutionalized and hospitalized elderly. Most common etiologies for anemia in elderly people admitted to a geriatric ward are iron-deficiency anemia and anemia associated with chronic disease. Determination of serum ferritin is the most used assay in the differential diagnosis, despite low sensitivity and moderate specificity. New insights into iron homeostasis lead to new diagnostic assays such as serum hepcidin, serum transferrin receptor and reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent.Importance of proper diagnosis and treatment for this population is large since there is a correlation between anemia and morbidity - mortality. Anemia is usually defined as hemoglobin less than 12 g/dl for women and less than 13 g/dl for men. There is no consensus for which hemoglobinvalue an investigation into underlying pathology is obligatory. This needs to be evaluated depending on functional condition of the patient.

  10. Mildiomycin: a nucleoside antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Cosín, M; Carrasco, L

    1985-03-01

    Mildiomycin, a new nucleoside antibiotic, selectively inhibits protein synthesis in HeLa cells, and is less active in the inhibition of RNA or DNA synthesis. An increased inhibition of translation by mildiomycin is observed in cultured HeLa cells when they are permeabilized by encephalomyocarditis virus. This observation suggests that this antibiotic does not easily pass through the cell membrane, as occurs with other nucleoside and aminoglycoside antibiotics. The inhibition of translation is also observed in cell-free systems, such as endogenous protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate or the synthesis of polyphenylalanine directed by poly (U). Finally the mode of action of mildiomycin was investigated and the results suggest that the compound blocks the peptidyl-transferase center.

  11. [The hematotoxic and nephrotoxic actions of dispirotripiperazine derivatives in a chronic experiment].

    PubMed

    Lavrik, O I; Shashkina, L F; Ivanova, V M; Nechushkina, L V; Zaikina, T N

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dispirotripiperazine derivatives spirobromin and prospidin on the parameters of the peripheral blood and behavioral reactions in a chronic 12-month experiment were studied. The experiment was performed on noninbred rats of both sexes. The maximal tolerated doses of the drugs were administered by two routes (intragastrically or intraperitoneally). Hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, reticulocytes, eosinophils were determined in the blood. The behavioral reactions were registered by the methods of the "open field" and the "open area". Under the conditions of the chronic experiment spirobromin and prospidin were shown to exert no significant effect on the parameters of the peripheral blood except a decrease in the amount of erythrocytes. It was noted that spirobromin exerted the most pronounced toxic action on erythrocytes. As to the behavioral reactions, after the administration of prospidin, the neurotoxic action on the rats was found after 12-14 months of observation.

  12. A rapid and robust tri-color flow cytometry assay for monitoring malaria parasite development.

    PubMed

    Malleret, Benoît; Claser, Carla; Ong, Alice Soh Meoy; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Howland, Shanshan Wu; Russell, Bruce; Nosten, Francois; Rénia, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears remains the gold standard method used to quantify and stage malaria parasites. However, this technique is tedious, and requires trained microscopists. We have developed a fast and simple flow cytometry method to quantify and stage, various malaria parasites in red blood cells in whole blood or in vitro cultured Plasmodium falciparum. The parasites were stained with dihydroethidium and Hoechst 33342 or SYBR Green I and leukocytes were identified with an antibody against CD45. Depending on the DNA stains used, samples were analyzed using different models of flow cytometers. This protocol, which does not require any washing steps, allows infected red blood cells to be distinguished from leukocytes, as well as allowing non-infected reticulocytes and normocytes to be identified. It also allows assessing the proportion of parasites at different developmental stages. Lastly, we demonstrate how this technique can be applied to antimalarial drug testing.

  13. Haematological changes in male and female pharaoh quails (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) after Ekatin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gromysz-Kałkowska, K; Szubartowska, E

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the blood of pharaoh quails after Ekatin intoxication, to define the duration of disturbances caused by intoxication and to examine possible sex differences in the birds' reaction to intoxication. It was found that Ekatin reduced the number of erythrocytes, haemoglobin level and haematocrit value, increased erythroblast and reticulocyte numbers and increased the osmotic resistance of blood cells. It was shown that this pesticide caused neutrophilic leucocytosis with lymphopaenia and eosinopaenia. In males changes in the blood appeared far earlier than in females and they underwent compensation earlier, that is, 3 weeks after intoxication the majority of the haemotological parameters reached values similar to the control.

  14. Transient Hemolytic Anemia after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rebollo, Sagrario; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Diaz-Romero, Francisco; Rodriguez-Moreno, Fermin; Martinez-Riera, Antonio

    1996-01-01

    Management of variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension constitutes a challenging issue, particularly in child's C cirrhotic patients. Recently, transjugular placement of self-expanding metallic stents in the liver (TIPS), creating a shunt between the portal and hepatic branches has provided a safe and promising therapeutic approach in this clinical situation. We report here the case of a 66-year-old male cirrhotic patient who developed a moderately severe clinical picture of a Coombsnegative hemolytic anemia (serum hemoglobin, 93 g/l, serum bilirubin 160.74 umol/L (9.4 mg/dl), indirect 6.3 mg/dl (107.73 umol/L); serum LDH 1220 u/l, reticulocytes, 5.1%. serum ferritin, 1221 ug/1, schistocytes in peripheral blood smear) the week after undergoing a TIPS, suggesting the development ofa microangiopathic hemolytic anaemia secondary to red blood cell disruption by passing through the metallic network of the stent. PMID:8809588

  15. Practical Murine Hematopathology: A Comparative Review and Implications for Research

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Karyn E; Mikkola, Amy M; Stepanek, Aaron M; Vernet, Andyna; Hall, Christopher D; Sun, Chia C; Yildirim, Eda; Staropoli, John F; Lee, Jeannie T; Brown, Diane E

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic parameters are important markers of disease in human and veterinary medicine. Biomedical research has benefited from mouse models that recapitulate such disease, thus expanding knowledge of pathogenetic mechanisms and investigative therapies that translate across species. Mice in health have many notable hematologic differences from humans and other veterinary species, including smaller erythrocytes, higher percentage of circulating reticulocytes or polychromasia, lower peripheral blood neutrophil and higher peripheral blood and bone marrow lymphocyte percentages, variable leukocyte morphologies, physiologic splenic hematopoiesis and iron storage, and more numerous and shorter-lived erythrocytes and platelets. For accurate and complete hematologic analyses of disease and response to investigative therapeutic interventions, these differences and the unique features of murine hematopathology must be understood. Here we review murine hematology and hematopathology for practical application to translational investigation. PMID:25926395

  16. Study of phosphorylation of translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2) from wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Smailov, S K; Lee, A V; Iskakov, B K

    1993-04-26

    Phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (EF-2) by specific Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase is considered as a possible mechanism of regulation of protein biosynthesis in animal cells at the level of polypeptide chain elongation. In this report we show that wheat germ EF-2 can be intensively phosphorylated by the rabbit reticulocyte EF-2 kinase. Phosphorylation results in inhibition of the activity of plant EF-2 in poly(U)-dependent cell-free translation system. Thus, the activity of EF-2 in plant cells can be potentially regulated by phosphorylation. However, we could not detect endogenous EF-2 kinase activity in wheat germ either in vitro or in vivo. Furthermore, EF-2 kinase activity is not displayed in different organs of wheat and other higher plants.

  17. cis-acting translational effects of the 5' noncoding region of c-myc mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, N.; Darveau, A.; Nicholson, R.; Sonenberg, N.

    1988-07-01

    The authors previously shown that the 5' noncoding region of mouse c-myc mRNA has a negative effect on translational efficiency in a rabbit reticulocyte Iysate. They wanted to localize and characterize the inhibitory translational element(s) in the mRNA and to study its effect in other in vitro and in vivo systems. There they report that the restrictive element is confined to a 240-nucleotide sequence of the 5' noncoding region of mouse c-myc mRNA and that this sequence acts in cis to inhibit the translation of a heterologous mRNA. In addition, they report that the cis-inhibitory effect is also exhibited in microinjected Xenopus ooctyes and wheat-germ extracts but not in HeLa cell extracts. Transfection of corresponding plasmid DNA constructs into several established cell lines did not produce the cis-inhibitory effect. A model to explain these results is presented.

  18. Amiloride, protein synthesis, and activation of quiescent cells.

    PubMed

    Lubin, M; Cahn, F; Coutermarsh, B A

    1982-11-01

    Amiloride is known to inhibit both influx of sodium ions and activation of quiescent cells by growth factors. The coincidence of these effects has been cited to support the proposal that influx of sodium ions acts as a mitogenic signal. Although it was noted that amiloride inhibited protein synthesis, this was attributed to an action on transport of amino acids, particularly those coupled to sodium fluxes. We find, however, that amiloride directly inhibits polypeptide synthesis in a reticulocyte lysate. In Swiss 3T3 cells, concentrations of amiloride and of cycloheximide that are nearly matched in their degree of inhibition of protein synthesis, produce about the same degree of inhibition of transit of cells from G0 to S. Inhibition of protein synthesis is sufficient to explain the effect of amiloride on mitogenesis; the drug, therefore, is not suitable for testing the hypothesis that sodium influx is a mitogenic signal.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Mücke, Victoria; Mücke, Marcus M.; Raine, Tim; Bettenworth, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Anemia represents one of the most frequent complications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and severely impairs the quality of life of affected patients. The etiology of anemia in IBD patients can be multifactorial, often involving a combination of iron deficiency (ID) and anemia of chronic disease (ACD). Although current guidelines recommend screening for and treatment of anemia in IBD patients, current observational data suggest that it still remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Besides basic laboratory parameters (e.g. mean corpuscular volume, reticulocyte count, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, etc.), the concentration of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and novel parameters such as the sTfR/log ferritin index can guide the challenging task of differentiating between ID and ACD. Once identified, causes of anemia should be treated accordingly. This review summarizes our current understanding of anemia in IBD patients, including the underlying pathology, diagnostic approaches and appropriate anemia treatment regimens. PMID:28042234

  20. Glutathione peroxidase 4 prevents necroptosis in mouse erythroid precursors

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Özge; Alankuş, Yasemin B.; Grootjans, Sasker; Vegi, Naidu; Hültner, Lothar; Hoppe, Philipp S.; Schroeder, Timm; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bornkamm, Georg W.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining cellular redox balance is vital for cell survival and tissue homoeostasis because imbalanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to oxidative stress and cell death. The antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is a key regulator of oxidative stress–induced cell death. We show that mice with deletion of Gpx4 in hematopoietic cells develop anemia and that Gpx4 is essential for preventing receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3)-dependent necroptosis in erythroid precursor cells. Absence of Gpx4 leads to functional inactivation of caspase 8 by glutathionylation, resulting in necroptosis, which occurs independently of tumor necrosis factor α activation. Although genetic ablation of Rip3 normalizes reticulocyte maturation and prevents anemia, ROS accumulation and lipid peroxidation in Gpx4-deficient cells remain high. Our results demonstrate that ROS and lipid hydroperoxides function as not-yet-recognized unconventional upstream signaling activators of RIP3-dependent necroptosis. PMID:26463424

  1. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-Ge3: combined antibody-dependent hemolysis and erythroid precursor cell growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Blackall, Douglas P; Pesek, Gina D; Montgomery, Matthew M; Oza, Krishna K; Arndt, Patricia A; Garratty, George; Shahcheraghi, Ali; Denomme, Gregory A

    2008-10-01

    The Gerbich (Ge) antigens are a collection of high-incidence antigens carried on the red blood cell membrane glycoproteins, glycophorins C and D. Antibodies against these antigens are uncommon, and there have been only rare case reports of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-Ge. In this case report, we present a neonate with severe anemia and hyperbilirubinemia due to anti-Ge3. Routine and special laboratory studies undertaken in this case suggested two mechanisms for the patient's hemolysis and persistent anemia. Antibody-dependent hemolysis was associated with early-onset hyperbilirubinemia, anemia, and a mild reticulocytosis, and inhibition of erythroid progenitor cell growth was associated with late anemia and normal bilirubin and reticulocyte values. Though rare, anti-Ge3 can be a dangerous antibody in pregnancy. Affected neonates may require intensive initial therapy and close follow-up for at least several weeks after delivery.

  2. Low doses of high-potency antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in severe aplastic anemia: experience with the Mexican ATG.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Lamas, J L; López-Karpovitch, X; Marín-López, A; Romero-García, F; Ruiz-Argüelles, G J; Ruiz-Gonzalez, D S; Taboada, C; Vázquez-Villegas, V; Elena Zarzosa, M

    1989-01-01

    Twenty patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) were treated with low doses (1-5 mg/kg/day) of a high-potency antithymocyte globulin (ATG) produced in Mexico, shown to have at least a 10-fold potency as compared with other globulins of commercial sources. Patients received ATG within a 10-day period, every other day (5 doses) at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day (4 courses), 2 mg/kg/day (12 courses) or 5 mg/kg/day (8 courses). Four patients received 2 consecutive courses of different doses of ATG. A response rate of 42% was recorded in the group, assessed by means of increases in reticulocytes, granulocytes or platelets. One patient showed a complete remission. The 570-day survival of the group was 51%. It is concluded that the domestically produced ATG is useful in the treatment of some patients with SAA in Mexico.

  3. [Hemolytic anemias in adults].

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Zimmermann, R; Krause, S W

    2011-11-01

    The erythrocyte lifespan in haemolytic anemia is shortened while erythropoesis is increased. Important labaratory findings are increased reticulocytes, LDH, indirect bilirubin and a decreased haptoglobin level. The most important diagnostic tool for further work up of hemolytic anemia is the direct antiglobulin test (DAT, Coombs test) to differentiate autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) from other causes. Another important group are fragmentation syndroms (hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura). In these forms of haemolytic anemia fragmented red blood cells can be found in the blood smear together with thrombocytopenia. A severe problem in paroxysmal nocturnal hematuria is the incidence of thrombosis. The following review describes the most important forms of hemolytic anemia in the adult and the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  4. Malaria invasion ligand RH5 and its prime candidacy in blood-stage malaria vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Ord, Rosalynn L; Rodriguez, Marilis; Lobo, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    With drug resistance to available therapeutics continuing to develop against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the development of an effective vaccine candidate remains a major research goal. Successful interruption of invasion of parasites into erythrocytes during the blood stage of infection will prevent the severe clinical symptoms and complications associated with malaria. Previously studied blood stage antigens have highlighted the hurdles that are inherent to this life-cycle stage, namely that highly immunogenic antigens are also globally diverse, resulting in protection only against the vaccine strain, or that naturally acquired immunity to blood stage antigens do not always correlate with actual protection. The blood stage antigen reticulocyte binding homolog RH5 is essential for parasite viability, has globally limited diversity, and is associated with protection from disease. Here we summarize available information on this invasion ligand and recent findings that highlight its candidacy for inclusion in a blood-stage malaria vaccine. PMID:25844685

  5. Different polypeptide composition of two human rotavirus types.

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, R; Martínez, E; López, S; Muñoz, O

    1980-01-01

    Human rotaviruses, which are placed into two groups according to their ribonucleic acid patterns obtained by gel electrophoresis, were characterized both by polypeptide components from purified virions and by polypeptides translated from their denatured ribonucleic acids in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Viruses assigned to different groups differed in the electrophoretic migration of the second largest of the polypeptides which compose the inner shell; polypeptides that had been synthetized in vitro from ribonucleic acid from each group showed this same difference, thus indicating that this is due to the genomic composition. This study suggests that there are differences in the third largest polypeptide of the inner shell and also in the three smaller polypeptides composing the outer shell. We also demonstrated that there are differences in genomic and polypeptide compositions between simian (SA11) and calf (Nebraska calf diarrhea virus) rotaviruses grown in tissue culture and human rotaviruses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6247284

  6. Purification and characterization of charantin, a napin-like ribosome-inactivating peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Parkash, A; Ng, T B; Tso, W W

    2002-05-01

    A peptide designated charantin, with a molecular mass of 9.7 kDa, was isolated from bitter gourd seeds. The procedure comprised affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on Mono S and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The N-terminal sequence of charantin exhibited marked similarity to that of the 7.8-kDa napin-like peptide previously isolated from bitter gourd seeds. Charantin inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC50 of 400 nm, a potency lower than that of the previously reported small ribosome-inactivating protein gamma-momorcharin (IC50 = 55 nm) which also exhibited an abundance of arginine and glutamate/glutamine residues. Charantin reacted positively in the N-glycosidase assay, yielding a band similar to that formed by the small ribosome-inactivating proteins gamma-momorcharin and luffin S.

  7. Hematologic changes in mice during and after exposure to severe hypobaric hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, J. E.; Kaufman, G. E.; Ingram, M.

    1975-01-01

    Exposing mice to an atmospheric pressure of 300 mm Hg for 16 d caused a variety of hematologic effects. Hematocrit increased rapidly in the first 8 d of exposure and slowly in the second 8 d. Reticulocyte counts rose above normal, peaked on day 8, and then fell rapidly toward the control level. Macrocytic erythrocytes, formed during exposure, remained macrocytic after the termination of exposure and after the loss of their reticulum. The posthypoxic mice proved sensitive for erythropoietin bioassay. Mice injected with normal dog serum showed a significantly higher incorporation of Fe-59 than control mice injected with physiologic saline. A reduction of the duration of exposure to 10 d resulted in only a slight decrease in the sensitivity of the mouse bioassay system. However, a 16-d exposure at a pressure of 360 mm Hg resulted in considerably less sensitive bioassay animals.

  8. Elongation index of erythrocytes, study of activity of chosen erythrocyte enzymes, and the levels of glutathione, malonyldialdehyde in polycythemia vera (PV).

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Z; Dybowicz, A J; Marchewka, A; Teległów, A; Skotnicki, A; Zduńczyk, A; Aleksander, P; Filar-Mierzwa, K

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of the study was to investigate rheological properties of erythrocytes obtained from patients admitted to the clinic, and diagnosed with polycythemia vera. The polycythemia vera diagnosis was based on the WHO criteria for polycythemia vera. Using a laser rheometer SSD Rheometer-Rheodyn, the elongation index of erythrocytes was determined, indicating an increased rigidity of the erythrocytes in this disease compared with the erythrocytes in healthy people. In order to explain (albeit partially) the reason for reduced elasticity, the erythrocytes of patients with polycythemia were studied for the activity of enzymes - glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and acetylcholinesterase membrane enzyme, as well as the levels of glutathione and malonyldialdehyde. The elevated activities of these enzymes, the glutathione level, and elevated ‰ of reticulocytes, indicated an increased pool of juvenile erythrocyte forms; furthermore, the elevated value of malonyldialdehyde may suggest a lipid peroxidative damage in certain pool of the erythrocyte membrane in blood circulation.

  9. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  10. Chloroplast protein import inhibition by a soluble factor from wheat germ lysate.

    PubMed

    Schleiff, Enrico; Motzkus, Michael; Soll, Jürgen

    2002-09-01

    Protein import into chloroplasts occurs post-translationally in vitro. The precursor proteins are generally synthesised in a reticulocyte lysate- or wheat germ lysate-derived system and imported out of this system into chloroplast. These complex soluble protein mixtures are likely to contain factors, which influence somehow the import competence and import efficiency. Here we describe a heat-stable soluble proteinaceaous factor, which inhibits protein import into chloroplasts in vitro. The inhibitor interacts directly with the precursor protein and renders it import incompetent. This mode of action is supported by two observations: firstly, binding of the precursor to the chloroplast surface is diminished in the presence of the inhibitor. Secondly, when chloroplasts were loaded with precursor proteins under conditions, which allow only binding but not import the inhibitor was unable to abolish the subsequent translocation step.

  11. Hematopoiesis in antiorthostatic, hypokinesic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Rats exposed to antiorthostatic, hypokinesia showed the following effects which are comparable to those seen in man during or after space flight: weight loss, reduced food and water consumption, transient increases in peripheral hematocrit and RBC count, decreasing MCV and reduced reticulocyte count. In addition, the hemoglobin P50 was shifted to the right. A significant shortening of RBC t1/2 was only seen after suspension. Changes in leukocyte and platelet numbers in suspended rats were also comparable to those in man during space flight, but leukocyte PHA sensitivity in rats showed no consistent alteration. The results demonstrate that this model reproduces many of the hematological effects of space flight and has potential as a tool in understanding the hematopoietic response to zero gravity.

  12. Reticulocytosis and anemia are associated with an increased risk of death and stroke in the newborn cohort of the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Meier, Emily Riehm; Wright, Elizabeth C; Miller, Jeffery L

    2014-09-01

    Prior analyses of the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) newborn cohort identified elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, low baseline hemoglobin and dactylitis between the ages of 1 and 2 years as markers of severe disease. Reticulocytosis was also associated with severe disease. Here, we further analyzed data collected on enrolled CSSCD infants for the predictive value of those markers for stroke and death later in life. Three hundred fifty-four CSSCD subjects were identified who had absolute reticulocyte counts (ARC) measured during infancy (2 to 6 months of age). Infants with higher ARC had significantly increased risk of stroke or death during childhood; lower hemoglobin levels also increased the risk but to a lesser degree than ARC. WBC levels and dactylitis were not predictive of death or stroke. These data suggest that reticulocytosis among asymptomatic infants with sickle cell anemia is associated with an increased risk of death or stroke during childhood.

  13. The influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is described the purpose of which is to measure specific factors relative to the control of erythrokinetics in man which might be altered during the first seven days of exposure to the weightless environment of space flight. It is anticipated that these data will provide information relative to the mechanism by which the red cell mass is reduced during space flight. Specifically, the experiment is designed to establish: (1) if there is a significant change in red cell mass and plasma volume during the initial period of exposure to weightlessness; (2) if the plasma concentration of erythropoietin is reduced; (3) if there is an increase in the plasma concentration of erythropoietin inhibitors; (4) if there is a change in the effectiveness of erythropoiesis; and (5) if the number and age distribution of reticulocytes are altered.

  14. Interaction of antibodies to synthetic peptides of proNGF with in vitro synthesized NGF precursors.

    PubMed

    Dicou, E

    1989-09-25

    Sera raised against three synthetic peptides that reproduce sequences of the pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) protein were tested in immunoprecipitation experiments using in vitro translation products of SP6-directed NGF mRNA in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The interaction of these antibodies with bacterially synthesized chimeric preproNGF was also examined. Digestion of the translation products by the gamma-subunit generated the 22 and 18 kDa intermediates. A predominant 13 kDa intermediate was obtained after digestion of translation products in wheat germ extract. This is shown to be the N-terminal peptide by immunoprecipitation with an anti-peptide serum. These antibodies may be used to detect NGF precursor cleavage products in vivo.

  15. Association of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura in a patient with pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Podder, Sidhertha; Cervates, Jose; Dey, Bimalangshu R

    2015-10-13

    Pernicious anaemia is an autoimmune disease caused by intrinsic factor antibody; it leads to vitamin B12 deficiency and is marked by ineffective erythropoiesis. Haematological features reveal macrocytosis, hyperchromasia and hypersegmented neutrophils. Schistocytes are typically seen in microangiopathy, such as in thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura (TTP)/haemolytic uraemic syndrome or disseminated intravascular haemolysis (DIC). We report a case of a patient with severe anaemia who presented to the emergency room. Peripheral smear revealed macrocytosis, hypersegmented neutrophils and marked schistocytosis. The patient also had high reticulocyte count with high serum lactate dehydrogenase, elevated D-dimer, low fibrinogen and low haptoglobin. Vitamin B12 level came back low and the presence of intrinsic factor antibody confirmed pernicious anaemia. ADAMTS13 level was noted to be mildly reduced, which raised the suspicion of the association of acquired TTP with pernicious anaemia. Acquired TTP is another autoimmune disorder and its association with pernicious anaemia needs further evaluation.

  16. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 fused with erythropoietin (EPO) mimetic peptide (EMP) enhances the EPO activity of EMP.

    PubMed

    Kuai, L; Wu, C; Qiu, Q; Zhang, J; Zhou, A; Wang, S; Zhang, H; Song, Q; Liao, S; Han, Y; Liu, J; Ma, Z

    2000-08-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) mimetic peptide (EMP) encoding sequence was inserted into the gene of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) between Ala348 and Pro349 (P2'-P3'), generating a novel gene, PAI-1/EMP (PMP). This was cloned into pET32a expression vector, fused with TrxA peptide in the vector, and a 63-kDa protein was expressed in inclusion bodies with an expression level >50%. The TrxA/PMP protein was purified by Ni-NTA-agarose metal-ligand affinity chromatography to a purity >90%, showing a single, silver-stained band on SDS-PAGE. Using a reticulocyte counting assay, the EPO activity of PMP was determined to be 5,000 IU/mg, 2,500-fold that of EMP.

  17. Antiviral activity and possible mechanisms of action of oligonucleotides-poly(L-lysine) conjugates targeted to vesicular stomatitis virus mRNA and genomic RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Degols, G; Leonetti, J P; Gagnor, C; Lemaitre, M; Lebleu, B

    1989-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides (oligomers) complementary to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) N protein mRNA have specific antiviral properties at concentrations lower than 1 microM when they are covalently linked to poly(L-lysine) (PLL). Since it is generally postulated that antisense oligomers act at the translational level, oligomers with potential targets on VSV viral mRNA and/or genomic RNA have been tested here. In vitro translation experiments in reticulocyte lysates, in vitro transcription experiments with permeabilized viruses, measurement of viral RNA transcription and accumulation in VSV infected cells, and antiviral experiments demonstrate in our model that antisense oligomers probably also act at other levels. Difficulties in the choice of the most effective antisense oligomer targets are also discussed. Images PMID:2479915

  18. Effects of exercise on the secondary blood markers commonly used to suspect erythropoietin doping.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial; Mangin, Patrice

    2003-01-01

    Numerous trials have reported that some haematological and biochemical parameters could be put together and be used to detect and fight recombinant erythropoietin doping. Unfortunately, none of the studies mentioned the necessity of taking pre-analytical precautions to avoid possible suspicious results coming from major plasma volume changes caused notably by dehydration. Therefore we studied the behaviour of the most common secondary blood markers before and after a strenuous physical activity to find out how reliable these parameters were. The soluble transferrin receptor and the haemoglobin concentrations as well as the haematocrit level increased significantly after effort, whereas the plasma EPO concentration and the reticulocyte count remained constant. On the other hand, if the values were corrected for haemoconcentration, the soluble transferrin receptor concentration remained stable.

  19. Solenin, a novel protein with translation-inhibiting activity from the traditional Chinese medicinal fish, the sea dragon Solenognathus hardwickii.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Lam, Y W

    2002-06-01

    A single-chained protein designated solenin was isolated from Solenognathus hardwickii, a fish used as traditional Chinese medicinal material. Solenin was capable of inhibiting translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 2 microM and expressing a ribonuclease activity of 0.8U/mg toward yeast transfer RNA, but it lacked N-glycosidase activity characteristic of ribosome inactivating proteins Solenin exhibited a molecular weight of 18kDa and possessed an N-terminal sequence AHDAEVNEVKAQVAA. The protein was adsorbed on three types of chromatographic media: Affi-gel blue gel, CM-Sepharose and Mono S. It was devoid of antifungal and lectin activities.

  20. Regulation of hematopoiesis in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokinetic/hypodynamia. II - Mechanisms of the 'anemia'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The cause of the red cell mass (RCM) deficit, which occurs in rats during suspenion, is investigated. The experimental conditions and procedures, in which male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to antiorthostatic hyypokinetic/hypodynamia and changes in RCM are monitored, are described. The influences of stress, reduced food and water consumption, and antiorhostatic posture on RCM are analyzed. Changes in body weight, RCM, radioiron incorporation, red blood cells (RBC), and reticulocytes, for the rats after head-down suspension are graphically presented; only the changes in RBC are related to the antiorthostatic posture. The data reveal that anemia is primarily caused by reduced food and water consumption and secondly by restricted movements.

  1. Primary Sjögren syndrome presenting with hemolytic anemia and pure red cell aplasia following delivery due to Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia and hemophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Komaru, Yohei; Higuchi, Takakazu; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Haji, Youichiro; Okada, Masato; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Okada, Sadamu

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented with hemolytic anemia without a reticulocyte response 38 days after delivery. A marked reduction in erythroid cells and an increase in macrophages with active hemophagocytosis were noted in the bone marrow. While conventional Coombs' tests were negative, the level of red blood cell (RBC)-bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) was increased. The patient was diagnosed with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) based on her symptoms, positive anti-SS-A antibodies, Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia and pure red cell aplasia associated with RBC-bound IgG and hemophagocytosis. The unique presentation was considered to be a consequence of immunological derangement associated with pSS, pregnancy and delivery.

  2. Hepcidin as a potential biomarker for blood doping.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Bulla, Emanuele; Salamin, Olivier; Nicoli, Raul; Robinson, Neil; Baume, Norbert; Saugy, Martial

    2017-07-01

    The concentration of hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, is suppressed during periods of increased erythropoietic activity. The present study obtained blood samples from 109 elite athletes and examined the correlations between hepcidin and markers of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism (i.e., haemoglobin, erythropoietin (EPO), ferritin, erythroferrone (ERFE), and iron concentration). Furthermore, an administration study was undertaken to examine the effect of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) delta (Dynepo™) on hepcidin concentrations in healthy male volunteers. The effects on hepcidin were then compared with those on reticulocyte percentage (Ret%) and ferritin concentration. There was a significant positive correlation between hepcidin and ferritin, iron, and haemoglobin levels in athletes, whereas hepcidin showed an inverse correlation with ERFE. Administration of rhEPO delta reduced hepcidin levels, suggesting that monitoring hepcidin may increase the sensitivity of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) for detecting rhEPO abuse. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Suppressive activity of acivicin on murine bone marrow hemopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Castello, G; Mencoboni, M; Lerza, R; Cerruti, A; Bogliolo, G; Pannacciulli, I

    1992-01-01

    Acivicin (AVC), a L-glutamine antagonist, is an intriguing antimetabolite coupling cell growth inhibition activity with differentiating effects. In this in vivo study the influence of acivicin on mice bone marrow hemopoietic progenitors was tested. 10 mg/kg b.w./day of acivicin were i.p. injected in B6D2F1 mice for nine days. Leucocyte and reticulocyte level (in peripheral blood), CFU-S (multipotent stem cells) and GM-CFU (granulocyte-macrophage committed progenitors) content in bone marrow were determined during drug administration and for 14 days thereafter. All tested populations decreased severely during the first days of treatment. The drop was particularly striking for bone marrow CFU-S. The recovery of hemopoietic progenitors, however, began while AVC was still administered. These results suggest that the effects of acivicin on normal mouse hemopoietic system are mainly inhibitory, causing considerable myelosuppression.

  4. Anti-Self Phosphatidylserine Antibodies Recognize Uninfected Erythrocytes Promoting Malarial Anemia.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Arias, Cristina; Rivera-Correa, Juan; Gallego-Delgado, Julio; Rudlaff, Rachel; Fernandez, Clemente; Roussel, Camille; Götz, Anton; Gonzalez, Sandra; Mohanty, Akshaya; Mohanty, Sanjib; Wassmer, Samuel; Buffet, Pierre; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Rodriguez, Ana

    2016-02-10

    Plasmodium species, the parasitic agents of malaria, invade erythrocytes to reproduce, resulting in erythrocyte loss. However, a greater loss is caused by the elimination of uninfected erythrocytes, sometimes long after infection has been cleared. Using a mouse model, we found that Plasmodium infection induces the generation of anti-self antibodies that bind to the surface of uninfected erythrocytes from infected, but not uninfected, mice. These antibodies recognize phosphatidylserine, which is exposed on the surface of a fraction of uninfected erythrocytes during malaria. We find that phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes are reticulocytes expressing high levels of CD47, a "do-not-eat-me" signal, but the binding of anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies mediates their phagocytosis, contributing to anemia. In human patients with late postmalarial anemia, we found a strong inverse correlation between the levels of anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies and plasma hemoglobin, suggesting a similar role in humans. Inhibition of this pathway may be exploited for treating malarial anemia.

  5. Relationship between erythrocyte volume and cell age in humans and baboons. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B.; Galli, R.L.; Melaragno, A.J.; Valeri, C.R.

    1983-03-30

    The relationship of red blood cell size to age during steady-state hematopoiesis has been studied using erythrocytes separated on the basis of size using counterflow centrifugation. The ratio of the age-related enzyme, erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (EGOT), to hemoglobin (Hb) increased progressively through the fractions, suggesting a correlation between erythrocyte volume and age. Reticulocytes, while present in all fractions, were selectively enriched in the larger subpopulations. To verify the biochemical evidence that erythrocytes decrease in volume with aging, in vivo cohort labeling of red blood cells with 59Fe was performed in baboons. A similar relationship of EGOT to Hb was observed to that in the human subpopulations. While a certain amount of erythrocyte volume heterogeneity seems to be present as a result of erythropoeisis, our data support the hypothesis that red blood cells decrease in volume as they age.

  6. Review: Ajwa date (Phoenix dactylifera)- an emerging plant in pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain; Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Ali, Muhammad; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Yusra Habib; Rehman, Attaur

    2014-05-01

    Date Fruits are consumed in Arab areas for a long time as a part of essential diet. Phoenix dactylifera belongs to family Arecaceae and its leaves, barks, pits, fruits and pollens have anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antiulcertavie, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antidiarheal, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential. Besides these, Dates also increase level of estrogen, testosterone, RBCs, Hb, PCV, reticulocytes and platelet counts. It can also cure lead induced heamotoxicity, side effects of methylprednisolon, male and female infertility. It has also cerebroprotective, neuroprotective and haemopoietic activity. Phoenix dactylifera can be used for number of complications if further evaluated and isolated. The present paper is an overview of pharmacological properties of Phoenix dactylifera reported in literature.

  7. The Asymmetric Cell Division Regulators Par3, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 Are Not Essential for Erythroid Development or Enucleation

    PubMed Central

    Wölwer, Christina B.; Gödde, Nathan; Pase, Luke B.; Elsum, Imogen A.; Lim, Krystle Y. B.; Sacirbegovic, Faruk; Walkley, Carl R.; Ellis, Sarah; Ohno, Shigeo; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Russell, Sarah M.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2017-01-01

    Erythroid enucleation is the process by which the future red blood cell disposes of its nucleus prior to entering the blood stream. This key event during red blood cell development has been likened to an asymmetric cell division (ACD), by which the enucleating erythroblast divides into two very different daughter cells of alternate molecular composition, a nucleated cell that will be removed by associated macrophages, and the reticulocyte that will mature to the definitive erythrocyte. Here we investigated gene expression of members of the Par, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 asymmetric cell division complexes in erythroid cells, and functionally tested their role in erythroid enucleation in vivo and ex vivo. Despite their roles in regulating ACD in other contexts, we found that these polarity regulators are not essential for erythroid enucleation, nor for erythroid development in vivo. Together our results put into question a role for cell polarity and asymmetric cell division in erythroid enucleation. PMID:28095473

  8. Total versus partial splenectomy in pediatric hereditary spherocytosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guizzetti, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    To compare the clinical effectiveness of total splenectomy (TS) or partial splenectomy (PS) in pediatric hereditary spherocytosis, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed (PROSPERO registration CRD42015030056). There were 14 observational studies comparing pre- and postoperative hematologic parameters. Secondary outcomes include in-hospital infections, surgical complications, symptomatic recurrence, and biliary disease. TS is more effective than PS to increase hemoglobin (3.6 g/dl vs. 2.2 g/dl) and reduce reticulocytes (12.5% vs. 6.5%) after 1 year; outcomes following PS are stable for at least 6 years. There were no cases of overwhelming postsplenectomy sepsis. A population-based patient registry is needed for long-term follow-up.

  9. Fatal Liver and Bone Marrow Toxicity by Combination Treatment of Dichloroacetate and Artesunate in a Glioblastoma Multiforme Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Martin; Schwab, Stefan; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old male patient was treated with standard radiochemotherapy with temozolomide for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). After worsening of his clinical condition, further tumor-specific treatment was unlikely to be successful, and the patient seeked help from an alternative practitioner, who administered a combination of dichloroacetate (DCA) and artesunate (ART). A few days later, the patient showed clinical and laboratory signs of liver damage and bone marrow toxicity (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia). Despite successful restoration of laboratory parameters upon symptomatic treatment, the patient died 10 days after the infusion. DCA bears a well-documented hepatotoxic risk, while ART can be considered as safe concerning hepatotoxicity. Bone marrow toxicity can appear upon ART application as reduced reticulocyte counts and disturbed erythropoiesis. It can be assumed that the simultaneous use of both drugs caused liver injury and bone marrow toxicity. The compassionate use of DCA/ART combination therapy outside of clinical trials cannot be recommended for GBM treatment. PMID:27774434

  10. [Clinical thinking and decision making in practice. The internist as a consultant for a patient with unexplained anemia in the cardiology department].

    PubMed

    Toorians, A W; Strack van Schijndel, R J

    2001-02-17

    A man aged 73, admitted because of unstable angina pectoris also had a anaemia with a haemoglobin concentration of 2.8 mmol/l. The department of Consultative Internal Medicine was asked to elucidate this anaemia. The anamnesis proved to contain extensive diagnostic tests concerning the anaemia which had had no results. In spite of a negative anamnesis, the low serum iron level had prompted an unsuccessful search for a source of haemorrhage in the proximal and distal parts of the digestive tract. The bone marrow had been examined three times without a clear diagnosis. It was also found that there had been a deviation from the classification of anaemia which should be guided by the size of the erythrocyte and the reticulocyte count. This had resulted in diagnostics that where inconvenient to the patient; also the patient had been treated without success with ferrofumarate. Ultimately, he proved to suffer from autoimmune hypothyroidism; the anaemia was resolved by substitution therapy.

  11. Preformed mRNA in Cotyledons of Ungerminated Seeds of Cicer arietinum L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Matilla, Angel; Nicolás, Gregorio; Vicente, Oscar; Sierra, José Manuel

    1980-01-01

    Polyadenylated RNA was isolated from total RNA extracted from cotyledons of ungerminated or 18-hour-germinated chick-pea seeds by affinity chromatography on oligo(dT)-cellulose. Both poly(A)-containing RNA fractions exhibited a template activity when assayed in two cell-free translation systems, wheat germ extracts, and nuclease-treated reticulocyte lysates. Translation of preformed mRNA from cotyledons of dry seeds was completely abolished in the presence of several inhibitors of polypeptide chain initiation and also in the presence of the two “cap” analogues m7 GTP and m7 GMP. The patterns of polypeptides synthesized by translation of poly(A)-containing RNAs from cotyledons of ungerminated or 18-hour-germinated seeds, in the wheat germ system, analyzed by electrophoresis and autoradiography, were similar but not identical. It is concluded that cotyledons of dry Cicer arietinum L. seeds contain preformed mRNA. PMID:16661345

  12. Isolation of a 5S RNA-Protein Complex from Mammalian Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, Günter

    1971-01-01

    5S RNA is removed from the large ribosomal subunit of both rat liver and rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes by treatment with EDTA to remove magnesium ions. The RNA is removed not as a naked molecule, but in association with a single ribosomal protein (molecular weight about 35,000) as a ribonucleoprotein, sedimenting at about 7 S. Conditions for the exclusive removal of the 5S RNA-protein complex have been established. Both ribosomal subunits undergo distinct changes in their sedimentation rate, concomitant with the loss of their biological activity, when sedimented into sucrose gradients containing high concentrations of monovalent ions and low concentrations of magnesium. Under these conditions the large subunit loses 5S RNA, the 5S RNA-associated protein, and several more proteins. Images PMID:5001943

  13. Regulation of hematopoiesis in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokinetic/hypodynamia. II - Mechanisms of the 'anemia'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The cause of the red cell mass (RCM) deficit, which occurs in rats during suspenion, is investigated. The experimental conditions and procedures, in which male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to antiorthostatic hyypokinetic/hypodynamia and changes in RCM are monitored, are described. The influences of stress, reduced food and water consumption, and antiorhostatic posture on RCM are analyzed. Changes in body weight, RCM, radioiron incorporation, red blood cells (RBC), and reticulocytes, for the rats after head-down suspension are graphically presented; only the changes in RBC are related to the antiorthostatic posture. The data reveal that anemia is primarily caused by reduced food and water consumption and secondly by restricted movements.

  14. Shifting the paradigm: the putative mitochondrial protein ABCB6 resides in the lysosomes of cells and in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Katalin; Brozik, Anna; Kucsma, Nora; Toth, Alexandra; Gera, Melinda; Berry, Laurence; Vallentin, Alice; Vial, Henri; Vidal, Michel; Szakacs, Gergely

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticulocytes during the final steps of erythroid maturation. Consistent with its presence in exosomes, endogenous ABCB6 is localized to the endo/lysosomal compartment, and is absent from the mitochondria of cells. Knock-down studies demonstrate that ABCB6 function is not required for de novo heme biosynthesis in differentiating K562 cells, excluding this ABC transporter as a key regulator of porphyrin synthesis. We confirm the mitochondrial localization of ABCB7, ABCB8 and ABCB10, suggesting that only three ABC transporters should be classified as mitochondrial proteins. Taken together, our results challenge the current paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria.

  15. Engineered red blood cells as carriers for systemic delivery of a wide array of functional probes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiahai; Kundrat, Lenka; Pishesha, Novalia; Bilate, Angelina; Theile, Chris; Maruyama, Takeshi; Dougan, Stephanie K.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2014-01-01

    We developed modified RBCs to serve as carriers for systemic delivery of a wide array of payloads. These RBCs contain modified proteins on their plasma membrane, which can be labeled in a sortase-catalyzed reaction under native conditions without inflicting damage to the target membrane or cell. Sortase accommodates a wide range of natural and synthetic payloads that allow modification of RBCs with substituents that cannot be encoded genetically. As proof of principle, we demonstrate site-specific conjugation of biotin to in vitro-differentiated mouse erythroblasts as well as to mature mouse RBCs. Thus modified, RBCs remain in the bloodstream for up to 28 d. A single domain antibody attached enzymatically to RBCs enables them to bind specifically to target cells that express the antibody target. We extend these experiments to human RBCs and demonstrate efficient sortase-mediated labeling of in vitro-differentiated human reticulocytes. PMID:24982154

  16. Engineered red blood cells as carriers for systemic delivery of a wide array of functional probes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiahai; Kundrat, Lenka; Pishesha, Novalia; Bilate, Angelina; Theile, Chris; Maruyama, Takeshi; Dougan, Stephanie K; Ploegh, Hidde L; Lodish, Harvey F

    2014-07-15

    We developed modified RBCs to serve as carriers for systemic delivery of a wide array of payloads. These RBCs contain modified proteins on their plasma membrane, which can be labeled in a sortase-catalyzed reaction under native conditions without inflicting damage to the target membrane or cell. Sortase accommodates a wide range of natural and synthetic payloads that allow modification of RBCs with substituents that cannot be encoded genetically. As proof of principle, we demonstrate site-specific conjugation of biotin to in vitro-differentiated mouse erythroblasts as well as to mature mouse RBCs. Thus modified, RBCs remain in the bloodstream for up to 28 d. A single domain antibody attached enzymatically to RBCs enables them to bind specifically to target cells that express the antibody target. We extend these experiments to human RBCs and demonstrate efficient sortase-mediated labeling of in vitro-differentiated human reticulocytes.

  17. Anti-M Antibody Induced Prolonged Anemia Following Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Due to Erythropoietic Suppression in 2 Siblings.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsushi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Negishi, Yutaka; Tsuiki, Hideki; Arakawa, Takeshi; Yagi, Yoshihito; Uchimura, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Toru; Ohashi, Wataru; Takamoto, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) arising from MNSs incompatibility is rare, with few reports of prolonged anemia and reticulocytopenia following HDN. We report the younger of 2 male siblings, both of whom had anti-M-induced HDN and anemia persisting for over a month. Peripheral reticulocytes remained inappropriately low for the degree of anemia, and they needed multiple red cell transfusions. Viral infections were ruled out. Corticosteroids were given for suspected pure red cell aplasia. Anemia and reticulocytopenia subsequently improved. Colony-forming unit erythroid assay revealed erythropoietic suppression of M antigen-positive erythroid precursor cells cultured with maternal or infant sera containing anti-M. In conclusion, maternal anti-M caused HDN and prolonged anemia by erythropoietic suppression in 2 siblings.

  18. Depressed eruption rate of the rat maxillary incisor in a drug-induced uncompensated hemolytic state model

    SciTech Connect

    Giglio, M.J.; Sanz, A.M.; Bozzini, C.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Female rats weighing about 180 g were separated into two groups. One group (A) received phenylhydrazine (PHZ) every other day during three weeks (for induction of an uncompensated hemolytic state), while the control group (C) received saline. The evidence for the establishment of the uncompensated hemolytic state was obtained by hematocrit value, reticulocyte count, and red-cell-volume-59Fe uptake. Body-weight gain (which is a measure of overall body growth rate), body-length gain (which is a measure of longitudinal skeletal growth rate), food intake, and maxillary incisor eruption rate (ER) were significantly depressed in rats of group A during the PHZ-injection period, in relation to rats of group C. These results indicate that anemia and/or associated factors depress ER, along with body growth and skeletal growth.

  19. Studies on the erythron and the ferrokinetic responses in beagles adapted to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1978-01-01

    Red cell survival, ferrokinetics, and hematologic parameters were investigated in beagle dogs exposed to chronic hypergravity (2.6 Gx). Ineffective erythropoiesis, red cell mass, plasma volume, and Cr-51-elution were significantly increased; maximum Fe-59 incorporation was decreased; and there was no change in the mean erythrocyte life span following autologous injection of Cr-51-labeled red cells and Fe-59-labeled transferrin. Red cell count, F(cells), total body hemoglobin (Hb), susceptability to osmotic lysis, and differential reticulocyte count were increased. White blood cell count, venous blood %Hb, mean cell volume, mean cell Hb, mean cell Hb concentration, and serum iron were decreased. No changes were observed for body mass, mg Fe per g Hb, iron binding capacity, percent saturation of iron carrying capacity, or the electrophoretic mobility of purified Hb. This study indicated that chronic exposure to hypergravity induced changes in red cell size, volume, total mass, and membrane permeability.

  20. Probing the activity differences of simple and complex brominated aryl compounds against 15-soybean, 15-human, and 12-human lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Segraves, Erika N; Shah, Rachana R; Segraves, Nathaniel L; Johnson, Tyler A; Whitman, Stephanie; Sui, Jennifer K; Kenyon, Victor A; Cichewicz, Robert H; Crews, Phillip; Holman, Theodore R

    2004-07-29

    Lipoxygenases (LO) have been implicated in asthma, immune disorders, and various cancers. As a consequence of these broad biological implications, there is great interest in understanding the effects of naturally occurring and environmental contaminants against its activity. On the basis of our earlier studies indicating that polybrominated diphenol ethers are potent inhibitors to mammalian 15-LO, we expanded our structure-activity study to include marine-derived brominated phenol ethers (including a newly discovered tribrominated diphenyl ether), dioxins, and bastadins, as well as the synthetic brominated fire retardants, brominated bisphenol A (BBPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). We report herein the effects of 21 simple and complex organobromine compounds against human platelet 12-LO, human reticulocyte 15-LO, and soybean 15-LO-1.

  1. Methylthiodeoxynivalenol (MTD): insight into the chemistry, structure and toxicity of thia-Michael adducts of trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Fruhmann, Philipp; Weigl-Pollack, Theresa; Mikula, Hannes; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Adam, Gerhard; Varga, Elisabeth; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-07-28

    Methylthiodeoxynivalenol (MTD), a novel derivative of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), was prepared by applying a reliable procedure for the formal Michael addition of methanethiol to the conjugated double bond of DON. Structure elucidation revealed the preferred formation of the hemiketal form of MTD by intramolecular cyclisation between C8 and C15. Computational investigations showed a negative total reaction energy for the hemiketalisation step and its decrease in comparison with theoretical model compounds. Therefore, this structural behaviour seems to be a general characteristic of thia-Michael adducts of type B trichothecenes. MTD was shown to be less inhibitory for a reticulocyte lysate based in vitro translation system than the parent compound DON, which supports the hypothesis that trichothecenes are detoxified through thia-adduct formation during xenobiotic metabolism.

  2. Maternal pregnancy weight gain and cord blood iron status are associated with eosinophilia in infancy.

    PubMed

    Weigert, R; Dosch, N C; Bacsik-Campbell, M E; Guilbert, T W; Coe, C L; Kling, P J

    2015-08-01

    Allergic disease is multifactorial in origin. Because iron nutrition affects immune responses and maternal pregnancy weight gain impairs fetal iron delivery while increasing fetal demands for growth, the study examined maternal pregnancy weight gain, newborn iron status and an index of atopic disease, infant eosinophilia. Within a larger prospective study of healthy newborns at risk for developing iron deficiency anemia, umbilical cord iron indicators were compared to infant eosinophil counts. Infants who developed eosinophilia exhibited higher cord reticulocyte-enriched zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio, P<0.05 and fewer cord ferritin values in the highest (best) quartile, P<0.05. If cord ferritin was in the upper three quartiles, the negative predictive value for infant eosinophilia was 90%. High maternal pregnancy weight gain predicted infant eosinophil counts, P<0.04, and contributed to cord ferritin predicting eosinophilia, P<0.003. Poor fetal iron status may be an additional risk factor for infant eosinophilia.

  3. Contamination of ribosome inactivating proteins with ribonucleases, separated by affinity chromatography on red sepharose.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B; Cheng, C H K; Fong, W P

    2003-05-01

    Three preparations of type 1 ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs), namely, agrostin, saporin, and luffin, were subjected to affinity chromatography on Red Sepharose and eluted with a linear concentration gradient of NaCl in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4). The eluate was assayed for ability to inhibit translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system which measures RIP activity, and for ability to hydrolyze yeast transfer RNA which measures RNase activity. It was found that, in all three RIP preparations, the peak of RIP activity, which coincided with the peak of absorbance at 280 nm, was eluted earlier than the peak of RNase activity. It appears that RNase is a possible contaminant of ribosome inactivating protein preparations and that this contamination can be minimized by using Red Sepharose.

  4. Total hemoglobin mass, iron status, and endurance capacity in elite field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Timo; Franke, Julia; Voss, Sven; Bloch, Wilhelm; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Platen, Petra

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: To evaluate total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass) in international field hockey players; to examine the correlation between tHbmass and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max); and to assess influences of iron status on tHbmass and on VO2max. The players of the German women's (N = 17, aged 24.8 +/- 3.0 [21-31] years) and men's (N = 17, aged 24.2 +/- 2.9 [19-32] years) national field hockey team were investigated. tHbmass was measured by an optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method. The following parameters were measured in venous blood: Hemoglobin concentration (Hbconc), hematocrit (Hct), number and percentage of reticulocytes, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, serum iron, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration. VO2max was determined in a treadmill test. tHbmass (women: 10.6 +/- 1.1 g/kg; men: 12.5 +/- 0.9 g/kg) correlated to VO2max (women: 46.6 +/- 2.9 mL/min/kg; men: 55.8 +/- 4.0 mL/min/kg) in women (r = 0.56, p < 0.05) and in men (r = 0.57, p < 0.05), whereas Hbconc and Hct did not. The investigated parameters of iron status showed no association to tHbmass or to VO2max. In conclusion, tHbmass can be used as an indicator for endurance capacity in elite field hockey players, whereas Hbconc may not. tHbmass or VO2max were not influenced by the actual iron status of the investigated athletes.

  5. In vitro effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on oxidatively damaged rabbit red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, M; Biagiarelli, B; Vetrano, F; Guidi, G; Dachà, M; Stocchi, V

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields (0.2-0.5 mT) on rabbit red blood cells (RBCs) that were exposed simultaneously to the action of an oxygen radical-generating system, Fe(II)/ascorbate. Previous data obtained in our laboratory showed at the exposure of rabbit erythrocytes or reticulocytes to Fe(II)/ascorbate hexokinase inactivation, whereas the other glycolytic enzymes do not show any decay. We also observed depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) content with a concomitant intracellular and extracellular increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and a decrease in energy charge. In this work we investigated whether 50 Hz magnetic fields could influence the intracellular impairments that occur when erythrocytes or reticulocytes are exposed to this oxidant system, namely, inactivation of hexokinase activity, GSH depletion, a change in energy charge, and hemoglobin oxidation. The results obtained indicate the a 0.5 mT magnetic field had no effect on intact RBCs, whereas it increased the damage with Fe(II)/ascorbate to a 0.5 mT magnetic field induced a significant further decay in hexokinase activity (about 20%) as well as a twofold increase in methemoglobin production compared with RBCs that were exposed to the oxidant system alone. Although further studies will be needed to determine the physiological implications of these data, the results reported in this study demonstrate that the effects of the magnetic fields investigated are able to potentiate the cellular damage induced in vitro by oxidizing agents.

  6. Integration of Pig-a, micronucleus, chromosome aberration and comet assay endpoints in a 28-day rodent toxicity study with urethane

    PubMed Central

    Stankowski, Leon F.; Aardema, Marilyn J.; Lawlor, Timothy E.; Pant, Kamala; Roy, Shambhu; Xu, Yong; Elbekai, Reem

    2015-01-01

    As part of the international Pig-a validation trials, we examined the induction of Pig-a mutant reticulocytes and red blood cells (RETCD59− and RBCCD59−, respectively) in peripheral blood of male Sprague Dawley® rats treated with urethane (25, 100 and 250mg/kg/day) or saline by oral gavage for 29 days. Additional endpoints integrated into this study were: micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) in peripheral blood; chromosome aberrations (CAb) and DNA damage (%tail intensity via the comet assay) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL); micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) in bone marrow; and DNA damage (comet) in various organs at termination (the 29th dose was added for the comet endpoint at sacrifice). Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS; 200mg/kg/day on Days 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 27, 28 and 29) was evaluated as the concurrent positive control (PC). All animals survived to termination and none exhibited overt toxicity, but there were significant differences in body weight and body weight gain in the 250-mg/kg/day urethane group, as compared with the saline control animals. Statistically significant, dose-dependent increases were observed for urethane for: RETCD59− and RBCCD59− (on Days 15 and 29); MN-RET (on Days 4, 15 and 29); and MN-PCE (on Day 29). The comet assay yielded positive results in PBL (Day 15) and liver (Day 29), but negative results for PBL (Days 4 and 29) and brain, kidney and lung (Day 29). No significant increases in PBL CAb were observed at any sample time. Except for PBL CAb (likely due to excessive cytotoxicity), EMS-induced significant increases in all endpoints/tissues. These results compare favorably with earlier in vivo observations and demonstrate the utility and sensitivity of the Pig-a in vivo gene mutation assay, and its ability to be easily integrated, along with other standard genotoxicity endpoints, into 28-day rodent toxicity studies. PMID:25934985

  7. Experience with predeposition of autologous blood in elective orthopaedic and plastic surgery: the role of oral iron medication.

    PubMed

    Tseliou, P; Apostolopoulos, D J; Chronopoulos, G; Antonopoulos, A; Korovesis, P

    2002-01-01

    The risk of transmission of transfusion-associated infections, mainly AIDS, led to the increased use of autologous transfusion by four methods: predeposition of autologous blood, haemodilution, intraoperative and postoperative blood salvage. We started a program of autologous predeposition at blood transfusion centre of Saint Andrews General Hospital of Patras in co-operation with orthopaedic and plastic surgery in 1992. To date, 617 autologous units have been collected from 257 patients undergoing various operations. Our protocol was as follows: the minimum Hb value before each donation was 12 g/dl, body weight over 50 kg, age 18-70 years and 8-10 day intervals between donations. The exclusion criteria were anaemia, evidence of blood loss, renal disease, chronic and acute inflammatory or malignant disorders, pregnancy and lactation. We chose 40 patients with haemoglobin values of 13-15 g/dl and ferritin levels > 50 ng/ml, who gave three autologous units. They were separated in two groups of twenty patients. Those in group 1 received 300 mg of elemental iron in three daily oral doses, while the others in group 2 received no iron medication. We studied haematologic variables, reticulocytes and ferritin levels in both groups before each autologous donation. We also studied the possible complications and their incidence in patients over 60 years old. According to our results, haematologic variables such as Hb, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and reticulocytes were not influenced by oral iron therapy. We observed a slight increase in MCV in both study groups which means the production of larger red blood cells. We also noticed a higher decrease of ferritin in patients with no iron therapy, but without a fall of ferritin levels under the normal values. We conclude that oral iron therapy in non-iron deficient patients undergoing a moderate program of three autologous units is not necessary. In addition, autologous blood donation is also feasible

  8. Expression and characterization of human N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases and alpha2,3-sialyltransferase in insect cells for in vitro glycosylation of recombinant erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Young; Kim, Hyung Gu; Kim, Yang Hyun; Chung, In Sik; Yang, Jai Myung

    2008-02-01

    The glycans linked to the insect cell-derived glycoproteins are known to differ from those expressed mammalian cells, partly because of the low level or lack of glycosyltransferase activities. GnT II, GnT IV, GnT V, and ST3Gal IV, which play important roles in the synthesis of tetraantennary-type complex glycan structures in mammalian cells, were overexpressed in Trichoplusia ni cells by using a baculovirus expression vector. The glycosyltransferases, expressed as a fusion form with the IgG-binding domain, were secreted into the culture media and purified using IgG sepharose resin. The enzyme assay, performed using pyridylaminated-sugar chain as an acceptor, indicated that the purified glycosyltransferases retained their enzyme activities. Human erythropoietin expressed in T. ni cells (rhEPO) was subjected to in vitro glycosylation by using recombinant glycosyltransferases and was converted into complex-type glycan with terminal sialic acid. The presence of N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, and sialic acid on the rhEPO moiety was detected by a lectin blot analysis, and the addition of galactose and sialic acid to rhEPO was confirmed by autoradiography using UDP-14C-Gal and CMP-14C-Sia as donors. The in vitro glycosylated rhEPO was injected into mice, and the number of reticulocytes among the red blood cells was counted using FACS. A significant increase in the number of reticulocytes was not observed in the mice injected with in vitro glycosylated rhEPO as compared with those injected with rhEPO.

  9. In vivo and in vitro expression analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Cevik, B; Lee, R F; Niblett, C L

    2008-01-01

    Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although a 57-kDa CTV-RdRp was expected to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl terminus of a 400-kDa polyprotein, a 50-kDa protein was detected in CTV-infected but not in healthy citrus tissue by Western blot. This suggests that the RdRp was cleaved from the CTV polyprotein. The 50-kDa protein was present in both the cytoplasmic and membrane fractions, but it accumulated mainly in the membrane fraction, where most of the replication-associated proteins of RNA viruses are found. When the expression of a cloned CTV-RdRp gene encoding a 60-kDa fusion protein was studied in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, two smaller proteins of about 50 kDa and 10 kDa were detected in addition to the expected 60-kDa protein. All three proteins were immunoprecipitated with the anti-CTV-RdRp serum, suggesting that the 50-kDa and 10-kDa proteins were fragments of the 60-kDa CTV-RdRp fusion protein. When the expression of the RdRp was analyzed at different times during in vitro translation, the 60-kDa and 50-kDa proteins were detected at all time points, and a small amount of the 10-kDa protein was detected after 30 min of translation. These results suggest that the CTV-RdRp may also be cleaved in vitro in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate.

  10. Dose-response relationship of temozolomide, determined by the Pig-a, comet, and micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Guérard, M; Johnson, G; Dertinger, S; Duran-Pacheco, G; Funk, J; Zeller, A

    2017-02-15

    Temozolomide (TMZ), a monofunctional alkylating agent, was selected as a model compound to determine its quantitative genotoxic dose-response relationship in different tissues (blood, liver, and jejunum) and endpoints [Pig-a-, comet-, and micronucleus assay (MNT)] in male rats. TMZ was administered p.o. over 5 consecutive days (day 1-5), followed by a treatment-free period of 50 days (day 6-56) and a final administration prior to necropsy (day 57-59). TMZ showed a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in all interrogated endpoints. A statistically significant increase in Pig-a mutant phenotypes was observed on day 44 starting at 7.5 mg/kg/day for mutant reticulocytes (for RET(CD59-)) and at 3.75 mg/kg/day for mutant red blood cells (RBC(CD59-)), respectively. In addition, a statistically significant increase in cytogenetic damage, as measured by micronucleated reticulocytes, was observed starting at 3.75 mg/kg/day on day 3 and 1.5 mg/kg/day on day 59. DNA strand breaks, as detected by the comet assay, showed a dose-dependent and statistically significant increase in liver, blood, and jejunum starting at doses of 3.75, 3.75, and 7.5 mg/kg/day, respectively. The dose-response relationships of the Pig-a, MNT, and comet data were analyzed for possible points of departure (PoD) using the benchmark-dose (BMD) software PROAST with different critical effect sizes (CES) (BMD0.1, BMD0.5, BMD1, and BMD1SD). Overall, PoD values show a high concordance between different tissues and endpoints, underlining the suitability of this experimental design to explore quantitative dose-response relationships in a variety of different tissues and endpoints, while minimizing animal use.

  11. Plant oligoadenylates: enzymatic synthesis, isolation, and biological activities

    SciTech Connect

    Devash, Y.; Reichman, M.; Sela, I.; Reichenbach, N.L.; Suhadolnik, R.J.

    1985-01-29

    An enzyme that converts (/sup 3/H, /sup 32/P)ATP, with a /sup 3/H:/sup 32/P ratio of 1:1, to oligoadenylates with the same /sup 3/H:/sup 32/P ratio was increased in plants following treatment with human leukocyte interferon or plant antiviral factor or inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus. The enzyme was extracted from tobacco leaves, callus tissue cultures, or cell suspension cultures. The enzyme, a putative plant oligoadenylate synthetase, was immobilized on poly(rI) . poly(rC)-agarose columns and converted ATP into plant oligoadenylates. These oligoadenylates were displaced from DEAE-cellulose columns with 350 mM KCl buffer, dialyzed, and further purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DEAE-cellulose gradient chromatography. In all steps of purification, the ratio of /sup 3/H:/sup 32/P in the oligoadenylates remained 1:1. The plant oligoadenylates isolated by displacement with 350 mM KCl had a molecular weight greater than 1000. The plant oligoadenylates had charges of 5- and 6-. HPLC resolved five peaks, three of which inhibited protein synthesis in reticulocyte and wheat germ systems. Partial structural elucidation of the plant oligoadenylates has been determined by enzymatic and chemical treatments. An adenylate with a 3',5'-phosphodiester and/or a pyrophosphoryl linkage with either 3'- or 5'-terminal phosphates is postulated on the basis of treatment of the oligoadenylates with T2 RNase, snake venom phosphodiesterase, and bacterial alkaline phosphatase and acid and alkaline hydrolyses. The plant oligoadenylates at 8 X 10(-7) M inhibit protein synthesis by 75% in lysates from rabbit reticulocytes and 45% in wheat germ cell-free systems.

  12. Short-term hematological effects upon completion of a four-week simulated altitude camp.

    PubMed

    Pottgiesser, Torben; Garvican, Laura A; Martin, David T; Featonby, Jesse M; Gore, Christopher J; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2012-03-01

    Hemoglobin mass (tHb) is considered to be a main factor for sea-level performance after "live high-train low" (LHTL) altitude training, but little research has focused on the persistence of tHb following cessation of altitude exposure. The aim of the case study was to investigate short-term effects of various hematological measures including tHb upon completion of a simulated altitude camp. Five female cyclists spent 26 nights at simulated altitude (LHTL, 16.6 ± 0.4 h/d, 3000 m in an altitude house) where tHb was measured at baseline, at cessation of the camp, and 9 d thereafter. Venous blood measures (hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, %reticulocytes, serum erythropoietin, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and haptoglobin) were determined at baseline; on day 21 during LHTL; and at days 2, 5, and 9 after LHTL. Hemoglobin mass increased by 5.5% (90% confidence limits [CL] 2.5 to 8.5%, very likely) after the LHTL training camp. At day 9 after simulated LHTL, tHb decreased by 3.0% (90%CL -5.1 to -1.0%, likely). There was a substantial decrease in serum EPO (-34%, 90%CL -50 to -12%) at 2 d after return to sea level and a rise in ferritin (23%, 90%CL 3 to 46%) coupled with a decrease in %reticulocytes (-23%, 90%CL -34 to -9%) between day 5 and 9 after LHTL. Our findings show that following a hypoxic intervention with a beneficial tHb outcome, there may be a high probability of a rapid tHb decrease upon return to normoxic conditions. This highlights a rapid component in red-cell control and may have implications for the appropriate timing of altitude training in relation to competition.

  13. Is organic farming safer to farmers' health? A comparison between organic and traditional farming.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carla; García-Lestón, Julia; Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Silva, Susana; Pingarilho, Marta; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Mattei, Francesca; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Bonassi, Stefano; Laffon, Blanca; Snawder, John; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to pesticides is a major public health concern, because of the widespread distribution of these compounds and their possible long term effects. Recently, organic farming has been introduced as a consumer and environmental friendly agricultural system, although little is known about the effects on workers' health. The aim of this work was to evaluate genetic damage and immunological alterations in workers of both traditional and organic farming. Eighty-five farmers exposed to several pesticides, thirty-six organic farmers and sixty-one controls took part in the study. Biomarkers of exposure (pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and thioethers in urine and butyrylcholinesterase activity in plasma), early effect (micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, T-cell receptor mutation assay, chromosomal aberrations, comet assay and lymphocytes subpopulations) and susceptibility (genetic polymorphisms related to metabolism - EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 - and DNA repair-XRCC1 and XRCC2) were evaluated. When compared to controls and organic farmers, pesticide farmers presented a significant increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes (frequency ratio, FR=2.80) and reticulocytes (FR=1.89), chromosomal aberrations (FR=2.19), DNA damage assessed by comet assay (mean ratio, MR=1.71), and a significant decrease in the proportion of B lymphocytes (MR=0.88). Results were not consistent for organic farmers when compared to controls, with a 48% increase of micronuclei in lumphocytes frequency (p=0.016) contrasted by the significant decreases of TCR-Mf (p=0.001) and %T (p=0.001). Our data confirm the increased presence of DNA damage in farmers exposed to pesticides, and show as exposure conditions may influence observed effects. These results must be interpreted with caution due to the small size of the sample and the unbalanced distribution of individuals in the three study groups.

  14. Is organic farming safer to farmers’ health? A comparison between organic and traditional farming

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Carla; García-Lestón, Julia; Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Silva, Susana; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Mattei, Francesca; Dall’Armi, Valentina; Bonassi, Stefano; Laffon, Blanca; Snawder, John; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to pesticides is a major public health concern, because of the widespread distribution of these compounds and their possible long term effects. Recently, organic farming has been introduced as a consumer and environmental friendly agricultural system, although little is known about the effects on workers’ health. Objectives To evaluate genetic damage and immunological alterations in workers of both traditional and organic farming. Methods Eighty-five farmers exposed to several pesticides, thirty–six organic farmers and sixty-one controls took part in the study. Biomarkers of exposure (pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and thioethers in urine and butyrylcholinesterase activity in plasma), early effect (micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, T-cell receptor mutation assay, chromosomal aberrations, comet assay and lymphocytes subpopulations) and susceptibility (genetic polymorphisms related to metabolism - EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 - and DNA repair – XRCC1 and XRCC2) were evaluated. Results When compared to controls and organic farmers, pesticide farmers presented a significant increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes (frequency ratio, FR=2.80) and reticulocytes (FR=1.89), chromosomal aberrations (FR=2.19), DNA damage assessed by comet assay (mean ratio, MR=1.71), and a significant decrease in the proportion of B lymphocytes (MR=0.88). Overall, organic farmers presented similar levels of genetic damage as controls, in some cases modulated by GSTT1 and GSTM1, GSTP1 105Ile/Ile and XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotypes. Conclusions Results confirmed the increased presence of DNA damage in farmers exposed to pesticides, and showed as exposure conditions and genetic background influence observed effects. Findings from this study indicate that no evident genetic or immunologic damage can be observed in organic farmers. PMID:24576785

  15. Decisive indicator for gastrointestinal workup in anemic patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Song, Youn Mi; Kim, Eun Oh; Koh, Eun Sil; Yoon, Hye Eun; Chung, Sung Jin; Lee, Sang Ju; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Yang, Chul Woo; Chang, Yoon Sik; Kim, Suk Young

    2012-01-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency are universal problems in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, decisive indicator to guide the further gastrointestinal (GI) workup has not been determined. We included 104 anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD stages 3-5 (38 patients at stage 3, 26 patients at stage 4, and 40 patients at stage 5). Hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and corrected reticulocyte count data were assessed to evaluate diagnostic utility for bleeding-related GI lesions, which were identified by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy. Bleeding-related GI lesions were found in 55 (52.9%) patients, and patients with stage 5 CKD had a higher prevalence of gastric lesions than patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 (all p < 0.05). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves used to predict bleeding-related lesions were 0.69 for TSAT (p = 0.002) and 0.61 for serum ferritin (p = 0.085). The sensitivity and specificity of a cutoff value for TSAT < 20% were 0.59 and 0.74, respectively. Hemoglobin, MCV, and corrected reticulocyte levels had no significant diagnostic utility. On multivariable logistic regression, the chance of GI lesions increased by 6% for each 1% reduction in TSAT and increased 4.1-fold for patients with CKD stage 5 (all p < 0.05). TSAT is a useful indicator for determining the GI workup in anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD stages 3-5. Stage 5 CKD is independently associated with bleeding-related lesions and TSAT should be used cautiously in these patients.

  16. Assessment of the red cell proteome of young patients with unexplained hemolytic anemia by two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE).

    PubMed

    von Löhneysen, Katharina; Scott, Thomas M; Soldau, Katrin; Xu, Xiuling; Friedman, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte cytosolic protein expression profiles of children with unexplained hemolytic anemia were compared with profiles of close relatives and controls by two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The severity of anemia in the patients varied from compensated (i.e., no medical intervention required) to chronic transfusion dependence. Common characteristics of all patients included chronic elevation of reticulocyte count and a negative workup for anemia focusing on hemoglobinopathies, morphologic abnormalities that would suggest a membrane defect, immune-mediated red cell destruction, and evaluation of the most common red cell enzyme defects, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase deficiency. Based upon this initial workup and presentation during infancy or early childhood, four patients classified as hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (HNSHA) of unknown etiology were selected for proteomic analysis. DIGE analysis of red cell cytosolic proteins clearly discriminated each anemic patient from both familial and unrelated controls, revealing both patient-specific and shared patterns of differential protein expression. Changes in expression pattern shared among the four patients were identified in several protein classes including chaperons, cytoskeletal and proteasome proteins. Elevated expression in patient samples of some proteins correlated with high reticulocyte count, likely identifying a subset of proteins that are normally lost during erythroid maturation, including proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolism and protein synthesis. Proteins identified with patient-specific decreased expression included components of the glutathione synthetic pathway, antioxidant pathways, and proteins involved in signal transduction and nucleotide metabolism. Among the more than 200 proteins identified in this study are 21 proteins not previously described as part of the erythrocyte proteome. These results demonstrate the

  17. Specific PABP effect on translation of YB-1 mRNA is neutralized by polyadenylation through a "mini-loop" at 3' UTR.

    PubMed

    Eliseeva, Irina A; Ovchinnikov, Lev P; Lyabin, Dmitry N

    2012-12-01

    YB-1 is a multifunctional cold shock domain containing protein that is involved virtually in all DNA- and mRNA-dependent cellular events. Its amount is regulated at the level of both transcription and translation. We showed previously that translation of poly A(-) YB-1 mRNA in vitro is selectively controlled by two proteins, YB-1 and PABP, through their specific and competitive binding to a regulatory element (RE) within 3' UTR of this mRNA. Here, we describe effects of these two proteins on translation of poly A(+) as compared with poly A(-) YB-1 mRNA in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free translation system. We have found that YB-1 inhibits translation of both poly A(+) and poly A(-) YB-1 mRNAs at the same comparatively low YB-1/mRNA ratio. PABP has no positive effect on translation of poly A(+) YB-1 mRNA, although it has a stimulating effect on translation of poly A(-) YB-1 mRNA. A positive PABP effect on translation of poly A(+) YB-1 mRNA arose after removal of a portion of the sequence between RE and the poly(A) tail and disappeared after its replacement by another non-specific sequence of the same length. We also report that the RE fragment forms a complex with the poly(A) fragment in the presence of rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) proteins. For its formation PABP is necessary but not sufficient. These results are in agreement with the proposed model implying formation of a mini-loop at 3' UTR of YB-1 mRNA that includes RE, RRL proteins and the poly(A) tail.

  18. EPO modulation in a 14-days undersea scuba dive.

    PubMed

    Revelli, L; Vagnoni, S; D'Amore, A; Di Stasio, E; Lombardi, C P; Storti, G; Proietti, R; Balestra, C; Ricerca, B M

    2013-10-01

    Erythropoiesis is affected during deep saturation dives. The mechanism should be related to a downregulation of serum Erythropoietin (s-EPO) concentration or to a toxic effect of the hyperbaric hyperoxia. We evaluated s-EPO and other haematological parameters in 6 scuba divers before, during and after a 14-days guinness saturation dive (8-10 m). Athletes were breathing air at 1.8-2 ATA, under the control of a team of physicians. Serum parameters were measured before diving (T0) and: 7 days (T1), 14 days (T2) after the beginning of the dive and 2 h (T3) and 24 h (T4) after resurfacing. Hgb, and many other haematological parameters did not change whereas Ht, s-EPO, the ratio between s-EPO predicted and that observed and reticulocytes (absolute, percent) declined progressively from T0 to T3. At T4 a significant rise in s-EPO was observed. Hgb did not vary but erythropoiesis seemed to be affected as s-EPO and reticulocyte counts showed. All these changes were statistically significant. The experiment, conducted in realistic conditions of dive length, oxygen concentration and pressure, allows us to formulate some hypotheses about the role of prolonged hyperbarism on erythropoiesis. The s-EPO rise, 24 h after resurfacing, is clearly documented and related to the "Normobaric Oxygen Paradox". This evidence suggests interesting hypotheses for new clinical applications such as modulation of s-EPO production and Hgb content triggered by appropriate O₂ administration in pre-surgical patients or in some anemic disease.

  19. Pharmacological inhibition of Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) does not cause chromosomal damage or result in the formation of micronuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Kent; Bergeron, Marcelle; Willits, Christopher; Bowers, Simeon; Aubele, Danielle L.; Goldbach, Erich; Tonn, George; Ness, Daniel; Olaharski, Andrew

    2013-05-15

    Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) phosphorylates α-synuclein and is considered a putative therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence indicate that PLK2 is involved with proper centriole duplication and cell cycle regulation, inhibition of which could impact chromosomal integrity during mitosis. The objectives of the series of experiments presented herein were to assess whether specific inhibition of PLK2 is genotoxic and determine if PLK2 could be considered a tractable pharmacological target for Parkinson's disease. Several selective PLK2 inhibitors, ELN 582175 and ELN 582646, and their inactive enantiomers, ELN 582176 and ELN 582647, did not significantly increase the number of micronuclei in the in vitro micronucleus assay. ELN 582646 was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats in an exploratory 14-day study where flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood identified a dose-dependent increase in the number of micronucleated reticulocytes. A follow-up investigative study demonstrated that ELN 582646 administered to PLK2 deficient and wildtype mice significantly increased the number of peripheral micronucleated reticulocytes in both genotypes, suggesting that ELN 582646-induced genotoxicity is not through the inhibition of PLK2. Furthermore, significant reduction of retinal phosphorylated α-synuclein levels was observed at three non-genotoxic doses, additional data to suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PLK2 is not the cause of the observed genotoxicity. These data, in aggregate, indicate that PLK2 inhibition is a tractable CNS pharmacological target that does not cause genotoxicity at doses and exposures that engage the target in the sensory retina. - Highlights: • Active and inactive enantiomers test negative in the in vitro micronucleus test. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day doses. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei in PLK2 knockout mice. • ELN 582646 decreased

  20. Plant oligoadenylates: enzymatic synthesis, isolation, and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Devash, Y; Reichman, M; Sela, I; Reichenbach, N L; Suhadolnik, R J

    1985-01-29

    An enzyme that converts [3H, 32P]ATP, with a 3H:32P ratio of 1:1, to oligoadenylates with the same 3H:32P ratio was increased in plants following treatment with human leukocyte interferon or plant antiviral factor or inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus. The enzyme was extracted from tobacco leaves, callus tissue cultures, or cell suspension cultures. The enzyme, a putative plant oligoadenylate synthetase, was immobilized on poly(rI) . poly(rC)-agarose columns and converted ATP into plant oligoadenylates. These oligoadenylates were displaced from DEAE-cellulose columns with 350 mM KCl buffer, dialyzed, and further purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DEAE-cellulose gradient chromatography. In all steps of purification, the ratio of 3H:32P in the oligoadenylates remained 1:1. The plant oligoadenylates isolated by displacement with 350 mM KCl had a molecular weight greater than 1000. The plant oligoadenylates had charges of 5- and 6-. HPLC resolved five peaks, three of which inhibited protein synthesis in reticulocyte and wheat germ systems. Partial structural elucidation of the plant oligoadenylates has been determined by enzymatic and chemical treatments. An adenylate with a 3',5'-phosphodiester and/or a pyrophosphoryl linkage with either 3'- or 5'-terminal phosphates is postulated on the basis of treatment of the oligoadenylates with T2 RNase, snake venom phosphodiesterase, and bacterial alkaline phosphatase and acid and alkaline hydrolyses. The plant oligoadenylates at 8 X 10(-7) M inhibit protein synthesis by 75% in lysates from rabbit reticulocytes and 45% in wheat germ cell-free systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. A large scale Plasmodium vivax- Saimiri boliviensis trophozoite-schizont transition proteome

    PubMed Central

    Lapp, Stacey A.; Barnwell, John W.; Galinski, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a complex protozoan parasite with over 6,500 genes and stage-specific differential expression. Much of the unique biology of this pathogen remains unknown, including how it modifies and restructures the host reticulocyte. Using a recently published P. vivax reference genome, we report the proteome from two biological replicates of infected Saimiri boliviensis host reticulocytes undergoing transition from the late trophozoite to early schizont stages. Using five database search engines, we identified a total of 2000 P. vivax and 3487 S. boliviensis proteins, making this the most comprehensive P. vivax proteome to date. PlasmoDB GO-term enrichment analysis of proteins identified at least twice by a search engine highlighted core metabolic processes and molecular functions such as glycolysis, translation and protein folding, cell components such as ribosomes, proteasomes and the Golgi apparatus, and a number of vesicle and trafficking related clusters. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) v6.8 enriched functional annotation clusters of S. boliviensis proteins highlighted vesicle and trafficking-related clusters, elements of the cytoskeleton, oxidative processes and response to oxidative stress, macromolecular complexes such as the proteasome and ribosome, metabolism, translation, and cell death. Host and parasite proteins potentially involved in cell adhesion were also identified. Over 25% of the P. vivax proteins have no functional annotation; this group includes 45 VIR members of the large PIR family. A number of host and pathogen proteins contained highly oxidized or nitrated residues, extending prior trophozoite-enriched stage observations from S. boliviensis infections, and supporting the possibility of oxidative stress in relation to the disease. This proteome significantly expands the size and complexity of the known P. vivax and Saimiri host iRBC proteomes, and provides in-depth data that will be valuable

  2. Primary defect of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II. Failure in glycosylation of erythrocyte lactosaminoglycan proteins caused by lowered N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, M N; Dell, A; Scartezzini, P

    1987-05-25

    Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II or hereditary erythroblastic multinuclearity with positive acidified serum test (HEMPAS) is a genetic disease caused by membrane abnormality. Previously we have found that Band 3 and Band 4.5 are not glycosylated by lactosaminoglycans in HEMPAS erythrocytes, whereas normally these proteins have lactosaminoglycans (Fukuda, M. N., Papayannopoulou, T., Gordon-Smith, E. C., Rochant, H., and Testa, U. (1984) Br. J. Haematol. 56, 55-68). In order to find out where glycosylation of lactosaminoglycans stops, we have analyzed the carbohydrate structures of HEMPAS Band 3. By fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, methylation analysis, and hydrazinolysis followed by exoglycosidase treatments, the following structure was elucidated: (formula; see text) N-Linked glycopeptides synthesized in vitro by reticulocyte microsomes from HEMPAS were shown to be predominantly the above short oligosaccharide, whereas those from normal reticulocytes contain large molecular weight carbohydrates. The N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II, which transfers N-acetylglucosamine to the C-2 position of the Man alpha 1----6Man beta 1----arm of the biantennary core structure, was therefore examined by using Man alpha 1----6(GlcNAc beta 1----2Man alpha 1----3)Man beta 1----4GlcNAc beta 1----4GlcNAcol as an acceptor. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase II activity was demonstrated in the lymphocyte microsome fraction from normal individuals. However, this enzyme activity was found to be decreased in those from HEMPAS patients. These results suggest that the primary defect of HEMPAS lies in the lowered activity of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II.

  3. Silica nanoparticles administered at the maximum tolerated dose induce genotoxic effects through an inflammatory reaction while gold nanoparticles do not.

    PubMed

    Downs, Thomas R; Crosby, Meredith E; Hu, Ting; Kumar, Shyam; Sullivan, Ashley; Sarlo, Katherine; Reeder, Bob; Lynch, Matt; Wagner, Matthew; Mills, Tim; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2012-06-14

    While the collection of genotoxicity data and insights into potential mechanisms of action for nano-sized particulate materials (NPs) are steadily increasing, there is great uncertainty whether current standard assays are suitable to appropriately characterize potential risks. We investigated the effects of NPs in an in vivo Comet/micronucleus (MN) combination assay and in an in vitro MN assay performed with human blood. We also incorporated additional endpoints into the in vivo study in an effort to delineate primary from secondary mechanisms. Amorphous silica NPs (15 and 55 nm) were chosen for their known reactivity, while gold nano/microparticles (2, 20, and 200 nm) were selected for their wide size range and lower reactivity. DNA damage in liver, lung and blood cells and micronuclei in circulating reticulocytes were measured after 3 consecutive intravenous injections to male Wistar rats at 48, 24 and 4h before sacrifice. Gold nano/microparticles were negative for MN induction in vitro and in vivo, and for the induction of DNA damage in all tissues. Silica particles, however, caused a small but reproducible increase in DNA damage and micronucleated reticulocytes when tested at their maximum tolerated dose (MTD). No genotoxic effects were observed at lower doses, and the in vitro MN assay was also negative. We hypothesize that silica NPs initiate secondary genotoxic effects through release of inflammatory cell-derived oxidants, similar to that described for crystalline silica (quartz). Such a mechanism is supported by the occurrence of increased neutrophilic infiltration, necrosis, and apoptotic cells in the liver, and induction of inflammatory markers TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma at the MTDs. These results were fairly consistent between silica NPs and the quartz control, thereby strengthening the argument that silica NPs may act in a similar, thresholded manner. The observed profile is supportive of a secondary genotoxicity mechanism that is driven by inflammation

  4. International Pig-a gene mutation assay trial: evaluation of transferability across 14 laboratories.

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Stephen D; Phonethepswath, Souk; Weller, Pamela; Nicolette, John; Murray, Joel; Sonders, Paul; Vohr, Hans-Werner; Shi, Jing; Krsmanovic, Ljubica; Gleason, Carol; Custer, Laura; Henwood, Andrew; Sweder, Kevin; Stankowski, Leon F; Roberts, Daniel J; Giddings, Amanda; Kenny, Julia; Lynch, Anthony M; Defrain, Céline; Nesslany, Fabrice; van der Leede, Bas-jan M; Van Doninck, Terry; Schuermans, Ann; Tanaka, Kentaro; Hiwata, Yoshie; Tajima, Osamu; Wilde, Eleanor; Elhajouji, Azeddine; Gunther, William C; Thiffeault, Catherine J; Shutsky, Thomas J; Fiedler, Ronald D; Kimoto, Takafumi; Bhalli, Javed A; Heflich, Robert H; MacGregor, James T

    2011-12-01

    A collaborative international trial was conducted to evaluate the reproducibility and transferability of an in vivo mutation assay based on the enumeration of CD59-negative rat erythrocytes, a phenotype that is indicative of Pig-a gene mutation. Fourteen laboratories participated in this study, where anti-CD59-PE, SYTO 13 dye, and flow cytometry were used to determine the frequency of CD59-negative erythrocytes (RBC(CD59-)) and CD59-negative reticulocytes (RET(CD59-)). To provide samples with a range of mutant phenotype cell frequencies, male rats were exposed to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) via oral gavage for three consecutive days (Days 1-3). Each laboratory studied 0, 20, and 40 mg ENU/kg/day (n = 5 per group). Three sites also evaluated 4 mg/kg/day. At a minimum, blood samples were collected three times: predosing and on Days 15 and 30. Blood samples were processed according to a standardized sample processing and data acquisition protocol, and three endpoints were measured: %reticulocytes, frequency of RET(CD59-) , and frequency of RBC(CD59-) . The methodology was found to be reproducible, as the analysis of technical replicates resulted in experimental coefficients of variation that approached theoretical values. Good transferability was evident from the similar kinetics and magnitude of the dose-related responses that were observed among different laboratories. Concordance correlation coefficients showed a high level of agreement between the reference site and the test sites (range: 0.87-0.99). Collectively, these data demonstrate that with adequate training of personnel, flow cytometric analysis is capable of reliably enumerating mutant phenotype erythrocytes, thereby providing a robust in vivo mutation assay that is readily transferable across laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Living high-training low: effect on erythropoiesis and aerobic performance in highly-trained swimmers.

    PubMed

    Robach, Paul; Schmitt, Laurent; Brugniaux, Julien V; Roels, Belle; Millet, Grégoire; Hellard, Philippe; Nicolet, Gérard; Duvallet, Alain; Fouillot, Jean-Pierre; Moutereau, Stéphane; Lasne, Françoise; Pialoux, Vincent; Olsen, Niels V; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2006-03-01

    The "living high-training low" model (LHTL), i.e., training in normoxia but sleeping/living in hypoxia, is designed to improve the athletes performance. However, LHTL efficacy still remains controversial and also little is known about the duration of its potential benefit. This study tested whether LHTL enhances aerobic performance in athletes, and if any positive effect may last for up to 2 weeks after LHTL intervention. Eighteen swimmers trained for 13 days at 1,200 m while sleeping/living at 1,200 m in ambient air (control, n=9) or in hypoxic rooms (LHTL, n=9, 5 days at simulated altitude of 2,500 m followed by 8 days at simulated altitude of 3,000 m, 16 h day(-1)). Measures were done before 1-2 days (POST-1) and 2 weeks after intervention (POST-15). Aerobic performance was assessed from two swimming trials, exploring .VO(2max) and endurance performance (2,000-m time trial), respectively. Reticulocyte, serum EPO and soluble transferrin receptor responses were not altered by LHTL, whereas reticulocytes decreased in controls. In POST-1 (vs. before): red blood cell volume increased in LHTL only (+8.5%, P=0.03), .VO(2max) tended to increase more in LHTL (+8.1%, P=0.09) than in controls (+2.5%, P=0.21) without any difference between groups (P=0.42) and 2,000-m performance was unchanged with LHTL. In POST-15, both performance and hematological parameters were similar to initial levels. Our results indicate that LHTL may stimulate red cell production, without any concurrent amelioration of aerobic performance. The absence of any prolonged benefit after LHTL suggests that this LHTL model cannot be recommended for long-term purposes.

  6. Metal nanoparticle-induced micronuclei and oxidative DNA damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ming-Fen; Li, Yun-Shan; Kasai, Hiroshi; Kawai, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    Several mechanisms regarding the adverse health effects of nanomaterials have been proposed. Among them, oxidative stress is considered to be one of the most important. Many in vitro studies have shown that nanoparticles generate reactive oxygen species, deplete endogenous antioxidants, alter mitochondrial function and produce oxidative damage in DNA. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine is a major type of oxidative DNA damage, and is often analyzed as a marker of oxidative stress in human and animal studies. In this study, we focused on the in vivo toxicity of metal oxide and silver nanoparticles. In particular, we analyzed the induction of micronucleated reticulocyte formation and oxidative stress in mice treated with nanoparticles (CuO, Fe3O4, Fe2O3, TiO2, Ag). For the micronucleus assay, peripheral blood was collected from the tail at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after an i.p. injection of nanoparticles. Following the administration of nanoparticles by i.p. injection to mice, the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels were analyzed by the HPLC-ECD method, to monitor the oxidative stress. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in liver DNA were also measured. The results showed increases in the reticulocyte micronuclei formation in all nanoparticle-treated groups and in the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in the liver DNA of the CuO-treated group increased in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the metal nanoparticles caused genotoxicity, and oxidative stress may be responsible for the toxicity of these metal nanoparticles. PMID:22573923

  7. High level of α2-adrenoceptor in rat foetal liver and placenta is due to α2B-subtype expression in haematopoietic cells of the erythrocyte lineage

    PubMed Central

    Cussac, Daniel; Schaak, Stéphane; Denis, Colette; Flordellis, Christodoulos; Calise, Denis; Paris, Hervé

    2001-01-01

    Rat foetal liver contains large amounts of α2-adrenoceptors. The present work aimed to identify the receptor subtype and the cell type accounting for high expression and to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the sharp decrease in hepatic receptivity occurring during the late stage of foetal development. Binding experiments indicated that the density of α2-adrenoceptors in the foetal liver (embryonic day 18; 615±155 fmol mg−1 of protein) is 18 fold higher than in newborn or adult (35.2±4.3 fmol mg−1). A high amount of receptor is also found in the placenta (443±53 fmol mg−1). In both tissues, the rank order of antagonists to inhibit radioligand binding matched the pharmacological profile of the α2B-adrenoceptor and exclusively RNG transcripts were detected by RNase protection assays. Isolation of cell fractions from foetal liver showed that α2B-adrenoceptor is primarily expressed by haematopoietic cells. Consistent with this view, the receptor is found to be abundant in foetal blood, carried by reticulocytes. The expression in blood gradually declines to zero at 3 weeks of age and it is not recovered following induction of reticulocytosis in adults. In foetal reticulocytes, a low proportion of the receptor population is coupled to G-protein. The α2-agonist UK14304 has a marginal effect on cyclic AMP level but significantly increases arachidonic acid release. The function of the receptor remains to be elucidated. However, together with observations on α2B-knockout mice, the current finding strongly suggests a role for α2B-adrenoceptor during foetal haematopoiesis in rodents. PMID:11498526

  8. The MNS glycophorin variant GP.Mur affects differential erythroid expression of Rh/RhAG transcripts.

    PubMed

    Hsu, K; Kuo, M-S; Yao, C-C; Cheng, H-C; Lin, H-J; Chan, Y-S; Lin, M

    2017-08-24

    The band 3 macrocomplex (also known as the ankyrin-associated complex) on the red cell membrane comprises two interacting subcomplexes: a band 3/glycophorin A subcomplex, and a Rh/RhAG subcomplex. Glycophorin B (GPB) is a component of the Rh/RhAG subcomplex that is also structurally associated with glycophorin A (GPA). Expression of glycophorin B-A-B hybrid GP.Mur enhances band 3 expression and is associated with lower levels of Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG) and Rh polypeptides. The goal of this study was to determine whether GP.Mur influenced erythroid Rh/RhAG expression at the transcript level. GP.Mur was serologically determined in healthy participants from Taitung County, Taiwan. RNA was extracted from the reticulocyte-enriched fraction of peripheral blood, followed by reverse transcription and quantitative PCR for RhAG, RhD and RhCcEe. Quantification by real-time PCR revealed significantly fewer RhAG and RhCcEe transcripts in the reticulocytes from subjects with homozygous GYP*Mur. Independent from GYP.Mur, both RhAG and RhD transcript levels were threefold or higher than that of RhCcEe. Also, in GYP.Mur and the control samples alike, direct quantitative associations were observed between the transcript levels of RhAG and RhD, but not between that of RhAG and RhCcEe. Erythroid RhD and RhCcEe were differentially expressed at the transcript levels, which could be related to their different degrees of interaction or sensitivity to RhAG. Further, the reduction or absence of glycophorin B in GYP.Mur erythroid cells affected transcript expressions of RhAG and RhCcEe. Thus, GPB and GP.Mur differentially influenced Rh/RhAG expressions prior to protein translation. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Hydroxyurea and Growth in Young Children With Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Patricia E.; Wang, Winfred C.; Iyer, Rathi V.; Goldsmith, Jonathan; Casella, James F.; Reed, Caroline K.; Rogers, Zora R.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Thompson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growth impairment is a known complication of sickle cell disease. Effects of hydroxyurea (HU) on growth in very young children are not known. METHODS: Height, weight, BMI, and head circumference (HC) were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards in BABY HUG, a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 2-year clinical trial of HU in 193 children 9 to 18 months of age. Anthropometric data were closely monitored and converted to z scores by using WHO standardized algorithms for descriptive analyses. The treatment and placebo groups were compared longitudinally by using a mixed model analysis. RESULTS: At entry, the z scores of BABY HUG children were higher than WHO norms. After 2 years of HU or placebo treatment, there were no significant differences between the groups, except for the mean HC z scores at study exit (HU: +0.8 versus placebo: +1.0, P = .05). Baseline z scores were the best predictors of z scores at study exit. The absolute neutrophil count, absolute reticulocyte count, and total white blood cell count had significant negative correlations with growth measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both groups had normal or near normal anthropometric measures during the study. The HC z scores at study entry and exit were slightly greater than WHO norms. Higher baseline white blood cell count, absolute reticulocyte count, and absolute neutrophil count were associated with poorer growth. The significance of the slightly lower HC in the treatment group at study exit is not clear. Trends toward normalization of weight and height and effects on HC will be monitored in ongoing BABY HUG follow-up studies. PMID:25157002

  10. Radioprotection conferred by dextran sulfate given before irradiation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.M.; Peeke, J.

    1986-02-01

    Dextran sulfate (DS) has been observed to cause mobilization (fivefold) of hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) and leukocytes, primarily lymphocytes, into the peripheral blood of mice within 2-3 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. This effect was dose dependent and was prolonged for several hours when the high-molecular-weight version DS500 (500,000 daltons) was used. When DS500 was given 1-3 days before irradiation, hemopoietic recovery was markedly enhanced. Postirradiation injection was ineffective. By ten days after irradiation (7.0 Gy), the number of endogenous spleen colonies (CFUs) and the splenic mass were much larger if DS pretreatment had been given. This effect was dependent on the dose of DS500 and on the time administered, 60 mg/kg producing a maximal effect when given three days before irradiation. DS500 caused a transient anaphylactoid shock, however, in most mice--mild at low doses but potentially lethal at doses above 40 mg/kg (10% mortality within 1-3 days after 60 mg/kg). The following results were obtained with 50 mg/kg, a compromise dose causing minimal mortality (3%) given three days before irradiation. Reticulocyte reappearance was earlier in irradiated mice given DS500, indicating earlier erythropoietic recovery. Some of these reticulocytes were resistant to lysing agents, so their appearance could be detected using the Coulter electronic cell counter, as well as in stained blood smears. The 30-day mortality due to bone marrow failure after irradiation was significantly decreased in DS-treated mice below 9.5 Gy, and the LD50/30 was increased by 0.5 Gy. This study shows that dextran sulfate exerts a radioprotective influence on the hemopoietic system and hence survival when administered prophylactically.

  11. Translational recognition of the 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine of globin messenger RNA as a function of ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Chu, L Y; Rhoads, R E

    1978-06-13

    The translation of rabbit globin mRNA in cell-free systems derived from either wheat germ or rabbit reticulocyte was studied in the presence of various analogues of the methylated 5' terminus (cap) as a function of ionic strength. Inhibition by these analogues was strongly enhanced by increasing concentrations of KCl, K(OAc), Na(OAc), or NH4(OAc). At appropriate concentrations of K(OAc), both cell-free systems were equally sensitive to inhibition by m7GTP. At 50 mM K(OAc), the reticulocyte system was not sensitive to m7GMP or m7GTP, but at higher concentrations up to 200 mM K(OAc), both nucleotides caused strong inhibition. The compound in m7G5'ppp5'Am was inhibitory at all concentrations of K(OAc) ranging from 50 to 200 mM, although more strongly so at the higher concentrations. Over the same range of nucleotide concentrations, the compounds GMP, GTP, and G5'ppp5'Am were not inhibitors. The mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the translation product was that of globin at all K(OAc) concentrations in the presence of m7GTP. Globin mRNA from which the terminal m7GTP group had been removed by chemical treatment (periodate-cyclohexylamine-alkaline phosphatase) or enzymatic treatment (tobacco acid pyrophosphatase-alkaline phosphatase) was translated less efficiently than untreated globin mRNA at higher K(OAc) concentrations, but retained appreciable activity at low K(OAc) concentrations.

  12. Ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway in wheat germ: Isolation of multiple forms of ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, P.M.; Vierstra, R.D. )

    1989-01-24

    Ubiquitin is a highly conserved protein involved in several important regulatory processes through its ATP-dependent, covalent ligation to a variety of eukaryotic target proteins. The authors describe here the characterization of ubiquitin conjugation in wheat germ extracts and the subsequent isolation of enzymes involved in conjugation. With {sup 125}I-ubiquitin as a substrate, wheat germ extracts form conjugates with either endogenous or added proteins. Ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) was purified from wheat germ extracts by using a modification of the covalent affinity chromatography procedure of Ciechanover et al. E1 from wheat germ, like that from rabbit reticulocytes, formed thiol ester intermediates with ubiquitin in the presence of ATP. Purified E1 preparations contained three polypeptides of apparent molecular masses of 117, 123, and 126 kDa after NaDodSO{sub 4}-PAGE. Under nondenaturing conditions, these proteins have native molecular masses of {approx}115 kDa, indicating that they exist as monomers. They concluded that all three species were E1 on the basis of their coelution with E1 activity, by immunorecognition by anti-human E1 antibodies, and by the similarity of their peptide maps. Furthermore, antibodies prepared against wheat germ E1's recognized E1 from rabbit reticulocytes. All three wheat germ E1's were detected in crude extracts prepared under conditions that minimized proteolysis, suggesting that the heterogeneity of the purified E1 preparations was not the result of posthomogenization breakdown. The immunological similarity of animal and plant E1's indicates that this conjugation enzyme, like ubiquitin, has been conserved through evolution.

  13. Neonatal CD71+ erythroid cells do not modify murine sepsis mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, James L.; Scumpia, Philip O.; Stocks, Blair T.; Romano-Keeler, Joann; Alrifai, Mhd Wael; Liu, Jin-Hua; Kim, Annette S.; Alford, Catherine E.; Matta, Pranathi; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Moore, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. A recent report suggested murine neonatal host defense against infection could be compromised by immunosuppressive CD71+ erythroid splenocytes. We examined the impact of CD71+ erythroid splenocytes on murine neonatal mortality to endotoxin challenge or polymicrobial sepsis and characterized circulating CD71+ erythroid (CD235a+) cells in human neonates. Adoptive transfer or antibody-mediated reduction of neonatal CD71+ erythroid splenocytes did not alter murine neonatal survival to endotoxin challenge or polymicrobial sepsis challenge. Ex vivo immunosuppression of stimulated adult CD11b+ cells was not limited to neonatal splenocytes as it also occurred with adult and neonatal bone marrow. Animals treated with anti-CD71 antibody showed reduced splenic bacterial load following bacterial challenge compared to isotype-treated mice. However, adoptive transfer of enriched CD71+ erythroid splenocytes to CD71+-reduced animals did not reduce bacterial clearance. Human CD71+CD235a+ cells were common among cord blood mononuclear cells and were shown to be reticulocytes. In summary, a lack of effect on murine survival to polymicrobial sepsis following adoptive transfer or diminution of CD71+ erythroid splenocytes under these experimental conditions suggests the impact of these cells on neonatal infection risk and progression may be limited. An unanticipated immune priming effect of anti-CD71 antibody treatment was likely responsible for the reported enhanced bacterial clearance, rather than a reduction of immunosuppressive CD71+ erythroid splenocytes. In humans, the well-described rapid decrease in circulating reticulocytes after birth suggests they may have a limited role in reducing inflammation secondary to microbial colonization. PMID:26101326

  14. In vitro effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on oxidatively damaged rabbit red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorani, M.; Biagiarelli, B.; Vetrano, F.; Guidi, G.; Dacha, M.; Stocchi, V.

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on rabbit red blood cells (RBCs) that were exposed simultaneously to the action of an oxygen radical-generating system, Fe(II)/ascorbate. Previous data obtained in the authors` laboratory showed that the exposure of rabbit erythrocytes or reticulocytes to Fe(II)/ascorbate induces hexokinase inactivation, whereas the other glycolytic enzymes do not show any decay. The authors also observed depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) content with a concomitant intracellular and extracellular increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and a decrease in energy charge. In this work, they investigated whether 50 Hz magnetic fields could influence the intracellular impairments that occur when erythrocytes or reticulocytes are exposed to this oxidant system, namely, inactivation of hexokinase activity, GSH depletion, a change in energy charge, and hemoglobin oxidation. The results obtained indicate that a 0.5 mT magnetic field had no effect on intact RBCs, whereas it increased the damage in an oxidatively stressed erythrocyte system. In fact, exposure of intact erythrocytes incubated with Fe(II)/ascorbate to a 0.5 mT magnetic field induced a significant further decay in hexokinase activity as well as a twofold increase in methemoglobin production compared with RBCs that were exposed to the oxidant system alone. Although further studies will be needed to determine the physiological implications of these data, the results reported in this study demonstrate that the effects of the magnetic fields investigated are able to potentiate the cellular damage induced in vitro by oxidizing agents.

  15. Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation of the Presequence of Precursor MULTIPLE ORGANELLAR RNA EDITING FACTOR3 during Import into Mitochondria from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Law, Yee-Song; Zhang, Renshan; Guan, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Shifeng; Sun, Feng; Duncan, Owen; Murcha, Monika W; Whelan, James; Lim, Boon Leong

    2015-10-01

    The nucleus-encoded mitochondria-targeted proteins, multiple organellar RNA editing factors (MORF3, MORF5, and MORF6), interact with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PURPLE ACID PHOSPHATASE2 (AtPAP2) located on the chloroplast and mitochondrial outer membranes in a presequence-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of the presequence of the precursor MORF3 (pMORF3) by endogenous kinases in wheat germ translation lysate, leaf extracts, or STY kinases, but not in rabbit reticulocyte translation lysate, resulted in the inhibition of protein import into mitochondria. This inhibition of import could be overcome by altering threonine/serine residues to alanine on the presequence, thus preventing phosphorylation. Phosphorylated pMORF3, but not the phosphorylation-deficient pMORF3, can form a complex with 14-3-3 proteins and HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN70. The phosphorylation-deficient mutant of pMORF3 also displayed faster rates of import when translated in wheat germ lysates. Mitochondria isolated from plants with altered amounts of AtPAP2 displayed altered protein import kinetics. The import rate of pMORF3 synthesized in wheat germ translation lysate into pap2 mitochondria was slower than that into wild-type mitochondria, and this rate disparity was not seen for pMORF3 synthesized in rabbit reticulocyte translation lysate, the latter translation lysate largely deficient in kinase activity. Taken together, these results support a role for the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of pMORF3 during the import into plant mitochondria. These results suggest that kinases, possibly STY kinases, and AtPAP2 are involved in the import of protein into both mitochondria and chloroplasts and provide a mechanism by which the import of proteins into both organelles may be coordinated.

  16. Molecular cloning, primary structure, and expression of the human platelet/erythroleukemia cell 12-lipoxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.D.; Furci, L.; FitzGerald, G.A. )

    1990-08-01

    The major pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets proceeds via a 12-lipoxygenase enzyme; however, the biological role of the product of this reaction, 12-hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-H(P)ETE), is unknown. Using a combination of the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures, the authors have isolated cDNA clones encoding the human platelet/human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell 12-lipoxygenase. From the deduced primary structure, human platelet/HEL 12-lipoxygenase would encode a M{sub r} 75,000 protein consisting of 663 amino acids. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein (pCDNA-12lx) under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter was expressed in simian COS-M6 cells. Intact cells and lysed-cell supernatants were able to synthesize 12-H(P)ETE from arachidonic acid, whereas no 12-H(P)ETE synthesis was detected in mock-transfected cells. A single 2.4-kilobase mRNA was detected in erythroleukemia cells but not in several other tissues and cell lines evaluated by Northern blot analysis. Comparison of the human platelet/HEL 12-lipoxygenase sequence with that of porcine leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase and human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase revealed 65% amino acid identity to both enzymes. By contrast, the leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase is 86% identical to human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase. Sequence data and previously demonstrated immunochemical and biochemical evidence support the existence of distinct 12-lipoxygenase isoforms. The availability of cDNA probes for human platelet/HEL cell 12-lipoxygenase should facilitate elucidation of the biological role of this pathway.

  17. Anticlastogenic and anticarcinogenic potential of Thai bitter gourd fruits.

    PubMed

    Kupradinun, Piengchai; Tepsuwan, Anong; Tantasi, Nopsaran; Meesiripun, Nuntana; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kusamran, Wannee R

    2011-01-01

    Thai bitter gourd fruits (Momordica charantia Linn., TBG) has been previously demonstrated to possess phase II detoxificating enzymes inducing properties, as well as the ability to reduce phase I carcinogen activating enzyme activity in rat liver. In addition, it was partially inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)- induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In this study, we therefore examined the anticlastogenic and anticarcinogenic effect of TBG against clastogens, cyclophosphamide (CYP) and DMBA, in mice using the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay and azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats, respectively. For anticlastogenicity test, male mice were fed with modified AIN-76 diets containing 6.25% and 12.5% of ground freeze-dried TBG for 2 weeks prior to administration of clastogens till the end of experiment. Blood samples were collected and counted for reticulocytes by using the fluorescent microscope. For anticarcinogeicity test, male Wistar rats were fed with modified AIN-76 diets containing 5% and 10% ground freeze-dried TBG for 2 weeks prior to, during and 1 week after the completion of AOM administration (15 mg/kg once a week for 2 weeks). It was found that TBG at 6.25% resulted in a significant reduction in micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRETs) induced by only CYP. Study on anticarcinogenic potential demonstrated that rats fed with TBG diets at the concentration tested developed significantly higher incidence as well as the multiplicities of colon tumors than the control group. These results demonstrated that Thai bitter gourd fruits possesses anticlastogenic potential against clastogen in the mouse. Interestingly, it had no preventive potential against AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis in rat, rather increasing the incidence of colonic neoplasm when giving during the initiation stage.

  18. Altered Turnover of Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase in Erythroid Cells of Mice Expressing Hprt a and Hprt b Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Gerald G.; Chapman, Verne M.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously shown that mice expressing Hprt a allele(s) have erythrocyte hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) levels that are approximately 25-fold (Mus musculus castaneus) and 70-fold ( Mus spretus) higher than in mice that express the Hprt b allele (Mus musculus domesticus; C57BI/6J; C3H/HeHa), and that these differences in erythrocyte HPRT levels are due to differences in the turnover rates of the HPRT A and B proteins as reticulocytes mature to erythrocytes. We show here that: (1) the taxonomic subgroups of the genus Mus are essentially monomorphic for the occurrence of either the Hprt a or the Hprt b allele, with Hprt a being common in the aboriginal species (M. spretus, Mus hortulanus and Mus abbotti) and in several commensal species (Mus musculus musculus, M. m. castaneus, Mus musculus molossinus), while Hprt b is common in feral M. m. domesticus populations as well as in all inbred strains of mice tested; (2) in all these diverse Mus subgroups there is a strict association of Hprt a with high and Hprt b with low levels of erythrocyte HPRT; and, (3) the association between the occurrence of the Hprt a allele and elevated erythrocyte HPRT levels is retained following repeated backcrosses of wild-derived Hprt a allele(s) into the genetic background of inbred strains of mice with the Hprt b allele. Collectively, these observations indicate that the elevated and low levels of erythrocyte HPRT are specified by differences in the Hprt a and b structural genes. Since evidence indicates that Hprt a and b encode HPRT proteins which differ in primary structure, we infer that the structure of HPRT is an important factor in determining its sensitivity to turnover in mouse erythroid cells. Hprt a and b may provide a useful system of "normal" allelic gene products for identifying factors that participate in protein turnover during mouse reticulocyte maturation. PMID:3609725

  19. Testosterone Administration Inhibits Hepcidin Transcription and is Associated with Increased Iron Incorporation into Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen; Bachman, Eric; Li, Michelle; Roy, Cindy N.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wong, Siu; Chan, Stephen Y.; Serra, Carlo; Jasuja, Ravi; Travison, Thomas G.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Bhasin, Shalender

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone administration increases hemoglobin levels and has been used to treat anemia of chronic disease. Erythrocytosis is the most frequent adverse event associated with testosterone therapy of hypogonadal men, especially older men. However, the mechanisms by which testosterone increases hemoglobin remain unknown. Testosterone administration in male and female mice was associated with a greater increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit, reticulocyte count, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration, and serum iron and transferring saturation than placebo. Testosterone downregulated hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression, upregulated renal erythropoietin mRNA expression, and increased erythropoietin levels. Testosterone-induced suppression of hepcidin expression was independent of its effects on erythropoietin or hypoxia-sensing mechanisms. Transgenic mice with liver-specific constitutive hepcidin over-expression failed to exhibit the expected increase in hemoglobin in response to testosterone administration. Testosterone upregulated splenic ferroportin expression and reduced iron retention in spleen. After intravenous administration of transferrin-bound 58Fe, the amount of 58Fe incorporated into red blood cells was significantly greater in testosterone-treated mice than in placebo-treated mice. Serum from testosterone-treated mice stimulated hemoglobin synthesis in K562 erythroleukemia cells more than that from vehicle-treated mice. Testosterone administration promoted the association of androgen receptor (AR) with Smad1 and Smad4 to reduce their binding to BMP-response elements in hepcidin promoter in the liver. Ectopic expression of AR in hepatocytes suppressed hepcidin transcription; this effect was blocked dose-dependently by AR antagonist flutamide. Testosterone did not affect hepcidin mRNA stability. Conclusion: Testosterone inhibits hepcidin transcription through its interaction with BMP-Smad signaling. Testosterone administration is associated with increased iron

  20. Erythroid cell mitochondria receive endosomal iron by a "kiss-and-run" mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Amel; Roshan, Tariq M; Kahawita, Tanya M; Mason, Anne B; Sheftel, Alex D; Ponka, Prem

    2016-12-01

    In erythroid cells, more than 90% of transferrin-derived iron enters mitochondria where ferrochelatase inserts Fe(2+) into protoporphyrin IX. However, the path of iron from endosomes to mitochondrial ferrochelatase remains elusive. The prevailing opinion is that, after its export from endosomes, the redox-active metal spreads into the cytosol and mysteriously finds its way into mitochondria through passive diffusion. In contrast, this study supports the hypothesis that the highly efficient transport of iron toward ferrochelatase in erythroid cells requires a direct interaction between transferrin-endosomes and mitochondria (the "kiss-and-run" hypothesis). Using a novel method (flow sub-cytometry), we analyze lysates of reticulocytes after labeling these organelles with different fluorophores. We have identified a double-labeled population definitively representing endosomes interacting with mitochondria, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Moreover, we conclude that this endosome-mitochondrion association is reversible, since a "chase" with unlabeled holotransferrin causes a time-dependent decrease in the size of the double-labeled population. Importantly, the dissociation of endosomes from mitochondria does not occur in the absence of holotransferrin. Additionally, mutated recombinant holotransferrin, that cannot release iron, significantly decreases the uptake of (59)Fe by reticulocytes and diminishes (59)Fe incorporation into heme. This suggests that endosomes, which are unable to provide iron to mitochondria, cause a "traffic jam" leading to decreased endocytosis of holotransferrin. Altogether, our results suggest that a molecular mechanism exists to coordinate the iron status of endosomal transferrin with its trafficking. Besides its contribution to the field of iron metabolism, this study provides evidence for a new intracellular trafficking pathway of organelles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding red blood cell parameters in the context of the frailty phenotype: interpretations of the FIBRA (Frailty in Brazilian Seniors) study.

    PubMed

    Silva, João Carlos; Moraes, Zélia Vieira de; Silva, Conceição; Mazon, Silvia de Barros; Guariento, Maria Elena; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Fattori, André

    2014-01-01

    Frailty and anemia in the elderly appear to share a common pathophysiology associated with chronic inflammatory processes. This study uses an analytical, cross-sectional, population-based methodology to investigate the probable relationships between frailty, red blood cell parameters and inflammatory markers in 255 community-dwelling elders aged 65 years or older. The frailty phenotype was assessed by non-intentional weight loss, fatigue, low grip strength, low energy expenditure and reduced gait speed. Blood sample analyses were performed to determine hemoglobin level, hematocrit and reticulocyte count, as well as the inflammatory variables IL-6, IL-1ra and hsCRP. In the first multivariate analysis (model I), considering only the erythroid parameters, Hb concentration was a significant variable for both general frailty status and weight loss: a 1.0g/dL drop in serum Hb concentration represented a 2.02-fold increase (CI 1.12-3.63) in an individual's chance of being frail. In the second analysis (model II), which also included inflammatory cytokine levels, hsCRP was independently selected as a significant variable. Each additional year of age represented a 1.21-fold increase in the chance of being frail, and each 1-unit increase in serum hsCRP represented a 3.64-fold increase in the chance of having the frailty phenotype. In model II reticulocyte counts were associated with weight loss and reduced metabolic expenditure criteria. Our findings suggest that reduced Hb concentration, reduced RetAbs count and elevated serum hsCRP levels should be considered components of frailty, which in turn is correlated with sarcopenia, as evidenced by weight loss.

  2. Discovery and characterization of a cytochrome b5 variant in humans with impaired hydroxylamine reduction capacity.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Joseph R; Longlais, Brett J; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2007-08-01

    We have shown that cytochrome b5 (cyt b5), along with its reductase, NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R), is capable of direct xenobiotic biotransformation. We hypothesized that functionally significant genetic variability in cyt b5 could be found in healthy individuals. Cyt b5 cDNAs were prepared from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 63 individuals. One individual was heterozygous for a sequence variant in cyt b5 (A178G), with a predicted amino acid substitution of T60A. This variant, when expressed in Escherichia. coli, maintained a similar Vmax for the hydroxylamines of sulfamethoxazole, 4-aminobiphenyl, and 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), compared with wild type cyt b5, with a modestly increased Km (2 to 3.5-fold) for each substrate. When expressed in a mammalian system (HeLa cells), however, T60A was associated with a 70% reduction in cyt b5 protein expression compared with wild type. mRNA expression for both isoforms were comparable in HeLa cells, and translation of these mRNAs in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with inhibited proteasomal machinery were also similar. Incubation of these translated enzymes with uninhibited rabbit reticulocyte lysate, however, indicated greater susceptibility of T60A to proteasomal degradation. These data indicate that a naturally occurring variant in cyt b5, T60A, leads to modestly altered affinity for hydroxylamine substrates and dramatically reduced cyt b5 expression. Work is underway to determine the prevalence of this and other variants in cyt b5 or b5R in a larger population, and to determine the association of such variants with differences in hydroxylamine reduction in vivo.

  3. A novel reporter gene assay for recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yushuai; Zhou, Yong; Yu, Lei; Li, Xiang; Shi, Xinchang; Qin, Xi; Rao, Chunming; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-11-01

    Accurate determination of in vitro biological activity of therapeutic erythropoietin is essential in quality control of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) pharmaceutical products. However, most of currently-used methods leave much to be desired so that a simpler, quicker and more accurate method is urgently needed. The bioassay described here utilizes a sub clone of UT-7/epo cell line stably transfected with luciferase gene under the control of sis inducible element and interferon γ-activated sequence element promoter. Active erythropoietin could induce the expression of luciferase by signaling through the erythropoietin receptor and the dose-response curve showed good linearity, yielding a coefficient of determination of 0.99 or higher. The optimized assay was simpler with the operation completed within 24h and more sensitive with EC50 being 0.077IU/mL. The accuracy estimates ranged from 81.7% to 102.4%, and both intra-assay and inter-assay precision was below 15.0%. The robustness of the assay was demonstrated by no effect of passage levels of the cells on the performance of the assay (p values: 0.772 for sample 1 and 0.943 for sample 2). Besides, Bland-Altman analysis showed a high consistency of the new assay with in vivo reticulocyte assay in results. These results suggested that the new reporter gene assay can be a viable supplement to the traditional reticulocyte assay and employed in potency determination of rHuEPO pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation of the Presequence of Precursor MULTIPLE ORGANELLAR RNA EDITING FACTOR3 during Import into Mitochondria from Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Law, Yee-Song; Zhang, Renshan; Guan, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Shifeng; Sun, Feng; Duncan, Owen; Murcha, Monika W.; Whelan, James; Lim, Boon Leong

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus-encoded mitochondria-targeted proteins, multiple organellar RNA editing factors (MORF3, MORF5, and MORF6), interact with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PURPLE ACID PHOSPHATASE2 (AtPAP2) located on the chloroplast and mitochondrial outer membranes in a presequence-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of the presequence of the precursor MORF3 (pMORF3) by endogenous kinases in wheat germ translation lysate, leaf extracts, or STY kinases, but not in rabbit reticulocyte translation lysate, resulted in the inhibition of protein import into mitochondria. This inhibition of import could be overcome by altering threonine/serine residues to alanine on the presequence, thus preventing phosphorylation. Phosphorylated pMORF3, but not the phosphorylation-deficient pMORF3, can form a complex with 14-3-3 proteins and HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN70. The phosphorylation-deficient mutant of pMORF3 also displayed faster rates of import when translated in wheat germ lysates. Mitochondria isolated from plants with altered amounts of AtPAP2 displayed altered protein import kinetics. The import rate of pMORF3 synthesized in wheat germ translation lysate into pap2 mitochondria was slower than that into wild-type mitochondria, and this rate disparity was not seen for pMORF3 synthesized in rabbit reticulocyte translation lysate, the latter translation lysate largely deficient in kinase activity. Taken together, these results support a role for the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of pMORF3 during the import into plant mitochondria. These results suggest that kinases, possibly STY kinases, and AtPAP2 are involved in the import of protein into both mitochondria and chloroplasts and provide a mechanism by which the import of proteins into both organelles may be coordinated. PMID:26304849

  5. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human erythropoietin in athletes. Blood sampling and doping control

    PubMed Central

    SOUILLARD, AGNES; AUDRAN, MICHEL; BRESSOLLE, FRANÇOISE; GAREAU, RAYNALD; DUVALLET, ALAIN; CHANAL, JEAN-LOUIS

    1996-01-01

    1The pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) were initially determined in two healthy volunteers after a single subcutaneous dose (50 u kg−1). Twenty subjects then received repeated subcutaneous administrations of high dose (200 u kg−1) rHuEpo and 10 subjects received placebo. An immunoradiometric assay was used to measure the concentrations of erythropoietin (Epo) in serum and urine. 2Serum Epo concentration-time profiles were best described by a one-compartment open model with zero-order input. The mean elimination half-life (±s.d.) was 42.0±34.2 h. Clearance, uncorrected for bioavailability, was 0.05±0.01 l h−1 kg& minus;1. Erythropoietin concentrations returned to normal values in serum and urine, 7 and 4 days after the last administration, respectively. 3The recombinant hormone was well tolerated. Significant changes in reticulocytes and red blood cells, haemoglobin concentrations and haematocrit were observed after administration of rHuEpo. In the control group, these parameters remained unchanged. 4The change in reticulocytes was used as an index of the therapeutic effect of rHuEpo. The concentration-effect relationship was best described by an exponential model. 5These data show the limitations of the measurement of Epo concentrations in blood and urine samples, collected in athletes during competition, for antidoping control. Epo doping can be detected only during or within 4 to 7 days of ending, a course of rHuEpo. PMID:8877027

  6. Coxsackievirus B3 Infects the Bone Marrow and Diminishes the Restorative Capacity of Erythroid and Lymphoid Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Althof, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is known to infect stem cells in the neonatal central nervous system. Here, we evaluated the effects of CVB3 infection on the major source and repository of stem cells, the bone marrow (BM). Viral genome was detectable in BM within 24 h of infection, and productive infection of BM cells was evident, peaking at 48 h postinfection (p.i.), when ∼1 to 2% of BM cells produced infectious virus particles. Beginning at 2 to 3 days p.i., a dramatic and persistent loss of immature erythroid cells, B and T lymphocytes, and neutrophils was observed in BM and, by day 3 to 4 p.i., the femoral BM stroma was largely destroyed. Analysis of peripheral blood revealed a modest neutrophilia, a loss of reticulocytes, and a massive lymphopenia. The abundance of multipotent progenitor cells (Lin−/c-kit+/Flt3+) in BM declined ∼10-fold during CVB3 infection and, consistent with a deficiency of primitive hematopoietic progenitors, serum levels of the hematopoietic growth factor Flt3 ligand were dramatically elevated. Therefore, we analyzed the regenerative capacity of BM from CVB3-infected mice. Granulocyte/macrophage progenitors displayed a relatively normal proliferative ability, consistent with the fact that the peripheral blood level of neutrophils—which are very short-lived cells—remained high throughout infection. However, erythroid and lymphoid hematopoietic progenitors in BM from CVB3-infected mice showed a markedly reduced colony-forming capacity, consonant with the observed loss of both lymphocytes and immature erythroid cells/reticulocytes from the BM and peripheral blood. In summary, CVB3 infects the BM and exerts differential effects on the various hematopoietic progenitor populations. PMID:23269810

  7. Determinants of platelet count in pediatric patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease: Role of immature platelet fraction.

    PubMed

    Matter, Randa M; Ragab, Iman A; Roushdy, Alaa M; Ahmed, Ahmed G; Aly, Hanan H; Ismail, Eman A

    2017-09-07

    Congenital heart defects are common noninfectious causes of mortality in children. Bleeding and thrombosis are both limiting factors in the management of such patients. We assessed the frequency of thrombocytopenia in pediatric patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease (CCHD) and evaluated determinants of platelet count including immature platelet fraction (IPF) and their role in the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia. Forty-six children and adolescents with CCHD during pre-catheter visits were studied; median age was 20.5 months. Complete blood count including IPF as a marker of platelet production and reticulated hemoglobin content (RET-He) as a marker of red cell production and iron status were done on Sysmex XE 2100 (Sysmex, Japan). C-reactive protein, prothrombin time (PT), Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were also assessed. Thrombocytopenia was found in 6 patients (13%). PT was prolonged (P = .016) and IPF was significantly higher in patients with thrombocytopenia compared with patients with normal platelet count (14.15 ± 5.2% vs 6.68 ± 3.39%; P = .003). Platelet count was negatively correlated with IPF while significant positive correlations were found between IPF and hemoglobin, red blood cells (RBCs) count, hematocrit (Hct), PT, reticulocytes count, and immature reticulocyte fraction. We suggest that elevated IPF in CCHD patients with thrombocytopenia may denote peripheral platelets destruction as an underlying mechanism. Hemoglobin level, RBCs count, Hct, and RET-He were not significant determinants for platelet count in CCHD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Exosome-like vesicles derived by Schistosoma japonicum adult worms mediates M1 type immune- activity of macrophage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifu; Li, Zhitao; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Jinyi; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released into the extracellular space upon fusion of the multi-vesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane, while initial studies described that the role of exosomes was a reticulocyte cargo-disposal mechanism allowing remodeling of the plasma membrane during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes. Recent studies indicate that exosomes are secreted by most cells and pathogens and play an important role in intercellular signaling and exert regulatory function by carrying bioactive molecules. As numerous pathogens, adult worm of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) reside in mesenteric veins of definitive host including man and mammal animals. It was reported that the worms or the eggs also have specialized secretion systems to export effector proteins or other molecules into host target cells. However, the mechanisms involved remained unclear. This study investigated the isolation of the exosome-like vesicles secreted by S. japonicum adult worms and its immune activity on microphage in vitro. In this report, we identified exosome-based secretion as a new mechanism for protein secretion by S. japonicum. Electron microscopy tomography revealed the previously unidentified ultrastructural detail of exosome-like vesicles with high resolution; they were found to be typical spherical shape and to have a diverse population that varies in size of 30-100 nm. Exosome-like vesicles isolated from S. japonicum contained a significantly different protein compared with debris pelleted and the apoptosis body. We also demonstrate that macrophages were preferentially differentiated into the M1 subtype while being treated with S. japonicum exosome-like vesicles. This study reveals there are exosome-like vesicles derived by S. japonicum adult worms, and the exosome-like vesicles can mediate M1-type immune- activity of macrophage.

  9. Association of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunyan; Yang, Hongling; Geng, Qingshan; Ma, Qingling; Long, Yan; Zhou, Cheng; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and GDM. Methods We conducted a case-control study which included 36 women presenting with GDM and 36 asymptomatic matched control subjects who visited Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Centre, China, from June 2012 to December 2012. Pregnant women were prospectively recruited to the study, and blood samples were collected at the time of a routine oral glucose tolerance test. These samples were then analyzed for levels of endocrine and surrogate markers of oxidative stress. Results Compared to control subjects, women with GDM exhibited elevated values for plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (IR), and showed reduced HOMA pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), insulinogenic index, and corrected insulin response at 24–28 weeks gestation. A bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and high fluorescence reticulocytes at fasting, and hs-CRP in a 1-h OGTT, were significantly associated with GDM. A linear regression analysis showed that levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.003) and reticulocytes (P = 0.029) at fasting were associated with IR, and levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.002) and monocytes (P = 0.006) in a 1-h OGTT were associated with ISI. Conclusions Pregnant women with GDM developed a pathological IR and exhibited β-cell dysfunction. Their decreased ability to compensate for oxidative stress was associated with increased IR and a reduced ISI, which might be important factors in GDM. PMID:25915047

  10. Assessment of the in vivo genotoxicity of isomers of dinitrotoluene using the alkaline Comet and peripheral blood micronucleus assays.

    PubMed

    Lent, Emily May; Crouse, Lee C B; Quinn, Michael J; Wallace, Shannon M

    2012-02-18

    Dinitrotoluene (DNT) is a nitroaromatic explosive that exists as six isomers; two major isomers (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) and four minor isomers (2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4-, and 3,5-DNT). DNT has been found in soil, surface water, and groundwater near ammunition production plants. The major isomers of DNT are classified as "likely to cause cancer in humans."In vitro studies have provided conflicting data regarding the genotoxicity of the minor isomers. Studies indicate that metabolism in the gut and liver are necessary to convert DNT to genotoxic compounds. As such, in the present study the genotoxicity of isomers of DNT was assessed using two in vivo genotoxicity assays. The Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage in liver cells from male Sprague-Dawley rats following oral exposure (14-day) to individual isomers of DNT. The micronucleus assay was conducted using flow cytometric analysis to detect chromosomal damage in peripheral blood. Treatment with 2,3-, 3,4-, 2,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-DNT did not induce DNA damage in liver cells or increase the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) in peripheral blood at the doses tested. Treatment with 2,6-DNT induced DNA damage in liver tissue at all doses tested, but did not increase the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) in peripheral blood. Thus, 2,4-DNT and the minor isomers were not genotoxic under these test conditions, while 2,6-DNT was genotoxic in the target tissue, the liver. These results support previous research which indicated that the hepatocarcinogenicity of technical grade DNT (TG-DNT) could be attributed to the 2,6-DNT isomer. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Changes in Haematological Parameters in Newborns Born to Preeclamptic Mothers - A Case Control Study in a Rural Hospital.

    PubMed

    Mouna, Kalavakuru; Doddagowda, Shilpa Manigatta; Junjegowda, Krishnappa; Krishnamurthy, Latha

    2017-07-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological phenomenon. However, some women develop problems during pregnancy period, which puts both the mother's and the foetus health at risk. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the type of the maternal diseases that can cause the most detrimental effects to the mother and foetus. To determine the haematological parameters in neonates born to preeclamptic mothers. It was a prospective case control study carried out on neonates born to preeclamptic mothers in our institute from March 2016 to November 2016. All the haematological parameters of the neonates were recorded and analyzed using SPSS 22.0 version software. Mean, Standard deviation, minimum and maximum values were calculated for continuous variables. The difference between the two groups was compared using independent student 't' test. The p-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. About 120 mothers were included in the study out of which 60 were of study group and 60 of control group. Mean hemoglobin, PCV, red cell count, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), reticulocyte count and nRBC were significantly increased p<0.001, whereas total leucocyte count, mean neutrophil count, absolute neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, platelet count were significantly decreased p<0.001 in babies born to preeclamptic mothers. No difference was found between the two groups in the Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) value p(>0.05). The babies born to preeclamptic mothers are more prone for development of prematurity, low birth weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR), sepsis, neutropenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, increased RBC count, nRBC and reticulocyte count. Early haematological screening helps to decrease morbidity, improve growth, development and survival of the baby.

  12. Bioequivalence of Two Intravenous Artesunate Products with Its Active Metabolite Following Single and Multiple Injections

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qigui; Xie, Lisa; Melendez, Victor; Weina, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In animal species and humans, artesunate (AS) undergoes extensive and complex biotransformation to an active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The bioequivalence of two intravenous AS pharmaceutical products with 5% NaHCO3 (China Formulation) or 0.3 M PBS (WRAIR Formulation) was determined in rats in a two-formulation, two-period, and two-sequence crossover experimental design. Following single and multiple intravenous administrations, a series of blood samples was collected by using an automated blood sampler and drug concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The 90% CI of the difference between the two intravenous formulations was contained within 80–125% of the geometric mean of pharmacokinetic parameters for AS and DHA in all animals dosed. Hematological effects were studied on days 1 and 3 after the final dosing, and a rapidly reversible hematological toxicity (significant reductions in reticulocyte levels) was seen in the peripheral blood of the rats treated with each formulation. The results showed that bioequivalence with the parent compound and active metabolite was fulfilled in the 82.3–117.7% ranges of all parameters (AUC0−t, Cmax, concentration average and degree of fluctuation) in the two-period and two-sequence crossover studies following single and repeated intravenous injections. For the metabolite, the equivalence was satisfied in most pharmacokinetic parameters tested due to the variability in the hydrolysis rate of AS to DHA. The WRAIR formulation of AS was considered to be bioequivalent to the Chinese formulation at steady-state according to the total drug exposure, in terms of both parent drug and active metabolite, rapidly reversal in reticulocyte decline, and extension of single and multiple administrations. Therefore, the parent drug and active metabolites should play similar important roles in the determination of efficacy and safety of the drug.

  13. Identification of spurious hemolysis in anticoagulated blood with Sysmex XE-2100 and Siemens Advia 2120.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Pipitone, Silvia; Gennari, Daniela; Franchini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Various degrees of hemolysis might occur during collection, processing and storage of blood bags or blood tubes for hematological testing. In both circumstances, the identification of hemolysis is challenging since the centrifugation process is not required. The aim of this study was to identify simple hematological parameters that would help identify the presence of hemolysis in anticoagulated blood. Twenty tubes containing K2EDTA anticoagulated blood were randomly selected from outpatient samples and divided in two aliquots. The former was immediately analyzed, whereas the latter was subjected to mechanical hemolysis by aspirating whole blood two times through a very fine needle to generate mechanical hemolysis. Both aliquots were tested on Advia 2120 and Sysmex XE-2100. The double aspiration of the blood through the fine needle caused a remarkable hemolysis with significant decrease of red blood cell (RBC) count (-17 +/- 11%; p < 0.01), hematocrit (-18 +/- 12%; p < 0.01) and reticulocytes (-24 +/- 13%; p < 0.01), but not of hemoglobin, white blood cell or platelet counts. A remarkable increase of immature platelet fraction (IPF) on XE-2100 and RBC ghosts on Advia 2120 was observed in the hemolyzed samples, whereas RBC fragments did not vary significantly. A significant correlation was also observed between hemolysis and reticulocyte count (r = 0.823; p < 0.01), IPF (r = -0.502, p = 0.024) and RBC ghosts (r = -0.711; p < 0.01). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated a good performance of both IPF and RBC ghosts (i.e., AUCs 0.91 and 0.96, respectively) for distinguishing non-hemolyzed from hemolyzed specimens. The absolute values of both IPF and RBC ghosts perform efficiently for distinguishing hemolyzed from non-hemolyzed specimens, although neither reached 100% sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, the demonstration that both parameters significantly increase after hemolysis can be reliably used to distinguish hemolyzed from non

  14. Molecular cloning of mouse erythrocyte protein 4.2: a membrane protein with strong homology with the transglutaminase supergene family.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, A C; Schwartz, R S; Qiu, J J; Gilman, J G

    1994-07-01

    We report the molecular cloning and characterization of mouse erythrocyte protein 4.2 (P4.2). Mouse erythrocyte P4.2 is a 691-amino-acid protein with a predicted MW of 77 kDa. Northern blot analysis detected a 2.2-kb transcript in mouse reticulocytes, compared with a 2.4- to 2.5-kb transcript in human reticulocytes, which is consistent with the absence of the 30-amino-acid splicing insert in mouse erythrocyte P4.2 that is found in the human protein (isoform I). Like the human erythrocyte P4.2, mouse erythrocyte P4.2 contains regions strikingly homologous with the transglutaminase (TGase) proteins although it too most likely lacks TGase crosslinking activity. Mouse P4.2 is on average 73% identical with human erythrocyte P4.2, although regional variations exist, with greatest conservation in the regions of the molecule that contain the TGase active site, the TGase calcium-binding site, and a band 3 binding site. Hydropathy analysis reveals a protein containing a series of hydrophobic domains, similar to the situation for human P4.2 and consistent with its tight binding to the membrane, although the mouse P4.2 is missing both the strongly hydrophilic region and adjacent highly charged region that are present in the human protein, suggesting that the two proteins could differ in their physical characteristics, binding associations, or functional properties. The availability of the complete mouse erythrocyte P4.2 cDNA should help in the design of P4.2-deficient animal models (for example, ribozyme or homologous recombinant "knockout" models) that should accelerate the understanding of P4.2 function in both erythroid and non-erythroid cells.

  15. Genotoxicity of styrene-7,8-oxide and styrene in Fisher 344 rats: a 4-week inhalation study.

    PubMed

    Gaté, Laurent; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Sébillaud, Sylvie; Langlais, Cristina; Cosnier, Frédéric; Nunge, Hervé; Darne, Christian; Guichard, Yves; Binet, Stéphane

    2012-06-20

    The cytogenetic alterations in leukocytes and the increased risk for leukemia, lymphoma, or all lymphohematopoietic cancer observed in workers occupationally exposed to styrene have been associated with its hepatic metabolisation into styrene-7,8-oxide, an epoxide which can induce DNA damages. However, it has been observed that styrene-7,8-oxide was also found in the atmosphere of reinforced plastic industries where large amounts of styrene are used. Since the main route of exposure to these compounds is inhalation, in order to gain new insights regarding their systemic genotoxicity, Fisher 344 male rats were exposed in full-body inhalation chambers, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks to styrene-7,8-oxide (25, 50, and 75 ppm) or styrene (75, 300, and 1000 ppm). Then, the induction of micronuclei in circulating reticulocytes and DNA strand breaks in leukocytes using the comet assay was studied at the end of the 3rd and 20th days of exposure. Our results showed that neither styrene nor styrene-7,8-oxide induced a significant increase of the micronucleus frequency in reticulocytes or DNA strand breaks in white blood cells. However, in the presence of the formamidopyridine DNA glycosylase, an enzyme able to recognize and excise DNA at the level of some oxidized DNA bases, a significant increase of DNA damages was observed at the end of the 3rd day of treatment in leukocytes from rats exposed to styrene but not to styrene-7,8-oxide. This experimental design helped to gather new information regarding the systemic genotoxicity of these two chemicals and may be valuable for the risk assessment associated with an occupational exposure to these molecules.

  16. The anemia of chronic renal failure in sheep. Response to erythropoietin-rich plasma in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Eschbach, J W; Mladenovic, J; Garcia, J F; Wahl, P W; Adamson, J W

    1984-01-01

    The hypoproliferative anemia in chronic renal failure has been assumed to be the result of decreased erythropoietin (Ep) production by the damaged kidney and of the shortening of erythrocyte survival. However, many in vitro studies suggest that erythropoietic inhibitors in uremic plasma may contribute to the anemia. To determine the in vivo relevance of uremic inhibitors, increasing amounts of Ep as Ep-rich plasma were infused into six uremic sheep, and their erythropoietic responses were compared with those of nine normal sheep receiving similar amounts of Ep-rich plasma. Three sheep were studied in both normal and uremic states. Ep-rich plasma was obtained from phenylhydrazine- and phlebotomy-induced anemic sheep. Stable uremia was created by subtotal nephrectomy. Erythropoiesis was quantitated by reticulocyte response, ferrokinetics (plasma iron turnover and marrow transit time), and by hemoglobin C synthesis. Ep-rich plasma stimulated erythropoiesis similarly in uremic and normal sheep, regardless of the degree of uremia. Nondialyzed uremic sheep responded as well as dialyzed animals. The anemia was corrected in the uremic dialyzed animals. The anemia was corrected in the uremic sheep after 15-40 daily infusions of Ep-rich plasma, the total dosage depending on the severity of the anemia. Polycythemia was induced when the infusions were continued. Reticulocytes, plasma iron turnover, and erythrocyte mass changes increased as the amount of Ep-rich plasma was increased. These dose-response effects, coupled with the identical erythropoietic response in normal and uremic sheep given the same amount of Ep-rich plasma, imply that there are no physiologically significant erythropoietic inhibitors in uremia. PMID:6746902

  17. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of recombinant human erythropoietin after single and multiple doses in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Rohini; Cheung, Wing K; Wacholtz, Mary C; Minton, Neil; Jusko, William J

    2004-09-01

    This study describes a pharmacokinetic (PK) model to account for serum recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) concentrations in healthy volunteers following intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) dosing; it also characterizes the pharmacodynamics (PD) of SC rHuEpo effects on reticulocytes, red blood cells (RBC), and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood. Data were obtained from 4 clinical studies carried out in healthy volunteers. Epoetin alfa (rHuEpo) was administered as 5 single IV doses ranging from 10 to 500 IU/kg, as 8 single SC doses ranging from 300 to 2400 IU/kg, and as 2 multiple SC dosage regimens (150 IU/kg/3 times a week [tiw] and 600 IU/kg/wk). A dual-absorption rate model (fast zero-order and slow first-order inputs) with nonlinear disposition characterized the PK of SC rHuEpo. A high K(m) value was obtained indicating that clearance was mildly nonlinear. Absorption was slow (t(max) approximately 24 hours), and the bioavailability of SC rHuEpo increased with dose (ranging from 46%-100%). A catenary cell production and loss model with a feedback down regulation component was used to fit the reticulocyte data yielding estimates of the stimulatory capacity (S(max)), sensitivity (SC(50)), and life span parameters. These parameters were used for simulations of RBC and Hb profiles. An SC(50) of 27 to 61 IU/L was estimated indicating that low physiological plasma rHuEpo concentrations were sufficient to produce pharmacological effects. No marked sex-dependent differences in clinical responses to rHuEpo therapy were found despite baseline differences. Realistic pharmacokinetic and physiological models accounted for clinical responses from a wide array of dosing conditions with rHuEpo. The rationale for greater efficacy of SC administration of rHuEpo compared to IV was ascertained.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the erythropoietin Mimetibody construct CNTO 528 in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruixo, Juan José; Krzyzanski, Wojciech; Bouman-Thio, Esther; Miller, Bruce; Jang, Haishan; Bai, Stephen A; Zhou, Honghui; Yohrling, Jennifer; Cohen, Adam; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Franson, Kari; Davis, Hugh M

    2009-01-01

    Anaemia is a serious comorbidity that is common in patients with renal failure or cancer. CNTO 528 is the first Mimetibody developed to mimic the effects of erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells (RBCs). The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model for CNTO 528 in healthy male subjects. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for CNTO 528 was developed to describe the serum concentration versus time profile and the pharmacological responses of percentage of reticulocytes, total RBC counts and haemoglobin concentration after a single intravenous administration of CNTO 528 at 0.03, 0.09, 0.3 and 0.9 mg/kg in 24 healthy subjects. An open, linear, two-compartment model was used to characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters of CNTO 528. A catenary cell production and lifespan loss model was used to fit the pharmacodynamic data, yielding estimates of drug potency (SC(50)), efficacy (S(max)) and other pharmacodynamic parameters. Bootstrap and posterior predictive checks (PPC) were used to evaluate the model. Administration of CNTO 528 stimulated the production of reticulocytes, RBCs and haemoglobin. CNTO 528 exhibits a half-life of 141 hours, or approximately 5.9 days. The SC(50) was estimated to be 0.37 mg/L, indicating that low serum CNTO 528 concentration was sufficient to produce pharmacological effects. Compared with historical controls, CNTO 528 S(max) appears to be 2-fold higher than recombinant human EPO. Bootstrap analysis and PPCs confirmed the accuracy and precision in the parameter estimates and the adequacy of the model to describe the CNTO 528 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The mechanistic population model was suitable to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenously administered CNTO 528 in healthy subjects. This qualified model is deemed appropriate to conduct clinical trial simulations and to support the decision-making process for dose

  19. Pharmacodynamic model for chemotherapy-induced anemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sukyung; Krzyzanski, Wojciech; Jusko, William J

    2008-06-01

    Anticancer agents often cause bone marrow toxicity resulting in progressive anemia which may influence the therapeutic effects of erythropoietic-stimulating agents. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacodynamic (PD) model to describe chemotherapy-induced anemia in rats. Anemia was induced in male Wistar rats with a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of 60 mg/kg carboplatin. Hematological responses including reticulocytes, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, and endogenous rat erythropoietin (EPO) were measured for up to 4 weeks. A catenary, lifespan-based, indirect response model served as a basic PD model to represent erythroid cellular populations in the bone marrow and blood involved in erythropoiesis. The model assumed that actively proliferating progenitor cells in the bone marrow are sensitive to anti-cancer agents and subject to an irreversible removal process. The removal rate of the target cells is proportional to drug activity concentrations and the cell numbers. An additional RBC loss from the circulation resulting from thrombocytopenia was described by a first-order process. The turnover process of rat EPO and EPO-mediated feedback inhibition mechanism regulated by hemoglobin changes were incorporated. Reticulocyte counts decreased rapidly and reached a nadir by day 3 after administration of carboplatin and returned to the baseline by day 13. This was followed by a gradual increase and the rebound peak occurred at about day 15. The hemoglobin nadir was approximately 9 g/dl observed at about 11-13 days compared to its normal value of 13 g/dl and hemoglobin returned to the baseline by day 30. The increase in endogenous rat EPO mirrored inversely hemoglobin changes and the maximum increase was observed soon after the hemoglobin nadir. The carboplatin-treated rats exhibited progressive anemia. The proposed model adequately described the time course of hematological changes after carboplatin in rats and can be a useful tool to explore

  20. Fetal Hemoglobin is Associated with Peripheral Oxygen Saturation in Sickle Cell Disease in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nkya, Siana; Mgaya, Josephine; Urio, Florence; Makubi, Abel; Thein, Swee Lay; Menzel, Stephan; Cox, Sharon E; Newton, Charles R; Kirkham, Fenella J; Mmbando, Bruno P; Makani, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and peripheral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) both predict clinical severity in sickle cell disease (SCD), while reticulocytosis is associated with vasculopathy, but there are few data on mechanisms. HbF, SpO2 and routine clinical and laboratory measures were available in a Tanzanian cohort of 1175 SCD individuals aged≥5years and the association with SpO2 (as response variable transformed to a Poisson distribution) was assessed by negative binomial model with age and sex as covariates. Increase in HbF was associated with increased SpO2 (rate ratio, RR=1.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.04, 1.37 per natural log unit of HbF; p=0.0004). In univariable analysis, SpO2 was inversely associated with age, reticulocyte count, and log (total bilirubin) and directly with pulse, SBP, hemoglobin, and log(HbF). In multivariable regression log(HbF) (RR 1.191; 95%CI 1.04, 1.37; p=0.013), pulse (RR 1.01; 95%CI 1.00, 1.01; p=0.026), SBP (RR 1.008; 95%CI 1.00, 1.02; p=0.014), and hemoglobin (1.120; 95%CI 1.05, 1.19; p=0.001) were positively and independently associated with SpO2 while reticulocyte count (RR 0.985; 95%CI 0.97, 0.99; p=0.019) was independently inversely associated with SpO2. In SCD, improving SpO2, in part through cardiovascular compensation and associated with reduced reticulocytosis, may be a mechanism by which HbF reduces disease severity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Synthesis and decay of calmodulin-ubiquitin conjugates in cell-free extracts of various rabbit tissues.

    PubMed

    Laub, M; Jennissen, H P

    1997-06-27

    Calmodulin is the natural substrate for ubiquitin-ligation by the enzyme ubiquitin-calmodulin ligase (uCaM-synthetase; EC 6.3.2.21). The activity of this ligase is regulated by the binding of the second messenger Ca2+ to the substrate calmodulin, which increases the activity ca. 10-fold. Up till now, two components of the ligase could be identified: uCaM Syn-F1 and uCaM Syn-F2, the first of which binds to ubiquitin and the second which binds to calmodulin. Since the physiological role of this enzyme is still unclear, this study was designed to examine whether the activity of uCaM-Synthetase in 40,000 x g tissue supernatants correlates with the calmodulin content in the various tissues. In reticulocytes, spleen, erythrocytes, testis and brain, which are rich in uCaM synthetase, the tissue contents calculated on the basis of activity measurements were between 4-80-fold higher than in red and white skeletal muscle. These activities did not correlate with the respective calmodulin contents of the tissues indicating that other factors were determining these enzyme levels. A second aim was to gain information on the role of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway in those tissues displaying uCaM synthetase activity. In the reticulocyte system which contains the classical ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway as measured with 125I-BSA, no ubiquitin-dependent degradation of calmodulin could be detected. We therefore examined the other tissues of the rabbit with the substrate 125I-BSA and succeeded in finding a ubiquitin-independent ATP-dependent proteolytic activity in every case but no ubiquitin-dependent activity. The ubiquitin-independent activity was highest in smooth muscle and red skeletal muscle being ca. 3-4-fold higher than in lung and testis. In 50% of the tissue crude extracts the time curve of calmodulin ubiquitylation progressed through a maximum indicating a dynamic steady state based on conjugate synthesis and decay. If a ubiquitylation pulse

  2. Effects of early parenteral iron combined erythropoietin in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Linxia; Tang, Qingya; Zhu, Wenying; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhu, Yuefang; Wang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of early parenteral iron supplementation combined erythropoietin for prevention of anemia in preterm infants. Methods: In total, 96 preterm infants were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group receiving standard parenteral nutrition (group 1: n = 31), an iron-supplemented group (group 2: IS, n = 33), and an iron-supplemented combined erythropoietin group (group 3: IS+EPO, n = 32). The primary objective was to assess hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The secondary objectives included assessment of red blood cell counts (RBC), mean cell volume (MCV), serum iron, ferritin, percentages of reticulocyte (RET), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and oxidative stress, which was assessed by measuring plasma levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase at baseline and at 2 weeks. The blood routine indices including Hb, RBC, MCV, and percentages of RET were measured at corrected age of 1 and 3 months. Results: At 2 weeks of life, the percentages of reticulocyte in group 2 and group 3 were significantly higher than those in group 1 (2.1±0.4, 2.5±0.3, and 1.7±0.3, respectively, P < 0.001, P<0.001), whereas TIBC were significantly lower than those in group 1 (36.7±4.6, 36.0±4.7, and 41.6 ± 5.2 respectively, P = 0.011, P = 0.006). There were no significant differences in RBC counts, the levels of hemoglobin, ferritin, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase among the 3 groups at 2weeks of life. RBC, Hb, MCV, body weight, body length, and head circumference at a corrected age of 1 month did not differ among 3 groups. At corrected age of 3months, more infants in the control group had abnormal Hb and MCV levels (Hb levels: 114.3 ± 21.3, 123.7 ± 31.6, and 125.1 ± 21.2, P = 0.021, P = 0.034, respectively; MCV: 74.1 ± 3.5, 78.3 ± 4.7 and 79.1 ± 5.2, P = 0.017, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas cases of oral iron, cases of breastfeeding

  3. Beta-Adrenergic Blockade Does not Prevent Polycythemia or Decrease in Plasma Volume in Men at 4300 m Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, R. F.; Selland, M. A.; McCullough, R. G.; Dahms, T. E.; Wolfel, E. E.; Butterfield, G. E.; Reeves, J. T.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    When humans ascend to high altitude (ALT) their plasma volume (PV) and total blood volume (BV) decrease during the first few days. With continued residence over several weeks, the hypoxia-induced stimulation of erythropoietin increases red cell production which tends to restore BV. Because hypoxia also activates the beta-adrenergic system, which stimulates red blood cell production, we investigated the effect of adrenergic beta-receptor inhibition with propranolol on fluid volumes and the polycythemic response in 11 healthy unacclimatized men (21-33 years old exposed to an ALT of 4300 m (barometric pressure 460 Torr) for 3 weeks on Pikes Peak, Colorado. PV was determined by the Evans blue dye method (PV(sub EB)), BV by the carbon monoxide method (BV(sub CO)), red cell volume (RCV)was calculated from hematocrit (Hct) and BV(sub CO), and serum erythropoietin concentration ([EPO]) and reticulocyte count, were also determined. All determinations were made at sea level and after 9-11 (ALT-10) and 9-20 (ALT-20) days at ALT. At sea level and ALT, six men received propranolol (pro, 240 mg/day), and five received a placebo (pla). Effective beta-blockade did not modify the mean (SE) maximal values of [EPO] [pla: 24.9 (3.5) vs pro: 24.5 (1.5) mU/ml] or reticulocyte count [pla: 2.7 (0.7) vs pro: 2.2 (0.5)%]; nor changes in PV(sub EB)[pla: -15.8 (3.8) vs pro: -19.9 (2.8)%], RCV(sub CO) [pla: +7.0 (6.7) vs pro: +10.1 (6.1)%], or BV(sub CO) [pla: -7.3 (2.3) vs pro: -7.1 (3.9)%]. In the absence of weight loss, a redistribution of body water with no net loss is implied. Hence, activation of the beta-adrenergic system did not appear to affect the hypovolemic or polycythemic responses that occurred during 3 weeks at 4300 m ALT in these subjects.